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The Western Clarion Feb 16, 1907

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Array 'Ml*   I* JIA
Nu**sa      "rl As
Vancouver, British Columbia' Saturday, February 16, 1907
-rarB-T- si.oo
If White Worker Is Not Duly Submissive His Pig-Tailed Relative Will
Get His Job.
Ooldwin Smith is again to the
front with some of his character-
istis utterance* on the lubor ques-
lioa. Hc Imndh ..wt i. threat to
a-hite workingmen thut unit-** they
>iult striking and ruining industrial
ili-tturttances they will be replaced by
Chinese and  Japs who,  tie says, are
-i.'udj   and    mliatjle,
strike. ^^^^^^^^^^
lAhor, be nays, is a commodity,
ihe value of which de->enda on its
-.readiness n* mil uh on it* skill."
-..-clalist h|M-u>..T-. -nd writers ha.e
bean none too mrteoefiillj •ndaaVhr*--
mg tu drill inlo thn worker*, just
i> hat    is   Smbodlsd   tn   the   foregolug
Hvij.pl>- uf cheap labor-power ahe will
Muni bo having a surplus to export
like our own enterprising employers.
What then? Our bourgeois sage,
Ooldwin .Smith, may reply that the
Minn- legislative power that might
•hut out coolie labor can shut out
the products of coolie labor. Grant
that, but the same arguments that
prevailed with Russia might also
and never j have weight with dear old Kngland.
' Those white workers whose displacement is threatened unless they get
down and oat dog salmon und rice
with fitting docility, may get tbe
idea Into their heads tbat tbe patriotic capitalist who gave the Jap
his job mny get him also to do his
lighting or allow tho aforesaid patriotic .npiU.li.-it   to do it himself
Hob a mun of all property right in
the  country   he   lives  in;   make  him
If an eroplover    hits    a Chinaman ' "*n  «PI*ndage  to  •   machine;   make
. '       , ,        hi* right to life,  his enjoyment of a
„,,d   a   wh.le   worker   in   his   employ j ho,m>    wif(J aw.  ch|Wreil> (kjpend  u^
lis preference for one or thc other j oll thc ability of a capitalist to coin
will de|N*nd on lhe amount ol profit ! profit out of hla labor, and he might
^*^*^**^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ discover  that his enemies are inside
and  not  outside of his country, and
in*,   ataire    to     fight     Japs  might
i.e can get out of the labor of each.
Let us suppose thnt each ot these
*nrkj*rs Wmtve certain raw material from the employer at the begin-
r.ing of a day's worh. At Ita close
(hey have by their labor added ten
•1'illar* to the value ot it. That is
i" aay. the raw tn.tleii.il sells in the
market f.,r ten dollars more niter
the t'hlmun.in nnd white worker
worked on It one day. Vie wfll *un*
|mjm the employer pays them two
■ i'Urs each and that he ulso appropriate* one fr.r doprerlatlon of
plant, and one for hi* wagJSS <rf su|»-
.•rintendume, I here if. left a prolit —1
-in dollars from the labor ol each.
So far the yellow skin and the white
"kin look equally good to him. lint
thu whit* man gets ruminating over
the matter and doesn't quite liku
'his iii.-i1i.kI of "dividing up." He
«'*<•» on strike. Immediately his
vulue, to the employer sinks In colti-
lx.rih.tn with the Chinaman becaUS*
h* temporarily arrests the pr..flt-
-.i ii.Ing prirCOHS, ttc.-ddes threatening
to redue* the amount  of profit, and
change to a wish to fight capitalists
1 i.is is a consummation which from
the stnn.lj.oinl of the property less
worker is devoutly to be wished,
however much (Soldwin Smith and
hih class might deplore it. Moreover, it might be well for our capitalist philosopher not to depend too
much on the passivity of the .lap
uml I'hiiies-e. Already monster strikes
have occurred in .lupan provoked by
eapitallst development while signs
ure not wanting that like conditions
will produce them in China. Ik-sides
what U more cheering is the growth
oi an aggressive proletarian movement. This. like our own, is bent on
the conquest of the public power for
the purpose of the abolition of the
»ag"-tnarkei ond the t runsf orma I ion
of the worker from the degrading
hiatus of a commodity to that of a
free mun. master of thc tools ho
uses and the owner of the vvealth he
creates. The feeble squawks of capitalist     apologists     such    as   Smith
Ihenco tlw thro*!*    GoWwutT"Smith | »b??t the tendency of the workers to
hunds out to dlspena* with him al-
ingetbcr. Thero Is another consideration We know that the average
-.age of the Chine!*** is less than ihe
average wage of the white worker
while lhe productivity ol the former i* on thu average greater be*
■•ail sra of hi* tion-r-J'sisting hn-
blts. Theso allow him to work
more hours thaa the white mun
Mow, why Is his wage UM i
•b.idwin Smiih hiuu*rlf admits th*
worker   Is   a   commodity    and   ba
hns snitl. lent knowledge "( economics
lo know that commodities sell In the
iniirket at what ll costs lo produce
ihem. If tl cost* a dollar a day to
produce a Chilteae worker hi* VSfS
"n the average, KOBt rise ..!-o.u
ihot. If It takes two dollars i"
produce n White worker, one enn
readily see that with unrestricted
competition the dl*plac**meni of the
whit., worker is a foregone conclusion. Now the foregoing may seam
an argument for the exclusion tj
legislative enactment of Chinese lu-
hor. Uoldwin Smith does Dot appear to tako this seriously. NWtfcer
do we. Tho employing class have the
means—I.e., the control of public
power—to prevent this. Moreover, if
we ran havo a sufficiency of white
workera the cost of producing the
white worker will decline. Instead
"t demanding roast beef at. his lunch
counter he will get along on a
cheese sandwich. After ha strikes
"iico or twice and goes up againat
the Inexorable lows that govern the
lnbor market, he will acquire nlnil-
Inr docility, Tho displacement of labor by .labor saving devices goes on
"IKice. Even If wo were able to blot
out the Chinese ami Japanese em*
l'ire* thl* development of our Industrial system would eventually bung
•ibout a similar result, tho cheapening of the cost of production of the
' on-rmodlty, labor power, to the Ir
roilnclhlo minimum amount of food,
•lothing and shelter the laborer will
consent to live on and keep working.
Iharg is sit 111 another consideration.
lleforo juid since hor war with H»»-
x'ft. Japan has been donning tho
Kirb of Western civilization. Sho is
ifiMtnlling up-to-date machinery of
wealth-product Ion, as up-to-date us
tho battleships which cracked tho
Hussion fleet.      Having a plentiful
strike will soon swell into a chorus
of genuine fear and apprehension nt
the advance of the revolutiortarv
proletariat. That this dny may
Soon dawn Is thc hope that lightens
the gloom which otherwise envelopes
the lives of Ihe workers of all lands
Wc mnde n fairly complete job of
ft In Newcastle and Nunnimo. '"ho
hunting-out   process   had   its   effect*
in ijohsmiih but as a respectable
number did not go any further thun
Nanaimo, they put la an appearanee
at N'orthficld on Keb. and. knowing
nisnlls throughout the province, I
feel like favoring the Cartwright
theory that a devil of a lot of our
irllie will have to got It via the
stomach  route.
M'Kinley once carried the United
States on the promise of "u full dinner pail," (or thc working plug—
which was too blasted much for him
who belongs to the grasHhopi>er-*'
brained fraternity that con tie bought
at such a price.
Copper at the present time is 2.1c
per tb., ItUnber just double the price
of two yeurs ago. Thc consequence
of this Is that every little six-inch
ledge in tho country is being worked
and every ncro of punky timber is,
eagerly sought after. One of these'
days some parasite in New York or I
elsewhere will buy, or refuse to buy,
copper and in three days it will drop
to 1-tc or lower. This will put
about 4,0(10 men (or things) on tho
hum in 11. C. alone. Present industrial activity is not. a normal activity, Large public works under construction ore not essential to present requirements. They aro merely
cnpitniist efforts to discount the future. This business must come to
nn end before very long ond when it
does the fellow whose world problems arc nil found In his dinner pail
will havo a deuce of B good chance
to learn what the bottom of that
useful article looks like. When this
happen* election returns will look
different to those of tab, 2. To hold
our own, however, undor present
s all  we  hnd nny right
In awakening the workers to an
understanding of their position under capitalism und impressing upon
thutu the necessity of energetic and
correct act ion in their own behalf, a
vast amount of work along the line of
education and organization must be
done. During thc earlier stages, of
the movement for emancipation this
work of necessity devolved upon' a
(ew As time went on and more per-
soriji became interested, the work
quite naturally became more wide-
spiead and vigorous. "Many hands
make light work," as the adage
goes. Thin is not always true however. It has not proven true in the
i use of the Socialist Movement. Tlie
greater the number of hands tbe
larger the amount of work accomplished, but there is nothing to warrant the assumption that any lessening of the amount of labor imposed
upon the individual can be reasonably expected for many years to
While a vast amount of propaganda work has been done during
years past, much of it has lieen uf
doubtful character and would perhaps, have been better left undone.
As the revolutionary position of the
proletariat is such an absolute and
radical departure from those idea*
that huve been instilled into tbe
minds of men by generations of
training under the rule of capital, it
is unreasonable to suppose that men
could arise to the occasion of at
once grasping it in ull its signift-
c.tnee, upon the first occasion offered.
A thousand and one efforts to solve
thc problem of economic bondage
while at the same time avoiding an
acceptance of the revolutionary position ond program, would, of course,
b* made. Thousands of alleged Socialists are still making them. The
fact stands forth with ever greater
emphasis that all such efforts go for
naught and the energy expended is
energy  wasted.
Thc result  of each succeeding electoral campaign more completely em
phasizes the necessity of action by
the workers along strictly claas lines
independent of and uncompromisingly opposed to all otber class interests in human society. It is upon the working clajis that is heaped
all of the exploitation and misery
that afflicts society today. It is
this class alone that must be awakened to n realization of the indignities heaped upon its members and
atoused to the necessity of action as
vigorous and drastic as may be necessary to bring the rule of capital
to an end.
Thfi work to be done by the Socialist Party in Uritish Columbia during the coming month is to carry
tho message of deliverance to those
parts of the province where' it has
not already reached, and to crystal ize into vigorous and active organization the workers just aa rapidly as they see the light, and become imbued witb the revolutionary
This calls for an able and energetic propagandist and organizer constantly in the field. The ground
must be thoroughly gone over and
careful preparations made for a
most vigorous assault upon tbe entrenchments of capitalism at each
succeeding election, until the [lowers
of government have completely fallen into the hands of the working
class where they can be no longer
used to rivet thc chains of economic-
bondage t/pon the limbs of labor.
Ijet thc demand come up from
every quarter of the province that
the Socialist Party, through its executive, take immediate steps to
plsce a competent man in tbe field
as soon as the winter season ends.
Let every comrade resolve himself
into a committee of one to do all
that lies in his power to make it
possible to maintain such an organizer, and more than one if necessary,
constantly in the field until the battle is won and the working class has
Comrades of Uritish Columbia this
can be done.   It roust be done.   Will;
you  do it?
Letter From a Victim of Twentieth
Century Ruling Class Ferocity
and Vengeance.
Levelled at the Action of British Labor
Party in the House of
to hope
P. W.
Sir,—You ask me my opinion as to
tho life nnd miracles of thc Labor
Party in Parliament up to the present day.
Ar you  do  not  say  which section
of it 1 am to discourse on, I take
it for granted that it is that led by
Mr. Keir  llardie.
Ah regards Mr. Keir llardie himself, it appears to me that ho has
dure all he could, and has remained
always  nn   earnest   advocate   of  So-
iiillstlc principles. Why he chooses
lu try and hide his Socialistic head
under the sands of laibor is unknown
to me. He is not u U-mporlser, and
he is too astute to think for a moment that his H.icialisin is any
inure concealed by his manoeuvre
than was that of the proverbial ostrich of our school-dnys. in regard
to the party, I confess I am a little
(just a little) disappointed. I see
ihat thc whole capitalist press is
loud in praise of the "moderation,"
the "good manners," the "aptitude
for Parliamentary business," and the
"general adherence to sound principles of statesmanship" of the Labor party. Then I rub my eyes, and
ask myself, Are these the men whoso
speeches I rend at their elections?
Not for a moment do I think that
the notorious want of ventilation in
the House of Commons ha* affected
their principles; but 1 wonder some-
tunes, whnt in reality were their
principles as understnndod of themselves? Then 1 remember that in the
various lists of books by which they
professed themselves to havo been influenced in thu making of their characters that (in regard to economics
at least) not n man of them seems
to have studied nny book on the
subject of n later date than, say,
1875. Tho IMMc and Shakespeare
seem to hnve been the intellectual
pabulum of the most of thorn (Mr.
Kior llardie adds Burns.) Now,
though theso two works are incomparably great and beautiful in themselves,' I confess that a mere Bible
Christian or a Shakespearean student is not exactly my idea of a
fighting Socialist.
Nearly all the members of tho Liberal Party, with tho oxcoption of
Mr Morloy, » aro extremely woll
grounded in the Bible, and Mr, Blr-
rell no doubt has read Shakespeare.
Thus, as far as literary equipment
is concerned, it is difficult to discern whether the Lit-eral or the Labor Party has the best of it.
But in regard to economics, it is
exceedingly probable that aome of
tho younger and more advanced Liberals, such as Mr. Mustermaii, Mr.
Ilelloc, or Mr. Mason, are considerably better road in recent economic*
thut. is any member of tbe Labor
In regard to achievement I see thnt
ull the little fag-end* and tags of
legislation passed by the Government in favor of the working classes
is put down by some to the presence in Parliament of the Party led
by Mr.  Keir llardie.
Of course that may tie so, and Sir
Henry Campboll-Bannerman may
tremble in his shoes, but it does not
look as if he did, for not a single
item ot the somewhat scrappy legislation I have referred to could poa-
sibly cause a single qualm to the
most orthodox of the N-onconformiat
supporters of the Government.
What 1 fail to see is, any distinctive policy on the part of the Labor Party; secondly, any distinctive
dividing-line between them and the
ordinary Liberals; nnd, thirdly, any
decided protest they have made on
any great social or racial question
since they have entered  Parliament.
Therefore, as I say, 1 am a little
(jus*,  a little) disappointed.
Take, for example, the hangings
and floggings at Peiishawi. As far
as I know, the Labor Tarty, as a
party, did nothing in particular,
though of courso they did It extremely well, after the fashion of
the House of Lords in the musical
comedy. Then came the Zulu affair,
and with the exception of Ithoir
leader the same policy of tho "still
strong man," was again pursued.
No policy, no dividing line, no
protest ngninst any of tho Government's arbitrary proceedings in
Egypt and Zululand.
Their policy is (up to tho present
time)  entirely negative
Well  ... I confess, I um a little
(just a very.    wry    little)    disappointed.—1 am. Sir, yours faithfully,
R.   B,   Cunninghatne-Graham. — Jus- j
On the night of Saturday, Novem
ber 25, 1906, I was, along with 99
persona who were arrested in a restaurant in Kiga, taken to tha office
of the Secret Police Department.
With the exception of four persons,
all were liberated tbe same night,
but the four detained, a detective
named Davus pretended to recognize
as important political offenders,
three of whom were subjected to a
strict examination on lines similar
to the Bertillon method adopted by-
prison   authorities.
Our examination concluded, without charge or trial of any kind, we
were thrown into a cell and for two
days received no food. On the thiid
day we were put into another cell,
small and narrow, which already
contained 17 persons. Here we received daily a small portion of black
bread, but no wuter.
The relief of our tormenting thirst
dc|iended entirely upon the caprice
of the watchman, and when be wua
in an ill-humor he would brutally
kick us back into our cell and lock
the door. In this miserable cell
were now huddled 31 persons; during
the day it was possible to accommodate us standing, but iu the
night-time it wus horrible, as there
was not sufficient floor space for us
to lie down, and wc we{e forced to
lie one upon the other. The foul atmosphere of the cell would also become, at times, unbearable, and none
dare venture to open the window, as
the sentinel opposite would shoot at
sight uny one who approached it. All
officials, from the common policeman
warder, watchman, or spy, lose no
opportunity of scoffing or jeering at
the prisoners, and enjoy the right
to abuse them with kicks and blows
at their brutal pleasure. It was under these conditions we were introduced to the torture chamber.
Tbe torturing of prisoners is generally carried out during the night.
It commences at ten or twelve, and
continues until six o'clocp in the
morning. One after the other the
prisoners are taken to tbe second
storey of the building, where there
is a special torture chamber, with
all the different , "rtirrtrumente to
hand. In the middle ot tbe room is
a long wooden bench with straps attached for fixing the prisoners down.
Ou the walls ure hanging lengths of
rubber tube of various thickness filled with lead, to each of which the
torturers have affixed a pet soubriquet "The Lord's Blessing," "God's
Mercy," "God's IjOvc," and ao on.
Besides these tubes there nre also
iron tongs, pincers, straight-jackets, long pins, cobbler's threads, and
all manner uf inhuman devices. The
torturers are fifteen miscreants in ull
Including the spy Davus, Oregus, tho
overseer of the secret police department, his assistant MichijelT, and Ot-
ton, an ex-convict, sentenced several
times to penal servitude. These
named have made themselves infamous through their inventive genius
in methods of torture, the names of
the others are not known to me.
Very often the local landowners and
barons, the leaders of the military
expeditions, take un active part in
these torturings. tn one instance,
l.o.> Noxpmbor 29, the torturing was
especially severe, as the district magistrate. Baron Radon, a well known
hang-man ond bloodhound, took an
active .part in it. To fulfil the same
ghastly duty, Baron Reeve, a notorious pogrom hero, the destroyer of
Tukkum, a provincial town, and a
few of the smaller barons and
princes, all favourers of the notorious "black hundred" organization,
often  visit   Riga.
Tho torture is usually carried out
in the following manner. After the
prisoner has been dragged into the
inquisition room his fetters are tak-
on off, and one of the spies informs
him that he is now wholly in thoir
power, nnd that they aro at liberty
to torture him or kill him, without
being accountable for their actions
to any one. He is then advised to
confess everything, to name his comrades and accomplices, and dec-lure
all information he can; by doing so
he will regain his freedom, and a
good situation will lie found for him
in the protection ilopttrttment. If
there is no confession then the tor
ture is resorted to. The prisoner ia
stripped naked and thrown down
upon the bench and bound first with
the straps. He is gagged with a wet
cloth in order to stifle bis screams
then with tbe aforementioned rubber tubes, "God's Love," or "God's
Mercy," he receives from 200 to
400 strokes, and in order to increase
thc pain, salt is rubbed into the lacerated and bleeding wounds, and he
is flogged again until be loses consciousness. When he ia once mors
restored to consciousness the cross-
examination begins, li the victim
refuses to speak tbe pincers are requisitioned to pull the nails off bis
fingers; the long pins are thrust
through the tendons of bis hands
and feet; the hair is pulled singly or
by locks out of bis head. If the
prisoner still remains obstinate the
fiendish cruelty is carried still further. Davus, the secret police spy,
is especially expert in pulling out
the hair and beard, and if this fails
he will beat the prisoners on the
temples and other tender parts of
the body. If tbe desired confession
is not forthcoming the iron tonga
are made glowing hot, and pieces of
flesh are pinched out of the most
tender parts. The knocking out ot
teeth is also resorted to and finally,
the most effective of all, the compressing of the testes with a pair of
Regularly every day these inhuman
tortures are resorted to until the
wretched victim, unable to bear it
any longer, acknowledges the charges
brought against him. It is not to
be wondered at, that sometimes the
feast stable confess to crimes they
have never committed, and also denounce persons equally innocent.
Thoae, however, who refuse to speak
at all are by these methods of torture mainred and crippled for lite.
Such was the case with G.uning, arrested at the end of October. For
three weeks he was subjected to the
most cruel and inhuman torture, but
all to no purpose, and finally he
was despatched to the prison infirmary and delivered to the court-
martial for trial. When the arrests
were made in November, however,
somo of the prisoners confessed and
denounced Gruning, and he was returned to the secret police department to be tortured a second time.
His beard was extracted and what
was left of his bair has turned quite
gray, although he is not yet twenty-four. His face is terribly mutilated, and from many parts the skin
is cut or seared off, his spine is
bent, and his ribs broken. Gruning,
himself, stated that Davus and MichijelT. failing to get any Information
out of him, put a plank across his
shoulders and danced upon it until
his back and ribs were broken ami
crushed, yet Gruning did not sav one
word to implicate himself or his
.comrades. The names of the victims
J.if the "constitutional inquisition"
am as follows:—Ferdinand Gruning,
Valerian Schurowsky, Peter Beljajeff
Karl Ijegstiug, Ian Ruman, Paul
Uindman, Ian Kruming, Ian Luhs,
Ian Ijiichs, Peter Paeglis, Wilhelm
Muzeneck, Peter Brunkus, Kduard
Reining, Ian Muller, Atis Sniker,
Adolf  Jordon.
The above wero tried under clause
271 of the martial law, and clause
20 of the field courts-martial.
Becemlier 4, 1906.
P.S.—Ten of tho 16 persons named
were sentenced to death by field
court-martial on December 8. They
died with the words, "I.ong Live the
Revolution," "I/ong Live Freedom,"
on their lips, and the other six were
sentenced to terms of penal servitude
in Siberia, ranging from six to 20
years; amongst them are Gruning,
Schurowsky, Beljajeff.—Justice.
Tho awful "scarcity of labor" in
Uritish Columbia could be supplied
inside of one month if tho price offered for labor-power was sufficient
to koep a woge-slavo decently alive
for at least 24  hours.
The workers of B. 0. though, must
like the commodity nature of themselves, subject to the laws of tho
market—for only last week did they
endorse its perpetuation for another
four years.
Let them now fry in their own
■f Iu Wfistsrn Qvin
tiim_wt_jr **•«** fjjtig*i| *M**J* oomiitA*
fcAftftMs*. rn-teuAfJY ie, i{^jyt
___-__^___r     ■    ■
^^^•Ithe ^^^^
tt the O-fce cf the Western Clarion,
Flack Block haatinrnt, 165 Hasting*
Street, Vancotrrer B. C.
ftffctfp fat Advance.
Tear}- sntecription card* in  lots
of fi • er more, 75 easts each.
Bundle* of s or more copies, for a
period of not lest than three months,
at the rate of one cent per copy per
sal producing  surplus Value to add
to ita bulk.
The exploitation of labor at the
hands of capital Lt the one infamy
from which the entire brood of infamies that afflict the human race
are bred. That exploitation is af-
tectad at the point of production,
where labor is forced to accept a
mere subsistence wage while capital
appropriates the entire product of
The workers but waste time ower
anytbing that has not the purpose
in view of converting capitalist property into collective or working
claas property thus ending at once
and  for all  time their exploitation.
this paper, It hi paid
In making remittance by cheque,
exchange nmst be added. Addrest
sll communication! snd make all
money orders payable to
Bos 198,
Vsncotrver, B. C
serf* knew thit.    Upon fife occasions
a wage tlave may be found possessed
tociation.     N-****dlcss  to  mention, this
will be *omewh*t tough on the package.
In other word*, this move is merely a huge blacklisting scheme upon tbe
part of the employers.    Anv recalcitntnt
slave is  to be put  completely    out of
bosmess by shmting off his fodder  He voluntarily
TTbe aflowcTn? further employment Ue, the canity -*»»*£ «*
minion over  slaves by  the excruse 01
those powers that are embodied m what
of similar degree of knowledve. | <*** H«"3r T. Jone*)
Matter* maintain their    hold    upon     Oncejhere wat an honest man, who
.u.i wat elected by the people to represent
them in thc --'.ate legislature.    The time
their slaves so long as they have   the
to do  so.    They  never let    go
Like     previous   master
Watch thi* label
per.   If
ban it,
within the jurisdiction of the Employers' Association. If he gets balky
(strikes) or asks for more stuffing
(wages) his pipe is to be put out for
fair. No discrimination is to be made
between a he and a she All are to be
treated alike. With this sort of evidence piling up on every hand it would
seem that the worker should in time
lose faith in his freedom. If he needs
any further proof of his slavery i*
should be given him in thc shape of a
ring in his nose or a branding iron upon some suitable part of his thick hide.
Many a working man is conadoua
of somehow or other getting the
worst of it iu the struggle for existence. Though he may not know
how it comes about he feels himself wronged in some way, and in
casting about for tbe source of his
trouble he almost invariably locates
it in the wrong place.
To the ordinary person it aeems
quito clear that if he could purchase the things he requires at a
reduced  figure  he  would ibe  better
If, instead of being compelled to
pay tb tor a pair of shoes he could
obtain tbem for, say, $4, it is manifestly clear that he would be one
dollar to the good. Thia ia such a
self-evident proposition that it becomes easily fixed in his mind -that
the hardships he experiences and
which expresses itself iu tbe emptiness of bit pocket, ia caused by tne
high prices ne is compelled to pay
for the things be ia forced by necessity to purchase. if this were
true bis fight would undoubtedly be
against those from whom his purchases were made. While he is railing at tbe sellers of provisions,
clothing, etc., and coudeuuning them
for the high prices charged, he is
quite apt to forget that be is himself the seller of an article ot merchandise, wrapped up iu the sale
and disposition of which may perchance lie the trouble aguiust which
he so loudly complains.
Before the workingman can purchase the thing* necessary to maiu-
tain his existence he must sell his
power to labor, or labor-power. Thia
passe* into possession of the purchaser just the same as does any
other commodity that mny be sold.
it possesses one virtue, however,
thut does not attach to any other
commodity. When utilized lu production it will tiring forth u value
greater than that contained within
itself, lt will produce additional or
new values. This arise* from ths
fact that owing to the improved
tools and methods uf production uow
In .vogue the average labor of one
man for one day will produce un
amount of subsistence In excess uf
that requisite for tho sustenance of
•one man for that period, li the lubor market be amply supplied with
inborers the competition among
them for Jobs will prevent the price
of the daya' labor-power going
Above tho price of a day's sustenance for the worker. Under such
circumstances on average day's wage
will be equivalent to an average
day's sustenance, and what ever new
or surplus value may result from
the expenditure of the day's labor-
power will represent that for which
the laborer received nothing for creating. It tho worker could live
cbeapor because of a reduced price of
the things necessary to hla existence
It is manifestly clear that he could
work for less wages and the competition for jobs would inevitably
force him to do so.'
Th* exploitation of labor Is effected under this wage process. It
asprssses Itself on-tbe one band In
lhe poverty and misery of the working class, and upon the otlier lu the
affluence and comfort of the capitalist class and the over Increasing
amount of wealth in Its possession.
So long as the means of production
remain as capital, the value creating
mpt remain ita v*a>
The number of Socialist papers
that have been launched upon the
viciasitudinoua sea of public favor
during recent years is legion. Many
of them have speedily experienced a
second launching and this time into
oblivion. Others continue to hang
on to existence by the skin of their
teeth, spasmodically gasping for
breath and eternally squawking for
To carry on a paper, even a we -kly
of moderate aire. Involves no inconsiderable expense. He who has a
bunch of money which he is anxious
to get rid of can be assured of being able to unload by engaging in
such a venture. Whatever luck of
vigor in other respects may be in
evidence the ability of a paper to
eat up money in Its publication is
unquestioned. /
The starting of paper* by individuals or organizations seems to have
developed into a well-defined mania.
Filled with a sense of self-assertive
importance they must needs find
means of proclaiming it to the world
in order that tbe multitude may be
privileged to bask in the radiance
of their effulgent wiadom.
This may be all very well in its
way, provided there be a message to
deliver that is strictly in accord
witb tbe general trend of thought
along the lines of social development. But the message must be delivered, and in such a manner as to
he understandable, or the bopea of
the promoters will be shattered and
the venture fail. When these newspaper ventures are continually upon
the rocks and frantically crying ouf
for succor, there ia at least grounds
for the suspicion that they have no
message to deliver that is of value
to humankind, or, if they have auch
message they have not the faculty
of conveying it in terms tbat can bc
readily interpreted.
Just how many boosting, begging
and thimble-rigging schemes are now
on for the purpose of prolonging the
existence of Socialist journalistic
ventures, or conjuring forth the
wherewith to launch others, is unknown. The good Lord knows they
are at least numerous enough. Publications that can only tie kept alive
by continual boosting are of doubtful value to the movement. They
absorb too much of the resources
that might bring better returns if
used in some other manner. Whatever method of propaganda proves to
be merely a drain upon resources
w thout bringing returns in the way
of added strength and efficiency to
the* movement ahould be dropped
forthwith. It rather looka as though
this paper mania was becoming altogether too pronounced. As a matter of economy a little drastic
treatment served out to some of
thorn afflicted with'it might result
in benefit to the movement.
is termed the State. With these powers
of eovemment in their hands they
hold thc workers securely in leash and
wring the juice from their bones under
thc wage nrocess. Without these powers at their command they could not enforce their decrees and reap their harvest. They must continue in control
of the powers of government or thc jig
is up with their thievinp game.
The tlaves are numerous enough to
deprive the capitalist class of control of j
these powers once they get sens- enough
Out of the con-
The Socialist it frequently criticised
for referring to the wage system at a
system of slavery. Thit pugnacious
agitator and apottlc of freedom it, however, not in the habit of making statements that are incapable of proof. It
does not always fall upon htm to furnish the proof . It it often the case
that the very system itself affords evidence in abundance to prove hit assertions. It would perhaps be more correct to tay it it always thc ease.
It now transpires that the Employers' Association of the United States it
industriously engaged in listim* it*
slaves. Each one of them it to be compelled to cough up detailed information
as to age, size, weight, habits, peculiarities, pedigree, previous behavior in servitude snd tuch other ttuff at would
enable a prosoective purchaser to avoid
being deceived as to the contents of the
package he wat buying and the probable contequences resulting from itt
A duplicate of thete littt it to be kept
in every office of thc association
throughout the country, if a package
proves to be of inferior quality, or goes
bad bv yawping for more stuffing
(wages) the word it to iro forth that
such     package     \t    to be henceforth
Every person with eyes to see and
cars to hear knows full well that there
is a conflict oi interest between employers and employees, that, like
Bauqno's ghost, will not down. Just
why this is so perhaps the vast majority
do not know, but the conflict is then-
ready to break out into violent conflagration, nerhans without a moment's
warning. In the struggles that arise
lietween employers and employ*****, no
intelligent action can be taken by either
side without an understanding of the
reason of the conflict and thc stake at
issue. That thc employing cists possess this understandir and act accordingly is clearly demonstrated by the
fact that victory has so far perched upon their banners in all of their struggles with the opposing class. The
workers have inevitably met with defeat. As they outnumber the employers many to one they couid not fail of
victory did they but understand the
reason for the conflict. With such
understanding their line of action woald
of necessity bc along such lines as would
bring them victorious from the struggle
by sheer force of numbers.
The conflict of interest between the
employers of labor and their employees springs from one simple fact, so
simple that the thickest headed working man on tbe footstool can readily
understand it if he has the mental
gumption of a clam.
Labor produces all wealth thst is
measured in terms of exchange. All
the food, clothing, shelter and the multitude of other things that are bought,
sold and used by human kind. Even
the exchange value of as yet untouched resources of the earth iff brought
into being by labor alone. Without,
available labor to transform these resources into usable things they would
remain absolutely devoid of exchange
Although labor produces all wealth
measured in terms of exchange, it absolutely controls none of it. The cm-
ploying class controls it all. By virtue
of its being an employing class it becomes the actual owner of the entire
product of labor. Hc who mnst go to
another for employment must surren
der to him the product of hit labor.
The cmiiloytirs of labor, the capital
ists, are in a position where the workers are compelled to come to them for
employment. This places them (thc
capitalists) in full possession of all the
wealth produced bv thc workers.
The interest of the capitalists it to
perpetuate thit, to them, happy arrangement Under no circumstances can it
be to the interest of the workers to perpetuate it. Their interett lies in tbe
opposite direction. No wonder there is
an "irrepressible conflict" between capitalists and wolksr.,
Strippci. of sll slum and pretense |hp
wsge system it s tlave tyttcm. Tne
relation between employer and employs*,
capitalist and worker, is the relation between master and tlave. The wage
worker it forced to do only that which
wat done by the chattel tlave and feudal **rf. He is compelled to surrender
to a matter clats his power to produce
wealth.   That it all,
The wage tlave get* hi* keep, The
chattel tlave and feudal serf got that
Some wage tlaves get a few crumbs
extra. Some chattel slaves and feudal
serfs were likewise favored.
Occasionally the wage slave attaint
his freedom. This it commonly termed toting hit job. Hit freedom is, however, so much lets filling to hia stomach
and therefore less comforting to hi*
soul, that he tpcedily seeks out another
matter who wilf ohjlanthropically allow
him to once more assume the voke of
tlavery and be happy.
Slavery it robbery. The master rob*
the .enslaved of the fruitt of hit labor.
The. jnterestt of robbers and robbed are
always in conflict. That it why employer* and tmpkfysef, capitalitt* and
worker*, are alwsyt st may,
It if to the interett of matter* to
hold their slaves in lubjcction and get
the largest possible amount of juice
out of their bones. In thi* retnect the
capitalist clast in no way differ* from
it* illustrious predecessor*—the feudal
nobility snd the chattel alave owners.
It is to the interest of the tlave to
etcspe  from his bondage.      A large
in their heads to do so.   v..... <*, *...>........ ,
flict of interest between themselves and;*1"* '"/he competitive
, ,        ^ ....        x1"*  *•* •**.■****»>*»,»
the master class sooner or later will
come a clash of arms alongside of
which previous events will sink into in*
was in the present "civiliration."     He
went down to the state capital    on    a
railroad  ticket purchased by the mileage funds of the common wealth, hav
ing returned the railroad past to   the
corporation which looked upon him ail it*. -ai-jjt
one more of its    agents.      But    this'
man really was honest.   The people had
for once made a mistake and elected a
Republican  candidate,   who  determined
to, and who did try, to represent    the
great majority class.    Bills robbing thc
people of their rights and graft   con
tracts were opposed and denounced, and
big bribes were turned away.   The hon
est man needed the money, for he had a
I mortgage on his home, and ihe had been
up against the secret
h« now nWf himieli battling *or ■•,
Gradually those much    vaunted    ' *"
ceott fade in his memory a* y,r ,f    "
to ute the art* of cunning anJ d*™*
tion, and it it only when he inadv«w
ly   meett  some  pious   rogue  who hM
grown  rich  by  piracy  that   „, -^
from him  the value of sanct„nonio
precept quoting at a robe of rc-.**,-.^
ililv to cover a character which other,
j wise would be hideout and repuUiv, i(
railroad rebate
  [pr oi business. But hc determined to guard the
interests oi the people who had re
warded him wilh their votes, and the
opportunity lo get rich quirk didn't appeal to him.   He had faith in lhe adage
fhe plunder of the working <;'*".»ti,hs, honw,y WM bound    to    be    re-
the hands of capital is becoming intolerable. It is becoming intensified
each day. Under the terrible economic
pressure of capitalist   exploitation    the
--- **- .  m a      _      _
warded.    His constituent*, he wat ture,
would remember him if he were faith*
ful.    So faithful he wat.
Then primary .ay    came along, and
fitful flames of rebellion that have for a       '     as***** .     ,
century flashed along the social horiaon  the *»"" th*« *J* ,out ** «he __*
are being tanned into thc fierce fires olf ft h"£ ***** ld,dnl + *« ****?"**
revolution  destined   to   incinerate  bothI**   ,»"* *• h°nf< »» *_*_ *_*'
.   , _■_._•      . ;n i be had been handed a lemon by the Re
master and slave.   I-rom their ashes will .....
I publican gang,    so he had his    name
arise Labor triumphant; free.
The "irrepressible conflict" will   not
placed on the haiku by   petition,
had so much faith in the people
As an tKknowledgement of the i„.
hereitt dithonesty of commercial deal'
ing*. traflking and trading which nuk.
up the turn total of the activitiet oi tb,
business world wc quote ihe lotlowing
naive confestion which it an excerpt
from a letter written by a young |,u,,.
net* man in thc east to a friend
Winnipeg: I
"My prospects here are very r-.,<i -,,,<■
I don't want to jeopardise thru, by devoting mv time to other interest*. 1
have it pretty easy here; no hurry |(J
work in the morning. 1 uu ,|„. -^
nett and I feel that 1 can make a -ue-
ccs* of H. There it, of court*, a vm
deal to learn, and in a measure tman
depends on a peraon't abtli** ,,, -^t
other* believe what you kn.>w (., \K 4
damn lie."
down,   lt must be {ought out.   it is the ■: ***—m ^^    . , ,
, . '    . .      1    .u h« was confident of re-electtoit and he
slaves against the matters for the con- *Ljz   .       .... .
.... ...       !_?:_      * spent £300   in    distributing    literature
trol of  industry  and  the  produett  of    tr*    m ..      7     j
, . -_       _.„T*i ,. _ ,|,J and hiring halls for hit independent re-
labor,    lhe control of the State is the V . *~   .
, *_'__..•        n      . n_ . .     font campaign.    He cetramly did    let
key to the tituat-on.   By intelligent ar-' *~*        ...
.... .. ,„_  the voters know that his opi-onent wst
tion the slaves can possess themseivcs! . "     .,.„._
1 __7_      -1     «--«--^- 1 „i^, ,u. _,-   a grafter who had voted for ali the m-
oi the key and unlock to Labor the gate-,    ■
,    ,.     , famous measure* when he wat an alder-
way to freedom. „ '    ,       . ,   .
/■ .-. ....      j       -u     j^fi-.. 1- :„ • man.    But when the votes were coumed
Until that 11 done the conflict is in-   . '       "7
1    •   •   —    __•. !« wa» •ou'»<- *hat the grafter candidal*
deed irreprettiblc j ^ ^ ^^ fey   ■£  [Jg Jg
rality.    Th* honest man, after hi* defeat at the polls, found that hi* credit
wat gone and he wa* forced into bank
^^^^^^_^_^_^_^^^^^^^^^^ruptcy.      lhe grafter  fatted    on more
In another column will be found an j grafl and was re-elected and re-elected
article entitled "The State and Social- • The people were certainly good to him,
ism."    It is part of a lecture delivered ifor wh«* he died his estate wat found
■r*- •        .„,. ._    - »_*_ r_ *n , lo  be  worth  millions.       Hc   rewarded
in Paris in 1905 by Gabriel Deville.   a 1 . .    , ., __ _
' them by leaving $1,000 to the Salvation
French comrade.    Translated into Eng- Army; $1,000 to foreign missions   and
lish by Robert Rives La Mont and pub- $1,000 to a Home for the Worthy Poor,
lished in pamphlet form by the Interna- The balance he left to hit only ton, *ha
tional    Publishing    Company   of New —-—•
York, it affords a most valuable addition to the Socialist literature of the
timet, and thould be carefully read by
every student and investigator.
It it unfortunate for the working class
that so many of its members are sorely,
afflicted wilh mental laziness The labor! ci»,is« »re *** reformer*
had  been educated along  the
lines of modern industry.
Moral—The people don't seem to be
interested in honest men or reform
movement*. Perhaps they will trust
none but themselves after they have
been handcJ a few more lemon*..     So*
They *re
The publishers of the Wetter** Clariot
have order* upon thc Nttional Sewi^
Machine Company (tec sd-rmiteaieat
in another column) for three $*.-,..,
tewing machines which *rr takni on id*
routing account These orders «il|
Im disposed of at an extremely i^ton*
able figure. Th* machinci »i|! \a
•hipped direct to purc.is*.-. from tin
company's factory To any our living
in the United State* an c*op<jnunity u
Ihu* afforded to obtain an up 1- dale
$65ii0 sewing machine at riajonthk
cost. To a Canadian purc!ia*er. owing lo that wis* paternal blasting ka **i
at the tariff, the duty would be added
to the cost.
Any one wishing to obtain a maclune
will be furnished full ptrticniar*. by »d-
drrmng thc publishers,
Bo. tru,
Vancouver, B C
problem cannot U solvitf wiihout much! rcyoliition-sts.-Appral to Reasoa
thought and  study  in  preparatien  forj —•— ••*-
the task.    Short-arm jolts at the effects I
The unsophisticated youth whs had*
of the present system may be very well y^ ^^ ^ ( ^ ^.^ ^ ^
in their way, but they will not place; rf ^ ^ fa ^ ^ ^ ^.^
it hors du combat. i    near view o| ,he lrkkery( (kctrti m1.
By thorough study and persistent ap-j g^ an(J mtUlgm of the ^j.
plsut,on only can a1 clear understand * y^  ^^^  -,  wbich  ^
,ngofm..p*^Umbcacqu,rcd. Wl*- L^, ^ian* lake a part, oftime. m
001 this it cannot be solve* . rf |o
The more complete lhe knowledge of £ W^
capitalitt production and all of the h>L^ ^ '   JJ ^
ttitutions that spring from it, th* more    . .   _ . "i.
.     ..      .      j    tt 1-     ...     *ij._     .   i°* home are of no service whatever at
intelligent end effective *e effortt   to      j<Je >n(J ^
remove it    rom  .he pathway *t go*, £
great and clear the way for a olvlllta- j	
tion more in contonance wilh the com- j B,^"^^""^""**n|"era__^__e*inB*assi
fort and well bcine of human kind        | O+644<OrQ0O4>
It is to be hoped that every working- j
msn into whose hands thit paper may!
fall will read the article in quettion and,
astimilate iu purport and logic. If they \
do it will bring to them new ideas and ■
new conceptions *of that institution, thr!
State, upon which, above all others, thc 1
present ruling class depends (or thci
maintenance of its economic dominion'
ov*r thc working class.
Thit artUI* will be followed by other j
teleetion* from the tam* source. They j
will afford solid mental food for those ■
Don't be a
Chump. Get on
(||e Yqien List
at once.   Use
yoqr Franchise
while you have it
SocUUst Party of Canada
Ws, tbs Rocislirt Party ef Canada, ia eeaventiea a***mblsd. airst
ear ellaflaace ta sad support of the principle* aad program of tbs
rsvolutioaary working til***
who read, think and digest.
Labor produce* all wealth, aad hi Ue prndecM** it should b*lon|. Z
1 prt***t ecoaomic *ysl?a it fe***d upon oapitaMst o»n.-r*ini- of w
meaa* ot prodectie*. eee**qu**tly aft th* prpdw** «t u,"'r '* Z
g to the capitalitt claw.   The raniUlist ia therefor* matter. Hi- ttt
ahuaned by every mswber p( the a*-'number of chattel (laves   and feudal
Friday'i World contains a news item
to the effect that Earl Grey, Canada's
Governor General, has invested in a
thousand acres of fruit land in the
Okanagan district. Recently this more
or lest illustrious gentleman mad* the
declaration that Canada's great need
was cheap labor. In the light of the
World'* announcement one can readily
perceive the reason for the royal
patriot's utterance. Identifying his sordid individual material interest with that
of the country at large he no doubt had
vision* of large chunks of juicy profit
which the operation of his ranch by
/•heap labor of any color or country
might bring hjtn. What it Canada in
the eyes of thit regal representative?
Presumably a number of well-fed nevcr-
work paratites, owner* of the means of
production to which the bulk of the na-
fjo**. have to get access to in order to
live and who must live cheap or else no
accett. The effect on the lives of the
Canadian working clatt of imported
cheap labor apparently hat no place In
hi* thoughts. However, on reflection,
why thouiu he or hi* class care? The
majority of the workers themselves apparently do not mind it, so up with the
Union Jack, Earl Grey and hit fruit
j ranch operated by cheap labor.
th» ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
long to the capitalist dais. The capitalist |s
worker a alave.
Bo long as the capitalist class remain* ta a********* et the »■».•
of government all th* power* of th* state will be toad ta protc t and
defend tlieir property rights n th* mesa* cf wealth preduotion »n.i
their control of the product af labor.
The capitaliat tyttem gits* te tbe capitalist aa ever-swelii'.**
stream of profits, and te tbs worker a* over-iaeieasisg m«**ur« ■•*
winery _„d degradation.
Th* interest of tb* workiag claw lie* ia tb* direction of ««-•"'"
itself free from capitalist Mploitatioe by the abolition of the «»!*<-
tystem, under which is cloaked th* robbery of the worklnu <■!»•" »'
th* point of productloa. ToaeoompUsb thl* B*c***itate* the trainformation of capitalist property is tbe meenu of wealth prudurtion
into collectirs or working-clans property. ,  ,      .
The irreprwaibl* conflict of interest between ths capitalist -.mi
th* worker it rapidly culminating tn a rtruggl* for po*****ion of tnr-
pow*r of forernmeat-th* capitalist te hoM, tbe worker to secure 11
by political action.   This is th* olaaa struggle.
Therefore, we call upon all worker* to organ its under tbe I"'"""
of the Socialist Party of Cansds with tbe obi* t of conquering
publie powers for the purpose   of   setting   up   aad   mforcing
•conomio program of tbe working clan*, a* follow* 1 j       rnn
l.Th* transformation, as rapidly a* possible, of capital!*!: prep
«rty in the mean* of wealth production (natural rewurce*. factor***
mill*, railroads, ate.) Into fhe  collective   property of  th*
of in-
dt-tyTTuf "Li****** ^W"^ ^ w "wne"t
». The e»Ublishment, as *p*«Mly as posslW*. of production for w»
,tJSd *J Paction for profit . .„,
Jf-K WWlft Party, when in oflee, tk.ll alway. nd •"■^"l
until th* present »-rtam *, abolished, make the *n*w*r to this qure
«on itt guiding rub of conduct, Will thb bfialsUon ■d«nce tn*
intor.it. ef tb* working clas. and aid the workw* in tbsir rl*
•touggl. sgainrt oapltaltamr If it nil) tbe ioeinlirt Pertj* to fcr lilt it rill not, tbs Socialist Party to abeolutely oppowd to it.
In accordance witb thl* principle the ioelallrt P»rt; P'<"'e'
ltMlf to conduct all public affair* placed in It* hand* in »"'h *
manner a* to promote tl» interests ef the working ola** slon"
»004|#OIMlO»«*«*** lunmPAt'i r-dit.Atty id. iM -
Thee* columns hav* been placed at
the disposal of tne Party. Secretarte*
0f Local* ar* requ«at*d to take advantage of Ihem In, at Intervals, reporting conditions tn thair respective
localities. Communications under thl.,
head should he addressee "a the Dominion or Provincial Secrm. . iau Local secrotarl** ar* further requested to
I-i.jK to the*e column* for announcement* from the Kaevutlve Committees.
Ity mi* means th* bualncas ot the
I'arty will b* facilitated and the Dominion and Provincial aecretarlc*
relieved of a little of the tncreaslnf
burden of correspondence.
O" -
Membership cards, sach  01
Application blanks   (with platform) per 100 ag
The committee being a stockholder  in    the    co-operative    publishing
houte of Chaa. Kerr tk Co.. can procure literature for the local* at coat.
J. G. MORGAN. Secy
owing to tho i-U-cti.in the tomi-
nnnual audit of tho provincial execu-
tlve committee's books haa been un-
,m...i.lnlily didny.il. Tho audit hav-
iht,- Ui-n now mini.- shows the following roc«l|it* K«|icndlture* ..ti.l ' m,.n,
l-alaiseea, the items huving been pui*-
liahed   In  the  W.r-irt.-rn  Clarion  after
From a Lecture Delivered by aabrlel
Devlllc-, in Paris, April 2«, 1805,
Translated  by  Robert Rives  Ijh
What do thc Socialists think about
the Btatc? How do they regard It
theoretically in tho present and for
tho future? What aro the practical
confluences which result from their
views? Such are the Iquestiona which
I purpose to answer here and now,
and this answer will lie the one
which a|<'-e«rs to me to be in thc
most |M.rfoct harmony with the facts,
for conformity to the facta is, and
ever mutt lie, the guiding principle
ol modern scientific socialism, of our
What Is the Stale?
Here I could easily make a show
of learning by quoting a number of
definitions drawn from philosophers
and writers moro or less famous ;
but such an enumeration would occupy space and time without being
of any real advantage to ua; for, in
most ciutes, the word "State" ia
id.-iitif5.il with other words such ae
"society," "nation," or "govern-
and so these confused definitions would not    be helpful to my
Mi< h n-*-«t ing.
c.-ii.-ml  Fund,   .lune  I.Mb to Decern
Iter .'ttst.  HifW.
lU-celpta  $410.35
i \|*.*mliiun*»   	
hearers or readers as thc author* of
the definition*   did    not themselves
- : comprehend    the   essential    distinct-
Fa   i
liulane-e $ 84,40
OlUi W./.tWJ  PUND.
Ilecetpfd  ttttM
i:t|***ndltun*s     141.55
•J55 05   ttona.     Do not  fancy tbat  thi* criticism i*   made    by    the Socialists
f 53.50
r.xj-cit*r*    *-••
Total  balance  on  bsnd    »210.«5
read   and
were ad-
!<u*.in<-*w  m*ettng  Ol  Monday,  Feb
II.     Pettipiece   in   the   chair.     Min
utet   of   pr»'*.S>ma   m't'tinu
..liproved.     The   following
milted to meml-erslilp-
RobeiC N«*hUt  Hogg
Vndle Mr Fee
D. M. ODwyer
ll*©.  Peterson
SteVS Milnt.mh
.Irk.  Mcintosh
Aufrtistur.  Hewitt
(;<h>. Nickels
Robert Pratt
( ..inrades     l>l«ney   and
Tan*ferred from    lvocnls
l»ll<*  and  Wlnnii*-'-'
I'hp lotf.r-ning   accounts
l.*r.il   |*ald:
Ito* Ntam|Mi 	
alone. You will find this same confusion set forth in the work of one
of our advorseries, in La Politique
of M. Charles Benoist, who is the
last, so far as I know, who has
treated these questions among us.
And so, partly KtauM- he is the
most recent writer, and has thus
Ih*.iii shlc to profit hy the labors of
ull tbe others, but more particularly because ho has succeeded In
avoiding confusion of a nature to
til-scum the question at issue, from
among all the definition* that liour-
■*.*..m writers havo given ot the
State, I select for the purpose of
my  discussion  that   of  Charles  lien-
"The State," he maintains, "is
the word |>erBonlfication of the nation endowed with jierpctuity and
Incarnated In institution, clothed
with the power and right of constraint. It mny tic recognl-scd by
these two Blgns. it makes laws and
It levies tases."
The Slate, I will maintain in my
turn, ia the public power of coercion, created and maintained in human societies by their division into
clafUH-s, and wht.h, having power at
lis disposal, makes laws and levies
Tho only real difference lietween
the**** two definitions—but it ia a difference of tho first ImiKirtuncc—con-
hiata In the fart thot in tho latter—
i.e., for SiK-inliHts—the existence of
tho State in n society is bound up
With the existence of classes in that
Kociety Hence, this conclusion: before classes came into lieing thero
was no State; when classes shall
CMS* to exist then- will be no State.
While in the former—i.e., for bour-
n ! g,.,,is  theorists—the State exist*  in-
TO STUDENTS OF SOCIALISM.! Sepe-deal ly of every other social In*
 ; stltiition    snd.    in     particular,    of
'elaiwrs. According to M. Charles
It 1* congenital in human
w.-ro   or-
 »5 00
Ilenl  Sullivan Hall
Total   »U>.«>
r<>mrades Stebbings and ljoheney
elected on pruitagunda committee.
Msftle committee roporlod that
»■ wing machine hnd been won by No.
colleetlon Sunday,  Feb.   12    tfs.no
Hue*  13.00
Total   tai.HO
Adj..ui-n ment.
Secret nry
In order to afford    comrade*    an
pneet      quoted.      Two-cent   tump*
will be accepted for aum* not exceeding as centt:
lha Origin of tb* Family. (F.
Kngels) — •    tO
The    Social    -Revolution (Karl
Kautsky)  tt
The World's Revolutions (Bra*
**t Untenoann) ... *»
Tho Socialists,   who   they ar*
and whnt    they    *tand for,
(John Spargo)  I  B0
The Evolution of Man (Boleche)    .00
Modern    Boclellam    (Chas. H.
Vail)  35
Olas*    Strugtrles    In    America
_. (A. U. Simons)  W
The  Communist    Manifeito,
Karl  Marx    io cent*
Sodalitm, Utopian and Scientific, Mnrx & En«*el*.*.iocenta
Wage.   Labor   and   Capital,
ttrl Marx 8«ntt
The Minion of tbe Working CUtt
Chaa. Vail   .„.„„.„.....„      -Ot
>< ctaHt_, gad Farmer*, A. M.
Simona S «t..»
Other worka procured to order.
Owing to remote prospects of a clash
lietween the Britith House of Lonli snd
Houte of Common*, tonic of thr daily
reptile* announce in big head lines thai
'^evolution jt Pending." A scrap be-
•«»cn thete two aggregations of hour-
KcoU baggage nnd humbug would I*
nliout at much like a revolution as
would two old washerwomen making
'»«» at each other over a backyard
•Pnr«. If the Britith workmen had
"innards" enough to throw both lots
"'to the tewcr of oblivion it would at
•cart be a apectacic worth looking al.
,,f -..Mii-lv,  contain an
Stut.' " and  that thc State is a
"moral  personaUty   etotlowdd' with
pnrpetulty." ,   .
Paronthpticnl'.y. iw .<*mark here
again that DO-lon for |N'r|-etully so
mnrked In the ruling. |.ro|H-rty-hobl-
lng-.lass snd In the ecoiuiinists,
their irfflcial defenders According
to them, indeed, the situation from
which the capitalist profits is simply
the realisation, the Bohodhnent of
(Otornal verities, and eternal capital
must go on eternally breeding more
lanital The cnultallatn in their
Xuablo thirst for gate, W
t„ their Ood with all usel and ein*
SriSr-ATlt was to the begirt.
ie now,  and    ever sh. I    g.  worm
SPteft-s rag?
And l . tl ov and their theorists have
ea«rW ami emphatically ,.ro..o..n e.l
ShSnMl-ea in favor of its ,*e.pot.« ity
SSTh-  intervention^ only   ****
its powers are not onrted in their
'"which of the tWO-the aocliillBt
the. rv of he State or the bourgeois
heOrJ-corresponds the more chsady
to the reality?   I bollova that I can
prove-at »" pvo"t•, \ um *oi"*
rv to pr»ve-thnt It i* our*
ha 'lefinition that I bave riv
State,   It     follows   in
on  of
tho   first
place"that the State ha* not always
eXted that there have been socle-
i," without .. Btato, bu the ab*
, I a State did not prevent
these societies from having an or-
Malwtlon. My thesis la tfint a sot
clal organisation Is possible without
a State, and that the Stnto appear*
and BUbBists only in Bocietlo* divided into classes.
Some societies without States
have continued to exist down to our
own times, among the Indians of
North America. And it was by
•ttidying the social regime of these
Indians,  and    of  the  Iroquois  espe-
to enable  us nt ittHt to cl_aHu »„
8-3-j}. ..HinitivrsSa u„f
diSL  f':^y     "'    »»»ood*ind«d
havfaWW       m tt "WWWn ancestor,
Stanoard" WetSnTry^ °f Cre9t"
i"ug.r "rawn from "■•« *^y ot
lish.'i?1*.*'1*  theL orKa"kation e«tab-
most highly ?    Its EnUISwS
the gens  just  as  ,t  was  among al"
twheeh"arha/'tt"« *ho*o moToTme
we have been able to aacertain At
this point it sumceT^Y^ l
"*t the gen. ST^ SttfiC
taping of Individuals, _S2?^
real   „r     assumed     common   oriirin
Jj^er marrying member, of thes_me
wer!' Mi mcmi*n of th« Indian gem
brnh ,a"" w*ua*' an<1 acted «,
brothers towania one another. I_
tinie of peace they elecu*d a sachem
whose election they could ^waT*
annul ttt their pleasure, aud whose
WhOrtty, destitute of any LSS
coercion, was sirnply moral. A„ tQ
the chief's  chosen     in case  of  wax.
S2 We,re Char,fcd on'y with the con-
duct of expeditions and their ap-
pomtments, like those of the sachem*., were revocable. Sovereignty belonged to the assembly of adulu
men nnd  women. ««uiis.
In the tribe, a coalition of a certain number of gentes. and tn the
federation of tril*s which was the
most highly developed social form
of the Indians, the sovereign power
was exercised by a coalition of
sachems forming either the tribal
council, or the federal council and
their deliberations took place in the
presence of the members of the tribe
or of thc federation, who had a
right to participate in the discus-
Mon. But the sachems composing
th,*se councils could at any moment
he recalled by their respective gentes.
Moreover, in the tribal councils ail
the sachems, and in the federal
council, where the vote was by
tribes, all the tribes had to agree
to render a decision valid.
Therefore, if we find here a social
organisation, we find nothing corresponding to the State, not only
as I have defined it, but even as
our adversaries define it. For we do
not find here the slightest trace of
thnt which constitutes the SUte according to M. Charles Benoist—no
authority "clothed with force and
the rlirht of constraint," and the
law, the guiding rule of a certain
collectivity, is merely the effective
expression of the will of that collectivity, and there are no taxes.
To prove the imth of my thesis—
the existence of societies without
States—I have referred you to specific facta. To support his—the existence of the State from the origin
of societies— M. Charles Benoist contents himself with affirming that
"the first military chief was tbe
first State." Now, if it is true that
the executive power has most frequently sprung from the institution
of a supreme military command, it
is false that the military chic' has
always had any special power whatsoever  apart   from  the  direction  of
possible to study the gens has been
at a certain stage of development,
the social unit.
Notably the gens existed in Greece
and at Home, and, back of the
Oreek gens and the Roman gens,
such as tbey are known to us,
glimpses may lie caught, though thev
disappeared long before, of the characteristic features of the Indian
gens. Thus, in the Homeric era
where, however, the gen was already
modified and where the elements of
a new organization were making
their appearance, we find still subsisting the sovereignty of the popular assembly and the non-existence
of a public (lower distinct from the
assemblage of thc adult nu les and
caj-abf- ot being turned agttfnst
them. If. on the other hand, we see
there the dawn of the establishment
of noble families and the appearance
in thc germ of the principle of heredity in the selection of the military
chief, it is obvious, nevertheless,
that the chief, the baaileus, has only
military, religious and judicial attributes. A political or governmental power, analogous to that which
essentially constitutes tho State
docs not yet exist.
How did the transformation take
place** How wns the Sjtate born ?
Th.. Distinctive work of the social
organization based on tbe gens is
th** solidarity of the interests of all
ita members. Between them there
arc no antagonistic situations, and
therefore no desire for the repression
of some and no power of coercion
for the benefit of others. The offspring of social simplicity, thia organization could not adapt itaelf to
more complex conditions of life. At
the best era of the gens, production
was very limited, and the meana of
existence depended chiefly on the
clemency or rigor of the climate.
But what we call thc New World
(America.) was, before the European
conquest, very nearly without any
animal* suited for domestication, the
Old World was abundantly supplied
with them, and it seems that thia
is what enabled it to surpass so pro-
tiig-iously and so -comparatively
quickly the inferior degree of culture
at which the Indians of America
stopped short.
The domestication of animals, their
breeding, the formation of large
herds, and later on new discoveries
like those of iron and Its utilization
in tilling the ground, together with
th..- dev«Iii[imcnt of various handicrafts, systematized and increased
production, compared to its former
condition to such an extent that
men were able to produce in excess
of their needs. Slavery became possible as soon as a greater number of
laborers were required by the social
conditions realized, and thereafter
thoy made slavea of the prisoners
of war whom the Indians either
killed or adopted into the gens.
While there was thus created the
division between free men and
slaves, the free men themselves were
divided into rich and poor.
Instead ot remaining the common
property of the tribe or of the gens
the herds soon became the individual property of the beads of families. This property in flocks and
herds had the peculiarity of increasing ia the hands of its holders. The
importance of private property and
of the principal proprietors increased, and the principle or mode of
private appropriation was at last extended so as to include lund. The
inequality of wealth, which was the
consequence of theso facts, created
the germ of an aristocracy.
Wealth being from that time the object to strive for, war upon neighboring peoples solely with a view to
pillage and booty, became a permanent fact. The authority of the
military chiefs, and especially of tbe
supreme chief, increased. The choice
of their successors from among their
next of kin—made freely at first by
The Socialitts of Lo* Angeles, California, at a meeting on February 3rd
passed a ringing set of "resolutions
against any war between the United
States and Japan, and also extending
/fraternal greetings and expressions of
international working class solidarity to
the Japanese workingmen. There was
an audience of over 700 at the meeting.
 o    .	
Japanese Socialists at Berkeley, California, recently cauied ouite a commotion among bourgeois bats and owls because they declared their purpose to
eventually dispense with Presidents,
Mikados and Kings, and were not at all
particular as to the means used. In
view of the fact that bourgeois rulers
are not over scruoulous as to the means,
used to mantain their power it seems
strange they should throw a fit because
their victims should manifest a similar
indifference as to the means used to
throw them overboard.
itt. Directory
_B_TEv*ry *_,«„ mt the Socialiat
Party of Caaada ahould run a card
under thl* head. $1.00 par month.
Secretaries pleas* not*.
British Colombia Provincial Executive
Committee, Socialist Party of Canada. Meet* every alternate Toes*
day. D. G. McKenzie, SecreUry,
Box 836, Vancouver, B. C.
——-**-    —.     .- -.--    —.-    — mual   u»   *-..i—iimuc   uwiy   ax.   uia*.   ujr
the operations  of  war.    In  partku- preference—became a regular custom
lur.   it   is  false     that  he   wa*    "the ^.j  finally the accepted rule.   There
guardian   of  order     in  collectivities was thu8 formed „ category of fam-
Iiiki'iI   nn   1 ho   i*..li*i .., . ■ . ..   .   .T _ MM   ■-    .^   .
based on tho gens.
Order in these communities—as has
been proved in the case of the American Indian—was admirably maintained spontaneously without any
system or apparatus of coercion,
notwithstanding the number of common affairs to lie adjusted, because
their institutions did not give rise
to any antagonism between categories of individuals, for all were free
nnd sqnal. And we know what fine
mon these ludians were, how noble
their moral iimilitkf*—save where
their enemies wero jgpnecrned—-their
energy  and  their dignity.
I must hero forestall an interpretation, which tho adversaries of Socialism often give* to our arguments, und point out that the eulogy in certain respects of primitive
societies does not nt nil imply a
purpose to revert to tho ancient ao-
cial forms. Ijet these gi'ntlemcn, ao
hostile to Socialism and so proud
of thoir civilisation, calm themselves. We do not dream of leading
them back lo that which they call
the state of Nature. It would, Indeed, lie too great a change for
most of them to have to substitute
the uprightness and horror of falsehood of the Indian for their diahon-
est polemical methods.
If I have spoken at such length it
is liecausc it has been possible In
our day to study among them social
foirma which have disappeared centuries since, and in that way
to demonstrate the existence of
organized societies without a State.
Now just as the phases of evolution
—infancy, youth, mature age, old age
—with their special characteristics,
follow each other in much the same
way in all men whose development
is not arrested by special circumstances, in the same way tbe various human societies—from the point
ot view of tho family, property, re-
HHon and polltlcs-pasa through analogous phases, and, like individuals
make moro or less progress along
tho path of evolution common to
thorn all. And, while, as Marx
Raid "The country that is more developed Industrially only shows, to
the less doveloped. tho mngic of Ita
own future," In their turn the more
backward countries present to tne
others tho image of their own past.
As a mattar of fact, in all peoph-s
whose early institutions It has been
iliea. already powerful through their
weelth, to whom ln-longed the more
important function*. Then, there
were on the one side a minority enjoying hereditary privileges, and on
tho olher side the non-privileged and
the slaves. There you have a society divided into antagonistic
classes—a servitude, a subordination
existing which make a power of domination within the society indisi>en-
sible, while subjection and domination were unknown and unnecesaary
in the social organization of the
For the security of a social order
involving the division of the population into classes, a public power calculated to compel the respect of the
non-privileged is necessary. "Arm a
man." Stendahl said ironically, "and
then continue to oppress him, and
you will see that he will bc perverse
enough, it ho can, to turn hi* arm*
against you." The privileged at
once suspect his latent perversity.
And so ns soon as a population is
split up into classes, the armed force
no longer corresponds to the whole
of the male population able to wield
arms, and tho constituted force can
bo opposed to the rest of the population. Besides tho armed force, the
public powor, necessary for every society, based on the separation of
men into classes, includes various
means ot coercion, such as prisons,
etc., that were not to be found in
societies built upon the gens.
To provide for tho support of the
public power resources are needed,
and this accounts for the appear-
nnco of taxes.
We now see how there grew up,
along with the influence—at thc loa*t
prodominant—of tho aristocracy in
tho general administration and puss-
Ing of laws, the repressive and fiscal
Institutions which, a* wo havo seen,
characterire tho State.
Thus tho State whose nonexistence in a society may lie demon-
atrated so long na there are no
classes in that society, makes its appearance in a more or less develoi*ed
form with the existence of classes
and the antagonism they involve.
Tho product of a definite social order, it will Inst aB long as the circumstances that have rendered it
For the
Having bten authorized by
the publihert of the Western
Clarion to receive sobs at the
regular rate—$1.00 per year
and apply one half ol all money
received to tbe Central Cam
paign Fond, you are earnestly
requited to assist in swelling
this fond by sending yoor sobs
direct to om. Cither renewals
or new sobs, to be taken for a
period of not less than one year.
Yours for a generous Campaign Fund which means a
vigorous campaign.
0. 6. McKENZIE.
Prov. Secy
Box 836, Vancouver, B. C.
Notice is hereby given that sixty day. after
date we intend to apply to the Chief Com
missioncr of Lands and Works for special li
cense lo cm and carry away timber on tb.
followinff  deKfibed   lands   in   Rupert  District:
2. Commencing at the N. F.. corner of sec*
tion it marked Imperial Timber and Trading
Company's Northwest corner, thence 80 chain*
South, tbence M0 chains East, thence 60
chains North, tbence bO chains West to point
of  commencement.
S. Commencing at a point one-half mile
East of tbe Northeast corner of section Sn,
marked Southwest corner post, thence North
ISO cbains. thence East 40 chain*, thenc.
South 160 chains, thence West tu chains !«
point ot commencement.
4. Commencing at the same point as No.
S marked Ibe Southeast corner post, thence
North 160 chains, thence West 40 chains
thence South 160 chains, thence Eaat 40 chains
to point of commencement.
5. Commencing at a point about one half
mile West from the Northeast corner of section tt, marked Southwest corner post, tbence
North 160 cbains, thence East 40 chains,
tbence South 160 chains, thence West 40
chains, to point of commencement
6. Commencing at the same point as No.
5, marked Southeast corner post, thence North
160 chains, thence West 40 chains, thence
South 160 chains, tbence East 40 chains to
point of  commencement.
7. Comnwncing at a post near tbe N. E.
corner of Section S», marked the N. W. corner |iost, thence South 80 chains, thence East
80 chains, thence North 80 chains, thence
West 80 chains, to point of commencement.
9. Commencing at a point one half mile
West of the N. W. corner of section 15,
marked Southwest corner post, thence North
100 chain*, thence East 40 chains, thenc*
South 160 chains, thence west 40 chains to
point of commencement.
10. Commencing at the nme point aa No.
9, marked tbe S. E. corner |*>st. thence North
160 chains, thence West 40 chains, thence
South H.0 chains, thence East 40 chains to
point  of caatracnccmcnt.
11. Commencing at the same point as  No.
10, marked Ihe fi. W. corner post, thence
South 160 chains, thence East 40 chains,
thence North 1*0 chains, thence West 40
chains to poipt of commencement.
lt.    Commencing at the same point a*  No.
11, marked the N. E. corner i *st, Ue—M
South 160 chains, thence West 40 chain.,
thence North 160 chains, thence East 40 chains
to point of commencement.
15. Commencing at the Southeast corner of
Sectoln X0, marked the N. E. corner post,
thence Soulb 1*0 chains, thence West 40
chains, thence North 100 cliains, ll.euce East
40 chains to point of commencement.
14. Commencing at the same point as No.
13, and marked the S. E. corner, thence North
160 chains, thence West 40 chains, thence
South 100 chains, thence East 40 chains to
point  of commencement.
16. Commencing a half a mile West of the
S. E. corner of Section 20. marked the N. E.
corner post, thence South 160 chains, thence
West 40 chains, thence North 160 chains,
thence East to chains to point of commence-
1*. Commencing at the same point as No.
IS, marked the S. E. corner post, Ihence North
160 chains, thence West 40 chains, thence
South 160 chains, thence Eaat 40 chains to
point ot commencement,
19. Commencing at the same point as No.
18, marked the N, W, corner post, thence
South 80 chains, thence East 80 chains, thence
North 80 chains, thence West 80 chain* to
point of commencement.
20. Commencing at a po'nt one-half mile
West of the S. W. corner of Section 20,
marked the N. W. corner post, thence South
160 chains.thence East 40 chains, thence North
160 chains, thence West 40 chains to point of
tl. Commencing at the same point as in
No. 20, marked the N. E. corner post, thence
South 160 chains, thence West 40 chains,
thence North 160 chains, thence East 40 chains
to point of commencement.
22. Commencing at the same point as- in
No. 21, marked the S. W. corner post, thence
North 160 chains, thence East 40 chain*,
thence South 160 chains, thence West 40
chains to point of commencement.
2*.    Commencing at the same point as No.
12, marked the S. E. corner post, Ihence North
160 chains, tbence West 40 chains, thence
South 160 chains, thence East 40 chains o
point of commencement.
24. Commencing at a point near thc N. E.
comer of Section 31, marked the N. E. corner post, thence South 80 chain., thence Weil
80 chaina, thence North 80 chains, thence Eaat
W  chains to point of  couuneuceiueut.
IXiniinioo ExecuUre Ootnanlttee, Socialist Party of Canada. Meats
every alternate Tuesday. 3. O.
Morgan, Secretary, 6(1 Barnard
Street, Vancouver, B. C.
IjocsI Vancouver, No. 1, ft. P. of Canada. Business meetings every
Monday evening at he—dqu-rters,
Insleslde Block, Sll Cambie Street,
(room 1, second floor). Education-! meeting;, every Sunday at I
p. nu. lu Sullivan Ball, Cordova
Street. Vndarte Perry, Secretary,
Ben SM. Vancouver. B. C
Local Toronto, S. P. of C Meets ev*
ery Sunday $ p. m. at Davis Hall,
corner Queen and Spadina Avenues, f. Dale, SecreUry, 41
Henry Street, Finnish Branch
meets Sunday nights, tame hall.
Jewish Branch, Sunday nights, at
185 1-2 Queen St. West,
Local Winnipeg, S. P. ot C,	
every Sunday, in Trades Hall, at
2:30 p. m. J. Coxon, Secretary, 226
Princess St., Winnipeg, Man.
Local Nelson, S. P. of C—Meets every Friday evening at 8 p.m. in
Miners' Union Hall, Nelson B. C
A. W. Harrod, Organizer.
ti. Commencing at the N. E. corner of
Section 28, marked the S. E. corner post,
thence West 1*0 chains, thence North 40
chains, tbence East 160 chains, thence South
40 chains to point of commencement.
26. Commencing at a point half a mike
East of tbe S. W. corner of Section 27, T'p.
15, marked tbe S. E. corner post, tbence
North 160 chaina, thence West 40 chains,
ihence South 160 cbaias, tbence East 40 chain*
to point of commencement.
27. Commencing at a post about one
mile S. of tbe S. W. corner of Section
li, T'p. 14, marked the N. W. corner post,
thence S. 80 chaina, thence E. 80 chains,
thence N. 80 cliains, tbence W. 80 chains, to
point of commencement.
28. Commencing at the same point aa No.
27, marked the N. E. corner post, thence S.
80 cbains, tbence W. 80 chains, tbence N. 80
cbains, thence E. 80 chains, to point of commencement.
29. Commencing at a point about two
miles S. of the s. W. corner of Section 20,
marked tbe N. W. corner post, thence S. 160
chains, tbence E. 40 chains, thence N. 160
ihains, thence W. 40 chains, to point of com*
30. Commencing at the same point as
Na 29, marked the N. W. corner post, tbence
S. 100 chaina, thence W. 4<i chains, thence
N. 16') chains, thence E. 40 cbains, to point
of commencement.
31. Commencing at a post near the N. W.
corner of Section 13, marked the X. W. corner poat, tbence South 160 chains, thence
East 40 chains, thence North 16U chains,
tbence West 40 chains, to point of commence-
32. Commencing at the same point as  No.
31, marked tbe N. E. corner post, thence
South 160 chains, thence West 40 chains,
thence North 160 chains, thence East 40
chains, to point of commencement
S3.    Commencing at the same point as No.
32, marked the S. W. corner post, tbence
North 160 chains, thence East 40 chains,
thence South 160 chains, thence West 40
chains, to point of commencement
34. Commencing at the same point as  No.
33, marked the S. E. corner post, thence
North 160 chains, thence West 40 chains,
thence South 160 chains, tbence East 40
chains, to point of commencement
35. Commencing near tbe S. W. corner
of Section 22. marked the S. W. corner post,
thence N. 80 chains, thence E. 80 chains,
thence S. 80 chains, thence W. 80 chains, to
point ol commencement
36. Commencing at the same point as No.
35, marked the S. E. corner post, thence
N. 160 chains, thence W. 40 chains, thence
S. 160 chains, thence E. 40 chains to point
of commencement.
37. Commencing at a point about one mile
S. of the S. W. corner of Section 22. marked
the S. E. corner post, thence W. 80 chains,
thence N. 80 chains, thence E. 80 chaina,
thence S. 80 cbains to -joint of commencement
38. Commencing at the same point a*  No.
37, marked tbe N. W. comer post, thence S.
I*n chains, thence E. 40 chains, thence N.
160 chains, tbence W. 40 chains, to point of
39. Commencing at the same point  a*  Nn.
38, marked the V K. corner post, hen.-: S.
160 chain*. Ihence \V. 4« c uiins. theinc N.
1*0 chains, ihence E. 40 chains to point of
40. Commencing at a point near the S. W.
corner of Section 21, marked the S. E. cor*
ner post, thence N. 80 chains, thence W. 80
chains, thence S. 80 chains, thence E. 80
chains, lo point of commencement
41. Commencing about one mile N. fr.nn
the N. W. corner of Section 17. marked the
S. E. corner post, tbence N. 80 chains, thence
W. 80 chains, thence S. 80 chains, thence E.
80 chains, to point of commencement
42. Commencing at a point about one mile
S. of the S. E. corner of Section 20, marked
the S. E. corner post, thence W. 160 chains,
thence N. 40 chains, thence E. 160 chaina,
thence S. 40 chains, to point of commencement > <
41. Commencing at a point about 2 milea
South of the S. E. corner of Section 1*.
marked the S. W. corner post, tbence North
80 chains, thence East 80 chaina. tbence
South 80 chains, thence West 80 chains, to
point of commencement.
44. Commencing at t.ie same point as No.
43, msrked the N. W. corner post, thence S.
160 chains, thence E. 40 chains, tbence N.
1..0 chains, thence W. 40 chains, to point
of commencement.
45. Commencing at a point about two tnd
a half miles S. of the S. E. corner of Section
24, narked the N. E. corner post, tbence
W. 160 chains, thence S. 40 chains, thcuct-
E. 160 chains, tbence N. 40 chains, to point
of commencement
46. Commencing at a point near the S. W.
corner of Section 22, marked the N. W. cor-
ner post, thence S. 80 chains, thence _. 80
chains, thence N. 80 chaint, thence W. SO
chain*., to point of commencement
47. Commencing at a point near the S. IV.
corner of Section 18, T'p. 13, marked the N.
W. corner pott, thence South ISO chains,
thence East 40 chains, thence North IS*
chains thence West 40 chaina, to point of
48. Commencing at a point near the If. W.
corner of Section 18, marked the S. E. corner pott, tbence North 80 chaina. thence Wed
80 cnains. thence South 80 chains, thence East
80 chains, to point of commencement
Dated  at   Vancouver,   B.   C,   February   13th.
-wumajwu... ■   *
«txjmt*>b*mimtiu u-.■..■..-■-■ ■■■ fOVk
m__ WlOTgUt OLAEIOK, VmOOPVlIt   BBCTlfl-tOOtglgi.
SATUttfiAY, PEllRiJA-tY 1ft. io*,*,
f_*n*tbyJfX. r. mOlrtmcm.tp wl*m a-c**«_*|hiii_m^ ^
The industriui boss***, of this Province are arranging for the importation of "cheap" labor—20,000 Salvationists "saved" from tbe slums of
England—a fair share' of the 10,000
Russian peasant Dominion importation, hired to work on railway construction at $1 per day—if possible
50,000 Japanese—and as many Chinese as will fill tbe requirements of
thoae wbo thrive by robbing labor.
Right now in Vancouver scores of
job-hunters are scouring the town
from end to end in search of a master, fairly begging for someone to
accept tbem as * alave, so that they
may at least satisfy the cravings of
an empty stomach.
Why. this town is alive with "Employment Agency" sharks who escape job-hunting themselves by relieving unfortunate devils of their
last "one dollar" for a job at railway construction camps here, there
and elsewhere throughout the prov-
of  South
Soon after the victims repeat the
old, old story: "Misrepresentation ;
no dry spot to lay blankets in ;
Chinese coolie cook—grub unut for
a West End dog kennel; over-bearing
slave-driver; loss of time at slaves'
expense; etc., etc."
Result at end of three day* or {
thirty-three days—in debt to the |
"company van."
"Company vans," by the way are
strictly prohibited by The Kelly
Truck Act in this province.
But of course the Socialist worker
understands how these shams work
out, ao long as "company van" representatives write and enforce the
The gold  mine     owners
Africa wanted more profit.
The Boer government didn t object
to the process ol labor skiiining
adopted by "foi-eigu capital," but
insisted upon a careful division ot
the spoils.
The "foreign" pirates refused to
Those being robbed in South Afriia
'.rod-eded to make what the Britisher terms a "military displuy,"—
•showed fight.
Thousands of those being robtx-d
in England by the same band of
thieves were called to arms ai.d
shipped forthwith to South Africa
to do battle for "country and king."
The workers of both countries—as
well as a bunch or two of unwor-
thies from the colonies—ultimately
got what was coming to them.
"Foreign capital'*   triumphed.
. Chinese    slave-labor     now   brings
greater profit to the mine owners
And to ahow the surviving iluush
patriots some real appreciation for
services rendered a first consignment of Chinamen are now digging
coal under the very shadow of "our
glorious flag."
Aa a result British coal miners are
now arriving in Vancouver on their
way to Nanaimo and other points,
seeking a job.
The reward for at least a dozen ol
the returned Canadian contingent
was suicide.
So practical; so Christian-like ; so
humane; so home-protecting; so conducive to human happiness—is this
great and glorious rule of "foreign
Its counterpart, in British Columbia   was  further  endorsed  and  con-
The working claaa ia not alone tbe
only useful class in human society,
but the only decent class as well—ii*
we are to Judge of the morality ol
tbe bourgeoisie by "Thaw" exposures of the whole pack of useless
"I prefer Chinese and Japanese to
Hindu labor so (ar as our experience
So said Executive Assistant Marpole of the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. on Monday last to tbe
Vancouver dally press.
It will be remembered by many
workers in British Columbia that
Geo. Mc. L. Brown, of the same
gang of legalized highwaymen is an
adept at drafting railway bill* for
the government.
The C.P.R. and all other labor-
robbing corporations—want and demand cheap labor In thia province.
The wage-slaves of British .Coluni-
,bia have Just been blind enough to
elect a majority    of men who will
write thc  law  aa dictated to  them
by tbe ruling class.
We may, therefore, confidently look
forward to seeing the demand for
cheap labor amply supplied.
And the wage-earner supporter of
tha two capitalist parties will get
what he voted for. *
Oa to, ol 1*1. It 'aw i* *—**»»«»»«*«• "*'<*****■
gently whispered that some hundreds j
oi Chinese and Indians are now
clearing the new northern townaite
of Prince Rupert; every last saw-.
mill, cannery (when in operation)
coal mine (when owned by a worthy
lieutenant-governor) and railway
construction camp (when possible) is
simply teeming with Chinese labor
already—at wages a Canadian cannot live upon and accept the responsibilities of citizenship.
In tbe face of such conditions the
future "prosperity" of British Columbia workingmen seems assured.
If the imported hordes had votes
there might be some show of securing jan economic change—for it's a
cinch the head of the lowest-grade
coolie is no thicker than a fair percentage of the home-made article,
and ia probably just as susceptible
to the spirit of revolt.
The workers of this province will
have to decide one of these days
whether tbey shall move out and
leave the natural resources, a few
capitalists, and a half-million disfranchised European siav.es in possession; or whether they Shall seize
tbe reins of government and, by
legal enactment, change the form of
ownership in tbe means of production
to meet the needs and requirements
of those who do the work.
If tbe powers of the State were
under tbe hand of the working class
there would be plenty and to spare
in British Columbia for a population
equal to that ot the whole Dominion of Canada. This for tbe reason
tbat every worker would receive tbe
full social value of his labor. Production would be carried on for use
rather than profit.
Meantime the Socialist must merely
point out the trend of events and
interpret the relative significance of
capitaliat development to tbe proletarian.
T'.ne and cxpetience, guided by
men conscious ot their true P .sition
in present-day society, will surely
solve the problem confronting labor,
not only in British Columbia but
throughout the uncivilized commercial world.
Kelowna, B.C., Feb. 5, 1907.
Editor Western Clarion:—
Dear Sires,—The vote in Okanagan
ia light, yet we have made splendid
gains considering the amount of
work that has been done. The vul-
ley will be thoroughly organized this
winter and the fight continued. Our
slogan ia "The Okanagan in 1910.'
Our meetings throughout the valley were ail well attended and the
audiences were deeply interested, and
seemed much impressed with the arguments presented, many of them expressing a desire after the meetings
for reading matter on the subject.
Ou.- sj-eukers here at Kelowna were
congratulated by several who were
not Socialists, which to my mind,
recalls the old adage that "straws
ahow which way the wind blows."
The vote of the election just past
does not show thu true Socialist
vote ns there were many Socialists
whose names were not on the voters
list. For cxuiupk-r Peachland cast
only eight votes for Logic, whereas
there should have been about iiftee>i
or thereabouts. Kelowna cast ten
and should have cast between fifteen
and twenty. Of course I am speaking only of the Okanagan but I presume the sume conditions exist more
or less over tbe province. Thia
ahould not be allowed to occur in
the future and all Locals should
make it a point and a special point
to see that all members are properly qualified. Don't wait until just
before election, but have your name
put on the list at once.
There is a great deal of talk about
the Socialists bei) disloyal At;.,
and 1 certainly belie that any man
who mglects to look after hi* franchise and neglect* to cast an intelligent ballot for hi* country, his fellows, and himself, is disloyal to all
three and the King to boot.
Very truly yours for the Revolution,
Secretary  Okanagan  No.   Ut\.
thc high salaried ministers, what are
they but ecclesiastical prostitutes
bought body and soul by a share of
tho spoils wrought out of the sweat
and blood and tears of the working
class, who have not yet < there s
hope in that "yet") learned that
their only salvation lies in throwing
thi whole class of bloodsuckers ofl
their backs. Ves, it is true, theae
same -ministers do denounce the
rite in measured terms occasionally
and in very* rare cases, it may be,
honestly, but how docs that affect
the situation? The rich do not enjoy the denunciations but they recognize the fact that so far from rendering their position insecure, every
seeman in condemnation of their
greed only seats them more firmly
on the backs of the workers aa it
tends to tickle their ears and to
blind their eyes to the real issue.
But once let a minister calmly
point out to the workers tbe real
position they hold in society, tbat
their soci_. saltation can only be
worked out by themselves and conclude by saying "You have the
power, use it," and how long would
hn hold his church if a high-salaried
one? Tbe conundrum is easy. Instead of getting ministers drawing
thousands of dollars a year'' to pronounce the funeral orations, if the
dead man was so beloved by hia
work-people why did they not get
one of the sales girls drawing four
and a halt dollars a week (and
docked if she lost a day) to say a
few words?
To- conclude the subject, Timothy
Eaton in life was buying human labor power, and buying it as cheap
as ne could, whether wrapped up in
man, woman or child. Small blame
to him as it was according to "business principles" and it wus nothing
to him if the man was driven to
steal to add to his miserable wage
or the girl to sell her body for a
couple of dollars. Only the workera
have the power to alter their conditions for the better or woe unto
them if they don't use it.
The comrades here are looking forward to the next issue of the "Clarion" to get some really authentic
report of the election in British Columbia. We know enough to see our
hopes have not been fully realized,
but as far nn the writer can see a
very distinct advance has been made,
and I congratulate the Britiah Columbia comrades on the grand fight
they are putting up not only at
present but all the time and to assure them they need have no fear of
the comrades here; we are aa revolutionary as yourselves though less
numerous. 'The active memliers in
Toronto ure so few that it is difficult to fill the offices, but it will not
always be so. We will get our less
energetic comrades to yet see the
really desperate need of organization
to prepare for the stirring times to
come and then there will lie "something doing."
Comrades of British Columbia
though you have not done as well
as you expected in this election you
have done well, you have done your
best, and if you have had somewhat
of a throw-down—well,
"Thc   harder    you're    thrown    the
higher you'll bounce.
Be proud of your blackened eye.
For  it  isn't  thc     fact    that  you're
licked that counts,
But how did you fight, and why?'
311 King Street, Toronto.
lands, and the rights of way for
their railway through said lands and
tbe right to take such parts of the
said land* for the station and work-
shopa ot the said Company as may
be required by them for these purposes without paying compensation
therefor, and saving and reserving,
nevertheless, unto us. and our successors, and assigns, all coal, coal
oil. ores, mines and minerals, whatsoever, In. on or under said lands.
Given under the Great Seal of
Witness. John Joseph McOcc. Esq.
Date ot Crown Grant from Ottawa
this Ninth day of July, 1886.
Deputy of the Minister of
the Interior.
P.S.—This shows beyond any doubt
that the Dominion Government held
the reservations for tliMWWlvM and
successors and thc railway had no
claim to them whatever.
Cranberry  District.  B.C.
Toronto, Feb. 4,  1907.
No doubt thc comrades in Britiah
Columbia will have seen by tbe capitalist, pre** that tbe "merchant
prince," Timothy Eaton, is no
longer able to make use of the surplus value extracted from hia underpaid,   over-worked   wage-slaves.
They will also have read of his
" sorrowing employees,"- and the
"mourning crowds" that attended
his funeral.
They will have been impressed by
the recital of his "large charities,"
his boneficiences to churches and hospitals, etc. No doubt their heart-
have glowed at the accounts of bis
being wheeled through his store bestowing a kindly word and a kindly
smile there "to his delighted underlings."
Above ail, their souls were atlrred
to their depth* by the eulogies of
the reverent humbugs at bis ot>-
sequles, or, more probably their stomachs were stirred to the point of
. Ia anyone but the most ignorant
deceived by nil this fulsome rot
poured forth by the, capitalist press?
Is It necessary to point out why
the press is so lavish in its praises
of this so-called "greut man?"
Surely a worker of average -intelligence must know that the advertisement of the T. E. Katun Co., in
these same papers aggregate many
thousands of dollars ia a year, and
Editor Western Clarion:—
Dear Sir,—In your paper of January 12th, there appears a state
ment that the set tiers of Vancouver
Island Railway licit had received
their titles from thc E. - N. Rail
way Co., which is not a fact, at
many of thc settlers had received
their Crown title from the Government of the Dominion of Canada at
With a short statement of my
cuse which is similar to many others
on the E. & N. Railway lands, I
made an application to the government agent in Nanaimo where the
land is situated in 1878 and also
got a road gazetted to my place and
other settlers in 1881. Also received
a pre-emption record and a certificate of improvements in the land
office in Nanaimo. As you atate
the settlers are claiming the coal
and other minerals and timber.
I will now state what the Dominion Government gave me ln my
Crown title from Ottawa in the
name of Crown lands.
Canada: John McGeo, Deputy Governor. Victoria, by the grace of God
of the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland, Queen, Defender of thc Faith, etc., etc.
T'i all to whom these presents
shall come—Greeting:
To have and to hold the said parcel or truct, of land, unto tne said
James Peterson, his heirs and assigns, forever; saving and reserving,
nevertheless, unto Us, Our Successors end assign**, tho free uses, passage and enjoyment of, in, over and
upon, all navigable water* that now
are or may he hereafter found on or
under, or flowing through or upon
any part of the said parcel, or tract
of land, and saving nnd reserving
also the right of the Esquimau and
Nanaimo Railway Company to cut
timber for Railway purposes on said
The result of the recent election in
Uritish Columbia shows a healthy
increase of strength on tho part of
the revolutionary movement over
that of throe and a half years ago.
Against the most stubborn and unscrupulous opposition a distinct gain
of one seat in thc house by a duly
elected member .of the Socialist
Party has been made. In numerous
districts a sufficiently strong showing has been made to point conclusively to the fact that with anything liko energetic work upon the
part of the comrades a number of
seats can be carried in the near future.
This work must be done. It must
be thoroughly and well done. Thi*
involves the necessity of maintaining an organizer in the field continuously. The services of some one
must be ■scared who is equipped
with a sufficient understanding of thc
historic and economic groundwork
of the revolutionary movement to lie
able to demonstrate to the workers
thc nature of the task in hand to
effect their emancipation and the line
of action to be followed in carrying
it out.
Let us bestir ourst-lvea and see
that a permanent organizer la put in
the field as soon as spring opens and
a thorough and systematic tilling of
the revolutionary soil be kept up
until thc capitalist enemy is driven
from thn field of industriui activity
and the prtileturi-it has r.une into
its own. Let nil hands bc up and
doing.    The time is rij*.-.
G  A- OKBLL, Manager
Kread and Cakes delivered to any
part of the City.   You can always
depend upon our bread.    Try it.
37 Pandora St        Vktotia, B. C
J. Edward Bird.    A. 0. Brydon-Jack
Tel. 839. P.O. Bos. »83.
im Hastings 8t. . . Vaac-u**w, B.C.
fin* Class Bar.       Kscellent Httonm
|»rk*-» Moderate-.
Comrade, ll.issl.nid—Can t give official vote of Province just now. Will
write Com. Hawthornthwaite asking
him to endeavor to secure it for us.
If secretaries nf Locals bad done
their duty a fuirly accurate ostitnttte
could Is; made. However, our vote
has made big increase.
Enquirer, Van Anda—Two direct
representatives of the Socialist
I'arty sat in 190JV06 House at Victoria. This time wc have throe, but
practically thc sume as before. (Bill
Davidson of Slocan, always -.tood
up and was c.Minted in thc old House
with the Socialist mi-ml-crs, and was
defeated because the Winers who
elected him Ins-fore had lieen scattered
to the four corner* ol the earth in
search of employment, through the
American Lead Trust's manlpulbtton
of tho lead market.) Hoth Fernie arid
Oreenwood riding*, were closely contested, nnd Fertile may yet (ull to
ths Socinlist*, if c'ldenco of corruption will uriBcat a government member.
S <\ v <-
by twytag thlt
reliable, honr*;,
high grade sew*
Ing machine.
National Sewing Machine Co,
gat- Knry Ubor t!olos la lb. Br~r;u„ ,
irUe.1 lo place • curd ttxvitr thu hV»<]    «T_   '*
mouth,    twrvrruric „,--_, *_,. * *° **
International Association oi Bridge
and Structural Ironworkers, Lo?,i
No. 97, meet* in Ubor Hail  f"
and rtird Friday of the m0B* .
*  p.  m.    B.  Jardtne.  Record!n,.a,"
rotary. Box UM. Vancouver, a
Phoenix     Miners'
W. F. M
M , Union. No. t
Meet* every Saturd,.
evlning st 7-30o clock in Mine*
hall. John A.clnnis, Presid.n.
W«lter MorrUon, Secretary '
TKUtrmiMC iirrt,
M—rliltirtf tl
» ■• ICNUett
in B«"
At Ymir General Hospital a trained
nurse, wages $40.00 per month
For further information write to
Secretary  Ymir General Hospital
P. 0. Drawer 506. Ymir, B. C
Vancouver, B.C., Jan. 21. 1°0".
Notice it 'hereby given tbat. «o
days after date 1 intend to apply to
the Hon. Commiasloner of "Uvod* and
Works for psrmlf»ion to purchai*
Section 5. Township 6, Range 5.
Coast District. Buckley Valley.
C. PETERS !»S*!«
*** Iboe Mad*,
!la-*<t.M**l* a**, and she--. |U OT,-„ ,„
all «,U.    ar*«iiriB. p.**,..*,, „„.'"
altera *l-.-r.«,h.-*.i  '       '
I4» Watlaiaitw tn.     tttrni rituta.
Vancouver, H.C.. Jan. 31. HOT.
Notice is hereby given that, 60
days a.tcr date 1 intend to apply lo
the Hon. Commissioner of "Lands ami
Works for jwrmiaslon to purchase
Section 25. Township 8. Range 5.
Coast District.  Buckley Valley.
WANTED—At the Ymir General
Hospital, a duly qualified Practitioner and one with a number ol
years experience. For particulars
write to
SecreUry Ymir General Hospital
P.O. Drawer 606, Ymir, B.C.
Tn*or M.rim,
CWtrfftMHTS Ae
»*rwi»w*«t>m * »>*..*, tnil.... .
•,»l^*Vi***w.«*» r-.r a,SS >.«.-   .    .   ."'
i*;?*t^.*™r_?i_^,*,^Ht'*5*'-' ■ ''*••£.
**-«*l »*•» IH.I—. Mfr-I llrf «*«*nrl|.- •»<-,-.
mttmmti*,•ut£*€*l£,.W-*,'   '*<*"^
ScitMlflc Mean.
* ■*:«■*«-*•*"*»»• >l*.**r»l«]  ,
a>iMfcm xit «r>r ftwiusc I
w New York
Five Clarion gab
«j. i j.
I'leasc do not ftddrss. communication* reltttltif* to party affairs to thl*
paper or Its editor. Tha addre***** of
the Dominion and Provincial SecreUr*
les will be found In column «, psjt* t.
My addressing nil communication* to
them much confunlon and unnecessary
work will be avoided.
Rngineris snd crther* who trail** t«*» •dvisaUt-
itjr of hs-rins; tli.tr Fsit-nt tit-tiara* ttanmrtrd
hy K-ttarrtj. PrclimlwtrjrBdvic* tret. Chatirra
at(>T_rau. Oar lsr*-stsr*s AtvUm Mstspan
r*-l**-.t. MavonA>.t'ir|.*ti.SVwVarkl.irckUa,
UouUtal ; cud Wa.liii   ■'.on, tJ.C, t'.SJ-
r t«* . p—»t*i a*>i I
la _M»I -HI aa*
 rt*,-..-... k
MANUMIt***  —
inssAsm utxtno*.
tor fttevrns KlfW-
Insist in our lim**-
jrou ranni't <>t*t*tn.
ship direr*, est/rem i-m*»"l. «l»*
M nf cnukslt WHS
Ask font psehsr tor fUc
•U*«*lSut_~h**U*l«. - Insist
ly-ro—*d raski>.   If rou < *
w*mr*^*s r— *** t* *.*» •»«« *> »rr; ■•—;
m few. ** it* r*#. HI-.**-. '*"•**    «*•-**
s—* m*. u *—•>*• t* hi r****-   "***""
w«h» l»»   mil.* fat • —>.*• N *** h
J. grnsYBNS arms a TOOL CO
p.o. mm ten
l . S. A.
United Hatters of North America
Wben you ars buying a FLU HAT •••W '}
that tb* Oanutne Union _abel l« »**•"' "' •*•   *J
a retailer has loose labels In    his I...*"-.--""' *'
oOsrs to put one In a hat for you. do not i»lr""'*
him.   Loos*   labela In retail etore* »re ooanl'TlmT.
Is perfor»t."l on »""
The genuine Union    Label
edges, exactly the earn* aa a posts**, lump,
urfelta are some Umes perforatsd on thrr« »«*•'
and   some   tlm*. only ou two.   John B. Bt*Uo» i*°.-
of Philadelphia, la a non-union eonci-rn.
-IOHM A. MOITITT, Prcatdeat, Orange,
N. 3
MARTIN  LAV. LOR, ■eoretary, 11 IVa-orl-- Vlsrn
New YotTk.
COKE is an excellent fuel for grates, halt   stoves, furnaces »
cooking *toeefs, making a clean, bright ftr* without *moke or dirt,
Vancouver Oat Company, Ltd.


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