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Western Clarion Oct 1, 1921

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 A Journal of
•jfjEEKNT
BVIKtB
CLARION
*
Official Organ of
THE SOCIALIST PARTY OF CANADA
HISTORY
SOOMOMICS
PHILOSOPHY
.
s Twice a Month
.       *».
VAXi-enTKR. B. C, OCTOBER 1, 1921
FIVE CENTS
The Tariff Issue
IT appears wi srsj threatened with nn election.
It aroatd appear further that the mam issue is
. tariff.   A good vasal    For it will be nest
j r labor, salsleadsrs and their capital-
is illiei to fail to confuse* tin* issue    And it pri
,...„*. 11] lei    *i !<-«portwuty tor on? Uidustria] ovei
livide the torsos ol labor, and to act •
• I  ountry against tha agitating town,
Th?       • of a tariff -« to shot on! foreign eom-
from the hone siarket, tharehj* allowing
ti • •-..      tion a tree hand, and tans providing
ial with a .stepping ai-.u.   ?<» eonpetttivs
.. •   • • • srorld market.   It is a device intend-
.intjig.- to particular interests invest
•   itial wealth of a nation     To cert
lefvsta at   retain time*, it hi a weapon of great
* m tht intemeeiue struggle for profit     Hut
»? to ail ii)dti«triea, nor eoottaooosl) !•• any.
'■ present in Canada, the try is that without a
riff Canadian indnatriea suss) perish; that the *ai
'.'. j* aeceaaafy to curtail imports and foster the
-. on tmd**, that without it, Canada wi
mt onlv not maintain bee position hut must retro*
'        >ia thu«i eofSfS into line with lie:
-■• n      i as capital i* bdustrial in character,
dnesa ami manufacturing iirtetvsta,
* and Voieed  hy  Pretttiet   Ml ■:**•■
Isutst . wider, bfluensje m wider spin ea
trsde.   Th*- sgrariana, on the other hand, desire
'rvl-   or  reciprocity ■■- because,  as  prodo en
■ its ,d. th«ry roquiii free scceas to sgricul
wpTemacy or other*:*, has lost its ancient signifi-
•   and ns raunled '^reetJotn and prosperity*'
become but archaic symbols of a vanished
" i   h.   Th- organisation of ita wonted life has bean
qniU   lhattered by war.   The old eonditions have
passed away, and tin- new conditions—vague, form-
laptld- sre not yet eslablUhed Nor
' ivy be until the transient groping of the pro-
gretare aocial forces, straggling (unconsciously) to
weet the nea t*eqinre*menta, shall dearly vision the
I i d specifiically determine their stability.
Th--. eon m m life of the world is the support of thc
ess -f the world.   To flourish and prosper, bus-
- • list serve the need of the world. If it does
aot do so busines cannot survive, it" the mead of
servi i ean i;<> longer be rendered, the function of
business-- as originally derived—is obsolete, and if
- • ial net - ol modern business cannot be harmonised with th* common needs of society, society,
lugli   it-   manifold   forces,   througb   whatever
asi > of turbulence snd chaos, will assert itself and
.   ittei thc whole fabric of existing form.   For soe-
i< i) is paramount and will not be denied.   If, and
business ruins society, society, in reaction.
must ruin busim ml
Muring,-—and  for thc  prosecution of—-thc war,
Europe was        pelled to forego ;il! but war indus-
ir\. and fight for "plaee in the sun."   That is. fight
for the ru*ht of way to the world market.    The war
-k-t. therefore, took the first place.    It was ini-
id v ould brook oo economic considera-
'   Is and implements, mechanical goods and    perative. am
lions and waa insatiate m its demands.   In normal
res, to suable them to hold their own will
• cr* ihe world over     S.« the eouutr
ii   their interest (spl*surantly] in cheap
,  ' asndi hundatit exehange. while the townsme»
-traders, small-prodifoers and their working <"r
"r with a goodly portion of the ind
f^iftariat. vhuon their welfare in the Bxclnniou ot
'"pwgo wimpctitiou, and the   hh Ufey think   coi w
iseat operation of local Industriea   But, whin
losisedly the Interest is then- io both esaes   thc
pectioa in whieh they *-«•• it is s mirage.
flaw 1900, Canada has h> me an Industrial conn
H«i exports have grows by over one billion
li,,!!-rs   She h-nt soquired a favorable trade balance
*?l1' « Little voire in the scope of eomiioie.-   \\ sg« -
*"■« multiplied by two since then, but i out of living
mi risen by three, sud although the countera of pm
•"•sising power have Lncmaed In number, tbey bave
Ptatlj declined in actual value.   Populstion has
***&* but its working numbers have fallen, in
r!"1"- sod .its  security   in  ever  more  uncertain
'''••••> h«x assumed a mighty msgnitude, but it 1S
'',,,i,n*'- in vaatly fewer hands, and although the
**ndard of living ha* been potentially augmented,
* '■•<' v(,st m„HS it In lower Hum it has ever been,
,lri,1K this period there have been ehanges in tariff
j*%< but in no caae did they alter the condition of
'l!" proletariat. And they eannot Because all
•eel poUcies are traders' Interests, formulated by
^"loinio condition and eolored with economic nee-
,SM,y; tln-y have no fundamental connection with
*«*- welUbeip***,   In reality, the need for the tariff
Oo,nl jn far ,-^p,,,. eooaiderationa
1,u> economic destitution of wsr-worried Europe
J1 8P'''*«d its shadow over the whole world. None
!r'j" e«cspe ita affects; none turn tin-in to advantage.
(ho '"pitaliKt -ryatom has developed ho far that vie
°rv *J dofe.,t ftre of identical effect on the common
0 of tho world.   It has ripened so thoroughly that    it Ifl a eon
limes, exports always paj for imports.   But for the
. Rjton given, there were no exports, and the imports
.ould britu; no return.    But they had to be paid for
some! »w, and thc s immodation was effected by
exporting collateral and by funded debt. The result
of the former i* reflected in the shattered European
,A .) inges, of the latter in European liquidation, in
its woeful destitution, oui of which may come a protracted struggle for s new social balance, or which
m-i\ lead to proletarian revolution, but which, in no
vi<, can retnrn to pre-war capitalist production and
-' prosperity.'
lan.. "victory'' snd indemnity. The former left
• mi< vie-' first creditor nation, the latter called forth'
ImneriaHi*! protection. But ''creditor" nation implies an enormous volume of commerce, and a superior control of the market Because its credit and in-
loresl are returned In eommoditiea, which must be re-
exported or sold directly in competition with homo
production European imports are largely raw materials T!,,,v *** worked np into finished manufactures and exported to the ends of the earth. Amor
;,,., .iocs not want anch products. She is a maker
and exporter of finished goods herself, nnd as such
'-.,.,,.iires an cver-aTO'«:ing market for their sale. Con-
seonenth. to save exploitation for her own ,indns-
trialfl t'1 prevent the entrance of commodities akin
to home products, to cut toose from bankrntft fin-
,. i tn hcen eleav of "Ruronoan diplomacy—
jiuee.   alio   iii   iv*    i
.!•.}, if cannot cone with—'and entan<rleinents.
'\-„er;ea stiffens her tariff, in hopes of averting disaster and competition.
Canada is in precisely the same condition. Being
««0W of the hard faeed ones who did well out of the
..  -j,. -1!)S ,M'eatlv expanded her commerce and
indnstrW.' ehanged her balance of trade, and has
denniteh hoeome S world competitor. Like America.
ntry of raw material,   Large capital is in
vested m its potentialities; its growth demands wider markets; it seeks to supply, to the greatest ex.ent»
its own domestic needs, and at the same time,—and
also to the greatest extent, to accommodate the demand of the foreign market. To preserve her industrial advance and trade balance, to stimulate exports, to cut off European low cost manufactures,
and to obtain a less precarious customer than bankrupt Europe; these are the main causes and objects
of protective tariffs.
But creditors must take what debtors have to offer.
If they don't, they stand to get nothing at all. En-
rope is highly  industrial.   U lives by supplying
manufactures to the world.     And it is efficient!}*
organized for that purpose.   Canada is not—yet.
Canada is one of the supply bases of raw material.
As such, it was (pre-war) a borrowing country, i.e.,
capital was invested in its resources for industrial
supplies.   Or in other words, Canada received manufactured goods for the development of its natural
wealth, and paid for them out of its raw production.   The war has created a new condition. Canadian resource, being capitalized, Canada has inevitably become industrial, and like its own Niagara—hy the momentum of its own progress is relentlessly whirled deeper into the maelstrom of the
greater industry.   So it comes, that if Canada must
take manufactures in trade, it will strive to offset
their price reactions by tariff imposts. Ii will strive
to increase its volume of raw supplies in repayment,
and for the residue, and its own increasing surplus,
it will, therefore, he enabled to meet world competition an equable terms, and hy its own growth, hold
the scales of exchange credit even.   So our capitalists figure it out, correctly enough in its own sphere.
But the capitalist economic is a most contradictory affair.   Capital can suffer no limits to its expansion.   It can brook no barriers to its progress.
Yet, out of its own waste of the productive forces,
it gathers restrictions to itself.   Out of its own necessitous limitations, it inexorably limits its own necessity. The national indebtedness ean only be paid
to the nations themselves, and paid only iu commodities.   But the volume of that debt,—even its
compounded intesest—is far beyond the feeble capacity of the limited social powers in actual production.   The desperate need of nations compels them
to export in ever greater volume, yet the constantly falling ratio of thc actual productive forces renders increasing imports prohibitory. The economic
checks to imports, whieh now exist in Europe are
exaggerated by political contrivances for Imperialist  aggression.   European nations are in liquidation and under dictation to creditors.   Nevertheless, those broken nations take their owners in tow.
That dictation spells ruin to capitalist Imperialism.
In reaction, that bankruptcy involved the creditors in chronic stagnation.     Low cost production
threatens the market supremacy of power, and compels the most risrorous trade repressions in the interest of unlimited trade.
The reduction of those irreconcilables is our masters' business, not ours. We have nothing to do
with tariffs.* Our issue,, in this or any election, is
the abolition of capital and its wage slavery. In
any political society, the working class is a slave
class, producing all wealth, which the master class
appropriates, because they own and control the machinery of social production. And simply because
of that ownership, the producing class must toil
(Continued on page 3) PAGE TWO
WESTERN      CLARION
The Rumblings of Change
By H. M. Bartholomew
THE old metaphysician believed that things
are static, unchanging, immutable and unrelated. He spoke much of the "eternal
verities' and the unchanged and unchangeable mora]
concepts of religion.
Dialectics, on the other hand, comprehends the universe and thc multiform phenomena thereof, as being in a continual process of movement and interrelationship; as a continual procession of cause and
effect.
The old methods of thought have been destroyed
by the onward march of science. We now know that
things are not static-, but in a process of constant
change; that thc Greek philosopher who wrote "Nothing is so constant as change," was much nearer
to a true conception of universal phenomena than
the metaphysicians of thc sixteenth century.
Engels wrote:
"Nature is, then, proof of dialectics, and it must
be said for modern science that it has furnished thai
proof with very rich materials increasing daily, am!
thus has shown that, in the last resort. Nature works
dialectically and not metaphysically; that she does
not move in the eternal oneness of a perpetually recurring circle, but goes through a real historical
evolution."
Since those words were penned the evidence supplied hy all branches of science as to the correctness
of dialectical methods has increased in such volume
that it has almost become a "fashion" to "think dialectically."
Be that as it may, we must regard things, not as ah-
colute and eternal, but as constantly changing and
in relation to all other things. And when we apply
this method of investigation to the capitalist method
of wealth production we shall find that we obtain
many and rich results.
Time was when politicians spoke of capitalist production as if that method of production "had been,
is and ever will be." But the advance of scientific
understanding of various phenomena has placed this
view into the discard. We know that capitalism has
not always existed, that social institutions have constantly changed and that the existing social order is
rapidly changing under our own eyes.
Marx, in a famous pasage (too long to quote in
full") tells us:
"Centralization of the means of production and
socialization of labor at last reach a point where they
become incompatible with their capitalist integument. This integument is hurst asunder. The knell
of capitalist private property sounds. The expropriators are expropriated."
Marx here employs the famous "negation of the
nccration," which is such an important part of the
philosophical system of Hegel. There is not the
space necessary to analyse this particular concept in
anything like adequate manner. It must be sufficient to the purpose ofthe present writer if he merely
points out that each system of society contains within itself the germs of its own dissolution, and that
the new social order develops "within the womb ef
the old," until it can no longer be contained therein.
It is then that the new "becomes incompatible with
the integument" of the old; the integument is burst
asunder, the new order emerges into the light of day.
It is the negation of the negation.
If we regard Capitalist production as something
static and immutable, then can we argue regarding
"eternal verities' and the "proas immorality" of
the "'wicked Socialist."   But if we adopt (as wc
surely must") the dialectical method of rea*»oniii".*.
then we can ignore these appeals to "eternal rights"
and examine the tendencies of capitalist production.
What is thc general trend of the existing social
order* Is it towards Socialism; or can it he said that
thc general tendency is away from that social system known as the Socialist Commonwealth?   If thc
many writers in the press would try to confine themselves to these important questions when they arc
penning their wild declamations against Socialists
and Socialism, they would contribute something "i
importance to the world of political thought!
The analysis of capitalist production which enabled Marx to formulate the law of capitalist accumulation has proven correct. Trusts and carte!.-.
are to he found dominating the chief industries ol
modern production. Something approaching industrial despotism can be found in thc highly developed
industrial countries of the world.
This centralization am' concentration of capital
has gone hand in hand with increasing productivity
of tin- workers, and with this "industrial reserve
ai'iny" constantly growing m numbers. Surplus commodities are produced in quick order, and the mar
kets for these huge accumulations of commodities
are eonstintly becoming smaller. The inevitable re
suit is lonjr continued trade depression* with all thc
attendant evils of unemployed worker.-,, idle fat-tor
ics. etc
At the present time, if we take a bird's eye view '»f
the world of capitalist production wc shall find many
facts which will reveal to us the chroni -date of affaire from th- viewpoint of the master claaa
Purinjj the last week the writer baa scanned the
newspapers with great interest, He finds his "'yellow sheet'1 containing reports of " 13 Airplanes Sent
to Mine Fields," and of "the invading miners f<»rm*
ing battle-line to rush boundary." And when it-
reads the reports he finds th.it there M a ball!--
royal going on in West Virginia
On the same date he finds the same paper reporting to the effect that ill. German authorities have
called out the police of Berlin t" "guard against np-
risings,' 'ami that tin- greater part of Qermany is
"seething with unrest."
It. another issue we find that the workers of New
South Wales could "rather go to jail than pay taxes," and that "government officials start to sin/
"God Save the King," bui the band plays tin- "Re I
Plsg."
In Britain the unemployed situation i- serious,
Another issue of llu- same journal containa a phot'.
-.'raph of "the serious riot of 5,000 onemployed re
turned soldiers."    And whin we rend the report
this disturbance we find that 5,000 men applied f«-r
fifty jobs, and that the ensuing riot was BO gfSVe that
50(i mounted police were employed, and even then
the rioters did damage to the extent of *5.<«K),ihmi
And as I write, I find that* the latest issue of this
wonderful "oruaii" states that onemployed riots
have broken out all over Britain, that there are serious disturbances in India, that "ihe Irish question"
has taken a furn for the Worse, and that serious riots
are taking place in France and America, And thus
we might cover the Whole world of capitalist production with our analyaia snd find that unrest is everywhere, that the misery and degradation <>f tin- work-
ing-elass is lueh that "the Integument "f capitalist
production'' may soon be burst asunder.
Nor is the capitalist class enjoying its present position. The industrial depression has hit them very
seriously. Bankruptcies are more numerous Hum
ever, and the accumulation of capital into fewer and
fewer hands proceeds apace. Verily was .Marx correct when he wrote: "One capitalist always kills
many."
Before the writer lie two reports in the press of recent, date, which reveal Ihe serious position of the
capitalist class.    The first reads:
"Tf Europe is to be saved from a wholesale bankruptcy two things are essential. It must have gold
and it must stop printing paper money. Another
year of the printing presses and all Kurope will have
paper money which never can be redeemed." (Austin
Harrison *i.
The other report shows the bank clearings for the
month of July, and reveals to us the extent of the de-
flatipn due to the industrial depression. It rends as
follows:
"Bank clearings for the month of July show to
what an extent deflation is proceeding in Canada and
ihe change which has come over th. manufacturum
areas of the Dominion,
"In Montreal ;iu cleariugs for the month of Jul,
arc reduced over H*I8,000,000( as compared with l
same month last year, Is Toronto tin- reduction
.,!.out (35,000,000    In Winnipeg th,- decline of »<,
000,000."
These are straws wimh revesl l" us th,. u.
which capitalist production is tending, Thi
Imu's nt unrest ean be heard "n ever) hand, •
i-t production is digging its own grave, and it r.
mains for the worklng-olaai to give i* i tf 1 i> . •
puah I
HERE AND NOW.
Foiowing   "M   each    <J    I'e.itrrn.   II    il .    ,   ,)
Stewart, V. J   Keiledy, <»'. Albera, R   i>
A   Padgham, li   A. Fillmore, !'•   D w  n
("amfield, Mrs. Cameron, -J. Bennett, M
r. Shmewald. H C .Match. K. Near, 1'. Bl
Young, M. A Siivirt. A U. Sinclair, «• v
>'. oison, Wm. Bennett, II Wallstrom.
Following 12 each   F   V Smith. .1   1"
W. Daniel, Wm. Kastler 0  BH
Wo.   Bract, 111 50   Bid Barp, **4.    <   \|  .
-l'-i   A. Dinkfait, **! 7n. s  R   Davy,*i; Wi
•    : - :   II  II Tl • i-.v #; N.T.8      —    II
llerrman, 15
tbove, Clarion sn'is   • ■  ■ .• ■; fi       ! Iti  i   >•
September, iu<!uh-\-    total, *7- 70
Nfoo that the winter Reason is appro*       t   *
all it* terrors)  atudj   class**  will  be
over the country.     Thai is in My,
will,    Mteratttn   and  Clarion  sales  sr<
climb up a little;   attain it  - that the;
(own    The subscriptions total -hi-   »* •*•
tendency towards 'stead; '   and we an  in
We don't quite knowathc mat
'.us foi - in*. <t s some-thin < in ,;    •   In
and all Clarion ft idera ihonld learn it    I
exprosaiona  ,wheed1ing  snd  poraoasivi
these I isvi their uvea at times   trj
they fail, try the plain honest truth   '     ■
needs subs, and deserves to k* t them.
Notice of Smrcnr.on of Robert Walker, of Cumber
■    land, B. C.
In "The Cumberland Wander"   B.<     ■ ■ ** ' •
day, Angus! 20th, 1021, appeared an art
"Complimentary Dinner to Lieutenant-!
This was a r- !>nrt of a PC option given to th<   '  '
Governor of  [)   c.  st  Cumberland,   18th   \
Speeches w.r.- mule nnd a speech slleged ;
been delivered b*-  Robert Walker, mem
ot the s. |» of C, is printed In the issue r
of that paper   falters bctWl 00 ( 'Otnrsdc W. dl   r
the ii. !•;. c. have i ii exchanged as the speech
ported violates onr principles, and he has in
ponded for thirty (80) days dating from ami
•tn* 20th September, or until BUch  turn   witll
period that he may publicly, within the columns «
"The Cumberland Islander" issue a f"'1 denial
the report.
•    •    •
The mansging-editor of the "B. C. Fcderatia  *
I A. S. WeiU' nnd the "It. C fCoderationist, Ud,
have been served with warrants by the City "'
couver Police Department .charged with offering
sale a pamphlet thi contents of which sonstitiii
infraction of the Criminal Code.    The psmphM
thosght to be " 'laft Wing* Communism, An |ll;l"
t'de Disorder," by Lenin. The ease came bcfi " t,u'
foliee Magistrate on the 26th, and was sdjournc<
under request of Counsel for Defence, {or "
The "Fcderationist" last issue indicated thai flnsn-
cial help would be needed.    Contributions pis)
sent to this office and they will be forwarded. WESTERN    CLARION
PAGE THREE
Development of Educational System
CAPITALISM has attain.d its supremacy t«.
,la\ overall other forms ol production through
-„ development <d machinery, That achieve
, ■; •■ .• education of the workers, sre tbe two
.,-. ri -al functions of capitaliam.
^ ., ..;■-.. ov r\ of ntcam aud it*, application to
: o iding s motive power far superioi
, . , • h-iiik. s new i ra In industry *.•*-
v.- in production over and above
.. i •., i ippiy tbe produi ers w ith I
....   |.-,. resulted m surplus product!
..-
j, j    the handicraft  methods, which had pn
- ,ot the civilised world   *
■   iily iii , \e< m ol it quiremi   I - I
. Juatr) wa*. - arried on h t% the
H 0j -... trorki ra th • •       lb i mph I i
I run by band and fool pOWCT   wi
., k power being used to o   i   tl   I In
: districts, ehieflj , or the work
• rant jobber carrying with hii  tl   tool*
k craft   nd setting np his woi •
i reqii red.   Sometimes, il       furnished the
. sold ihe finished prodti I
raftsman and built op a busincs
•   *t and jonrncj In tl si   si
S  permanent  fixture,  and
- i *** up ih- village or burg
. d s wand* ring worker aj        t I
■    ui furnished by
rising to the position
Tl t U bnical pro • **** -   I I - " -
ise and the d's   si lion of his prod . ts
little learning    ¥ •   ing ai wss a
i   . Ii onatter,   Ttayh U tot rtn
igad thirongh fans, when t crsin
us mdnatries met and
res    r later through pack i        •»   those pn
lotpyw    ; (hi   m -d'-rn mere; ml
■   8 goods Si n greater dixtan
With ihe discovery of ateam and
■   nt of machines the met"
■ dtstribonon nitderwent a radical
n   • r    dc sf the took of i»r duct   n necearit
ited permanent soommmlationn    The worker •   -
*   own the m<»re expensive tools, snd it
Bed for those master craf!«*m- n wl o hsd 10
d establishing thamaelvea to carry on thi new
mnfacturing method* which act in.
1 '!"!"*ition r« nwAeta began with the greatly
"•eased produetivnesof the workers applying their
lniyot'"""'' u> <•"' machines. Surplus products piled
in ""■ hands of the owners of those macMnea.
■Hm possession of the latesl machinery giving tern-
■> advantage to the 01 tier of that particular
hi.- by making it possible for him to produce
more snd cheaper commodities, thua enabling him to
••'■ ■ ■ rsell hia competitor.
•• •" nith the m n hiuery came the need of work-
n wno esuld read and write, measure and calcu-
•ste, and the distribution ol surplus commodities,
e it  itions with foreign countries and the estab-
8 ■ ■ tne ere lit system increased the need of an
cduci ted proletariat if tbe capitalists were to corn-
net   iu   • asfuUy in the world markets.   So wc- see
ht capitalist extending his technical learning to thc
corkers and even opening the doors of the colleges
to the more fort mate ol the working class, doors
had pi vii tsly been closed to any but the ruling class,   The competition among the workers for
• er paying positii   - I icilitated the educational pi . until modern popular education has re-
sulb       1  ■■ latesl example of this is .Japan.
However, with the technical education which the
ers have appropriated to their own use has come
:•-■• 1 : - rplua value and the materialis-
ti   coneeptioii of history, thus establishing an eri-
■ ■•   •  : ■     bc  1 f thought which is spreading so
that the capitalists have become alarmed.
-   - • viden ed by their efforts to circumscribe pro-
lion    The laws recently enacted by
thi  S'ea  York State Legislature called the "Lusk
\< ■   -     ■   •   I.    ." state: "Every person, corporation or ■ conducting a Bchool or course of in-
utructioi   •    my subject in the state must be licensed
by the St •   DepartmcnJ of Education to continue
•s    , •          *..   of which is s case in point.     The
.-•.-.'    * onh such education for the work-
- as will redound to their own particular benefit.
s* ,   \: nifest   of Carnegie Institute.   But it is too
•,     Tl • v have already pfaced in the hands of the
workers dual Weapons which, if wielded
wiih nifl       t skill, will prove a boomerang to their
own mcrftt cherished institution—wage labor.
K VT1IKK.1.NE SMITH.
Xote: Credit is extended to Comrade John Ker-
r for the general outline of the above.—K.S.).
If we turn to the production of useful articles, we
find that the worker with the beat modern machinery
ean make two hundred pairs of boots in the time it
took the old cobbler to make one pair. The best modern weaving machine can weave two hundred times
as much cloth as the old handloom. What is more,
the new machines go on ^caving while the workers
are away at dinner, and should a thread break, the
machine stops of its own accord. For the manufacturing of matches, a machine exists that turns out
114,000 hoxes of matches per day. At one end it
takes in solid blocks of pinewood, at the other it
runs the finished matches into boxes, closes the boxes, puts them in packages of a dozen, and seals them
up! Again, all these wonderful labor-saving machines are the products, the handiwork of Capitalism.
Capitalism has completely altered the position.
Capitalism's great gift to man has been to increase
productivity enormously. Capitalism has put into
our hands tools and machines so gigantic and so productive that they make the greatest tools of the past
seem mere playthings. In doing so, it has completely wiped out the iron reason that condemned the
masses to poverty in times gone by. It has made
communism and culture possible together. In the
past comunism meant poverty for all; thanks to Capitalism, communism today would mean wealth for
all.
"Ah." you say, "but have you not just shown
that we haven't got wealth for all?" True! Capitalism has solved the problem of production, but it has
left another problem unsolved. That problem can
only be solved by an educated working class. Next
month *m shall se what that problem is.
J. P. MILLER.
—"The Plebs."
:o*.-
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.
Ten  Minutes' Talks With New 'Students
Production sad Poverty.
AT the present tun- SOini « I ••
er iu three is ancmployed or 1- working s
short time as to be foi all ■     ' "
rame position.   In additi as ol tl  -
on full time bate had thi ir wagea so ar
l0"**lj reduced that then- position is not verj
•'• r than that of thc am mployed.     Sew '•'
'"■■'   ii IS  there  been   SQCh   mOSS  DOVl rt)      Tr)   OS
'-<• may to disguise the fact, Britain 1- simply s
Agamic workhouse, a laud of beggara.
What is the explanation'    Were told that CCOD
""1:'" conditions necessitate large numbers of mien*
Ployed, ami sweeping reductions in the wages ol th
re*l of the workers: that, regrettable as it ma) he, it
■* -"npoeaible for industry to provide thc means ol
!"" (oV large sections of the population. Wages,
,,,|!"':i""ii grants, unemployment doles, all are cut
'1,)'v'1. because tl ountryi so il >*• asserted, cannot
produce the necessary wealth
Bui can we sgree that poverty is inevitable is in
""' "••'lire of thingsl It ia undeniable thai thci •
*** ■ time whe, poverty not onlj ^'^'••'1 but u;ls
,,",",,l to exist. In primitive times, though all men
Ww lual. ihey were all equally poor, equally un-
8Qltured, and it is easy to understand w h> • A" ,ncn
WeW poor because man's tools  were so crude.
Primitive that thev sufficed to produce onl) the bai
P,t Nng,   in the aystems of society that followed
,        :  unism    chattel slavery, with its slaves
nnd slaveowners, and feudalism with its serfs and
,,.,-.    we find that although the slave-owners and
i. were wealthy, the great masses—-the slaves
(i ti, ,erf-*   were exceedingly poor and unculttir-
.,1    |u tbose days it was possible for only a few men
-0     ..  ... ,ith and culture, because although tools
The question has been asked: Cau ore deposits,
soil, climate, etc., be termed means of production?
Answer: No! In the science of economics they
are technically classed as natural resources. The
means of production are the material equipment
used for carrying on the productive process. This
equipment comprises such things as buildings, machinery, implements, tools, utensils and appliances
of any kind, for dyeing, brewing, and chemical processes, railroads and rolling stock, ships and other
means of transportation!
Haw materials, are such as ore iu the billit, coal,
oil, wool, cotton, logs, seeds, hides, etc. Also, the
finished goods of one industrial process may become
the raw material of another, as hides, .the finished
product of the cattle industry are in turn the raw-
material for leather, and leather for the boot and*
shoe industry; lumber for the building and furniture
trades; agricultural products for stock raising, etc.
These are termed production goods, to distinguish
them from what is termed consumption goods, whicii
last arc sold to the ultimate consumer.
G. 8.
I ;   proved som< w h
at thev wn-e still crude. The
runitive communism, were condemned
:,\ ti,:' .is yel unsolved problem of production tolife-
, , poverty.     Does the same reason for poverty
exist ("day I
Before Capitalism, all works had to be done by
power d rived mainly 'rum the muscles of men. as-
:g|( j ),v ||1(. mus.ies ol horses and 0X611, and hy the
power taken \rou\ the rivers by means of the old-
fashioned wate) wheel. Today we use mechaneiul
,,,,„ ,,■     A,- ording to one authority, the factories of
i;n,,UM derive from coal alone the power of 175,000,-
/,'„„.„ ,mu if we add ta that the power gol from
,., ;t! lised m ships and on railways, the 20,000,000 or
|noro .1(lu|. „„,„ and women of Britain have at their
disposal the power of'265,000,000 men. Today a
eranc can lift ten tons as easily as a boy can lift \
l„,x of matches; and again, thanks to mechanical
Lower r modem steam-hammer can pound a ton of
iron into a pancake as easily as a man can crush a
walnul With a stone. All this mechanical power is
tho produci of Capitaliam.
•O:-
THE TARIFF ISSUE
(Continued from page 1)
•-{to live)—rOn the terms of surplus appropriation,
receiving in return merely the sustenance of labor
reproduction. That is the simple cause of all—or
most—of our trouble, and of all our poverty and degradation. No amelioration scheme can alter it,
no tariff—or master class legislation—can turn its
effects aside, and no reform whatsoever reprieve
its economic incidence. World wide, the working
class is in precisely similar conditions—free trade,
or protection. Liberal government or Tory. Because, government of any kind is the subjugation
of the working class to the exploitation of the ruling
class, and can in nowise be altered by any ruling
class initiative. Unless we can absorb and master
that, we can absorb and master nothing. R. PAGE FOUR
iVESTER.V    clariom
Western Clarion
▲ Jovnal ef History, Booaomlca, fMloaotay,
aad Ourreot Brants.
Published twiet m month by the Socialist Party of
Canada 401 Pender Street East, Vaneourar, B. a
Phone Hsghlend S58S
Enter-si at G. P. O. aa a newapaper.
Editor ....
Ewen MacLeod
Subscription:
Canada, 20 iaauaa
Foreign, 16 iaauaa
$1.00
$1.00
Ar a1' 0** snaber ia oa yoor addreae label yoar
Q?)n tabieriptioB expiree with next isene. Benew
W"M promptly.
Vancouver, b. c. octobeb i, 1021
dominion elections, 1921
S. P. of C. Candidates,
/
The money
B. C. CONSTITUENCIES -
NANAIMO—  W.  A.  Pritchard
VANCOUVER, (3 Seats —
Burrard: J. D- Harrington
Centre: T. OConnor
South: J.  Kavanagh
MANITOBA CONSTITUENCIES:
WINNIPEG (3 seatsl:—
II. Jl. Bartholemew
R. B. Russell
Chas. Stewart
Other constituencies are yet  to be hsfjrd  from.
In the meantime, organizational work is comuien -
ing, meetings are under way and committees  are
forming for leaflet  distribution,  collecting  fundi),
etc.    The  deposit  required   for  each  candidate   is
$200 and th^re is no time to be lost,
must be found. M
If you are interested and willing to help in the
*vork go to the headquarters in the place where you
are; in Vancouver. 401 Pender St. East. "Hieee
you will be directed to the guidance of the cam
paijrn manager of the district where your efforts
will be most needed or most effective. Ln Nanaimo
go to Wm. Newton. 235 Irwin Street.
In Winnipeg go to room 1. 530 Main Street. If
you can't go to any of these places and you have a
dollarto spare, send it to E. MacLeod. 401 Ponder
St. East, Vancouver. B. C. Mention the const it
nency or to which campaign fund you wish the donation to apply, and it will bc so applied. If no mention is made, the money will be applied to the constituency most in need of it.
But don't forget, if you are not able to help with
money, yonr   personal   help   will po a   long   way.
Xow's n good time for us to get a word to the
• •workers of Canada when they're all listening.
 ?o:	
Did you see thia in the papers the other day?
DATE OF THANKSOIVINO  IS FIXED BV
STATUTE: FALLS OX NOVEMBER 7.
What's the mater with these governments,  are
they displaying 'Bolshevik tendencies?"
• NEIL McLEAN, M. P.      -
told us that part of our job to be done m that strug-
i-le was to exclude Orientals from British Columbia,
ihe Orientals were a menace to our white working
class welfare here, they lowered our standard of living, the} scabbed on the whites, and so forth. And
at the very time of his speech making the aoJngje*-
niills of New Westminster, not twenty miles a\\a\.
were tied up because the Orientals employed in t'neui,
and they constitute the greater part of a shingle-
null crew, refused a cut of IO per cent., while the
white employees agitated for a return to Work.
McLean had paid a visit io the local Chinatown
and l-.e said in- wis ahockeoral the housing eonditions. About hen- is where we find him guilty of it
failing in the matter oi memory. Sure enough, the
local Chinese working population do uot live iu ..t
tractive places, but last winter, hereabouts, resiay
ivhite men bad no quarters at ail. and alread) the
City Council are making examination of Hastings
Park to soe what accommodation can to- figured Upou
for next winter's workless and homeless; Think of
a man coming from Glasgow, ot all places, criticising working class bousing elsewhere, and becoming
"shocked." It comes near to being unpatriotic.
We have to confess to an early acquaintance with
that hive of capitalist industry, and «e claim lor it
a reputation a* the finest collection of slums on earth
Let others have their prejudices in '"favor" of other
places; let everyone boost his "own home town,"
But they're "white" slums.
It would appear that .McLean, onee h,- found the
local temper, would willingly have forgotten his
anti-Orientalism which he could not exactly tit into
the fram -w< rk of the claaa struggle when, to ins sur-
prise ami discomfiture, he was asked t<> do *>. Bis
i>ag of trieke imtaina speeches from all angles, Fifteen or sixteen years ago he propounded the gospel
according to the Socialist Labor Party in thst same
city of Glasgow, where sham tenements are higher
than the standard of living and «here the Chinese
worker is unknown, At that tune he voiced his opt-,
k <m**
ions earnestly, row he in voicing th- opinions of
Trades Congress officialdom which requires, alons
with Oriental exclusion, the exclusion of any idea ol
workinjr das* solidarity. About tl niv accomplishment Mr. McLean has acquired iu fifteen yearn
seems to be an angry growl at question time. No
doubt he learned that froth Mr. Lloyd Qoofge.
IN this last great west, the hope of the homeless,
^Where there is more land and fewer inhabitants
to the acre than elsewhere in.this great Canadian
wilderness, we are visited now and then by one or
other of the shining lights from the labor benches in
the British parliament.   This time thc adventurer is
Neil McLean, M.P., representing Oovan, a Glasgow
constituency. Neil travelled around these local parts
under the guidance of the Federated Labor Party,
after "doing his turn" at the Trades Congress of
Canada, held in Winnipeg.   Ordinarily, our labor
stranners meet us warily, and cautiously try us out
to find just what kind of speech they may think we'd
like to hear.   Our latest visitor, however, judged us
bv our looks and gave us a dilution of the wish-wash
that no doubt counted votes for him in Go'van, but
which, when received here with ar. ill grace, made
him *trifle *roM- He told m we ™cre part and par"
eel of the world-wide class struggle, and then he
SECRETARIAL NOTES.
Classes in Raohomica and History win eosamenee
in   Vancouver   in   October   f->r   the   winter  season.
1021-22.
Tin- class in Economics starts Sunday, October
'ith. at 3 p.m..: aud in History, Thursday. October
6th. at 8 p.m. classes will meet at 4"! Pender Street
K.ist. and S good attendance of old and new stn-
dents is expected, other elaaaea on kindred subjects
may be formed as the season advances.     It  should
be'noted and advertised thai  membership in thc
Socialist Party of Canada  ih BOt essential to elans
membership. The claaaes will determine the text
books to be studied, the method of study, the form
and  rules of discussion,  and  they  may  sub-divide
themselves as they see tit into beginners snd advanced students classes if the initial attendance gives
promise of this possibility, Another feature thai
will be or should be taken up is the matter of essay
writing on aubjecta studied The classes will lay
down rules of guidance in tbis department of study,
as conducive to systematic application in study and
as an important feature siding the student to set
forth his or her ideas in order on paper. This is
for ihe class itself. We had Intended to reprint
in thia issue from "The Indicator" an article by
"Geordie" on the manner of conducting study clsjM-
<•*, but at the moment if looks as if the columns are
blocked already. However, it will not be amiss in
the next.
By the way, anent the threats of one ('. Stephenson (a few issues back) to take prompt proceedings
in arousing interest in "Geordie's" articles on Keon-
otnics previously published in "The Bed Flag" and
"The Indicator," so that wc might be prodded into
calculating costs of printing in pamphlet form, ami
tp the end that these invaluable articles might thus
be readily seosssftts to student* and writer.*, .
•'•-.••■' Md of reader., we have received a swS
correspondence in approval. "'
Some of this has I ,, eanmunicated to "q
die, 'and while be appears to be a htti,   ■   '7
hearing" he ia really about the busiest m9A h *
about,  ...d time ,o him ,s an actual and import^,
Etc .    However, the "threats" are bearing *veTh
and we hope to b, abbMo make anno,,ne,ni(,f h,,;
that the printing is under way.
Hy the way (again 1 we forgel to uy thai ,
elsases sformn -ntioned an- free of charge and iid
lotion istaJrOtt.    Pay attention ,,n,| Vl„,... ,,..„ ,
ions. ..sk questions ami get others to voice th.-i
':')*-'■
Writing some tune back to one Bill Lc-win   r,,,
gary), asking him to lay in s stock <d u»k and ipi
ii in the "1'lnrioit" columns, ths astonished editor n
eoived this bright word iu reply; -'ir*. ths can*
thing in the world t<- think of articles       ■      ,
want someone lo write for you, or that you sanl
have -i shot tit yourself,   It's like smoking •••
ed cigarettcja.   Some tune I !l fend yon a list
here a a few lo be goins/'ou with    .\ aeries <>f crit
n-ai articles, psssing in review all the mom- fai
of the Utopian, in the light of Slarxiam   twenty articles al the bast.    Soto, (by Bill' 1 was -< - ■.
this little item f«-r myself, but pass El on    Do nhai
you ean with it   ! can't tooeh it.   A series of anno
latiottS to lb.- works of MaKx and BUgela, tier u:\os   for  B   start.     In   "So laltsm    I top
Scientific," for example (attend, all ye history S
dents   we have mention made of the Bissenaebein
the l-eveltera, Manly. Morelly. The Chartist Move-
moot, Bacon, Rohhea, Locke, Hegel and a hundi
matters besides,    What ar«- these eventa
are these dnisj< •**   »F-tagiveneas i* extended for "
levity).   Tin- average felJow in the clasa -loess
know and the pamphlet doesn't s»v      .
tion 'an be obtained; it's available, ail right
those of my class »t >s sltogether inaccessible. Wh«.
•hi  iverage Encyclopedia tells you iseithei -
and negligible, or it is so misleading snd bias*
to |,- y. .»,._    Annotated editions of the ou n *-
tst «i»o-si « are needed is the worst sraj    What
really need i* an annotation committee a it si Vs
couver.   Another thing; and thi* also is required
.\ K-»nes of paragraphs dealing with the pi
natural laws «u far formulated   from the •.»:   *
I'm-- up till yesterday, given In htstori     seq icsw
Tbe bislortcal order will not mceaaarily be upset
yon take the scteiioes separately, neither a
•><oi Jump from on»- saienoe to another    In fset, b
the latter procedure you preoerve the ehronol
The  la«s ■hould be gi?CO  tluMf ria*ot:e  fiTH!  Utr*0 ■'
explained so that  the ordinary pliiji    "Inch means
yon am} me -can readily understand them, then the
inflnonce of the discovery of ■ las la one -
iu stimulating reeearehea and detelopmonl wis
touched on.   The thing; »f properly done sh >uld re
suit iii I siieeinct account of the growth of SnowlCdg*-
an ac'-ount  with the emplia-is phi I <»n positive
lielileveilieut.
This is Just a *«iart 'the editor bare Introduce* ■
vio'en; (it r,f soogidng).   I want next a material
interpretation of the VSrloOS art siovementa so ***
/liinr. and apparently so twisted t<» the sverage wors-
cr:n brief aketch of tiic history of art, with tlie.ro
Ottlie factors underlined ami most of the pageafl
lunitietl. Vtui may think thi«* is nol required, bui II
yon eooid hear one quarter ofthe questions I «ome
!imes have to find answers for you'd undcrst.ui 1 '•"'
necessity all riirht."
And more of it. much more.    The editor tin"'
that's enough to be going oo with meantime, "here
no telling what the 'Clarion" writers may yet t1"'
in the ink pot to disperse the stands of dsrkneai
the light of learning,
•   t
Comrade LeeWe'a regular article in "MsterinlW
Conception of History" is somewhat belated thia
issue, or Peter has busied himself more in Pilll|!
than ink, However, w< are pleased to OOte lengthy
quotations from these articles iu several issues ,,!
"The Citizen" (Ottawa) and "The Standard" (SI
John, \.M.)    Both of these are daily journals.
Lit *    •
WES T K R N     CLARloN
PAGE. FIVE
Concerning Value
BY   GEORDIE
a^m-m of Production and     High'   and    Low"
Compositions of Capital.    Varieties of Profits.
M ;   tod Ii   *«* were dSillnS calf *»' a valu««
.»    So* wa save sassoctsd this rain oa
I |at0 | cottp-er. an | ot* thi- Odttf  Wl
.,,.    -J ou! «><   I SUOthar form, thai ol lb.- prtce ot pro
>:.., itJas       ■ ssatat* v..i  in . ,.  i |
• •   •
-   brtosf ahoas   la » - irtsia bsSli
...       -■     al oi 411 stand Btarfce*   rata*
\.ti. * , • . the vartena iadlvidaal ra
n*   . i>-ii**«*tu,oj» ot its- rsfftata is I i
• . i.  at mdttatrr) thsai res-atta ta tas sri i
rfcl h asjoatfasi *o* r*u* 0 proSI batwaaa ih-
• h rai   TMs last |n*oestas reoutrea a blatter da
-■-sulut prodociloo ihaa th* pre-aloni |
,n,- .:.' rol m   i> Jl"
»   »   •
Utloa doas r*ot Show i» th<  wai la a-Mct*
■ ii ■■. tag* aaovtsaawi at prods
pytti *} •*-.. •tatecnrtaatloai   It do*** not nao* Hot -..:,<-
•m i :   ■ ■    • its*- nrkas ofaavodoetloo «ai datsnalaa
ii  <•    ronanaitihra «*•>€• saoa oa the
*nt*t huS ■•      Uoartas thic-.*** ■      . »
• *...     proSta hntaswdasi  oi «»-.*• ot-taah
• •■       '   t-riui in Urn dtflaram sohari
as *0 siso "sSsptaSsai <>: fts  ma*** ot u
;: *aar ssiwcfctaiae* ay aay siiwa capital la am parti
iu a   re of < ratottattoa
■!> v i - tj •! ?»u of prtcas at ss-atfaettaa ss s -■
<tm*.     i ta* fe ,.-i af wagea, « sawstcaaa-aoa a-fejen Bsl *
• *t i rat ilahi Use t»» of *.*■■•«• ol <-
Tat '    •  itioaa ot BHUrfca* artces  vs-kfi raSao
-. i  of *-omrood:*.ir-» io » -*.-■•** perksl
martial v»l*i«, hul *o  . mj-rfceipnee of P*~c
ad m : "-• • ■tOavSMj Gram «M» in'.Tit-' i
■ taa ««m io coafanaSlei tba ■ ■•■•■   i
• tab - ■ime vs mw!   M tba BUS "h*
' ; ■-■" -       ttats of «ni**»4 samfuatabor    gt-wrytbtas
*.-•••   .-t ->   -"Sos*-**   »n  competition
' rmffinaartoB ot aeawawi    ■  -
n        •• tha surface sf (Mass sad ■
• SS IIMMiartltrh tbe l^itdlna hunun a*"'nu <>;-1---M!
*• l •-. in trrms to snderstaad iheea,
'■■- tram thr hi rrn*i a-vt <jt-H ,,„.. • .....    *   I
•    '*  -n-J trr-m th«* COBMMSftlOOf 10 thl
**"" ' -■■■;* a taatti ot*r*o»->d io u-,--nj or thoti ravaraa.*'
btn h*'i<- assaasa "h«- "r-*>*r" (<> ina ,; •
'1*i^' u>l   IH , p   »|4
• »    •
Is asait, sadar eajrftaTlst prodttetlmi  tbs liswral i**w
'■* 0 n«**ii no-r-r-iy ■»» ito* prevailtstf tandai
i » nt-  -joaancatad   tad asiwovbra*-   rnsnaaf   n* ■
ia*w swaybUaabta ^« rsav* of <•   -        "   '     toaa"
M ial   rot m. j. i«»«
<
MM«.\ rxpreasly declares that what he •
price of  proi'uetion "tis the same thing
it Riesrdo -iu4l ins school knew as
i '•<*»."   Ii will be i-eadil* underst I, Ii
'"r !,!"' th. explanation it ri i ved at Un rhandi
s' '    i same as ib#! given u Mara     ii I ' li
****i Mam defined the price oi prmlnction ol >
",,in,,,dit\ aa consisting of ths expeitaea of produi
,,H' price) plus the average profit, and si
' ,n|l this profit consbted of stinplns value  "h<
r"s'11' of unpaid labor.
t l>1',!"' other hand, the capitalist economists held
",* Iweffaet ol competitive prodnetion is such thai
h(' v,,'-'-uh parties who oootribulcd to the prodtu
"•'' Process reeeived, on the whole and on the aver-
'•"■.iin! m„.|, „ hjuin% |n -j!t. product iin wasjusti
! nJ* their several efforts. The share that each
"'"lv"'1 wiih conceived to be a mesaure oi In** |,,,n
:nh",in<' to the social product.   The wort! "labor"
JH,il'"i'i"d from thc definition of "coal of produc-
^"'    "hi,-!,  iH now described as "the sunt of the
'" ."r,,» end aanrifioss involved In produetion."  Tho
•borer PcceiveaVagea which sre the '•rewsrd" for
^"la'.or,- T|)(l n,1(in,,ia, eapitallat receives Inlereat
'"'I' is the reward for his uabstinence" and "wail
ui'.-," s
"J the way, this word abstinence is the ear mm'-
',th,t 'Pologiat^   It was, no doubt, apecially select
' Ils "oggcHting HOinethiiig painful.
w* the employing eapltaliat, the Mentrepren
"lr'   ■'ecelvea profits,   of these there are several
net***.     There are "wages of niperintendence"
'■ l ■'" ''v- "-•"•d for the labor expended by the
employer in dire tin; the labjr-proeeaa.    This ia
the mam it m in the category k lown ss "neeesaasy
>■'''■'•    Ihe only profit to sctuallj appear in the
"sl "•' production.     Then there are "accidental''
I oflts, which th- eayitaliit iodizes tlrjngh s me
■    incture i f event*, s ime fortnnate ere instance
i h enable- him ti make ft wirplna profit La tly,
■'if e ent al'  profits • ae to  he sop rior
ebi it) or business scumen ol the more efficient employers,   "ihe*,     !ao are snrplns p ofit-i aad, being
'•• rent,   re - un< times called ''rent of ability."
two   i profits d» nol enter into the c(8   of pro-
dnrtiVn.   Tbete are also mmopoly profits vhch
d-> uol I • re -•":;< ern u>.
The landlord, of course, gets hia rent   So far as
I ku s   oo economist bas had the nerve to suggest
'    ' '   -   -    ii reward for owning the land.   The
■■ ■' '       eaa do for lum in to -!,"u that real is a
• ■    .  . does ti"! enter into "lie coat
■ a and therefore does not affect prices.
II i ■  ingn it into 1 'gon  of surplus profits.
1 Ij         -               ol  what   is commonly  known as
■   i real!     itti capital  in\ ested in  im
•  i ment lo 'h. land.
s • ■ •. is ii ■• law i" the effect that "there
■ .my (riven tinn-, be two prices for the
u        imu odHj  in the same market.      I» is. <>t
n   .: matter of common experience thai prices
often varj eonsid rably even in adjacent stor-
l'bi« is psrtienlsrlj noticeable in the small re-
. »y be due to differences iu the way
. . , .v   >r aim] I) to the ignorance of thc
pal        rid tbe dishonesty of the dealer.   Never-
,,    o,  rmfficienU)  obvious reasons the state-
■   g      •.    . ■ of- h •   ,ad may he taken a*-, gen;
tbei       ■;. it is well known tha. the ex-
...... Kill \ar\ for the different pro-
,ju     . ft ■ pen commodity. Tins will arise from
j| „.., iinong whieh may be mention-
,.,.,, .• -s command oi capital; the em-
,• erwise of machinery! the proxim-
jtv"t0 ,„,,.     |S 0j   • i sources of raw  material: th,
....    ...      ien j of labor employed and to
. ,     . . :   ins? Bbilit: of the employers, Lt
( s.r,  .,, s,.   thal no two ui the producers of any
BJVCI ^  I   i!  1!  M the U?W*e1  With "
,,, PXjh.„ 1 production.   Xeverthes-
b ain the same price.     This
. .   ., .he intltvidual rates ol profit will vary,
will    gel    more    than    others,      Thoae
,,   ..,,„;„,   under   the   least    favorable   cou-
. .   ,   ,    ,,| ,hc "marginal" producera. These
;,s. ... ; . ■ the pinch in times of depression
Aral to Im  forced out by falling prices. It
..  among the economists to assert that
(,(W(    ,      ,     tion "i a commodity u;is deter-
ilP,lfl oi  production,   The reason
tbig v  , that no producer could or would
rt,-- ,.. businos unless it was worth his while*, that
■   .;, M1   unless he v<-<"*>d the customary rate ol
.  0\cr aml above h.s expenses,   .Marx, bow
|%vpr  ,•„„,,, reJlsol1 to differ from this finding and
;, „ that, while in certain industries the cost of
.   ..Inction is determined al the point ofleaai favor-
,1,  production, in most eases n is determined by
,,,.„„,, 0f those who produce under average
conditions snd In some instances.by 'the;most favor*
lWr condirions.   See "Capital,    vol. ii... chap.   0),
,, ifl   , ,,- however, whether the cost ot production he determined al the margin or by the average
tha|  (),,M. producing under more favorable
ronditions will realise a surplus profit   This s.„-
.,   ,-. we have seen, arises from dinerences
nlu-- nront, is « , ,     -     ^^      .
'  pnnditions of prcMuction and. acoording to
i. known as differential profit or as econ-
its soill'cc. to n' ,     ..,.. (<
,.    in eaap it is due to greater fertility of
omic l'1'"!.      " - i,i
sail or of mines, or to tha relatively favorabls loss-
. Uic lRnd,it will find.its way, aooner or later,
lnl0 the pockets of the landlord as rent.   In case it
8 due to^tho superior organising ability of the en-
trepreneur it will be pocketed by him as differential profit. It will now be seen why it was held
that rent does not enter into cost of production.
Now then, this process of-equalizatton which goes
on in each '"individual sphere of production" extends to industry r.sr a whole A, few preliminary
remarks may be necessary here. As we know,
every capitalist who engages in industry must be
provided with a certain money-capital. This he
expends in raw material, in#machinery, and as
wages. In ih" process ol production the whole
value of the raw material passes over into the product as hIs<> does the wear and tear of tin; liiachin- r
cry. No more and tio les<. however. For this rea-
•nii the capital so expended as called l,cou3taut"
capital. On the other hand, the labor expended in
the process produces a surplus over and above the
amount paid as wages. For this reason the capital
expended as wages is called "variable" capital. It
is only the variable eapital whieh, so to speak, produces a surplus. The surplus values produced will
he in proportion to the variable capital employed.
Now the variotm spheres of industry vary in re-
spect of the proportion Which obtains between the
constant and variable parts of the capitals employed in them. Thi? proportion is called by Marx the
"organic composition of capital.*' Those industries employing a high percentage of constant to
variable capital are said to have a "high*' composition of eapital. Those in which the percentage of
constant capital is lower relatively to the variable
are said to have a low" composition. They are, of
■ ourse. high or low relatively to what is called thc
average composition of capital. i
Let us now take some examples. In discussing
the law Offthe average rate of profit in last issue I
asnmed that the average composition of capital was
in the proportion of SO per eent constant to 20 per
cent, variable and that the rate of exploitation and,
therefore, the rate of surplus value was 100 per
cent. This would work out at a rate of profit of 20
per cent.
The employer of this capital is, say, a manufac-
tun r oi brass goods. For every hundred dollars
he expends 80 go in raw materials and wear
and tear of machinery, while he pays out 20
dollars in ttages. The rate of exploitation being
I'.iO per -ent. means that for every dollar in wages
the worker receives- he produces two dollars in values. Let us suppose that the above expenditure of
capital results in a complete process by which 100
articles, say basin cocks, are produced. We get,
therefore, the following result. We have 100 arti-
eles having a value equal to 80 dollars constant capital, plus 20 dollars variable capital, plus 20 dollars •
surplus value, a total of 120 dollars. The price of
production and therefore the selling price (at the
factory) of these 100 basin cocks is therefore 120
dollars, of which 100 dollars represents the actual
expenses of prodnetion and 20 dollars are profit.
This eapital being of average composition we may
assume, with certain resi rvations. that the price of
production and also the market price equals the
value.
Now let us upit all this iu terms of labor-time. To
do this we shall haVe to make a further assumption.
Let us say that one dollar represents the value of
cue hour in social labor time. Now then, the rate
of exploitation being 100 per cent, means that the
value of labor-power is one half that of its product.
Wages will therefore be "»o cents an hour. For 20
dollars the laborer will work 40 hours.
We have therefore this result. In the 100 articles produced there are K0 hours social labor in the
raw material, etc . plus 20 hours necessary labor plus
20 hours surplus labor. A total of 120 hours which,,,
at one dollar per hour, makes 120 dollars. Each
article represents therefore 1 1/5 hours (one hour
and 12 minutes) social labor time.
Let ns now suppose another capital of higher com-
position, say, 00 per cent, constant to 10 per cent,
variable capital.    The owner of this capital makes
(Continued on page 7) PAGE SIX
WE STKR N    CLARIO N
Factors in the Materialist Interpretation
of History
Being a continuation of thc article in last issue concerning the "Economic Factor," in the form of
an expianatpry letter, written in consideration
of a controversy on the Materialist Interpretation.
Ity a,'. STEPHENSON
Dear Comrade,*—1 have no donbt I have drawn out
this letter on the Materialistic Interpretation to »
wearisome length. Tins.- contents, ami what has already gone before in the hist issue could very conceivably have been Stated better and more coii.is.lv.
Partly, however, the length of my argument mual be
accredited to my desire to open ont a subject whieh,
while it has its difieulties for understanding, ia yet
important in respect that it has a bearing on the
future of our precarious civilization, for. in the
words of Professor Dewey, that future '"depends
npon the widening spread and deepening hold of the
scientific habit of mind." Your argument centred
around questions upon which discussion has pivoted
down the aires since human beings began to speculate about the career of man. and as answer to whichi
as conviction was reached, one way or the other, the
philosophers have built their systems <»f philosophy.
The questions concern the standards that men are to
employ in forming their beliefs. Though already
stated in the first part of this letter I will here r •-
state those questions in fresh terms: Have we to
resort, for guidance in human affairs, to a superhuman authority, to the so-called absolute and
eternal truths of Idealism, whieh. it is Claimed, transcend human experience and knowledge based upon
analysis and reason? Or. on the other hand, must
we organize human experience and depend on human
reason and intelligence for authority and guidance I
The terms of those questions state the mental prepossessions which are thc respective premises of tin-
opposing schools in philosophy: Idealism ami Materialism. Viewed with the Idealist prepossessions,
history -is seen as a record of good and evil deeds, a
struggle between the upper and nether worlds of
spirit and materiality: the idea is the starting point,
the driving force of history, ami great men the creators and initiators of social movements; progress is
the progressive realization of the eternal and absolute truths. On the other hand, from the Materialist
viewpoint, which is the scientific'habit of mind, history is seen as a process of natural history. The
process is a question of the inter-action of environmental forces, natural and social, ami man as organism, individually ami collectively. The environment, however, is tin primary fact. To the materialist, the history of society is a process evolving
in the cumulative sequence of material cause and
effect. So, social movements and ideals are not
born in the minds of great men. but ariNo out of material conditions of existence whieh impress them-
selves on the minds of men.
Your opponent contends that "any material factor is an economic factor." Mat he--, he should say,
that any material factor is ay economic factor when
it functions to an economic end. Words and terms
would cease to he of value as signs for things we are
compelled to take note of in the business of life, unless we use them in some precise correspondence *o
those things. Turning to the dictionary we find tin-
term "economy" is derived from the Ancient Greek
—(oikos: a house,- nornos, a law), or, the law of a
household—the rule-* and regulations by which the
management of a household is maintained, i.e , domestic economy. Later, the use of the term has been
extended to cover all kinds of functional processes
and structures. Thus we speak of the economy of
the human body, of agricultural and industrial
eeonomy, the economy of a machine, ami of a community, tribal, civic or national, also of the capitalist aysteitjl'of production as ihe world's economy of
production. Things have economic functions and
become economic factors, VTe make reference to
economic forces and economic conditions. The complex economy of modern social life, notably its pro
duetive and political processes, makes essential ior
our understanding "fit thai organised enquiry amt
knowledge which we knon as acienee. So ws have
the science of Political Economy which treats of the
production and distribution of wealth and its laws.
Note- Distribution in t*>\< conne rtion does not moan
the transferring "t wealth from store houses to < .•
SUmer.     Distribution here means the sharing among
a community of the wealth produced. Th.- science
enquires into the laws whieh determine the respective shares of the members ami classes of the eoni-
inunity).
It will be granted that any factor that is used or
taken advantage of, or plays an sctive part in the
production <>f wealth, ami in that respect Is ittStrtt-
mental in serving tin needs and farthering the life
process of individuals <>r of COBl Unities, i-* an CCOtt*
omie factor. In that rrepeel it is a queation of economic function. So, sunlight, air, water, climate, ge •
graphical and physi a! features of a country, natursl
resources in minerals- timber, fertility of the nod,
etc., the state of the industrial arts (technology
the material equipment of production and the appar-
atus of trade and commerce, are all economic factors,
There is. however, another aaped to those factors
other  than  an   economic.       They   llSVC  a  OUltUFsJ
aspect, in so far as they mould the psychology of i
people, in so far. that is, as they mould a people's
temperament and habits of thought    In S near sir-
ilar way. a book may be SO artiele of merchandise
and at the snim- time be SO spent of culture f-.r the
mind.    The torrid climate of tin- equatorial regions,
and the temperate climate >**( the northern, enfoi a
different expi rionces snd habits of life and thought
upon their respective inhabitant*-. So do diverse
geographical snd physical features. Mountainous
retrions and the plains, inland regions ami the seaboard, each stamp their particular impression on the
plastic psychology of man. In a rough approximate
way, the cultural progress of a people corresponds
to the state of its industrial arts. Here again, n certain benl of the mind and the nature of its ideas are
given by the prevailing method of procuring s livelihood, as likewise hy the institutioiial character of
the social organisation, to each factor its effect in
the mesaure of it*. Influence on the social life.   The
cultural effect of SUCfa factors is found to eharaeti-r-
ise the religion, philosophy, art. poetry, literature,
folksong-- and stories of an\ people, though there
may be incorporated moeft of foreign element So
typically, in aucceaaion of time, Ood is a great hunter
to the primitive tribesmen, to the Children of Israel
in the pastoral stage, be ia a familiar patriarchal
fatlu-r; later, be is the law giver during the rsorgan*
iration after the escape from Egyptian bondage, and
the terrible God of War during the conquest of the
promised land. And afterwards, when a stitT necked
generation grew prosperous ami perverse stall, f* r
getting the "Lord  thy Ood" did  worship x'range
gods-and pay toll to strange priests—he became B
jealous God, an iitlercr of blistering curses and >.
vengeful chsatiscr and dispenser into captivity of
"my people. Israel." To the barbarian tribes of
Northern Europe he was also a Ood of War. In feudal Kurope of the midle ages he was "Overlord,"
'Almighty Suzerain." "Kmperor of Heaven," as
whim decreed. Iu the proteStsnt Northern Europe
of the beginnings of the great industry, he is an all-
round handy artizen.the "Creator," the "Great Artificer." Since then, nn economist in England has
told the world that "Jesus Christ, he is free trade,
free trade it is Jesus Christ!" Sine,, then, he was
seen in steel helmet, jack boots and spurs, at the call
of a thousand pulpits, alternately acting as aide-de
camp to Jncly   Fisher  and   Emperor Bill.   Since
then, he is rumoured to have handed over tiie iin
in disgOSt to old Nick-full nam.-, \,;v p.. .   ,   .
idence. Moscow, on biudneas daj and night aad •< J
sou e. asasasinated 3 times, escaped from R .>-   „.;--,
a billion American dollars' worth ol paper re   ...'
500 times fane tfew York •"hm-v *1m Vai
papers on alta sanies stunt circuit .   Howevei ■
rumor n-,i\   f„. onl)  the -tat.  ,,t Blind "J thi
geoisie, ss n. similar case. -,H when tbej id] ,.
.id tin • -a -»i   only a state of mind.
The twofold sspecl of thos,- matei       . •  ,
the habit forming environment of man, ■;.   ..- ■
and tbe strictly economi   aa| ■ ■      •      -• unnoti.*.
ed by hasty and superftcia) critics of the Han
theory.   They see no snore in atari's • i
his theory than a mere dea rip tion of th
process ss solely the outoooie of clsss    U    • .
do not see thst a mode of prod letiot* in -.
also, determines the reistlon oi mi. ra sj
that, to quote put ot one of toy i of Marin la*? Issue, ■'» is always the dm	
owners ol the conditions of production to th
producers which reveal the innermost .*   - •
hidden i undation of the entire social
and with i?  the political  i«Sr?e <d the r>   it
rween aoven ignity snd dependence, in short of l
correspondiug form of the >\ •        A definite I
of «oeial organisation to which must    -•''■•      ■
habits of life la determined by lh< I of i
ploiiatioii of productive W» r
In a very sketchy wsy I have in
plsyed hy the conditions of man's       *
the formation of thought, hut there is still I
of social change and prosrroas to acconnl for   **•
■iral environment, climate, physical geograpl
comparative)* ststie factors ind
preeiahly during age*, have not, at leasi
historical period, sad fmnsequeutij    in not
a countable  for aoeial change     Tl e del
factors of chance must b<* changeable tl
the first part of tins letter (in the last m    of
■ (Star-ion") I pointed onl that «   r
ment. inventions, improvements, new d
the ways and means of procuring a lh
at the basin of social development    I ben
application of the .Materialist Ulterpretal
fa-*! of social change by one who (a not ■> M
polities, Prof. John Dewey, one of thc foremost
ernl publicists on this continent.    In
of lactnres at ths Imperial Dnlverattj    '
Tokyo, speaking oonoerntnj the fa-1 ;- '
enced the dir ction of that Industrial,
religions change upon which Burop* ***•■
in  th.-  sine-nth  and  BSVSnteenth  P< I■'
npon the Increasing productivity which i
the period of oomparative atignstion of the Ii;1
Sges, be has this to sa\. m part:
"f|*cn the Inlimlrinl oide. it in impossible to aU I
ii**- laftoanca of travel, axplorattoa sad o**
otatatret
jtuea fostorad s romantic sense of adventure Ini
looosaaf] the lurid or traditional beliefs; created « I•'''••
sense of new world** to be Investigated snd robda     ;
dncad new methods of manufacture, commerce. ■-:
nnd fining..; unit then reacted everywhera to itimalsw
Til •'
\<nUon   and   aCtfva  --xr-eriinent-ttlbn   UltO  »ci<
Crusades, th*- revival of tha profaaa laarnlni •■' '    '",
nnd t'vi ti  more  DSfhSfW, tha  OOBtad   With  !>'•   ,'i^l!1^.
Issrnins of ths Mohammedans, tba Increase ,,( ■,l,lii"'
, um
with Asia and Africa, tha Introduction of ths I*m». j
push nnd sanpowder, ii>e Radius sod opening up,,f
nnd South America   most sitminesaUy caltsd T'"'
World—thent* are some of the oI»vIouh external fsoU
Con*
irnst between peoples and races previous!) laotateo
soya, I think, most fruitful aad Influential for cbsnse *
psrcholOffioal nnd IndttHtrinl ehan»*ei* colnelde ""'' •'"'    .
laforoa saoh other.   Qomatimsa people undergo em0U
ehanf-e. what mir.ht be called s mstaphystcal 'Ill"|
HiroiiKh  Intercourse.   The  Inner set of the mil
id, e^'""
ially In reliKiotm matters, Im allered.    Al other time*
Ih n llvoly exchiiniift of goodH. nn adoption of foralSB
mid davieas, un Imttatioo of alien babttl b( ctothlns. »
atlos nnd t>ro<iuction of oommoditiaa.   one <>r tbew "
(Continuct* on page V WESTERN*      CLARION
PAGE SEVEN
The "Skilled" Workers
Ir« nnt onl) ■'"' l,J,antl **** tha' -,r'' ■ field for
-gtra-special exploitation under the present
pecutiarl}! favorsbl mditions, nor is it ontj
skilled lal»<»r" that is losing what
rights or privileges had been gradually
-s corporations or individual pro-
., ,    .,.    the shipping on and from the Coast,
ecbsnical trades directly or indi-
. . • on ihe whole marine industry, r
itruggles »n<l apparent acceptance of
imsssocl sjrstenui whicii are m glaring contrast to
rl \   of the "aristocrac) of labor"
n.iiist. for example, was th. mdispei
.  . and nub-ed it was » punishable   •
nil king, at (eoroparativeld     *ood wagea!
irai   *    average worker had* no con
'\ ti.en  offered to  challenge thc
ol  wage-worry  and  war    snd the
■  bus   staves avere few indeedl   but
.•   small and sordid, were made, arc'
ux     . .<  tn* ox<*" granted,   al! of n rap
dng in the stress . f    -.. ace'
.*.-■■   wl en a mechanic, after much
• rabic rebuffs, ia allowed to   stari
thi re are no "stead)    jolts toda)'
.    • .   iti sure whnt 1* the '*standard rate'
r hour, In tb<  ahsenci   or confusion of
■■ " • r tnftuem ■■    all hi now foi
•   ■ the old **'*•• hss dropped 10c at   •  si
• .- • ''   01 morel    No more "double linn
I even time and s half for nigl t shift!
star   asw no aaore " dirty •money,*" and no ••
rtroajr resent tent  ss yet, to the return to the 1
lire of only paying men fot frai tion*
isyt
I this ts nothing.--merely th»- fortune of war,
- ■      u> the "stains quo.'" Th" real)) seri
tions sre the passing of essabltsl
lltons which were Sforetlme e* nsid   • I •
■ry and indlspenaible
''owner' 'of s small plant or thi boss of s ■•
nt, notoi ger soems to eootril   "
anstsnee to the fob to be performed, b*
ng of bald instructions
fj
1 fts ba N    and questions aren't ei  aowged-
Biaehiac ha* to he operated, |t may he in pass
v • running order or it may not.     it certain!?
? pass 1 Paotory rmspector^s test for safd
if it baa anything like a full equipment of
and wrenches and toota and other parts the
^peralor considers it remarkably "lucky*':
0*  I» t re -< d« to supply these missing oddi ■  '
n*m his f>wn trl0| -,)ox   finding it quite nselesa I •
""   "   " 1 for th. nn or to go tO the -tor.   as I «
|° *; lhe '""'"■—I practice, snd if working on
!:"lh ":  n ' «■ "outside,'' he is in far worse
plight.
Tli"   d*»»»tS   tOolboX,   iritfa   itS  expensive   kit   Of
'    '■""' •*•«* etc., which ao many of the young-
"• ^chinists, for exsraple. have become accustomed
lo carry ffrotmd, and to which they have more or leas
heerfnlly addon1 wrenches and Jigs and chisels and
n 'ins actually reducing 1 h.-ir own wages lo
ranplyiog plant roi the employer, all this is in-
•••i • t ..-, some class of jobs; heavier hammers
are required, shifting- spanners and pipe-wrenehes,
•te. and it mil won be quite impossible for a man
•■• rarry on to the job the tools he requires even for
■ ■• days' work.
\nd still the s!;,*,..„ hang around the factory gates
rid fall over each other in the emulation of getting
thi Brst or providing i*he most tools; still the pace
■ •• ; -•'• r. and the dirtier thi w.,rk the less chance
"    -   of cleaning-up for meals or the homeward
journey   the self n tpeet 1 I the wage-slaves at this
rai       • I •• ganged by his laughter at the horror of
a norms] passenger in the street ear seated next to
some of the "black aqusd,"—he leaves it to the
smp-worker or the "yellow peril" to kick against
"condh   ' *   ■•   *•• howl  for sanitary specialities.
Meanwhile  msny  highly-skilled  "mechanics" arc
lot ng ti ■ ir ti   Is sroond and, ii' permitted, will hang
t thi       •   - •   -   .lid until told to "punch" a
and start in st 50c per hour, work till finished.
|e]   rt "unwashed."
he present stag*  ol unhservienee of the skilled
riatei too,tl employment of a vast army of helpers 1 ith whom msny mechanics were accompanied.
Todav the apprentice takes their place, ami the
heavj lifting and hauling and the fetching of tools
and material has le be sot over somehow, without
-« of time    all in th< day's work.
.   '   • of ail thi-. may I ■ -ood training for thst
.   ••• :..., ' iim<   still coming, when the workers
n*..■-   , • -'■    ,,■ h mid nil the tools; we are reminded
of -i a slogan raised by the engineering employers 25
, Krs ago during the P-honr strike in the old eoun-
{r>     ■••',•,. ,. , him   is 'caster."    Obviously owner-
• p 0f thi   •  ess n machinery implies possession of
its produce
Pessimism i- easy, and perhaps not unnatural, but
however bright OUr ultimate hopes, however stroug
r-nr basic faith, we have to bravely endure the undeniable present, and teach ourselves to think. Only
•„ ,,, |,..-..,. 1 ng present eansea can we prepare for
-*„-„..,. development, ami only by working-class own-
onhtn   can th«   -present   evil   he   permanently   re
A. C. -T
move
'ACTORS IN THE MATERIALIST INTERPRE
TATION OF HISTORY
I Continued from page 6
*        '" speak, too UaUnrnal snd tha ottwr too ast 1
••tea aboat « pnatoaaS lafallactnal devalopmeal   Bui
"*•" -Ot rrasUoa af « new mental sttltadf tails iose"e*r
•to nttaalrs material and oeoooml   changes  •■■■
«tatacaai aappaas    . . ay
'■"' influence of tho-,. fa. tors, bj weakening
""foying  th.-  old   preposs, unions,  prepared  the
■*? *ologicsl attitude for the n'sn \^ot of vieu • I
1 !"llr' a"«l philosophy, but it required, he po-nta ,,1",
1 'lv'' changes in ths habits and purposes of iiff lo
■•Nnee nnd develop the nen method of knowing.
V,"A found wealth, the aoltJ from ths -isr-arlcas snd noa
J8** "« 'uiiMamptit.n nnd aojoymanl teodad to w***"* ,n"n
'''»11
..   r,'r Profit, taataad of agalnat goods and for coasump-
inn mllowad . .        ••
S"' !-v!'ical of the matter of fact habit of mind of
r* '"'v mechanistic awe which moves to reject the
De«Phyaiosl system of "rights' that Is the Ideo-
: •      of i»reseut society organised on a
., |,agj-,  he further says
mini    factory,  railway,  steamship, tela-
•;    ■    Usa m aad aquipmaat of pwducUoo,
n tatloi    expre«  wiaaUfic  toowladjse.   Pbaj
„T,,e,en if the ordinary Po. uniary
,. t.        ? 1 Rceompanlmenta of aconomie sem-
rad     ■      iinr-d     !.,  short...throiiah  the  inter
;  ol invent:---. Uuens ,;U,hword that knowledge
,iih>,lt,,m .continuous empire over natural
I,,/..:    meana of natural .cienca hava beeataotuall.ad.
. *- P„nstruction in Philo8opby.M-Honry Holt,
v vdeM ol bistorj froni the standpoint oftheecon-
•s ,„,.,-,,.lK   justifinhh  and necessary if WC arc
"'     *p the full effects of factors which are domin-
• t,     Nevertheless, as when we discuss thc
mil  iu -* 'Ciel.v .."••*■
' 'o      ■   p8nses 0f war, we do not forget that when
,he cslUo wsr Itoef forth that the call goes to Peo-
vN, ,,,,-,-,,,, ,„ national psychologies already
J'c; . hi8toricnl a-.d natural influences. \\ ap-
nx te8 t0 the call of herd leaders to the herd.
S^ha a^ndpnini i/itarlf « materialistic conception,
";,.,.; .MV other material  factors.    These come
•"'    !  ,t,|;,1„,,!lll 9weep of the Materialistic lute-
on their respective {towers to enforce habits of life,
whose unremitting discipline on the mind results in
corresponding habits of thought. In that respect the economic is the most influential.   As Mar*
says "The mode of production in matcrail life determines the general character of the social, political
and spiritual processes of life. It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence,
but. on the contrary, their social existence determines their consciousnes." (Extract from preface
to the "Critique of Political Economy."
 ;o :	
CONCERNING VALUE
(Continued from page 5)
clothes-pegs. For every 100. dollars invested he
expends 1)0 dollars in raw materials, wear and teac,
etc. and pays out 10 dollars in wages. This expenditure, let us say. results in the production of
100 gross of pegs. Now. this manufacturer, who
has invested 100 dollars in this business, will expect and will get, on the average, the average rate
of profit on his investment. That is to say, 20 per
cent, profit. The price of production, and hence,
the selling price of pegs at the factory, will be 120
dollars for 100 gross, that is, one dollar and 20 cents
per gross.
Let us look at this in terms of labor-time. For
every 100 gross of clothes-pegs there are 90 hours
represented by raw material, etc., plus 10 hours nec-
esary labor, plus 10 hours surplus labor, making a
total of 110 hours social labor-time which at one-
dollar per hour will be 110 dollars. The value of
100 gross of p"gs is therefore 110 dollars. The price
of production and consequently the selling price
exceeds the value by 10 dollars. The "necessary"
labor-time, oi course, is that necessary for the replacement of wages.
We shall now consider a capital of low composition. This capitalist is a cap-maker and employs
a capital having the proportion of 70 constant to
:"ti variable. For every 100 dollars invested he expends 70 dollars in materials, wear and tear of machinery, etc.. and pays out 30 dollars in wages. This
expenditure results*in the production of 100 caps.
Now this manufacturer can only expect and will
not L'ct any moiv than the ordinary rate of profit
on his capital, thai is. 20 per cent. The price of
production and. consequently, the selling price at
the factory of 100 caps will therefore be 120 dollars,
or $1.20 each.
In terms of labor-time, however, we have this result. For every 100 caps there are expended: 70
hours represented by raw materials, etc., plus 30
hours necessary labor, |>lus 30 hours surplus labor,
making a total of 130 hours social labor-time, which
at one dollar per hour, is 130 dollars. The value of
100 caps will therefore be 130 dollars which exceeds
the price of production by 10 dollars.
Thc above figures, of course, are quite arbitrary.
They serve, however, to illustrate what happens in
actual practice, namely, that it is practically impossible that commodities could be exchanged at their
values under competitive capitalism, ln spite of
this, as we shall see later, there is no contradiction
of the law of value, lt is also important to note
that, while a genera] rise or fall in wages does not
affect the value of commodities it will immediately
affect tin ir price of production and bring about a
> ise or fall in prices. This is one reason for the
present agitation for a reduction of wages with a
view to a reduction in prices. /
This ought to be enough for onee.
:o:
SUBSCRIPTION FORJM.
Station proper, which includes thc economic T
" ffieicnev of any factor or group oi factors
influencing history will, in the long run, depend
i This is as handy ;* way as any to send your suhsO
Western Clarion, 401 Pender Steret East
# Vancouver, B. C.
Official organ of the 8. P. of C.    Published twice
month.
Subscriptions: Canada, 20 issues, $1 - Foreign:
16 issues $1.
Enclosed find 	
Send "Western Clarion*  'to 	 r/.GE EIGHT
WESTER N      CLAP.ION
Communism,
and
Christianism
Analyzed and contrasted from the Marxian
and Darwinian points of view. By William
Montgomery Brown, D.D- The writer, a Bishop
of the Episcopal Church, smites supernatural-
ism in religion and capitalism in politics.
Comments: "One of the most extraordinary
and annihilating books I have ever read. It
will shake the country." "I call it a sermon.
The text is astounding:—Banish the gods from
the sky and capitalism from the earth." "It
came like a meteor across a dark sky and it
held mc tight." "Bishop Brown is the reincarnation of Thomas Paine and his book is^thc
modern Age of Reason." "It will do a wonderful work in this the greatest crisis in all his-
tury»" "A remarkable book by a remarkable
man of intense interest to all."
Published in October. 1920. Fiftieth thousand now ready, 233 pages, 25 cents or six copies $1; postpaid (Canada 5 copies for $1).
Send M. O. (United States rate).
The Bradford-Brown Educational Co., Inc.,
Publishers. 102 South Union Street, Galion,
Ohio or from
SOCIALIST PARTY OF CANADA
401 Pender Street E., Vancouver, B. C.
PLATFORM
Socialiat Party of
Canada
We,  tike  Socialist Party of Canada affirm our aJl«c-
tsnee to, and support of   the principles and pro-rrammo
of trite revolutionary   working class.
Labor, applied to natural' resources, produces all
wealth. The present economic system la based upon
capitalist ownership of the means of production, consequently, all the product* of labor belong to the capitalist class. The capital iet ia. therefore, master; tbe
worker a slave
So long aa the capitalist class remains in possession
of the reins of government all the powers of tbe State
will be uited to protect and'defend its property rights In
the means of wealth production and Its control of the
product of labor.
The capitalist system gives to the capitalist an e**ar-
saelling stream of profits,-and to the worker, an erer-
ir.creaslng measure of misery and  degradation.
The interest of the working class lies in setting Itself
free from capitalist exploitation hy the abolition of th*
whge system, under which this exploitation, at tbe point
of production, is cloaked. To sccomplish this necessitates the transformation of capitalist property ln the
means of wealth production into socially controlled economic forces*
The irrepressible conflict of interest between th* capitalist snd the worker necessarily expresaea itself sa a
struggle for political supremacy. This is th* Class
Struggle.
Therefore we call upon all workers to organic* under
th* banner of the Socialist Party of Canada, with the
object of conquering the political powers for th* purpose of setting up snd enforcing the economic programme of the working class, as follows:
1—The transformation, ss rapidly as possible,
of capitalist property in the means of
wealth production inatural resource*, factor-
toriee, mills, railroads, *tc.)i Into collective
means of production. m %
2—The organisation and management of Industry
by the working class.
3—The establishment, as speedily as possible, of
i production for use Instead of production for
profit.
ECONOMIC CAUSES
OF WAR
By PBTBB T. LECKIE.
MOW READY.
Preface by tho author.
132 PAGES.
Per Copy, 25 Oenta.
Ton oopioa np, 20 oenta each.
Pott Paid.
Book Review
: 1VIL WAR IN WKSl VIUf-lNIA ~ \ aft*? of Tn« Industrial rouflict In the Coal Mines. W.nrtiro* D LajaO.
With an in'.roCurtlon by John R. Coiam<.a* B. W.
Ifnabacn, lac, Now Vorlu Flft> Cents.   1?8 pp
AT a time when capitalist newspapers ■•jiitv
headlines conveying information to the effect that
armed iniriere.are again on the march in West Virginia, the rending of "men a work a* thin i* more
ti an ordinarily interest ing.
The puhliahera should* bc i-omptimefeted upon
the prodnetion of hrochnrea at democratic priefce,
cspeefally in times of high printing coat, as prevail
at present.
Tlu- book consists of nineteen ehaptera first run
in the columns of the "New York Evening Post''
from February 7th t<> March 3rd of this year, t<»
gethei with a preface by Profi Jno, R. Commoaa of
Columbia,    and    an    introduction    hy    the    author
iu whieh we are told that "the conflict «>v«;-
uni 'iiism in West Virginia ia neither temporary nor
sporadic. It *a a deep seated and continuous strihjf*
tj!'-." Hero i !so a mild mannered caatigation of
raotiern ftenrapapera ns purveyors of real newa ia to
bo found. >
The journalistic atrain run-* through the «-titir»*
work, albeit of a high quality; it ia reodable*, rap*
*»hit* of easy comprehension and dire* t.
The story of outlawry in high plan--* i> told
with an impartiality that is »o be eommeoded. X
proletarian atudent might easily supply the answers
which our author !• aves sua] ended in nod air. That
this is not done might enhance the value of the work
to the enquirimr worker, f->r despite the benevolent
neutrality assumed, th»- indictment produced by th«-
mere presentation of the evidence, carefully documented, is damning enough in all eouactence., When
any donbt as- to *h** authenticity of documents exists
Mr. Lane says so unreservedly.
The utopisn reformers and purveyors of palli;*-
tivos, who imagine social ilia can be cured by •
men-   legal   ena< tnient   should   here   find   foOd Tor
thought,   The law is shown to be openly violated by
man;- of the nal operator-., nnd deputy sheriffs,
paid by the state, carry on the owners' business,
such  as guarding  tha  pay-roll.  ■•!.-..  ami   iu  other
v ays become e mtributora to the laws' i-reaeh.
-Life iu a coal camp is yraphieally depicted a ra* 1
the author* reasoning is sufficiently acute to enable
him to see that the operators arc in a position of
power, and thai power comes ehiefly from owner-
ship.
Houses, stores, churches, school *and in some
esseS even reads if" owned by tin- companies.
But this is insignificant compared to the actual
operations of the masters, Injunctions are granted
by courts, appeal* seem »<» It-- easily won when, as
in very exceptional eases, the law appears as III
favor of the miners* evictions of tenants are scoured
when trouble arises and an espionage and armed
guard system abounds, Vei Mr. I.ane could have
(and possibly has' found similar conditions obtaining in many other parts of the Land of the Free.
Despite its yj-rlinted democracy, its almost 120',
AmerieaniHiii siekeniinfly. and constantly boosted;
its ahhort-pce of atrocities in uu*pfn,kahjc Turkey,
hleeding Belgium, and tyrannical Russia (hoth Tsar
ist ami Bolshevik), America will ever be remembered in history as the.flassic land of the 'fraiii-*-
up," "giui-mi n." "thug" and real informer in the
lahor movement.
MANIFESTO
— of tbe —
SOCIALIST PARTY OF CANADA
(Fifth Edition)
Par copy 10 cents
Per 25 copies   $3
Poat Paid
Literature Price Li
ist
tin
nu
1171
11 li
an
11.71
iiti
tl Ti
ILTS
IUi
tin
IUi
in;
11.71
till
Jill-.
i:r
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ii ->
M
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jvr Com
Cloth Bound ,,
Positive OtttCOaas Of Philosophy  (I»k'liK--n !,Tr
Woman rr.der BOeiettsm (T*eb<*i)
toe* of the worl«     .5 '■Cabs)
rendition* of tht* Wnrkinm Claaa In England In itu
fEngele)
A. B. C of Brolntion (sfeCabc)
Bcoaomlc  Datarmlslam   (Pares)
Boeialtam *ni tlodsvn Belesca (F-arri)
Physical  Mas's of Mind and  Moral*  (Fit  in
Laussanartu ef Bcteatlsc Boctanam (Easel*)
Indua-trial HattOTf of Rn-rHnd ("11. DeOibblna)
The   Student's   Mar*   (A voting*
BvrtattOB ef the Moa of OOS* Kiratt? Allen
I>ar«rlnt*m nnd  it tar+ Prejff-*--  (Hay-craft)
Bvottttlon of Pro**-»<rtr (t*nfar-r»o)
CritiCJOS Of PoUttce] Economy (Mart)
RSTOtetlOO  and  G0SS)tSr  Revolution   (.Marti
Paftosophical  c-taa* i   (Dfr-irtrr-ni
Htsnjry ef Par*i Commune (Masajt&ray)
Anit**** Sor|«t-* (I.  II   Mor**an)
mtitMtuettoo to goelsaoo (Arthttf M i^*i*i
1'apiialUt Pros*uetfos (Flmt Nine and Had Cbaottsn
rsM!»|."  rcl    1.  (Marx) „M
RSfSgS Survival*  (Moors).
Vital I'ro'lenta In ^orit!  RVBhttfOB  (l^wUl
Besattcf *od RavolinScn (Pstannan)
Th<* SftUtaot  PrtAe-l-trlnt   »l^*l»)
"'ttorTulon. Boefal an^l nrtatne (l^-wia)
rhe bVmsSJ rtevohuion (Kauttilir)
*Ta«* Stnirjrlft (KantaSy)
■•urHar-i-tn* (Mafia)
The  Worl '*  rtstohttlUM  (t'nl«*rman)
rthir* and HI»*orv (KautSsr)
Ills and fVi^lh 'Or   E  Te|rbm*nni
Iaw of |l orenft-iia  (Moor**)
Sonai gUHtias (tstfarsna)
carina of .Vin->* in Plants (U  H  Prases)
P*t**r Covers
^Tsro V**;\' « OS rftStOtV f<    ftsShsUSSS SSd ''.   D
The C*rtasfnal ^ouii Judife. snd Th«- (MM Trl -5c (E R
Ha TV |(
roromtin(«< Kaalrasto . He
\\*a«rel-o*w«r   ma\4   <*-*f»ltsl
The Present K<enomk Sr#rem 'Prof \V A Bonier) 1st
*<•>•'»!!-!***   DtOBSSn  *»nd S *«-R'iar IV
fOjavs Of th*- r-trni l«r
Mantfasto, s  p  of c r
BauteUos of Msn tt-rt*' Botsetia)
(at!«f« of tielSf-f In 'l-»d (t*tarxuo) UV
Th* sti»e*ure of «*o*h«-* RsaaHs (ffnmpbrla«
Shor. TalVti on Feonomlrs  tW^r.*. V-
Valtie. Prfes and Profit iMart* IV
S*sma*Oaafe f"a"«***i ft War rf,*w|iS««l Bk
Th*- Pro!--. t»en of LSbOt* in BOVtst n*)*-»)a (KaplSB) lr'
Ctafl \V«r In "mne (Mar«> IV
firh-t-^-rth Brmosfrs 'Marrl IV
'"hti»*ianl<tm and ComsiSBtsni (B'shf-r W  M  Bfora*a) tl*
Ona-ii'v Ptmot on Papmr Cave-*td PaaaafclaUi
Two Ka*a*-« on '*|«f-*rr K   ■* :••» ""'
''limlr-al f'nort t*i»*re IS - - M
Commnafsi Ifsatfssto ■' ■■•-•« tl*
W-»-r«»ts»-er »nd  n«r>?!al .*    rot*t*l M
Pro-i»»nl t->r*nr*mlr Svt*i-rn IS rop*a*l II H
Sof-hli-rn.  !*»<*"*tian and  S-^nilft- H •      ■' '
•situ*** ef *h-» t?arm *' eoatss II "
Vj-nif^.to of «=t   p  nt C. •s'  'rr"'"« '*w
BV-otattOS ef Xfr»|- IS ■'■"■ tt t"
Caasss ef rt«*i<*f in r.n.i -*        ■ »* ■'*'
Vahie, T»rf.-«. my** r-v,--tf -*. roa#« '**'
"•Vnnoro?-- ('»»■/» *t War l" eoslej ****•
• hrld!:aoi«m and Ccntmna'am ' i ■•"•■ "* '"'*'
All Or.'ea Includ* o-vitaio.
*-'-»l*e  nt|  r-wv.  BSfaaJs  to  S!   Sft I • -'   I"' Peeaaf
• 5?irt*-"'. >*a»i   Vssjeouasf  n  C    A4*t ittseooal r,i r-
All t*ro<o Htarstors *--*n i»*» oMshsM -*» tho tame p* «
post nsid. from-J   Sanderson. Bos ITS!  WlnBlpes  *-f*!'
An iuteresting a* nut of the iucidenl   ' v
the ahobtbg of Sid Hatfwi.j ana Un |tae)
OB unjo is
v
We ean recommend tins work lo aoj desiring >
detailed story <«f the Went Virginia trouble Ii;i'
rhara.ter of capita] defending its right to •" ^*>u'""
.'iid ths rum lion of th. stats lit ita brutal oa   :,i">,
Mill easily he SCOtt,
One might h< led to enquire a-* to why the offi ! v
or an organitation like the laf.M W. A . faced "i:i
the capitals eoa] beast of West Virginia, ",llli
have allied them-elves wifh the government and to*
operators in Weatcrn Canada.
The mass of the workers, appareiitlv suhnu'le"®1
in a prodigiona unawarnneaa of then* social stnto
have a long May to i*n ere they realize the listliri
ihe eapilalist beast.    This hook mighl help "i tin*
direction.
W. A. I'
t CLARION  MAINTENANCE FUND
T. V. Smith. $1. K. .1. MeNey. tfj <'• Albcrs, •',l'
Rs Diehinson. B2; |*. Ihvorhin. +1; K. A. l'ill"",|V
13; A. It. Pearson, *!.
Above- C. M. \'\ contrihiitioiis from Wtll to -
September. Inclusive, $11.50.

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