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Western Clarion Feb 10, 1912

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What Do the Sellers of Labor Power Get in Exchange
for Their Commodity.
MBER 654
Subscription Price ai  an
HJR VUR       01.fU
Money is a convenient medium of
■'      It is very convenient to have plenty
l! of  this  medium:     The   greater  the
a  amount of the medium the greater the
Exchange is the passing over of one
kind of wealth for another, either by
direct barter—a straight, uncomplicated exchange, one horse in exchange
for two oxen, or one ox in exchange
for a dozen sheep—or the purchase by
means of a certificate of value (which
money is), the receiver of the money
being able to defer the delivery of
"' the commodity which he is to receive
in exchange for the commodity he
passed over until It is convenient for
him to receive that wealth.
There is a further convenience in
money in this way: The receiver of
j |he money can "spend it" part at a
time; that is, he can get the value he
receives in exchange for what he gave
in any quantity, large or small, at any
time he pleases, as long as the money
That Is all there is in the present
eystem of exchange ln principle,
though the ramifications of the system
are Infinite and cannot be gone into
in an article like this. Is it now thoroughly dealt with in the "Book of Capital," by Karl Marx? Get the first
nine chapters if you can't scrape together enough for the three volumes.)
Every sale is a purchase, and every
purchase is a sale; that is, in a transaction which may take place between
you and another you sell to him whatever you part with and you buy from
him whatever you get, and vice versa.
The fact that a medium is generally
used nowadays does not affect this
Wealth cannot be Increased by exchange; therefore
No profit can be made In exchange.
All that is done by exchange Is to
TRANSFER wealth from one to another.
After exchange has taken place, the
things are in possession of different
parties than before, but no value has
been added.
All the value was produced at the
point of production, and ls now being
subjected to the gambling that takes
place in the market.
People speak of "making a profit"
by buying and selling, but no one ever
did, no one ever does, no one ever
can, for, as has been previously contended, the wealth has been already
produced, a fact which ls obvious
when one realizes that, unless lt had
been, it could not be offered for exchange.
Truly, profit can be REALIZED on
the market; that Is, one can get "the
best of the bargain" ln the exchange
that takes place there. He can, by
taking advantage of an incraesed demand for what he has to sell get a
higher price for the same, enabling him
to buy more than he would otherwise
be able, but the fact remains that if he
gets the "best of the bargain" the other
Tellow will get "the worst of the bargain." HE gets MORE, the OTHER
ge'ts LESS; but the sum-total of the
wealth they have dealt In remains the
same as before.
What chiefly concerns the worker ln
this matter of buying and selling is
where he comes in as a seller of his
labor-power, what he gets in exchange
for it, why he doeBnt' get more than
he does, why he gets sometimes more
and sometimes less, why often he cannot get any price at all because no one
wants to buy, why he cannot sell because he chooses but has to wait until
ft suits some one to buy; in short:
Why he has such a devil of a job to
EXCHANGE what he has in his possession for what he wishes to EXCHANGE it for.
Propaganda   Meeting
Sunday, Feb. 11,8 p.m.
B. P. Pettipiece
W. Gribble
J. H. Hawthornthwaite
All this ls easy for the Socialist who
has steadfastly studied the matter to
understand, and it Is easy for him to
explain in a way that HE understands,
but lt is not so easy to explain in a
way that the other fellow understands.
Hence this article.
While in the market for other commodities, sometimes the advantage is
on the side of one and sometimes on
the side of the other, owing to the
swing of the pendulum due to the flow
of capital from one industry to another,
causing increased demand on one side
and Increased supply on the other. In
the labor-power market the supply always exceeds the demand; not always
in the same degree, it is true, but still
always exceeding, and considerably exceeding, the demand.
Truly wages go up—rarely—and
down—often:—but never do wages,
however high, come near to representing the wealth produced by the exercise of the labor-power of which
wages ls the price.
I am not dealing with surplus
value, however, in this article.
Let us try to illustrate simply and
briefly under what conditions the
worker exchanges his labor-power,
what he really gets In exchange, why
he gets it, and why he doesnt' get
The conditions may be dealt with
very briefly. They are simply the conditions which the market imposes:
A rising demand, a rising price
(wages); a declining demand, declining wages.
As a whole, the demand for labor-
power is now steadily declining, and it
is evident that the price will continue
to decline, so that, in the not far distant future, the standard of living of
the sellers of labor-power will be reduced to that point where it can be
reduced no further and leave tbe
workers in a fit condition to work—
unlesB enough of them wake up before
this comes to pass and abolish the
wages system.
What do the sellers of labor-power
get ln exchange for their commodity?
The answer ls: Food, clothing, and
shelter, and, perhaps, a few trimmings: A lltle tobacco enough for a
pot or two of beer,-a very occasional
visit to the show, and so on; but,
broadly speaking, sufficient of the
wealth they themselves produce to
keep them in the state the masters
wish them kept.
It works like this: A worker, we
will say, gets $3 a day for ten hours'
Now he canont eat that $3, either ln
the form of silver discs or in paper
form. These dollars are the certificates of value handed to him in consideration of his delivering his labor-
power, enabling him to get consumable wealth ln order that he may renew his exhausted energy bo that he
may have to deliver again tomorrow.
These paper bills or silver discs
are his license to live.
The license may be withdrawn at
any time and If a few of the licenses
ha,ve not been put by (and it is only
few of the working class who are
able to put a few by, either as individuals or ln friendly societies or
unions) our worker whose license to
eist has been withdrawn ls immediately "up against It."
Not only is he financially broken,
but that very fact makes him an offender against the law. He is a vagrant, and as such subject to imprisonment if he gets together with other
unemployed to discuss matters ln
some open space, not having money
to hire a hall. Again, he breaks the
law—speclaly manufactured for the
occasion—and is liable to get his head
broken by a policeman's club, as mauy
did last Sunduy and the Sunday before
ln Vancouver.
Here" is, we will Bay, an out-of-
work. He has no money; that's an
offence. His only pair of pants are
fairly 'dropping off him. He mustn't
beg a pair; that's an offence. He
mustn't steal a pair; that's an offense.
So what the devil IS he to do?
He mUsn't try to commit suicide,
either, or he'll get punished for that.
Bulletin: LAWRENCE, Mass., Jan.
30.—John Ramy, an 18-year-old Syrian
boy, was bayoneted In the back as he'You/are onIy a race of vafiBal8>
Where is your bold tradition,
Your stories of battles won
In the cause of truth and freedom
In days long past and gene?
fled from a squad of militia on  Elral
Of serfs, of cringing slaves,
street today.   The police and officials' Ano you,bbw ln meek gubm,gBlon
did everything possible to keep tbe affair quiet. The police admit the boy
was doing no wrong. He ls not expected to live.
Lawrence, Mass., Jan. 30.—The grim
reality of the textile workers' strike
was realized by all Lawrence today
when state militiamen, their rifles loaded and with a double allowance of ball
cartridges ln their webbed belts, patrolled every avenue leading to the
great mills section of the city, the
business section and the aristocratic
■residence quarters. Tbe mill owners'
demand for additional troops to "overawe the strikers" was granted by Governor Foss, and all through the night
additional armed men arrived until today a small army was on dutv.
The soldiers were ordered to prevent
rioting at any cost. Last night's demonstration, which resulted in the accidental killing of one woman—a striker
—hit by a stray bullet, and in which
the police and strikers fought hand to
hand, was responsible for this order.
For the present, it was stated, martial
law will not be declared, but the manner in which pedestrians were compelled to "move on" and the streets
and avenues kept clear, was an evidence of what may be expected if the
authorities later decide to suspend the
civil law in order that the big mill
owners may import strike breakers
here to run their mills.
From birth to your welcome graveB.
Arise! Shake off this stupor.
Be men in deed, not song!
Your cause is just and holy,
Your arm is quick and strong.
Why bend your heads in homage
To creatures coarse and vile
WhOBe thin veneer of polish
Makes ranker still their guile?
Ye workers of Vancouver,
How ever your lot is casO
Have you no spark of manhod?
Is all your glory past?
Is this a Russian province,
Where Cossack's  ride men  down?
Or hurry them to prison
Because some czar may frown?
Is there no law?   No justice?
Are we, indeed, all slaves?
Are those who rule so noble?
Or are they grasping khiaves?
But if our cause is righteous,
If these things be not" true,
Leave not one Btone unshlfted
Till it be victor, too!
Colonel Sweetzer, ln charge of the
mllltla, today made this statement:
"I will allow no mass meeting or
parades. I have passed orders'to the
troops that they shall toy no longer
with the men. We will do everything,
of course, to prevent bloodshed, but we
must have order here.
"It was thought we were afraid to
shoot. We are going to look for
trouble—legitimate trouble—from now
not consider that the flags are carried
by any organization. We're not looking for peace now.'
Where is the one among you
That boasts of his British birth,
Proclaiming himself a freeman,
Proud of his home and hearth?
Get on the Voters' List.
1. British subject.
2. Twenty-one years of age.
3. Six months' residence in British
4. Thirty days in Vancouver riding.
Please register:
Timber inspector's office, the court
house, close to Vancouver Hotel, on
Georgia street.
The lists will close on April 1. Register now. Attend to it yourself and
notify W. Gribble, 579 Homer-Richards
Lane, when you have done so.
All Vancouver Socialists willing to
help in organization work are Informed
that an organization meeting will be
held at the Labor Hall, Cordova street,
Thursday, February 19,
at 8 p. m.
Come and back up your applause
with a little work. The election will be
In June, probably, so we will have no
time to lose.
No  Truce  Nor  Rest
The free speech fight still goes on  press,  1500;  Avenue 1,000;   Bijou 600
nnd Mayor Findlay and Ills Cossacks
are working overtime. Several attempts to hold outside meetings were
made last week but the soapboxers
were clubbed off the box. A big demonstration was again started on Powell
street grounds, with from five to six
thousand onlookers, by starting half
an hour ahead of time, a few speeches
were able to be made, but all of a
sudden along came the police with
clubs drawn and with a drunken look
in their eyes they charged the crowd.
Five arrests were made and a couple
of dozen got broken heads. The free
speech committee have decided to hold
meetings on different corners every
night this week. Six big meetings
were held last week. On Thursday,
Dominion Hall, 1500; Saturday, Horse
Show   Building,   3500.     Sunday,   Em-
Realize That Your Interests Are With the Working
Class Only.
The monotonous, empty and mean-, of the only useful'class ln society—
Truly he Is between the devil and the
deep sea.
Why don't the workers get more?
Why, on the contrary, are they get
ting ever less?   Its' easy!
The out-of-work I have just men
tloned is the immediate reason; and
as they get MORE ln number the remuneration of the employed will become LIJSS, but the rock-bottom economic reason of all Is the capitalist
system, the system of class ownership
of the means of life, which will continue so long as the workerB are Ignorant of this fact, but will pasB away
just as soon as there are enough of
the workers wise to their own interests.
The only obstacle In the way of
working class emancipation is working class Ignorance; the only hope of
freedom Is education of the working
and Powell street grounds.
This is an act of a Capitalist minded Mayor, who, seeing the notoriety
that the unemployed demonstration
was giving to Vancouver, decided to
put a stop to it. Had a bomb been
thrown at the city hall It could not
have brought the eyes of the world
to see the conditions existing in this
prosperous city (?) better, Mayor Flndlay and his brainless tools have done
what we, the slave class of society
wanted them to do. Nothing can show
up the boasted prosperity of this or
any other city than the acts of fools
who do not understand the workings
of the present system. Single Tax got
such a severe shaking up that I doubt
whether it will recover, but it will be
tried In several big cities and towns,
and there you will find the city fathers boasting of the growing prosperity
of their city and all the time the sjave
class driven from town to town will
be landing in that city, their ranks
will be increased from all parts of the
world. Then, again, as in dozens of
cases, some fool mayor, Judge or po-
licman, will commit some Insane act,
and lo and behold, their boasied prosperity lies open to the eyes of the
world. This is what we want, and
we will get it because the Capitalist
class and their tools are hiding from
the slave portion of society the true
facts, and the more they try to hide
tt, the greater the awakening when it
becomes known.
Go to It you miserable whelps of the
Capitalist class, your games is nearly
played out, the end of your power Is at
hand, divided we may look to be to
you, but as in Vancouver, when the
real fighting takes place, there you
wlll flnd us striking out shoulder to
shoulder for a common cause.
ingless chatter of the vulture section
of our present-day robber society
which the Vancouver populace have
continually been subjected to, and
which a great many, unsuspectingly,
only too readily have absorbed, as well
as the idle and baseless assertions and
historic bombast wherewith the bourgeois mouthpieces and retainers build
their cloudy castles up high, have been
somewhat silenced of late, and the
endless chain of prosperity which they
in their childlike imaginations had
drawn around our (?) beautiful dominion, and one specially around Vancouver, have been rudely broken, and
the shattering links, after which
they ran in their utter despair,
have entirely vanished.
Prosperity is no more. It has made
its exit and all the impetuous applause of the sections jifst mentioned,
who imploringly beseech her to come
again, fail to bring her back to tbe
stage. She has finished her roll, and
now the curtain goes up for the next
act. Chronic unemployment, with its
accompaniments of misery and destitution, meets our eye. As pictured by
the imaginatively inclined mouthpieces of the bourgeois class, the ugly-
featured, evil-eyed, armed-to-the-teeth
criminal—terrible word—ready to
shed the blood of his fellow man, now
makes his appearance and all society
is shuddering in fear and horror. In
the bourgeois organs this harmless
creature is described as a veritable
fiend, the enemy of society, same as
they daub the woman on the streets,
while both are not only necessary but
have always been the constant companions of, and find their contemporaries in, the bourgeois class. Now it is
necessary in view of the fact that the
bourgeois class through the public
press control, at least ln Canada, public opinion almost entirely, lest workingmen and working women should be
affected and made the dupe of their
own ignorance to the advantage of
their exploiters, I think it necessary
that workers grasp the fact, which
after all ls but simple, that these holdup men and public women, who are
but effects, the cause of which we
must find in the capitalist system of
production, are not the real enemies
of society, if at all; but that the only
holdup worth mentioning by the only
enemy of society happens not when a
workman once in a blue moon gets relieved of a few dollars by a would-be
highwayman but at the point of production in offlce, factory, mine and
mill by the united capitalist class of
the world who, by holding POLITICAL
CONTROL, force the entire worklni*
class, at the point of the bayonet, to
hand over their entire product, getting
positively nothing In return but that
portion which is necessary for their
subsistence and the propagation of the
species—and In numerous Instances
not that owing to the everlasting congested condition of the labor market.
Profit, interest and rent are terms
synonymous with the Father, Son and
Holy Ghost to the greater portion of
humanity, or rather to those who do
not understand Marxian economics.
That is, they understand about as
much about the one as Ihey do of the
other, viz.—nothing. Hut to come
back to the big hold-up. One might
fill pages with accounts of the horrible
crimes committed by this robber class
In order to Increase profits,, loss of
life, as it goes unpunished, counting
for nothing. Even such crimes as come
under the criminal code are commit ted
dally at their Instigation, murder and
slufrging being the order ot the day.
Their Instruments for intimidation are
the armed regiments, nn army of organized  assassins  trained   to  kill  or
tbe working class. It is because of
this fact that any of the so-called
crimes committed by hardup working-
men are so insignificant and so absolutely uninteresting. And the cry of
this class of parasites to save society,
and their denunciations of the enemies
of society needs be, must appear
idiotic when their real function* is
known, viz., that of bloodsuckers.
It is a matter of historical stupidity
with the bourgeois to Imagine that the
safety or destruction of society depends on their rise or fall, hence
the many instances that they bring
forward some representative of theirs
posing as the saviour of society—a
term, which .they derived from Jesus'
supposed function,- tbe only difference
being that in their case not their own
but the blood of proletarians was made
to flow.
So be this remembered, that whatever horrible crime be committed by
any individual or number of Individuals ot the working class that YOU
of the working class only add Insult
to Injury by a parrot-like repetition
of their denunciation by the master
class, and virtually defend your exploiters' interests as against those of
your class.
Don't allow yourself to be hoodwinked with the bombastic nothingness of the intellectual degenerates ot
a decaying master class. Realize that
your Interests lie with your clasB and
with them only. United on the political field you are indefeasible. At your
feet lies the world and all that lt contains.
malm; then the police and detectives,
otherwise called human bloodhounds,
a body of men strong of muscle nnd
with a profound respect for authority,
human brnlnB, bar a few exceptions,
being absent. They have the Instinct
of the hyena and about us much courage.
Finally there aro tho Intellectual
prostitutes of the capitalist class, the
lawyers, parsons, priests, editors,
writers, etc., who for pay prostitute
their intellects In order that a class of
parasites woree than any that ever
disgraced the face of the earth may
perpetuate their rule and exploitation
By John M. Work.
A new anti-Socialist magazine, misnamed "The Common Cause," has been
Great pains were taken to herald it
widely before It made Its appearance.
No doubt its promulgators expected
it to create a tremendous sensation.
But it did not create even a ripple.
The time has gone by when people
could be scared or even Interested by
the time-honored lies hurled at Socialism by its ignorant, prejudiced and malicious foes.
We Socialists ourselves take but a
languid interest in It. It Is replete
with venomous lies from cover to
cover. Its attacks are so full of misstatements and so unconvincing that
It scarcely seems worth while lor us
to notice them. tat us hope that as
time goes on It will develop some foe-
man worthy of our steel. That would
make things really Interesting.
The very title of the magazine—
"The Common Cause"—Is a falsehood.
Had It been called "The Special Privilege" or "The Upper Dog" the title
would have been accurate.
Whatever good it may do wlll accrue to the Socialist movement.
In so far as It tells untruths about
Socialism It will lose the confidence
of its readers as soon as they learn
the truth, and they will then all the
more readily turn to Socialism.
In so far as It tells untruths about
statements made by Socialists we will
correct them ami be the gainers thereby.'
In so far aB it leads people to Investigate Socialism they will discover
that Socialism. Is the truth.
Therefore, I say, welcome, dear enemy! When people do not favor Socialism we much prefer that they actively oppose It. All Is grist that comes
to onr mill. If people cannot support
our cause, the next best thing Is to
have them oppose It. fly cither method they convert others to Socialism.
Tho truth Is invulnerable.
Socialism Is the truth.
Every Sunday Evening
Empress Theatre 1
Published every Saturday by the Socialist Party of Canuda at the office of
the Western Clarion, Labor Temple,
Dunsmulr St., Vancouver, B. C.
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Bundles of 6 or more copies for a period
of not less than three months, at the rate
of  one  cent  per  copy per  Issue.
Advertising   rates   on   application.
If you receive  this paper, lt Is paid for.
In making remittance by cheque, exchange must be added. Address all communication and make all money orders
payable to
Labor Temple, Dunsmulr St., Vancouver,
B. C.
£FC—Wa-tch the label on your paper. If
tJJJ this number Is on It, your subscription   expiree,   the   next   issue.
On last Sunday seven or eight thousand peaceable citizens of Vancouver
witnessed a repetition o£ the coarse
and brutal ferocity of Mayor Findlay's
CoBsack administration of civic affairs
that occurred on the previous Sunday.
Dozens of men were clubbed and
beaten and a number were arrested
and thrown into the city bastile. Driven and harassed by the brutal police,
clubbed, kicked and otherwise maltreated, still no hand was raised In defense against the cowardly onslaught
of the blue-coated ruffians.
The scene of this performance,
which bids fair to become a regular
Sabbath-day observance, was the Powell Btreet grounds and streets adjacent thereto, The offense which called
forth this display of savagery was the
Bame as on the previous Sunday, viz.,
an attempt to hold a public meeting
on the aforementioned grounds for the
purpose of discussing the problem of
unemployment which 1b< pressing uncomfortably upon a very large percentage of the working people of this
city and province.
Let lt once more be stated that no
riotous or disorderly conduct of sufficient magnitude to be beyond the
power of the chairman to handle has
ever occurred at a meeting of workingmen In this city except such riotous and disorderly conduct has been
perpetrated by the police. This should
be especially emphasized in regard to
these meetings in the Interest of the
unemployed. No violence has been
threatened, or even hinted at,iby those
taking part in the meetings. > That has
been left entirely to the forces of "law
and order," the conservators of peace,
and not only have these "custodians of
the law" threatened violence, but have
indulged in it with a zest and abandon
that proves conclusively that It does
not come as second nature to them. It
is evidently the expression of their
normal function.
Report has it that at a meeting of
bankers and leading merchants of this
city last week approval of the Flndlay
policy of club and Cossack rtile was
given and a sanction of Its continuation recommended. If this report be
true, It is Bafe to assume that tt will
be continued until these financial and
commercial worthies arrive at that
condition of satisfaction beyond which
lt will be Impossible to go.
Fortunately, this sort of thing always brings about results quite contrary to the calculations of the ignorant
asses who instigate them. Instead
of suppressing the agitation that may
be going on in behalf of any given
cause, the resort to repressive measures alwayB results In accelerating It.
This is what Is happening in the present case. Thousands of persons in
Vancouver and other parts are now interested in the movement of the unemployed and the struggle for the
maintenance of free speech who would
never have given either a moment's
thought had it not been for the brutally ignorant policy of Flndlay and
his backers. Every blow struck by
the police has , only emphasized the
Socialist contention that government
Is purely a class Institution for the purpose of holding the workers ln subjection to the exploitation and rapacity
of a ruling class. A few good clouts
on his cocoanut from a policeman's
club Is far more effective in soaking
the truth into the average working-
"nan's brain than all the philosophy
that ever gushed forth from the tireless lungs of soap-box disciples of the
new dispensation. .Just, such treatment Is required in order to demonstrate the truth of Socialist propaganda In so convincing a manner as to
leave no further doubt in the average
worker's mind. He cannot reason In
the abstract. The truth must be presented to him in concrete form In order
that he may see it—or, more properly
speaking—feel It.
If every administration, city, provincial and federal, would but follow
the lead of Vancouver's brilliant aggregation of civic talent the end of class
rule and class brutality would be Im
measurably hastened. If such crass
Ignorance would come to the front
in all divisions of the political empire
of capitalism this world would experience a swift and startling proof of the
truth of the saying, "Whom the gods
would destroy they first make mad."
That the power of capital will be destroyed at the hands of proletarian
gods goes without saying with the student of industrial evolution. That the
acute madness displayed by the local
type of financial and commercial tinhorns and their puppets portends the
rapid approach of the end of class rule
and Its accompanying horrors and brutality is also plain to they who can
Interpret the signs upon the social horizon. As we have heard no protest from the "Lord's Day Alliance"
against, the Sunday clubbing of peaceable and orderly citizens by the police
force of this city we are justified in
assuming that such work is in no way
a violation of the "Lord's Day Act."
Probably it is a necessary part of the
'work requisite to the proper cultivation of the Lord's vineyard.
The present city administration Is
entitled to the credit of carrying on
the most energetic and convincing Socialist propaganda that has ever been
carried on in Vancouver. As a result of
the city propaganda at Powell street
grounds and adjacent streets the Socialist indoor meetings have been
crowded as never before. On Sunday
last the Empress and the Avenue theatres were packed to the doors. If Find-
lay keeps up the pace we will soon be
compelled to rent all of the theatres In',
town in order to keep up with him. As
a propagandist and organizer he Is
altogether the best we have ever had
in Dritish Columbia. And what is still
more to his credit, he carries on the
work at the city's expense. Doesn't
even take up a collection.
The Vancouver police force has been
so busy of late ln carrying out Socialist propaganda that thief catching has
been, of necessity, somewhat neglected. 'A bank robbery or two, a restaurant held up, a couple of hotels looted
and a butcher shop safe blown up, besides any amount of street holdups
within the past few weeks—and nobody arrested! Let the good work go
on. We mean the propaganda, of
The theory of evolution In the organic world is generally accepted.
The evolutionary nebulous theory of
the origin of the solar system Is also I
generally accepted. But mention social evolution and ,you court the popular wrath. A favorite, though threadbare, expression Is: "Things have always been and always will be so."
But the most careless observer, If at
all a student of history, must know
that things have never before been
as they are, nor will they ever again.
You can remember the day when
there was no such thing as an automobile, when we spoke of the horseless carriage with awe, predicted its
Bpeedy relegation to the junk pile of
useless experiments, or told how it
would not be any fun driving a vehicle
without a horse attached. Today the
auto Is regarded with as little concern as the locomotive. The short
space of ten years has brought it
from an unknown quantity to a standard article of luxury and usefulness.
Consider, also, seventy-five years ago
no one had ever ridden on steam cais.
One hundred and thirty years ago the
most rapid means of transportation
and comunlcatlon by land was on
horseback; by water, the wind-blown
Just as nature's workings, heredity,
environment and natural selection
bred man as the highest type of the
animal kingdom, so human society,
obeying nature's law, following the
line of leaBt resistance, slowly, painfully, through thousands of years
evolved from savagery, thrbugh barbarism to civilization. And so sure aB
barbarism followed savagery and civilization followed barbarism, so will
civilization evolve to some higher
The laws, religions, morals, ethics,
Institutions, etc., of each order prevailed so long as adapted to the degree of development of the basis on
which society Is founded. That basis
is man's control over the means of
life. Thus the degree of Industrial
development is the measure of human
Industrial progress is generally
named after the meanB by which
wealth production Is carried on hence
we see that society has passed
through chattel slavery and feudalism
and is now in the Inal stages of capitalism, or wage slavery. Chattel slavery's beginning dates back to prehistoric times, but we can safely assume that It be^an with the domestication of animals and the beginning
of agricultural pursuits. Previous to
that time, when the human race—In
common with the rest of the animal
kingdom—lived on what It could wrest
from wild nature, one Individual could
Do no more than provide the moans
for his own subsistence.
Willi the beginning of agriculture
a great change comes over the face
of things. Even In Its most primitive
state It would be possible for one In
dividual to produce more than what
was necessary for its own subsistence,
hence we are quite safe in assuming
that chattel slavery made Its appearance at that time. The flrst slaves
were most probably prisoners taken in
the tribal battles and compelled to
labor for their captors. This system
of wealth production began to give
way to feudalism about the fourteenth
century of the Christian era, though
Its total abolition was only finally effected during the past half century.
Feudalism ran Kb course in about four
centuries, giving way ln the most advanced countries to the present order,
capitalism, about a century and a
quarter ago, and already capitalism
has passed-its noon and is In its decline, no longer able to satisfy the
needs of the people. i
In every order the prevailing rielit
has been the right of might. The
men who made prisoners and slaves
of their fellows were those physically
the strongest, and therefore the best
fitted to survive in the struggle for
existence. The feudal lords, the rob?
ber barons, of the Middle Ages carved
their way to power with the sword.
The manufacturing capitalists overthrew the power of the feudal lords
because they were the best fitted to
survive in the new economic environment created by the institution of the
factory system, and because they had
the intelligence to grasp the new
sceptre of dictatorship — political
In each revolution it was the class
"next below" that overthrew the class
in power. To illustrate: In ancient
Rome there were some half dozen
classes, varying from patricians and
knights to plebeians and slaves. The
knights, backed by the discontented
lower classes, led the revolt, and when
the smoke of conflict cleared away established themselves in the seat of
power. In the decline of feudal Bociety the middle class, or manufacturing capitalists, led the discontented
serfs and factory employees to victory—for the capitalists.
In every conflict there were three
or more classes; the lowest class bore
the brunt of the struggle, but the
leaders reaped the benefits.
In these days of decaying capitalistic society there are really but two
classes, the capitalists and the working class. What ls known as the middle class is being gradually eliminated
by the concentrations of capital forcing Its members into the ranks of the
proletariat. The stage ls being set for
the final conflict, the class lines are
daily becoming clearer and more
sharply drawn. On the Industrial field
the workers have played an ever
losing game, their very numbers being against them. But lately the conflict is shifting to the political Held,
and here the numbers that spelled defeat on the Industrial field spell victory at the polls.
The capitalist class was essential to
social development, for It solved the
problem of production. Its day of
usefulness is gone, however, for today
salaried workers occupy every useful
position in society. The capitalist
class has deteriorated Into a useless
parasitic class, and it is an immutable
law of nature that every useless member must be eliminated.
The final conflict will differ from all
preceding ones in so far as the victory of the proletariat will mean the
abolition ot all class distinctions.
Speed the day.
momentary price of a commodity but
not the mean or average ratio about
which the price fluctuates. There is
only one other condition common to
all commodities, and that is the embodiment of labor-power. Does thlB
determine the exchange ratio?
Here are a number of miners get-
ling gold and working Individually.
One of them leaves his work and
alkB some miles to a spring, from
which he brings the pails of water.
He has produced this water for exchange. How much gold will he get
for it? Obviously as much as he could
have got had he remained at his gold
digging. He couldn't get more and
he wouldn't take less. So we see
that in this simple case the labor-time
embodied in the commodities determined the exchange ratio or value.
Now let us suppose that the miners
are working with machinery and for
a company. The water, too, is in the
hands of a corporation. Will these
two commodities exchange on the
same basis? Let us say the gold
company takes three-quarters of the
miners' produce and the water company takes three-quarters of the produce of Its employees. In this case
the exchange ratio would be determined as before by the labor-power
embodied. If one dompany got bigger profits' than the other oapital
would be attracted to it, production
would be increased, the commodity
would fall In value till an approximate equality was reached. There is
always this tendency to equalization
of profits, and thus the flow of capital
results in an approximately equal
exploitation of all workers. Without
further demonstration then we shall
take it that the exchange ratio of
commodities is determined by the
necessary labor-power embodied in
them. But labor-power Itself Is a
commodity, since it embodies or is
the result of previous labor-power and
is also produced for exchange. It embodies labor-power because food,
clothing and shelter have been consumed ln Its production. The value
of a day's labor-power ls determined
in the same way as that of any other
commodity, viz., by the amount of
labor-power consumed by the laborer
for the day. Under normal conditions
the worker spends three hours producing value equal to that which
keepB him for a day. The rest of the
day he produces surplus-value for the
capitalist. Surplus-value, then, ls the
difference between the value consumed by the worker and the value
produced by him. This is the central
FACT of Marxian economics. To sum
up: A commodity Is that which embodies labor-power and Is produced for
exchange. The average commercial
echange ratio between each commodity and every other commodity is called
the valuo. Values are determined by
the necessary labor-power embodied
In commodities. Labor-power itself is
a commodity, and Its value Is determined by the previous labor-power
that produces the worker. Surplus-
value is the difference between the
value consumed by the worker and
the value he produces.
Stockham, Runcorn, England.
Socialist   Party  Directory
Socialist Party of Canuda, meets second and fourth Monday. Secretary,
E. T. Klngsley, Labor Temple, Dunsmulr St., Vancouver, B. C.
Committee, Socialist Party of Canada,
meets fii'Ht and third Monday In month
E.  T.   Klngsley,   Secretary.
Committee, Socialist Party of Canada-
Meets every alternate Monday In Labor
Hall, Eighth Ave. East, opposite post-
office. Secretary will be pleased to
answer any communications regarding
the movement ln the province. F.
Danby,   Secretary,   Box   647,   Calgary,
Committee: Notice—This card is inserted for the purpose of getting
"YOU" interested in the Socialist
movement. SOCIALISTS are always
members of the Party; so If you are
desirous of becoming a member, or
wish to get any Information, write the
Secretary, J. D. HouHton, 493 Furby
St., Winnipeg.
every Friday evening at 8 p.m., ln
Miners' Hall, Nelson, B. C. I. A. Austin, Secretary.
A commodity may be defined as
an entity having two essential qualities. It must embody labor-power
and lt must be mude for exchange.
Commodities exchange for each other
In certain fairly fixed ratios. One
pound of soap exchanges for two
pounds of bread, half a pound of candles or a quarter pound of cheese.
There is an average rate of exchange
between each commodity and every
other commodity on the market. To
this average commercial exchange ratio the term value ls applied. According to this definition we see that value
is something which can only be
thought of as a relation among
commodities. There can be, therefore, no such thing as "intrinsic" value. Now, how Is value determined?
At flrBt sight it appears that utility
has something to do with it, but on
taking some examples this is found
to be wrong. Water is great in utility but is low In value. Diamonds are
low ln utility but are high in value.
Iron Is much more useful than gold,
yet a small amount of gold exchanges
for a large amount of Iron. Many other examples may be given showing
that utility and value have no quantitative connection. Does supply and
demand determine the exchange ratio
between commodities? When a commodity Is scarce we know that less is
given In exchange than when it ls
plentiful. But If the scarcity continues
the commodity is produced so as to
exceed Its demand and the price falls
again. Here we Have another term—
price. Tills ts applied to the ratio between any commodity and the standard, or money commodity—at the
present time gold. We see, then, that
supply   and   demand   determine    the
BERLIN, Feb. 8—The Kaiser suffered another blow to his pride today. Still angry over the election of a
Socialist from his own district, Potsdam, the "War Lord" heard of a Prussian municipality refusing to
rejoice over his birthday. This
was the first time in history
such an unheard of thing has
occurred and the incident has caused
no end of discussion.
Sollngen, ln Rhenish Prussia, is the
town which has refused to make merry
over the KaiBer's birthday. The town
council of Sollngen decided to pay no
official attention to this anniversary,
which occurred January 27, the kaiser
having been born on that date ln 1859.
The council Issued an explanatory
statement, in which it is said that as
the majority of the voters of Sollngen
are Socialists it would be inconsistent
for the town to rejoice officially over
the occasion.—New York Call.
SASKATCHEWAN PROVINCIAL Executive Committee, Socialist Party of
Canada. Meets every first and third
Saturday ln the month, 8:00 p.m., at
headquarters, Main Street, North Battleford. Secretary will answer any
communications regarding the movement in this Province. L. Budden,
Secy., Box 101, North Battleford, Sask.
Committee, Socialist Party of Canada,
meets every second and fourth Sundays in the Cape Breton offlce of the
Party, Commercial Street, Olace way,
N. S. Dan Cochrane, Secretary, Box
491, Olace Bay, N. S.
LOCAI,   OREENWOOD,   B.   C.,    NO.    S,
S. P. of C, meets every Sunday evening at Miners' Union Hall, Oreenwood.
Visiting Comrades Invited to call. C.
Primerlle, Secretary.
LOCAL    FERNIE,   S.   P.   of   C,    HOLD
educational meetings In the Miners'
Union Hall, Victoria Ave., every Sunday evening at 7:30. Business meeting first Sunday in each month, Miners' Hall at, 2:30. W. L. Phillips, secretary, Box 604.
meets In Miners' Hall every Sunday at
7:10 p.m. E. Campbell, Secretary, P.O.
Box S74. Rossland Finnish Branch
meeta in Flnlanders' Hall, Sundays at
7:80 p.m. A. Sebble, Secretary, F.O
Box 64. Rossland.
No.  61,  meets every Friday night at   i
8 p.m. ln Public Library Room.    John
Mclnnls, Secretary;       Andrew  Allen,
Organizer.         j
LOOAL  VANCOUVEB,  B.  C.  NO.  1,1. I
P.   of  C.      Business    meetings   every }
Tuesday evening at headquarters, 1SS i
Water Street.   F. Perry, Secretary, 618 ■'■
Hornby St.
LOOAL     COLEMAN,     ALTA.,     NO.     t.
Miners' Hall and Opera House. Propaganda meetings at 8 p.m. on the first
and third Sundays of the month. Business meetings on Thursday evening*
following propaganda meetings at 8.
Organizer, T. Steele, Coleman, Alta.;
Secretary, Jas. Glendennlng, Box 88,
Coleman, Alto. Visitors may receive
Information any day at Miners' Hall
from Com. W. Graham, Secretary of
U. M. W. of A.
P. of C. Headquarters 622 First St.
Business and propaganda meetings
every Thursday at 7:30 p.m. sharp.
Our reading room is opon to the public free, from 10 a.m. to 11 p.m. dally.
Secretary, A. Farmilo, 622 First St.;
Organizer, W.  Stephenson. I
of C.—Business meeting every Satur- j
day evening at 8 o'clock at tile head-1
quarters. 429 Eighth Ave. East, be- |
tween Third and  Fourth streets.
every Sunday, Trades Hall, 8 p.*-. _
Business meeting, second Friday, 8J
p.m., Trades Hall. B. Simmons, secrt-i
tary, 1909 Garnet St., P.O. Box 1046.
of C. Headquarters, No. 10 Nation!
Block, nossar Ave. Propaganda meet-^
lng, Sunday at 8 p.m.; business meet-l
Ing, second and fourth Mondays at SB
p.m.; economic class, Friday at 8 p.mf
Secretary, T. Mellalieu, 144 Third St.!
Unmdon, Man.
8. P. of C.    Meets first and third Sun-#|
days  ln  the month,    at    4    p.m.,    1«
Miners'   Hall.     Secretary,   Chas.   Pes. ■
cock, Box  1983. ^^
ot C, holds propaganda meetings
every Sunday afternoon at 2:30 p.m. In
Crahan's Hall. A hearty Invitation ls
extended to all wage slaves within
reach of ua to attend our meetings.
Buslnesa meetings are held the firs*
and third Sundays of each month ai
10:88 a.m. In the same hall. Party
organisers take notice. A. S. Julian,
S. P. of C, meets every Sunday in
hall in Empress Theatre Block at 2:00
p.m.    L. H. Gorham, Secretary.
LOOAL   BETELSTOXE,   B.   0.,    HO.    7,
S. P. of C. Business meetings at Socialist headquarters fourth Thursdays
of each month. B. F. Gayman, Secretary.
C. Meets every Tuesday at 7:30 p.m.
ln the Sandon Miners' Union Hall.
Communications to be addressed
Drawer K. Sandon. B. C.
Headquarters and reading room, 1319
Government St., Hoom 2, over Collls-
ter's gun store. Business meeting every Tuesday. 8 p.m. Propaganda meeting every Sunday, 8 p.m., at Crystal
LOOAL  VBRHOH,  B.   C,  NC.  38.  B.  P.
of C. Meets every Tuesday, 8:00 p.m
sharp, at L. O. L. Hall, Tronson St
W. H. Gllmore, Secretary.
LOOAL   VANCOUVER,   B.    C,    NO.    46.
Finnish. Meets every second and
fourth Thursdays In the month at 2237
Main Street.    Secretary, Wm. Mynttl.
OF C.—Propaganda meetings ever;
Sunday, 7:30 p. m., ln the Trades Hall
Economic Class every Sunday, 8 p.ml
D. McMillan, Sec. Treas., South Hill
P. O., Sask.; A. Stewart. Organiser,]
South Hill P. O., Sask. All slaves wel-f
come. |*BH
S. P. OF C—Headquarters 821% UsArM
Street, Winnipeg, room 2. next Dream-^
land Theatre. Business meeting every!
Sunday morning, at 11; economic class!
Wednesdays, at 8 p. m. Secretary's!
address, 270 Toung Street. Propa/
ganda meeting every Sunday evening]
in Dreamland Theatre, Main Street, atg
8 o'clock.    Discussion Invited.
LOOAL  OTTAWA,  HO.  8,  B. P.  of C—|
Business meetings the first Sunday lnl
the month at 3 o'clock p.m. at neadJ
quarter* Secretary, Sam Horwithl
Headquarters, 36 1-2 Rideau Streetl
Phone 277. Address, 322 Gladstone]
LOCAL  OLACE BAT, HO.  1,  OP  H.  lj
Bu«lne--s and propaganda meeting]
every Thursday at 8 p.m. ln Maodon-"
aid's Hall, Union Street. All are wel-L
come. Alfred Nash. Corresponding!!
Secretary, Olace Bay; Wm. Sutherland,!
Organizer, New Aberdeen; H. O. Ross.f
Financial Secretary, offlce ln D. N.l
Brodie Printing Co. Building, Unlet/
LOCAL    SIDNEY    MINES    HO.    7,
Nova Scotia.—Business and pronaJ
ganda meetings every second Mondajl
at 7:30 ln the S. O. B. T. Hall baci
of Town Hall. Wil'lam Allen, Score]
tary, Box 344.
of the S. P. of C. is organized for the
purpose of educutint- t''e Ukralninr
"rn'etm-tat on the revolutionary class.
Tiio Federation ls ttie uutonomouJ
part of the S. P. of C. anil affirms tij
the prnKi'am and tactics of the S. P"
n, n. Tb» Ukrainian Socialist Federal
tin» publish their own weekly organ
—"Nova Hromada," (New Society) ai
F,dmonton, Alta., 44.1 Kinistlno Ave,
English comrades desiring to bave ln(
formation re tbe Federation can writ'
to Com. J. Senuk, Financial Secretur>
Dr. Moskowitz said that an investigation into the health of 800 bakery
workers employed in cellar bakeries
has shown that 200 of these 800 men
were suffering from respiratory diseases. The number of men suffering
from bronchitis among these 800 bakery workers was 177, while tuberculosis claimed 199 victims.
Fifty-nine of the 800 men examined
were found to be suffering from skin
diseases, 6 from ulceration, 4 from'
scabies, 2 from syphilis, 83 from conjunctivitis.—New York Call.
(To Locals.)
Charter     (with    necessary    supplies to start  Local) $5.00
Membership  Cards,   each 01
Dues Stamps, each 10
Platform   and   application   blank
per 100   25
Ditto in Finnish, per 100 50
Ditto in Ukranian, per 100 50
Constitutions, each    20
Ditto, Finnish, per dozen 50
Socialist Party of Canada
We, the Socialist Party of Canada, in convention assembled, affirm
our allegience to and support of the principles and program of the revolutionary working class.
Labor produces all wealth, and to the producers it should belong.
The present economic system is based upon capitalist ownership of the '
means of production, consequently all the products of labor belong to
the capitalist class.    The capitalist is therefore master; the worker a
So long as the capitalist class remains in possession of the reins of
government all the powers of the State will be used to protect and '
defend their property rights in the means of wealth production and
their control of the product of labor.
The capitalist system gives to the capitalist an ever-swelling stream
of profits, and to the worker an ever-increasing measure of misery and
The interest of the working class lies in the direction of setting '
itself free from capitalist exploitation by the abolition of the wage
system, under which is cloaked the robbery of the working class at the
point of production. To accomplish this necessitates the transformation
of capitalist property in the means of wealth production into collective
or working-class property. I
The irrepressible conflict of interests between the capitalist and
the worker is rapidly culminating ina struggle for possession of 'the
reins of government—the capitalist to hold, the worker to secure it by
political action.   This is the class struggle. ,
Therefore, we call upon all workera to organize under the banner
of the Socialist Party of Canada with the object of conquering the
public powers for the purpose of setting up and enforcing the economic
program of the working class, as follows:
1. The transformation, as rapidly as possible, of capitalist property
in the means of wealth production (natural resources, fact.-ries, mills,
railroads, etc.) into the collective property of the working class.
2. The democratic organization and management of industry by
the workers.
3. The establishment, as speedily as possible, of production for
use instead of production for profit.
The Socialist Party when in office shall always and everywhere
until the present system is abolished, make the answer to this question
its guiding rule of conduct: Will this legislation advance the interests
of the working class and aid the workers in their class struggle against
capitalism? If it will, the Socialist Party is for it; if it will not, the
Socialist Part yis absolutely opposed to it.
In accordance with this principle the Socialist Party pledges itself
to conduct all the public affairs placed in its hands in such a manner
as to promote the interests of the working class alone.
5   Yearlies - -
- $3.75
10 1-2 Yearlies -
-   4.00
20 Quarterlies -
-   4.00 SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 10, 1912
In endeavoring to place before the
comrades a report of the work of the
Alberta Province Executive Committee
for 1911 it is difficult to make a full
and satisfactory one. Owing to the
inability and In some cases neglect
of the various locals to make full reports' the showing can be only Incomplete. ^However, the following will
give some of the members an idea of
what wo are doing.
During the year we purchased from
the Dominion Executive Committee
2,000 due stamps, 200 constitutions,
600 membership cards, 34 party buttons, 5 warrant books and 3 receipt
pads, and issued 7 charters. There are
at present about twenty-five locals In
good standing. There are some that
may or may not be defunct, as nearly
the whole membership of some locals
have to wander for,th ln search of a
job, and I do not hear from them
for many moons.
The total receipts were $368.70; the
expenditures were $313.68. A debt of
$n3.70 was paid off, leaving the committee clear of debt for the first time.
Balance ln hand January 1, 1912,
We had in hand for some time
$51.65, which was raised for convention expenses, and which the membership decided to use for organizing
purposes. An organizer will be In the
Held February 1 to carry the work to
the Interior of the province.
At the last regular meeting of the
committee there were present Comrades Mr. and Mrs. Anderson, Tipping,
Creer Mushkat and the secretary,
your correspondent.
Correspondence was read and dealt
with from eight locals:  Content, Ro-
wen,  Markervllle,    Bellevue,    Mound
and Dewberry:
Bellevue  local, due stamps $5.00
Dewberry local,  due Btamps  5.00
Mound local, due stamps  4.00
Content  local,  organizing   expB   5.00
Com.  Budden  for organizing...  50.00
To   Dominion   Executive    Committee  for  supplies     20.00
For due stamps   10.00
Editor Western Clarion:
Sir—My brother in Winnipeg has
sent me from' time to time copies of
The Clarion and also other pamphlets.
I have become rather Interested in
your ideas and enclose 25 cents for
your "bunch of literature" advertised
in The Clarion of December 23 if still
in stock, otherwise send some other of
your publications. Also send 25 gents
for a three months' trial of The
I may add that the editorial In your
Issue of the above mentioned date "
In Canada" was interesting to me and
to others to whom I read it.
Yours sincerely,
Little BraB d'Or Bridge, Nova Scotia,
January 21, 1912.
Brandon gets there this week.
Fernie takes a long move.
Cumberland also makes a move.
This is how they stand:
Vancouver, B.  C     1
Victoria, B. C     2
Brandon, Man  3
Edmonton, Alta  4
Calgary, Alta  5
Winnipeg, Man     6
Toronto, Ont     7
Moose Jaw, Sask     8
Montreal, Que     9
Sllverton, B. C  10
Fernle,  B.  C 11
Nelson, B. C 12
Ottawa, Ont 13
N. Battleford, Sask 14
S. Fort George, B. C 15
Cumberland, B. C 16
Regina, Sask 17
Ladysmith, B.  C  18
Brantford, Ont  19
Britannia Mines, B. C	
Send in for the subscription-list.
(By Watts)
Six big meetings in one week and no
election on! Things are coming our
*   *   *
Mayor Findlay ls helping to boost
When in dojiot go to the
street grounds.
There is no time like the present to
hustle subs for the Clarion. Elections
are likely to be held ln British Columbia and Alberta some time this year,
and It will start the slaves talking.
See that they get a Clarion and lt will
start them thinking.
This list Bhows the same hustlers
week after week, whafs the matter
with you readers hustling a little?
Fred Teeples,  Brandon,  Man 10
Fernie Local, Fernie, B. C  6
W. H. Anderson, Dewsbury, Alta.. |4
John Holm, N. Gabrlola, B, C  6
J. C. Turner, Fernle, B. C  3
A. C. Webb, City , |  3
A. E. Tipper, City   3
J. Sldaway, City  3
H. G. Hills, Victoria, B. C  3
H. E. Besant, Red Deer, Alta  2
W. K. Bryce, Demaine, Sask  2
W. Gribble, City   2
A'. G. McCulIum, Ottawa, Ont  2
M. Jacombs, Hedley, B. C  2
T. E. Mason, Montreal, Que  2
E. Simpson, Victoria, B. C  2
W. Atkinson, Victoria, B. C  2
T. Cassiday, Revelstoke; W: L. Phillips, Fernie; H. Blake, Edmonton; F.
E. Creer, Calgary; W. T. Griffith, N.
Battleford; W. J. Warren, Cardston;
W. E. Cocks, Regina; H. T. Bastable,
Brandor; A. S. Higgins, Brandon; R.
Tune, New Zealand; D. Webb, City;
D. G. McKenzie, City; Jas. Brown,
City; R. T McKenzie, City; J. H. Hudson, City; E. Leskew, Hosmer, B. C:
W. W. Lefeaux, City; C. M. O'Brien,
Edmonton; E. McArthur, Maple Coulee; R. Matheson, Nova Scotia; G.
Leekey, Victoria; A. S. Wells, Victor-
Markerville Local, Alta, (10); Mon
treal Local, 16;  Alex   Beaton    Glen-
brea, SaBk.
Local Menzles, publishing fund, $10.00
Everything ls going nicely ln Vancouver; only a few dozen heads
opened to let ln some sense.
* •   *
A detective Ib the dirtiest, slimiest
and most contemptible thing in present-day society.
* •   •
The Boy Scout leaflets are out of
e    •    •
It was the ambition of several men
to get run ln for speaking on the
streets. They got clubbed Instead.
Therefore Capitalism destroys ambition.
* *   •
Get off the fence; you must be on
one side or the other, or you will be
hated by both when the big battle
■ •   •   *
In addition to being the greatest
transportation system In the world the
Canadian Pacific Railroad occupies a
unique position in being the owner of
vast natural resources consisting of
land, coal mines, Irrigation projects,
natural gas, metalliferous mines and
smelters, large areas of timber and
numerous sawmills, and a vast amount
of village, town and city properties.—
Calgary Herald.
The Canadian Pacific Railway will
soon own Canada unless the working
class get wise and own and control
the machinery of wealth production
* •   *
Bank "holdups," highway robbery,
the so-called "riots" and forcible stopping of public meetings of Socialists
and unemployed by a strong police
force and the high cost of living will
make Vancouver notorious. As a city
we crave publicity as a means of advancement, but publicity of the foregoing kind will do no good and give us
an unenviable notoriety.—The Citizen,
We claim this kind of publicity will
do all kinds of good. It is only the
capitalist press tbat need hide the
* •   •
A question has been asked as to
what is the difference between chattel  slavery and  wage slavery.
There ls some difference between
the chattel slave of days gone by and
the wage slave of today.
The chattel slave had a place to
sleep, was furnished food regularly,
and when taken ill had the services of
a physician.
The wage slave when unemployed Is
usually homeless, hungry, ragged, and
when ill is without medical attention.
A master had an interest ln a chattel Blave, but a master has no interest
in a wage slave, for his place can be
filled so easily by the victims of hunger and want. The chattel slave was
owned, but no exploiter wants ownership ln a wage slave.
The wage slave of today Is a cheaper
commodity than the chattel slave of
half a century ago.
* »   »
The German Socialists now hold 110
seats in the Reichstag, and are the
strongest party. There are 397 members ln the Reichstag, and this Is how
they stand:
Socialists, 110; Centrists, 93; Conservatives, 66; National Liberals, 47;
Rndicals, 44; Poles, 18; all others, 19.
In the last Relchstag which was dissolved on December 7 laat, the stand
Ing of the parties waB as follows:
Centrists, 109; Conservatives, 68;
Liberals, 54; Socialists, 53; Radicals,
50; all others, 42.
* •    e
Secretaries are requested to send In
the ballots on the convention at once.
Abraham Lincoln, when asked what
he thought of the Russian nihilists replied that if he were living under the
same conditions that they were in all
probability he, too, would be a nihilist.
We might elaborate on ■ this remark
almost indefinitely, but owing to lack
of space we will condense it to one
or two short sentences. Experience
has taught the civilized civic governments of Europe that safety valves
reduce boiler explosions to the minimum and that open-air meetings act
In much the same capacity to human
beings that a safety valve does to an
ordinary boiler, but lt has remained
for the newly-elected Idiotic autocrat
who sits in the chief magistrate's
chair of the city of Vancouver to set
the pace of Russia in the Dominion of
Canada by his ill-timed and ill-mannered statement that he is going to
rule Vancouver with an "iron hand."
Let me tell Jim Findley and all
other petty would-be autocrats that as
far as Canada is concerned at least,
while there is a drop of red blood or
a spark of manhood remaining in the
nation all such petty, childish twaddle
will be treated by every normal adult
as worthy of no higher consideration
than that which might be given to
the braying of an ass that had too
much in its belly and next to nothing
in its head. So much for the statement. But the matter has assumed a
much more serious condition than a
mere statement by this time. The
"hand," or heels, of the animal have
always been felt in the form of cuts
from whips and clubs ln the hands of
Cossacks and police on the heads and
other parts of the anatomy of a number of citizens and prospective citizens, who so far have not retaliated
or shown any signs of retaliation. But
the question now confronting the
thoughtful members of this community ls: How long wlll lt last, and how
will It end? Advertising and transportation companies are bringing people
here ln hundreds daily, there are at
least several thousand idle people in
the city now, and that means a great
many hungry people, and now employed and unemployed, hungry and
well fed are to be refused the right to
peacefully assemble on public grounds
on the imperative order of an irresponsible ass who has just recently stumbled across a twelve months' supply
of hay and oats.
Are you going to stand lt? Am I
going to stand it? How long are we
going to stand it? What are we going
to do about tt?
In conclusion, let me state that every
Cossack's whip that makes a mark on
any part of my anatomy will be
avenged by me If life is left in my
body to avenge it. This is my pledge,
my fellow-citizen. What Is yourB?
Note—This last is not only my
pledge but also my warning' to the
cowards on horseback and those who
order them to lash defenceless people
on public thoroughfares.
'$1,000,000,000  IN   RUINS."
But as lt Is, the entire power of the
United States Government Is behind
this mass of paper "securities." That
power is itself the real "security," and
it is in the last resort furnished by
the people whom the possessors of
this "negotiable" paper exploit. That
ls to say,, the workers furnish the
power to "secure" to others the delusion that if they did not secure the
capitalists in robbing them, they
could not live.
The real value of these documents
ls, after all, founded on faith—the
faith of the capitalists in the infinite
and eternal stupidity of the working
class.—New York Call.
It Is said that no human being can
get any adequate comprehension of
what a billion means, and, indeed, that
even the comprehension of a million is
very Imperfect with most people.
But we have been habituated during the last few years to these terms
and talk of the "Billion-Dollar Steel
Trust" as glibly as if we understood
thoroughly what the numerating adjective means. So we are not in the least
surprised when we hear that there is
a billion dollars lying right now under
the ruins of the Equitable Building
on  lower Broadway.
Though the newspapers spell out the
sum for us In figures $1,000,000,000—
nobody believes that there is actually
the value of that sum ln money or
products lying there. It is not even
in the form of paper purporting to
represent money. The "billion dollars," In the form which it now Is,
might have been utterly destroyed ln
the fire, and the wealth of the country
not decreased one particle. Intrinsically, it has no more value than so
much waste paper.
What is here called "a billion dollars" is mainly a mass of paper known
in the jargon of finance, aB "negotiable securities." It does not represent wealth, but the power to control
wealth and the creators of wealth, the
people whose labor produces wealth.
The possession of this paper enables
Its holders to appropriate the things
which labor produces now or will produce In the future. These papers are,
in fact, legal warrants by which some
people exploit others and appropriate
to themselves what these others have
labored to produce. Their destruction
In the fire at most would merely have
meant that there would have been
some temporary confusion among
those possessing them as to the "dividing up" of the values produced by
the labor of the workers.
While the latter submit to wear, as
working cattle for the capitalist, the
harness that these papers represent,
they are worth a billion dollars, and
their value Increases as the labor of
the working cattle becomes ever productive. When they refuse to bear
the yoke any longer, the "billion dollars" bcomes waste paper.
Wednesday, January 17, was a red-'
letter day for the Reds of Brandon. To '
say that we are pleased with the outcome of the debate held on that date
would be putting lt mildly.   The sub-1
ject of the debate was: "Will Socialism
Solve Our Industrial Problems?" For
the affirmative, Comrades Fulcher and
Higgens of Brandon local, S. P. C.   For
the negative, Messrs. Clement and Pot-1
ter, representing St. Mary's Club. Mr.
Potter is a law student of the Brandon
college, and having been through    a
course of orthodox political .economy
was an able opponent. I
The debate was held in the basement
of the church, and before the time to'
begin was packed, and standing room
only could be got when  the debate
The boys of the local decided that it
would be best for the debaters to use
their limited time for a good propaganda spiel rather than an attempt to
just win the debate.
Comrade Fulcher opened up, and in
his fifteen minutes explained how serious the prdblem was, quoting Lloyd-
George, the Free Press and the Telegram to back up his statements. Then
he showed what capitalism was, how it
was the cause of this serious problem.
He showed by the very lessons of capitalism that Socialism must solve the
industrial problems. That Comrade I
Fulcher hit it off with the audience'
was apparent by the rapt attention and
the generous applause accorded him.
Mr. Clements then took the floor for
ten minutes for the negative. With a
pronounced Cockney accent he asked
amidst laughter, "What is Socialism?"
He then remarked, "It Is easier to
laugh than to talk," a fact that was
patent to all. He was taken humorously by most of the audience, especially when he said Fulcher was a
capitalist and that his (Fulcher's!
wage slaves did not speak of him as
an extra kind and easy master. To the
audience, the majority of whom knew
Fulcher Is as far removed from that
state of grace known as capitalism as
the Antipodes, tKia was a huge joke.
After enlarging upon England's reform
legislation, and what a paradise it
would make, Clements took his seat
amongst much laughter and appfause.
Comrade Higgens then took the floor,
and for ten minutes showed the Socialist side. Taking up the thread
where Fulcher left it he showed the solution very clearly, though not In the
Utopian manner that the opposition
Mr. Potter then followed, and In a
very able manner he attempted to
show that Socialism would not solve
the industrial problem. He quoted
KIrkup, also Spargo in the American
Journal of Sociology against Marx. He
went deep Into the labor theory of
value, marginal utility, etc., making
the broad statement that he would
disprove more—at some other time.
The floor was then opened for discussion. Comrades nutler, Mellalleu,
Teeple and others took a hand. Mellalleu brought the house down when he
asked Mr. Clement that if England was
why he lett It. The audience again exploded when Clement rose and said he
such a paradise with all Its reforms
was also asking himself that question.
After the discussion was over, Potter
again took the floor and for five minutes attempted to meet the arguments
advanced by our comrades, and
[claimed the debate because the af-
I Urinative could not show any country where they had Socialism, nor
, had they explained how it would
After Potter was through Comrade
I Fulcher again took the floor, and in
,the five minutes allotted to him punctured the arguments of Mr. Potter,
that is, of course, as many as he could
tackle in such a short space of time.
After the debate was over the three
judges retired, and after a considerable period returned with the decision
in favor of the negative as the Socialists had not shown how it would
The meagre applause accorded the
announcement of the decision was
proof that. It was not in keeping with
the impression left in the minds of
the majority of the audience.
The debate has started a newspaper
controversy,  so  some  good  may  yet
come, of it, and it was a splendid audience anyhow.   Yours In the scrap,
Know Why
Socialism is Coming"
Don't be a socialist unless you know why you are one.   Know why
Socialism is coming.   Trace the economic development of civilization
through from slavery to the present and know why sociexltamr hr~
Victor L. Berger says:
"A few socialist phrases ia not sufficient to make a. actentlBss
socie-.Ii*t. In order to know WHY SOCIALISM IS COMING*. *_
socialist should have an idea of evolution, he must know hlattnrv.
he must know something of economic development.
We as socialists are vitally interested in the development art'
civilization. History for us la not a collection of shallow vlOcLg*
tales, the atory of coronation*, weddings and burial* of kings. Fee -
us the true lesson of history is the story of progress of mankind*k»/ •
gradual steps from brutal slavery to enlightenment, culture-'
and humanity. *
The manner in which one system has grown out of anolfno-.
feudalism out of slavery and capitalism out of feudalism Is n
auggeetive of the manner by which the Socialist Republic
gradually develop out of the present ayatem.
To show how the Socialist Republic will gradually develop <
of the present eystem. the Library of Original Sources haa boas*
published.   It is a treasure mine."
The Library of Original Sources
(In the original documents—translated)
clears away the bigotry and superstition that has accumulated around religion. Lot-,
government, education, etc.—brings to light the naked truth and shows whysootml-
ism ia coming. This wonderful library gives the authoritative sources of knowledge
in all fields of thought—socialism philosophy, science, education, etc. The rock-bottom
facts which for centuries capitalist writers have deliberately kept from the people-
Thousands of (he Comrades in e-.Il parts of the United States and
Ce.ne-.da have secured this library on our co-operative plan, e
without a single exception are enthusiastic over It. Letters
like these come pouring in with every maili
John Spargo: "cTKost helpful,
to be In every library."
Walter Lohrentz, Wash.: "A boon to
workingmen who have not time nor
money to get a college education."
A. M. Simons i "Superior to encyclopedias; will be read when novels are
C E. Kline, Wash.: "I am urging all
my friend* to secure your great
Ceo. Pae, cAlberta, Can.: "just the
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Arthur M. Lewis:   "The most valuable part
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C. R.Oyler. Editor Enterpriser: "The best
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of this Bill ls to do away with the deposit ln Dominion elections. In Ontario that deposit has been done away
with in provincial elections, and I desire to bring our Dominion Elections
law In this respect In conformity with
that In Ontario at least. Of course it
,would be out of the question to urge
that the deposit should be done away
with In Dominion elections in one province and not in the others, and therefore, I propose to repeal the provision
requiring a deposit as regards the Dominion generally. While the deposit
of $200 may seem a very small ohe,
there are very large objections to It.
From one end of the country to the
other, the opinion of the labour people is against it, and they are a very
prominent and forcible portion of the
electorate. Since the request comes
from these people, It ought to be taken
seriously; and since we have adopted
the provincial franchise, it is but consistent that we should follow the pro- j
vinclal practice as much as possible in
our elections. So far as I know, the
only argument against the abolition
of the deposit is one of a technical or
legal character. It is the argument
that by doing away with this deposit,
we shall encourage the candidature of
irresponsible parties. Well, that has
not been found to be the result ln the
province of Ontario, in the provincial
election, and these are of minor importance to the Dominion elections.
Therefore, you may reasonably conclude that such a contingency would
be less likely in the Dominion elections. In any event, since the doing
away with the deposit, in the province
of Ontario has not been found to facili
tate the entry of Irresponsible nartiess
into provincial contests, I do not see
why that argument Bhould have ans*
weight in Dominion matters.
M. Borden. My hon. friend has suggested that as the Dominion froncAue*
1s based at present upon the' provitt---
cial franchises, it would be desirable*
to make this particular feature of the*
Act conform to provincial legislation..
but I would like to remind him that.
provincial legislation is not uniform
on this subject. In the province of
Ontario true, there Is no deposit required, but that is not the rule fra
some of the other provinces. The deposit is required in more than one, stn
that the adoption of the rule my lion
friend has suggested would not necessarily lead to the elimination of any*
provlsion for a deposit in federal eleo-
tlons. I do not think that the propos-
d legislation should be adopted without further consideration. If the hoik.
gentleman will be good enough to lett
his Bill stand, I shall take into consideration the question of having- It
referred to a special committee for the*
purpose of Inquiring into some furtDer:
matters he has brought to our attention. I therefore beg to move that the*
debate be now adjourned.
The above is taken from the report
of proceedings in the house at Ottawa-
It Is run here lor the purpose of shemr-
Ing to such workers as voted the Conservative ticket last fall just what
good friends to labor the Borden person and his government are. Conservative workingmen should have?
tills  rubbed   In.—IM. Clarion.
Mr. Burnham moved second reading
of Bill (No. S) to amend the Domini.>.i
Elections Act.    He said:    The object
Let Us Purchase Land for You at
$5 Monthly Will Give You
Snug Income  Every Year
A Co-operative Partnership
The Western Farming ®r
Colonization Co., Ltd*
Office 5 Winch Bldg.
Vancouver, B. C.
Dear Sirs:
Please send, free of cost to me,
information re
City or 'Uown VAGE FOUR
Everybody, even generajs and lieu-
'*"enant» and other professional prize-
Sstiters, will sometimes admit that
r.^saT Is horrible and ought to be abolished. But as long as we cannot
•jciuinge.  human   nature,   so   they   say,
present economic and industrial conditions aie being compelled to accept
the inevitability of the socialization of] 	
the means of life. The frantic efforts j This is fast becoming an age of ex-
of the apologists for capitalism to bol- treme specialization. Men and wo-
ster up the system that spells luxury men are becoming so highly special-
and ease for one class and poverty and | lzed  that  the  prospects  are  that  in
slavery for another class are but the   . , . ...
. the near future we will see some queer
reinforced   evidences   tnat   the   private ^^s^^^seeeeeemeeeeemmemm
I people, one man will have an eye as
u   will   light  and   must  fight,  andjor corporate ownership of the things | ,arge as a p,ate_ wUh jugt enoflgh of
*•*•    that are vital to working class-exist-Lhe rest of hlg phyBlca, machlnory tQ
ence must pass Into the hands or those | carry  u around;   another  wm  be  ft
who use them most, but enjoy their walklng n0B6| wh|le Btill another wln
mtar is here to stay as an unavoidable
i axil. Hake the best of it! And then,
tfi course,  it  is   nol our  fault. ■
It ls always the other fellow!
The barbarians in other countries
.-ire to blame— not we.
And to prevent them from coming
\an and  making  trouble for    us,    we
benefits the least. The terrible struggles between the organized section of
the working class and their masters on
the economic field, the frenzied anxiety of the tools o'f the capitalist class
*-*-*mst prepare ourselves to receive the forces B° frequently used against
«hBm. We must have more warships, the revolting working elass, and the
am-re cannon, better rifles and finer strenuous efforts to divide the wage
•au-Uforms and twice as many soldiers workers on the political field of battle,
i afford striking proof that the interests
be just a pair of "hands," attached to
a pair of legs, or an ear on wheels of
some kind.
Joking aside, this tendency to know
one thing and do one thing only is
the military service bo[***?&*** \ not normal, and in the judgment of
Shan they have. t^smm^^^s^^^mrnme^^^^esessee^ms
Vet us frighten them away by our0' the exploiters and the exploited are
■desperate looking appearance!    That jn°t ,*ent,°*1*. t H,^eu"If08 "*; *e„"m„e.S
sa the way to do it!    Prevention is
locjtler than cure, you know.
can be read at all they point to an approaching testing time for those who
How simple it seems to be! But |direct tnls Sreat working class revolt
-when the other fellows in the other against the capitalist system. The
-emintries do exactly the very same I DUS-e <*-*•• to self-sacrificing service has
«ldng for the same reason, then it is been sounded. Thousands have noth-
-tridiculous.    TJnles you happen  to be,'"8  but  themselves  to  sacrifice  and
.-.-i profession a 1 man-killer!
One and all  regard  each other as
I with the spirit of the martyr are pre-
' pared to give the best that is in them
for the cause. In material things they
have "nothing to lose but their chains
and a world to gain." Their hope Is
for the industrial democracy and their
watchword is "Workers of the World
Unite " Their faith is strengthened by
things  visible  and  not  by  deceiving
aaatural born enemies, thieves and rob-
■"here,  watching  for  an  opportunity—
•when we are not looking—to come
-c-ooross the boundary and take away
-soar cow, our cat or our best girl,
-iost as If we still were cave dwellers
£3Uld   jungle   men. ^timmmmmmmmmmmmmmmMmmmseeeemseeesmmmm
And I think we are, at least there uncertainties.    Prom  this   class  will
is no doubt that the other fellows are.'!come tne emancipation of the toilers
We, ourselves, are civilized. in the mlIls> mines' and factories and
You bet' 'every corner of this profit-making and
As   civilized   as   modern   capitalism j soul-seared abyss.    It may be through
-..v"iil ever make us. i tears and serious heart burnings that
.And we love our country; we are the S°al is reached, but the working
**-ar.r-iots and they cannot fool us. {class must win if men, women and
"Therefore, we must bulild custom | children are going to step out into a
-aboi-ses and collect import duties, and, wiuer field of opportunity and a fuller
i-aalte all foreigners pay admission if. enjoyment of the things that modern
-they want to see us. And our soldiers science and invention have laid at our
•smutch our boundaries just to show I doors. The many sow but the few reap
DBhose barbarians on the other side the harvest. Those who toil do not
-■how much we love our country, how 1eat the ripest fruit. Every develop-
rjo-rarl* better we are than they. ment of modern industry, including the
But on the other side of the dlvid- j improvement of machinery, the spe-
line they are doing exactly the j ciallzation of production and distribution, the concentration of capital, the
utilization of natural forces, and the
elimination of wasteful processes emphasizes the coming of a better social
order. When this comes individuality
will be given a freer and fuller expression through the socialization of the
opportunities for such expression.
Profit will not actuate men to frenzied
zeal in their lust for industrial power,
to steal from each other. | Human beings will not be made the
-And we do  it in the name of all ladder by which the strongest rise to
* 3hat Is good and true and beautiful,    oppress the weakest of their kind. Ma
How absurd! I terial possessions alone will not be the
And does everybody, perhaps, make, passport to the highest positions in a
.money that way
ne thing.
They are watching us!
"They have'custom houses and taxes
-.and soldiers of their own to prevent
mb from sneaking over and stealing
How silly it is when they do it.
Hat. such is patriotism! Such is
militarism!    And such is capitalism!
We are all thieves and robbers try-
te  it  not  pure    unselfishness    all
1--0--B the workingman in the steel
recreated society. On the other hand,
the making of things for use and not
for profit will be the dominating Incentive   behind   productive   Industry.
--■aiB, where armor plate is made, get The strong will lavish their strength-
' than  $1,   or,  perhaps,   $2,   for ening influence upon the weak, leading
*pelve  hours'    hard    and dangerous them  to  new  avenues  of usefulness
-"■Br*-'   And Is it possible to become and opportunity.   Contributions to in-
L1  that way' dustrlal and social betterment through
But if the workers who make all the genius of mind and heart will re-
-at) things we use in war and peace ceive the widest recognition. The
-a*-* nothing but a poor living out of bleeding fingers that now ply the nee-
■aT-hpw on earth can the bosses be- die in the sweatshops of great indus-
-soure rich if they, did not flim-flam trial centers will minister to the needs
-fke simple-minded "patriots"—the of rejuvenated humanity with a dex-
-trorklngmen? terity borne of a new Inspiration and
■Who then is the real enemy, the supplemented with an exhiliratlng ln-
-Jtorelgn'er, or'the capitalist? ^erest.   Little children who now offer
Bnt do not tell it to the workers,' their immaturely developed physical
-for they should not think the new and mental powers to satisfy the crim-
jaroughts. jlnal   greed   for   profits, so   manifest
They should continue to live In the ' among a section of the capitalist class.
Sasth ot their fathers and sing the j will be given an opportunity to express
-songs of their mothers and honor the' their enthusiasm in physical exercises,
wic-as of their grandfathers and grand- ^ enrich their minds at the fountains of
j-n-aihers and never advance beyond i undiluted truth, and step out into lives
M superstitions. of usefulness well  equipped to meet
If they do the capitalists would lose the responsibilities of citizenship. Men
ennt.rol   over   them,  and  they   might
irnrn   to   make   things   for   use   for ] highways,  dejected,  despondent,   and
-themselves,  instead of for profit for
-tareir masters.    There would then be
instiling at all to steal or go to war
AH the workers    ln all  countries _^_^^^^^_^_^^^_^^^^^_
-•ould work in harmony, creating use-jmanity, pulsating with new hope, ln-
and women will no longer parade the
despairing, looking for an easy retreat
from an industrial system that exploits
their bodies for the enrichment ot »
privileged few. They will stand forth
the very Incarnation of a deified hu-
*~*°M things for. the enjoymet of all.
A Job for everyone and everyone for
■» joT)! Rudolf Knudsen.
(By James Simpson, Toronto).
In every part of this ball of matter
■Acre are evidences of the real awak-
• ening of the working class to a reall-
■Ddion of their power. Wherever capitalist exploitation has triumphed over
"feudalism and chattel slavery and
Inv™ home the stinging truth of its
•Edstence there is being manifested a
spirit of revolt which is given voice in
Hto -almost startling' increase in the
-wiles cast for Socialist candidates.
This iB no political phenomena, nel-
■ykter Is it the spasmodic uprising of a
•petulant army of discontents. It is
Oe depressing economic conditions
nateing from Industrial chaos, known
capitalism, and supplemented by
■Incessant propaganda of education
'oxnied on by the ever strengthening
Socialist Party that is producing this
.encouraging culmination. Men and
■women who have strenuously resisted
»he irrefutable truths that both obser-
vtmlion and reason have deducted from
vlgorated with fresh enthusiasm, and
free to develop the best and noblest
human qualities. This is the inspiration of the Socialist. With this vision
as a possible attainment and evolutionary forces on his side he cannot despair. Opposition is merely the stepping stone by which he reaches closer
to the realization of his tremendous
purpose. Persecution and imprisonment are accepted as the inevitable
consequence of his struggle. To turn
back would be an act of treason, to
even hesitate or falfer would meet
with an Immediate rebuke from the
inner personality. He must press forward. A million voices call him tb the
struggle. They come from the depths
ot the mines, from the looms in the
mill, from the thundering machinery
in the factory, In suppressed tones
from the white plague victims in the
crowded tenements, and from the generations yet unborn. He hopes to
win; he knows he'll win; he wlll win.
"Not the right to work," but more
of the things that work creates, with
leisure to enjoy them—that Is what
Intelligent wage workers demand.—
the Ass, not desirable, but a result ot
an insane industrial order that is forcing people to live unnatural lives, in
order to live at all.
The constant working at any one
task ls sure to produce an abnormal
development of the body, should the
task be physical, and of the mind,
should the task be mental.
Both mind and body grow in the
direction of their activity. The blacksmith's arms become strong and powerful, often to the extent of sapping
the strength of his legs, his development is not even, not balanced, not
symmetrical or in line with beauty or
health. Things that are abnormal
tend to ugliness, and they also tend to
disease, uneasiness, out of balance, in-
harmony, sickness.
The blackBmlth, however, has en
ough chance to exercise the other
muscles so that his physical development approaches the normal. Ordinarily he learns his profession after
his body is matured. The people who
suffer most are the "machine tenders,"
and in this so-called age of scientific
production the tendency is to eliminate the skilled workman and substitute a "machine tender."
The time is not far distant when
practically the entire work of the
world will be done by machinery—
and a part of this machinery will be
the "machine tenders." Were these
machine tenders adult men and women before they take up their soul-
killing, body-killing tasks it would not
be so bad—but most of them will be
children, who's very bodies and minds
will be made into the machines. This
is the great crime of the ages.
Ask the music teacher "When is the
proper time to learn to play the violin?" He will answer, "When you are
young, when the bones are tender
and form growing the. body must become accustomed to holding the instrument, making the violin, so to
speak, a part of Itself."
The violin is a light instrument
used but a few hours a day at the
most, and when used, requiring the
most skillful manipulation of both bow
and keyboard, bringing into play all
the muscles of both arms and putting
the entire body in "tune," lt is indeed a healthful exercise.
But what think you of the millions
of young and tender forms that are
being "fitted" to the machines of modern Industry? The child machine tender has just one or two motions to
perform, using, perhaps but a thousandth part of the body, but using
these few muscles over and over and
over and over and over, till the body
itself becomes but a machine, the
muscles and bones become "set," the
mind is dwarfed, Bhrlveled and stunted and the Boul—but why speak of a
"machine tender" having a soul?
What chance can there be for a soul
to develop under the constant repetition of a monotonous motion, one after
the other, one after the other, one
after the other, moment by moment,
hour by hour, day by day, year by
year, until the grim reaper gathers in
the dwarfed and stunted thing that
has never been permitted to be a mar.
or woman, the thing that has been
chained by necessity to the machine,
offered as a living sacrifice to the-|
God of Greed .until the body ls dead,
the mind is dead and the soul ls
damned. •
This is an awful price to pay for
modern civilization, so-called, and yet
it is but part of the price that Is
being paid by those who toil for Just
the privilege of tolling—and even
many who are willing to pay this awful price are refused the opportunity.
Are the people mad, crazy, utterly
heartless? Are they deaf, dumb and
blind? Is It Impossible for them to
reason, to think, to see the awful
wrongs of an economic system that
compells even little children to toll
at unhealthful occupations for long
hours and grinds their very lives into
What has become of the manhood
of the race when this crime against
children goes on without protest?
How long! Oh, how long! will the
people sleep?
This one crime of child labor condemns the entire system.
Some time since, a review waB published in the Clarion on "The Workers
In American History," and the address
was not given correctly, any reader
wishing to get this hook can obtain it
from The National Rip Saw, 411 Olive
Street, St. Louis, Mo., U. S. A.
Strong paper cover, post paid, 50c.
Silk cloth binding, gold embossed,
Did you ever experience in some of
the more developed countries the
workers having to do night work? You
will doubtless have heard of slaves
working three shifts of eight hours in
the coal mines of England and Wales.
The same applies to the iron works,
and many woollen factories of Lancashire and Yorkshire. The workers
must work when the employers want
them because they sell to the employers their labor power, to be consumed
when the employers want it, at what
they want it, until such time comes
when they don't want It because there
are no profits to be gained by still producing wealth.
"Our warehouses are full," "No
hands wanted" are the cries of the capitalist. "We would clearly see we
must sell our goods before we can
produce more." In other words, they
mean: "We, the capitalist class, must
flnd more markets to send these surplus values, or we must consume them
wastefully by employing flunkeys or
building churches and other 'charitable' Institutions," etc., etc.
When the markets get emptied
ou can produce more, because you
then produce at a profit to us. Then.
I the master's voice starts calling again
at 6 and 7 a.m. regular, morning after
morning, those working at that part ot
the day. Others, weary after their intense laborB, are leaving the mills.
The whistle Is a glad sound to them;
a sad Bound to the lngoers. To those
leaving it means rest, recreation, pleasure, life; to the others SLAVERY.
What an experience lt Is, to see the
faces of both bands of workmen. You
don't need a close scrutiny to find out
whether they like their slavery or not.
They don't like it, neither do you or>I,
but we have to submit to it. "If I
don't answer the hooter today, the
hooter may not blow tomorrow for
me," is their uppermost thought. 1
must have work, if I want bread, and
If I want work I must comply with
the conditions laid down by capitalism, which means in many cases night
But why should we slaves be forced
to work on such degrading terms?
-Simple is the answer. It is because
labor power Is a commodity, and we
pedlars of this special commodity are
We are wage slaves because we are
forced to work for wages. Wages are
that portion of wealth previously pro
duced, which enables you and I to
work and keep ourselves in a state
of physical efficiency and also to help
perpetuate your kind.
Your labor power Ib a commodity,
because it is produced for purposes of
exchange with a view to getting your
daily bread. By producing one does
not mean simply to make an article,
hut to make and produce it at the
right time and place.
This applies also to labor power. If
the labor power is to be sold it does
not matter when or where. If lt suits
the capitalist to use it in the day, or
in the night, lt does not matter. The
capitalist has bought it, and It is his
business to consume it, whenever it
so pleases him.
Yet why does the capitalist use up
labor power ln the night? Is lt because night work ls more productive?
No! It is because lt ls cheaper and
more remunerative to him If he can
keep his works going night and day.
In every large concern the capitalist
lays out quite a large amount ot
wealth for Instruments of labor. Instruments of labor comprise land,
buildings, machinery and raw material.
This wealth becomes capital when
labor power is exploited at its application.
The function of capital ls exploitation. Constant capital is the name
given to the Instruments of labor and
should not be used in relation to the
capital needed for engaging labor
power, which is variable capital. Now,
this constant capital may be sufficient
to flnd employment for 10 slaves. If
these men are employed in the day,
then, if the capitalist want to increase
his revenue, he must either lay out
more constant capital or employ another additional batch of Blaves, ln
the night. The latter course being the
most economical, he decides to employ night labor.
Another point to be noticed Is that
In the bulk ot cases labor preserves
capital. If, we will say, labor is
withheld by means of a strike for a
long period, and the masters could
not get any slaves to take the places
of the others, then their machinery
would gradually deteriorate as a result. If any of you were to go Iii the
country places of Lancashire, England, you would flnd that this ls a correct statement. You will see small
stone buildings with their machinery
fixed up inside. The one thing that
seems to be lacking Is labor power.
The machinery has deteriorated. It
has lost its value and Is only equal
to the value of scrap, minus cost of
transportation to the place needed tor
The discovery of steam power was
the cause of this machinery being
Idle, but the lack of the application
of labor power was one of the causes
of the depreciation. Labor power applied to the means of wealth produc-
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lion not only creates surplus values
but preserves capital.
And so it ls in the case of coal
mines and iron works. The case of
the latter in particular. If labor power
is withheld, then the furnaces (which
had hitherto been burning for years)
would either get low or go out. If
labor power is constantly applied, then
the value embodied ln those blazing
furnaces would be preserved.
Now, fellow slaves, can you Bee
why we and our kind have to work
nights? Is it not far more economical
to the. capitalist? "Yes,", you may
reply, "but where do I come In?" Thci
answer is quite simply. You are a
pedlar of that special commodity,
labor power. A commodity is an ar
tide produced for purposes of exchange. When a commodity is pro
duced it is ready for consumption, a;
the time and place that the consumei
wishes. The consumer in this cast
is the capitalist, the place is hi.
workshop, the time ia from la. n. t
4 p. m.
I hope I have made it quite clea
why we have night work. Simply bt
cause it is more economical to th
capitalist. Wage slaves are neve
taken into account. And why shoul
they be? It is his (the capitalist's) bus
ness to look after himself, and it i
our business to do likewise.
Our business is to abolish slaver:
the arch source of poverty. We ar^
the slaves, the capitalists are our
masters. If we want freedom, we must
work for lt, and not trouble our heads
about little petty reforms. This ls our
master's business. Our sole aim
should be the abolishing of slavery.
Every question brought before us
ought to be tested by the question,
"Will we be FREE if this is brought
about?" "If not, then I am against it.
If so, then I am for lt with all my
Fellow slaves, all that are not for
us are against us. Wage slaves, arouse
yourself!    "Be 'strong' and fear not."
H WebsterS 11
iff   Dictionary  1
Reunu tt It a HEW CKEA- I
?"•* i TION, covering every ■
Held ot the world's thought, ■
action and culture. The only ■
new unabridged diottontjy in ■
many years. ^D
Became " &tnn<* over 400,000 I
Words,-more than ever ^1
before appeared between two ■
Covers,   troo Pages.   6000 II- H
lustrations. ge\*\
rWnrii* it 1* the only dictionary I
P^*   - with  the new divided ■
page. A "Stroke of Genius."    |
•Want* it !■ an encyclopedia in
PeC,Mf • single volume.
Became " is accepted by the
. Courts, Schools  and
Press aa the one supreme authority.
Reran** he who knows Wtna
m     **" Success.   Let us tsU
you about this new work.
■ UlifW*,!
The Otis-Burns conspiracy to demoralize, and If possible disorganize, the
labor unions of the United States and
Canada is about to reach Its climax in
the indictment of more than 100 officers and agitators of the labor movement has ordered ten of these ma-
Indianapolis and Los Angeles, according to secret reports received ln Chicago yesterday.
The list of 100 Indicted men will
Include officials connected with many
of the largest labor organizations and
will astonish the entire country.
"New  York.—laying on    ihe    floor ,
wrapped in a ragged blanket that did !
not keep  out  the  cruel  wind  which
swept   across   the     East    River   andi
trickled   through   the   Ill-fitting  casements of the squalid tenement on the
lower East Side,   the  body of Kittle^
Rice,   two  years  old,   was  found  tonight by a policeman who had beeni
sent  there  to  investigate  belated  re]
ports that a family was in want.
"In   an   adjoining   room   were   the
mother, Catherine Rice, and her two
surviving children, Michael, aged six,
and John aged four.   They had been
without food or fuel  for three days.
Little John was suffering from pneu-,
monia.     Kittle     died     of  starvation.!
There was practically no furniture inl
the room.   An old, rusty stove in onel
corner was covered  with frost.    All!
three survivors were taken to the hos-l
pltal.    Lltle    hope  is    held  for the|
younger boy.
"Mrs. Rice said that her husbandl
had been without work for weeks.l
Driven to desperation he started out]
Tuesday and anounced that he would
not return until he could bring money
to supply family with life's necessaries.  He has not returned."—Exchange.


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