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Western Clarion Jan 6, 1912

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 '"-•**«—--   -
WESTERN
OWNED AND CONTROLLED BY THE SOCIALIST PARTY Of CANADA
PUBLISHED IN TME INTERESTS OF THE WORKING CfcASS ALONE
UMBER 649
VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA, SATURDAY, JANUARY 6, 1912
Subscription Price ai nil
PKR YEAR       «lsllU
VF NT THE WAGE-WORKER
BRINGS TO MARKET
BY WILFRED GRIBBLE
T   •> mbject of Socialism is so vast     Now, what are "fair" wages? "Fair"
wages are what ever the workers can
get.
If their wages go up that is "fair,"
if their wages go down that ls "fair."
"Unions must be useless, then,"
some reader may Bay, "if it all depends
on the market." Oh no, for the
unions themselves, are composed of
men who have been forced to combine by a more or less Intelligent conception of the laws they are subject
to as sellers of labor-power, through
a realization that by combining they
can manifest greater power to conserve and maintain their interests in
some degree (as sellers) under those
laws. When the demand for labor-
power is increasing, they are able to
force up Its price (wages) a little
quicker, though it would go up anyway. When the demand for labour
power is decreasing they are enabled to prevent its price sinking as
rapidly as it would if they were not
combined.
The very fact that the unions are
in existence, ls a proof that there Ib
some use for them, but let lt be distinctly understood that they are
themselves produced by the market,
or, ln other words, that the unions
are in the same position as other
bodies of men who have a similar
commodity to sell, who combine to
force up the price as rapidly as possible ln a rising market, and prevent the price sinking as much as
they can ln a falling market.
But though ia principle, the labour-
power sellers' combinations are on a
plane with combinations of any other
sellers, they are in a tat less favourable position.
The reason is: They sell the most
perishable commodity offered on the
market.
All other commodities will "keep"
for a greater or less time.
The wage-worker's commodity will
not "keep" at all.
For Instance, we will suppose -a
grocer exposes some oranges for sale
all day and does not sell one of them;
he shuts his store at the end of the
day and when he opens tomorrow, has
thOBe same oranges for sale. But, on
the other hand, when a wage worker
has spent a day looking for work—
endeavouring to sell his labour-power
—and has not sold lt, that day's labour
power has gone for ever, tomorrow no
one will give him a cent for lt, for lt
has perished, is non-existent. This
article is ln danger of becoming too
long, but the writer hopes he has said
something to make study easier for
young students of Socialism and will
close by drawing this moral: That
while endeavouring to do their best
for themselves as sellers of labour-
power, the workers must realize that,
as sellers, their position Is becoming
ever worse and must continue to do
so; that their main efforts should he
bent to abolishing a system under
which they are forced to peddle their
life-force on a chronically over-stocked
market; that it ls for them to sweep
away the ownership of the earth by the
capitalist class; that ownership
which stands between them and
plenty, peace and happiness; and
to hasten a system of common ownership of all the means of production,
enabling all members of society to
work because they choose, and to en-
Joy the equivalent of what they produce. 1
Books recommended: "Value,
price and profit," and "Wage labour
and Capital;" to be obtained at Clarion office.
Next installment—"Production."
8 3 man can know the whole of it.
uue..ts of Socialism should aim at
quiring the most important phases.
The most Important are those which
e likely to impress themselves on the
-rkers the deepest and likely, In
nsequence, to wake them up the
ilckest.
What comes nearest to the aver-
e worker ls what concerns him ln hla
eryday life. Until he is clear as
where he comes in ln society right
iw and here It is useless to en-
tavor to get him furtther.
Now to the subject
All the members of capitalist society
tt their living by selling something
by someone else selling something
i their behalf. (Such as children In
e latter case.) This applies to
eryone, capitalists as well aa work's. In this we are Identical. It is
hat we have to sell that makes all
e difference.
What have the workers to sell? Not
ial, though they dig it. Not houses,
ough they build them. Not furniture,
iough they make it. Not food-
uffs, though they grow them.
The workers, after they have pro-
iced them, have not any of the
iousand and one things that are ex-
>sed on the market. They have
'thing to sell that can be seen or
lt or smelt or handled. They have
)thing that can be exposed in a
lop-front, stored in a cellar or lock-
■ in a safe, for sale. Their few
lcks of furniture (when they have
ty) and their scanty shoddy clothes
e for use, not sale.
Having cut out all these tangible
aterial things, some readers may
onder what the workerB can poa-
bly have tor sale. As every mem-
*r of society gets his living by sell-
ig something, the worker must have
imething tor sale, so what has bet
Ths worker has labour-power, the
:tive Intelligent faetor ln production,
ie one of the two factors ln pro-
action that has the power of pro-
ucing a greater value than its own.
This labour power ls bis life force,
ie sum total of the powers within
im, his muscular, his nervous energy,
is power to see, his power to hear,
is power to take something from one
lace and put it in another, his power
> take apart and put together, his
ower to move, (not create out of
othing) existing matter, ao that it
eeomes finished material instead of
aw; valuable material Instead of
alueless.
Labour-power is what, and only
'hat, the working class, as a whole,
ave to sell.
On what terms ia lt sold?
On the same terms as any other
ommodity (a commodity is   anything
reduced and offered for sale).
Anything placed on the market for
ale Is  subject to the laws  of the
tarket, an increased demand means an
ncreased price; a decreased demand
decreased price.   There is no sent!-
aent about this at all.   The buyer is
ut to buy aB cheaply as he can and
he seller to sell, as dearly as he can,
whatever he is buying or selling,—a
anglble, material thing, like potatoes,
ir a force, such as labour-power.
ThlB law is known as the law of
upply and demand.
Underlying this law, Incidentally, is
he fundamental law of the cost ot
iroductton—but that does not come
vltbln the scope of this article, so
t will be left to another.
The law of supply and demand
limply meanB that as things become
larder to sell, the people who have
;hom to sell wlll be forced to ask less
lor them, either ln direct exchange for,
hlng else through the medium of
something else, or exchange for some-
money.
Increased difficulty to sell means increased competition among those having the same commodity to sell, and
increased popularity among competitors to "beat the other fellow to it,"
by giving the same quantity for a
lesser price, or a greater quantity for
the same price.
This ls the only reason why prices
go down.
Now, to apply this to the labour-
power market. One often hears workers who know no better speak of "fair"
wages.
THE COMING OF
THE CHINESE NATION
The end of the Chinese revolution is
now in sight. Hostilities may continue but the revolution Is accomplished. The old order is dead beyond resurrection. Whoever wins, Capital
wins. The bourgeois element ls preparing to reap the fruits of victory
and the proletarians are slated for the
ditch. Whether the form of government is to be a republic or a limited
monarchy, the substance of it is going
to be capitalist rdle, with all the
latest improvements.
The philosophy and ideals of the
French Revolution were founded upon
the "Rights of Man." Those of the
Chinese revolution are-a stage further
advanced and Include sentiments of
a Socialistic and communistic flavour
and a vague acknowledgement of the
Rights of Labor. The outcome of the
French Revolution was the establishment of Capitalism in its primitive
forms. The Hights of Man .were
eclipsed by the Rights of Property.
The outcome of the Chinese revolution
will be similar except that capitalism
is now In Hb most advanced instead of
its most primitive form. The struggle
for the emancipation of the Chlntess
people from Manchu domination is for
the emancipation of Chinese capital
from the restraints of outgrown institutions. Capitalist society ln
China is about to burst its cramping
integument. The Bird of Freedom has
sat upon the Dragon's Egg and hatched
the Goose that lays the Golden Eggs.
The Rights ot Labour? Why, yes,
Labour will be given the Right to
Work—when it can.
The greatest protagonist of the revolution, Sun Tat Sen, who has dreamed
the revolution, has worked for lt, organized it, formulated its philosophy,
iB to be politically emasculated with the
usual obloquy If he ls recalcritrant, perhaps with Idolization, if he is innocuously complaisant. The limelight is to
be monopolized by Wu Ting Fang, representing Capitalism rampant, and
Yuan Shi Kai, representing Capital-
Ism with propriety. Whichever gains
the ascendancy, or however they compromise, Capitalism will come into its
own.
When it does, the day of the white
capitalist's supremacy will begin to
wane. The Mongolian with the labor of
millions of pairs of hands, labor untiring and long-suffering, will flood
the world's markets with a deluge of
cheap commodities. And not at so
distant a time either. How far they
have already advanced may be surmised from their recent achievement
of building the cheapest railroad on
earth, of the very best materials with
purely Chinese capital and with exclusively Chinese labor, from the
roughest shovel work to the most
skilled engineering, and with all its
materials of Chinese manufacture, except the structural steel for two exceptionally long bridge-spans.
China is coming, and hard on Its
heels is coming the Social Revolution.
Mc.
BACK TO THE LAND"
AS A SOLUTION
NO ORDERS.
SASKATCHEWAN ELECTION.
Q Owing to difficulties attending
the removal of Com. Kingsley's
plant to the new Labor Temple,
we were forced to abandon last
week's issue at the last minute.
Q We trust our subscribers will
bear with us this time, and we
shall endeavor to be always on
lime in the future.
For the first time a candidate of
the S. P. of C. Is up in Saskatchewan.
His name ls H. Peters, and he ls running ln Moosejaw. Comrade Peters is
a good Red.
Let us concentrate our attention on
Moosejaw. The comrades there are In
need ef funds and assistance. Send
your contribution to D. McMillan,
South Hill P. 0., Sask., or to L. Budden,, Box 101, North Battleford, Sask.
Concentrate, Is the word. By devoting our energies to that one spot
we can make a big dent in the capitalist armor. All together, for a red-
whiskered Moosejaw!
Get your orders in early for the Boy
Scout leaflet,   $1.50 per 1,000.
Cambridge bar mill and sheet mill
both have shut down indefinitely.
Zanesvllle's sheet mill is closed, all but
tho sales department, with the resultant unemployment of the hands. One
of the Illinois Steel Company's rail
mills at South Chicago has shut down
on account of no orders, throwing 2000
mon out of work. The closing of this
mill necessitates the closing of the
Bessemer plant that supplies the pig
Iron from which the rails are made,
and also at least two blast furnaces
will be Bhut down. The reason given
for the shut down of the rail mill Is,
that since the railroads were not allowed to raise their rates, they have curtailed construction work in order to
pay the usual dividends.—Zanesvllle
(Ohio), Socialist.
THE  HORRORS OF PEACE.
During the last twenty years 30,000
miners were killed and 80,000 Injured
ln the United States. This makes all
the American wars during that period
look like Sunday school picnics. Andrew Carnegie still has the nerve to
use $10,0000,000 of the money wbich
these miners baptised In their blood
for the promotion of "peace." Mining
is closely allied with the steel business.
Reliable statistics on the number killed In the actual manufacture of steel
are not available. The steel trust has
no time to waste on keeping track of
its dead.
The receipt of a copy of this paper
Is an invitation to subscribe.
What a thrill of life goes through
one at the sound of this cry which Is
being thrust forward from all sides
as being the solution to the ever-growing question of poverty and unemployment. But stay, let us reflect just a
moment, then perhaps this delusion
may gradually vanish and in its place
we will be confronted with cold, hard
facts.
Up to the present era machinery
has played but a small part in agriculture, ln fact all the work attendant
upon the cultivation of the soil has
been carried on by the labor of men
and animals. Now, however, a great
deal of attention is being given to inventing and improving all classes of
agricultural machinery, which is having exactly the same effect as the introduction of scientific machinery ln
all other branches of Industry, i.e.,
throwing large numbers of both men
and women on the slave labor market
Let us suppose we own a tract of
land and sufficient funds to purchase
teams, tools and other necessary labor
power, our object being the raising of
wheat. Well, after, a few years of
steady, hard work we manage to get
our land in good shape and on perhaps a paying basis, when along
comes a representative of capital, not
a few hundred dollars as we started
with, but thousands! This wheat-raising proposition looks good to him, so
he buys a large amount of acreage,
the labor power ot soil cultivators,
also the most up-to-date machinery
which Is required for his purpose.
(The cost of this machinery, by the
way, is beginning to make the small
farmer feel bilious). However, now
we begin to know what the word
"competition" really means. In brief,
it has been proven that 50 bushels of
wheat can be produced with a machine
ln just one-twentieth of the time that
it takes to produce 60 bushels by hand
labor. This, of course, means that we
could not place our products on the
market at nearly so low a figure as
our competitors, and not having sufficient capital to purchase the same
kind of machinery, it is not very long
before we have to go and offer our
labor power to our more successful
competitors at just whatever price
that commodity may be fetching on
the market,
This is exactly what has happened
in all other branches of industry, and
tight now we are beginning to hear
the cry of the small homesteader
which, to we Socialists, does not
sound sufficiently enticing for us to
rush "back to the land."
Capitalist farming ls the order of
the day, and the owners of this capital, no matter where they may be
retiring, can still rake ln all the profits which have been created by the
labor of the slaves who are raising
THEIR products on THEIR LAND.
Now think!
F. L.
•   •   •
Speaking of unemployment in America, William Hard of Everybody's Magazine recently said:
"For every man who does not want
work there aro scores who cannot get
work. There are 100,000 more JobB In
the industries of New York State In
October than there are in January In
any year. Even If all the men employed ln October are competent, Industrious and sober, 100,000 of them must
be dropped In January.
"The one joke left ls when wc say
to the worker: 'Be competent and you
will have a Job.' Between two men,
one of whom must be fired, the better
will of course be kept. But It Is not
possible for each of the two men to De
better than the other.
"The skilled man gets discharged,
just as the unskilled man does. In a
skilled Union like the Bridge and
Structural Iron Workers, the work Is
so Irregular that many of the members
are wanderers, unmarried, homeless,
held fast by none of the ties which
keep men orderly and law-abiding.
"Labor, through the leaders of the
Structural Iron Workers, has been doing some confessing lately. It ls time
for capital to do a little confessing too.
"The public is aroused, but lt ls not
Informed. Genuine, complete Information does not exist. All that exists is
tho wrong and the resentment.
"On victorious socialist campaign
posters the first great argument ls:
'Vote for us and settle the question of
unemployment.' Their remedy may be
unreliable. But their campaign instinct is sound."
PAUPERS AND PRISONERS
IN LONDON,ENGLAND
(By Philip Frankford)
Half of the wealth of Britain is held class shall work unitedly, as one huge
family, so that all shall produce and
all shall receive of the fruits of that
production, and Idlers shall be no
more.
by one-fifteenth part ot the whole population.
Out of every thousand people of the
"great empire," over which the "sun
never sets," 939 die without leaving
any property worth mentioning.
In London alone 1,292,737, or 37.8
per cent ot the population, get less
than 21 shillings per week.
In the richest city in the world 99,-
830 are ln workhouses, prisons or reformatories and 3, 225,000 live in overcrowded dwellings. Further tn this
England of "ours" ten millions are
always on the verge of starvation and
twenty millions always poor. I say,
therefore, we cannot exaggerate the
world's misery under capitalism.
These items prove beyond a shadow
of a doubt that there are two distinct
nations, rich and poor; and the latter
In a large majority.
Division of Wealth Continues.
But statistics could also be brought
forward to show that the rich are
yearly becoming richer and the poor
poorer. Or, rather let us put it ln
this way: A fringe of the population
are year by year becoming possessed of more and yet more wealth produced by the workers. On the other
hand seven-eights of the whole population are becoming poorer. Wealth
which belongs to the whole nation is
stolen by the drones from the social
fund.
In every walk of life the chance
for the worker to better himself is
ever becoming worse. Twenty years
ago lt was not a rare thing for a shop
assistant to save enough out of his
wages to rise from the ranks of the
employe to employer. He would buy
or open a small business and after a
short time he would be assured of a
small but adequate living for himself
and family. How many shop assistants can do the same today? Where
ls the neighborhood where the small
shopkeeper can open a new shop and
compete against the trusts and big
stores? So lt is in every calling.
Odds Against the Workers.
Fifty years ago there was a chance
of an honest industrious man succeeding. What are the odds in the
over-crowded state of the market today? The getting of a living has been
reduced to a gamble; the stakes are
life and death.
Winning or losing the odds are
against the workers.
Men say "trade ia bad," they talk
of "bad times." But all these are a result of the private ownership of the
means of production.
If the capitalists produced for use,
there could be no such thing as markets being "glutted." For instance,
if there is a depression in the shoe
trade it means the retailers and manufacturers are not able to sell the
boots they have ln stock. Does this
show that all men, women and children are well booted? Not a bit of it.
It means the people have not enough
money to buy boots and pay the capitalists their profits. If, on tho other
hand, production was carried on for
use by the whole people why
should any want for boots or anything
(In reason) for the matter of that?
What Socialists Want.
Under Socialism we should all produce for use, and should not stop pro-
luctlon  In  any  tiHeful article till all
LETTER EXPLAINS
LEFARCUE DEATH
PARIS Dec. 18th— A letter given
out here, stating that the cause
of the dramatic suicide of Paul
Lafargue, the well known Socialist
writer of France, who, with his wife,
a daughter of Karl Marx, chose to
meet death by a hypodermic injection
of cyanhydric acid rather than fall a
victim to the sorrows of old age.
The letter asserts that famous Socialist writer and his wife did not end
their lives in a moment of disgUBt with
life, but that their suicide was the
result of a carefully conceived plan
arranged ten years ago.
The letter left by Lafargue is In
part as follows:
"Sound ln body and mind I commit
suicide because pitiless old age, which
ls taking away one by one the pleasures of life and is depriving me of my
physical and mental vigor, paralyses
my energy and destroys my wlll, making me a burden to myself and others.
'I resolved several years ago to kill
myself before I became seventy years
old. I also fixed this year as the. year,
and a hypodermic Injection ot cyanhydric acid as the method of taking my
own life.
"I die with the supreme joy of knowing that the cause to which I devoted
myself for forty-five years will soon
triumph.
"Long live Communism! Long live
International Socialsm!"
Lafargue and his wife, according to
Dr. Longuet, a nephew, lived up to
the extreme theories advocated by Dr.
Osier and other noted French scientists. Both were gifted with great
strength of character and both at all
times were of perfectly sound mind.
Although Lafargue was supposed to
draw large profits from the sale of the
work ot Karl Marx, as well as his own,
he was never a man of any considerable wealth. Ten years ago he Inherited from his father $31,600, which
at that time constituted his entire fortune. The idea of Investing the money
at Interest never entered his mind.
"I am 60 years old," he then said,
"and for ten years to come I believe
I shall keep my suppleness of body and
activity of mind. Then I shall fall a
victim to the sorrowB of old age. I
prefer not to face them. If death does
not come to me then, I shall go to meet
lt. I give myself ten years to live,
and ln order to prevent them being
overshadowed by sordid money worries
shall divide my legacy Into ten equal
shares—one for each year. When my
money ls gone I shall go, too."
From that day on Lafargue and his
wife lived an nneventful life at the
villa, mortgaging the estate as they
went on. The though that every dollar they spent was a step toward the
grave was never allowed to disturb
their peaceful life.
M008E JAW  ELECTION FUND.
Contributions received from tho following:
A Real Red $1.00
without exception had an abundance. I w_ Whltmore, Watrous   1.00
Those are some of the reasons why we
are Socialists.
Commercialism Is destroying life. It
Is doing no good to any living soul.
Even the rich are not benefiting by
their riches; for their days are spent
to a great extent In watchful care and
a certain amount of anxiety, lest they
should lose their Ill-gotten gains; besides, their lives are artificial and
spent apart from nature. They are (as
well as the poor) attacked by maladies for which the conditions under
which we live aro directly responsible.
Very well, then, Socialists are out
to heal the disease called capitalism.
Socialism meanB that the whole people
shall own the means of life nnd work
tho same co-operatively for the equal
good of all and not as now for the
enrichment of a few. ThlB means that
JclasBeB and class distinction will be
forever abolished. Socialism docs not
stand for an autocratic government
(like the present) that shall work
everything on the same lines as they
now run the postofflce; It means the
whole  people,  and  not a  governing
R. B. Vogen, Watrous   1.00
W. W. Jones, Alameda   1.00
E. N. Crandall, Sowris Valley     .25
Claude Swan, Shellbrook 50
Total  $4.75
To these Comrades, thanks.
L. BUDDEN.
Quite a few persons are making resolutions for the New Year. Resolutions don't accomplish anything but if
you've got a note book put a few reminders like these down:
LOwAL  VANCOUVER
Propaganda
MEETING
'im    i
Every Sunday Evening
Empress Theatre PAGE TWO
THE WESTERN CLARION VANCOUVER. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
SATURDAY,
, JANUA
UARY
.mi
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•MCUBMUata,
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Bundles of 5 or more copleB for a period
of not less than three months, at the rate
of  one   cont   per   copy   per   Issue.
Advertising   rates   on   application.
If  you  rsoelVS   this  paper.  It  Is   paid   for.
In making remittance by chequo, exchange must he added. Address all communication,, and make all money orders
payable to
TUB   WESTERN  (I.AItlON.
679 Homer. Richards  Ijinr, Vancouver, B.C.
CCft-Watch the label on your paper. If
OJv this number Is on It. your subscription   expires   the   next   Issue.
8ATURDAY, JANUARY 6th, 1912.
THE DURBAR.
T£ n. /j too ft mo arm
DEsetxye NOTHING
A Durbar is not some kind of a
saloon, as bas been rumored, although
they have many points in common.
Both are noted for large expenditure
and both are frequented to a great
extent by soldiers and Indians. Also
the proprietors of both are accustomed
to wear a good many diamonds.
There was a Durbar over ln Delhi,
India, a short time ago which received
considerable mention in the local
papers. The folks over there seemed
to be quite elated over the affair, and
not without reason. It was the flrst
time George V had ever been officially
appointed Emperor of India ln their
town and the Durbar was a sort of
celehration to make George feel at
home, celebrating being almost second
nature to Kings and such. So nobody
will object to the Delhi people feeling
a little bit stuck up. New rulers and
Conservative postmasters are not appointed every day.
In spite of the fact that there were
fifty thousand soldiers at the Durbar,
nobody was assassinated, even George
himself escaping.
There were a number of princes
who came in from the outlying districts to do homage to their monarch
with whom they had hitherto been acquainted by hearsay only. We regret
to say that a little friction crept into
this part of the show. It seems that
some of the homages were done better
than others. For instance, the Rajah
of the north half of sec. 12, Tp. range
34, west 5th meridian, did not have
his homage practiced up properly and
it made a poor showing beside some
of the other homages. This made him
jealous, which showed rather a mean
spirit. Queen Mary is, however, reported to have smoothed over the difficulty In the following neat little
speech:
"Gentlemen, grouse not I beseech
you. Homages are not made in a day,
and some of you have had more time
to read up on the matter and get ready
than others. The whole trouble seems
to be due to a lack of co-operation. You
Bhould have gotten together and decided upon a standard homage then
kept in touch with each other and endeavored to make your homages as
nearly alike as possible. Still, while
we will give the most marks for
the polished and sound looking homages, I assure you that even a rickety
homage that does not hang together
very well Ib better than none at all
and Is very dear to my little husband
and myself.
There ls a dark Bide to everything.
All was not joy at the Durbar. Some
very hard jobs were Imposed upon
different people. We understand that
the Qaekwar of Baroda (Gaekwar Is
not the name of a microbe, but a function of some kind like game-warden,
foreman, etc.), was obliged to pack
around a million dollars worth of diamonds. This Is too much for one
man and should have been brought to
the attention of the authorities, lt
would seem that the authorities could
not very well escape noticing such a
load but, believe us, this was only
a small Item ln the decorations. The
fixings surpassed anything that has
yet been seen in this country even at
Christmas, so the Gaekwar did not
cut much of a figure and had to suffer
In obscurity.
Since he happened to be there, the
King was asked to announce that the
Capital of India would be changed from
Calcutta to Delhi. This will only cost
about $25,000,000. After what It had
cOBt to move George from London to
Delhi and back, nobody wlll miss this
little sum. Although lt wlll be of some
assistance to 'deserving contracting
firms.
The Sherman Law brought into existence the great question, "what is
a combination in restraint of trade?"
Many, many legal lights of varying
brilliance have struggled with this
question and have reached no answer.
When it is realized that struggling is
an extremely lucrative occupation,
which a conclusion would destroy, no
wonder can be expressed that a con
elusion is not reached.
The matter ls alleged to have been
finally settled in the cases of the
American Tobacco and Standard Oil
Companies. But when we find the
class which bawled the loudest for the
destruction of these octopl, still howling ln a vociferous chorus, we begin
to suspect that the "settlement" was
merely occasioned by fatigue.
The Tobacco Trust ls no more. But
the shareholders ln the trust are still
peacefully drawing dividends from the
various tobacco businesses over which
the Trust exercised dominion. About
the only thing the trust will have to
do to conform to the new regulations
will be to get some fresh stationery
printed. The courts allege that because the several companies which
form the trust will now operate under
their own names Instead of another
name common to all that they will
compete viciously with one another.
The courts therefore, try to make it
appear that they have really done
something.
The small, Independent manufacturers, and small businessmen in general,
are not deceived by this arrangement,
historically and contemporaneously
celebrated for density as they are.
They quite clearly see that the revenue
the Tobacco trust formerly derived
wlll flow uninterruptedly Into the same
pockets. The same thing applies to
Standard Oil.
It is said that competition is restored between the trust's subsidiary corporations. Suppose T. Eaton & Co. had
a monopoly on the retail trade of this
country, but between his clerks and between his stores there was tremendous
rivalry—all In the Interests of T. Eaton
& Co., could there be said to be competition in the retail trade? Trust
litigation has at least established one
fact: That combinations of capital
are inseparable from the existence of
capital itself, and pitiful wailing and
capital Itself, and the sooner "Small
I Business" ceases Its pitiful wailing and
accepts the inevitable the better for
'all concerned.
■   :   THAT ^-TRUST   LAW.
Whet »W *-..» UM-tt deserv-
IsC mgti Bge0gflaaata.lm%tinadA have
£$01 m Ulsiiasp fcn"w to play with.
Ut Of if* JW«'rB of fees, busting a
;'i#ss< ■****' can't  be  busted vand  that
syittWmoy,   including     the     lawyers,
KmowB cannot be busted!
There was a trust buster we trusted
to bust all the Trusts that trusted to
bust us;
And true to his Trust he busted and
bust, but the bust-up does naught but
disgust us;
Por though Trusts that we trusted
bust are all busted, we're sure to be
bust it we trust 'em;
For the pieces act just as before
they were bast, and we're busted for
excuses to bust 'em.
Mc.
THE     WORKERS     IN     AMERICAN
HISTORY.
By James O'Neal, 831 North Third St.,
Indiana, Ij  S. A.     Prtc- 25 certs.
A Review.
The author of this valuable little
book, in his preface, says that his
object is to place ln the hands of
workingmen, and those who are ln
sympathy with their Ideals, Information that iB indispensable for a proper
understanding of the problems of today. Quotations from indisputable
standard authorities bristle on every
page, and the consecutive arrangement of facts studiously concealed by
the present educational authorities of
the U. S. Is presented ln such a forcible and telling manner as to render un-
Secqssary.-Uie author's re£exeuo«-_Jt©
any possible lack of literary style. In,
all the different periods of American
history the author reviews, (from settlement times down to the nineteenth
century), he has laid bare the impelling economic forces and material interests that operated to place in the
seats of the mighty a class of rulers,
whose canting hypocrisy, cowardly
subterfuges, and arrogant brutality
are worthily represented by their
modern prototypes.
In his opening chapter a picture Is
presented of the terrible conditions in
England and on the continent of
Europe, from 1450 to 1/00 and onwards, that produced the movement
of the wretched workers of those
countries, across the Atlantic to the
land of promised wealth and freedom. There they found that they had
but exchanged one set of brutal taskmasters for another equally brutal.
Dealing with the land conquests in
America the author shows how the
country was given away ln vast tracts,
with comprehensive autocratic privileges, to needy favorites of Charles II.
One of America's-"great" men, William Penn, Is here shown as having received a free grant of 40,000 acres, and
forthwith embarking upon a traffic ln
white slaves on a colossal scale, his
victims being the miserable disinherited of England and the continent
of Europe. The conditions under
which they were transported surpassed
In cruelty, in some respects, the horrors that were to occur a hundred
years later ln the African slave trade.
The traffic in white slaves In the
Colonies Is dealt with ln a separate
chapter, ihey were composed of political prisoners, undesirable relatives of
people ln high places, "criminals,"
Indentured servants and redemptions.
These unhappy people were chained together and driven in gangs from farm
to farm in search of a buyer. The
bloody legislation of Henry VIII and
Elizabeth was borrowed by the
"fathers of their country" for Ihe
benefit of their miserable victims.
The description given of the hor
rors endured by the white slaves
while being transported from Europe
ls a sickening record, from which one
turns with relief to a survey of slave
rebellions against their lot. This
part of the work deals with times both
before and after tbe Revolution.
Slaves, white and black, "free" laborers, small shopkeepers and farmers
made common cause against their oppressors, and were beaten down by
the time-honored methods of hanging,
Bhooting, burning and torture. A
brief glance Is given at the modern
Spartacus, Toussnlnt [.'Overture, the
leader of the revolting negroes and
mulattoes of the French colony of
St. Domingo, who resisted the slaveowners for ten years, and like his
Roman predecessor, was only defeated by ingratitude and treachery.
The portion dealing with the general status of the workerB during the
period covered by the book reads like
a chaptor from Thorold Rogers "Six
Centuries of Work and WageB," or
Marx' description of English conditions before the enactment of factory legislation. Very instructive is it
, to read of the great importance attached by the ruling class to the security of their political power, and
how rlgprously the propertyless were
excluded from the franchise. Another
American "Idol," Daniel Webster, Ib
mentioned as having strenuously opposed universal suffrage and Chancellor Kent also, who urged that "the
poor man's Interest is always in opposition to his duty, and It Is too
much to expect of human nature that
Interest will not be consulted," as a
clinching argument against the proposal.
In analysing the emraerpf the Revo
tsmrdr- ~~ ' '
lutlon the author effectively deprives
the authors of the famous Declaration
of Independence of the halo with
Which they have been Invested by capitalist historians. The methods ot the
wealthy minority to secure the services of the poor classes to throw off
the galling restrictions of their British
rivals in exploitation and the means
they used to stifle all opposition to
their propaganda must be read to be
appreciated.
Chapter VIII is devoted to a survey
of the conspiracy that gave birth to
that document which Ib loo*, ed upon
by the average American working-
man of today as the charter of his
liberties,—the great American Constitution. Space, already overtaxed, will
not allow of a more than brief appreciation of the facts brought to light
in connection with the framing of
that Instrument. The minutes of the
convention, kept secret for 50 years,
are drawn upon to show the "fathers
of their country" ln their true light,
which by no means reveals them as
the paragons of high souled patriotism and disinterested virtue current
histories and magazine articles present for the reverence of the hero
worshipping American. Of all the
characters attending that convention
reviewed by the author, Benjamin
Franklin alone appears ln a favorable
light. In two trenchant sentences tbe
result is summed up. "The constitution gave the ruling classes possession
cf a strong government and efficient
police and military power to enact
their Interests into laws to be obeyed
by all. * * * It was, it Is, and it
will remain, until changed, the machinery by which an Idle owning class
makes all classes below it serve as
dependents."
The final chapter deals with the rise
of the trade union movement and the
political movement, with a labor press
voicing the economic and political aspirations of the workers. Comparing
the latter with their modern successors the authors says: "These papers
were on the whole more advanced
and aggressive than the pitiful, con
servatlve and apologizing labor press
of today." The American worker has
obviously a long way to travel before
ho attains to the standard of manliness set by his ancestors of less than
100 years ago.
The book Is an exceedingly valuable
contribution to tbe historical literature of the Socialist movement; It
should be in the library of all Party
members, and the propagandist will
find within It a mine of effective material for Impressing upon his audiences the supreme importance of political action.
J. H. B.
The solution of unemployment is
the simplest thing in the world, difficult as some alleged brains would like
to make it appear. Let the workers
own the surplus they pile up when at
work and unemployment will be converted into comfortable ease.
If comfortable ease is a bad thing,
why are  some  people so anxious to
keep it all for themselves?
*   •   •
The article in this Issue on the Boy
Scout Movement will be Issued in
leaflet form. Price, $1.50 per 1000.
Order now.
The salary of the Editor and Dominion Secretary is $60.00 per month, as
reported in Clarion. The recent convention voted $180.00 as salaries for
Clarion editors alone. This is declined in feverish haste. We would not,
and we don't know anybody who Would
accept the gigantic task of paying
MftSolf such a salai
SUBSCRIPTION
CARDS
5   Yearlies^^ :,•>'
10 1-2 Yearlie* - V,
Socialist   Party  Director
DOMINION  EXECUTIVE   COMMITTEE
Socialist Party of Canada. Meets
every alternate Monday. R. I,
Matthews Secretary, 579 Homer-
Klchards lane.     Vancouver, B. C.
BRITISH      COLUMBIA      PROVINCIAL
Executive Committee, Socialist Party
of Canada. Meets every alternate
Monday,   lt.   I.   Matthews,   Secretary.
ALBERTA   PROVINCIAL   EXECUTIVE
Committee, Socialist Party of Canada.
Meets every alternate Monday ln Labor
Hall, Eighth Ave. East, opposite postofflce. Secretary wtll be pleased tu
tuwwor any communications regarding
the movement tn the province. F.
Dunby,   Secretary,   Box   647,   Calgary,
MANITOBA PROVINCIAL EXECUTIVE
Committee: Notice—This card Is inserted for the purpose of getting
"YOU" Interested In the Socialist
movement. SOCIALISTS are always
members of the Party; so If you are
desirous of becoming a member, or
wish to get any Information, write the
secretary, W. H. Slebblngs Address,
316 Good  Street. Winnipeg.
SASKATCHEWAN PBOVINCIAL Executive Committee, Socialist Party of
Cunada. Meets every flrst and third
Saturday in the month, 8:00 p.m., at
headquarters, Main Street, North Battleford. Beoretary will answer any
communications regarding the movement In this Province. L. Budden,
Secy., Box 101, North Battleford, Sak.
MARITIME PBOVINCIAL EXECUTIVE
Committee, Socialist Party of Canada,
meets every second and fourth Sundays In the Cape Breton office of the
Partv, Commercial Street, Glace t*ay,
N. S. I>un Cochrane, Secretary, Box
491, Glace Bay, N. S.
LOOAL   FBBNIE,   8.   P.   of   C„   HOLDS
educational meeting* In the Miner-'
Union Hall, Victoria Ave.. Fernie.
every Sunday evening at 7:45. Ru-I-
neas meeting first Sundny In each
month, same place, at 2:30 p.m. David
Paton, Secretary.  I\ox 101.
LOOAL   OREENWOOD,   B.   C,    NO.    9,
S. P. of C, meets every Sunday evening at Miners' 1'nlon Hnll. Greenwood
Visiting Comrades invited to call. C.
Prlmerile, Secretary.
LOCAL ROSSLAND. NO. 36, 8. T. ot C.
meets in Miners' hall every Sunday at
7:30 p.m. E. Campbell, Secretary. P.O.
Box 674. Rossland Finnish Branch
meets in (--Inlanders' Hall, Sundays at
7:30 p.m. A. Sebble, Secretary, P.O
Box 54, Rossland.
cry "Tuesday, 8 p.m.   Propaganda meet
lng  every  Sunday,   8   pju^jiUOs-is*--
Theatre.
LOOAL  SOUTH  PORT  G-BORBB,  B.O.,
No. 61, meets every Friday night at
8 p.m. In Public Library Room. John
Mclnnls, Secretary; Andrew Allen,
Organizer.
LOOAL VANCOUVEB,  B.   C,  NO.  1,  8.
P. of C. Business meetings every
Tuesday evening at headquarters, 133
Water Street. F. Perry, Secretary, 618
Hornby St.
LOCAL  VANCOUVER,   B.    0.,    BO.    45,
Finnish. Meets every second and
fourth Thursdays In the month at 2237
Main Street.    Seci-etar;-, Wm. Mynttl.
LOCAL  VBBNON,  B.  C,  NC.  38,  8. P.
of C. Meets every Tuesday, 8:00 p.m
sharp, at L. O. L. Hall, Tronson St
W. H. Gllmore, Secretary.
LOOAL     COLEMAN,     ALTA.,     NO.
Miners' Hull and Opera House, A"n
gamin meetings at s i> n*»S** ths
and third Sundays of tliffBHtn. H
ness meetings on ThurVifcr'•VSaVn-n*
following propaganda me'etlass tt I.
Organizer, T. Steele, ColemanV- Alta.-<
Secretary, Jas. Glendennlng, Box SI,
Coleman, Alta, Visitors may receive i
Information any day at Miners' Hall <
from Com. W. Graham, Secretary of i
U. M. W. of A.
LOOAL EDMONTON,  ALTA.,  NO.  1,  S. I
P. of C. Headquarters 622 First St.
Business and propaganda meetings
every Thursday at T:30 p.m. sharp
Our reading room is open to the public free, from 10 a.m. to 11 p.m. dally..
Secretary, A. Farmilo, 622 First St.;I
Organizer, W.  Stephenson.
LOCAL CALOART, ALTA., NO. 4, 8. P.I
of C. Meetings every Sunday at 8|
p. tn. at Room 26, Mackle .Block,!
Eighth avenue and Second street WJ
Club and reading room same address.]
Frank Tipping,  Secretary,  Box 647.
LOOAL REGINA NO. S, SASK., MEETS
every Sunday, Trades Hall, 8 p.mj
Business meeting, second Friday, sj
p.m., Trades Hall. B. Simmons, secre-l
tary, 1909 Garnet St., P.O. Box 1046.
LOOAL   MICHEL,  B.  0.,   NO.   It,   8.   P.
of 0„ holds propaganda meetings
every Sunday afternoon at 2:30 p.m. In
Crahan's Hall. A hearty Invitation Is
extended to alt wage slaves within
reach of us to attend our meetings.
Business meetings are held the first
and third Sundays of each month ai
10:30 a.m. ln the same hail. Party
organizers take notice. A. S. Julian,
Secretary.
LOOAL  MOVIE. B.  O., NO.  30,  MEETS
second Sunday. 7:30 p.m.. In McGregor
Hall (Miners' Hall). Thos. Roberts,
Secretary.
LOCAL   NELSON,   S.  P.  Of  O.,  MEETS
every Friday evening at 8 p.m., In
Miners' Hall. Nelson, B. C. I. A. Austin, Secretary.
LOCAL PRINCE RUPERT, B. C, Ho. S3,
S. P. of C, meets every Sunday in
hall in Empress Theatre Block at 2:00
p.m.    L. H. Gorham. Secretary.
LOOAL   BEVELSTOXE,   B.   C,    NO,    7,
S. P. of C. Business meetings at Socialist headquarters fourth Thursdays
of each month. B. F. Gayman, Secretary
LOOAL SANDON, B. C, NO. 30, 8. P. OP
C. Meets every Tuesday at 7:30 p.m
In the Sandon Miners' Union Hnll
Communications to be addressed
Drawer K. Sandon. B. C.
LOCAL VICTORIA NO. 3, S. P. of O	
Headquarters and reading room, 1319
Government St., Room 2, over Collator's gun .store.    Business meeting ev-
LOOAL BRANDON, MAN., NO. 7, 8.  Pi
of C. Headquarters, No. 10 Nation!
Block, I*ossar Ave. Propaganda meet]
ing, Sunday at 8 p.m.; business nicet-1
ing, second nnd fourth Mondays at si
p.m.; economic class. Friday at 8 p.m.]
Secretary, T. Mellalleo, 2j9 First St.J
Brandon, Man.
LOOAL LETKBB1DQB,  ALTA., NO. 13
S. P. of C.    Meets first and third Su
days  in  the  month,    at    4    p.m.,
Miners'   Hall.     Secretary,   Chas.   Peas]
cock. Box  1983.
LOCAL MOOSEJAW, SASH., No. 1, S. P.]
OP O.—Propaganda meetings every
Sunday, 7:30 p. m., in the Trades Hall.
Economic Class every Sunday, S p.m.]
D. McMillan, Sec. Treas., South HUB
P. O., Sask.; A. Stewart. Organizer,]
South Hill P. O., Sask. All slaves ' *
come.
LOCAL No. 1, WINNIPEG), MANITOBA
8. P. OP O.—Headquarters 628 y, Mali
Street. Winnipeg, room 2, next Dream-]
land Theatre. Business meeting every
Sunday morning, at 11; economic class)
Wednesdays, at 8 p. m. Secretary'i
address,   270   Young   8treet.     I'ropa-i
f;anda meeting every Sunday evening
n Dr-ainluml Theatre, Main Street, at*
8 o'clock.    Discussion  Invited.
LOCAL OTTAWA, NO. 8, S. P. OP C- _
iiii iness meetings first Sunday Inl
month In Labor Hall, 44 Bank St. A.I
G.  McCallum,  Secretary,  140 Augustal
St.
LOCAL  OLACB BAT, NO.  1,  OP  N.  8.1
Bu .incss and propaganda meetlngl
overy Thursday at 8 p.m. In Macdnn-f
aid's Hall, Union Street. All are wel4
come. Alfred Nash, Corresponding
Secretary, Glnce Bay; Wm. Sutherland!
Organizer, New Aberdeen; II. G. Rossi
Financial Secretary, oillce In D. Nl
Brodie Printing Co. Building, Unloi]
Street.
PLATFORM
Socialist Party of Canada
We, the Socialist Party of Canada, in convention assembled, affirm
our allegience to and support of the principles and program of the re-
^clutionary working class.
Labor produces all wealth, and to the producers it should belong.
The present economic system is based upon capitalist ownership of the
means of production, consequently all the products of labor belong to
the capitalist class. The capitalist is therefore master; the worker a
slave.
So long as the capitalist class remains in possession of the reins of
government all the powers of the State will be used to protect and
defend their property rights in the means of wealth production and
their control of the product of labor.
The capitalist system gives to the capitalist an ever-swelling stream
of profits, and to the worker an ever-increasing measure of misery and
degradation.
The interest of the working class lies in the direction of setting
itself free from capitalist exploitation by the abolition of the wage
system, under which is cloaked the robbery of the working class at the
point of production. To accomplish this necessitates the transformation
of capitalist property in the means of wealth production into collective
or working-class property
The irrepressible conflict of interests between the capitalist and
the worker is rapidly culminating ina struggle for possession of the
reins of government—the capitalist to hold, the worker to secure it by
political action.   This is the class struggle.
Therefore, we call upon all workers to organize under the banner
of the Socialist Party of Canada with the object of conquering ths
public powers for the purpose of setting up and enforcing the economic
program of the working class, as follows:
1. The transformation, as rapidly as possible, of capitalist property
in the means of wealth production (natural resources, factories, mills,
railroads, etc.) into the collective property of the working class.
2. The democratic organization and management of industry by
the workers.
3. The establishment, as speedily as possible, of production for
use instead of production for profit.
The Socialist Party when in office shall always and everywhere
until the present system is abolished, make the answer to this question
its gtiiding rule of conduct: Will this legislation advance the interests
of tbe working class and aid the workers in their class struggle against
capitalism? If it will, the Socialist Party is for it; if it will not, the
Socialist Part yis absolutely opposed to it.
In accordance with this principle the Socialist Party pledges itself
to c induct all the public affairs placed in its hands in such a manner
as to promote the interests of the working class alone. w*m
ANUARY 6,  1912
THE WESTERN CLARION VANCOUVER. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
DESPONDENCE
MILLET, ALTA.
Comrades: —
Enclosed find copy of the minutes
passed at our adjourned meeting of our
"Socialist Educational Union" formed
at Wetaskiwln, November 16th, 1911.
We were ready to unite entirely with
a united Socialist Party, but felt we
could best accomplish such union of
the Socialists of Canada by not taking
sides in the present controversy, extending to each our hearty good wish-
*ies, hoping and working for a thorough
democratization of all party tactics.
We must accord to each fair treatment
%iul a fair trial. No short cut methods,
Oven though such may seem to facilitate progress will do. It will mean in
tke end progress impeded.
In hopeful revolt,
A. 0. ALEXANDER,
Sec. Socialist Educational Union,
P. S.—We are not a third or a fourth
Socialist Party, but simply an Educational Union awaiting Political harmony within the Socialist forces of
Canada. Then we are ready to affiliate completely.
*   .   .
COPY  OF RESOLUTION PRESENTED AT  THE  CONVENTION  OF
THE SOCIALIST EDUCATION
UNION AT WETASKIWIN,
ALTA., DEC. 14, 1911.
Committee's Report.
Mr, Chairman:—
We, your committee beg leave to
submit for your consideration the following resolutions:
Resolved, that this convention deeply deplore that any differences should
exist in the Socialist Party of Canada,
and that we most earnestly urge every
Comrade to use his utmost influence
for a speedy adjustment of the difficulties, and that we may be enabled to
march under one banner, a United
party for the ovefthfo* bf our arch
enemy the CAPITALIST SYSTEM;
Be lt further resolved that the secretary of this organization be instructed to forward a copy of these resolutions to the headquarters of each of
the contending factions of the party.
Committee:
JOHN C. RATHBURN,
IVER KJOS,
A. WICKLAND.
Moved by Comrade T. Robley, and
seconded  by  Comrade Williams  that
the report of the resolution committee
be adopted as read.   CARRIED UNANIMOUSLY—
A.  O.  ALEXANDER,
Secretary.
WANTED-At the Ymir General Hospital, a nurse, must be a
graduate of some well established
hospital. For Darticulars write
W. B. McISAAC,
Secretary.
FERNIE, B. C.
Dear Comrade: —
Just a note to acknowledge Clarion
and to add that I much appreciate
both its outward appearance and the
invaluable articles lt contains. That
piece by W. A. P. in present issue
is the kind of dope to present to the
recruit Whenever I am paid, or receive the value of my labor I will make
an effort to help you along. That wlll
be a month yet. With all best v.-lsheB
for an increased and sustaining sub.
list.
Yours in revolt,
JOHN C. TURNER.
INSTRUCTION    FORM
CITIZENS.
FOR    NEW
appll-
of
By Agnes Thecla Fair.
Questions  usually asked an
■cant for naturalization:
Question:     What   Is   our   form
government?
Answer:    A form of robbery.
Q.:       Who  is  the   ruler    in    the
United States?
A.:   King Morgan.
Q.:    What is the highest law In the
United States?
A.:   Gold.
Q.:    Have you ever read the Constitution?
A.:    Yes, ln the newspapers.
Q.:    By whom was the Constitution
made?
A.:    By a number of wise men who
gained Independence from one king to
have their posterity give It to another
king.
Q.: How is the government divided?
A.: The government is divided into
two parts; the common herd and tins
money king.
Q.: How are tho general laws of
the United States made?
A.: For the rich and against the
poor.
Q.:   Where does Congress meet?
A.:   In Wall street.
Q.:   What laws can Congress make?
A.: Any law the "Gang" wants.
Q.:   How iB Congress constituted?
A.: Congress is composed of two
houses; a money house, knd a bunk
house.
Q.:    How are the Senators elected?
A.: By their own or predatory
wealth.
Q.:   How long do Senators serve?
A.: Six years, except when the
people are wise, then they serve six
months.
Q.: After Congress passes a law
what is necessary for it to go into
effect?
A.:   Money; lots of money.
Q.:    Who elects the President?
A.: The President is ejected indirectly by the Special Interests every
four years.
Q.: What is the Supreme Court of
the United States?
A.: To humorists, a farce; to the
poof, a calamity; to others, a fake.
Clerk: Your wisdom will make you
one of our best citizens. Brains are
better than paper.-—Cleveland Socialist.
•   *   *
The following business maxim is going the rounds: "If your competitor
talks about you, put him on your payroll. Never mind what he says so
long as he talks."
The vicious efforts that have recently been made to destroy the Socialist
movement are largely responsible for
its tremendous growth.
Comrade J. W. Bennett has resigned from the editorship of the Fernie
District Ledger, and is now residing
in England. The Socialists of B. C.
will sincerely regret the departure
of one who has always been an able
and fearless champion of the principles of Socialism. But certainly the
movement will be greatly strengthened wherever he takes up his abode.
His place on the Ledger has been
taken by H. P. Nerwich.
SUE CHIEF OF POLICE.
TACOMA, Dec. 21.—Fred Rhoda and
Harry Baker, members of the Industrial Workers of the World, today
through Attorney Brooks M. Wright
filed suit against Chief of Police Fraser and Patrolman Klncald, charging
false arrest. The men were arrested
several days ago, apparently without
cause and released without explanations.
at*
New York, Dec. 30.—The police are
searching today for a thrifty bridal
couple who have been married at least
seventy-five times, each ceremony
costing an unsuspecting clergyman
$10. Every minister who smiled over
them and bade them good fortune and
success is the possessor of a $20
cheque for which he gave $10 In
change.   The cheques were bad.
wage, after listening to the voice of the
Salvation Army charmer expatiating
on the ideal state they would live in
when back on the land! As a matter
of fact, the definite promise notwithstanding, they have lost their social
status and have been ruined.
At the close of the men's meeting,
the following resolutions were carried
unanimously:—
"Having heard the evidence of various small-holders as to the management of the Boxted scheme by the
Salvation Army, this meeting considers
that evidence warrants a full public
enquiry; and furthermore demands
that steps should be taken to see tbat
the Salvation Army officers concerned
do not evade their responsibilities to
recompense the men who have left
their homes and their employment,
and having being been deceived by
false promises, have not been given
full opportunity to justify the possibilities of the scheme."
We shall follow developments with
interest.—"John Bull"
BOXTED FARM COLONY.
WHERE THE POOR REALLY GET IT
There are make-believe Santa Clauses and then there are just plain fake
Santa Clauses on State street todoy.
There are many men dressed ln red
frocks with their faces wearing
strange whiskers who are not authorized by either the Salvation Army,
the American Salvation Army or the
Volunteers of America to solicit alms
from the Christmas shoppers.
These men have their little buckets or cups or glass jars, whichever
it may happen to be, labeled with a
card reading, "Help the Poor at
Christmas." Many pennies, nickels
and dimes are dropped into their cups
from people who believe they are giving to one of the societies, While in
reality the money goes Into the pocket of the Santa Claus.
The police have made no arrests as
yet. Some who are engaged in this soliciting business for themselves are
men who have been unable to find
employment of any sort. They can
dress up tn Santa Claus attire with
little expense.
One of these men with a little glass
jar supported by a stick talked freely
yesterday to a reporter. He admitted
that he was collecting for himself.
"Yes," it'B true that I'm not collecting for the Salvation Army or any
other army, .except my own army of
little kids at home who want Santa
Claus to come their way( too," he
said. "I used to stand here on tbe
corner last year for the Salvation
Army, but it was long, tiresome work,
and then I got little for It.
"The Salvation Army and the Volunteers collect money from  the people
on the streets to give the poor people
just one dinner.   I collect for myself' been planted, have been
More Salvation Army Sweating.
With money provided by the late
Mr. Herring, the Salvation Army have
been running a colony of "small-holders" at Boxted, near Colchester, and,
like every other undertaking of the
"Army," it is a failure. There is open
war on the estate between the tenants
and the management. A few days ago,
the malcontents held a public meeting
in Colchester, and there were some
lively scenes.
One of the   speakers was   a man
named Gardiner.   He stated that before joining the Colony he was promised   that  he   would  not  lose  his   respectability.   The conditiions of work
were far from agreeable.       He had
seven children under the age of fourteen.      "When  we took over    these
small-holdings," he said, "these were
the conditions,"   Then he read, from
a typewritten paper, as follows:—
Upon each holding a house, consisting of five rooms and scullery is
built, with tool-shed, fowl-house, and
pig-sty.    About  one acre  of  each
holding will also be planted with
fruit trees.  .   .  .The   holdings   will
vary in size from 3% to 5% acres.
,  .  . The arrangements provide for
approved   settlers   being   supplied
with seeds,  manures, etc.,  for  the
first year, and some monetary assistance  will   also   be  given   when
it is absolutely needed.  .  .      Fowls
and pigs will also be provided if required,  but  this  will  be  upon  the
recommendation of the management.
...  If possible, some parts of the
holdings will be   under crop at the
time of entry, and all land will be
deeply and well ploughed before the
tenant enters in.   .  .  .  The tenant
to pay such rent as he may be able
during  the  first  year,  but  in  the
second and third years lt ls expected
that full rent will be possible and
paid.  .  .  .  The rental will include
a charge for management, and also a
payment for sinking or extinction
fund.  .  .  .  Every settler will be a
tenant at wlll for three years, at the
end of which period he will, If finally
approved, exchange   his   agreement
for a lease, continuing the 6 per cent,
rental for 33 years, at the end of
which period the tenant Is possessed
of the holding, with house and all
trees, etc., on lease for 999 years.at
a few shillings per acre A
superintendent will be engaged to
advise and instruct holders as to
the best systems of cultivation, and
ln order to dispose of the produce to
the best advantage, a wide-reaching
' scheme of co-operative collection ana
sale will be established, under which
the produce will be carefully graded,
packed and sold.
All this sounds very nice.   But what
are the facts?   •
The land is poor and unsuited for
planted by
HOW THEY COME
Ninety out of two thousand! You
took us up wrong. It's January 15th,
1912, not 1913 we want the two thousand by. Start the New Year right
by getting at least one new subscriber.
You get the subs and we'll do the rest.
Following is this week's roll call:
Alfred Bonar, Moosejaw, Sask  12
A. Stewart, Moosejaw, Sask     9
E. Simpson, Victoria, B.C     6
Wm. Swanson, Edmonton, Alta     5
Com. Conway, City     5
C. Carlson, Brandon, Man     5
John Mclnnis, So. Fort George, B.C.   4
H. T. Bastable, Brandon, Man     3
F. Tipping, Calgary, Alta     3
John Mclver, Rossland, B.C     2
J. Watson, Winnipeg, Man     2
D. Galloway, City     2
S. Lefeaux, City     2
Wm. E. Cocks, Regina, Sask     2
Wm. Koelling, New Michel, B. C...    2
Singles'.
Marion Hodges, Flagsta-, Ariz.; E. J.
Higgins, Philadelphia, Pa.; Gust. Eng-
strom, Victoria, B. C.| Abe Karme,
City; Alex. McDonald, City; A. Kerr,
Hardy Bay, B. C; Loc Edmonton;
Wm. Thomas, Quesnei, B.C.; H. Myers,
Carlyle, Sask.; F. Blumberg, City;
Wm. Peterson, St. John, N.B.; T.
Mason, Montreal, Que.; W. Green, Toronto, Ont.; F. G. Sharpe, Toronto,
Ont.; C. Thomas, Toronto; Wm. Sug-
gett, Bentley, Alta.; C. M. OBrien, Edmonton; W. Haggart, Union Bay, B.C.;
J. N. Hintsa, Gibson's Landing, B.C.;
J. Lee, Merrltt, B. C; H. Siegfried,
Revelstoke, B.C.; G. Velge, Francis
Lake, B.C.; T. Holmes, North Vancouver, B.C.
Bundles:
C. McM. Smith, Brooklyn, N.Y   25
W. Gribble, Seattle, Wash  60
Bert Savage, Steelton, Ont  20
arrested we want to see that he gets
a fair trial.
j    But lt is Idiotic for us to make a
hero of him just because he gets in
| Jail.
Let's strip off the mask of spectacu-
: larism and take a good look at the real
heart of this thing of getting killed ln
the chss struggle.
Suppose an Innocent workingman
were to be hanged.
Would that be any worse than being
killed by whirling machinery unsafe-
guarded for profit?
Would lt be any worse than death
j by suffocation in a mine disaster?
Would lt be any worse than living
a slow death due to exploitation
Would It be any worse than having
i our working class girls driven to prostitution?
Would It be any worse than having
j our working class men driven to drink
| and to trampdom?
Would lt be any worse than having
our working class children driven
Into child slavery
Why do not the advocates of red
hell write lurid appeals for physical
violence on account of these outrages
also?
!    No, no!
|    Physical  violence' is  the  height of
folly.
Education is the thing that Is
I needed.
| All these millions who are now fav-
I orably disposed toward us—what we
! need is to educate them in the prin-
; ciples of Socialism. Then they will
1 be ours for all time.
| Education is positive. It is headed
: frontwards.
Violence Is negative. It Is headed
backwards.
j Another measure that was advo-
I cated during the heat of the McNamara trouble was the general Btrike.
All talk on that subect reminds me
of a cartoon which appeared during
one of our great strikes. The Idea of
calling all the workers out on a general sympathetic strike was being advocated.
The cartoon represented two labor
leaders, in knightly attire, standing
on the sea shore. The words put into
their mouths were from Shakespeare.
One of them, in heroic attitude, with
arm outstretched toward the sea, proclaimed, "I can call spirits from the
vasty deep!"
And the other replied, "Aye, and so
can any man; but will they come when
you do call them?"
Except in a case of overwhelming
crisis, a general strike is an impossibility.
 PAGETHREE^
ONLY  A QUE8TION  OF JjaO
"How does this njjMjfiq
cures his patienraj-M 'wmBmxmm^Mmma
differ from &<mggt*T nhytwehna.t' *'r~
■ imms^tae^^wm... mssma. 'wmm^m   am
'-■ir--s i)gam."~w%trrwma4 Mala 1
"™e*  'fie  WTi  ji' ■ ,,-•>.    j    ■
UTIftATUIIt.   ' 7'):..;^'
We neect»iiwrV BtA Jatf want to
make way (M* | ■pWfiphlets. Therefore we makB^refollowlng offer:
Manifesto wt S. P. of C 10c
Socialism, Revolution and Internationalism    10c
Socialism and Unionism  Sc
Slave of the Farm  5c
Struggle  for Existence  6c
Proletarian In Politics  6c.
The State and Government  6c
45c
THE WHOLE BUNCH FOR 25c.
One hundred 5 cent pamphlets for
80 cents.
One hundred 10 cent pamphlets for
$2.00.
One thousand Boy Scout Leaflets for
$1.50.
HUNDREDS OF IDLE MEN IN
PORTLAND.
PORTLAND, Ore., Dec. 21.--The
ways and means committee of the city
council today conferred with Mayor
Rushlight in an endeavor to devise
some means of furnishing work for the
hundreds of idle men here during the
winter.
It is probable that single city laborers without employment will be
given meals and lodging tickets, and
an endeavor will be made to provide
for laborers with families also.
• •   •
The class struggle Is a struggle between owner and non-owners of property, the owners to hold and the non-
owners to secure. This struggle cannot be avoided and can be ended only
by being intensified.
• •   •
Andrew Carnegie says he wants to
die poor, but he does not seem very
anxious. During the last ten years he
has given away to charitable institutions about $190,000,000, and yet he ls
over $150,000,000 richer than ten years
ago, and he ls drawing $44,000 a day
from the sale of his share in the Carnegie Steel Company to the United
States Steel Corporation.
The Dominion Executive
Committee meets Monday,
January 8th, 8 p.m.
Holler
for sovcrnl weeks, or at least until 1 smallholders themselves. Although
can get a job. A dinner once a year market gardens. What fruit trees have
don't do the people any good. But if the prospectus stated that settlers
I can collect about $15 & Week in this would be tenants at wlll   for   three
-at the P.O.
if you do not
get your
CLARION
If that does
not work
-!>"*&
-that you
et it.
way, and give It to my Wife to feed
the kids, I think I'm doing better than
those people.
"No, I don't believe that I'm an impostor. I would work if I could get
employment, but I can't. It's better
to do this than to let my kids ge
hungry and let the wife get sick. The
police can pick me up if they waftt to,
but already I've got enough to tide the
family over for a week or two. If I
didn't do this they would not have
anything at all."
Just then a well-dressed woman
stopped with her well-dressed little
boy who Insisted upon shaking hands
with Santa Claus. He extended one
gloved hand to the child and with the
other patted him upon the head. The
woman dropped a quarter Into the jar
and walked on.
"that'll buy bread for a week,'
said  the  fake  Santa    Claus as    he
 °"» ->- w
yea^s, many of them had to leave at
the end of one year. Mr. Gardiner
states that he worked 15 to 18 hours a
day.
As to the co-operation that was talked about, no tenant has had a voice in
the management and the only Committee meeting was merely to get the
rules passed—since then the whole
system of buying and selling has been
ln the hands of one man. The smallholders came on the colony to be independent men, and to make themselves successful by their own efforts.
When they started every man did his
best, and so did their wives and children also after they came from school.
As the matter stands at present, these
small-holders are unable to pay their
rent; so some 27 of them were told to
"clear-out" or remain as labourers for
the princely wage of 14s. a week. Many
of these men had thrown up steady
Joljg a*, bpme.at more thi
' '<■■ '
■j^mi**M:
A   BLE88ING   IN   DISGUISE.
By John M. Work.
The beautiful  black eye which we
are .   w sporting is not the only effect
of the McNanfara blow.
It also shocked our eyes open.
We are wiser than we were.
When our capitalistic enemies have
voiced their crow and we have eaten
ours, it will begin to dawn upon the
far-sighted  that, to us, the event is
really a blessing in disguise.
It called a halt to our indiscriminate
adoration of workingmen who get In
jail.
It will cause us to go slow in accepting the advice of advocates of red hell,
who make lurid appeals for physical
violence and try to urge the working
claas into premature revolt.
No greater calamity could occur than
for the working class to indulge in
premature revolt.
Workingmen who do not know
enough to vote right cannot be trusted
to shoot right.
When the workingmen in general
acquire sense enough to vote right,
there will be no occasion for them to
shoot at all—unlesB the capitalists
should ralBe an insurrection and try
to prevent the elected working class
candidates from taking their offices—
in which case, having by that time
learned how to vote right, the workers
will know how to shoot right.
Hut to talk about physical strife under the present circumstances is
childish.
It is also dangerous.
I do not mean dangerous to our
lives. I fully realize that any of us
are likely to end our careers at the
hands of hired assassins.
Neither am I afraid of a little blood.
When a tyrant gets his due, I am free
to say—in the words of Colonel In-
gersoll when he was speaking of the
assassination nf the Czar of Russia—
"My sympathies cluster about the
point of the dagger."
But I realize Just how foolish and
dangerous it Is to spill blood.
It would be very dangerous to our
Cause. It would turn millions of people against us who are now favorably
disposed.
It Is lucky for us that the McNamaras are not Socialists, but Democrats
and Catholics. As it is, the Catholics
and Democrats will forget It with
great ease and despatch.
■■ t*-wt*m:**m* ■•hhmw *•
Let Us Purchase Land for You at
GovernmentPrice
$5 Monthly Will Give You
Snug  Income  Every Year
A Co-operative Partnership
Proposition
Western Canada Farming
®r Colonization Co., Ltd*
268 Hastings Street East,        Vancouver,
B.C.
FILL IN THIS COUPON AND MAIL TO US TODAY
WESTERN CANADA FARMING &
COLONIZA TION CO., LTD.
Dear Sirs:
Please send, free of cost to me, information re above
land.
Name
Address
City or "Gown
CO-OPERATION
Is The Key Note of Socialism
i   _
Home Loan & Contract
Company, Limited
CANADA LIFE BLDG.        VANCOUVER, 8.C
640 Ha-ting* Street We»i Phone Sey. 6704%1
OPEN EVENINGS *v,,,',
m
m
K.
memsVi PAGE FOUR
THE WESTERN CLARION VANCOUVER, BR11ISH COLUMBIA.
SATURDAY, JANUARY 6th, 1-H2.
PURPOSE OF BOY
SCOjnjIOVEMENT
Training Ground for Soldiers and Supporters of the
Present System.
The Boy Scout Movement is not only an attempt to
provide the material for a great fighting force, to train
boys to become efficient soldiers, it also aims to exert
an influence in industry.
It is a movement called into being by the fact
thaTthousands of people, workers especially, are beginning to enquire into the miserable social conditions
now existing, and to accept the correct remedy. It is
designed not to provide another remedy for those conditions, but to make the masses contented with them,
prepared to accept the worst and to fight if necessary
to maintain things as they are.
Aside from being an effort to educate boys against
any attempt to change the social system, it seeks to
turn them into strikebreakers, and profitable servants
of the employing class in general. The man who figures as the founder of the Boy Scouts, Sir Robert
Baden-Powell, says the object is not to make military
scouts of the boys, but to form them into "Peace
Scouts." Anyone who cares to read his books will see
that he has both objects in view.
He says there is no intention of teaching the boys
militarism or blood-thirstiness, and proves this by saying there is no military drill in the training of scouts.
He gives as his reason for this omission the fact that
military drill does not produce the best soldiers. In
other words, he has discovered a better method of producing soldiers, and then expects his readers to believe
that he doesn't want to produce them. His books are
full of stories calculated to show the life of the soldier
to be an ideal one for a boy. On every page the Scout
is exhorted to "Be Prepared" to fight for his King and
his country when ordered to do so. The Boy Scout
movement is not openly militaristic. It is worse. It
subtly appeals to the youthful imagination and paves
the way for the boy to become a willing, trustful and
obedient soldier.
This is its least important character, however.
' The peace part of the program is by far the worst. It
is the most dangerous to the future well being, comfort
and happiness of the working class. Imagine what
would happen in the event of any body of workers demanding a higher wage or better working conditions, if
the employers, i*iad at their disposal an army of efficient
workers tramed to obey quickly and cheerfully the orders of their superiors. That is exactly what Baden-
Powell and the class of which he is the voice are aiming at. One has only to read the work entitled, "The
Canadian Boy Scout" to verify this statement.
In the first place, it is sought to make scouts strive
to secure "proficiency badges." In order to get these
badges, scouts are required to qualify as blacksmiths,
bee farmers, airmen, carpenters, clerks, stenographers,
cooks, dairymen, electricians, telegraphers, engineers,
farmers, firemen, farriers, gardeners, "handymen,"
photographers, plumbers, poultry farmers, printers,
seamen, and military occupations such as marksmen,
buglers, etc. The scout organization, then, according
to its own authorities, is a training ground for tradesmen and workers of all grades.
So much for the technical part of a scout's education, now for the moral or social part. The idea that
is insisted upon more than any other is that the scout
must obey orders. Orders from whom*? From those
in authority over him, of course, which in the last
analysis would be the government. In strikes, governments are always on the side of the employers.
Further, scouts are taught to accept all conditions
with a smile and without any complaints, and to perform services for others cheerfully and without thought
of any reward. Who are the "others"? Those who
would be in a position to request the services of scouts.
The government again, and finally, the employing class.
Here is a paragraph from Baden-Powell's book:
"A ship can be cither a heaven or a hell; it depends entirely on the men in her. If they are surly, inclined to grouse, and untidy, they will be an unhappy
ship's company. If they are, like scouts, cherrily dc-
temiii-ed to make the best of things, to give and take,
and to keep their place tidy and clean, they will be a
happy family and enjoy their life."
If this is not designed to prevent shipowners and
other owners from ever having complaints of horrible
and unsafe conditions in their ships, factories, etc.,
then what is it for? No other construction can be
placed upon it. It is such a spirit, coupled with the
fear of dismissal, that is responsible for many fatal accidents and great disasters. Workmen are often aware
that they are in danger of their lives but are so resigned
to their fate, or in such fear of losing their jobs, that
they say nothing.
As a whole, the Boy Scout movement is started for
the one purpose of providing the employers of the British Empire with a reserve army of working-men which
will be always ready to protect their property and assist them in their efforts to secure greater profits.
The only attempt to offer an explanation of social
problems appears in the form of that old exploded
theory that all workingclass miseries arc caused by a
lack of thrift. The scout is taught to save. Moreover
he is told that saving will keep him from want. Baden-
Powell says on this point:
"A very large proportion of the distress and un-
employedness in all countries is directly due to the
want of thrift on the part of the people themselves.
Our social reformers, before seeking for new remedies,
would do well to set this part of the problem right in
the first place. They would then probably find very little more left for them to do. There is money enough
in Britain to go round if it were properly made use of
by all workingmen."
Thus, Mr. Workingmen, they hope to teach your
boy to become a manly, upright citizen by teaching him
a falsehood to start with. The truth, which is not denied by anybody except when it is hoped to deceive
somebody, is this: Employment comes from Business, Business comes from Buying, Buying means
spending, and a good deal of the spending comes out of
Wages, which come from Employment. When spending ceases, business suffers and employment falls off.
■ Wealth comes not from saving but from spending. Fortunes are made because capitalists spend their money
in buying labor-power and getting the best of the bargain. Nobody ever got wealthy through saving yet.
Poverty increases because workingmen sell labor-
power and get the worst of the bargain by selling it for
less than it will produce.   .
To sum up: The Boy Scout movement will not
produce Men, but will deepen ignorance and prejudice
and make boys into servile, wiling slaves.
Working parents should teach their boys to obey
no orders that do not satisfy their reasoning powers;
to desire independence and to love true liberty; to avoid
working for any man; that labor produces all wealth;
to regard the happiness, comfort and well being of
those who toil as the greatest of all objects for which
to strive, and to realize that poverty is something which
can easily be done away with by the united action of
the working class in laying hold of those things which
are socially operated to produce wealth.
THINGci   IN   GENERAL.
Things are moving around Brandon
Local these days: Two debates pulled
off and two more slated.
This is the time of year when Trades
Councils get the municipal bug.
Brandon Trades and Labor Council
is no exception to the rule.
Some of the delegates "chew the
rag" about what "we" should do ana
what "we" are going to do with the
City Council. If they read more and
talked less they would be considerably wiser.
Why don't these municipal freaks
attend the propaganda meetings of
the Socialist Party where these issues
are dealt with? Guess they are scared
of learning something.
Guess they had the municipal bug
in Winnipeg, too. Guess it's "tall timber" for them since the 8th.
Didn't you hear Puttee say I came,
I squawked, I got beaten?
I expect Puttee's annual run for the
Job pf Controller is an annual joke—
on the workers.
Some of the plugs in Brandon think
the workers pay the taxes out of their
wages. If we could get a juicy victim
for a debate on the subject they might
learn something about lt.
Lloyd's News, speaking of the failure of the Thames Iron Works, states
that "wages are five shillings a week
higher in London than elsewhere (in
England), simply because rents are
higher, taxes are higher, and goods
are more expensive."
I wonder how our "revisionist-reformer" friends square that with some
of their dope. It sounds very much
like "Marxian Imposslbillsm."
"Wages higher BECAU8E taxes are
higher." Who stands to save by lower taxation, municipal ownership, etc.,
etc.?
"Wages are higher BECAU8E rents
are higher." Who stands to gain by
cheaper houses, municipal houses, etc.
etc.?
"Wages are higher because goods
are more expensive." Who stands to
gain by cheaper goods, etc, etc.?
Wage slaves that use their brains
know that it "cuts no figure" to them
what the price of fodder and stall
room is. But then they are in the
S. P. C.
—ED.  FULCHER.
JAPANESE   CAPTURING   CHINE3E
COTTON TRADE.
Under this heading a very interesting article recently appeared in the
London Press which shows that the
Japanese are becoming serious competitors for China's cotton market,
owing to their being able to place their
commodities on that market at a much
cheaper rate than Great Britain or the
United States. The following statistics were given which show Chinese
imports of Plain cotton goods.
Brit. 10,785,337 8,224,951 10,691,448
It was also pointed out that Japan
herself ls In turn faced with growing
competition owing to the Chinese
themselves now operating several
mills: This all means that if Great
Britain and the united States wish to
retain their hold on the Chinese Cotton Market they must cheaper the
cost of production still more and we
all know who will bear the brunt of
this, i.e. the slaves employed In the
sweat-shops of these two glorious
countries. And* still people wonder
why the naughty slaves In England and
other parts are so discontent with their
lot.
P. L.
The church is having great difficulty in finding young men who arc
willing to train for the minlBtry. This
is.because the church is becoming an
end ln itself Instead of an Instrument.
Class consciousness is the knowledge of the existence of two classes
in society and the realization that
you belong to one of them. Which
one it is will be easily arrived at by
discovering which one it is not.
Know Why |,
Socialism is Coming
Don't be a socialist unless you know why you are one. Know why
Socialism is coming. Trace the economic development of civilization
through from slavery to the present and know why socialism is
inevitable.
Victor L. Berger says:
"A few socialist phrases is not sufficient to make a. acltmtlflc
•ocio-ll.t. In order to know WHY SOCIALISM IS CONING, a
socialist should have an idea of evolution, he must know history,
he must know something of economic development.
We ae socialists ere vitally Interested in the development of
civilization. History for ue is not m collection of shallow village
tales, the etory of coronations, weddings and burials of kings. For
ue the true lesson of history is the story of progress of mankind by
gradual etepe from brutal slavery to enlightenment, culture
and humanity. *
The manner in which one eystem has grown out of another,
feudalism out of slavery end capitalism out of feudalism le most
euggeetive of the manner by which the Socialist Republic will
gradually develop out of the present eystem.
To show how the Socialist Republic will gradually develop oui
of the preeent eystem, the Library of Original Sources haa bean
published.   It ie a treasure mine."
The Library of Original Sources
(In the original documents—translated)
clears away the bigotry and superstition that has accumulated around religion, law,
government, education, etc.—brings to light the naked truth and ahowa why socialism ia coming.  This wonderful library gives the authoritative sources of knowledge
in all fields of thought—socialism philosophy, science, education, etc. The rock-bottom
facts which for centuries capitalist writers have deliberately kept from the people.
Thousands off the Comrades In e-.ll parte off the United States tvnd
Ce-.ne-.da have •©cured thla library on our co.opere-.tlve ple-.n. and
without a single exception e*.re enthusiastic over It.   Letters
like theee come pouring In with every mail:
John Spuso: "<£Mo8t helpful. Ought
to be in every library."
WaJUr Lob-rents, Wash.: "A boon to
workingmen who have not time nor
money to get a college education."
A. M. Simonsi "Superior to encyclopedias; will be read when novels are
forgotten."
C E. Kline, Wash.: "I am urging all
my friends to secure your great
work."
Goo. Pae, oAlberU, Can.: "just the
thins ta htrp t'ifn the wheels of
progress.
Fred Warren: "Most Important production;
Local could not make a better investment.
The most valuable part
Arthur M.Lewis:
of my library."
C. R.Oyler, Editor Enterpriser: "The best
book Investment I ever made."
Jack London: "rA library boiled v
down. I never could spare these ten &
volumes from my library." s*
Ernest Untermann The vol
umes will be my most valuable
companions  this  winter."
Uak
Research
An
u
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