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Western Clarion Mar 29, 1913

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Array Owned and controlled by  the
Socialist Party
0f Canada
Published in the
interest of the
Working   Glut
fUMBEB 714
Subscription Price
i an »el
And Reach the Newcomer With
the Message of Socialism.
year at about this time one
,.,. preparations for work on a
B(.ale to last throughout tbe stunner' months.   W,nter bav,ng TeXeW<i
lis grip of l»le c<>untry- 0>e farn-er
.eta out his implements ready for the
, L- Bummer grind; construcUon work
0f sii.-h a nature that commands fine
",,.,,I„r will be gotten undsr way and,
Ken, rallv speaking, from   Atlantic   to
,,„'„i, the wheels of industry will turn
, , n.ster clip than they have dbi.ng
|he pagt few months-whlch will make
,h(. capitalist rub his hands with alee
afc i„  thinks of the   "prosperity"   of
.•our country." ■   •
•rue worker, however, whose Btore
0f nuts has already long since giver
A 111 find--and is already nndln0-«-
Curtias 0. Baldwin, of Kansas, r.S.
A., has Invented and successfully used
a machine that does away with lite
reaping of grain. The machine Is drawn
hy four horses across a field of 8ta"(i
ing grain. A strong blast of air fro.ti
a revolving fan is blown against ihe
standing grain and forces it agaiis
a toothed cylinder which threshes off
the grain, depositing it in a trough
from which it ia elevated hy an anser
to another toothed cylinder, which re-
threshes it. The chaff ia blown out
and the clean grain falls into a sack,
or carried through a tube to a war-on
driven alongside. Four horses pull the
thresher over the field, while a smell
gasoline engine operates the machine.
Only two men are required, one to
drive the horses and the other to lie
the sacks of thresher grain and look
after the engine. Two men and this
thresher can harvest a 160 acre field
in a week.
out. ^^^^^^
it harder than ever to get a Job t* at
will compare favorably with the ones
In. hHf had In past years. As he scan:)
hla price on the labor agents' board*),
I, I- surprised to find his figure Is fill
low In spite of soaring prices, and he
wonders what is the reason. One th'tit*
be lias forgotten—or never did know
thai every year, as soon as the ice
begins to break and the rivers resume
their natural flow, a stream of emigrants comences to pour into Can 16a
(n ni the older countries of Europe It
gels bigger and bigger until bv -he
middle of summer lt Is a regular flood
Th.- daily press Informs us that twent y-
twn boats, packed to their utmc
rapacity with human cargoes
billed to leave Great Britain during the
in' nth of March to this land of stewed
prunes and doughnuts, These will be
considerably supplemented by may
more from the continental countries,
it-here the workers have long felt Uie
oppreaslon of the capitalist system
pm king the life blood out of them, and
who are thereby easy dupes for tiie
numerous agents of our masters, who
de| let in glowing reports and pen pU>
ii!t-..(i how the willing worker—he mast
alwa>s be willing—can In a few rears
become Independent.
1 romlnent amongst these agents is
the Salvation Army, which is acouniig
IL tope seeking those with strong sr-js
and weak heads, that have alrea-L)
been tilled with religious superstitious.
to emigrate to the land of "l'e-\ e
Plenty and Prosperity. It seems that
his institution Ib far more sureest' .1
vi-ring the workers over to th1
Not the Wishes or Deeds of Kings and Popes, But
Sheer Necessity, Makes History.
Socialism being the science of society from a working class standpoint
we shall expect it to answer the problems of social unrest and upheaval in
a scientific manner. We shall look fori
some basis upon which (3 build oar*]
case in opposition to m dem master
class ideas, and we shall not be dls-
appointed. Speculation has no place ia
scientific Socialism; we are to work
upon facts and to draw our information from the only reliable source—
investigation of that which has, and
different lines than a nation within the
Arctics. The nomadic Arab of the
desert has conceptions of existence
gi -Uy at variance with those of the
Scandinavians. Climatic and topographic conditions play an important
part in the formation of the general
characteristics of a particular people,
and largely dictate influences, their
method of gaining a living.
We should not expect an inland race
to become sea-kings and expert navigators; nor would we look to discover
the greatness of Tyre,   Carthage   or
I Britain, in the mere fact that their in-
A Pittsburg man has invented a bullet that will put a man to sleep short
ly after he has been shot. It is claimed
that if a soldier is slightly wounded by-
one It will send him to sleep for the
rest of the day, or that if he is mortally wounded It wlll send him to sleep
and he wtll probably die without adding to the scenes of a battlefield by
screaming or groaning. It can also be
used by the police force, all they have
to do ls to wing their man and he <ust
lays down to sleep.
Beautiful, iBn't it? Just fancy there
cold-blooded parasites using bullets
that tend to give relief or mercy to
the wounded, or even fancy a soldier
sallying forth armed to the teeth and
with the lust of blood in his eyes expecting mercy by means of a bullet.
is now, actually transpiring around us. J habitants were Phoenicians, Carthagi-
The first efforts at history-writing j nlans or British,   or that   God   had
From Sofia, Comrade Dlmltroff, the
secretary of the Bulgarian Trade
1'nions, writes to us as follows:
81nce the beginning of February the
hostilities have been renewed, and
there haa been a strong bombardment
of Adrianople. From the first there
was no prospect of the fight round
Adrianople being restricted. One can
say positively that the war Is prosecuted with greater brutality and ruth-
lessneaa than ever. The slaughter wlll
be more horrible than in scarcely any
previous war. The authorities have
issued an order that all wounded soldiers must leave the hospitals and go
to their homes. And today we were
the witnesses of a heart-rending
scene: We saw hundreds of wounded
soldiers, who were not healed of their
Injuries, lame and with bullets still in
their bodies, thrown out to make room
for further victims of the war. The
greater number of the poor, unfortunate workers have no means at their
disposal for the healing or alleviation
of their injuries. Many of tbem wlll
be compelled to procure their daily
bread by begging. How cruelly our
military authorities treat patriots maybe seen from the following facts: Today, after the order of the authority,
a building worker, who has become
quite blind, had to leave the hospital
In delil
invariably were shadow-plays of kingly
might. The various reigning monarcna
quite naturally wished to glorify themselves in tbe eyes of tbelr successors
and their endeavor lo do so met with
admirable success. The early kings of
Egypt, in particular, were prone to this
vicious method of writing history, and
so far did they carry it, that the reigning king would have the records of the
past erased from off the monuments,
and his own deeds of derrlng-do graven
over the original chronology. The
ancient city of Bubastls contains a-remarkable example of this kind of
cestor-murder. Some ten years ago
this city was unearthed by an Egyptologist of world renown, and to his
astonishment he found the cartouche
of Kameses IU. cut deep in all possible
Thorough investigation established
the fact that Rameses had erased all
previous records to glorify his own.
This habit was not, however, confined alone to Egypt or to the Orient
European history even at this late
date is but one long carnival of
slaughter and seduction and conquest.
The court gambols and intrigues; the
march of armies and the tramp ot
military corteges, echo throughout the
tedious volumes, unnerving and bewildering the would-be student History writing ts still the glorifying of
kings and rulers.   	
But a new school has arisen. A new
method of historic research is supplanting the old. Historians are now
turning  to  the  Industrial   life  of  a
with other wounded soldiers.  He was
set down in the street without means, j |lcop|e *or the key which explains their
Had our organization not appeared on | (iart -n tbe evolution of society, and
cap'tallsts than they are st
I In in into Paradise.
Other agents are showing by the aid
of ihe moving picture film how plef.s
ant and nice conditions are to work
under, using great care in the selection
nf the scenes. Every means of science
und invention is used by these sco n
drels to lure the workers from Ih'ir
Imi.1. s such as they have—that a
1 inter profit may be squeezed out of
thru hides here than Is possible in
Whilst the worker here Is howling
hla head off about the "foreigner" getting hla Job immigration does not
(.use, but is rapidly increasing every
.••1. being carried on by the gov<*iii-
ments of the provinces and also th"
dominion to such an extent that every
"ur s us with a greater unempl■ •>'-
pd army than ever. The capitalists see
lo It that workers are plentiful whc.e-
ever they are needed. They are aldel
In 1 his hy the governments of their re
• live countries: religious and charitable 'Institutions are always nt tot
heck nnd call of our masters, and Ust
••ul not least, the modern and most
up to date means of communication
and transportation, which labor alone
haH made possible are brought Into
Piny, and It Is only a matter of weeks
for u scarcity of labor to be turned
Into nn overstocked market.
One thing, however, capitalism is
doing. It ls bringing the workers of
a" countries together;  Ideas are ex-
I hanged and a growing knowledge that
Hiler interests on the political Held are
In common Is rapidly becoming manifested tn the minds of the workers;
"".v are getting to realise that to be
divorced from the tools of production
""una Incessant slavery for the work-
'■rs and that the power of ownership
alono enables the capitalists to rob
"nd exploit the masses; that lt mat-
II ''< not where they go, whether the
'"«' of living be high or low, or
whether the tariff wall be high or no
""'Iff at all; that In spite of all the
■"forms brought forward by quacks
and tricksters the workers of all lands
11 '■'• netting lt In the neck all the time.
()f the man who has a grouch against
'he "foreigners," we can depend upon
It 'hat. economic pressure will do more
"nm all our talk towards showing him
where his class Interests lie, whilst
'"any of the new arrivals will find
""'i way into the Socialist Party of
'•'iinda or at least learn a few prl-
"'■*'>■ lessons that are necessary be-
Uioy   tan   hope   to   emancipate
the scene und taken care of him,   a
tragic dfath would have been the end.
We hope to send him to his home in
Macedonia some day.
The renewal of the war haa render-
blessed them; but in the obvious physical conditions of the country in which
they dwelt. ***■
Napoleon said that "An army moves
upon its stomach," and the Socialist
knows that this is true of humanity
also. Giving all due importance to the
geographic or physical environment,
I we shall discover—and the Socialist
lays it down as an axiom—that the
manner in which a given society gets
fits living determines the social, ethical, moral, religious and governmental activities of that society.
That which lies at the base of social
.movements, wars and revolutions la
the method of producing wealth, and
as this method changes, so will the
'entire super-structure that is built
upon it. It follows that the moral attitude of. a people will be determined
by the prevailing mode of production;
be it communal, then morality takes
on a communal hue—communal marriage, communal living, communal eating, household gods; be it individual,
then individualism is tbe order of the
day; competition becomes a fetich;
monogamy a visitation from God;
"free will and freedom of conscience"
a thing of beauty and a joy forever.
To better illustrate, we will take at
random a few historic events and se-u
how they came to pass, and what they
I hoped to gain.
The well known examples of the
Crusades, and tbe discovery of America and their economic significance
the fact that the Crusades were carried on principally because tbe Arabs
had seised, and were holding, the overland trade route to India and the
Bast; that Columbus found for his
project no support In his native Genoa
because  the  Italian merchants  were
Or Saint and Sinner.
The poor man's sins are glaring;
In the face of ghostly warning
He is caught in the fact
Of an overt act
Buying greens on Sunday morning.
The rich man's sins are hidden    .
In the pomp of wealth and station;
And escape the sight
Of the children of light,
Who are wise in their generation.
The rich man has a kitchen,
And cooks to dress his dinner;
The poor who would roast
To the baker's must post,
And thus becomes a sinner.
The rich man has a cellar,
And a ready butler by htm;
The poor must steer
For his Bint of beer,
Where the  saint  can't  choose  but
spy him.
hy the searchlight of historic material
ism are daily throwing more and more
light upon what was once the "Sphinx
riddle of history." 	
Among the vrst to follow this I 'hen trying to bargain with the East-
ed the conditions of the workers stillI method were the founders of scientific' erns (with whom the Crusaders had
worse. The money granted by town socialism, namely Marx and Engels. i battled in vain 1, realising that the dls-
authoritles ls already expended and Ttu,y bage(- their conciU8-0nB upon the' covery of a Western route to India
further support Is not forthcoming. | obvfouB -act -j,at *a-jor produces all; would result in their commercial ruin;
These grants were but a drop of water | weaiihi and that written history is the  ib*^ on the  other *"*-•-*     ■>—*--—'
hairing everything to ga
The rich man's painted windows
Hide the concerts of the quality;
The poor can but share
A crack'd fiddle in the air.
Which offends all sound morality.
The rich man Is Invisible
In the crowd of his gay society;
But the poor man's delight
Is a sore in the sight
And a stench in the nose of piety.
The rich man has a carriage,
Where no rude eye can flout him;
The poor man's bane
Is a third-class train,
With the daylight all about bim.
The rich man goes out yachting
Where sanctity can't pursue him;
The poor goes afloat
In a fourpenny boat,
Where the bishop groans to view bim.
—Thos. Ix)ve Peacock (1785-1866).
PleasantJReadingforthe Liberal
Bunco-steerers at Ottawa.
Very few realize the rapid strides
Socialism is making amongst the fanners. The following letters, however,
go to show the excellent work being
done amongst them by such propagandists as O'Brien, Budden, Knight,
and others. The letters in question
are as follows:
Paradise Valley, Alta.,
March 10, 1913
Editor, District Udger,
Fernle, B. C.
Dear Sir,—Aa I waa deputy returning officer during the last Dominion
election, I have received three different
requests from  C.   M. Goddard, secre
tary of theT*i1beral party at Ottawa, for
a list of Liberal hustlers and also those
tbat were not workers but simply voted
ln this poll.   I might say we bad a
visit from Mr. C. M. O'Brien, M.P.P-,
ln this district. He delivered two lee
tures here, with the result thatl have
answered Mr. Goddard's three letters
I enclose a copy which you are at
liberty to publish if you think it wor'h
while. W. WILEY
(Copy.) -
Paradise Valley, Alta.,
Feb. 17, 1912
C. M. Goddard,
Sec'y, Canadian Ijheral Party,
Sir,—Your three letters to hand r».
questing Information regarding I'te
number of Liberals in this part and the
degree of their activity. There arc
few. If any, either Liberals or Conservatives around here now. Thoeo
variations of the species known as tho
genus homo are about extinct in this
community, even a alight knowledg->
of the new science of society—Socialism—is "sufficient to enable us farmers
to see that neither the 0. P. R.-Borden
nor the G. T. P.-C. N. R.-Laurter nav.V
schemes are needed to protect sixteen
cent oats. We have ceased to quarrel
among ourselves as to which thief
shall have the plunder taken from us.
We are now uniting to put a stop to
the thieving.
(Fernie District Ledger.)
on a hot atone.   In all, the sum grant-1 gtory of the quarrel8 and struggles of j _
ed for support hy the. various author!-  thoge who ownea that wealth, that ts, j cov-ery of a Wr-ptern'route-]
ties,    according    to    official    reports,   tne magter 0,a8g of any ^^ gtage of
amounted to 1,5*6,900 franca.    Divide 1 soclety.    They saw  that ln order to
cording to their concept
rapLy,   nearest  to  th
the dis-
ing, ac-
of geog-
nt),   pro-
moted and  financed the  expedition;
this sum amongst  -he urban popula-; un<*erstand the past. It was necessary | -.„.-,.,
tlons living in the df-psst misery., t0 examlne the prevailing method of .the*, need not detain us. >nd .having
computed at 700.000, and '* -ernes to ; wealth productl0n; ascertain who own- **** ****& thorough! ^^J
only two francs each for foui a.::---.* \ eU the tools of wealth production; who  and explained, are mentioned merely
Furthermore, several undertakings produced the wealth; and who were I,n_P»M»g.
nnd workshops which were re-opened KiruggHng to control that wealth.
In the hope of a speedy termination of Th-B method has been followed by
the war will probably soon close again. o(ner investigators, amongst whom the
This will make unemployment more nameB of Ward, Morgan, Rogers, Sellg-
extensive and pressing. To this de- j mBn Kldd and others, shine with bril
plorable state must be added the an-   n,ince_
xletv of families whose bread-winners I    The Socialist view of history then, 	
nro all e front     We have also tb. L th. exact reverse of the    master  * «* directed by ^t™"»£
palest fear for the fate of our best I p|MfJ vlew. w. So<,iallBt. examine Into] *^^J"m.T&a£22!*
organlsen who nre at the seat of war, j ,he root8 of 80elety; they busy them-
but  till  now have not suffered from 1 gt,lvu8 wltli the evolutions of the super-
the deadly fire of opponents.    Under ■ 8tructure. We seek  for causes, they
these conditions the resumption of hos; ga!,e  ln  a(*m|ratlon  or hatred  at ef
The Socialist method ts very simple.
Take for example a fishing village
isolated, as they were in days gone by,
from other human intercourse. Upon
Investigation of the manner In which
tllltlea meeta with the general dla
regard and barefaced opposition of the
people. The wroth of the lower
classes against this slaughter, and
their contempt of the originators,
grows stronger and stronger. If the
indignation does not show itself in
revolt lt Is only because of the extraordinarily barbarous military rule and
the military censorship which prevails.
—International! Secretarat News Letter,
"Our" Prosperity.
The flowery Commission of New
York In a recent report states that
there are 4,500,000 persons now out
of employment ln the United States.
And thla In "times of prosperity."—
Is your nome on the new voters'
themselves. A little light for these
new arrivals will do much to avoid the
impeding cobblestones of lgnorar.-ce
and superstition. This can be done In
no better way than by Introducing
Ihem to our official organ, the Western
Clarion, and the literature to be had
dealing with SoclalUm In a sclent He
manlier. Spread  the light!
.1. S.
The story of Luther and his ninety-
five theses, and the "holy" wars that
followed, will be of immense interest
to the student who is equipped with
the golden key of historic materialism.
All "holy" wars have been develop-
struggle from 1567 to 1609 between
Spain and Holland. Holland was a fat
country In the days of Charles, Emperor of the then Roman Empire,—Its
trade in cheese and butter alone running into the sum of 800,000 crowns
per annum. But most Important of all
ls the fact thai the weaving Industry
(tbe beginning of capitalism) was already advanced to that stage where
This question was asked the other
day by one who wore the brass buttons. His grey matter had evidently
started to go in the right direction.
The answer: "Why, sure, Mike!
Thisk of the splendid opportunities foi
propounding the gospel. Take the
following example:
"Policeman Qwer finds starving
plug helping himself to some one
else's peanuts. Following dialogue ensues:
"Oh!  Please le"t go, sir."
Cop: "Who did you vote for last
"Conservative   Oh, leggo!"
"Well, this Is what you voted for
Next time you get a chance to vote,
get with your own class," etc.
This latter speech should be well
seasoned with helps to mental digestion, sundry taps with the baton, etc.
Capitalism is the same all over the
world.   The tactics and methods utilized by a master class to hold labor
in subjection are the same under the
I flag  oi  a  Republic as  they are beneath the banner of a Monarchy. The
following application blank issued by
the Hollinger Gold Mines, Umlted, of
South    Porcupine,   Ontario,   Canada,
shows the drastic methods used to retard the growth and development of
the labor movement.
The application reads as follows:
these flsher-folk lived, we should be | the>*&-"%* over-topped the agrl-
very much surprised lf their manner of
gaining a livelihood did not strongly
reflect Itself ln their social life—did
not In a large measure mould their
manners und customs. Again, a tribe
of mountaineers would develop distinct ways and means of living and,
consequently, different customs. We
ahould expect to find that the fact of
a nation living ln the tropics would
cause  that nation  to  develop along
cultural products.      	
Manufacture, owing, no doubt, to
the abundant and cheap power from
windmills, coupled with cheap transportation by means of a system of
canals, had at this time become a very
At the recent Socialist ongress at
Nanking, 3000 Chinese Socialists took
part. The form of party organization
was more strictly denned and the platform was more distinctly stated. It declares that the goal of the party is the
extension of the liberal Institutions of
the republic, the extension    of popu-
Name Age	
Position Applied for _..
Where have you worked during the
past two years? Give dates and positions   	
Married or Single?	
Number of Children	
Ages of Children?	
Where are Wife and Children?	
Are you supporting any other relatives?  	
Are you a member of the Western
Federation of Miners?	
Have you ever been a member of thc
Western Fed. of Miners?	
Have you ever beeu an official of th<
Western Fed. of Miners?	
Have you ever heen "on strike"?	
What is your home town?	
Give names and addresses of twi
reputable persons who can voucl
for your fitness for the position ai
piled for 	
Have you any chronic sickness or dli
Whom to notify in case of acclden
formidable enemy to the feudal no-  lar rights, and the energetic    prop-a
bility, then governing this little giant
of water ways and money lenders.
A country thus situated, close to the
(Continued on Page Four.)
The Provincial Voters' Lists have been cancelled, and you
have only until April 7th next to register again.
and don't let the Mcliside-Bowser gang deprive you of yonr
franchise. Oo to the Registrar of Voters in your district, and
fill out a new application form, and get ns many workers ns
you know to do the same. A Dominion Election is on the
cards for this year- and the Provincial Voters' Lists are used.
ganda of Socialist principles. The new
Party Executive conists of nine direc-   "■■**-    —-         --
  ...-__  ..  _u_;    -~ Applicant tor worl
1  certify the above information t
be correct.
WITNESSES       Date
tors and thirty councillors. Masu, who
was Sun Yat Sen's secretary, has been
The above application blank ls th
typical card of the Mine Owner's Ai
appointed editor of the Socialist dally I
paper, the "Chinese Republican." He| relation,   and  ls   used   not only  b
says: "We expect to make the 'Chinese
Republican' an organ through which
we may present our views In a quiet,
reasonable manner and comprehensively."
"Bill" Davidson Is Better.
William Davidson, Executive Board
member of tho Western Federation of
Miners hns recovered sufficiently from
his recent severe Illness to be a visitor
mine operators in America and Cai
ada, but by employers of labor I
various other Industries,
The Jobless man before seeking en
ployment must secure one of these a:
plication blank*) nnd Mil out the sam
answering all questions aatisfactorll.
before he ls even permitted to see
employment with any certainty of su
cess. In other words, the upplicatlc
blank filled out with all questions a:
to the city this week.   "Bill" has come
to town to confer  with  the striking I IW0Md   „ the UcenM ,0 the slave 1
miners from Britannia with a view to1     ^^^
deciding what ts beat to be done. fct't
employment -Miners   Magarin PAGE TWO
Pal-Uahed every Saturday by tlie
Socialist Party of Canada at th* offlc*
of Th* Wee-tern Clarion, 510 Main St.,
Tanoonvr, B. C.	
76 cents per year, 40 cents for six
months, 20 cents for three months.
In U. S. single subscriptions $1.00 per
Strictly ia Advanc*.
Bundles of 6 or more copies, for a
period of not less than three months, at
the rate of IV.  cent per copy per Issue.
Advertising rates on application.
If you receive this paper, lt ls paid
In making remittance by cheque, exchange must be added. Address all communications and make all money- orders
payable to
SIS Main St. Vanoouver, B. C.
7| C Watch the label oh your paper. If
' A.J this number ls on it, your subscription expires with the next Issue.
The great bone of contention over
which the various groups of the Labor
or rather—Anti-Capitalist—camp have
wrangled and fought has been the
question of "tactics." While all agree
that the Capitalist System-must go,
that is about all that was agreed, or
is yet. As to the proper method ot
dispensing with the Capitalists, opinion has varied from the subtle perme-
ative method of the Fabian to the
sudden explosive mode of the dynamiter. The joke of It is that while
over this question we have wrangled
the most, it is th* question that matters the least. The good and sufficient reason for that being that the
method of Capital's overthrow will be
decided, not by our wisdom (considerable as that is) but by the circumstances of that particular time and
place. Circumstances of which we,
not being gifted with accurate prophetic vision, have no yery exact knowledge.
The underlying idea seems to be
that we should decide on the most expeditious method of overthrowing the
capitalist system and then organize
in the manner most efficient for the
application of that method. Which
sounds reasonable enough on the face
of it. But it sounds reasonable and
attractive for the simple reason that,
despite the fact that Socialists assert
the ever-changing nature of Society,
they are yet apt to think of it as
more or less fixed. The validity of
any plan for the overthrow of the system becomes questionable immediately the changing nature ot Society ia
taken into consideration.
"The prompt rejoinder to that we
know by rote. "If the validity of any
plan for the overthrow of the system
is questionable why make an exception of the political action method'."'
The answer Is that we don't, not personally. If "political action" has the
meaning which most of Its opponents
and some of its exponents give it, if
its horizon is to be confined within
the limits of a ballot-box, we can't
say we are particularly impressed
with It Not but what a revolution
accomplished by peaceably electing a
majority of representatives to office
would be eminently desirable. But its
likelihood seems rather questionable.
In actual fact, however, thus narrowing the meaning of political action is
merely an attempted evasion. Action
by ballot Is political action in tne
same sense that a turnip is a vegetable. Voting is political action but
political action is not voting. Voting
is but one form of political action,
the form now prevalent in democra-
tlcs.   There are others.
Whether a line of action is political,
or Is not, is determined, not by the
line of action Itself, but by Its purpose. Striking for an eight-hour day
would not be political action, but
striking to compel the passage of an
eight-hour law would. And so would
the most "direct" action that the
most rabid dlrect-actlonist could suggest be political action if its purpose
was in any way political, for Instance,
the overthrow of Capitalist rule.
Capitalist property exists only by
virtue of capitalist political power
The law-making and law-enforcing machinery alone makes capitalist property property. Thus, it alone makes
it vendible by giving to the buyer a
sufficient assurance of undisturbed
possession and enjoyment within the
the law and the terms of the sale.
That is the chief function of government and the sounder its guarantees
of property rights, the sounder the
government, the firmer the capitalist
grip on political power. So, when we
assail their property ownership, we
assail their political power and, whatever action we take in so doing, *we
take political action. What form of
political action we shall take will be
determined by the circumstances of
the time. Its discussion now ls premature and barren.
The present need is for education.
Socialism cannot be got till there are
enough Socialists to get it. When
there are enough they will find a way
to get it.
Moral:   Oet more Socialists.    Mc.
We have received a circular letter
from the South Porcupine local of the
S. D. P., suggesting that an agitation
be started throughout the Dominion
against the above law. The three
strikers recently railroaded by the
authorities have been released by the
"united protest of the working claBs,"
in the words of the letter, and immediate action is urged, "that the Industrial Disputes Investigation Act
may be a stench in the nostrils of all
who love liberty." The letter will be
found in another column.
Accompanying the letter was a summary of the way in which the act operates in restricting the efforts of organized labor to exact better terms
from their masters, for which space is
not available. It contains a resolution with several "whereases," concluding with the request "that the S.
D. P. of Canada take immediate steps
to educate the workers to the vicious-
ness of the act, so that this weapon
of the capitalist class may be abolished as quickly as possible, so that
it cannot be used as a check to the
unity and solidarity of the working
The presence of this act in the statutes can be laid solely at. the door
of the working class of Canada itself.
Those who framed the act and who
are now enforcing It were placed In a
position to do so b the collective action of the workers of Canada, registered at the ballot box. What sense
or reason is there in raising a howl
when you are getting what you voted
for? A vote for a capitalist candidate
is a vote for the continuation of the
capitalist system of production, with
<*il that it entails.
The fact that their support was
-riven in ignorance does not alter the
feet, that it was given, but it does (or
should 1 provide the ground on which
to make the start to "educate the
workers." not to the viclousness of
this particular piece of legislation, or
to the necessity of obtaining its repeal, but to the necessity of obtaining a knowledge of the class structure of modern society, their position
in it in relaton wth all other classes,
and to the realization that they have
the power, as a class, to put an end
once and for all, to the possibility of
such outrages as that at Porcupine,
by seizing the reins of political power
and occupying "the seats of the
mighty" themselves.
To ask the workers of Canada to
spend their efforts ln obtaining the
reneal of this piece of capitalist legislation, while they are stll ignorant
of the nroper use of the power that
lays in th<*ir bands to achieve their
•*maneli*ation from the rule of capital,
fs a task for reformers, not for revolutionists.
The workers, If Intelligent, have the
power to achieve their emancipation.
Without intelligence, they are doomed
to slavery.
The rule of British capital in India, in spite of its much-lauded benefits to the natives, as voiced in the
press, does not seem to impress the
poor "native" in exactly the same
way, at witness the recent manifestations of discontent. That the situation is- regarded with apprehension by
the ruling class was proved by the recent threatened disbandment of the
Sikh regiments, on the specious excuse that "they had lost their war-like
News just to hand tells of a donation
some time ago by this eminently Christian government of some $30,000 towards the expense of translating and
publishing the Bible of the Sikh religion, "Oranth Saheb." This points
to the fact that the reputed loss of
their war-like qualities by the Sikhs
was only a subterfuge, and a very
thin one at that. This recent stroke
of policy throws a curious light on
the alleged reason for disbanding the
Sikh troops. The militarism of the
Sikh is not Inculcated by his religion,
wheh partakes more of the nature of
ascetclsm, the former quality having
been acquired originally under the
rule of the Moguls, and cultivated by
the British from the date of their occupation of India. The reason for the
donation reveals itself. The war-like
qualities of the Sikh have suffered no
diminution, but are showing signs of
turning for exercise In the wrong direction, and recourse Is being taken
by the class that has bled the Indian
people white, to the mentally paralysing Influence of religion, the weapon
that served them so well In the past.
If the Sikh can be Induced to turn his
thoughts away from the conditions
surrounding him, and exercise his grey
matter on the subtleties of Oriental
metaphysics, the danger of having the
training ln militarism Imparted to him
by his white rulers turned against
them will be rendered more remote,
The Incident goes lo show how serious the situation !n India appears to
Threadneedle  Street.
Js your name on Hip   new   voters'
The Vancouver Labor Temple witnessed a memorable rendezvous of
Socialists on Tuesday night, March
18, when they mot to pay homage to
the memory of the victims of the Paris
Commune, who went down to defeat
in their attempt to throw off the yoke
of their masters, just forty-two years
After enjoying the spread of good
things provided by the committee in
charge, the best part of the evening's
programme, in the expressed opinion
of those present, was reached—the
brief speeches of the chairman, Comrade J. Maedonald, and Comrade W.
W. LePaux on the heroism of the
Communards and the lessons to be
drawn from their failure and mistakes.
The remarks of the latter comrade
on the last-mentioned subject were
couched in words that drove home the
points in a manner that left nothing
to be desired, and were listened to
with appreciative sympathy. The
speech was characteristically clear
and lucid, putting the facts of the
Commune in a nutshell, and drawing
the necessary deductions as to the
nature of organization lacking among
the Communards, owing to the fact
that the uprising was in advance of
economic  development.
The Utopian sentiment that led the
Communards to respect the hoarded
wealth and title deeds of their cowardly rulers (only less dear to them
than life itself) was referred fo so as
to draw out the fact that by doing
so they sealed their own doom, for
with that, the fruit of their own labor,
they could have bought out the Investing Prussian army and beaten
their own ruling clas to their knees.
The slaughter that flowed, that ranks
below none in history ever perpetrated
on slaves, resulting In demoralization
-<nd awe, was spoken of in terms
•■•hich wlll not be easily forgotten by
***ose who listened.
Choice harmonics brought to a close
■-i the early hours of tbe morning the
'•<*st Commune celebration that his
-"«,r fiopp hold in Vancouver R. H.
Rulers and prophets have always
fitted in with each other, like the
hand in the glove, since the inception
of class society, in their common function of enslaving workers. It often
.lup-Jtus   uiai   tin-   two   lui-ci.iuii*-   are
■ ■K-i-jvii in one and iutj same peibouai-
iij, not always \»iin conspicuous sue-
liming the last provincial elections
oir Kiciiard tthen pium Dick) Mcbriue
made the prophecy, with much uncouth gesturing and excited declamation, that when the elections were
over the Socialist Party of Canada
would be "down and out/*
Events are dally providing the proof
that this prophecy, made with such
bad grace, had its foundation and
"raison d'aitre" not in any intelligent
study of the trend of thought amongst
those who hatLheen supporting the
working claMfrticket, but in the wish
of this misjfern Balna**^ that things
would turrimut tis he desired they
should. The flifluenee of the Socialist.
Party of Canada is not on the down,
but on the up, grade, as the next election will show. The period of inactiv
ity and internal strife, which raised
such high hopes in the breast of the
knight of the snowy locks, has been
left behind, and the party ls all the
wiser and stronger for having passed
through Ihe experience. All hands
are now fixing their eyes on the common enemy, and getting ready to put
up the liveliest scrap that either they
or Sir Dick have ever taken part In.
Our appeal to Ihe Socialist workers
of Canada to muster all their strength
at the next poll wlll not bo made In
the spirit of mercenary politics, but It
Is at the ballot box that we shall elucidate what fruit the propaganda work
hns borne, and If we have passed any
further milestones In our march on
the seats of the mighty, R. H.
The following remarkable editorial
appeared February 28 ln the Dayton,
Ohio, Dally News:
Berger's Proposal.
Thot. was a new note In labor solutions which was struck by Congressman Berger, the one Socialist ln the
houae, when he proposed a resolution
providing for seizure of the railroads
when they should fall to keep cars
running. A tie-up of a week would
be regarded ns sufficient cause for
the government to act.
Naturally nobody expected this reso-
'utlon to pass or to be even seriously
considered, Mr. Berger least of all.
It ls Interesting ns showing the view-
oolnt, and as Indientlng what la to bn
expected when the Socialists begin to
have a little more numerous representation In legislative bodies. The
next congress will not even be graced
by the presence of Mr. Berger, who Is
nn able man and respected by his colleagues.   But It Is entirely within the
range of probability that there will
be an active Socialist wing in congress
within the next few years.
Adoption of such a principle as this,
according to Mr. Berger's resolution,
would enable the government to step
in and take over every bit of property
owned by the railroad which should
be forced to suspend operation. Such
a condition would be held as a public emergency and through the right
of eminent domain would justify the
government In seizing this property
and operating it through the postofflce
A good deal has been said about
the vagueness of Socialism and the
terrors of "confiscation," the general
inference being that confiscation
meant seizure without recompense.
Mr. Berger's resolution ought to set
the minds of excitable persons at rest,
for it shows that the Socialists have
no idea of carrying out such a policy.
He proposes that the secretary of
commerce and labor shall be empowered to make a physical valuation of
the road in question as a basis of compensation for the company. His resolution also proposes a scheme of
financing the whole proposition
through the secretary of the treasury.
To get the Tull Socialist attitude toward trie railroads it is interesting to
look at the preainble of thla remarkable resolution. Mr. '.terger declares
that private ownership is a failure
and on the point of collapse: that in
point of equipment and of safety the
railroads of this country are far behind those of Europe and ot every
civilized country on the globe. He
estimates that it will take at least
$9,000,000,000 .to brtng them up to the
degree of efficiency that safety demands, and says there is no combination of private capital large enough to
make the changes required. He also
pointed out the menace of a railway
strike, such as that which was threatened in the case of the firemen, and
said that such a tie-up of transportation would put cities like Pittsburgh
and Indianapolis In danger of starvation and seriously threaten Chicago
and Milwaukee.
Sometimes people don't tak-3 time to
find out what other people think. A
good many people are denouncing the
Socialists for things they have never
had any sympathy with. While the
proposition made by Mr. Berger Is
certainly radical, there is nothing
about lt to seriously alarm anybody.
It will also be seen that while there
are many things in the Sociallsl: program which have been passed, up as
visionary and too Impractical to be
considered seriously, there are men
among them who have given a great
deal of hard study to the problems
which they have undertaken to work
The Socialist party will likely nover
gain the ascendency in ihla country.
It Is more likely tha* the reforms
they have agitated wlll be carried out
by somebody else If they are carried
out at all. But it is reasonably sure
that the Socialist party will be able
to have more men In congress after
awhile. Besides, there will be congressmen, plenty of them, who are
Sociallstc, and it will not be many
years before there are many such concrete Socialistic proposals before the
people. Mr. Berger's resolution, presented In the last days of his congressional service, is unique in that
It is the flrst of the kind to have ever
been brought officially to the attention of the country.~-Soc. Dem. Herald.
The Dominion Executive lime the following 11 turn tn re for mile. (Published
hy  the  party.):
, To   imllvld-
Looals   mils
per loo a copy
tti.oo     in,
Socialist Patty Di*ecto*y
Soclall.it l'urty of Canada, meeta llrst
und thlnl Sundays, :: p.m., ut 616
Main Bt    J. H. Burrough, Secretary.
Executive Committee, Socialist Parly
of Canada meets same as above.
Socialist Party of Canadu, meets every alternate Tuesday, at 429 eighth
Ave, 1'Lnst. Burt K. Anderson, Secretary, Box 647, Calgary.	
SASKATCHEWAN PROVINCIAL EXECUTIVE, S. 9. ot C, invites all comrades residing in Saskatchewan to
communicate with them on organization mutters. Address D. McMillan,
It Main St.. So. Hill, Moose Jaw,
Committee: Notice:—This card is Inserted for the purpose of getting
"YOU" Interested in the Socialist
movement. SOCIALISTS are always
members of the Party; so If you are
desirous of becoming a member, or
wish to get any Information, write the
.Secretary, J. I). Houston, 493 Furby
St., Winnipeg.
Committee, Socialist Party of Canada,
mei Ls every .second ami fourth Sundays In the Cape Breton offlce of the
Party, Commercial Street, Olace Bay,
N. S. Man Cochrane, Secretary, Box
4111,  (llfice  Buy,  N.S.
Headquarters, Labor Temple, Dunsmulr street. Business meeting on llrst
of every month at S p.m. Secretarj,,
.1. McMillan, Labor Temple. Vancouver,  B. C.	
LOCAL 9B9mWTM, ■.'», of Oh mtotsX)
educational meetings In the Miners'
Union Hull every Sunday at 7:00
Business meeting third Sunday In each
month, 7.30 p.m. - Economic class everv Sunday afternoon ut 2:30.    Albert
 E.  Hurt, Secretary, Box  139.	
meets In Miners' Hall every Sunday ui
7.30 p.m. 10. Campbell, Organizer.
Will Jones. Secretary, Box 126. Finnish branch meets In Flnlanders' Hall
Sundays at 7.30 p.m. A. Sebble, Secretary,   Box   G4,   Itosslund.   B.   C.
Open to everybody at Hoom 821   Labor
Temple,   at   2   p.   m.    Secretary
Anderson,  Burnet, B. C.
Finish. Meets every second an
fourth Thursdays in the month a
2215 Pender St. Kast. Ovla Llud, *,.,
LOOA-b  -oozonsAjr,   a£tX;  NO.  9
Miners' Hall ami Opera House. Propaganda meetings, at 8 p.m. on the tii.-u
and third Sundays of the month bus).
new meetings on Thursday evening*
following propaganda meeting at «
organizer, T. Steele, Colemun, Alta
Secretary, Jas. Olendennlng, Box e:i'
Coleman, Alta. Visitors may receive
Information any day at Miners' ||M||
Secretary, Wm. Graham, Box US, Cole-i
man.  Alia.
LOCAL MICNEL, B. C, No. IS, M. 9. ot
C, holds propaganda meetings every
Sunday afternoon at 2.30 ln Crahan's
Hall. A hearty invitation Is extended to all wage slaves within reach of
us to attend our meetings. Business
meetings are held the first and third
Sundays of each month at 10.30 a.m.
ln the same hall. Party organizers
take notice.    T. W.  Brown,  Secretary.
P. of C. Business meetings at Socialist headquarters fourth Thursdays of
each month. B. F. Gayman. Secretary.
LOCAL VICTORIA, No. 3, B. 9. Ot C,
headquarters ami rending room 67.*>
Yates St. Business meeting every
Tuesday, 8 p.m. Propaganda meeting
Sunday. 8 p.m.,  Empress Theatre.
No. 61. meets every Frlduy night at
8 o'clock ln Public Library room. John
Mclnnis, Secretary; Andrew Allen, organizer.
C. Business meeting every Sunday,
afternoon at 2:00 p.m. In Socialist
Hnll opposite Pott Offlce. Economic
classes held Tuesday and Friday, i*
p.m. Propaganda meeting every
Sunday. 3 p.m. Headquarters: Socialist Hall, oposlte post offlce. Financial
Secy., Thomas Carney; Corresponding
Secretary, Joseph Naylor.
tPCAl VANCOUVXR No. 1, S, P. of C.
Buslnrs-i meeting every Tuesday evening at Headquarters. 213 Hastings
St.  Kast.    H. Ralilnt. Secretary.
P. of C. Headquarters 622 First's.?'
Business and propaganda meeting
every Wednesday at 7.3d p.m. shaiu
Our reading room Ih open to the i.ui,
lie free, from 10 a.m. to 11 p.m dally
Secretary, J. A. S. Smith. 02:: l-u-Lj
St.; Organizer, W. Stephenson.
LOCAL CALa^RT, ALTA., No. 4, 8   p
of C.-~Business meeting everv Salur-
day Evening at 8 o'clock ut the head-
quarters, 134 Ninth Ave. West it
S.   Maxwell.  Secretary,   Box  647.
every Sunday, Trades Hall. 8.00 , m
Business meeting, second Frldtn ii
p.m., Trades Hall. W. B. Hli.l. <;,.„
Iiel.,  Secretury.
S. P. of C. Meets every Bunday ul
3:30 p.m. In Miners' Hull. Becretan
Sam Larson, 1411 3rd Ave. N. Wm
Devoy, Organizer.
Business meeting anil economic . :,v
everv Wednesday evening at rum >>
McMillan's. 32 Main St.. So. Hill PnM).
aganda meeting every Sunday, N |, m-i
at the Hex Theatre. Beoretary, Wm.
Harrison, 106 Maple St. Organizer, .\
S. P, of C.—Headquarters, Labor Temple. Business meeting every Satui-
day, 8 p.m. Propaganda meeting every Sunday at 8 o'clock In the Dream
land Theatre, Main Street. Secretary,
It. ('. McCutcheon, 87  Hlgmar St.
LOCAL  OTTAWA   NO.   8,  S.  P.  of  ft—
Business meetings the first Bunday In
month In the Labor Hall. SIS limn,
Street, at 8 p.m. Secretary. A. Benen-
sohn, 281 Laurier Ave. Organizer,
A. O. McCallum. Recording secretary,
Wm. McCallum.
tlnn Headquarters In liukasln ttlk.
Commercial St. Open every evening.
Business and Propaganda meeting ai
headquarters every Thursday at x p.m.
Harold G.  Ross. Secretary, Box b'lb
Scotia. — Business and propaganda
meetings every second Mondav at 7 10
In the S.O.B.T. Hull back of Town
Hall. William Allen, Secretary, linn
of C. Headquarters at Miners' Hall
Business meetings every flrst and second Sunday in the month. N I).
Thuchuk. Secretary, Box. 167, Canmore,
.'■ ltu.
Empress Theatre       J. R. Knight Speaker
Vancouver, B.C.
8 pm
Munlfesto  S.  P.  of C ,»,««
What   Is Socialism?*     8.00
sociulism and unionism'  1.00
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2fu- per dozen.
Stute   and   Oo.eminent*..       1.00
■Jfic per iliiim.
Value,  Price  and   Profit"    „  2.00
30e per d'jSSn
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price list or lunuii
To Executive
Locals      Committees
Due  Stamps   $0.10 10.06
Platforms,  English 26 .20
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Hues Cards     1.00 .80
Constitution*       1 toe each 1.00
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Flccelpt   Books    06 each .60doz
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has the following cloth-bourn] books on
sale. Make all money orders payable to
\V. Wilson, 218 Hastings St. E„ Vancouver,   B.   C.
Capital, vols.  I, | and 3 J2.00
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Socialist Party of Canada
We, the Socialist Party of Canada, in convention assembled, attirn.
our allegiance to and support of the principles and programme ol thi
revolutionary working class.
, Labor produces all wealth, and to the producers ll should belonK
The present economic system is based upon capitalist ownership ol
the means of production, consequently all the products of labor belon-.
lo the capitalist class. The capitalist Is therefore master; the worksi
a slave.
So long as the capitalist class remains In possession of the rcln-
of government all the powets of the State will be used to protect ami
defend their property rights in the means of wealth production ami
their control of the product of labor.
The capitalist system gives to the capitalist an evei■•swsltln**
stream of profits, and to the worker an ever-increasing measure ol
misery and degradation.
The Intoiest of the working class lies in the direction of sell In -■
Itself free from capitalist exploitation hy the abolition of the wage
system, under which is cloaked the robbery of the working class at the
point of production. To accomplish this necessitates the transforms
tlon of capitalist property in the means of wealth production Into col
lei tlve or working-class property.
The irrepressible conflict of interest between the capitalist snd
lhe woiker is rapidly culminating tn a.struggle for possession or th*
reins of government—the capitalist to hold, the worker to sei ure i
hy political action.   This Is the elass struggle.
Therefore, we call upon all workers to organize under the bsnnei
of the Socialist Party of Canada, with the object of conquering Lb-1
public powers for the purpose of setting up and enforcing the economli
programme of the working class, as follows:
1. The transformation, ns rapidly as possible, of capitalist prop
erty In the meanB of wealth production (natural resources, factories
mills, railroads, etc.) into the collective property of the working cIbbi-
2. The democratic organization and management of industry bj
the workers.
3. The establishment, as speedily as possible, of production foi
use instead of production for profit.
The Socialist Party when in office shall always and everywhere
until the present system is abolished, make the answer to this queii
tion its guiding rule of conduct: Wlll this legislation advance the
Interests of the working class and aid the workers In their class 8tni|-
glo against capitalism? If It will, the Socialist Party Is for It: If "
will not, the Socialist Hatty Is absolutely opposed to It.
In accordance with this principle the Socialist Party pledges Itsell
to conduct all the public affairs placed in Its hands In such a mannei
as to promote the Interests of the working class alone.
li* ST ;n B.C.
5 Yearlies- $3.75
10.^ " 4.00
20 *\   "       4.00 ,,.,,,,-v  MARCH 29, 1913
„-i is  oage  Is  devoted  to  reports  of   Executive Committees    i„.,i,    „',
' "'^i .'erul Part* Matters-    Address all OOmptlitcVa^ t<Jj.' IOSrroJS)
Secretary, 61* Main St.. Vancouver, B, c, uunougn,
rjon-mion Executive Committee,
Vancouver, March 17, 1913.
Louis imbreullb. Secretary  Parti So-
claliste (Section Frascaise le l'lnter-
national), Paris.
near Comrade—Your kind Invitation
w the socialist Party of Canada to
be represented at the Congress to be
held ai Brest on March 23rd, and fol-
,lays,  was considered by the
Albert, N. B„ March 10, 1913.
Comrade Editor—Enclosed please
find $2.00. one of which Im intended for
the subsidy fund and the other one
you may paB8 to Com. Matthews for
my subscription to the new paper. I
will send more later and will also get
some out of a couple of other comrades who are in the vicinity.
I have been laying on my oars for
a long time and doing practically noth-
j^io. ^f^zr1"of tw i**1"* "■ *" ■-■■"- ■"«■ ■«■■-
party on MftTOft it-Hi i<*si.    . land try to do something.   Hoping that.
well  with  you  and  the  other
While regretting our Inability to
semi a representative, we ask you to
aB8Ure the assembled delegates of the
■jearty goodwill of the revolutionary
proli tarlat of Canadian in their efforts
,„ defeat the anticipated attempt of
internatlonal capital to once more
drench Hie earth with the blood of
,-„. workers in a fratricidal strife.
The Socialists of Canada give way
,„ none of their Comrades in Europe
in their appreciation of the fact that
Hi,, iniernatlonal proletariat have no
enemies but international capital and
-he ignorance of their class, which
forms tho sole support of the exploitation under which they suffer. To
dispel iliat ignorance and to emphasize the necessity of class action to
tear the power of oppression from the
bands of the ruling class, Is the work
thai ib" Socialist Party of Canada,
In common with the International
Socialist  Movement,  has  undertaken.
May the result of our combined efforts soon be seen in the glorious
-)) etaele of the Red Flag of Labor
floating over the parliaments of the
The deathless memory of the Communards, whose heroic sacrifice we
have just commemorated, will stand
forever as as inspiration to the world's
proletariat, who regard the present
gem ration as worthy successors of
iheir Illustrious sires.
'in behalf of the revolutionary Socialists of Canada we extend to   the
Congress our best wishes and fraternal greetings.
For the Dominion Executive Commit-
tee, Socialist Party of Canada.
all  ia
Comrades. I remain,
Yours in Revolt,
Victoria, B. ('., Mar. 19, 191*1.
Editor Clairlon-1 am enclosing
herewith express order for $11; $10
for Clarion Subsidy Fund and the rest
subscriptions to Clarion.
Comrade Knight spoke in Empress
on Sunday last to a full house and put
up a good talk. We had a collection
of $29 and sold about $s of literature,
and we gave him all over expenses,
>ia. II. DALGLEISH, Sec'y.
(Section Francaise Internationale).
Consell National, Secretariat, 37 Rue
Ste. Croix-de-la-Bretonniere,
Paris. 15-2-13.
Dear Citizen Secretary—The Tenth
National Congress of the Socialist
Party (French section of the Labor
International) will be held on the 22rd
to 29th of March at Brest, in the Salle
des Fetes.
Wn fraternally invite you to be represented by one or more delegates at
these sessions, in order to give greater emphasis to our affirmation of the
strict solidarity which unites the proletarians of the entire world, at this
critical time in which the peace of
Europe is at the mercy of an incident.
In the event of a favorable response
»o our invitation, kindly advise us before the 20th of March, in order that
we may he able to make the necessary
preparations for the reception of your
Fraternally yours,
For the National Council,
Editor Clarion—Have received two
issues of Clarion and glad it has appeared again. On separate piece ol*
paper you will find a list of subscrib-
Editor Clarion—Inclosed P. O. order for $2, one for yearly subscrlp-
t'on commencing with first issue and
one to help paper. It is the best paper 1
have seen published, and the only one
to loach clear scientific Socialism. If
1 lwpen to be late for next issue of
naner. send one along.
Yours for the Revolution,
St. John, N.B., Mch. 17.
Dear Comrade,—On    behalf of  St.
sand more of our fellow workerB are
subject to imprisonment if the decision
of the lower court is upheld In these
Let a protest go up from the working class that the masters may no*
dare to convict them.
We urge you to take immediate a •
tlon, that the "Industrial Disputes Investigation Act" may be a stench !n
the nostrils of all who love liberty. Re
member the maxim: "He that wouiJ
be free, himself must strike the blow
•   •   •
Cumberland, B. C "
Editor Clarion,—We had a visit by
Com. Knight this week, who addressed
a crowded hall of miners and miners'
wives on Thursday, March 20th. He
spoke on the Inception and develop
i lent of capitalist production and he
explained the process In uuch a man
ner that the person who could not fallow him from start to finish must be
dense indeed.
After hearing Com. Knight's analy-is
of the small farmer (and he ought to
know, as he has lived and slaved alocg
with them) his is not a life to be envied, not even by a miner, and his condition is miserable enough. Con,.
Knight is a typical example of the
quality of the education one receives
in the school of the S. P. of C. and be
ls quite up to the standard, not oni>
as an educator, but also as a fighter.
He is sure to make more. He made
many friends while in Cumberland,
mostly rough-necks, like himself. He
was given a synopsis of the strike
here, and he will have a pretty interesting story to tell the slaves he c.on'.es
in contact with, as he travels east.
tributors this week: R. B. Robinson.
Vancouver; Dick Nlmmo, Turgoose, V.
I.; C. M. Christlansou, Calgary; H. M
Martin, secretary of the S. D. P., Berlin, Ont.; Will Jones, Rossland, B. C,
for himself and Campbell; D. Alexander, Brantford, Ont; Alex Beaton, Cluti-
brea, Sask.; J. learner, Stillwater, B.
C„ for himself and two others (50
thou and do likewise); Simon Free-
stone, Lethbridge. with a Bub and
something for the maintenance fund.-
Com. C. H. Uke, of Stewart, B. C,
who sent in $20 for the Clarion Fund
the other day, Is back with an order
for a bundle of ten copies per week
until further orders. There will be
things doing in that oamp lf he sta,s
And so the tale goes. These are on /
a tithe of the letters received since *he
resumption of publication. To give, a
summary of all the encouraging observations contained in them would fill
_t-he paper every week. The "death" o.*
the Clarion last year seems to have
been a blessing In disguise. It has
made the comrades all over Canada
realize how much it means to the
movement to be without a paper.
ers, also M. O tor *7 00    I might also'-'0"" '^ N°- 6* ' enC,08e yoU m' °* L '" f ^ W ^ ""* *■? ^ 1"°''!
-      m.gtu also , for $-()0  bejng second month,8 lMta„. j here have been    consuming    without
State that more could have been ob-} mPnt towards subsidy fund for Clarloa   Producing, for the last six months (by
tainea had sample copies been avail-! Have received bundles of two first ie-!,he aid of the u- M- w-»  *8-50   v'as
Editor Clarion-Due stamps re-
ceived O. K.
The movement in the east is a little
quiet at present, owing to various
causes. I think when sprlug opens up
again things will brighten up. lu St.
•lo.m they have appointed a new secretary, whom 1 think will make goou.
There they have recently purchased
100 due stamps aud 40 due cards, so 1
Hiink thingB are taking a new start.
We have a comrade on the road selling and distributing literature all the
I bope the new executive will meet
with success In giving the new weekly a trial*. Inclosed find $1.00 for sub
"Idj fund.
■ <■■■■■■ in Revolt, DAN COCHRANE,
Sec. Maritime Ex. Com.
Kdltor clarion Local 13, 8. P. of
C, Lethbridge, have decided to take
a bundle of fifty Clarions weekly mini further notice. We have also de-
elded to assess lhe members 2.'> cents
Per month for the Clarion Mind, if It
had not been for the approaching dec
"oni we would have been In belter
Position to help ths hind.
Vours for the cause,
sues.    Send   the  same  number  each Itaken at the collection, and dynamitt
As far as the local here is concerned J week till further notice, and bill the!t0 ,he amount °f -f4-50 was 8ol(1-
I  think  that   with  the publication ol 1 Local.    Organizer Hyatt is collecting |     Wn'*-n the strike was declared here,
our official paper steps will be taken \ subscriptions. ' we had no 1'hrary worthy of the maio,
to pull together again. As to the rea : Tl*e Ix>eal here, has had a fairly sue- j but ,he strike was not ver--' old ****
son of our disbanding, I will have lit-!<e8Sful winter- Comrades conducted ithe fcovs *?ot bus*v" ' °ver sixt-*/ s':bs
tle to say, but one thing 1 know, and   n faIr for tllree n-Shts and netted near
Editor Clarion-Would you please
»end tne 20 due stamps nnd 25 membership cardB. Send me the bill nnd
1 --UI send money after our next meet-
;||K Kindly send them right away.
;l' "ui* next meeting is on Wednesday
"ml we need the stamps and cards.
We have again reorganized Ihe lo-
l!l1 here, this time, I think, with a Utile more backbone Instead of too much
enthusiasm, Comrade Knight waf
,"'1*' and helped us considerably, al-
though wo did not have/a very well
-"tended meeting.
Yours In Revolt,
Secretary Local 53.
K«ltor Clarion—Please find Inclosed
nu"i".v order for $4.20 for subscrlp-
,,on«. Owing to oconomfc conditions
'*'r'' Is a limit as to how mnny poo
J'1" «re able to subscribe, owing chief-
v ,n the strike In this community,
'"' ' hope to rustle quite n number
'• for there nre lots of people who
* ((,me through as soon aB they can
'"^""'Ir hands on tho money.
Y,1«rs In Revolt. COM. GOODWIN.
that is unless permanent headquarters are obtained some difficulty will
be experienced in keeping members
together. Furthermore, the monopolizing of headquarters for the playing
of cards and checkers is, in my opinion, not conducive to the propagation
of Socialist principles.
Hut what is wanted is men who will
get out and distribute leaflets when
we have such, and not say, "To hell
with them," as I have heard member?
say. In fact, do anything that will
help a fellow worker on to as good a
footing as ourselves, economically
.■Mieaking: also push the Clarion and
don't leave same to one or two.
were taken for the I. S. Review, anl as
y $100, and have also   run    several j a Premium was given with each sub. in
which  brought in a few dol-1the way of a dollar book' over •*'*ty
dollars worth of books were addfl to
the library. Amongst these books are
works of Marx, Engels, Ditzgen, Labrlola, Katusky, Llebnecht, Lafargue,
E Ferrl, Myers, lioudin, Bebel, Morgan,
Ward,  Untermann, A.  M.  Lewis a^d
: dancei
, lars.   The Local pays $200 a year rent
I for a hall, and manages to distribute
1 a good deal of literature, and hold public meetings at least once a week. But
St. John  industrially Is rather  backward, and the message   of Socialism
Editor Clarion—1 received a copy of
of the Clarion the other day. for which
I can hardly express my delight It
seems as if a new Impetus had been
-riven 10 the movement, We have a
paper again that all SociaUsts can
read with the sam>* aspirations, the
same enthusiasm, and trough whose
columns runs the „ol.|eii thread that
hinds the hearts of all SootsllBtS together In the same common cause, At
least this is the fivlin,!: I have us I
read the paper.
Enclosed find 715 -n's f *r one year's-
Brussels, Mar. 1, 1913.
Hear Comrade A group of Journalists and militant Socialists have founded an Information agency for ths use
of workingclass Journals of all countries—"The International Socialist
This is thS realization of an idea
proposed by ths press section at the
(Stuttgart Congress..
This agency lias been placed under
the direction of a committee composed
as follows: Emile Vandervetde, Ed-
nurd Ansesle, deputies; (Belgian
Chamber. Ed.); Henri Lafontaine,
senator; Max Hallel. senator and
"echevln" of the city of Brussels.
Its purpose is to keep the organs of
thS trade union and Socialist press In
touch with the International labor
movement.. To accomplish this the
International Soclnllst Courier hns
need Of the assistance of the press and
or the labor organisations of your
Persuaded thst you understand the
great utility Of our work, we would
ask you:
First    To make B gratuitous service
of your Journal..
Second—To send us all documents
on I lie labor movement of your country that it would be useful to make
known to the movement at large
Accept, dear com mile, onr fraternal
For the Director,
c*-rpt"i"»'il liv (I   Morgan .1
does not make much impression. A
healthy activity is becoming apparent
among the labor unions, however, and
their officials are beginning to show-
tome interest in Socialism. The Eastern l.aUir News publishes many articles of a Socialistic character, and
many of the daily and weekly papers
give space to letters setting forth the
tenets of Socialism. I would like to
see the Dominion executive take up
the matter of having letters prepared,
applying the Socialist philosophy to
i urrent events, and having typewritten
or mimeograph copies sent to the Locals, the members of which might sign
them and send them to neighborg
newspapers, daily and weekly. Person
ally, in addition to writing articles for j
the Eastern l^abor News each week. 1
have sent out many letters of this char
acter to daily and weekly papers in
the Maritime Provinces, and genera-'.y
they have been published.
Yours iu revolt,
Sec'y St. John Loea'
•    *    •
Calgary, March 22, 1913.
.1. 11. Burrough, Secretary,
Dominion Executive Committee,
Dear Comrade,—Enclosed herewith
please find charter applications from
Eckville, Bentley and Daysland, also
postal note for $3.00, being fees for
Kindly send charter to these Locals
as follows:
Daysland. No. 60, E,
51, Daysland, Alta.
Kent ley, No. W, J. f
Thanking you, I am,
Fraternally, your comrade,
Sec'y Alta. Prov. Executive.
S. Porcupine, Feb. 26. 1913.
To all Socialists, greeting—Please
read the enclosed circular at your
next regular meeting. It deals with 11
subject that is of vital Importance tc
the working class of Canada. In no.
other so-called civilized country OOUld
a law be enforced which takes away
the rights and liberties of the workim,
class in their efforts to throw off the
chains of wage slavery, as "The Indtt•-
trial Disputes Investigation Act" does
In Canada.
We would suggest, that an aglUMon
be started throughout the Dominion
against this law, and that it be.f-.m
tinned and pushed vigorously, even to
the extent of calling 11 one-day "gene'ai
strike" as n protest against this vicious
Three of our comrades hove already
been Imprisoned for violating this Is,*,
their cases hove been appealed, tho
united protest of the working class
rolled back the prison gates. A thou
others. Most of the books are out an
the time. Economic classes are held
twice a week and discussions on Socialism is the order of the day—n»ver
of course neglecting to meet incombg
trains in case of men being shlpnc-.l
in to scab. The more stubborn f-he
mine owners are, and the longer thev
continue this strike, the more KnigMs
will be produced, and the quicker *vul
the mental revolution of the working
class, which is necessary for a successful social revolution, take place.
Yours in revolt,
T. I/owe, Box
Carrltt, Bent-
No. 58, J. f' Knorr, EcU-
Steve Kellman, Enderby, sends in a
bunch of three yearlies and a quarter.
Comrade Knight lost no time get
ting to work is Ladysmlth. He sends
In five yearlies and four quarters,
amongst the names of which can be
recognised those~of members of the
"Old Guard."
Roscoe Fillmore comes back with
$2.00 for the Clarion Fund and a year's
sub for himself.
Edmonton. Alta., Local sends ln»fi.00
for bundles received and for mor* to
follow. They order To a week until
further notice.
H. Dalgleish, secretary of Victorin
Local, sends in five quarterlies, and
reports a good meeting addressed by
Com. J. R. Knight on Commune Da-
The Ix-eal turned over all above e\
penses ($13.00) to help Com. Knight
on his trip over the Island.
Fred. Paya, secretary of Local D'a-
niond City, Alts., forwards ten names
of those who want the dope for thre?
months. They are not going to stop
there, either, says the secretary.
Did you think there was a strike on
in Cumberland? It doesn't look like it,
when Com. A. Goodwin sends ln a
bunch of subs totalling $18.00 Inst wp«k
nnd follows up with $4.20 this week.
Fernie Ix>cal remits $20.16, of wh'cl:
$10.90 is for subs, $7.50 for bundle.-!
and $1.75 for the Clarion Fund. They
have been asleep for a few months.
and when they get going in earnest the
rest of B. C, will have to sit up ard
take notice.
Com. Philip Faughnan. secretary of
Montreal Ixical, arrives with a buurli
of five, with more to follow in the n-w
future. They are all pleased to see
the Clarion again, and are going to
make a good showing on the sub list.
Ix>cal Lethbridge, Alta., orders a bundle of 50 a week until further notic-.
and have assessed themselves 26 cents
a month for the Clarion Fund.
Wat JaeBon, of the 'Peg, leaves a
list of subscribers' names and $7.00 to
meet the bill.
The letters accompanying the single
subs' are, In many respects, the mout
encouraging that come in the mail
Some of them will be found In another
column.    The  following nre the c.ii.-
We acknowledge receipt of a gorgeous appearing pamphlet from "Toronto Saturday Night," bearing the
above title, lt is claimed to be a
study of British Columbia's labor-
Oriental problems by Agnes C. Laut
author, and writer for "Saturday
Night," who, it will be remembered
visited the headquarters of the labor
movement of Vancouver last fall. We
can only pick up a few sentences representing the general substance of the
pamphlet for comment, and here Is
"Socialism out there is not a parlor
fad, as it is in New York, London and
Paris. They don't discuss .the proletariat—(I hate the word. There is no
place for it in Canada.)"
This shows that the society she
moves in corroborates the dictum that
"Ignorance is bliss." In the parlors
of the pot-bellied, luxurious capitalists the world-stirring struggle of the
slaves for freedom is a "fad." They
must be steeped in ignorance in exact proportion to their colossal love
of luxury, greed and power.
As to "hating" the word "proletariat," or the proletariat itself, it is a
declaration simply confirmatory of
what every organized worker knows
through the factor of the struggles in
which he is continually engaged.
Another typical sentence: "If you
get spilled with your fine-spun load of
civilization," etc.
Isn't it fine-spun, this robbery of
the producers, mansions and machines
for the few masters, bestial drudgery
for the millions of slaves, enforced by
police batons, cold steel, reserve armies of unemployed, poverty and prostitution ad libitum, class legislatures
asd armies of hired assassins to up-
port them? We should say it is "finespun," but as to whether it is "civilization" or "demoralization," workers
will not be slow in pronouncing their
This is a quotation from a railroad
"I have no love for my contractors,
more than the I.W.W.'s have. Let
them fight, and dog eat dog until they
rot. It doesn't affect us; it is their
Let those of us who are waiting on
the factions in the labor movement
strive to foster unit, but take note
that there is discord rampant in the
lines of the enemy, too. In the selfsame words of this railroad boss,
there is "nothing smooth" with capitalists themselves, and that self-annihilating competition In their ranks is
true, ss detected by ithe Marxian
school of economics,
"British Columbia pays the highest
wages for skilled and unskilled labor
in Canada. Yet labor agitation is
most acute in that province.   Why?
The price of food is extraordinarily
high all over the Pncific Coast. The
recognition of this fact answers the
question, but she queries, and says
there are thousands of unemployed tn
B. C, and replies ln the words of a
fruit grower thus:
"Yet, but when I pay more than $2 a
day for unskilled labor, it does not pay
me to pick my fruit."
(The kernel of capitalist farming:
What profits can I obtain from the
employment of my capital?!
There are some forty-eight pages
of nrlnted trash on capitalist economics and Jargon of sickly, sentimental patriotism.
The pamphlet is nn object lesson
"s to what distorted and false corollaries can be drawn from the facts
when viewed with the Jaundiced eye
of a capitalist scribbler.
"The Oriental Problem" is a section
treated in the pamphlet. On good
grounds we can say thut the asser-
Mons made therein as to the "grafts"
of Hindu leaders are pure myths, and
are simply libellous rumours spread
by those who are maliciously disposed
townrds   ther".
Willi regard to Oriental competition
From all the indications tbat are
daily coming into this offlce from correspondents from coast to coast, this
is going to be a banner year in lu
record of activity by the Socialist
Party of Canada. Already we have
Com. J. r. Knight in from an organ-
izing trip from along the line of the
C P. R., with two new locals formed
to date and the likelihood of more to
follow. The "Unpatriotic Irishman."
Com. T. S. Cassidy 0f Winnipeg, after
a tour of Alberta, started for this coast
on March 7th, with a route card that
embraces every hole and corner when
half a dozen slaves can be gathered
together. He will be in Revelstoke on
April 20, from which date he wlll be
routed from this office. Comrade
Gribble will be available in a month's
time, and there is material enough ln
Vancouver right now that, if it could
be routed, would supply every local in
the province with a first-class propagandist or educational lecture every
fortnight. All we lack is funds, and the
surest way to get them is to spread
the sphere* of influence of this paper,
ro that what we have to say may be
read by the greatest possible number.
one thing has been proved oy "■-«■•.
experience. Where the Uanou u^a
once gone it stays. The resumption
of puolication has proved thai. »ub-
scriuers who had dropped out of sight
wueu tne clarion ceased to be puu-
i.sned are sending in their names, in
uiosi cases with others, lor new buds.,
expressing their delight at Its reappearance, and using their best efforts
10 ensure that the same thing shall
not happen again.
When the effect of the reduced price
for subs, is seen in a largely increased
circulation, covering a larger terri*-
tory, the price can be put back to the
old figure without any danger of a
slump in the number of subs, coming in, and the increased funds at the
disposal of the Executive will enable
them to give the much-needed attention to the East, where the need for
organizers is so great. We have the
material available, lots of lt, and it is
ready to take the road when the word
is given, but only a portion of it can
be used until the Clarion Is In such
a position that it can provide the
It is to this end that the attention
of all locals and individuals in the
party, and the party's supporters on
the outside, should be directed. Every
local in the Dominion should have as
large a weekly bundle as they can
afford, for sale at the propaganda
meetings, and the surplus unsold
should be distributed weekly, which
is one of the most effective means of
advertising the paper and getting subs.
Attention has been called in a previous issue to the fact that the low
rate does not allow of a commission
worth speaking of being allowed
those who wish to help the paper by
the sale of sub-cards. The margin of
profit is bo narrow that only 5 cents
a card can be allowed, and comrades
wishing to take advantage of this rate
will please say so in ordering cards.
The sooner the circulation reaches the
figure which makes it possible the better for all concerned.
"I passed by his garden and marked
with one eye
How the Owl and the Panther were
sharing the pie.
The  Panther ate all the gravy  and
And  the  Owl  had  the  dish  for  his
share of the treat.
"When  the pie  was all  finished  the
Owl, as a boon,
Was kindly permitted to pocket the
The Panther took knife and fork with
a growl
And concluded the banquet  ."
Alice In Wonderland.
with the white man in the Provnce,
we can take but one position on the
question, and that is economic. So
long as the white capitalist goes to
China, Japan and India and exploits
labor on a 10-cent a day wage, the
commodities produced by htat labor
will enter into the market in compe
tition with the product of the white
worker, and this, pious protest against
the admittance of Oriental labor in
the name of the white worker ls the
usual hypocritical cant of the capitalist class, who never allow racial
considerations to stand in the way of
satisfying their love for lucre. In order to curry favor with the Chinese
market, they stand pat with the Chinese, and the provincial authorities
of B, C. had no scruples against writing down half a million dollars on the
revenue side of the estimates for 1914,
to be forthcoming from the head tax
levied on Chinese  Immigrants.
H. R.
jjnywwBTWLII'i'''-V'*- "''
Z'ZZ%7tSGt't&**1a\lmxi PAGE FOUB
National Office, Socialist Party,
Chicago, 111., Mar. 8, 1913.
To the Locals and Branches of the
Socialist Party.
Dear Comrades: The people known
as South Slavs have proved to the
world in last year's Balkan War that
they are fighters and that they can
whip the terrible Turk to a standstill.
They have the glory ot the Christian
world for killing hundreds of thousands of their fellow slaves from
To us Socialists of the world, they
have proved that they are fighters, and
that we must have them educated to
understand the philosophy of Socialism and get them to Join our ranks
and to flght the most terrible Turk—
the system of capitalism—upon the
political as well as the industrial field.
Hundreds of thousands of South
Slavs (Servians, Croatians, Slovenians
and Bulgarians) were driven by exploitation and poverty to America and
here they are slaving tor American
kings and czars of industry, selling
their labor power tor wages. Many of
them will go back la the so-called
motherland (or rather king's land).
Many of them will remain in America
and will become citizens of this glorious capitalist country.
Those South Slavs that are class
conscious in America have ^proved already that they will flght in time of
struggle the masters of American Industry upon the Industrial as well as
political field. Those tbat are not class
conscious have proved to be very dangerous for the labor movement in time
of strikes and on election day.
The South Slavic Socialist Federation, which is a branch of tbe Socialist
Party, is doing everything possible to
educate and organize our fellow
workers. We have progressed wonderfully. At present we print Socialist
books by thousands and we publish
three papers which are fighting the
system of capitalism snd expounding
the philosophy of Socialism.
We have done much, but we can do
more, and that is why I am addressing
these few lines to you, with an explanation of what you can do to help us
and to help yourselves at the same
Answer me these questions: Are
there any Servians, Croatians (known
as Horvats) or Slovenians (known as
Kralnish) in your locality? Do you
work with them anywhere? Do you
get in touch with them in city or
If so, here is what we want you to
do: We know that you are anxious
to get your foreign-speaking fellow
workers to understand Socialism and
the struggle of our class for emancipation.
We have heard you many times
make statements like this: "Those
boys are all right, but I cannot speak
to them as I do not understand their
Here is how you can do successful
work among them and win them for
our cause:
We have papers printed weekly ln
their mother tongue. Just give them
to those that can read, try and get
subscriptions from them tor-three, six
. or twelve months. Get your local or
branch to have a special committee
elected for the distribution of these
papers in places where our people
gather. Try to sell them copies, or
give them away. A little extra work
and a few dollars to spend by your
branch will be indeed a great help to
us and to the Socialist movement as
a whole.
These papers are owned by the
South-Slavic Socialist Federation and
we are part of the Socialist Party, so
these are yours as well ss our papers.
We publish these papers in the following languages:
1. Servian.
2. Slovenian (known to many of
you ss Kralnish).
3. Croatian (known ss Horvat).
These   three   papers   are   printed
weekly. Will you buy bundles for
each of these nationalities, lf they live
or work in your community? You can
send us orders for one or two weeks
or tor a month.
. These are the prices tor bundles:
"Narodni Glas," Servian.
Weekly bundle of   10 copies 15c
Weekly bundle of   25 copies 30c
Weekly bundle of   50 copies 60c
Weekly bundle of 100 copies 90c
"Radnlcka Straza," Croatian.
Weekly bundle of   10 copies 15c
Weekly bundle of   26 copies 30c
Weekly bundle of   60 copies 50c
Weekly bundle of 100 copies 90c
"Proletarec," Slovenian. j
Weekly bundle of   10 copies 15c
Weekly bundle of   25 copies 35c
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John Kenneth Turner, representative of The Appeal and The Coming
Nation in Mexico, who was three
times lined up against the wall to be
shot, is now safe in New York.
Comrade Alex. Susnar, for a long
time organizer of the Canadian Socialist Federation, affiliated with the
S. P. C, is now employed by the National Office of the S. P. of A. In the
work of organizing the task of educating the slaves from Southern Europe
(Servians, Croatians, Slovenians and
Bulgarians). Those comrades living
in localities where there are numbers
of these people working can do something to help in the work by drawing their attention to the circular letter in another column by Cora. Susnar.
try in the development of the new
capitalist mode of production, took to
the Protestant doctrine of "free-will"
with avidity, and launched her ships
to harry the Spanish Main.
Rome waB again quick to act; under
her direction, Spain launched the
great Armada which was to drive England home, a chastened and reformed
"black sheep," and establish once
more in Merrie England the "blessed
Catholic Church"; and, of course,
cause to flow once more into the coffers of Rome those fees and dues
which had become so sadly diminished.
Too late! England had already
taken on the yoke of capitalist production, which demanded "free-will" in
free competition amongst laborers to
sell themselves to whom they liked,
and free competition amongst capitalists to under-sell each other's goods in
the market. The growing trade needed money—needed markets; tliere
were markets in the new world from
which money and slaves could be had
for the fetching. Hence they fought
the Armada with the skill and courage born of necessity—and won. With
the power of Spain broken, the way
was clear, save for Holland, and we
already know how the rising commercial Cyclops, England, treated the little country by the Zuyder Zee.
Thus Is the world's history written;
turn where we will, we find that struggles between nations are due always
to economic causes. Be they branded
as holy, or patriotic wars, in the last
analysis they have been wars of necessity, wars developed and waged
around the eternal question of wealth-
production. National politics, from
village councils to the "Mother of Parliaments," are tied to the same string.
Indeed, all politics are but reflections
of economic needs.
The "free-trade" agitation, although
heralded as a great and advanced idea,
(Continued from Page One.)
sea, with excellent transportation facilities and a growing manufacture,
could not long tolerate the grinding
pressure of the Spanish claims. Spain,
then the foremost country in Europe,
essentially feudal to the very core, un-
sulted for manufacture by climate and
racial peculiarities (for the Spanish
people were a mixture of Arabs from ! although preached as a kind of re-
Medina and Mecca, Goths from the
north, and the native Roman-lberlans,
none of whom were of an industrious
disposition, but much given to slaughter and rapine), was tbe chief arm of
power for the greatest feudal lord of
them all, the Catholic church.
At the time of Charles V., the
church was drawing revenues from al)
over Europe as landlord of more than
two-thirds of that territory. Now
manufacture needs, above all other
things, money-cash-credit, and this
draining away of ready cash into the
coffers of Rome, was in no way pleasant to the rising German, Dutch and
English manufacturing classes. They
bitterly resented lt. Furthermore,
when we - consider that on Easter
Sunday in 1521, Ferdinand Magellan
had planted the Emperor's flag upon
the American continent, claiming the
whole of it, known and unknown, tor
Spain and Portugal; and that Pope
Alexander VI. had, some years later,
given them title deeds in papal bulls,
"dividing the world like an orange,"
the new world for Spain and Portugal
and leaving tbe old world just as it
was, we can readily understand the
rumblings of revolt In other places;
Holland, suited to export goods, as
a manufacturing country, would quite
naturally resent such proceedings.
The growing pressure of commerce
drove them into revolt for that new
world which Spain and Portugal but
robbed and wasted must also yield
profits to thrifty Dutch merchants.
The result of this rising tide of commercial discontent is well known.
William the Silent flrsflt asked for
local government, and was quieted
with promises; then came the cry of
revolt from Martin Luther. Freedom
from the dominance of Rome in religious conceptions was but a reflex of
the need of freedom from Rome as a
landlord. The outcry against the sale
and high price of indulgencies, the
cost of cardinals and church dignitaries, was but a reflex of the demand
for cheapness—which ls tbe soul of
The Lutheran heresies  spread with,
great speed over  Germany and   Holland, born of the time, and out of the
needs of the time, because   of    the
ligious crusade, was but the expression of the capitalist need of cheaper
labor. Those champions of the people,
Cobden, Bright, and their colleagues,
knew full well that cheaper grain, and
competition amongst food producers,
would enable the workers to live
cheaper, hence lower the money-wage
of their workmen. They competed in
a world-market against slave labor,
and they fought the black slave traffic
with the aid of Wilberforce and his
coadjutors. They reduced the "Corn
Laws" to enable themselves to grow
rich—and said it was In the cause of
humanity! So it was; the capitalist
section of that peculiar aggregation of
Today we are treated to a noisy
wrangle by cheap politicians over "reciprocity" between the United States
and Canada. Let us look for a moment at this subject through the historical spectacles of the Socialist.
First, what is the prevailing mode
of production in Canada and the
United States, and who will proflt by
the removal of the tariff wall? Who
stands to lose? Arrange these correctly, draw the logical conclusion
therefrom, and the antics of politicians on both sides of the line will
furnish us with much mirth.
The prevailing mode of production
ls capitalistic; great aggregations of
capital control both countries. In
Canada some twenty-three men dominate industry—are the despots of
trade; obviously, then, they have
either much to gain, or much to lose
by reciprocity.
The Liberal Party, dominated by the
Grand Trunk, Canada Steel Corporation, and the Massey, Harris Company, expresses the desire of this section of the capitalist class to bring
about free trade with the United
States. The two latter corporations,
the Canada Steel, and the Massey,
Harris, compete In a world market,
and need, above all things, cheap labor. With a flood of cheap commodities from the United States, this result would follow.
And those who want the tariff well
maintained are those who control the
Conservative Party—the C. P. R. and
others.    In a word,  English capital.
changing economic structure of socle-! Has not the C. P. R. a large carrying
ty, herald of the war between capital- trade from Great Britain? Are not the
1st and feudal lord—who would stay British manufacturers making a des-
Its triumphal progress. perate grab for this country's market?
Rome, quick to see the danger to 1 Would not the removal ot the tariff
her landed properties and estates, 1 wall destroy the hopes of these British
launched the poor of Spain upon the manufacturers, or, at least, seriously
Netherlands, and ln tbe name of   a  interfere with their profits?
"holy war"—a war to suppress tbe
heresy of "free-will"—nearly a million
Hollanders perished. Rome, wise diplomat, knew full well that Holland was
reaching out to challenge the domination of Spain in the New World.
In the struggle which followed, the
new rising power, the real power
which lay at the roots of social
Europe, ln the changing mode of getting the world's living, was predestined to win. A Holland rose up ln
rebe'llon and hurled the decadent
power of Rome forever from off their
backs. Freed from the fetters of feudalism, they at once began to develop
that sea-power which held the commerce of the world until Admiral
Blake drove Van Tromp, battered and
broken, into oblivion.
That this may not appear to be farfetched, let us   look   at the   events
Therefore, at the last election, they
were patriotically moved to exert
themselves for the noble (?) purpose
of more firmly "knitting the Empire
together." And their reward for these
manifestations of love tor the British
Empire—for they never put patriotism
on parade for nothing—Is a mere trifle
of 35 millions of dollars for ships of
war, to be spent in the "Mother Country," provided Mr. Borden proves himself a wily enough politician.
Fellow workers, grasp the significance of the foregoing method of historic reasoning. Remember that
whoever wins the prizes, it Is YOU
who have done the work. Be it ln
war, or ln more peaceful methods, you
have been the force upon which enterprising thieves have relied. Investigate
for yourselves, and, once wise, no power on earth can make you work, vote,
which followed.   Spain became aware I or agitate other than in your own class
of another rival to her power In the | Interests.
New World.   England, foremost coun-, ALF. BUDDEN.
Everybody is aware of the difference in muscular development between,
say, the average blacksmith and the average clerk. The difference is
greatest in the muscles of the arm. The explanation is simple. The muscles
receive nourishment from the blood. The exercise of any organ causes
the blood to flow freely to that organ, carrying nourishment, and causing
the part to develop. On the other hand, the disuse of any organ impedes
the flow of blood there, causing starvation of muscle and decay. An animal
of any species will naturally use most, if not exclusively, the organs that are
useful to it in the struggle for existence. Food is the first consideration with
oil animals, man included. Therefore, the organs that are useful in procuring food are developed, those that are not useful in that way decline, and
m course of ages become rudimentary. This law helps animals still further
to accommodate themselves to new conditions. A statement of it will enable
the reader to understand that, in the long run, the conditions determine the
type. Rudimentary organs enable the observer to perceive the road along
which the species has travelled. They mark the stages of the evolutionary
process which has been at work. Occasionally individuals appear having
fully or at least fairly developed organs which a're rudimentary in the normal
member of the species. These are cases of reversion to an earlier type. Under
natural conditions they are rare, but where development is hastened by artificial selection, as in the case of pigeons and dogs, they are very common.
In a short essay like this it is impossible to enumerate all the facts
which have a bearing on the subject under discussion. On that subject
books sufficient in point of numbers to form a respectable library have been
written. All that is aimed at is the presentation in simple language of a few
facts which support the modern scientific theory of evolution. It is hoped,
however, that enough has been written to make the broad lines of that theory
clear. The contention is that the laws and forces inherent in Nature have
in the course of ages evolved all existing species, man included. The reader
is asked to note that the explanation of organic existence here given is a natural one, and for that reason alone is infinitely more credible than any theory
requiring the supernatural for its support. Miiacles and acts of special
creation have no place in our philosophy. We do not need them, for we
can explain all without them.
The writer feels compelled to point out that the modern scientific theory
oi evolution is only a small part of the true philosophy of existence. That
philosophy will be dealt with in a future essay, when the blanks unavoidable
in this will be filled up. The present reasoning is, however, sound as far as
it goes.
There is probably no human being alive to-day, whose opinion is of
the least value, who will not agree that what are called the lower animals
are the result of some such evolutionary process as thst described above. But
many will insist that man forms a class apart from the others and that his
origin must be sought in some different quarter. Yet the most specific
inspection of the facts will reveal so many resemblances between man and
the lower animals that thc theories of a different origin, and of accident, are
at once perceived to be untenable. Let the reader place side by side a human
skeleton and a skeleton of any of the mammalia, and he cannot fail to notice
that the two are built on the same general plan. There is not in the human
body a single bone, muscle, nerve, or blood-vessel which has not it* counterpart in that of the monkey, bat and seal. Every fold in the human brain
has its counterpart in that of the orang-outang. The embryo of man, dog,
bat, seal, and reptile are all alike up to a certain point. The human foetus is
hairy. The hairs on man's body are the rudimentary remains of a coat which
once covered him. That the ear of man was once pointed is shown by the
rudimentary point which is still plainly visible, although turned inward, as in
the monkey. Every man possesses a rudimentary tail, and instances are
known in which this organ attained a length ef several inches. Diseases such
as hydrophobia, variola, and glanders are communicated by the lower animals
to man, and vice versa, showing similarity of constitution. Monkeys suffer
from consumption, apoplexy, and cataract on the eye, and medicines given
them produce the same effect as in man. They like alcoholic liquors and in
(heir wild state are often captured by means of them. Probably the most
striking fact of all that there are on record cases of human reversion to the
spe type.    In plain language, apes have been bom of human parents.
Let no man feel aggrieved at having these facts set forth. The brute
is our younger brother, and should be treated with the consideration due to
his relationship and helplessness. Being behind us in the evolutionary journey,
he should be treated as we would wish to be treated by those who are
before us.
The reader is warned against concluding that the fittest is necessarily
the best. In point of fact it may be the worst. The tape-worm will survive
jn the human intestines until after the death of the man. Yet nobody would
thank of saying that the tape-worm was the better of the two. Nature
abounds n similar examples: rats, mice, and other vermin will survive a
famine which kills off human beings by the million, therefore the fittest
must be understood to mean the animal or type best suited for the conditions
in which it happens to be placed. The fittest means the animal or type best
able to conquer the difficulties of its situation. The fittest means the animal
or type most in harmony with its environment. If the environment be undesirable the fittest for it will be undesirable also.
In the foregoing the writer has almost restrained himself to an exposition
of the process of purely physical development. This has been done of set
purpose for the reason that it is easier for young students of the subject, for
whom this essay is Intended, to grasp the evolutionary process if only one
aspect of it be presented, and especially if that aspect be the physical one.
It is hoped, however, that by this time the reader perceives thst, on the lines
indicated, physical development without mental development is inconceivable.
The richest physical endowments would be useless to sn animal if it lacked
the wit to use them. Indeed, it may be said with confidence that, in most
situations, an animal physically inferior and mentally robust would easily
overcome and survive a rival physically superior.but mentally weak. The
same laws operate on the two planes, the physical and the mental. A very
little reflection will enable the student to perceive that the struggle for existence improved mind ss it improved body. The time has now arrived for
stating a further, and, for our present purpose, a more important, outcome
of the same struggle.
It is a fact, demonstrated by the trend of modern industry, that, say,
ten men working collectively, or co-operatively, will achieve a greater result
than the same ten men working individually. What is true of men in this
matter is just as true of animals. The tendency to work collectively, even
in the most minor degree, gave its possessors an advantage in the struggle for
existence. Like all other advantages, physical and mental, this was carefully
encouraged and developed by nature. The individuals possessing it survived,
and produced offspring after their kind, while those lacking it perished.
Thus did another aspect of nature, the moral aspect, manifest itself. Bearing in mind that the same laws operate on all the planes of nature, the student
will now understand that the struggle for existence which produced physical
and mental improvement produced moral improvement as well. Under the
influence of this latter product the struggle for existence changed its character
in course of time. Low down in the organic scale the struggle for existence
operates as between individual and individual; higher up it operates as between
group snd group. At the bottom of the scale universal cannibalism prevails,
but the more clearly defined is any species the stronger is its social instinct.
At the bottom of the scale we find pure individualism, whilst near the top
as, for instance, among ants, beavers and bees, we find pure communism
prevailing. The intermediate stages are worth nothing, Lions and tigers
do not rob one another of captured prey. When a young lion or tiger captures, say, an antelope, the older and stronger ones, which could readily
take it sway from him, will not do so. One does not expect to find much to
sdmire in the ferocious carnivora, but it is worth noting that, whilst they
war on all the rest of nature, they spare one another. Enough has been said
to indicate that when the individuals comprising a species, or some of them
learn to co-operate they find themselves better able than they had previously
been to compete with outside nature, and survive in consequence. Natural
selection now sets as between soecies snd species.
(To be continued.)
"There seems to be something (.H8en.
tiully wrong with London," says the
And the occasion of the remark ia
that, investigating the past year's
pauperism in London, it. flndB it "dig.
mal reading," because, although 1912
was a year of unparalleled prosperity, and trade, measured by the value
of Imports and exports, has been |m.
proving In a way which recalls the fa.
mous "leaps and bounds" of "forty
years ago, and advances of wages have
been recorded ln every branch of |n.
dustry, yet ln London, when; thi effect of Improving trade should in. *•.•-,
more quickly and generally than else-
where, the end of the year rinds uB
worse off as regards pauperism n,an
we were at the beginning, worse off
than at the same period last year, and
very considerably worse off than at
the beginning ot the century, in spite
of emigration, of old-age pensions, the
feeding of school children, distress
committees, labor exchanges, ami all
ihe other costly "reforms" Introduced
since 1900.
"Indeed, when these things an re-
membered, the tale becomes far mure
"The statistics relate pnly to l.^al
paupers, but, if the others who are ln
receipt of public relief under another
name are added, the number is approximately doubled. We deceive our-
selves for a time by the device of
calling things by different names anil
shuffling people about ln different
clauses, trot the fact emerges that,
even In a time of rising prosperity,
the proportion of the population which
does not keep itself, but Is wholly or
partly maintained by others, Is no
longer falling, but rising."—Public
Opinion, quoting from the "Times.
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