BC Historical Newspapers

BC Historical Newspapers Logo

BC Historical Newspapers

Western Clarion Dec 3, 1910

Item Metadata

Download

Media
wclarion-1.0318733.pdf
Metadata
JSON: wclarion-1.0318733.json
JSON-LD: wclarion-1.0318733-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): wclarion-1.0318733-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: wclarion-1.0318733-rdf.json
Turtle: wclarion-1.0318733-turtle.txt
N-Triples: wclarion-1.0318733-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: wclarion-1.0318733-source.json
Full Text
wclarion-1.0318733-fulltext.txt
Citation
wclarion-1.0318733.ris

Full Text

 ■»" —-WWJ1MW        M- ' ■ .-Mf    ,,.--   .    ,,   ■;,„■■    |^^
NO. 608.
Vancouver, British Columbia, Saturday, Dec. 3, 1910.
Subscription Price
Psa Y»A»
SI.M
SOCIAL EVOLUTION
How Scientists Avoid Scientific Conclusions
THE MACHINE AGE.
In the field of natural science (he
theory ot evolution is generally accepted; in political economy the reverse is the case. The reason of this
is not very hard to find. In natural
science a new truth discovered Ss
generally something which materially
aids the ruling class; very often, a
very powerful help In the development
and extension of their system of pro-
\ duction. A different aspect is present-
' ed though, with political economy.
The application of the evolutionary
theory to history; to the development
of society, and an endeavor to discover
the law or the laws of social development must inevitably lead to the
Marxian conclusion. Hence we find
the majority of professors of political
economy either preaching the doctrine of the "rights" of capital and
lalior or else eventually proclaiming
there is no social science, hut are
willing, in fact some even plead
anxiety for social reform. But why
this confusion?
Like most of us they are principally
governed by the economic factor, and,
depending on the ruling class for their
living, they must make the conclusions
of their investigations harmonize with
the interests of their bosses, the ruling
class. Perhaps that is the source of
the doctrine of the identity of interest
between capital and labor. Possibly
the foundation of natural knowledge
was first laid and instilled in man's
mind when he first found that a stone
thrown into (he air would return to
the earth; that things remain where
they are unless moved; that heat
comes and goes with the sun; that
plants and animals grow and die; that
two is more than one. When man
realized this he had the material for
the ouline of the modern sciencies
reflected on his brain. To the untutored savage, why these things
happen was a systery. Natural
phenomena could not. be explained;
such happenings as the flash of the
lightning instilled terror into his heart;
sometimes in his dreams he found
himself in another world, amidst fresh
scenes. To the less familiar occurrences uncultured man has naturally
fatten himself as the standard of
comparison, as the principal figure
and the centre of the world. Discovering his action, his "free will"
to be the cause of many other effects,
he very naturally would ascribe events
which he could not explain, to the
action of some person like himself but
stronger, who ruled all and could be
pleased or angered. So he imagined
that this world was not the real world,
and then began the formation of the
gods.
The Saxons before their conversion
to Christianity, had two gods, Woden
and Tltor, names preserved In Wednesday (Woden's day) and Thursday
(Thor's day). The first appears to
have been considered the creator nnd
ruler of heaven and earth; the second
was his son, the god of thunder,
slayer of evil spirits nnd friend of man.
History does not relate who the
mother was. Their mode of living,
being a warlike people, determined the
essential elements of their religion—
they were the deification of strength,
courage and fortitude. It was a faith
well suited to a warlike people. It
taught a heaven for the brave and a
hell for cowards. When man had
obtained a glimmering of natural
knowledge, or had unconsciously as-
atrriljated spme of what we call natural
laUs, what effect would they have on
him? Why, what would be wiser than
the study of the seasons, in order to
obtain good crops, or the study of the
stars as guides to their crude navigators? Out of this evolved the science
of astronomy which has filled our
minds with ideas foreign to our daily
experience; which has made it harder
for man to hold <tight to cherished
beliefs; which renders it impossible to
hold the beliefs our fathers did. It
also shows us that this world, which
we fondly Imagined was the central
figure, is but an atom whirling
through the space we know as the
heavens, where nothing is known out-
slde of matter and force (force is
a property of matter), all operating In
accordance to rigid rules.   Astronomy
has been encouraged, for, -by its use
ships can sail unknown seas; the seas
are transformed into a highway, and
new markets can be reached. The
same with chemistry; by a chemical
process the capitalists' slaves can
change the color of fabrics, etc., making them more pleasing to the eye,
helping to make them more saleable
So we find these and similar branches
of science encouraged.
Seeing the universe is governed and
operated in accordance with certain
laws, is not society governed by laws?
Socialists say it is. The Socialists'
conception of society rests upon the
materialistic conception of history
which forms the foundation of the
science of Socialism. The Marxian
science is the result of the whole
development of mankind. It consists
of the evolutionary method of regard
ing the world and the materialistic
view, the standpoint that the material
conditions of the world being the only
ones we know of are the only ones
we can recognize. Opposing this view
is the school of idealism. Idealism
maintains that there are two sources
of knowledge—the ideas gained by experience and those communicated to
us from some source beyond the world
we perceive with our senses. The
indealists inBist that the world of
matter which surrounds us has no
independent existence, that certain
non-material things—ideas, have an independent existence and their own
laws of development The materialist
only admits of one source of ideas—experience. We know of nothing except
what we gain by the aid of our senses,
and ideas are not something apart,
but are merely the reflection of the
real world which surrounds and includes us, as perceived by our senses.
The evolutionary view simply means
that we do not look upon the world as
stationary, but that everything is
changing, everything is in a constant
state of change. That to understand
things we must understand their rise
and fall; their birth, growth, evolution
and materialism applied to history
is Ihe materialist conception. It maintains that social changes and political
evolutions are not to be sought in
men's ideas, in man's better insight
into "eternal truth and justice," but
in changes in lhe way society gets its
living. It Is not changes in ideas that
determine society, but rather the development of society which determines
ideas and consciousness A change in
the basis of society causes the institutions of society to be altered to suit
the new form of production: and the
ideas on all subjects relating to man
In society Including right and wrong
and  even  his  religious    ideas
This can be aptly termed the machine age, the magnitude of which
staggers the modern wage worker. He
is cast spellbound by his own creation.
The vastness and complexity of the
modern tools of industry tends to
make the worker dubious as to the
ability of his own class to take possession of the same and use them
for his own benefit. The present day
wage slaves, like their predecessors,
have been primed full of imaginations,
superstitions and Utopian ideas. It
necessarily follows that these enigmas
must form the basis ot their reasoning
and expressions. The enevitable consequence of this is that when asked
to look at things from a material
standpoint they are nonplussed. They
fall down, ..guratively speaking, when
confronted with a mode of reasoning other than what has been drilled
into them throughout their entire existence.
A very common assertion among non
thinking wage workers, is the one that
so and so (mentioning the owner's
name) runs this factory, and so and
so runs that mine, but as a matter of
fact the capitalist class who own
everything worth owning, are parasites upon society, taking no part in
production whatever, (except drawing
dividends). ; Of course it is needless
to say that the workers are encouraged in their pet beliefs, by the upholders and apologists of the present
system, who realize that the perpetuation of their dominant position demands that the worker be chloroform.
The average worker is certainly a
walking conundrum, battered and
thrown around by the very machines
he uses to make a living, ofttimes
compelling him to tramp the streets
in search of a master. He .s certainly a sorry spectacle, when after working till he is ready to drop from sheer
exhaustion, and producing   an    abun
dance of everything to satisfy society's
needs, he is let out to indulge in that
none too pleasant pastime of starving.
Go where we may, we are confronted
with the same sight of the producers
striving and struggling to obtain the
wherewithal to keep themselves alive.
This effect is caused by the workers
not owning the things which are essential to their well-being. In the face
of all this one would naturally think
that the worker would be up and
clamoring for his own. But his cringing and servility, and his superstitious
reasoning holds him in check. "It is
God"s will." "We cannot work out
our own destiny"—such are the
thoughts that he gives expression to.
He never once suspects that it is
not a question of "God's will," or of
"working out our own destiny," but
one of merely changing the ownership of the means of production from
the present owners and transferring
that ownership to the users of the
same:  viz., the workers.
Then production, taking on a different basis to what it is now, namely, for use instead of for profit, will
put an end to any individual starving
to death in the midest of plenty. Then
humanity, having gained free access
to the means of life, will produce for
their own benefit, and supply their
own wants. The interests of all being identical by working for ourselves,
we incidentally work for the benefit
of all.
We socialists realize that such a
state of society can only come by the
workers wanting it, and themselves
making it, therefore we call upon all
discontented workers to study their position from their own class standpoint; join the only live organization in Canada which seeks to accomplish the above that is the Socialist
Party of Canada, and help in this
fight for your own emancipation.
A.  W.  B.
ALBERTA LEGISLATURE
O'TSrien Opposes Extradition of Federenko
The Farmers And
Socialism
The other day I was talking with
a farmer neighbor who reads nearly
all my papers and who votes Socialist
and I was astonished to hear him say
to be. They've got to be shot, at and
hit a dozen times or more betore they
will believe they are in danger and
then even they will tell us like Pat In
The attention rjf the Alberta Legislature was drawn to the Federenko
case by Comrade O'Brien by resolution. His first resolution on the subject was up before the House on the
17th but was disallowed, owinp to
there being embodied in it some constitutional irregularities. He was
therefore given the privilege of substituting the following: —
Whereas it has come to the attention of the Members of the Legislature that an application is being
made for the extradition of Sown
Federenko, now a resident of the
Province of Manitoba; and.
Whereas attention has been drawn
to the fact that the offences with
which the said Sovvo Federenko is
accused is alleged to be of a political
character; and,
Whereas large numbers of people
from foreign countries have settled In,
and still continue to seek homes in
this country; and,
Whereas it is highly desirable that
such people should feel at all times
that their rights and liberties will be
respected to the fullest possible extent while they are residents or
Canada;
Therefore be it resolved that we,
the Members of the Legislative As-
embly of the Province of Alberta, in
Session Assembled, do hereby suggest to the Honourable the Minister
of Justice of Canada, the desirability
of making a thorough investigation
of the nature of the offence of which
the said Sovvo Federenko is accused,
and if the same be found to be ot a
political nature, he refuse to make an
order for the surrender of the said
Sovvo Federenko, as provided for in
the "Extradition Act."
This resolution was endorsed owing
to the "fact" that, as some of the
members stated, while they did not
agree with all that O'Brien had said,
they were "lovers of freedom and
liberty such as prevails within the
Britjsh Empire."
Said one of the members: "I have
in the constituency which I represent
two political refugees.   In fact most
mental trash. Mr. Speaker, he said,
the resolution which you have before
you deals with a subject upon which
English speaking people have very
little information, \for most of them
are acquainted with but one language
and are dependent to a very great extent upon the newspapers for their
knowledge. Now, Mr. Speaker, this
source of information is not always
reliable. As an eminent newspaper
man of New York is reported to have
said: "Try to conceal it as we may
the fact still remains that we do not
write what we think or what we know,
but we write to suit the powers that
be." In order to procure unbiased evidence from our viewpoint I have obtained a copy of Jufge Mather's speech
on this case, when, after hearing the
pros and cons, he issued the extradition warrant. It is upon this speech
that I have built up my resolution.
^et us look closer in to this question.
What is it that constitutes a political
offence? According to this judge,
should a life be taken while one party
Is striving wllh another with the object
of capturing the reins ot Government
Now, what did Federenko do? He
assisted in electing a comrade to the-
Russian Duma, circulated literature,
etc.; and we find that this same man
who was elected ito the Duma Is now
in Siberia. Federenko, in endeavoring
to escape from the clutches of the
Czar, shot a watchman or policeman.
And I might remind you here that martial law was then in force In this part
of Russia. Now that he is landed in this
country the spies of the Czar are after
him, not solely because he killed a
policeman, but because he had taken
part in a political campaign which
threatened the suzerainty of the Czar.
Again, the conditions in that country
are somewhat, different to those prevailing here. Here, we use the ballot
while we yet have it. There, political action can express itself only in
the using of pitch-forks, stones, bombs,
etc.
We Socialists are accused of creating the conditions which produce these
results.    Similarly, during the French
of my constituency is made of these (revolution the Idea was prevalent (hat
to  me:     "Really,   Percy,   I  have  no i the Boer war that their "heart
need to be a Socialist myself; that is,
I am not starving to death like the
millions of my class, Ihe workers are,
and I am more of tx sympathetic Socialist for their sake than my own."
Just think of a man who has to work
such long hours and so hard, and the
rest of the family also, and only makes
a bare existence at that, thinking that
are I he had no need to be a Socialist for his
changed and brought into harmony
with the new mooe of production.
Before Marx applied his conception
the movement of society could not be
explained. To explain it necessitated
an examination Into all the factors
affecting society, such as race, climate,
geographical position, fertility of the
soil, mineral deposits, etc. These factors practically remained constant, and
It is a simple law of logic that a constant cause cannot bring about a
changing effect. The economic factor
being the only one that developes and
changes, it is the only one that can
bring about a change in the superstructure of society, hence his adherence
to the economic as the prime mover
in society.
If the capitalist political economist
treated his subject the same as he
does the other sciences, he would be
compelled to present the same conclusion as Marx. The capitalist system revealed to Marx, not only the
laws which govern it, but also its
historical tendency. He maintained
that It is full of inherent contradictions which will lead to its own destruction. To quote him—"Capitalism
becomes an impediment to the methods of production developed with and
under it. The concentration of the
means of production and the organization of labor reach a point where it
comes into collision with its capitalistic covering. It is broken. The hour
of Capitalist private property strikes.
The expropriators are expropriated."
J. STEWART.
own good. I wonder if any old-party
liar has been soft-soaping him?
Millions of dollars worth of eggs are
Imported Into B. C. yearly. Why? I'll
tell you why. Because It costs us bush
fnrmerB $100 an acre to clear and
break our land on an average, and
we cannot therefore produce eggs at
the low price at which they are imported. Our bush farms nre not suited
to producing eggs in competition with
the Northwest where there is prairie
land and lots of second-class grain;
nor can we compete with Australasia,
where the government pays the farmers the value of all the land-clearing
that they do. Butter is now being imported from Australia to B. C, hay
from Ontario and fruit from the states,
although we grow Al fruit and export
it (have to)—all for the same reason.
Local markets do not exist and so we
have to ship our produce away and pay
heavy transportation charges so that
our average returns amount to the
barest existence. In good crop years
prices are down to zero, produce on
our hands sometimes; in bad years
when we have nothing, prices are up—
to encourage us, I suppose; but never
up half enough to make us able to
compete. And yet, because we have a
big log house to live in, instead of
tramping around with blankets on our
backs looking for a job, there are some
of us who feel "So independent on a
bloomln'  ra(w)nch  dontcherknow."
How blithering, blind and thoughtless  half  our  fellow  creatureB  seem
in their mouth for safety," and still
be sorry for the otner chap. Mr.
Farmer, to the devil with the other
chap! Wake up and see how you nre
being hit here and  now.    The entire
Russians, nnd I can vouch for them
being good citizens. They pay their
debts and are good workers, and I
have much pleasure in supponing the
resolution." Yet another member rose
in support of it, it having dawned
upon him that he also had men of this
working class, you included, if you are kind in his constituency so he believed
a working farmer (as distinguished jthat the "wing of Canadian liberty
from a capitalist who owns farms and should be spread over these poor undoes not work them himself), is being fortunates."
exploited till it can only barely exist.      O'Brien replied in a calm and deli-
Flfty-four per cent always out of work berate   speech   devoid   of   all   Bentl
which proves that (be balance who are
working are down to bedrock wages,
You as a farmer are not out of work, !sn™e tnlne With the workers.
you have too much of It, and that is
the only reason you nre not out of
work—because you are the biggest
slave, and meekest, that exists today,
because of your supposed ownership
of your farm. Hut although your
hours are the longest your wages are
the lowest, generally eked out by the
non-saleable produce. And you don't
need Socialism for your own good!
Oh no! Scratch the hayseed out of
your head and think a bit.
What do you need for* your own
good? More work? Less pay? If so
keep voting liberal or conservative. If
you want the abuses of competition
removed, support. Socialism which
means just the opposite of competition—it means co-operation where
each farmer or other worker will reap
the FULL benefit of, his toil in the
world of production. Nj one fattening
off your labor but yourself and family
And the homeless blanket packers
will have a home and be able to marry
and live decently and enjoy life under Socialism. Have you ever watched
a binder going around a field of grain?
Because if you have, that will serve
as an illustration of capitalism—It
starts on the outside row and when
it has knocked that row out it tackles
the next row, and so on, until it has
reaped all the grain, when its mission
end*.    Well  capitalism  Ib doing the
lt would
be foolish for the third or fourth row
of grain in tho field to say It was
sorry for the first round, BUT WAS
SAFE ITSELF. It might know lhat
the grim reaper would not stop till the
whole field was reaped (unless the
machine came to an untimely end).
So with the workers, the capitalist
machine has no more use for those
workers whom it has already knocked
out; It must keep on until it will have
arrived at its own evolutionary end;
unless we rise up and wreck the capitalist machine by electing a majority
of Socialists to parliament so that
we run the country (world) in the interest of all who produce.
Capitalists coind not then exist ns
capitalists, for if they tried to play
their game they would lose. Remember there are 90 workers to each 10
capitalists and the spot to aim for
(should such a deplorable necessity
be forced upon the workers at such a
time) is about where the charm of the
watch chain hangs. It Is a sure bulls-
eye and very broad mark about there.
At Waterloo the command wbb to
"aim low." Farmers and olher workers speed the coming of Socialism by
working (agitating) for it and voting
for it, and organizing for it Join the
party and read the party paper, the
Western Clarion. It will teach you.
PERCY ROSOMAN.
philosophers mid agitators caused the
revolution. Th"- actual fact la that
it is the conditions that produce agitators and philosophers.
We Socialists claim to be materialists, hence we view these things In an
entirely different light to other people.
We have no more ill-will against the
police than we have against the miners
who do not belong to our party, and so
long as they do not molest us we do
not bother them. These Russians,
however, being by law forbidden to
hold meetings, have to devlBe other
means of spreading their Ideas and
are sometimes compelled to resort
to the use of a bomb in delivering
their message. | might recnll hero
that a man In the British House ot
Commons once jumped out onto tho
floor of the House and danced a jig to
attract attention.
O'Brien went on to show that our
movement is In the Interests of the
propcrtylesB class and we are not
against any portion of the class. The
most discouraging feature of it, however, is to find large numbers of our
class supporting the other class. Just
as the serfs of old supported those
who were keeping them in serfdom
bo tho working class to-day supports
the masters who subject tbem (o slavery. Yet I think that. If the workers
of thiB country raise a united protest
Federenko will not be returned to
Russia.
RUFUS.
NOTICE.
All farmer readers of the Western
Clarion in Manitoba that are taking
part in the (!. (i. Convention nre
invited to the reading room and headquarters of Brandon Local No. 7 S. P.
of C, at No. 10 Nation Block, over
Adam's shoe store, open every day
and evenings.
T. B. LEGGE, Organizer,
34 Seventh St., Brandon. THE WESTERN CLARION. VANCOUVER. BRITISH COLUMBIA
SATURDAY, DECEMBER  3, 1910
Published every Saturday by the
■oelallst Party ot Canada, at the Office
Of the Western Clarion, Flack Block
Isssment, 166 Hastings Street, Vancouver, B. C.
*NtT Or-FICE ADDRESS, BOX 1688.
SUBSCRIPTION:
Btx» Per Tea*;, SO oents for Bis Montha,
as oents for Three Months.
Strictly la Advance.
Bundles   of  S  or  more   copies,   for  a
B*rktd of not less tl an three months, at [
Hue rate of one cent per copy per Issue.
Advertising rates on application.
If you  receive this  paper,  It is  paid
tar.
lose sight, is the fact that things are
changing. The capitalist system is
growing every minute and it is growing towards Socialism.
At present the capitalist system is
the only system possible, but it is
changing ceaslessly towards a condition where it will be Impossible, then
It will be no more, and only then.   It
CORRECTING A CORRECTION.
Editor of Clarion:—Comrade Robt.
Oakes I am sure is rather over anxious
to find mistakes in the article I wrote
a couple of weeks ago.
I plead guilty to delivering the
"dope," here or anywhere else, on the
least provocation, or Inclination, which
I assure you Ib quite frequently.   But
is as it ought to be and it is changing ^ nartlcuIar article whlcll he refer8
la making remittance by cheque, ex-
•jtiaage must be added. Address all
•unmunlcatlons and make all money
swtlers   payable  to
THE   WESTERN   CLARION.
1688 Vancouver, B.
it ought to change. When the
workers wake up it will be as it
ought not to be and lt mighty soon will
not be.
Our efforts are therefore to be bent
towards waking the workers to a realization  of their enslaved  position  in
to was a few memorized remarks from
Comrade O'Brien's speech. I mentioned this before, but It seems necessary to mention it again, which would
not be necessary if one would read
well, before rushing into print with
a "correction."    Comrade Oakes says
society.    Even in doing this we are j that  2000   years  ago  people   wanted
acting upon the dictates of circumstances over which we have no control and in conformity to perfectly
natural laws. The more thoroughly
we realize this and the more
clearly   we   understand   these   laws
"■ | the more smoothly, rapidly, and easily
= will be progress and the less frequently
I will we act in a manner which we will
■ subsequently regret.
609
Watch the label on your paper. If this number is on it,
your subscription expires the
next issue.        	
SATURDAY, DECEMBER  3, 1910
AS  IT OUGHT TO BE.
Billikin, "the god of things as they
ought to be," is peculiarly the god of
the small fry, the little capitalists, and
the near capitalists, the so-called
"middle class." With them nothing
is as it ought to be. There ought to
be more street cars and fewer millionaires. No one ought to make more
than a "good living" out of his business. The Trusts ought to be broken' 0,
up. The railroads ought to be owned
by the government. "Graft" ought
to be exterminated. "The social evil"
ought not to be permitted.   The mail-
OUR   NAVY.
order houses ought to be denied the
use of the mails. The city engineer
ought to be fired'. There ought to be
good shopping weather at Christmas
A few days ago we were interested
spectators of the arrival of "our navy."
We cannot claim to have been much
impressed thereby. The "Navy" is a
short, unlovely, barge-like thing, painted a dirty white and is neither artistic,
useful or dangerous. In some quarters,
even in some Socialist and near-Socialist circles, considerable row is being
made on the navy question. For ourselves, we really cannot regard it
seriously. A Canadian navy is, and
always will be, to our mind, rather
a comic opera proposition.
In these days of rapid development
and machine evolution even the value
the most up-to-date and modern
war vessel is in doubt. Fighting ships,
one might say, are often obsolete
before they are launched. With the
perfection of the submarine and aero-
because the problem of production had
not been solved; well I admit it
wasn't solved to the extent It is to-day.
I know little of Aristotle's writings,
but that is not necessary" to enable
me to answer.
I do know that slavery existed then,
and further, that man enslaves his
fellowman for one purpose and that is,
to rob him of some of his product.
If it is so that slavery did then exist,
then the problem of production must
have been solved to the extent that
man was able to produce more than
was necessary for his own sustenance.
So let me correct the "correction" containing the assertion "that poverty
existed in Aristotle's time, because the
problem of production had not been
solved"—by repeating what I wrote
in the former article "that the cause
waB slavery."
I agree with Aristotle and Comrade
Oakes that the machine will free mankind. Our expressions are the same,
but I am afraid our meanings differ.
The'machine that will free us is not
so likely to be found In the mill or
factory as it is in the barracks or
aboard a battleship..
Yours in revolt,
THE UNPATRIOTIC IRISHMAN.
plane, the whole of the world's navies
may be old iron to-morrow. We presume it is knowledge of this fact
that has influenced "our" Government
time.   Everybody ought to pay cash.|,n lt8 recent purchase_the »Rainbow...
The wholesalers ought to give us Th,3 „noble craft„ ,g a m^ clasg
-more time. The labor unions ought crulaer_and lookg the part Also lt
to ue abolished. The public ought to|was aecon(J hand when .w. bougllt
be protected from irresponsible firms u PeraonalIyr of course| there ls no
who don't belong to our association. | k,ck com|ng on ,Wg Blthough were we
Of course, "there are reasons." At|a conservative inalviaua- it woulQ
one time the small capitalists were the haye been „re-erable that tne U3ual
big toads in the puddle. There were I proceaure 8noul(1 hilve beeu adopted_
no big capitalists to speak of. When that ig ,0 gay that a cru,ser ghouM
"times were good" they were all get-
Ing plenty to eat. But times are not
always good, and then they had to eat
■one another, and there you are.
Plants grew larger, machinery more
•complex and expensive. Bigger capitals were required,, and the bigger
capitalists survived and got bigger.
The smaller ones merged with the big
ones, went out o. business or became,
what they mostly are now, agents for
the big ones, or little, penurious,
starveling concerns hanging on to the
lagged edge and protesting that things
ought not to be thus.
They can feel the pinch all over
tut they have no idea why they are
pinched or what is really pinching
them. Superficial in their outlook,
they perceive and protest against only
the superficial and apparently remediable ills that afflict them. Of
their causes they know nothing.
Not that we care. Their troubles are
none of our funeral. But they infect
that wise bird the wage mule With
their ideas and he goes to braying
about how things ought to be. What
is worse, he even brings that bray
into the Socialist movement, where it
most certainly does not belong. Not
only are things generally not as they
ought to be, but in many cases he finds
tbat the movement is not aa It ought
to be, in one way or another.
*Por our part, we can see nothing
else for it but that things are as
they ought to be and ought to be as
they are. Not that the present state
of affairs suits our complexion worth
a damn. But there it is. What are
going to do about it? Things are
as they are because of chains of causation interlinked to infinity. Present
conditions are the effect of events
■which have happened and which cannot be "unhappened." Things are as
they ought to be, even though they
are not as we would have them.
However, we would have them no
other than they are, for, just as they
are the effects of things as they were,
so, also, are they the causes of things
as they will be. Only because this
system is just as It ls, is a new system possible.
One thing of which those who whine
against things as they are completely
have been built and allowed to become
obsolete naturally, instead of intercepting an already out of date one on
the way to the scrap heap. Such a
practice is revolutionary,, and should
be condemned.
VANCOUVER   ECONOMIC   CLASS.
Resume of Discussion on Extract from
"Capital," in Western Clarion
of Nov. 26th, 1910.
It being understood and recognized
that we are formed as a class for the
study of political economy, we begin
the study of "Capital" understanding
that we are not met to advance any
particular doctrine or view that may
be incidental to or arise from the work
of Karl Marx.
Satisfies some human want.
Is a product of labor.
Is  produced   for  exchange  on  the
market.
The distinction between a simple
labor product and a commodity Is
seen here.
A man may produce an article to
satisfy his own wants, and thus fulfil
three of the four requirements of a
commodity, but by himself consuming it, it does not reach the market.
Therefore it does not possess the
fourth property; the producer has
realized its use value.
It makes no difference to our study
in dealing with the nature of the
wants of society how these may arise,
"from Ihe stomach or from fancy," or
as they arise they are effective.
There are two points of view from
which to consider every useful thing.
Wheat, for instance, has the available
property of being made into bread,
and bread when made has the quality
of nourishment.
Iron may be made into a hundred
useful things, but the other aspect,
that of quantity, does not concern its
usefulness.
This Important distinction arises
throughout the course ot our study,
and it shall be considered when we
have proceeded farther.
Marx says: "To discover the various uses of things is the work of history."
As society develops in complexity,
its wants and desires increase, and
these are discovered in its movement.
The word "history" here is perhaps
inapplicable, as it means to us the
story of the development of man.
"Science" would not apply, as it has
not the content of time which is essential.
We understand it to mean here
human endeavor itself, not its description. "Utility ls not a thing of air;"
that Is, the physical properties of any
commodity cannot exist outside that
commodity.
This statement evidently appears as
an insistence, and (need hardly be
discussed.
Use-value is realized in consumption. A felt hat, for instance, as a
non-conductor of heat is used to keep
the head warm.
All commodities contain the potential properties of use-values, which are
realized when they come into use.
Exchange value Is distinct and apart
from, and has its basis in something
other than use-value, as we shall see
as we progress in our study of "Capl-
Socialist Directory
Every local of the Socialist Party   LOCAL     REVELSTOKE,     B.C.S.F.C.
of Canada should run a card under this      Propaganda and business meetings at
head.      ¥1.00
please note.
per   month.       Secretaries
DOMINION  EXECUTIVE  COMMITTEE
Socialist Party of Canada. Meets
every alternate Monday. D. G. McKenzie, Secretary, Box 1688, Vancouver,  B.  C.
BRITISH     COLUMBIA     PROVINCIAL
Executive Committee, Socialist Party
of Canada. Meets every alternate
Monday. D. G. McKenzie, Secretary,
Box 1688 Vancouver, B. C.
ALBERTA   PROVINCIAL   EXECUTIVE
Committee, Sociullst Party of Canada. Meets every alternate Monday in
Labor Hall, Eighth Ave. East, opposite postofflce. Secretary will be
pleased to answer any communications
regarding the movement ln the province. F. Danby, Sec, Box 647 Calgary,
Alta.
p. m. every Sunday evening ln the
Edison ' Parlor Theater. Speakers
passing through Revelstoke are Invited to attend. B. F. Gayman, Secretary.
LOCAI. ROBSLAND, NO. 35, B. T. Ot O.,
meets in Miners' Hall every Sunday at
7:30 p.m. E. Campbell, Secy., P. O.
Box 674. Rossland Finnish Branch
meets in Flnlanders' Hall, Sundays at
7:30 p.m, A. Sebble, Secy., P. O. Box
54 Rossland.
MANITOBA PROVINCIAL EXECUTIVE
COMMITTEE NOTICE—This card ls
inserted for the purpose of getting
"YOU" interested in the Socialist
movement. SOCIALISTS are always
members of the Party; so 11' you are
desirous of becoming a member, or
wish to get any information, write the
secretary, W. H. Stebblngs. Address,
316 Good street, Winnipeg.
MARITIME       PROVINCIAL       EXBCV-
tlve Committee, Socialist Party of
Canada. Meets every second and
fourth Sunday at Comrade McKinnon's,
Cottage Lane. Dan Cochrane, Secretary, Box 491, Glace Bay, N. S.
Our   intention   is   to   examine   the | tal."
THEY  DON'T  KNOW  WHERE
THEY'RE   GOING.
In our youthful days It was the
custom of our maternal parent to
give us a weekly bath. This bath
was a thing of horror to the boyish
mind. We have a distinct remembrance of at times violently objecting.
We "didn't want to be washed"—and
intimated the fact in every possible
way. However, sad to relate, we were
washed, anyhow. The stern maternal
tyrant would descend, grim of face
and strong of arm and that was the
end of it.
The average grown up human animal is in the same position with regard to the coming reorganization of
human society. He is fearful of a
revolution. He "doesn't want It." He
is fearful lest he lose what he calls
his property—a near leather suitcase
stuffed with might-be clothes, or maybe an ought-to-be home, with some
almost furniture—even as we in our
boyhood days were fearful of parting
with the dirt which hung to our hide.
Alas for our human. He is helpless.
The force of evolution have him going.
He howls. He squirms. He struggles. He kicks. "He doesn't want
to go." But he is going anyhow. Poor
Insignificant Insect, battering against
a wall. Balking, hanging back. Were
it not tragic it would be funny. Why
do they not think and understand, and
go willingly? Why not trail along,
like a good little kid, behind maternal
evolution Instead of making her pull
them along by the ear as a bad little
boy.
NEW   WESTMINSTER   LAND
DISTRICT.
DUtrict of New Westminster.
TAKE notlco that David Stewart Ryan
•f Vancouver, ncctipitillon miner, intends
to apply for permission to lease the following described land: —
Commencing at a poHt planted near
am unnamed Island about two miles from
tbe south end of Texada Island on the
•act side, thence west 40 chains, thence
south 60 chains, thence east 40 chains
■acre or less to the foreshore, thence in
a northwesterly direction to point of
commencement, containing 240 acres
more or loss.
DAVID STEWART RYAN.
Bated November 2nd, 1910.
OVER 85 YEARS'
EXPERIENCE
Trade Marks
Designs
^^^^^^^^^ Copyrights Ac.
Anyone sending a shet rh nnd description m»r
qulclrir ascertain onr opinion froe wliotlior an
Invention ls prnhnbly ptitntiluhle. Cummunlcn.
tinnsfltrictlrcoiitiuantlul. HANDBOOK on Onomis
"  pldost tgtnoT.toysociirlnBjjateiils.
 _,  --.     njrpatent-.
litem* taken tliruimli Muim A Co. receive
^ In the
sent free. Oldost annoy
l'atents taken tliruiml
iprrtn! notice, without charm
Scientific American.
nely Illustrated ww-kly.
r any srlenUlln lourtint
1.76 a year, pohUko iirej
sun.
°. Co^BIBr-anw-v I
k handsomely illustrated weekly. Largest escalation ot any SfleMlllti Journal, Terms tor
Canada, IS.7B a year, postage prepaid. Sold by
all now-dualurs.
capitalist system of. wealth production and distribution; to probe its intricacies; to flnd out how goods nre
produced and circulated, that we may
be able to place ourselves and thereby
view intelligently those things having
an affect upon us dally.
Pursuing our study then, it is necessary for us to understand what ls
meant by political economy.
The word "economy" is usually
associated with frugality or thrift, but
this is a perversion. It is derived
from the Greek word "olkonomla,"
"oikos," a house; "nomos," a law. The
production of clothing, grain and other
articles necessary for the comfort and
well-being of the family, was regulated by house law, i.e., the rules and
regulations governing the production
of wealth ln a household.
Political Is derived from "polltikos,"
Greek again, meaning, "of a city,"
and as the city was the Greek state,
therefore we flnd that political economy presents Itself to us as that
science governing the production and
distribution ot wealth ln the state.
Science is knowledge systematized or
classified.
The flrst part engaging our attention is, "The wealth of those societies
In which the capitalist mode of production prevails, presents itself as an
immense accummulatlon of commodities." An understanding of this entails its analysis, and in dealing with
it we shall direct our attention to
"society," "wealth," and "commodities."
Society as we have It Is an association of human beings. As the
known reasons why human beings
should associate and together form a
society do not at the present time concern us; it is sufficient for our Immediate purpose to know that such a society has been formed, for mutual protection, perhaps, and for the co-operative production of things necessary
to sustain life within that society.
Division of labor necessarily followB
from this.
Now, mankind lives by applying
labor to those things existing in a
natural state upon the earth—natural
resources; and as society develops and
applies Its associated labor to the
wresting from their natural state and
fashioning according to Its needs
these resources of the earth, division
of labor becomes more and more
necessary and develops accordingly as
In a gradually growing and more sclen.
tlfic and methodical fashion the
natural resources are themselves cultivated to supply its wants.
Natural resources unappropriated
then, are not wealth, because they do
not contribute to the wellbeing of bo-
ciety until labor applies Its effort to
bring them forth or produce them.
A commodity has four properties.
It ls an external object.
LOCAL   VANCOUVER,    B.  C,  NO.  1.—
Canada.       Business     meetings     every
Tuesduy evening at headquarters, 2'2'i'i
Westmliiter Ave.
V. Perry, Secretury, Box 1688.
-LOCAI.  VANCOUVER,  B.  C,  NO.  45	
Finnish. Meets every second and
fourth Thursdays ln tie month ut 2237
Westminster Avenue. Sec etury, Wm.
Mynttl.
LOCAL   NELSON,   8.   P.   of  0.,  MEETS
every Friday evening at 8 p. m., in
Miners' Hall, Nelson, B. C. 1. A. Austin, Secy.
LOCAL YMIR, B. C, No. 31, S. P. Of O.
—Meets every third Saturday ln
month, at 7:30 p. ni. 10. Anderson,
Secretary; W. B. Mclsaae, Treasurer.
Unattached Comrades ln the district
are earnestly requested to get in touch
with Secretary, who will answer all
enquiries.
LOCAL CALGARY, ALTA., No. 4, S. P.
of C Meetings every Sunday at 8
p.m. in the Labor Hall, Barber Block,
Eighth Ave. E. (near postofflce). Club
and Reading Room. Labor Hah, T,
Machln, Secretary. Box 647, A. Maedonald,  Organizer,   Box  647.
LOCAL     COLEMAN,     ALTA.,     NO     9.
Miner's Hall and Opera House. Propaganda MeetlngH at 8 p.m. on the 1st
aud 3rd Sundays of the month. Business meetings on Thursday evenings
following propaganda meetings at 8
Organizer—T. Steele. Coleman, Alta.
Secretary, D. H. Hyslop, Box 03, Coleman Alta. Visitors may receive Information any day at Miner's Hall from
Com. W. Graham, Secretary of U. M.
W, of A.
LOCAL EDMONTON, ALTA., NO.  1,  S.
P. of C. Hearquarteis 622 First St.,
Business and propaganda meetings
every Thursday at 7:30 p.m. sharp.
Our Reading Room ls open to the public free, from 10 a.m. to 11 p.m. daily.
F. Blake, 619 Athabasca Ave., Secre- '1
tary. Treasurer, T. Bissctt, 322 Fourth
St., Organizer.
LOCAL VANCOUVER, B. C, NO. 58—
LETTISH—Meets every second and
last Sunday in the month, 2 p. m.
H. J. Weinberg, 40 Ave.. South Hill.
J. Schogurt, Secretary, Box 1616,
Vancouver,   B.   C.
LOCAL VICTORIA, NO. t,   .8. P. OP C.
Headquarters and Reading Room,
623 Johnston St. Opposite Queens Hotel. Business meeting every Tuesday
evening, 8 p.m. Propaganda meetings
every Sunday ut Grand Theatre. R.
Thomas, Secretary.
LOCAL  NANAIMO,  NO.   8,   8.  P.   Of  C.
meets every alternute Sunday evening
in Foresters Hall. Business meeting
at 7:00 o'clock sharp. Propaganda
meeting commences at 8:00 o'clock.
Jack Place, Rec. Secy., Box 826.
LOCAL   PERNIE,   8.   P.   Of   C.   HOLDS
educational meetings in the Miners-
Union Hail, Victoria Ave., Fernle, every Sunduy evening at 7:45. Business
meeting first Sunday tn each month,
sume place at 2:30 p.  m
David Paton, Secy.,  Box 101.
Exchange value, at flrst sight, presents itself as a quantitative relation,
as the proportion In which values iu
use of one sort are exchanged for
those of another sort, a relation constantly changing with time and place.
Hence exchange value appears to be
something accidental and purely relative, and consequently an intrinsic
value, i.e., an exchange value that Is
inseparably connected with, inherent
ln commodities, seems a contradiction
in terms.   Let us consider the matter
little more closely.
A given commodity, e.g., a quarter
of wheat is exchanged for x blacking,
y silk, or z gold, etc.; in short, for
other commodities ln the most different proportions.
Instead ot one exchange value, the
wheat has, therefore, a great many.
But since x blacking, y silk, or z
gold, etc., each represent the exchange
value of one-quarter of wheat, x blacking, y silk, z gold, etc., must as exchange values be replaceable by each
other, or equal to each other.
Therefore, flrst, the valid exchange
values of a given commodity express
something equal; secondly, exchange
value, generally, ls only the mode of
expression, the phenomenal form, of
something contained in lt, yet distinguishable from lt.
Let us take two commodities, e.g.,
corn and Iron. The proportions In
which they are exchangeable, whatever those proportions may be, can always be represented by an equation
in which a given quantity of corn ls
equated to some quantity of iron;
e.g., one-quarter corn equals X cwt.
iron.
What does this equation tell us? It
tells us that in two different things,
In one-quarter of corn and X cwt. of
Iron, tbere exists ln equal quantities
something common to both.
The two things must therefore be
equal to a third, which in itself Is
neither the one nor the other. Each
of them, so far as it Is exchange value,
must therefore be reducible to this
third. A simple geometrical illustration wlll make this clear. In order
to calculate and compare the areas of
rectilinear figures, we decompose
them into triangles.
But the area of the triangle Itself
Ib expressed by something totally different from its visible figure, namely,
by half the product of the base Into
the altitude.
In the same way the exchange
values of commodities must be capable ot being expressed in terms of
something common to them all, of
which they represent a greater or less
quantity.
For the PresB Committee,
EWEN MacLEOD, Secy. §
(Class meets each Sunday hereafter at 2237 Westminster Ave., 3.00
p.m.)
LOCAL   VERNON   B.   C,   No.   38.   8.   P.
of O. Meets every Tuesduy. s p. m.
sharp, at L. O. 1.. Hull, TronsOU St.
Chas.   Chancy,   Soi'ivtury.	
LOCAL   LADYSMITH  NO.   10,  S.   P.  al
C. Business meetings every Saturday
7 p.m. in headquarters on First Ave.
J. II. Burrough, Box 31, Ladysmlth,
B. C.
LOCAL PRINCE RUPERT, B. C, No. 63,
S. P. of C.—Meets every Sunday ln
ball ln Empress Thenter Block at 2:00
p. m.    L. H. Gorham, Secretary.
LOCAL MICHEL, B. C, NO. 16, 8. P. OP
C, meets every Sunday in Graham's
Hall at 10:30 u. m. Socialist speakers
are invited to call. V. Frodsliam, Secretary.
LOCAL MARA, B. C, NO. 34, 8. P. Of C,
Meets flrst Sunday in every month In
Socialist Hall, Mara 2:30 p.m. Cyril
Roscman,   Recording   Secretary.
LOCAL MOYIE, B. 0., NO. 30 MEETS
second Sunday 7:30 p.m. ln McGregor
Hall (Miners* Hall), Thos. Roberts,
Secretary.
LOCAL LBTHBRIDOE,, ALTA., NO. 13,
8. P. of C.—Meets 1st and 3rd Sunday in the month, at 4 p.m. in
Miners' Hall. Secretary, Chas.
Peacock, Box 1983.
LOCAL REGINA NO. 6, SASKATCHEWAN.—Meeta every Sunday, 3 p.m..
Trades Hall, Search St. Secretary,
Alex. Watchman, General Delivery.
Socialist speakers will be greatly appreciated.
LOCAL WINNIPEG, 8. P. of C, BEAD-
quarters, Kerr's Hall, 120 1-2 Adelaide
Street, opposite Roblln Hotel. Business meeting every Monday evening at
3 p iu. Propaganda meeting Sunday
evening 8 p.m. Everybody welcome.
Secretary, J. W. Hilling, 270 Young
Street.
LOCAL TORONTO, ONT., NO. 34, 8. P.
OF C. Business meetings 2nd and
4th Wednesdays in tho month, at
the Labor Temple, Church St. Out-
dour propaganda meetings, Saturday,
8 p.m.. City Hall; Sunday afternoon,
3 p.m.. at University and Queen St.;
Sunday night, 8 p.m., at Shuter and
Yonge St. Speakers' Class every
Thursday, 8 p.m., at Headquarters,
79 Church St. Secretary, Arthur
Taylor, 201 George St.
LOCAL BRANTFORD, No. 16, S. P. of O.
Meets at headquarters, 13 George St.,
every Thursday und Sunday nights.
Business and Speakers' Class on Thursdays: Economic Class on Sundays.
Wage workers invited. A W. Baiter,
Secretary, y George St. X. Davenport, Organizer.  HI   Nelson S,
LOOAL   OTTAWA,   NO.   8,   8.   P.   of   O.
Business meeting 1st Sunday ln
month, and /propaganda meetings following Sundays at 8 p.m. in Robert-
Allan hall, 78 Rldcau St. John Lyons,
Secretary, 43 Centre St.
LOCAL OLACE BAY NO. 1, OF N. 8—
Business and Propaganda meeting
every Thursday at 8 p.m. in Macdon-
ald's hall, Union Street. All are welcome. Alfred Nash, Corresponding Secretary, Glace Bay; Wm. Sutherland,
Organizer, New Aberdeen; H. G. Ross,
Financial Secretary, office ln D. N.
Brodie Printing Co. building, Union
Street.
To Canadian  Socialists
On account of increased postal
rates we are obliged to make the
subscription price of the International Socialist Review ln Canada
11.20 a year Instead of $1.00. We
can, however, make the following
special offers:
For $3.00 we will mall three
copies of the Review to one Canadian address for one year.
For 70 cents we wll) mall ten
copies of any one Issue.
For $3.00 we will mall the Review   one   year   and   tbe   Chicago
Dally Socialist'for one year.
CHARLES H. HERB * COMPANY
134 West Klnzlo St., Chicago.
Price List of Literature
Issued by the Dominion Executive
Committee
"Slave of The Farm," or
"Proletarian in Politics," to locals subscribing to the publishing fund, $1.00
per 100, to others 25c per doz.
"Socialism and Unionism" to be /published.
"Value, Price and Profit," to subribers
to publishing fund $2 per 100, to others
30c per doz.
"Socialism, Revolution and Internationalism"   to subscribers  to   publishing
fund $8 per 100, to others 75c por doz.
PRICE LIST OF 8UPPLIES
(To Locals.)
Charter    (with    necessary    supplies to start Local) $5.00
Membership  Cards,  each     .01
Dues Stamps, each 10
Platform and   application    blank
per 100  25
Ditto in Finnish, per 100 50
Ditto In Ukranlan, per 100 50
Constitutions, per dozen, 50c.
Ditto, Finnish, per dozen       SO
GREAT   BOOKS BY
GREAT MEN
Riddle of the Universe, by
Haeckel  25c
The Rights of Man, Paine... 25c
The Story of Creation, Clodd 25c
Life of Jesus, Ronan  25c
Age of Reason, Paine   Itc
Merrie England  20c
Ingersoll's Lectures, 1st, 2nd
ami :ird series  each 25c
Postage prepaid on books
The People's Book Store
162 Cordova St. W.
DENTIST
W. J. CURRY
Room 501
Dominion Trust Bldg.
X«. THE CAFETERIA
305  Cambie  Street
The best of everything properly
cooked.
Chas. M-olcahey. Prop.
654	
F. PERRY
TAILOR
834 PENDER
»#**»®®*»»»®»**»##*'»#®»»1^«*»»»*#< Tr-fW
TBT!
fHT^H**i i ii i iis'inia.
SATURDAY,  DECEMBER 3,  1910
THE WESTERN CLARION. VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA
Three
THE SOCIALIST PARTY OF CANADA
Tb'" Page Is Devoted to Rej-orts of Executive Committees, Locals
and General Party Matters—Address All Communications to
D. G. McKenzie, Sec., Box  1688, Vancouver, B. C.
DOMINION   EXECUTIVE.
Meeting held Nov. 28th, 1910. Present comrades,   Peterson    (chairman),
I Karme, Matthews,    Mengel,   Morgan,
Stebblngs, the secretary and Organizer
Desmond.
Minutes of    previous    meeting ap-
' proved.
Correspondence dealt with from
Maritime and Manitoba executives.
F Locals, Montreal, Que, Brantford,
Sault Ste Marie, Toronto, Ont., Re-
fgina and New Finland, Sask., Com-
IradeB H. H. Stuart and \V. Menzles,
[and Organizers Gribble and O'Brien.
Warrants authorized for Clarion
[November card, $1.00. November de-
I licit, $46.10. Secretaries' November
(salaries, $30.00. Printing pamphlet,
|$37.50.
RECEIPTS.
JAlta executive    $ 21.00
IB. C. executive    100.00
Ibocal Sault Ste Marie, Ont....      2.00
-.ocal Brantford,   ~nt       5.00
|Local Montreal, Que       2.00
jocal, New Finland, Sask.  ...      5.00
([Literature,   A.     Sather,     25;
Victoria, $2.00; Vernon, $1.00;
Revelstoke,   $3.00;   W.   Menzles, $1.75        8-00
I'Olarlon Maintenance, B. L. J.;
Wm. Allen, $2.00         3.00
Total
B. C. EXECUTIVE.
.$150.00
Meeting held Nov. 28, 1910.
Minutes  of    previous    meeting ap-
| proved.
Charter granted   local   South Fort
i George, B. C.
Correspondence dealt with from lo-
1 cals Revelstoke, Vernon, Salmon Arm,
New Westminster, South Salt Spring,
and Ladysmith, and District Secretary
1 Gildemeester, Mara, B. C.
RECEIPTS.
Local, South Fort George charter  $ 7.00
Local,   New   Westminster        5.00
Local,  Ladysmith        4.00
Local, Salmon Arm   10.00
Local, Vernon      9.00
Local, South Salt Spring      2.00
Local, Revelstoke      5.00
some diamond mines in South Africa,
or others in Russia and Japan desire
a certain strip of land, as the case
may be, they have great patriotic
meetings in England and tell how the
Boers in Africa are oppressing certain people living in that country and
they tell therh In the name of freedom
that we as good citizens ought not to
let such things exist. Then one bunch
of workers go out and fight another
bunch. Finally the war is ended and
the capitalists on the winning side
come along and take the spoils. He
went on to show its uses in strikes,
also showing that these armies are
drawn from the ranks of the workers.
He said that the judiciary was another branch of the government and
was used iu the interests of the class
to whom it belonged, and that our
rights before tue law were only a
name and did not apply to the slaves.
In the next order of his discourse
he took up schools, universities and
their functions today, showing how
these taught the students to look down
upon the ignorant mass of humanity as
the great unwashed. But, he went on
to show, that understanding a little
of Greek and Latin, something that
was of no use except for the reading
up of a few musty manuscripts, was
not what he called an educated man,
compared with one who could produce
the essentials of life, food, clothes,
etc.
He further went on to show the uses
of the church to present day capitalist
society, explaining its mission in full
detail. Comrade Cobb is somewhat
of an authority upon church matters
he having been in the ministry thirteen years.
The comrades have benefited much
by his able explanations, of which
many fight shy. This is the second
ot a series of meetings to be held In
Edmonton. Comrade Kalare of Calgary will speak next wek.
RUFUS.
Man is a two-fold being. There ls a
spiritual part as well as a physical,
and the sooner we acknowledge it the
better for all concerned.
I went to a propaganda meeting in
Vancouver last spring. The speaker
condemned and held' up to ridicule
things spiritual, talked as though the
body and Its wants was the only reality, then further along ln his address
referred to different classes of workers getting barely enough to keep soul
and body together, I thought how inconsistent.
I herewith enclose a clipping signed
Percy Rosoman. He says: "No wonder the TJ. S. Socialists are all at sea.
They don't know that a commodity is
not produced till it ls in the consumers hands.
"They don't know that commodities
sell at the cost of production."
Then, according to him, there Is no
such thing as profit.
As far as my experience goes the
seller gets as much as he can and
takes but little account of the cost of
production.
The whole system of society is cannibalistic in action, each trying to get
from others.
If he is able to rob more than he
robbed and consumes he rises;  if
less, he sinks.
Trusting you  will  see  flt  to  print
the above and that it may start a discussion, I will close.
Yours for a better paper.
J. K. DOWNIE,
Carcross, Y. T.
In most of the buildings there are
a number of sleeping apartments.
These rooms are so wonderfully respectable that a materialist wandering
in would upset the harmony. In each
building we find a gymnasium. Here
the young office slaves will, in a way,
be able to recruit their shattered
vitality. The destructive effect of
modern capitalism on the working
class, particularly in the cities, is
becoming bo intense that something
must be done. Hence the necessity
for these gymnasiums, etc. It appears
to me that the great necessity for
these Institutions which is proved con-
"speeding up," and generally worsened
conditions all round. When the men
have protested long-drawn-out conferences have enabled the masters, as
the Daily News puts it, to 'turn an
awkward corner."
A series of such arbitrations has at
last convinced large numbers of the
men that lt ls hopeless to expect any
settlement of disputed points in their
favor under such a scheme. Hence
the taking of matters into their own
hands, and the "sectional' strikes in
the various works and yards.
More important still is the fact that,
at present at any rate, the men are in
clusively   by  the   way   the  capitalist fusing to place the power of extending
TECHNICAL  EDUCATION.
BRANDON, MAN.
Now   that   King   Winter   has   set
in and outdoor speaking is practically
over,  it would be well to know the
doings of local Brandon, No. 7, S. P.
T . . ..$42.00 "' 0.   During the past summer some-
Warrants authorized ' for ' 'postage, thing like 70 propaganda meetings have
$5.00;Clarion   November  card,  $1.00; !°**"-» "o\d with an attendance of 100
to 500 at each meeting.   Good sales of
literature have been made.   Over 2,000
Okanagan, organizing fund, $30.00;
Dominion executive, supplies, $100.00;
secretaries' November salaries, $30.00,
MARITIME EXECUTIVE.
Meeting held Nov. 13th.
Comrades present: Sutherland
(chairman), Brodie, McLeod, Chapman,
M. Klnnon, Allen Sydney Mines, and
the secretary.
Minutes of previous meeting read.
correspondence   dealt   with    from I have the time to stay off at Brandon
copies of Kerr's, S. P. of G. B., and
our own party pamphlets have got
Into the hands of interested workers
at our meetings. About 2,000 copies
of the Clarion have been distributed
from house to house on Sunday mornings. Of organizers, we have had
Comrade Gribble stay with us twice,
once on his way east and once on his
way west.    Comrade O'Brien  did not
Locals St. John, Berlin and Organizer
Filmore.
The organizer's financial statement
was adopted.
The secretary was Instructed to
forward a copy of a letter (drawn up
by McKinnon, Sutherland and the
secretary) to the Dominion Executive
committee stating our position on the
question of religion.
The meeting adjourned till Nov. 27th
unless a special meeting be called before that date.
RECEIPTS.
Local, Glace Bay, 40 stamps $4.00
Local, Newcastle, 15 stamps 1.50
Local, Sydney Mines, 30 stamps. 3.00
Total    $8.50
EXPENDITURES.
Card ln Clarion,   July,   August,
September    $ 3.00
D. N. Brodie Printing Co 21.00
Postage   3°
Total $24-30
DAN COCHRANE.
EDMONTON, ALTA.
Local Edmonton was favored by an
address from Comrade Cobb. His subject was the "Tools of Capitalism."
The speaker nahdled his subject in a
very able manner.
He stated that the flrst tool he
would cad attention to was the navy.
The idea was prevalent that the only
function of tho navy was to protect
our nation from being invaded by another. Yet we flnd countries who have
no navy not being invaded. Though
at times they may be used for the
protection of commerce, they are invariably used for. the forcing of commerce.
He went on to state that there was
another tool which is very effective
and very near of kin to the navy.
That is the army. This Is not merely used for the protection of "our"
country, but performs many useful
functions. Such as when one bunch
&t capitalists, say in EnglarJB, desire
while he was In Mnhltoba this summer
but hope it will not be long before he
will be around this part again. The
way the local comrades take Interest
In the building up of a strong local
of clear cut revolutionists Is something
to be proud of. We now have a strong
library of 200 books and increasing
them all the time. We still hold propaganda meetings every Sunday night
although the small hall that we have
will only hold about 50, but it is just
sb well to have only 50 Interested
workers as a big croWd that nre not.
The speakers class is well attended
and we hope to have at least a dozen
good speakers to mount the box next
spring..
Yours In revolt,
T. B. LEGGE.
Organizer, Brandon Lcnol
IT'8 UP TO PERCY.
Dear Sir: You complain of a dearth
of material so have decided to try and
help you out. I think the S. P. of 0„
the contributors to the Western Clarion in particular, are suffering from a
bad case of swelled head. They have
Karl Marx for their God, a few pet
theories, such as the robbery of the
producers, the materialistic conception
of history, and condemn everything
that don't comply to them.
In nearly every paper I see sneering remarks in regard to the Appeal to
Reason, but they don't seem to have
much effect. It keeps on doing things
and is waking up the whole country.
I see it praised or condemned In many
papers and magazines, but have never
seen the Western Clarion mentioned
once.
I take both papers and I know which
I open first. The Western Clarion
compared to the Appeal to Reason is
like a room without a Are, a home
without a mother, or a dance without a
woman.
Karl Marx was no doubt a learned
and clever man but he didn't know
it all. The materialistic conception
ot history may be all right as far as
it goes but it doesn't go all the way.
The following excerpt goes to show
that even a commission on technical
education may occasionally learn
something:
"Mr. Blake raised a protest against
the instruction of the children in the
Edmonton schools in military drill.
'Yet surely,' remarked Dr. Robertson, 'If the Japanese were to invade
this country you would oppose them?'
To which the witness replied that if
the Japanese treated him right he
would as soon live under their flag
as under the union Jack.
" I thought we were all proud to declare that 'Britons never shall be slaves,' replied the chairman of the commission.
" 'But we are slaves,' retorted the
witness."
EDMONTON AUDIT.
Comrades: We, the undersigned,
have accounted the finance book of tnis
local from January 1st, 1910, to November 10, 1910, and' find the books
correct.
The financial statement of the local
for the year is as follows:
Receipts    ' $374.51
Disbursements     364.56
class dig up for them foreshadows
the end of the present system. The
owners are doing their best. The Y.
M. C. A. and other organizations of the
same kind they liberally support. The
reason is obvious. The function of
such organizations ls to keep capitalism in existence by endeavoring to
remedy some ot its effects. Such
efforts are, however, futile. Evolution cannot be halted. The day is
near at hand when the misery of the
working class must drive them to revolt against the system. When they
do revolt-in earnest, capitalism will
fall. Then the need for Y. M. C. A.'s
and other institutions will not be felt
and, having no function to perform,
they will cease to exist.
J. C. BURGESS.
THE TRUE  MEANING OF THE
"LABOR UNREST."
Across the deadly dull controversy
dragging through the columns of the
capitalist Press, as to whether "Free
Trade" or "Tariff Reform" is best for
the workers to starve under, have
flashed two intense rays of light exposing the bedrock position of the
working class in modern society.
In two different places, under different external  conditions, but in esen-
such an agreement ln the hands of
their officials and leaders, who are so
ready to once again act on the employers' behalf and against tbe men.
The unity of the capitalist press—Liberal and Tory alike—with the officials
In condemning this action of the men
is sufficient evidence of how well those
officials consider the interests of the
masters, and of the masters alone.
But, as if this were not sufficient,
those leaders have gone out of their
way, ln another place, to give further
proof of their duplicity in these matters. At the Trades Union Congress
held in Sheffield, a stranger to their
little ways would have imagined that
this fundamental question of the slavery of the working class would have
formed the chief topic of discussion.
So far, however, from this being the
case, we find that the greatest attention was given to the question, "How
shall we save . our salaries?" Nay,
more than this, one of the flrst questions discussed was whether the Congress should have its opening ceremony presided over by a large employer whose workpeople were at that
very moment on strike against his
conditions of employment. Certainly
a protest was raised by a few delegates, but the fact that an employer
was asked to preside at all shows how
completely these "representatives" are
tlals remarkably alike, we have seen
two sections of the working class fac-'the agents 0f the masters.
ing the same alternatives ot either ac-     The surprising vote of the  boiler-
cepting  conditions    imposed    by the makers, however, warned them not to
masters—their   employers—or   trying L-ay the game too openly.   So a little
Balance In hand  $ 9.95
(Signed):
.iNO. ivpr,
F. J. KINNERSLEY,
Auditors.
A GOOD  INVESTMENT.
The campaigns thst are being held
by the Y. M. C. A. all over the globe
are a sure sign of the times. In Vancouver during the past few weeks
over five hundred thousand has been
collected. In Winnipeg at the present
moment there is a campaign on lo
cet between two hundred and three
hundred thousand. The question naturally aiises, why do the employers
and capitalists of Vancouver and elsewhere from whom the money must,
of course, come, dig up this coin?
What is their object in so doing?
To quote from a high official of one
of the railroads In the U. S. A. while
addressing a meeting of manufacturers, "If we fully realize the benefit
the Y. M. C. A. can prove to us, we
would support It most liberally. One
of the best Investments the railroads
ever made wus when we supported
and financed the Railroad Y. M. C. A.
It has given us greater returns perhaps than any other Investment we
ever made. It takes our employees
when they are oft duty. It moulds
the minds and bodies so that tbey
become more efficient."
In Vancouver, we are told, there are
to be three separate branches. Each
building will have a reading room,
a gymnasium, and, I presume, sleeping accommodation for a limited number. In the reading room of any of
these buildings that I have ever visited
ln various cities, I have never seen a
magazine or paper that would tend
to enlighten the workers as to their
true position In society. All the
literature permitted on the premises
Is such as tends to glorify capitalism,
competition, thrift, work, etc.
The Y. M. C. A. runs night classes
also, at which the slaves can secure
a working knowledge of shorthand,
bookkeeping and other subjects necessary for them. Our friends, the employers are, of course, aware that the
more workers become proficient Ihe
better for them. As in the reading
room, so It is in tho classes. They
never get a whisper of economics,
of industrial history or anything of
this kind.
how long their slender resources and
desperate fortitude can stand against
the masters' piled-up wealth.
At Cradley Heath the chainmakers,
described by a Liberal newspaper as
forming "the classic sweated industry," have been locked out because
they declined to accept the conditions
their employers put forward, I.e., to
work for another three months at the
old rate of wages. In other words the
chainmakers are deliberately deprived
of the means of living unles they accept the masters' terms.
It Is sometimes urged that If the
chainmakers were organized into a
trade union they could effectively resist the employers' attempt to starve
them. But, leaving out of consideration for the moment the fact that they
are unable to pay any subscription,
however small, to an ordinary trade
union, the statement is fully refuted
by the experience of the bollermakers.
Here is one of the strongest unions,
containing a large proportion of the
men working at the trade, yet faced
with the same position as the chain-
makers—starvation or submission to
the masters' terms.
When to these cases are added the
signs of trouble in the Welsh coalfields
and the Lancashire cotton towns, the
fact continually insisted upon by the
Socialist— that the means of life are
owned by the master class—is brought
into clear light.
Whether the workers are organized on the economic field or not;
whether belonging to lhe (so-called)
skilled or unskilled division of labor;
whether the employer calls himself
Liberal or Tory; whether It is under
Free Trade or Protection, In every
case and In every circumstance the
worker Is the slave ui 11 " employer,
and mUBt remain so while ci "Holism
exists. And It Ib just this rtavu position that lt ls all Important for the
worker to study, while It Is, on the
other hand, just the one the employers and their agents seek to hide.
The Dally Express shrieks about the
sacrednesB of the employers' "contracts"  when  the  men  go  on  strike
farce was arranged and Earl Fitzwil-
liam, the employer referred to, while
not abating one jot from his position,
agreed to the matter being placed before an arbitrator. After this "victory" the delegates sat down to listen
meekly to the platitudes of this "representative" employer.
It fell to Mr. Shackleton to give the
premier illustration of "how to do 'em
down." A delegate had asked the
awkward question how it was that the
Parliamentary Committee were opposed to the premium bonus system,
while a member of the Committee took
the chair at a meeting in favor ot the
system, at which Mr. Balfour and Sir
Christopher Furness spoke. The chairman, asked when this happened, but
the delegate was unable to tell hirn,
and then Mr. Shackleton brazenly denied having taken the chair in such
circumstances.
Had the delegate who raised the
point been able to carry his memory
back to December, 1908, he might have
refuted the lie with the following from
the Daily Telegraph  (2.12.I90S).
In the chair was Mr. Shackleton,
M.P., one of the most conspicuous Labor members in the present House of
Commons: the chief address was delivered by Mr. A. J. Balfour, in his capacity as president; and the vote of
thanks was presented by three gentlemen representative of widely apart
walks of life, namely, Sir Christopher
Furness. one of the great captains of
Industry.   .   .   Professor A. C, Plgou
•   .   .   and Mr. Amos Mann."
The occasion was a gathering of the
so-called Labor Co-partnership Movement, whose fraudulent character was
clearly shown in the Socialist Standard
of February, 1909.
As If to add 'urtliei evidence to our
case against the "Labor" M.P.'s, Mr.
Shackleton also stated that "they had
done as much as was possible to keep
in the front the fact that, lhe payment
of members and of returning officers'
expenses would not meet thi; case."
(Reynolds' Newspaper, 18.9.10).
But the cloven hoof was rully exposed when discussing the question of
Within the walls of various universities are many learned professors
famed for the volumtnoslty with which
they can fall to arrive at conclusions.
One of them, Prof. Leacock of Mc-
Glll, Is about to reveal to a breathlessly attentive world all the Intricacies of
the modern economic system. He
commences with value.
"Political economy" says he, "may
be defined as the science which deals
with mankind ln the pursuit of
wealth." The few who have succeded
ln catching up with it are exempt from
consideration. McGill economy might
be defined as the science which deals
with Prof. Leacock In pursuit of the
theory of value, which is still well ln
the lead and going strong, after being
pursued through six columns. All the
Information obtainable in the whole
mass of language ls that there ls a
difference between the "Individual"
and "total" cost of commodities. This
cheerful distinction is to be explained
later, in another few thousand words.
The interesting part of the discussion is the professor's definition of
the "cost of production" as it affects
exchange values. He says: "In order
therefore, to reduce cost to a practical
estimate we must express it not in
terms of labor and effort ( which is
incapable of quantltive measurement),
but ln terms of the expense, or the
money cost, of securing the necessary
labor and sacrifice. Part of this ex.
pense will represent the wages that
are paid to laborers and the salaries
that are paid to employees of various
grades; another part of the expense
will be accounted for In the price of
the materials used, while a third form
of expense Is incurred In the payment
of Interest on the capital which Is Invested ; in addition to these there wlll
be the expenditure on rent of premises and various minor items."
Now, since value is :' social property lot commodities that appears
only in exchange, before it can bo
realized, the commodities must be exchanged or sold. Before they are sold,
no manufacturer can obtain a profit
from their production nor can he pay
any interest on invested capital. There.
fore, while these "expenses" arise out
of the value ot commodities, they can
be no factor in determining value for
they do not appear until exchange has
been accomplished and value expressed. But we cannot expect a great
professor to notice these little things.
Just wait until he works down through
his list of twenty-four lectures, winding up with the demolition of Socialism. It is to tremble.
•   •'•
The following Comrades did not
take a lay-off this week in order to insure a healthy growth in the deficit.
Local   Brantford 10
Jas. Carson, Dawson,  Y.T  3
"Smith" Vancouver  2
Chas. Peacock, Lethbridge      2
Wm.  Stafford,   South   Wellington,     2
Wm.   McQuold, Edmonton, Alta   2
John   Mclnnls,   South   Fort   George
B. C   2
Singles.—C. M. OBrien, Frank Ewald
Round Hill, Alta.; J. K. Downle, Car-
cross, Y. T.; A. J. McCsllum, Ottawa,
Ont.; D. A. McLean, Calgary, Alta.;
Harry Burke, Coleman, Alta.; Lee Wilson, Barons, Alta.; Norman McAuley,
J. Summers, Vancouver, L. R. Mclnnis,
Phoenix, B. C.J Mrs. Mott, Vancouver,
B. C; H. H. Stuart, Newcastle, N. I!.;
renews his bundle.
against a lowering of wages, though |"bringing pressure to bear on Ihe Gov-
this 'sacredncss" has a curious knack ernment." Shackleton's hysterical de-
of disappearing when the masters tear fence of the Liberal Government could
the contracts to shreds, from one end not have been surpassed by Lloyd
of the country to the other, by lock- [George.    And It Is just at this point
ing them out.
The Daily News wails for a "public"
arbitrator, as though the "public" were
something apart from employers and
employed, and in nonchalant evasion
of the fact that the chainmakers'
trouble flows out of a Board of Trade
arbitration.
Explanations of the "unrest," as it
is termed, abound on all sides, each
differing from the others, but all having the ono common quality of revealing nothing beyond their writers' ignorance of the facts, or their feverish
anxiety to conceal them. The significant vote of the bollermakers points
clearly to the proximate cause of the
trouble In that trade. Tho Edinburgh
agreement, that "triumph of arbitration," has been found to act completely In the masters' interests and
against tho men. The clause stating
that under no conditions shall the men
go on strike has been taken full advantage of by the masters, who have
reduced actual wages, Increased the
thaL-the Socialist statement applies.
The master class are able to dictate
life and death to the workers because,
through their control of political pow-
CLARION FINANCIAL STATEMENT.
i 	
November, 1910.
Expenditures:
Printing     $188.00
Mailing
Editing
Receipts:
Subs    	
Cards and Ads..
Deficit   	
12.90
25.00
$225.90
$138.30
41.50
46.10
$225.90
NO   COMMENT   NEEDED.
A lad named Albert Grudglnglon,
sixteen years of age, who said he was
one of Uie young prisoners who attracted the notice of Mr. Winston
Churchill in Pentonville Prison, told
an extraordinary story at Old-street
Police court on Saturday.
He said that ln August last he
was sentenced at that court to three
er, they have control ot the armed 'months' hard labor, and was ln Pen-
forces that are used to preserve the
property of the master class against
the workers. Hence the supreme Importance to the master class of keeping
the latter Ignorant upon this mutter.
This accounts for the treachery of
those who, posing as "leaders" of the
working class, use all their influence
to keep that political power In the
masters' hands, nnd fight against the
Socialist propaganda, that shows to the
workers the reasons they must capture
tbat power.
The vote of tho bollermakers, even If
only a temporary phase with them, is
a good sign as showing the decline of
the "lenders'" power to mislead. Let
every working man and woman study
Socialism nnd the way to their emancipation will bo clear.
the Socialist Standard.
tonville Prison when, a fortnight ago,
the Home Secretary paid a surprise
visit. He was spoken to by Mr.
Churchill, snd on the Tuesday following found himself released, with
about six weeks of his sentence unexpired.
When he was released he was given
six penny tickets on Lockhart's for
food. He had no home and no parents.
The consequence was that his release
was simply turning him into the
streets to steal or do something else
to get back to prison. He was, ho
said, better off there. The food was
plentiful; there was warmth and
light, and a doctor If a prisoner was
III.
Some small help was given the
boy, and he was told to call again.
—Dally Mall, Oct., 1910. THE WESTERN CLARION. VANCQUV    ER, BRITISH COLUMBIA.
THE STATE AND
GOVERNMENT
Introductory.
It would appear that this Important question
of the state and government ls not as well studied as should be. A great many books, pamphlets and treatises of various kinds have, Indeed,
been written under this head. Most of these,
while very excellent and on the whole historically accurate, appear to pay too 111 tie attention
to the important question of modern state and
governmental institutions.
Believing that it would be advantageous to
tbe workers to more thoroughly understand this
question, the writer feels constrained to attempt
a short analysis and review of the state, dealing
to a certain extent with its origin and development but principally endeavoring to put in plain
and simple language his conception of modern
"democratic" state, its character and functions.
It Is to be hoped that the doing of this will result in a wide discussion of the question and,
what is badly needed, of it being taken up and
dealt with in a more comprehensive and detailed
manner than is possible here. It is recommended
before the student reads the present little work
that h should peruse the companion one entitled
"Struggle for Existence," which will serve to
some extent as an introduction to this.
Origin and Growth of the State.
In tracing the growth of institutions, the hardest thing is to know where to start. Speaking in
a scientific sense the "Deginning" of anything is
an assumption. What is the State? When was
it born? How has it developed? These and
similar queries come to us and the answering of
them presents, we are fain to admit, some difficulty.
' In our opinion the first organization which in
any way approximated to or resembled our modern State sprang into existence with the introduction of slavery in primitive society. With
such tribal or "clan" councils as may have existed in early communal eras we have nothing
to do. Judging from such survivals of primitive
communism as we can study today these were
"governed" more by what may be called "public
opinion" than by written "laws."
The State may be defined in a loose way, as
the power to coerce; in whatever form that power
may be manifested at any given time. Now
rulership, mastery, government, coercion, imply
ruled, enslaved, governed, coerced. Why do some
individuals, or a class, desire the power to rule,
own, govern, coerce? The answer is easy—because it is profitable for them—it pays to be in
this position and hold the power. Before the
era of slavery—before it became profitable to
hold the power to rule and govern others; before the human unit could produce more than it
took to keep him or her alive—we find no state.
To put it in other words, the possession of the
powers of coercion being of no use to anyone,
naturally enough no wanted them.
The development of human society has been
from the simple to the complex. This is true of
all things of industry and production—the base
of lite—of slavery and of the state.
State a Class Institution.
The stale is organized force. We find, on examination, that from the first it has always and at
every time been a class institution. This is. perhaps, hard to grasp for the average individual of
today. To most of us the state and governmental
organizations are things which exist to conserve
the interests of, to serve, to help, the community
as a whole. We are frequently told, in fact it is
dinned into our ears without ceasing by all supporters of the present system, that this Is so.
Nothing, however, could be further from the facts
of the case. The state has always been a strictly
class weapon used to conserve class interests.
The first stale organizations came into existence
as a result of class (instead of, as before, communal) ownership of the means of life, slavery
and exploitation. The first master class had to
have some properly organized power behind them
to suppress slave rebellions, etc. Therefore, to
meet the needs of the case, they organized armed
forces (slave guards) to protect their property
rights as slave owners. In order that these
forces might be employed to the best advantage
they further organized themselves into what may
be called "administrative councils." Here we
have the state in its infancy—the administrative
council representing the brain, as it were, the
slave guards the fighting or striking arm. Our
modern state is much more complex, of course,
though still, as we cannot but remark in passing,
the same thing in another form.
Early State Organization Frankly Founded on
Force.
In tracing history we flnd that all the earlier
forms of state organizations were frankly and
avowedly founded upon force. There was little or
no pretense at "democracy" or "justice." The
state existed and its powers were used to keep
slave classes separated from the means of life
and in a position of servitude and exploitation.
Its power and strength was used to this end
openly and fearlessly. We find at various historical periods the state organizations in the
hands of various master classes. At one time
it was the chattel slave owners. At another the
Feudal nobility. At all times the class which
was in possession of the state organization were
the rulers and exploiters. They had the power,
the might, the right, and they used it.
This view of the state and government may be
a new one to some readers. We would assure
them, however, that it is historically correct. The
powers of the state have always and invariably
been used for the purposes of exploitation. This
is not in any way remarkable, indeed, and once
we get away from preconceived ideas it ceases
to surprise. In a class society all things must
partake of a class nature. There can be no exception to this rule. The class nature or character may be hidden, covered up, veiled, but it is in
existence none the less. So long as we have
conomic classs in society the state will be in
the hands of the politically dominant class and
used by them to serve their interests. In a class
society we cannot be without class struggles—
class must clash with class.    The possession of
the state therefore (since the state means organized force) will be necessary to that class which
would rule.
The modern state, with its multitudinous ramifications and complexity, is an extremely interesting study. It is particularly remarkable for the
manner in which its class character and functions
have been hidden and covered up. This age is
essentially the age of sham. In other eras the
ruling class have been composed of a fighting
breed. The mailed hand and naked sword have
been openly displayed. Our present ruling class,
however, are of a different calibre. They are
tricksters, traders, diplomats. The attitude of the
aevrage feudal lord towards his serf was: "You
are my slave. You belong to me. I shall hold
you just as long as I have the power." This
altitude was openly displayed—there was no attempt at disguise. The design of the modern capitalist class, on the other hand, is to deceive, to
mislead, to conceal as far as possible, and to
resort to actual measures of suppression only
when absolutely forced to do so. When pushed,
however, or at all seriously threatened they have
proved themselves just as ruthless as any others
who have gone before.
THE MODERN DEMOCRATIC STATE IS A
HUGE JOKE. It is merely the vein behind which
modern slavery hides itself. The accepted dictum
of "democracy" is "government of the people, by
the people, for the people." We have no quarrel
with this definition, except to point out that "the
people" are not "governed." "The people" do the
governing, if our idea be correct. "The people"
to us must of necessity refer to the owners of
the machines of production. To call the modern
working class, who are divorced from the means
of life and sell themselves on the market to the
highest bidder, "people" is something we cannot
tolerate.
Origin of the Ballot.
One of the principal arguments urged in support of the "democratic" state as a non-class proposition is that the principal and most powerful—
in fact, the directing—body, the parliamentary
council, is elective and that the state is therefore
in the hands of the community as a whole. This
specious argument, however, is not in line with
the actual facts. We admit that a certain section
of the working class, as well as practically the
whole of the capitalist class, are in possession of
that expression of political power called the ballot, and that its possession by them places in
their hands a weapon of tremendous offensive
power if intelligently used. It might be interesting for us to understand how the political power
which is In the ballot came to be placed in the
hands of the workers. Fortunately on this point
we need not be at a loss. The workers, or a
portion of them, anyhow, were enfranchised principally through the efforts of the rising capitalist
class. This will seem a strange thing to those
who are so far "next' to modern conditions to
know that one of the greatest aims of the capitalist class is at all times to keep the political power
in their own hands. It is easily understood, however, when we come to consider the circumstances
under which the thing was done. Briefly stated,
the facts are these: The modern capitalist class
were locked in a struggle for supremacy with
the aristocracy and feudal nobility. They needed
the workers to assist them in this struggle. A
certain section of the workers were enfranchised
therefore—given political power—in order that
they might be used to help in this process. As a
matter of fact, the ballot was almost forced on
the workers.
(Continued in  Next Issue)
SATURDAY,  DECEMBER  3,  1910
AN IMPORTANT QUESTION IN THE
PHIL030PHY OF SOCIALISM.
No. 604 of the official organ of the
S. P. or C. contains a report from
Ottawa of a special meeting that was
held, where it was moved and carried
with but one dissenting vote, taking
exception to a statement made by Com.
Baritz, viz., that a Christian cannot
be a Socialist, and a. Socialist cannot
be a believer in Christ or God. What
is Ottawa composed of? What is still
worse, the editor as the official mouthpiece of the S. P. of C. had no comment to make, an indication also that
he endorsed that report. What is the
S. P. of C. composed of? I, as a member of the S. P. of Ct take exception
to Ottawa's exception for the following
reasons.
It is necessary, before one can lay
claim to the term Socialist that they
Bhould be acquainted with the Socialist philosophy. The basic or fundamental principles of "scientific" Socialism are:—The Class struggle, the
Labor theory of value and surplus
value and the "materialistic" concep
tion of hiBtory. I do not Intend in the
present article to deal with the flrst
2 but confine myself to the latter.
What do we mean when we use the
term materialistic conception of history? Simply that we view everything
from the material or realistic point of
vley or, In olher words, we accept the
universality of the law of cause and
effect; that every occurrence, every
event has a tangible cause and can
be explained from within not from
without the material universe. There
Is no room for the supernatural here.
Again we do not believe anything.
What we know, we know; we do not
need to believe If we know.
A Socialist also uses the dialectic
mode of reasoning. As Socialism is a
science it must have something in
common with every other science.
That something is observation, experiment and reflection or reason. You
cannot observe anything except there
is something to observe. You cannot
experiment upon anything except there
is Bomething to experiment upon.
You cannot reason or reflect upon anything except there is something to
reason or reflect upon. Consequently,
to be scientific, you must necessarily
be a materialist. How in the name
of reason can you accept something
that has no connection with the law
of cause and effect?
I said we use the dialectic mode of
reasoning. The theologians, the metaphysical. That in working class language, simply means that we reason
that everything is in the process of
change while the theologians mniatain
that everything is fixed and rigid; in
other words a great man made a great
earth 6000 years ago and it has never
changed since. This same person also
made man as he ls now and he has
never changed since.
The last century has produced men
who by careful investigation, experiment and reflection have proved beyond a doubt that this old world is
about 40 million years old; that it is
not the same two minutes together,
and that man, instead of being created
after the image of God, it was man
himself that created God in his own
image. Man's anatomy has been studied also and here is where the theory
of creation falls entirely to the
ground. In the embroyonic period he
he goes through every stage the
human race has ever gone through,
from the single cell to the multlule
of cells and again by "experiment"
they have proved blood relationship
with blood corpuscleB of other animals.
It would be well for our friends in
Ottawa to get Darwin's origin of
species, and Weisman's theory of here
dlty. In the latter they will learn how
death came Into the world not by sin
as the genesis legend reports, but by
sex. Read also Do Vrle's mutation
and above all Dletzen. Then it is
quite possible that Instead of one
dissenting vote they will all endorse
Com. Baritz when he makes such
statements.
It Is essential that the party mem
bers should be perfectly clear upon
this point, lt may or may not have
been right to flood the Socialist party
In the past with a large membership
whether they understood it or not, but
it won't do now. Those coming in to
the party now must understand what
our position is before they become
members. We have had our time accepting the great man theory, we are
beginning to think for ourselves now.
It was considered necessary at one
time to leave theology alone, but we
are learning what is meant by the
word consistency.
There is no connection between a
christian and a Socialist. If we clash
in our premise by the first rules of
logic we must inevitably clash in out-
conclusions. Christianity itself can
be explained by the economic interpretation of history or by the law of
cause and effect and only by that.
When we are told all was ordained
by an omnipotent person lt is a cause
that has no connection with a previous
effect, consequently it must take refuge in mysticism and once it gets
that far it is outside the realm of
reason. Such ideas are satisfactory
only to the unintelligent. Immaculate
conceptions were sufficient when the
church had absolute power and priestcraft prevailed.
I won't say any more for the present
but should Ottawa like to take the
few points up that I have made
shall be pleased to reply. We must
be clear upon Socialism and Christti-
anity. It has been veiled in the past,
but to maintain a consistent revolutionary attitude we must be opposed
to all capitalistic institutions and as
Christianity is one of their strongholds
it remains for us to expose it at every
opportunity.
FRANK WATKINSON.
Toronto,
Demand Cigars Bearing this Label
aMaopop
•Men Im-nutkmii union of America.
itiw3 by Au-tniityoftM Ciut Mjmxv
_jfc. Union-made Cigars.  r „ _ ,
>C>*SV 3toai-rt«i--'.!w*-*-------t---*i-.N.ta«
as\«   asuauit»wcMioelia'WMn\M.m»,imfa.,*nm!*imtr.><ttnl>.i4.i
a c*in iii in mswi Iks-stout as «nU. P"^^^^^^^^^^"
mwi—ti tee ta Ism mbe feehm eaertmealm
$ 7K @U4tut4, PkMm,
^^^^__ I CM IV.,
r-s-Qs-oooaaoss
SS SMILE
Which Stands for a Living "Wage
Vancouver Local  867.
BBf
License to an Extra Provincial Company.
COMPANIES  ACT.
(July 1st, 1II10.)
Canada: Province of British Columbin.
No. 230A  (1,110).
Tills is to certify that American Rontl
Machine Company of Canada, Limited,
Is authorised and licensed to carry on
business within the Province of British
Columbia, and to carry out or effect all
or any of the objects of the Company to
which the legislative authority of the
Legislature of British Columbia extends.
The head office of the Company is situate at the Town of Goderich, County of
Huron, Ontario, Canada.
The head office of the Company iu this
Province is situate at Vancouver, and
Norman B. Mancil, Sales Agent, whose
address ls Vancouver aforesaid, is tbe
attorney for the Company.
Tho amount of the capital of the Company is One Hundred Thousand Dollars,
divided into Two Thousand shares.
Given under my hand and Seal of Offlce al Victoria. Province of British Columbia,   this   seventh   day   of  November,
one thousand nine hundred and ten.
(L.S.)       I>.   WHITUS1I1E,
Registrar of Joint Stock Companies.
EDMONTON,  ALTA.
Comrade Editor:—Comrades O'Brien
nnd Farmilo addressed two meetings,
one in the afternoon In the Ukrainian
Socialist Hall, the other ln the Le
Grand Theatre, on behalf of Federenko,
Ihe Russian Political refugee. Collections were taken up amounting to
I|l42.!i0 also a large number signed the
petition demanding he be set at liberty.
The writer sold $4.50 worth of literature. This is the beginning of a series
of lectures to be held every Sunday
in Le Grand Theatre. Comrade Cobb
of Okotoks will be the next on the
list of speakers.
A slave in revolt,
WM.  McQUOID.
ATENTS
I PROMPTLY SECURED!
.. e solid, the business of Manufacturers.
Engineer** and others who realize the advisability of having their Patent business transacted
by Experts. Preliminary advice free. Charges
modeiati. Our Inventor's Adviser sent upon
request. Marion & Marian, New York Life Bldg,
Voutrcal: ^ud\Vashin*jton. D.C-, U.S.A.
The objects for whicli this Company
has  been established  and  licensed are:
To manufacture, sell und operate all
kinds of road building machinery;
To manufacture and sell all kinds Of
machinery or tools composed in whole or
in pnrt of Iron or steel or Into which
Iron or steel enters us one of the chief
components thereof used by contractors,
or builders,  or manufacturers; ^^^^^^^^^^
To manufacture and sell all  kinds  of jthe  purpose
agricultural machinery, including thresh*
Ing machinery;
To manufacture and sell all kind*, of
snw mills, whether portable or stntiun-
aryj
To own, hold, operate and sell timber
limits and mines, with all the rights and
privileges incidental  thereto; and
To purchase and hold and sub-contrnct
for. the building of roads, bridges and
dams.
Given under my hand and Seal of Office at Victoria, Province of British Columbia,   this  seventh  day of November,
one thousand nine hundred and ten.
(L.S.) D. WHITESIDE,
Registrar of Joint Stock Companies.
The objects for which this Company
has been established and licensed are:
To enter into and carry into effect
either with or without modifications and
Agreement which has already been prepared and is expressed to be made, between John Forbes Maguire of the one
part and the Company of the other
part, a copy whereof has for the purpose of identification been endorsed with
the signature of Sydney John Henry
Knight, a Solicitor of the Supreme
Court. The basis on which the Company
is established Is that the Company
shall acquire the premises comprised in
the said Agreement on the terms therein
set forth, subject to modifications (if
any) as aforesaid, and that the said
John Forbes Maguire and other persons
or some of them in the said Agreement
named are to be first Directors of the
Company, and accordingly it shall be
no objection to the Agreement that the
said John Forbes Maguire and or such
other person or person!-, as Vendors,
Promoters, and Directors stand ln a
fiduciary position towards tiie Company,
or that there Is not in the circumstances constituted an independent
Board, and every member of the Company, present and future, is to be deemed to join  the Company on this basis:
To undertake and carry on in Great
Britain, abroad and the colonies, any
business transaction or operation commonly undertaken or carried on by financiers, promoters of companies, underwriters, concessionaires, capitalists, merchants  or agents:
To purchase, or otherwise acquire, use,
exercise, develop, or otherwise turn to account, any interests in any trade marks,
designs, patents, brevet'sd invention, licenses, concessions and the like, conferring an exclusive or non-exclusive or
non-exclusive or limited right to use, or
any secret or other information as to any
invention or article whicli may seem to
tho Directors, capable of being profitably dealt with:
To institute, enter into, carry on, assist or participate in financial, commercial, mercantile, industrial, manufacturing, mining, and other businesses, works,
contracts and undertakings, and financial
operations of all kinds:
To purchase or otherwise acquire, hold,
sell, exchange, turn to account, dispose of
and deal in real and personal property of
all kinds, and in particular British, foreign, and colonial lands, buildings, hereditaments, business concerns, and undertakings, mortgages, charges, annuities,
patents, patent rights, copyrights, licenses, securities, grants, charters, concessions, leases, contracts, policies, book
debts and claims, and any interest in real
or personal property, and any claims
against such property or against any
persons or property, and to finance and
carry on any business concern or undertaking so acquired:
To subscribe, form, buy, otherwise acquire, hold, sell exchange, dispose of and
operate In any manner whatsoever, In
shares, stocks, bonds, debenture stocks or
obligations, or any kind or form or security of any nature of this Company, so far
as the same is permitted or may be hereafter permitted by law. or of any other
Company, whether British colonial, or
foreign, or of any authority supreme,
municipal, local or otherwise:
To guarantee the payment of money secured by Or payable under or in respect
of bonds, debentures, debenture stock,
contracts, mortgages, charges, obligations and securities of any company,
whether British, colonial, or foreign, or
of any authority, supreme, municipal, local or otherwise, or of any persons
whomsoever, whether corporate or unincorporated
To furnish and provide deposits and
guarantee fun tis required in relation to
anv tender or application for any contract, concession, decree, enactment,
property or privilege, or in the, relation
to the carrying out of any contract, concession,  decree,  or enactment:
To lend money to any persons and on
any terms, to draw, accept, endorse, discount, issue, buy. sell and deal, in bills
of exchange, promissory note-*, drafts,
bills of lading, coupons, warrants, and
other negotiable instruments, nnd buy,
sell, and deal in bullion, specie and coin:
To borrow or raise money for the purposes of the Company in such manner
and upon such terms as may seem expedient and to secure the repayment thereof by redeemable or irredemable bonds,
debentures or debenture stock (such
onds, debentures, debenture stock beliiR
made payable to bearer or otherwise,
and issuable or payable either at par
or at a premium or discount) or by mortgages, scrip certficates, bills of exchange
or promissory notes, or by any other instrument, or in such manner as may be
letermined, and for such purposes to
charge all or any part of the property of
he Company, both present and future, including Its uncalled capital:
To make donations to such persons
and in such cases, and either of cash or
other assets, as may be thought directly
indirectly conducive to any of the
Company's objects, or otherwise expedient, and to subscribe or guarantee
money for charitable or benevolent objects, or for any exhibition, or for any
public general or other object:
To enter into any arrangement with
anv government or authorities, supreme,
municipal, local or otherwise, and to obtain from any such government or authority any rights, concessions, charters,
and privileges which may be thought
conducive to the Company's objects or
any of them:
To purchase or acquire and otherwise
undertake all or any part of the business, property or goodwill nnd liabilities
of any company, corporation, society,
partnership or persons carrying on or
about to carry on, any business which
this Company is authorized to carry on,
or which Is in any respect similar to
the objects of this Company, or which Is
cnpable of being conducted so as directly
or indirectly to benefit the Company or
possessed of property deemed suitable for
f  this   Company,   and   to
lng money thereto upon debentures, securities, property or otherwise, * and
further to pay out of the funds of the
Company all expenses of and incident
to the formation, registration, advertising and establishment of any other company, and to the issue and subscription
of t|ie share or loan capital, including
brokerage and commissions for obtaining applications for, or placing, or guaranteeing the placing of the sliares, or
any debentures, debenture stock, or other
securities of this or any other company,
and also all the expenses attending the
issue of any circular or notice, or the
printing, stamping and circulating of
proxies or forms to be filled up by the
Members of this, or connected With any
other company,* and to undertake the
management and secretarial or other
work, duties and business of any company on such terms as may be determined:
To obtain or in any wlty assist in Obtaining any Provisional Order or Act of
Parliament or other necessary authority
for enubling this or any other company
lo carry any of its objects into effect
or for effecting any modification of this
or any other company's constitution; to
procure this or any other company to be
legalised, registered or incorporated, if
necessary in accordance with tho laws of
any country or state in which it may or
may propose to carry on operations:
To distribute any of the property or
assets of the Company among the members, in specie or otherwise, and on any
distribution or surplus assets, to divide
the same among the members otherwise
than in accordance with their strict legal
rights:
To do all or any of the above things
in any part of the globe, either as principals, agents, contractors, trustees, or
otherwise, and either alone or in conjunction with others, and either by or
through agents, sub-contractors, trustees or otherwise; with power to appoint
a trustee or trustees, personal or corporate to hold any property on behalf
of the Company, and to allow any property to remain outstanding in such
trustee or trustees:
To give options or calls on shares or
securities of the Company, or which may
from time to time form any part of the
assets of this Company, to any persons
upon any  terms:
To do all such other things as are
incidental or may be thought conducive
lo the attainment of the above objects
or any of them, and so that the word
"Company" in this Memorandum, when
applied otherwise than this Company,
shall be deemed to include any partnership or other body or persons, whether
corporate or unincorporate ana whether
domiciled in the United Kingdom or
elsewhere, and the objects specified in
eacli of the paragraphs of tills Memor.- •
andum shall be regarded as Independent
objects, and accordingly shall be in nowise limited or restricted (except where
otherwise expressed in such paragraph)
by reference to the objects indicated in
any other or tbe same paragraph or
the name of the company, but may be
carried out In as full and ample a manner, and construed in as wide a sense, as
if each of the said objects were the object or objects of a separate, distinct
and independent company.
License to an Extra Provincial Company.
COMPANIES ACT.
(July 1st, 1910.)
Canada: Province of British Columbia.
No. 218A (1910).
This is to certify that The Anglo-
British Columbian Agency, Limited, is
authorized and licensed to carry on
business within the Province of British
Columbia, and to carry out or effect all
or any of the objects of the Company
to which the legislative authority of
the Legislature of British Columbia
extends.
The head office of the Company Is situate at 14 and IB Cockspur Street,
London, S. W., England.
The head offlce of the Company ln this
Province is situate at 505 Mercantile
Building, Homer Street, Vancouver, and
John Forbes Maguire, whose address is
Vancouver aforesaid, is the attorney
for the Company.
The amount of the capital of the Company ls Five Thousand Pounds, divided
into Four Thousand Ordinary and Four
Thousand Deferred shares.
Propaganda Meeting
Empress Theatre
Sunday, Dec. 4th
E. T. KINGSLEY
enter Into partnership or Into nny arrangement with respect to the sharlm
of profits, union of Interests, or amalga
mallon, reciprocal, concession or co-operation, either In whole or In part, with
any such company, corporation, society
partnership or persons:
To dispose of by sale, lease, underlease,
exchange, surrender, mortgage or otherwise, absolutely, conditionally, or for any
limited Interest, alt or any part of the
undertaking, property, rights or privileges of the Company as a going concern
or otherwise, to nny public body, company, society or association, or to any
person or persons, for such consideration as the Company may think fit. and
lu particular for any stock, shares, debentures securities or property of any
other Company:
To promote or form, or assist in the
promotion of formation of, any other
company or companies, either for the purpose of acquiring, working, or otherwise
dealing with all or any part of the
property, rights, or liabilities of this
Company, or uny property in which this
Company ls interested, or for any other
purpose, with powers to assist such company or companies by paying or contributing towards the preliminary expenses
thereof, or providing the whole or part
of the capital, or by taking or subscribing for shares therein, or by lend-
Iiicense to an Extra Provincial Company,
COMPANIES ACT.
(July 1st, 1910.)
Canada: Province of British Columbia.
No. J17A (1910),
This is to certify that Kingsbury Footwear Company, Limited, is authorized
and licensed to carry on business within
the Province of British Columbia, and to
carry out or effect all or any of the objects of the Company to which the legislative authority of the Legislature of
British Columbia extends.
The head office of tbe Company Is situate at Maisonneuve, Quebec, Canada.
The head office of the Company In thia
Province is -situate at 619 Granville
Street, Vancouver, and Joseph Edward
Bird, Barrfster-at-Law, whose address is
Vancouver aforesaid, is the attorney for
the Company.
The amount of the capital of the Company is Three Hundred Thousand Dollars, divided Into Three Thousand shares.
Given under my hand and Seal of Office at Victoria, Province of British Columbia,  this  seventh day of November,
one thousand nine hundred nnd ten.
(L.S.) D. WHITESIDE,
Registrar of Joint Stock Companies.
The objects for which this Company
has been established and liceftsed are:
To make, manufacture, purchase, sell,
job In and otherwise deal in boots, shoes
and all things incidental to footwear;
To manufacture, tan and treat, and to   |
purchase,   sell    and   otherwise    deal   in
leather of all kinds;
To make, manufacture and deal in
lasts, shoe counters, cartoons, wood
cases, shoe dressing, and other parts and
findings connected with the manufacture
of footwear;
To purchase, sell, job in and otherwise
deal in rubber footwear of all kinds;
To manufacture und produce steam,
gns and electricity for heat, light and
power for the purposes of the Company,
and to dispose of and sell any surplus
thereof;
To purchase, acquire and continue the
business heretofore carried on by the
Kingsbury Footwear Company, and to
pay for the same in and paid up stock
of this-Company;
To acquire, hold, mortgage, sell, convey or lease any renl estate, lands and
buildings requisite for the carrying on
of all and any of the aforesaid undertakings and to pay for tho same by paid
up stock of the Company;
To promote, assist in promoting and
become a shareholder in any subsidiary,
allied or other company carrying bn
wholly or in part business of a similar
choracter, and to sell to or otherwise
deal with the same;
To purchase and acquire any business
or business of a similar nature, nnd to
purchase and acquire any interest or control In any business of a similar nature
and to pay for the same in paid up stock
of this Company;
To let or sublet any property of the
Company, to sell or otherwise dispose of
the business, property or undertaking or
any part thereof, for such consideration
as the Company moy deem fit, ond in
particular for shares, debentures or securities of any other company having
ohlects altogether or in part similar to
those of this Company, to amalgamate
with nny other company having objecw
wholly or in part similar to those of this
Company;
To do all and everything necessary,
suitable, convenient or proper for the accomplishment of any of the purposes, or
attainment of any one or more of the objects hereinbefore enumerated or Incidental to the powers herein named or
which shall or may at any time appear
to be conducive to or expedient of the
protection or benefit of the Company,
either as holders of. or Interested ln any
property or otherwise.
TO HOUSEKEEPERS
qif you* would like to spend less time in your kitchen
and woodshed, and have much more time for outdoor
life, recreation and pleasure, look into the question of
doing your cooking with a Gas Range.
Telephone yonr address to our office and we will send a man
to measure your premises and give yon an estimate oi coat of
installing the gac pipes,
Vancouver Eas Company Limited.

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.wclarion.1-0318733/manifest

Comment

Related Items