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The San Francisco Journal of Commerce British Columbia Edition Dec 4, 1884

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 SAN   FRANCISCO
WHHKLY
lournal  of Commerce.
AND
PRICE CURRENT.
 nsvoxatoTO—-
Finance, Commerce, Manufactures and
Mining, on the Pacific Coast.
TERMS OP SUBSCRIPTION:
OSZ rKAB WoeklyBdltlon (la advance) f* OO
■II MOUTHS -J?**0
Posts*. In the United States. Or-=ad*,Brltlan Coram,
bla, prepaid by the Publishers . Posts*, to aliror.
elm Oonntries must be prepaid.
Sample Copies Frae to an, Address.
San ifrmiasco Journal  of Commerce
Devoted to the Commercial, Financial, Manufacturing and Produce Interests of the Pacific Coast.
Volume XXii,
SAN FRANCISCO, THURSDAY. DECEMBER 4, 1884.
47-
Established 1872. Incorporated 1883.
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Office: nan Clay St., 8. P.
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VICTORIA, B.C.
The Capital of a Country Larger
than Great Britain.
And One of the Richest and Most
Fertile in the World.
Its Lastls, Mloes, minerals, Fisheries,
Lute Industries, etc..
I system was inaugurated for the whole province,
the benefits of which were largely participated
in by this city. Good municipal government,
extensive city improvements, the enterprise of
merchants and property holders, together with
the visits of Earl and Countess Dufferin, and
particularly the Marquis of Lome and Princess
Louise, and settlement of former differences
with Canada, have all tended to bring about
the prosperons era in which every one is now
San Francisco three times a month by subsidized mail steamers. An overland communication is also established, via Puget Sound,
with Portland, in Oregon, at intervals daily,
by which tbe Eastern mails also reach here.
There is constant communication with ports in
Oregon and California, by means of steamers
engaged in the coasting trade. The " Sardonyx," a fine steamer, was brought from
England by an enterprising local firm, and was
rejoicing, and which has Increased the popula-   placed on the route between Victoria and San
tion from less than 6,000 in '81 to over 10,000 I Francisco, for the conveyance of freight and
in *84# ,  passengers, but has since been superseded.
A very efficient tire brigade is maintained in
Is situated on the southeastern extremity of Victoria, composed of several companies, whose
Vancouver Island, in latitude 48 deg., 25 nun., J members serve Gratuitously.
20 sec. north, and west longitude 123 deg., 22 i A submarine telegraphic cable, crossing the
min., 24 sec-, occupying, with the adjacent Gulf of Georgia at Nanaimo, connects Victoria
harbor of Esquimalt, a position of prominent
importance, as for present local needs as /or
the requirements of the future commerce of the
Pacific. It is distent about 750 geographical
miles from San Francisco, and about thirty
from Port Townsend, Washington Territory.
Its home ports are on all sides accessible as far
with the mainland, the line extending far into
the interior of British Columbia. A branch
from New Westminster joins the Western
Union Line in Washington Territory, and so
with New York and other parts of tbe world.
Within the city a useful telephonic system is
in operation.
An   abundant   supply of water  is  obtained
New Westminster, situated on Frazer I from Elk Lake, a distance of seven miles, the
r as the Alaskan  boundary, in latitude 54 deg.,
140 min.
1
Day after day, for a whole week, in a vessel o
nearly 2000 tons, we treaded an interminable
labyrinth of watery lanes and reaches that
wound endlessly in and out o f a network of islands, promotories and peninsulas for thousands of miles, unruffled by the slightest swell
from the adjoining ocean, and presenting at
every turn an ever-shifting combination of rock,
verdure, forest, glacier and snow-capped mountain of unrivaled grandeur and beauty. When
it is remembered that this wonderful system of
navigation, equally well adapted to the largest
line of battle-ship and the frailest canoe, fringes
the entire seaboard of your Province and communicates at points, sometimes more than a
hundred miles from the coast, with a multitude
of valleys stretching eastward into the interior
the route, both granted and crown, have been
withdrawn from sale. The project, for various
reasons, remained dormant for several years,
but recently a company was organized by Mr.
Robert Dunsmnir, the well-known capitalist,
and Mr. Charles Crocker of San Francisco,
which will at once begin the construction of the
road and complete it to Nanaimo as speedily as
possible. This will result in throwing the
lands, greatly enhanced in value by the railway,
open to occupation, and the rapid settlement of
the agricultural districts along the route will
follow, as well as the springing up of many tew
industries, The advantages of such a road to
Victoria, Nanaimo, and, in fact, the whole island cannot be overestimated.
We have spoken of the vast area of fertile
to any coals on the Pacific Coast. Nature has
given this advantage exclusively to Canada on
the Pacific sea-board. These coals are in large
demand in the San Francisco market. They
rank there with the West Hartley coals. On an
average, nearly two-thirds of the sea-borne
Pacific Coast coal received annually at San
Francisco are from Vancouver Island. Coal
formations of tertiary age, furnishing very good
coal of its kind, cover great tracts also of the
mainland of British Columbia. Anthracite coal
exists in Queen Charlotte Island and on the
mainland, and indications of its presence have
been observed in Vancouver Island.
The exports of British Columbia coal to San
Francisco since 1860 have been as follows:
while at tbe same  time it is furnished with in- i country which would be connected with Vic-
numerable harbors on either hand, one is lost
in admiration at the facilities for inter-communication which are thus provided for the future
inhabitants of this wonderful region."
THE  ISLAND OF VAXCOpVIB
Is separated from the extreme northwestern portion of Washington Territory by the historical
Straits of Juan de Fuca, through the center of
which runs the International-line.    It is obiong
The Canadian Pacific and the Mag*
Bificent Country Opened
Up hy It.
THE  GROWTH OF VICTORIA.
Its History and what It Is
To-Day.
ITS GBEAT FUTURE PROSPECTS.
Its Representative Merchants and
Business Men.
Undoubtedly one of the future great cities cf
the world will be found in Victoria, the capito]
of British Colnmbia. The great transcontinenta
railroad of the North, the Canadian Pacific, wil
hare its practical terminus there, and it will be
one of the shortest lines from ocean to ocean
that connects the commerce of the Orient to
the Occident. It will be the great Pacific outlet for the wheat lands of the great Northwest
that stretch from the United States border to
the base of the Bocky Mountains, and along
the banks of the Valley of the Saskatchewan
where almost half a million square miles of
the most fertile land in tbe world invite the
plow. And it will be the commercial center
and seat of the whole of the Northwest coast
from the border of Washington Territory to
the confines of Alaska. The province of itself
has 350,000 square miles of surface, or three
fold that of England, Ireland and Scotland,
which supports more than 30,000,000 of people
and which has the greatest commerce in the
world. Victoria itself has at present a popula.
tion of 10,000, which is steadily increasing and
which is rich and prosperons, and her future
prospects are of the very brightest. We expect
after the advent of the railroad, which will
open up to her all the rich agricultural and
mineral lands of the interior, to see her population doable inside of five years and quadruple inside of ten years. In fact, her position
will make her a sort of second New York, with
Vancouver Island as a larger and greater Manhattan. Id a recent interview, Sir John A.
MacDouald, riime Minister -e,f Asms tsnmiwina
of Canada, said that a line of Japanese steamers had been subsidized by the English Government to ply between Victoria and Yokohama, thus making the former a sort of New
York of the Pacific for the whole Dominion of
Canada, Sir John's statements are a fair
warning to American lines of railway that they
are to have formidable competition by the
Canadian Pacific for the control of the Oriental
commerce. It is a specific notification to the
Northern Pacific Road that it is not to have a
monopoly of the Puget Sound trade even after
it lias gone to the enormous expense of building the Cascade Division of its road.
A Portland paper says if the Union Pacific
and Northern Paciflo Bailroads antagonize
each other they may build np a formidable
competitor to Portland on Pnget Sound, but it
will not be Taconia, nor yet will it be Seattle.
The British Government and the managers of
the Canadian Pacific are too far-sighted for
this. It may be said that this cannot be prevented. But it can. The Canadian Pacific
may do for some town near the Straits of TTuca
all that the Northern Pacific has done for Tii
coma, and more too. The Grand Trunk Bail-
road of Canada is largely sustained by American commerce to-day, with numerous American roads oompeting for the same business, and
what has been done in the eastern portion of
the great dominion may also be done in the
western.
With proper enterprise Victoria may be made
the shipping port of the wheat fields of the
great northwest of British America. The lands
from the American border to the Bocky Mountains and in the valley of the Saskatchewan, can
produce, at 20 bushels to the acre, tbe immense
total of six thousand millions of bushels of
Wheat, or three times the total product of tbe
earth to-day. Victoria is the nearest sea shipping point, and with a Panama or Nicaragua
canal the voyage to Great Britain need not exceed 40 days. From this it may be seen what
mighty possibilities this young city has.
City of Victoria—Historical Sketch.
In the early years of Queen Victoria's reign,
HUDSON'S   BAT  r'OET,
bounded by Government, Fort, Wharf and
Bastion streets, was founded and named after
the young Queen. Around this as a nuoleus n
few employe's' dwellings soon clustered, but
ittle or no permanent progress was made till
he summer of 1858, when the then near State
of California and the territories of Oregon and
Washington were electrified with the report that
astounding discoveries of gold had taken place
on Fraser river. Six or seven large steamers
and a number of sailing vessels brought up
several thousand miners and adventurers daring
the months of June, July and August, and a
city of tents immediately sprung up around the
company's fort. Many of those tents soon
gave place to temporary wooden structures, most
of which, having outlived their usefulness, have
been superseded by permanent brick and stone
edifices within the post few years. The outcome of the '58 rash gave Victoria a permanent
population of probably 2,000, almost exclusively
males, in addition to tbe Hudson Bay Company's servants and civil officers of the Government of Vancouver Island.
In 1862-3 the extraordinary richness of the
Cariboo gold fields produced a repetition of the
rash of '58. Althoagb Fort, Yates and Johnson
streets, together with Wharf, Government,
Broad, Douglas and a few other streets had then
been pretty woll opened up and built upon, yet
the city of those days was entirely inadequate
to accommodate this influx of people, a majority
of whom were*from the mother country. As a
matter of course the place grew amazingly in
every direction for a year or two. This wave of
immigration passed on chiefly to the mountains
of Cariboo, and the impetus given to Victoria
was only of a temporary character.
In I860 Victoria was constituted the capital of
the united colonies of Vancouver Island and
British Colombia. This political change destroyed the free port, for which was substituted
the old B. C. tariff. From 1866 to the date of
confederation with Eastern Canada Victoria
made bat little progress. Tbe loss of the free
port, combined with a large falling off in the produce of the gold fields in different parts of tho
mainland and Leech river on the Island, caused
a general shrinkage in real estate values and
almost put an end to bnilding operations.
With confederation in July, 1871, and immediate preparations on a large scale for explore
tions for the Canadian Pacific Bailroad route
and surveying, came a revival of eve ry branch
of business, and great hopefulness in the future
of the province generally and this city particularly. It is scarcely necessary to state that
those hopes were only realized in part, or that
various untoward circumstances retarded rapid
progress during tbe next ten years. In this
decade, however, a liberal non-sectarian school
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river (and which is also a port of entry), is distant only about 70 miles, or six hours passage
of steamer. Nanaimo, another port of entry,
is nearly equidistant; while there are other
stations of delivery along the coast within
varying distances. The fact of its being the
first available seaport north of San Francisco,
upon the northwest coast, confers necessarily
upon Victoria, and its allied harbor of Esqui-
mault, an importance that cannot be easily
over-rated.
THE   HATaBOn  OF   VICTORIA
Itself is not capable, at present, of accommodating vessels drawing more than eighteen feet
of water, but dredging operations are in progress, which will increase the present capacity;
while the adjacent and supplementary harbor of
Esquimalt is constantly available, where ships
of any burden can at all times freely enter and
discharge. An excellent macadamized road,
upon which stages run regularly, connect Victoria with Esquimalt; there is also telephonic
communication. Westward to Sooke, and
northward to Saanich, are excellent roads,
graded throughout, and a drive in either direction, through charming scenery, can readily be
undertaken with the certainty of enjoyment.
Most of
THE   BUSINESS  PORTION OF THE  CITY
Is well built of sicne and Prlcg. lnaW _, ,._.
buildings displaying considerable taste and
architectural skill. The private dwellings are
nearly all wooden structures, many of which
are surrounded by thrifty orchards, containing
the apple, pear, plum, cherry, currant*
raspberry and gooseberry, growing to perfection; and inland may be found the apricot and
peach; while the gardens, adorned with luxuriant shrubbery, and prolific with many well
known flowers, attest the generally diffused
taste for horticulture in its most attractive form.
Contiguous to the city boundary, on tbe
southeastern side, is the Public Park, a spacious
tract of great natural beauty. The view from
here, looking towards the American side, cannot
be surpassed. The placid waters of the Strait,
on which swift steamers may be seen passing
on their way to New Westminster, Yale and
other ports of the Province, viewed together
with the snow-capped scenery of the Olympian
range, is charming in the extreme. In the center rises, with a gentle slope, the knoll known
as "Beacon Hill," from the circumstance of
its having, in the early days, been surmounted
by a signal post which served to indicate the
entrance to the harbor. Around this eminence
a race-course is laid out. Here also is the
cricket ground, upon which assemble the players of cricket and baseball, and the members of
the Athletic Club, who indulge in the pleasures
of football and the Canadian game of La Crosse.
Within a distance of about two miles from
the city is an attractive and beautiful spot called
the " Gorge," an inlet from the harbor. Visitors to Victoria, and Victorians themselves,
thoroughly enjoy the boating and other charming attractions which the Arm and the Gorge
afford, and no one can visit this beautiful spot
with other than feelings of rapture. This,
however, is but one among the number of attractive scenes which invite the tourist's attention; and, as excursions arc extended in various
directions, fresh beauties present themselves to
gratify the visitor who, bent on recreation or in
quest of health, may sojourn for a while iu
Victoria and its neighborhood-
From   various   eminences,   notably   in   the
vicinity of the residen ce of the  Lieut
View of Yale. B. C-, from a Photcgraph.
works costing $200,000. Gas was introduced
several years ago, and is in general domestic
use, the electric light is used for public lighting
The climate is very equable, the thermometer
seldom falling to zero in winter, and rarely exceeding 85 deg. in summer, ranging generally
between 55 and 70 deg. Fahrenheit.
Victoria possesses a large and well appointed
Public School, under the general supervision
of a Board of Trustees, and a most efficient
staff of teachers. The scholars are taught free
of all expense to the parents. The building is
of brick, two stories high, with well appointed
classrooms, play ground, Ac, and commands
a beautiful view of Victoria and the harbor.
A large and handsome brick structure has
jnst been completed for the accommodation of
tbe pupils of the High School, where all the
advanced grades of education are taught. A
great incentive is offered to the scholars, from
the fact that when sufficiently advanced they
can be appointed teachers at a liberal salary.
There are private seminaries affording elementary and progressive education, and funds
are now beirg raised for the erection of a commodious building, and to establish a college
with a large staff of able teachers under the
auspices of the Anglican Church.
An excellent institution for the education of
females already exists, conducted by the  re-
appreciated and well patronized, The capacious and sightly edifice which is occupied by
the good sisters and their pupils, is located in
the Southern outskirt of the city, in a spacious
enclosure containing a thrifty orchard and neat
gardens.
There are in Victoria ten Christian Churches,
besides a Jewish Synagogue, viz.: Two Anglican, one Reformed Episcopalian, two Roman
Catholic, two Presbyterian, two Methodist and
one Baptist.
The Mechanic* Institute has a complete and
valuable library of choice works of the best
authors, a spacious reading room, which is
largely availed of; and upon its tables may be
found the latest newspapers and magazines
from all parts- at lht» globe. Strangers introduced by a member are given free access.
There are four daily newspapers, the Coionist.
Standard, Eve-dug Post and Daily Times, with
weekly editions, all of which are ably conducted.
As mercantile institutions, there is a Pilotage
Board, and also a Board of Trade.
There are four banks, viz.: The Bank of
British Columbia, the Bank of British North
America, the Dominion Savings Kan, and
Gareache, Green & Co., the last being also
agents for Wells. Fargo A Co's Express.
Several Benevolent Societies, such as the B.
C. Benevolent, B. C. Pioneer, French Benevolent, Rifle Association, Law Society, St. Andrews, Caledonian, Agricultural and Horticultural, Victoria Orchestral, Temperance, Ladies'
Church Society, and three bands of music, and
also a private club, known as the Union Club,
have long been in existence. Masonic Lodges,
Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Foresters
and Ancient Order of Tinted Workmen, are
strongly represented. Besides the Royal Hospital, an institution supported by public grants,
aided by private contributions, there are two
other excellent foundations for the care of the
sick, viz.: the Hospital of St. Joseph and the
French Hospital.
There are many thriving  industries, among
which may be mentioned iron and brass works,
Goveiplaning   mills,   soap   works,   boot   and   shoe,
n shape, extending northwesterly parallel with
the mainland, from which it is separated by
the narrow snd island-dotted channel of the
Gulf of Georgia, a distance of nearly 300 miles,
and has a width varying from thirty to fifty
miles. Its area of 12,000 square miles is heavily timbered and generally mountaineous, the
highest peaks attaining an altitude of from
6000 to 9000 feet. The area of low and level
land is comparatively limited, though in the
aggregate amounting to 389,000 acres. The
chief arable tracts are found in the extreme
southeastern portion, where a margin of low
and tillable land, varying from two to ten miles
in width, lies between the mountains and the
water.   This extends for some distance along
toria as a shipping port of the market. Besides
this, which is outside the boundaries of the
province, British Columbia is estimated to contain 10,000 square miles of arable land. Out
of its great area, however, it is certain that
there must be rich mines, which will be
discovered according as the country is settled
and railroads reach the remote sections. But
this 10,000 square miles is double th« area of
the land tilled to wheat in England or California; so that its prospective value may be readily
seen. An exhaustive article on this subject
will be found in another column.
There are many good locations yet to be
found where salmon are abundant, and these
will no doubt''be occupied as soon as the rapidly
increasing demand for the product assures it a
reliable market. In 1876 there were but three
canneries, with a total pack of 8,247 cases,
which had increased in 1883 to thirty-one canneries and 196,292 cases, about 60,000 le-s than
were packed the year belore. In this branch of
the fishing industry about 5000 hands are employed.    This year the canning will be large.
A most important fish is the oolachan, or
candle fish. This is a small fish, about the size
of a sardine, and is so oily that, when dried, it
will burn like a candle, especially those caught
in Nass River. They enter the Fraser iu millions about the 1st of May. They are delicious
when fresh, smoked or salted, and their oil is
considered superior to cod liver oil or any other
rishoil known.
Herrinqs swarm in the waters of the l»aya and
inlets during the spawning season in the spring.
They are not at that time of as good quality as
when taken in nets from their permanent banks
and feeding grounds. They are somewhat
smaller than the herring of Europe, though
fully equal in quality when taken in their
prime. There is a factory on Burrard Inlet
where herring oil is pressed out and fertilizers
made from the dried scrap?.
The Skidegate Oil Company is'engagediu extracting oil from the livers of dog-fish. The
works are located at Skidegate, at the southern
end of Graham Island, and give employment to
ten white men and a large number of Indians.
In 1883 there were 400,000 fish caught, which
yielded a total of 40,000 gallons, or an average
of one gallon of refined oil from tbe livers of
ten fish. This oil is admitted to be superior to
any other kind as a lubricant, and is chiefly
shipped to the United States, where it pays a
duty of 25 per cent.
Whale oil is another product, though whale
fishing is not carried on extensively. Whales
of the largest description are found on the onter
coast; in the waters of the archipelago the
humpback whale is quite numere is, and yield
from thirty to fifty barrels of oil each.    Por-
1960	
1861	
nva	
M
Toos
6.flr\
6.600
8,900
5,7t<l
IS7S	
1874	
'875	
-878	
19.800: IH77	
18 3^1878.	
Tons
31.400
51.000
61 100
101 0<X)
102 400
140..-W0
1861	
18«3	
1866  10.900! 87»........... ....   lr=6!io6
1867  14,800jl8<W    169*00
1"*B  23.^001881     ISH/hk.
186»  14.900^1882       1B.S0
1870  126001883     li-MOO
1871  is.foo] 	
1872  26,000l       Total 1 420.800
It is only within the past few years that this
trade has assumed large proportions.    In the
portion of the Western Section between Kam-
loops and Yale by June 30, 1885, and also between Yale and Port Moody on or before the 1st
day of May, 1891, and the Lake Superior Section according to contract.
The Government agreed to Grant the company a subsidy in money of $25,000,000. and
in land of 2 i.000,000 acres. The Government
also granted to the company tbe lands required
for the roadbed of the railway, and for its stations, station grounds, workshops, etc.
Soon after the consummation of the agreement Mr. A. Onderdonk, an experienced railroad builder, became managing contractor for
the construction of that portion of the Western
Division extending from Port Moody to Savona
Ferry, a distance of 212 miles. It presented
greater difficulties than have ever been overcome in railway -building.
For nearly sixty miles, from Yale to Lyton,
the river has cut through the lofty range of the
Cascades thousands of feet below the summits.
On this sixty miles of tunnels, rock work and
bridges the greater portion of Mr. Onderdonk's
construction army of 7000 men have been engaged since 1880. The loud roar of enormous
discharges of giant powder   has almost con-
and nooks, and are in general low, with many
small pmmontorus. Everywh-re the rocks
are l>ossy, like the back of a whale or dolphin,
a big one here and there ending a promontory,
bnt commonly the^ cover the shore line with
a succession of such rocks rising and sinkine
in gentle undulation* into one anoih'r. Tli<
steamboat often goes so near to the shore,
among tbe
rSTBICATE  PASSAGES   AND ENDLESS  ISLETS,
That one can trace the rata and scratches
on the rocks—silent memorials th»f>e of tb-
long vanished ice age of which geologists tell
uo. Tb*) islands are of a'xnost every size and
shape, rot-ky and wooded, but with good soil
in parts, and more her^itge than one would
expect from their appearance. A person of
Crusoe-like proclivities might here suit himself Wr-ll. Many of the island* that are suitable for Fettlement are occupied by ah*-ep
farmers, whose mutton is choice, and fruits,
a'ao, luscious. I was informed further that
these waters abound Vstt the best food and
oil fi-hes—salmon, cod, halibut, sMe, flounder
haddock, herring, sardine, smelt, "oolachan "f
(eandlefish) and many others, with    plenty o
the eastern  coast line; the extreme  northern
end also possesses an  extensive area of com- I poise, also, yield a large amount of oil
paratively level  land.    Along the western, or |     Seals and sea otters are annually  caught in
ocean coast, there is but little arable land in  great numbers off the Straits of Fuca and the
comparison with the total area, though here and
them are considerable tracts. The coast line,
especially on the ocean side, is much broken by
pays and inlets which indent it, often penetrat-
west coast of Vancouver Island,
were ten schooners engaged in sealing, employing forty sailors and 296 hunters, the latter
chiefly   Indians, who   used   148  cedar   canoes.
Logging Scene at A
twelve years ending with 1873, the imports were
150,000 tons, or 12,500 tons per annum. In the
last ten years these imports have been 1,280,000
tons, or 107,000 tons per annum. In the last
five years they have averaged 153,000 tons per
annum, or as much in one year as was received
at San Francisco in the first twelve years of the
above period.
The present indications point to a large increase of the coal trade of the province. Several cargoes have been sent to Wilmington; also
to Mexico and the Hawaiian Islands. The near
approach of the completion of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, and the great extent and high
value of the coal on the sea-board of the province, have already caused several wealthv
steamship companies, which desire to command the trans-Pacific trade, to consider practically the desirableness of making the British
Columbian sea-board a place of supply and call.
A test by the War Department of the United
In 1883 there f States, undertaken some years ago, to find the
best steam-raising coal on the Pacific Coast,
showed that to produce a given quantity of
steam it took  1800  lbs  of Vancouver coal to
Fraser's Logging Camp, Burrard Inlet,
stantly reverberated among the mountains/
Manytunnels have been bored, one 1600 feet in
length. It is estimated that portions of this
work have cost $300,000 to the mile.
One of the greatest feats accomplished was
the construction of the cantilever bridge across
the Fraser, below the town of Lytton. Besides
the one recently completed across Niagara
River, this is tbe only cantilever in America;
and it is gratifying to know that the feat was
accomplished by engineers of the Pacific Coast.
The total length of tbe bridge is 530 feet, the
central span being 315 feet long. The ends of
the span rest upon piers of solid masonry,
ninety-six feet high, and containing 6480 cubic
yards of stone. The superstructure contains
1,200,000 pounds, or 6000 tons of cast steel and
iron. The total cost was $280 000. This remarkable engineering accomp'isbment was performed by the San Francisco Bridge Company.
the only firm of constructing engineers on the
Pacific Coast capable of erecting works of such
magnitude. All the bridges ou the Western
Division of the road, aggregating forty-st-ven
spans, were constructed by this company, and
the bridges which they have erected on the
coast, if placed end to end, would span a stream
eleven miles wide.
At the beginning of the present season the
rood had progressed 975 miles west of Winne-
peg, leaving only 300 miles to be built to the
point where it unites with the Western Division
Government Offices, James Bay, Victoria, B. C.
; Street Scene, New Westminister,
nor, Blanchard Avenue, Hospital Hill, Head o match, cigar, glove
Pandora Avenue, Church Hill, and from Mt. dustries-
Tolmie (a delightful walk of about a couple of vicro
miles), the eye is enchanted with the pictnr-
esqueness of the landscape, and the pretty
houses embowered in ivy. honey-suckle, and
other lovely creeping plants, and neatly trimmed lawns.
The Government buildings, five in number,
built of red brick, and of Swiss style of architecture, are located upon a neck of land accessible by a substantial bridge across James Bayf
and, viewed from Government street, have a
decidedly pretty effect, with their well kept
lawn and choice evergreen trees. Here are the
Provincial Offices. At the foot of the lawn is a
grey granite obelisk, erected by the people to
the memory of Sir James Douglas, K. C. B.,
the fi*^t Governor and Commander-in-Chief,
from 1851 to 1864.
The Dominion Buildings are well and solidly
constructed, containing accommodation for the
various federal offices. Among these are comprised tho Custom House, the Post Office, and
Marine Hospital.
A stock company has subscribed $50,000 for
the erection of an imposing Opera House.
Victoria has direct mail communication with
British Columbia.
factories,■ and   otitef
OENFKAI.  rBfK.KFHfi.
Then- has l»een mark* d y&VfjJtm lurin*; the
past few years. This is seen in tht* increased
telegraphic and telephonic communication, and
great improvements in the streets. The seal,
fur trade, salmon canning, fish, fish oil, and
lumber trades have Ihm n vastly dv-vt-li-pt-d, and
are now assuming gigantie proportions. The
harbors of Victoria and Esqiumalt are thronged
with shipping, to an extent unknown before.
The salubrity of tiba eliuiate, the manifold
beauties of Victoria and its surroundings, together with the i'Xi ellence and eheapness of its
hotels, are attracting a large and increasing
number of visitors. Signs of substantial progress are everywhere observable in stores, warehouses and dwelling-houses, which have lately
been completed, whilst many others are approaching completion.
THE   BKAOTUES   OF  THE   t-OUNTBT
Adjacent 10 Victoria are -ilmost without compeer. Earl Dufferin. the (iovernor-General of
Canada, in a speech delivered in 1876, said:
"Such a spectacle as its coast line presents is
not to be paralleled by any country in the world.
ing many miles into the interior, and  offering
numerous safe harbors.
The soil generally is very fertile. When
properly cultivated the average yield per acre
of cereals is 25 bushels of wheat, 50 of oats, 40
of Chevalier barley and 50 of rough barley.
Rye, buckwheat, corn, hops (in certain places),
beans, peas, potatoes, melons and garden vegetables produce abundantly. All fruits of the
temperate zone thrive and bear prolifically.
Cattle in small bands do well and support themselves the year round by grazing upon the edible plants and grass of the more thinly wooded
districts, and browsing on the tender brush and
the nutritious lichens which hang from the tree
branches.
The town of Esquimalt is distant three and
one-half miles from Victoria, and lies on a
peninsula separating Esquimalt Harbor from
the Royal Roads. The superiority of its harbor facilities caused the British Admiralty to
select it for a naval station many years ago.
Here are an arsenal building, where large quantities of naval and ordinance supplies ore
stored, a naval hospital,
a dockyard and a powder magazine, the lat"
ter on an island in the
northern portion of the
harbor. The Dominion Government is
building an immense
dry dock, the second
largest of the public
works undertaken in
the Province. Its dimensions are: Length,
400feet; depth, 26 feet;
width of entrance, 90
feet. It is being substantially built of concrete, faced with sandstone. Three hundred
and fifty thousand dollars have already been
expended, and its completion is confidently
expected within three
years. Esquimalt has
two .churches, a public
school and a number of
business buildings and
residences.
Nanaimo is situated
on the east coast,seventy
miles above Victoria.
The city has for its background a dense and enntiuuos forest, beneath
which lie vast deposits of bituminous coal, the
mining and shipping of which is the chief business of the settlement. The town lies along
the bay, its streets being quite irregular and
« onforming to the sinuositifs of the indented
shore line. It was founded by the Hudson
Bay Company in 1852, as a mining village and
trading post: but with the growth of the mining industry, which has increased ten fold in
the past few years, a town has sprung up pos,
sessing considerable commercial importance.
The adjacent harbor of Departuro Bay has accommodations for a vast amount of shipping-
and a number of vessels may always be seen
there, loading with coal or waiting for cargoes.
This4is connected with the Nanaimo harbor by
a long, deep channel, which offers no obstacle
to the passage of the largest vessels.
The Island Railway is projected to run up the
east side of the island from Esquimalt as far as
Discovery Pass, thongb at present it is located
only as far as Nanaimo, the road beyond that
point being left for future consideration. A
substantial grant of land has b.-en made to
further the enterprise by the Provincial Government, and for several years all land along
Over 9,000 fur seals and about 3,000 hairy seals
were captured, valued at $93,000. The former
are valued at $10 and the latter at 50 cents.
THE   IXMELKtt   BESOETBCES
Of British Columbia are probably the greatest
in the known world. These immense woodlands, following the Pacific for hundreds, of
miles, can supply the whole earth.
Here are two large  mills manufacturing for
foreign exportation.    The  Hastings  Saw  Mill
Company cuts about 15,000,000   feet  annually,
frequently filling orders for special timber of an
enormous size.    Some have   been cut  twenty-
eight inches   square   and   110 feet long.    The
Moodyville   Saw   Mill   Company cuts nearly
20,000,000  feet annually and  employs   about
100 men, having numerous electric   lights  for
night work-    Timber has been   brought to this
mill measuring seven feet six inches in diameter
at the butt and five feet 130 feet from the base.
This is the Douglas pine, or fir, and both companies own large tracts of that valuable timber.
The Hastings Mill Company own a forest dose
at hand which, it is estimated,   will   yield   upwards of 400,000,000   feet,   and   constitutes  a
property of enormous value.    Cargoes of lumber are sent to  China, Australia, Sandwich Islands and all Pacific Coast ports, and  spars to
England.    Another   mill   is   located   at   Port
Moody.
The Rock Bay Sawmill, at Victoria, has a
daily capacity of 30,000 feet, and has good
shipping facilities. At New Westminster are
located the Dominion Sawmills, which have a
daily capacity of 40,000 feet of lumber, 12,000
laths and 20,000 shingles. Adjoining this are
the Ro3-al City Planing Mills, which cut 35,000
feet of lumber, 8000 laths and 96,000 shingles
daily. These two companies make sash, doors,
furniture, etc., in great quantities. At Nanaimo
the Royal City Planing Mills have a sawmill
which cuts 20,000 feet per day.
OOLI>   MIMNii
It was which first brought tht* province into
prominence and made it known generally to
the outside werld.
Gold is known to be almost universally distributed iu the Piovince of British Columbia.
There is scarcely a stream of any size in ,uiv
part of the Provinoe that one cannot wash a
few'colors,' flfe they say, out of, at tue van
least, and in 105 localities, which I catalogued
in 1877, act ut* I miniug had been carrifl on for
gold. The main auriferious belt of British
Columbia runs from southeast to northwest,
just inside the Rocky Mountains, an 1 includes
the mining localities which have been called
Kootenay, Big Bend, Cariboo, * hnineca and
Cassair. From south to north, from 1858 to
1882, the gold produced in British Columbia
amounted to $40,685,331, (about £9,337,000
sterling) which is a great return, considering
that the average population of the Province,
taking the period altogether, would not exceed
ahout 10,000 whites. The average number of
miners employed in these placer diggings has
been 2940, aud the average yield per man employed, obtained by dividing the total by the
number of miners, $683 per man per annum.
The greate-it yield of any one year was in 1861,
when $3,735,850 was sent ont of the country.
Last year the total yield was only $1,013.M>7.
The decline in the yield of gold shown by
statistics will be offset in future years, when
quartz mining will become a settled indu-try.
To the outside world, British Columbia is
known chiefly by her gold, lumber and
GOAL.
All authorities agree as to the extent and
value of the coal beds of British Columbia.
The deposits are widely spread. In quality,
the Vancouver Island bituminous coals are
ound to be superior for all practical purposes
2400 lbs of Seattle coal. 2600 lbs of Coos Bay
(Or.) coal, and 2600 lbs of Mount Diablo (Cal.>
coal. This proved that, as tar as the Pacific
Coast is concerned, the coal of Vancouver Island
has a marked superiority over all the others.
THE   CANADIAN   PACIFIC   BAILWAT
Is one of the mammoth enterprises of the world.
In 1871 surveying parties were sent outfcto explore the comparatively unknown region
through which, it possible, it should pass, and
renort upon the most favorable route. Over
$3,500,000 have been expended upon these preliminary surveys. The location of the road
east of the Rocky Mountains being much the
less difficult, the work of construction was commenced on the Eastern Section in 1874, with
2G4 miles completed and in operation in 1880;
but from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific
Coast no less than eleven lines were surveyed
before determining the best terminal point and
route thereto. Port Moody, at the head of Burrard Inlet, was finally selected as the mainland
terminus, and Kicking Horse Pass as the route
FOUR HUNDRED MILES
Along   the    Canadian    Pacific—A
Fine   Country,    Fertile   Soil,
an Agreeable Climate  and
Beautiful Scenery.
[FBOK   OtTB OWN  COBBKSPOSTiENT.]
Vict bxa, B. C, November 17, 1884.
The chief event of the near future in this
province will be the opening of the Canadian
Pacific Railway for traffic. It already is across
the Rocky Mountains in its westward progress and more thin 200 miles of the line have
been made easterly, from the seaboard at Bur-
rard's Inlet. The gap will be closed next year.
This will be an important fact in Pacific slope
history, and though the season was late I did
not like to be in Victoria without crossing to
the mainland and seeing something of the
country along tbe line. I must remove two
misconceptions, namely, thaUfce route of the
Canadian Pacific is difficult and the climate
very severe. The truth is that the Kicking
Horse Pass of the Rocky Mountains is greatly
lower than the passes used by the Northern
and Central Pacific railways and the route of
the Canadian Pacific thence to the aeabord is
comparatively easy, chiefly along river valleys.
We must dismiss, also, from our minds the
notion that this Northern line will be under
any special clima.'e disadvantages.
I left Victoria for the mainland in the comfortable steamer Princess Louisa on a cloudy
dampish^morning. The first faint flush of
dawn appeared in the East as I left my hotel
for the wharf. By and by theday cleared,
with a good fog-scattering bretze from the
North, uo that I was in luck for seeing the
FAB-FAMED   SCENEBT
Between   Vancouver   Island   and   the   main.
C.'frcm a Photograph.
the shark tribe. Fishing must become a grea
business here—the salmon canning and oil*
packing already represent much capital—for
these sheltered wate«s. innumerable harbor*,
coves and beaches, and the mild, open winters,
give wonderful facilities to the fisherman.
Looking back towards Vancouver, before
steaming into the gulf, I could see that the
coast was in general low, undulating back to
moderately high hills, with every variety of
of mass and outline. I hive spoken of
" rocks," but these are only seen on the shore
line; the bones of the country do not stick
through a scanty akin of soil aud turf. On
the contrary the surface is dark with foliage—
vegetation everywhere almost tropical in lux
uriance, except on the small prairies or "oak
openings," as come here call them A high
distant point, northeasterly u i the gulf was
pointed ont to me as the famous Texada
Island which contains a monntainous mass of
Iron—a coarsely grauol-tr magnetite with very
little phosphorus— well situated for mining,
smelling aod shipment. But we speed towards the mainland, the high hills of which
curve inland in front of us. Muddy, now, is
the sea, melancholy the lonely- light-house,
near which a crtw of thrte ni»-n were lost last
month in a small boat, winding is the channel
among the shifting sand banks Soon a great
tract of low land appears,   filling   the   area  of
fihfna,lTnTf innfrirTf"l^.lriYT.rpi^r,rhflt. c™h1
easily be distinguished by a stranger owinp to
the lowness of the land. Captain George Vancouver nearly a century ago, whose book I
have on my knee— deeming it one of eld as if I
were reading Herodutua -entirely mit-sed
SCOUTH   OF   Tn\   TP.X7.KB.
But went into BurrarJ's Inlet, fourteen
miles N. N. W. I gazed on the
scone with interest as we entered the
river. There are two channels or arms, and
New Westminster city, to which we are bound,
is just above their junction, fifteen miles op.
Away to the right, on the **horc is a high,
white-faced cliff ending a vooded promontory,
called Point Roberta, which is t-evered l>y the
boundary line—the 49th parallel. Furtheron,
the mountains seem to run inland beyond
sight, returning to the seaboard a long way
north, about Kurrard's Inlet. V<a entered by
the southern arm. The river is abon*. a half
mile broad, current three or four miles an
hour, water clay-colored, but good to drink
when filtered, the bank* low and mudtv. no
rocka visible, depth con-iderable at hiuh
water, the tide goes sixty miles up; vessels
drawing 18 to 20 feet have gone 30 miUs up.
On both sides a wide expanse, covered with an
immense growth of wild grasses, only a few
clumps of trees, dotted with farm steadings
aDd fences, soil deep, black earth or blue clay.
Northeasterly a belt closes the surface view,
showing thicker timber in the distance up tbe
river. A man at my elbow, slouch hat, dirty
suspenders, i-an pants tacked into muddy
boots, four days beard streaked with tobacco
squirts, bony, honest face, healthy, hardy and
very much at his ease, who, from Hebnaha
had settled here a few years ago answered
my question* very kindly, and t-poke in
high terms of tbe farming capabilities of this
Lower Fraser region or New W.stinins*, r district, as it ia called. " Say ' I'll wager that
we   can   raise   right    h«-r«   I  r^er   ant!   better
v. ,-
hte
afeaMtfaaa,
tion. I (rot capital qnarttrs on landing, and
after nn excellent dinner, with water very
delii-ioos, wi.h or witfcont a "atiok" in it,
walked thrnneh tho city. The gently rising
ground offords good drainage facilities. There
are many important bnildings and handsome
dwellings. Among the former are half »
dozen churches, n high school, denominational colleges and schools, public aobools, an asy.
lnm, penitentiary, Cvisdian Government
Postoffice and other buildings. On my way
to the suburbs of fiaperton, and afterwards
from the uoper pnrt of the city, I had some
pleasing and oven gr»nd water and mountain
views up river—the •• Quern's Keaoh " is very
fine—and a magniacent panorama in the opposite direction, of which the prineioal feature, were the two arms of the Frazer, the
gnlf and the mass of islets with the low hills
of Vancouver in tho distance. Next morning
i visited the ba^ine.s portions of the city,
sawmills, tanneries, breweries, foundry and so
forth, all of which seemed to be thriving, and
afterwards spent some time verifying the statements of the farmer on the steamboat and in
collecting farming, climatio and other facta
from authentic sources. At midday an appor-
tunity offered (or visiting Iturrard's Inlet In a
small steamer, which was 11 proceed down the
north arm of the Frazer and round the shore.
This was exactly the trip that suited me, so I
embarked in haste, intending to return by
land from Bnrrard's Inlet to New Westminster.
Burrard's Inlet is tbe terminus of tbe Canadian Pacific Railway, and to judge of it rightly a sea approach is necessary. The north
arm of the Frazer down which we steamed is
about 100 yards wide;but being shallow, Bay
0 to 8 feet, it may be called only a boat ohan-
nel. It reaches the sea a'.iout Ave miles noith
of the Frazer sand heads, and itself is split
into two short arms at ils mouth by a large,
low, wooded island.
THE   SOIL   IS   VJEBY   BICH
Along the north arm of tbe Frazer and thera
are many fino farm,. Complaint is made that
some of the land is held by speculators. It ia
»b .ut nine miles from the month of the north
am to Burrard's Inlet, but sand banks, dotted
with drift timber, stretch a long way off shore
and our little steamer bad to keep out before
besdiDR for Port Grey, which is a long wooded promontory ending in a rounded bluff.
This forms the southern headland of (he cn-
trauce to Burrard's InUt. Opposite to Point
Grey, northerly from it. is a high island oloee
to tbe mainland, with a round, almost bare,
summit. This latter may be said to form the
northern headland of the entrance to Burrard's Inlet. The bay thus formed, called
English Bny, ia fonr miles long and three
miles wide. A narrow entrance at it, bead
leads into Burrard's Inlet proper. There is
also at its bead a little inlet called False Creek.
English Bay has good anchorage, from 30
fathoms downwards It is land-sbeltered, except to the west, but winds rarely blow directly from the weRt. The area is reduced somewhat by a hard sand bauk, dry at low water,
with stretches for a quarter of a mile off Point
Grey. This bank protects the anchorage in
some degree on its only exposed side; a breakwater, not a costly underlying, would make
tbe anchorage perhct Tbe tide rise, 16 feet
at springs. Tb. re is plenty of frosh water.
On the south shore of the bay we passed a
clean, shelving beach, and back from that on
'he land there seemed to me to be ample space
for a town. H-re, then, did no other suitable
place exist in tbe locality, is an ocean terminus for the railway. But let us enter the inlet projae-—Burrard's Inlet—from this bay
just described, which may be called the outer
anchorage of
nriillAED's   INLKT.
The  entrance   to   the   inlet
exactly      "plain     sailing,"
wind   and    tide   favoring,   c
it   may be  called    a    good
proper   is   not
except     with
r   in   tow,   but
entranoe,    be-
ilie Kesult of a Day's Hu.
across the Rocky Mountains. Recently, however, Vancouver, a new towh to he built ou
Coal Harbor, near the entrance to Burrard Inlet, has been chosen for the terminal point iu
place of Port Moody,
Iu 1880 a contract and agreement was made
between tbe Dominion of Canada and an incorporated company, known as the " Syndicate,"
for the construction, operation and ownership
of the Canadian Pacific Railway. By the terms
of this agreement, that portion of the railway
to be constructed was divided into three sections; the first, extending from Callander Station, near the cast end of Lake Nipissing, to a
junction with the Lake Superioi section then
being built by the Government, was called the
Eastern Section; the second, extending from
Selkirk, ou the Red River, to Kamloops, at the
Porks of the Thompson River, was called the
Central Section, and the third, extending from
Kamloops to Tort Moody, at Burrard Inlet, the
Western Section. The company agreed to lay
out, construct and equip in running order, the
Eastern and Central Sections by the 1st day of
May, 1891.
The   Government agreed to complete that
t on Morth Arm, Bunaid Inlet, Bntah Columbia, fr..ru a Fhotogi
land. True, the setson was latiab and I
dare say I lost some of the more charming effects of atmospheric light and shade, but
the greens, goldens and russets ol the woods
and the grasaes were pretty behind the dark
rooks of the shores and among the grey lichen-
crusted boulders on the surface. A lady passenger on hearing that I was a stranger lament-
,ph
ed the sedateness of the season and aasured me
that the islands and the watery passages were
"awfully pretty" in Summer, when aeen
through a dreamy, sea bom haze. This I can
well believe, but for the present I was highly
pleased both with the landscape and the sea
skape. The scenery is, I should say, charming rather than grand, at least the grandeur is
only in the effect of the distsat mountains to
the east and south, which were not very clearly visible on the occasion. We ran smoothly
past a multitude of islands and emerged from
a narrow pass—Plumber Pass—into the open
gulf, there about fifteen miles wide. Van
oonver and its outlying islets are rock-girt, but
not bold or ragged, in tbia part of the littoral.
crops, acre for acre, than can bo raised anywhere on the continent. H, J Kiv.r and the
Wabash included. Put up vour money and
I'll nami the farms. Doui ears what the
cropia, any grain, any root, I'll take you N
fruits, too. ¥ou bet we'll come out ahead.
You can't beat us either on thick-moated,
sweet beef and mutton. "
Ascending tbe river, which has islanda and
many fine reaches and a fairly good channel,
the lew, marshy ground g.ve place to meadow
ana then the meadow to jungle timber not difficult to clear, past salmon canneries and
wharves and past successive farms, until
rounding a point, we suddenly come iu view of
]*«W   wrsTKINSTBB
On the right bank -sawmills and canner
ies and Hues ol wharves, with numerous
river steamers—a long, gentle slop. for
the towusite, covered wiih public buildings, houses and streets — a very pietty
picture. This is the principal, or rather
among many villages, the only city on the
mainland.    It baa about 3.IKXI  permanent  in-
canse over 1000 ships have loaded at the
sawmills inside the inlet, with scarcely an accident in going in or coming out. Tht chan-
at times the tidal current is very swift. For
half a mile tbe channel is only about a cable
and a half wide, and it is somewhat narrow
for three-quarters of a mile further, when the
broad inlet is reached. Thi» is the principal
port of Burrard's Inlet; tbe eye rata on a
placid sheet of water aboat as big as English
Bay. Ou each aide is a sawmill with ships
loadiog. The water shoala from 36 fathoms
in the middle to either side. The best anchorage is at Coal Harbor, which is on the south
side of the expanse and about two miles with-
The land there appears to be suitable and
sufficient for any railway, shipping or city purposes. Coal Harbor has been chosen by the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company as their
terminal harbor and it certainly is an admirable one in itself and particularly in relatior
to the ouled anchorage in English Bay. The
msguificent, well-sheltered, almost contiguous
havens, leave nothing to be desired in the requirement* of a seaboard terminus for a trans
continental line—navigation, searoom, anchorage, mooring, dockage, wharfage and
large, suitable land area adjoining. To my
surprise I was informed that what seemed to
the eve the head of the inlet aome four miles
away, was not the head of Itj a seoond narrow
passage there led to a long arm among mountains, and a small east arm, the latter called
Port Moody. I accordingly visitrd the latter
place. The entrance to it from Burrard's Inlet proper is much like the first entranoe already described from English Bay into Burrard's Inlet—the one is here called the "first
narrows" and the other the "second narrows." Port Moody baa been uaed by the
railway contractor as a loading place for material. It ia a snug, clear harbor, about three
miles long by one third to one-half mile wide
aud will be useful as au adjunct to the Burrard's Inlet harbor proper. It is not in itself
naturally suitable for a terminal harbor; having to be reached through two " narrows,"
being deficient comparatively iu commodious-
ness aud in exteut of suitable ■ djoining land
area, tb <ugh with advantage* of its own that
uiay make it a useful adjunct, as above said,
n r..|uir.il in the luiure. It was skinned
over with ice lately to the thickness of aix
iuches. the main Burrar.i Inlet harbor ia always i ntirelv open. From the above It ia evi-
deut that the Canadian Pacific Railway not
, uly has an available terminal port on the
seabosrd. but has one difficult to equal, con-
si.ting in fact of
two MAuNirn-icNT niaeoaa
supplementing   each   , tber   and   n   ui.ful adjunctive eh-ltered sheet of water.
Back a.ain to New Westminster from Port
Moots] on foot, hy a road rather two muddy
at tins season to be leasant. All next da
bu-y m making further inquiries about the
dietiiet in geiwral which I shall summariae
the result at, further on. Hi, following
men.ing 1 .tailed fiom the landing oppoiite
the cilv to rid, through the country to Hope.
The railway ruin on the right hank ol the
i aud the wagon road on the left bank. I
eh,-, the wagon road, as the gnat bula of the
farming land .is on the lelt bank, atietobing
th, i M to tin Am. ruin boundary and fifty or
u\u intl.n up the river. The road was good.
luit not so niv liorsi or " csyoosh" as they
call bun; I a ull only flag him into a lough,
slow eauler at intervals. At first the ride waa
through Inah aud cor aome gravelly ridges,
luit these latter are only near the river at the
part, tracts ol rich soil lie to the southward
and eastward. The farmers are comfortable,
hopelul and very hospitable. At Langley,
Sumass and Chilliwback are large settlements,
lieh soil, good grass and as nice farm, aa can
be seen any* here—a homelike look i.bont
many cf steadings. The school house everywhere; in one, or rather playing around one,
I saw fill j or sixty most healthy children. The
people generally looked hearty and vigorous—
a population of tbe best kind from the British
Is!. -. Eastern Canada and other States.
Hope is a pretty village on the left bank of
the Frazer, t .wards the head of the district.
It is the pack trail outlet for a considerable
strip of the southern interior of the provinoe
— Simllkameen and thereabout*. I looked
over my notes here aa to the lower Fraaer, or
New Westminster district, and got firmly Into
my mind its distinctive chancier—tbe coast
or seaboard section of the several regions la
the province through whicb tbe Canadian Pa-
cine Railway passes.    It Is a diatriot with
OBRAT   NATVBAI,  ADVAKTAOaW,
The length about seventy-five miles, tbe breadth
ten to fifteen milea, traversed longitudinally
by a navigable river, a railway and a wagon
road, and coascd by country roads and trails
It "goes without saying" that the diatriot
mnst be fertile, aa it is an alluvial district
The  shores  carve endlessly into bays, coves   habitants, and a considerable floating popula-
[ronruMub <m fmrlk Tea,.] SAN FRANCISCO JOURNAL OF COMMERCE AND PRICE CURRENT—Victoria, B. C, Edition.
VICTORIA.
A DBScriuflon of Her Business
PROGRESS MADE IN A YEAR.
*
Her    Financial   Outlook
for the Future.
British Columbia Soap Works..
To the indomitable energy of Mr. William
J. Jeffree aud William J. Pendry is due the existence of this, the only soap manufactory in
the province. The business was started in a
small way seven years ago, and from this small
beginning pushed rapidly fthead, turning out as
fine goods, at a low price, as can be found any
where. The firm is a formidable competitor
with imported goods, in some instances having
driven the foreign article entirely out of the
market. The main building measures 32x60
feet, having two stories. The warehouse is
30x28 and 16x12 feet, in which is stored soaps
that are already sold and awaiting shipment.
The company make all kinds of soaps (laundry
soaps being their specialty for the present), und
at prices that cannot help but give satisfaction
They are very particular to have all the mate
rial clean and pure, so as to turn out the best
article possible. None but the most experienced employees, and none but the purest and
best material procurable, are employed. The
machinery used is the most approved and complete in every respect. The firm has built up
a large trade throughout British Columbia,
solely on the merits ot its excellent output, aud
is an important factor in the industries of the
province.
Victoria Boot aud 8hoe Manufactory,
Mr. W. Heathorn is proprietor of this extensive boot and shoe factory, which has been
established about twelve years. In the line of
heavy goods the house does probably the largest
business in the province. The factory keeps
seventy men constantly employed, and is 60 by
120 ieA in size, using between $30,000 end
$40,01)0 worth of leather a year. Mr. Heathorn
keeps in stock mens', womens' and children's
wear of all kinds; slso sole and upper leather,
kip, calf skin, harness, bridle and aparajo
leather and tanned sheepskins. His tannery
at Rock Bay employs thirteen hands on 55
vats, and has a capacity of from 300 to 40l>
hides a month, the surrounding country supplying hemlock bark in profusion. Mr. Heathorn
pays the highest market rates for hides, calf
and sheepskins, consignments of which are solicited and prompt returns made.
The business is one of the moBt important in
the colony, and its proprietor is known as a
conservative and responsible business man
Marvin & Tilton.
This firm ia composed of Mr. Edgar Marvin
and Mr. E. G. Tilton, and the business is the
oldest in its line in the province, having been
established over twenty-two year* ago. They
are aeents for the "Vigorit Powder Co., the
Benicia Agricultural Works, California Victor
Mower, Hunt & Douglass axes, and o'her
equally important lines They are also agents
for the Kootenai Railroad, now in course of
construction along the Kootenai river, British
Columbia. In the transaction of their large
business the firm find necessary the use of two
stores, each 60x30 feet, and two large warehouses, 30x40. They carry a general stock of
agricultural implements and parts, powder, machinery, &c.
Messrs. Marvin &. Tilton are one of the most
solid, reliable and progressive concerns in the
province, and fully deserve tbe large and grow
ing trade which they enjoy.
Matthews, Richards & Tye
In hardware, iron, steel and agricultural implements this house is one of the heaviest on
the Pacific Coast. The firm has been estab
lished about fourteen years, and its large business makes necessary the use of two stores and
two warehouses, the size of the former aggregating 156x66 feet, and of the lalter lOOxlOf
feet. The house is represented in England by
Messrs. Matthews, Richards & Co., of Birmingham, and in San Francisco by Messrs.
Marcus C. Hawley & Co. They handle exclusively the American Buckeye Mowers and
Reapers, and also very large stocks of iron,
steel, hardware, wagon material and all kinds
of agricultural implements. Messrs. Matthews,
Richards k Tye are a solid, responsible and
energetic firm, an important factor in the iron
and steel trade. The principal office is on
Yates street.
R, T. Williams.
This gentleman is one of the most enterprising of Victoria's business men. His general
business is that of book binding, but his in
terests are varied, and include excelleht lithographic work, printing, binding, rubber stamp
manufacturing, publication of a directory of
■JrMVgCrBLj J01 hulU NU.UUU1U  wurkU m ".
of   art
by
IgUULlJ J01 HULU BUIUI 111
turesque America," and kindred works
and instruction.    The   directory published
Mr. Williams is a most complete and excellent
work, the result of exhaustive research and the
application   of  journalistic talent   of   a   high
order.    The   gentleman's   name   is  favorably
known throughout the pr 'vibce, and he enjoys
a very large trade in each branch   of  his busi
uess.
Oppenhelmer Bros.
This firm is composed of the brothers I. and
D. Oppenheimer, ond is commercia'ly one of
the most important in the province. They are
direct importers and wholesale dealers in gro
eerie.?, obtaining, perhaps, one-half of their
goods from San Francisco, tbe remainder com
ing from Europe and the East. Besides hand
ling a complete assortment of fancy and staple
groceries, the firm have the sole ngency for tbe
province for Kingsford's Oswego starch, Pace's
celebrated tobacco, and other standard goods.
They have been established over twenty-four
years, and occupy premises on Water street,
40x80 feet, three stories in heighth. The firm
carry everything in the Rrocery line, aud do a
large jobbing trade. Messrs. Oppenheimer
Bros, have a well-earned reputation throughout this coast for reliability, enterprise and progress.
Jacob Sehl
Mr. Sehl's large furniture factory is situated
on Government street, with a frontage of 45
feet and a width in the rear of 90 feet, the
premises being 135 feet deep. The business
has been established 25 years. With the aid of
the most approved machinery and the best materials the skilled workmen of the factory turn
out everything in the furnitnre line from a
common footstool to a $500 chamber set, the
extensive works being able to fit out, on a short
notice, the largest hotel from top to bottom.
The materials used are mostly native woods,
with the exceptions of walnut and other finer
grades. Mr. Sehl does a very large business
throughout th** province, and is a wide-awake,
practical, reliable man.
Wesbitt & Co.
Under this firm style is conducted one of the
most thoroughly appointed biscuit and bread-
baking establishments of the North, which has
been in active operation for over twenty-six
years. The mechanical appliances of this establishment are the best and most complete
known to the trade. They manufacture sweet
and plain, hard and soft biscuits and bread.
They moke a specialty of cabin extra bfawnrito
and pilot bread, doing a large trade in tbe latter with shipping and Indians throughout the
province. The firm employ none but the most
experienced white and Indian labor, and their
meritorious output has built up for tbem a large
trade, which is increasing in every direction.   *
McKUUcan & Anderson,
Mr. W. D. MoKillican and Mr. W. J. Anderson, two thoroughly practical mechanics, comprise this firm, which hns been established
about five years. The firm has lately moved to
new quarters, which have been filled with tbe
latest and most approved machinery and tools,
and with the a d of a skillful staff of carpenters they are prepared to build anything
from a dove cote to a palace. The lumber used
by them comes mostly from the surronnding
country, only Spanish cedar,waluut and veneers
being imported.
Both of theno gentlemen oro young, intelligent and practical men, and stand high in the
community.
Cowichan Lumber "S>rd-
Mr. H. A. Harrison is tho efficient and ener
getio manager of this concern, and attends to
tbe interests of its proprietor, Mr. Wm. But
on, with untiring vigilance. The mills of the
concern are on Cowichan River,.and from near
the River and about Cowichan Lake draw exclusively from 8.00C acres of excellent timber
land, exporting to California and even ro far
as Africa and Australia. The mills turn out
finished doors, sashes, blinds, rough and
dressed lumber, and are pushed to their ut
most capacity—50,000 feet—to supply the large
and continual demand made for their product.
Spencer & Hastings.
Both of these gentlemen are practical workmen in every branch of photographic art Their
gallery, on Fort street, is thoroughly fitted with
the latest and bent appliances, and their plain
and fancy photographs, crayon, oil and watnr-
eolor work will compare favorably with any
north of Son Francisco. They make a specialty of the manufacture of dry plates, their production being unexcelled. The firm is well and
favorably known, and enjoys « large and increasing bn sines*.
De Wiederhold & Co.
These gentlemen have been established twenty-two years in the coal, wood, lumber and
commission business. The firm are agents for
the Cowichan Lumber Mills, and do a large
amount of exporting, both about their immediate country and to California. They are also
heavy dealers in Kanduan lime, unequalled for
the finer grades of work. They enjoy a large
and increasing trade, and are a substantial and
reliable firm.
P. T. Johnston & Co.
This firm transacts its business under the
style of the Victoria Nursery and Seed Establishment, with nursery on the Cadboro Bay
road. They are practical botanists, and intelligently handle and deal in fruit and ornamental
trees, hardy herbaceous plants, bulbs, etc.,
making a specialty of indigenous plants and
trees, in the seeds and cuttings of which they
do a large export trade, and in regard to which
they solicit correspondence, which is promptly
and intelligently answered. Their headquarters and seed store are in the Occidental Building, Fort street.
"Ihe British Colonist."
The above is the name of the leading daily
paper of Victoria, in one of the most complete
establishments on tbe coast, and representing
also a variety of other interests. The Colonist
building is one of the most imposing in the city
a four-story brick, completely filled with the
plant and material of the concern. Besides
type, imposing stones, etc., the plant includes
three lithographic presses, two of the largest
size Campbell color presses, a Hoe cylinder
Warfdale cylinder, two Gordon presses, steam
cutters and varnishers. and a large steam elevator, the only one in the province. The concern has unexampled facilities for newspaper,
job and colored label printing. Some samples
of the latter work shown would do credit to the
largest Eastern houses.
There has also lately been added a complete
plant for the manufacture and stamping of
cigar boxes.
The Colonist is a daily and veekly journal of
widespread influence, and publishes the associated press dispatches. Its local and editorial force are gentlemen of education,
long experience, and keen intelligence. Mr.
David W. Higgins, tbe proprietor, is a jcurnal-
ist in the fullest sense of the word, and a gentleman whose name is well and tavorably known
far beyond the province. The Colonist is looked
upon as an actual necessity by all classes
throughout the province, and its influence,
always directed to the best interests of the
community, is widespread and unquestionable.
Turner, Beeton & Co.
By this style is known one of the most sterling firms in the province, with a reputation for
reliability, progress and solidity that extends
all over the commercial world. Messrs. Turner, Beeton & Co. are general importers and
ship brokers, transacting their business mostly
by indents. They have lately cleared the Bhip
Estrella 4u.Chili with 30,0f>0 cases of salmon
for Liverpool, doing a steady and large business in this -direction. They have also three
canneries on the Skeena river, handling among
others the pack of the celebrated Metlakahtla
cannery. They have also exclusive agency for
the Wostenholm cuttlery, and handle large
stocks of brandy, claret, port, malt liquors,
whisky, groceries, twine, etc., from the best
known Eastern and European houses. Messrs.
H. C. Beeton & Co. represent the house in
London. Messrs. Turner, Beeton & Co. are
an important feature of business life in the
province, and personally and collectively known
as responsible, desirable business men and
citizens.
Rand & Lipsett.
This enterprising firm of resl estate brokers
and financial agents is composed of C. D. Rand
and R. Lipsett, with office on Government
street. They pay particular attention to the
care and sale of real estate in Victoria and New
Westminster city and district. Both gentlemen
have resided in british Columbia for a number
of years, and are thoroughly acquainted with
the province, tbe character of each pection, its
possibilities, prospects, etc. Those wishing to
buy or sell a farm, to invest in town lots in Victoria or New Westminster, to speculate in Coal
Harbor, Port Moody or English Bay, to borrow
or lend money, or do any business in the real
estate line, can be promptly and intelligently
waited upon by these gentlemen. They h.ive
correspondents throughout the mainland and
the entire province, keeping well advised oi
values, etc. The firm is one of the most wideawake in tbe province, and enjoys a large and
rapidly extending patronage.
Langley & Co.
In the wholesale an3 retail drug trade no
firm north of San Francisco is better known
than that of Langley & Co., which was
established as long ago as 1858. Their premises, at the corner of Yates straet and Langley
alley, ore very lar.e and complete, embracing
wholesale and re1 ail departments, packing and
storage rooms, offices and labratory, tbe latter
being supplied with ever\ thing needed by
pharmacists and chemists. The tstabishment
has a complete and well-selected stock of the
purest, freshest and most approved drugs,
medicines, proprietary preparations, surgical
instruments and supplies and toilet articles,
manufacturing a great many of their own g ods.
These gentlemen are sole agents for Gnmault
it Co., of Paris, Warner's Safe Cure, Perry
Davis' Sons, and other well-known standard
houses. The firm does a very large business
throughout the entire province and with shipping, and enjoys an enviable and well-earned
reputation of over twenty-six years. m
Odreschi. Green & Co
This firm is one of the largest banking concerns in British Columbia. Their office is on
Government street, and occupies a ground space
of 25x80 feet, being fitted with large double burglar and fire-proof vaults, and handsomely furnished with office fixtures. They do a very
large business in handling gold dust, which is
consigned to them from the Caribou and Cas-
siar districts and -s purchased from miners
direct, the reputation of the house for fairness
giving them probably the greater part of this
business. They do a general banking and
exchange business, having correspondents in
every large city in the world. Mr. A. A. Green.
of this firm, is also the agent of Wells, Fargo &
Co. for the province. The firm does a very
extensive business, and are well known as a
reliable, substantial concern.
twenty-five ^ears. Mr. Harding is a baker, and
devotes his entire time and long experience to
one product—bread. The result is an article
that is unsurpassed on this coast, and for which
Mr. Harding has a large trade, keeping a number of teams constantly employed m delivering
his wares. The flour used is the best product
of California and Oregon mills, Mr. Harding's
long experience enabling him to pick out thd
best with unerring judgment. He consumes
about 155 barrels ol flour a month, and enjoys
a large and steady trade. His bakery is on
Fort street, near Douglas.
Howard's Hotel, Esquimalt,
Mr. John Howard, who is also* Postmaster of
Esquimalt, is proprietor of this hotel, and is
a pioneer of the island, having been a resident
for over twenty six years- 'lhe house is a veritable old-fashioned English inn, stocked with
the best of wines, liquors and other comforts
for the inner man, the very mention of Howard's Hotel recalling to all who have visited it
memories of comfort, cleanliness and bospi
tility. The hotel is tbe headquaiters for the
shipping community, masters of v. ssels of all
nationalities making it their hom« on each
visit to the harbor. Mr. Howaid and his good
wife conduct one of the best hotels in the
province.
A. Gregg & Son.
This popular and leading tailoring establishment is situated at the corner of Douglas
and Pandora streets, having been established a
little over a year. The firm do a business of
from $25,000 to $30,000 a year, and give constant employment to twelve hands. They import the.r material direct from Scotland,
France, America ttnd England. They are at
present doubling the size and capacity of their
shops. Employing none but the most experienced hands, and using none but the best
material, tbe firm turn out*goods that, in dura
bility, beauty of finish, cut and style, are onex-
celle i anywhere.
Bank of British Columbia.
The Victoria branch of this standard banking company was established in 1862, and is
under the charge of Mr. W. C. Ward, manoger,
and Mr. Charles S. Jones. The company's
building is on Government street, and in a
substantial stone and brick structure. The
ba'tk is now preparing for the erection of a new
three story building at the corner of Government and Fort streets, at a cost of between
$30,000 and $40,000. They do a large general
exchange and bunking business, aud are regarded everywhere as a wound, safe and conservative concern.
E. B. Marvin,
Ship chandler and sail-maker, has been established in this business for over 24 years. Mr.
Marvin is a direct importer, and handles largely such goods as oakum, pitch, while lead,
paints, oi s, nails, canvas, varnish, glass, steam
gauges, bells, bell pulls, etc., a full line .of
everything in the way of ship chandlery, his
long experience and practical knowledge enabling him to select with rare judgment. Sail-
making in n sp-cml branch of bis trade, in
which the house has a high reputation wherever
these goods are used. Mr. Marvin's address is
Wharf street, Victoria, B. C.
Vancouver Foundry
Messrs Thomas F. and C. H. Wilson are
proprietors of this concern, both being practical iron and brass founders. The foundry is a
large one and fitted throughout with the latest
and most approved appliances known to the
trade. They do all kinds of brass and iron
work in a most finished manner, and their conscientious and intelligent attention to detail of
finish has earned for the house an enviable
name throughout the province, where they
command a large trade.
D. E Campbell & Co.
The establishment of this firm is situated on
the corner of Douglas and Fort streets, and is
one of the most tastefully arranged retail drug
stores in the city. The gentlemen are both
practical and inventive druggists, some of their
own specific preparations commanding a large
sale in and beyond their city. They make a
specialty of perfumes and toilet articles, of which
they ba^e a large stock unexcelled in quality.
The firm has been established about three yeaTB,
and has the confidence of the entire community.
Lewis Lewis
Is a pioneer resident of the province and one of
Victoria's most enter' rising business men. His
establishment on Yates Htreet contains a large
and choice selection of furnishing good«, clothing, valises, trunks, hats, etc. Mr. Lewis is a
direct importer, making his selections from the
best markets of the world. He enjoys a large
and desirable claRB of trade, and has the confidence and patronage of a very large part of the
province.
Samuel Clay.
Mr. Clay's establishment, at tbe corner of
Douglas and Johnson streets, is an important
factor in the retail grocery business of tbe province. He makes a specialty of teas, importing direct, and bundles all kinds of farm and
dairy produce, wines, liquors, cigars and general groceries. Mr. Clay's p.tronage is firmly
established and rapidly increasing, and is due
to his excellently selected stock and intelligent
business principles.
Japanese Bazaar.
An enterprise new to the province, and one
which has already met with great favor, is the
Japanese bazaar latelv started bv Mr. Charles
Gabriel and Mr. T. W. Foster, of Clinton, B. C.
The gentlemen occupy large and new premises
on Government street, filled with the choicest
ornamental and useful goods from the Orient.
A personal inspection of these novelties is
necessary in order to gain an adequate idea of
their extent and the uses to which they can be
put; such an inspection will certiinly be profitable to every householder and lover of the beautiful in art. The new enterprise nicely fills a
long felt want, and deservingly receives the
substantial support of tbe community.
A. Ofner.
Mr. Other's store is situated on Government
street, near Fort, and has been established ten
years. The house is complete in every respect,
handling a general line of groceries, provisions,
tobacco, etc. In canned goods Mr. Ofner carries the Cu'ting. Lusk, Banner and San Jose
brands. He imports cigars and tobacco directly from Canada and the East. His sugars,
as well as those of most of the other importers,
are brought from Canada, the duty on the California aricle, 35 per cent ad vaJorum. preventing importation from the coast. He quotes
Canadian tobaccos and cigars as commanding
the largest sales, principally on account of the
lower price, the dnty on the American article
being 20 per cent and 12*, per cent ad valorum.
The concern occupies a two-story building, 30
by 70 feet, and two warehouses, and makes a
specialty of its own direct importations of teas
and coffees. Mr. Ofner is a wide-awake, intelligent merchant, and commands a large wholesale and retail trade.
Victoria Baths.
This bathing and tonsorial establishment is
one of the most complete and thoroughly appointed north of San Francisco. The baths,
hot and cold, are models of luxury and cleanliness. In the barber shop five experienced
hands are constantly employed, tbe house providing shaving apparatus for over 100 private
customers, as well as attending to the wants of
hundreds of the travelling and resident customers. Mes-rs. Samuel Whittaker & Sons are
the proprietors of this excellent establishment.
The former is also a practical taxidermist, and
mounts and prepares the heads of deer, bear,
etc., killed on tbe island and vicinity. Some
of the work shown iu this line reflected great
credit on Mr. Whilttker's artistic skill, the
samples being magnificent ornaments that
would grace the balls of any mansion.
Hudson Bay Company.
This name is probably one of the most widely known in commercial circles in North Amerces, Started so long back ago that the memory
of man goeth not to the contrary, its ramifications soon embraced the northern country
from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The Victoria
agency was established in 1840. Mr. William
Charles, Inspecting Chief Factor for the company, has been identified with the great concern
since his early youth, and zealously guards its
interests. The company deals, both wholesale
and retail, in general merchandise, importing
directly There is prob bly not an individual
in the northern country who has not at some
time dealt with this great concern, and the ex
cellence of its reputation is in keeping with its
wide extent.
John Weiler.
Mr. Weiler is proprietor of one of the largest
furnitnre establishments in the north. He
occupies three entire stories of a large brick
building on Fort street, and, with the aid of the
latest and most approved machinery, in charge
of twenty experienced employees, manufactures
all grades of parlor and chamber sets,, lounges,
niattresses and upholstery goods generally.
He also makes a specialty of upholstery work, as
the sewing and laying ot carpets, hanging and
making of curtains and blinds, and hanging
of wall paper, &c. He carries a large stock o'
crockery, glassware, lamps, oilcloths, carpet-
wall paper, &c, receiving fresh additions by
each steamer. Mr. Weiler does a very large
business with the trade and the pnblic, and is
at the head of oae of the most important industries in the province, which, through his
able management, has earned a high reputation
for progress, thoroughness and reliability.
Delaney & Co.
These gentlemen are commission merchants,
handling large lines of flour, grain, feed, dairy
produce, eggs, poultry, vegetables and California fruits; giving especial attention to the last
two lines, in which they do a very large business. Their premises are large, airy and cool,
admirably adapted to tbe preservation of perishable goods. They s .In it consignments, making prompt and satisfactory returns. They
have accurate, prompt and intelligent correspondents in every direction, who keep them
advised of the condition of crop*, prices, &c,
by which they are enabled to secure the best,
latest and quickest rt turns for their consignors.
The address of the firm is Yates street, next to
American Hotel.
M. W. Waitt * Co.
Messrs. Waitt & Co. do one of the largest
wholesale and retail businesses in the North.
Their premises are 25x90 feet for the stationery department, and 20x60 for their piano and
organ department. They have the sole agency
for the Dominion Organ Co., Decker and Fisher
pianos, the Toronto Safe and Lock Co., tbe
Remington type-writer and Prang's cbromos.
At their exhibition at the Britisn Columbia
Agricultural Society's late Fair they received
the first prize for these cards. They publish an
accurate view of tbe city, as well as books,
pamphlets, charts, etc., and carry one of the
largest and most carefully selected stocks of
general stationery on the Coast. Their head
office is on Government street, near Fort.
This firm are successors to Joseph Rhode.
the business having been established over
twenty yearn. Their establishment is on Store
street and occupies two floors, each 43x60 feet.
In the upper story they carry a large stock of
staple and fancy groceries, and have a good retail trade throughout the province. The lower
story is used for a bakery, the most approved
machinery and finest material only being used.
They bake all kinds of soft bread, pilot bread,
sea biscuit, etc., and supply a large local tr-.de.
In pilot bread they deal largely with shipping
and the Indians of the province. Their goods
have a high reputation, and the house is a reliable and progressive concern.
J. Boucherat & M. Camausa.
These gentlemen are successors to A. Casa-
mayou Ac Co., established 24 years ago, and are
wholesale dealers in plain and fancy groceries,
wines, liquors, tobaccos and cigars. They are
direct importers, making specialties of French
preserves, Fredericksb-irg (S-<n Jose) beer, fine
Trench liquors and Havana cigars. Of the litter they have grides ranging in price from $58
to $140 per thousand. 'J he gentlemen are fully
experienced in the variou* lines whi b they
carry, and their stock is intelligently selected.
The hon-e is situated on Yates street, near
Wharf, and is an important one in the province.
J. Finlayson
Has one of the   most   prominent  grocery  and
selected stocks in the province. The firm make
a specialty of imported and domestic dairy products, California wines and liquors (Zinfandel,
Reisfing. Muscat and Angelica). handling also
large quantities of Canadian and American
tobaccos, flour, feed, and staple and fancy groceries. They export throughout the province
and command a large and choice trade in the
city. Having experienced and careful agents at
the headquarters of all producing countries of
the world, these gentlemen are enabled to purchase at advantageous figures tbe choicest
goods in their line obtainable. Messrs. Neu-
felder & Ross are well and favorably known
throughout British Columbia as one of the
soundest, most reliable and enterprising firms
in the province.
R Dunsmuir & Sons.
A history of British Columbia generally, and
of Victoria particularly, would be lamentably
incomplete without mention of this sterling
house, which has a wide prominence in connection with almost every prominent enterprise in
the province. Mr. Robert Dunsmuir, the head
of the house, and a member of the Colonial
Parliament, is one of the oldest residents of the
province, being a pioneer of upwards of thirty
years. To his keen foresight and business sagacity alone" are due the' inception, present
building and ultimate completion of the Esquimau and Nanaimo Railway, an industry whose
important relations to the prosperity of Vancouver Island can hardly be over-estimated.
Mr. Dunsmuir is also President of the Albion
Iron Works and of the stock company now
building a large and elegant theatre, at a cost
of $40,000, in Victoria. The firm are also proprietors of the Wellington collieries, and of an
extensive line of steam vessels, which carry this
celebrated coal all over the Pacific Coast. The
firm's interests are identified with almost every
important industry in the province, as well as
in California and Oregon, and they are known
to commercial circles all over the world as one
of the soundest, most progressive and responsible concerns in the mercantile world.
The Queen's Market,
Under this title Mr. L. Goodacre and Mr. J.
Pooley. constituting the    rm  of Goodaere  *
is on a solid foundation. Tbey make a specialty of the cooking of Olym^ia oy-ters and the
manufacture of wedding cakes on short noice,
in neither of which are they excelled. They
also bake pies, cakes, etc. The restaurant supplies excellently cooked and served meals at
reasonable " rates. Their establishment is a
large one, forty feet front, and is situated on
Yatea street, south of Government.
Victoria Transfer Co.
This concern is composed of -6. Tingley and
F. S. Barnard, two thoroughly experienced men
in the management of a general livery and
stable business. They have three large establishments in the city, and are preparing to build
another large stable fronting on both Brooghton
and Gordon streets, covering a large part of the
two entire blocks. The business of the firm is a
very large one. giving employment to a large
number of hands. They do a general stabl*\ livery
and carrying business, and any commissions entrusted to them are promptly and thoroughly
executed.
Commercial Hotel.
This hotel is situated at the corner of Douglas
and Cormorant streets,one of the quiettst neighborhoods in the city. It is a threo-story brick,
absolutely fire-proof, containing a large number
of neat and well furnished rooms, cleanliness
and order being rigidly observed throughout
every department of the hotel. The table is
unsurpassed in quality or quantity, the best
that the market affords being offered by the
proprietor, Mr. J. C. JohnRon, who is a thoroughly experienced and practical manager.
Attached to the hotel is a fine billiard room and
bar, the latter being supplied with the best
domestic and imported wines and liquors- No
Chinese are employed in or about the building,
and the admirable manner in which the hotel is
conducted has made it one of the most populsr
in the province.
Fell  &   Co.
Are one of the most important grocery and provision firms in the province.    They occupy the
greater part of the Fell block, at the corner of
Fort and Broad streets, a lnrge two-story brick,
completely stocked with
groceries,       provisions,
wines and liquors, iairy
produce, etc.    They   or<
general    Italian     rare-
housemen,    wine     and
spirit merchants.    The\
have   also   large    coffee
and  spice mills, and in
these articles have a rep-
u'ation   second to  none
in 'the   province.    Thej
command a   very  large
trade,   both    local    ai d
throughout British   Colnmbia,  and are  cue of
the most important concerns in their   line.    We
present an illustration of
their premises.
Catou, 'Wood & Co
This firm, though established but a little
over two Years, transacts
a very* large commission business, dealing in
varied lines of goods.
Among  their  specialties
ire the Pillow, Hersey
it Co. horse shoes, S.
Davis «fr Sons' cable, EI
Padra and other brands
of   cigars,    ranging    in
price from $30 to $100, fire arms of all kinds,
perfumery, hats, smokers' articles, toilet articles, etc. They represent such standard boot,
shoe and leather finding houses as R. Small-
den, Thomas & Co , J. Ritchie. Sharpe & Mc
Kinnon, Brown & Sons, Sir William Paliser ft
Co. and others: also the Eyre Spottiswood ' ta-
tionery Co. and the London Assurance Company. The firm do a large business, both at
home and throughout the Province, handling
none but the best brands of goods. They are
on a sound foundation, are progressive and re
liable, and are important factors in the commercial circles of the Province.
Grand Pacific Hotel. j - ,ftrKe trflde ^th dipping, families, hotels and
Though established but a little   over eleven   restaurants, the name of the firm being accepted
months, this hotel, under the able management   throughout  the  province   as a sufficient guar-
..-.,-    ^    .,-™,-     t. j     «j i_ I anty  of   the  quality of   the   meats.    Messrs.
of Mr. David Ellis, has earned a high reputa- | GoodaPre & Dooley are enterprising, responsi-
tion among the travelling public. The bouse ■ ble citizens and business men, and are so re-
is a large three-story fire-proof brick, on John-1 cognized throughout all   British Columbia and
, I abroad.
Saunders
streets, and its output is from tobaccos imported direct by the firm from Havana, Connecticut, Sumatra, etc. The popularity of this
manufacture, especially of the brand known as
Kurtz's Own, has lead to fraudulent imitations,
and the house has fonnd it necessary to protect their brands by registered trade marks.
During the last year 1,250.000 cigars were made
at this factory, of an aggregate value of $75,-
000. Tbe firm is an important one in commercial circles, and is recognized as a sound and
reliable concern.
Wells, Fargo * Co.
One of the pioneer enterprises of this coast
is a familiar household word all over the
United States, and, in fact, the world—that of
Wells, Fargo & Co. A description of their
ramifications and the enterprises which they
have fostered and built up would fill volumes.
Thousands owe their livelihood to this great
concern, from the humble porter to high-sa'a-
ried, shrewd railroad men, bankers acd financiers. Their system of express lines embraces
over 35,000 miles, and touches every city, hamlet and village of any importance in the United
States, and all the great cities of Europe and
Asia. Their banking, exchange and commission business is equally extensive, and the
checks and drafts of the bank of Wells, Fargo
& Co. are recognized all over the civilized
world. To their care are annually entrusted
millions of dollars' worth of valuables, bullion
and money, and all safely, accurately and expeditiously handled. The Victoria branch of
the business is in the hands of Mr. A. A.
Green, whose important relations with the
community deserve a more than passing notice. Mr. Green is an active partner in the
great banking house of Gareschi. Green & Co.
(mention of which will be found elsewhere).
These responsible positions he has filled with
great satisfaction to his principals and the
public for over ten ye irs. This agency is the
only one of the company in the Province and
has been established since 1858, making through
connection with the British Columbia Express
Co. In both branches of his business Mr.
Green exercises a vigilant supervision of his
bv<*« st'ff of a^i^tants, and his intelligent and
satisfactory handling
Dooley, transact one of the largest meat and
provision businesses north of San Francisco.
The business has been established over twenty-
six rears. The firm have their own slaughtering places, where they kill 150 head of cattle
and 600 head of sheep a month. The cattle,
fed on the nutritious bunch grass, make magnificent beef, probably unexcelled in the world,
actually extraordinary in quality, and sold at
prices that bring it within the reach of aH.
The house has the exclusive right to supply
t salt ments to the nflvy. and supplies also th •
i mess of tbe officers with fresh meats.    They do
Henry
son street, within easy distance of the business j aDro,*d
portion of the ci'y. It contains 60 well fur- j
nished rooms. The dining-room is admirably ! & «" of the busiest business men in the city,
conducted, every delicacy procurable being of- j naving large and varied interests His estab-
fered. and every department of the house is , lishment on John=on street is filled with a care-
characterized by extreme cleanliness and good j fnllv selected stock of groceries. Noble whiskies,
order. There is also in connection with the j ^^ and i ore provisions, etc. Mr. Saun-
hotel a large billiard-room   and bar, the  latter! ^ «.««„*a,   tw»  e«in
stocked with tbe finest Canadian and foreign! «*ers holds and admirably manages the sole
wines and liquors. Mr. Ellis, the host, is a | agency for the Windsor Packing Company.
man of large experience and thoroughly at ! Victoria Packing Company, steamers Pilot and
home in every department of hotel life, and j Barbara Boscowitz. and J. D. Warren's line of
has built up a large patronage for his excellent j steam schooners. In the line of groceries, pro-
fa ostelerv,
Welch, Rithet and Co.
This house controls varied interests and is
of the interests which
he guards marks him
s a gentleman of
reat executive amity. His personal
opularity has done
. great deal towards
lis success in both
he commercial and
-ocial worlds.
O. Bossi.
Mr. Bossi is a
vholesale dealer in
jroceries, wines and
quors,and has been
established in this
•usiness over twen-
y-four years. He
>ccupies two stories
0x50, on Store
treet,being the own-
jr of tnat property
ind tbe hotel adjoin-
ng. He makes a specialty of California
canned and dried
ruits, dairy produce,
re , and French and
iforniawines. He
an experienced
and careful man of
business, and commands an extensive trade,
which is rapidly growing.
Findley, Durham and Brodie.
The Victoria branch of this well-known firm
has been established for twenty years, and is at
present under the efficient management of Mr.
Mathew T. Johnson, who has had charge of the
business for nearly ten years. In addition to
their large trade in exporting salmou, lumber,
etc., they are agents for the Cowican sawmills,
thiry miles north of Victoria, controlling two
thousand acres of heavily timbered land. They
have also the sole British Columbian Agency for
Cameron & Sannders' Bass* ale.Moline & Co's,
Guinness' Dublin stout, Danville & Co's Irish
whisky, Bisquit. Dubouche A Co's brandy,
Krug * Co's champagne and other standard
brands of liquors, as well as varnishes, cocoa,
oilmen's stores, twines.etc, of celebrated makes.
Tbey represent the Northern Fire Assurance
Co., London, the British and Foreign Marine
Insurance Co., Liverpool and the Royal Mail
Steam Packet Co., London. The house has its
headquarters in London, England, and is a
sound, responsible and progressive concern.
Queen City Planing  Mills.
These mills are under  the   proprietorship of
Messrs.  Johnson, Wa'ker A   Flett, and form
one of the most complete establishments in tbe
province.    They manufacture   and  deal in all
meats and vegetables. They slaughter their
own beef, mutton and pork, handling very
large quantities, and doing an extensive trade
with ships, hotels and families, supplying all
demands at the shortest notice and most reasonable rates. They keep- constantly on hand
mess beef and pork, and deliver all good
throughout the city free of charge. The firms
is a responsible one, popular with the community and in tbe enjoyment of a large trade.
Adulteration and Misrepresentation.
In their efforts to retain and enlarge their
trade with the North, particularly with British
Columbia, some California merchants have lost
sight of or fail to recognize an important feature
in the trade—that of an honest exportation of
invoice in accordance with the quality of samples on which trade has been secured. This
stricture may give offense to 6nch dealers as
the shoe pinches, but is warranted by a personal interview with British Columbian merchants and a personal comparison between
samples and invoices. Tbe subject is an old
one and has been frequently handled by newe-
papers, particularly by the trade press; but it
comes with particular force and importance at
the present time, when California merchants
are earnestly striving to regain the Northern
trade. Complaints were made to a representative of this paper at Victoria of the adulteration
and misrepresentation of California goods
shipped to that quarter, and deeming the subject one of importance, an investigation was
made, resnlting in a substantiation of these
complaints in each case. "As soon as a fair
reputation is made fora particular brand, "said
a representative and wide-awake English merchant, "the goods often deteriorate wofully,
the American manufactuier in many cases reducing the quality far below the standard of
samples and original invoices. The result is a
mistrust of American manufacture in all
grades. ' Samples were submitted to our representative, together with invoices, showing a
degradation in quality of from five to sixty per
cent. A large part of the goods showed al'most
criminal misrepresentation, while some were so
fearfully adulterated as to bear little or no resemblance to the samples on the strength of
which they were bought.
English merchants are good judges of their
various lines—many of them experts—and are
not to be deceived by inferior grades. Victoria
is a distributing point for the entire province of
British Columbia, commanding a trade that is
of serious importance, and to which should be
sent only honest manufactures. Far-seeing
dealers will nnrse this trade as carefully, and in
some respects even more carefully, than any
other, and to their own advantage,
Van Volkenbargh & Bro.
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL BUTCHERS,
Cor. Government and Yates Sts.
Purveyor* to H. R. H. the Prince,, Louise and H. E. the Marquis of Lome, H. M.  Navy,
Pacific Coast Steamship Co., Oregon Railway and Navigation Co., Canadian
Pacific Navigation Co., for Fresh Meat and Vegetables.
SH'PS, FAMILIES, HOTELS ANO RESTAURANTS SUPPLIED AT THE SHORTEST NOTICE
Mess Beef and  Pork  Constantly on  Hand.
C. D. BAND, Notary Public.
B. LIPSETT
RAND & LIPSETT,
REAL ESTATE BROKERS
AND..
FINANCIAL
Government Street,
AGENTS,
Victoria, B. O.
Particular Attention g ven to Real Estate in Viotoria and New Westminster City and Diatric
FELL & COMPANY,
IMPORTERS AND DFALER8 IN
GROCERIES     PROVISIONS     FRUITS    ETC.
COFFEE   AND  SPICE  MILLS,
WINE    AND    SPIRIT    MERCHANTS,
General Italian Warehousemen,
FORT  STRESr,    - -_^- VIOTORIA, B. C.
All Shipping Orders Completely and Promptly Filled and Delivered per Express
Van Free of Charge.
ALWAYS   ASK   FOR   FELL'S   OOPFBB   AT   THK   MINKS,
visions, wines and liquors, Mr. Sannders has a] kinds of sashes, doors, blinds, window and door
.arge and desirable trade, and in the carrying
trade represents more than a moiety of the business of the province. He gives his personal
attention to ev. ry branch of his business, and
is known throughout British Colnmbia as one
of her most enterprising and reliable citizens.
Occidental Hotel.
Mr. Luke Tither, the proprietor of this hotel,
is a thorough master of the business in all its
details, and to his untiring vigilance and the
application of his practical ideas is  due the
one of the largest and most important in the
province. They do a general banking, commission and transportation business, And are
heavy exporters and importers of gene raI
merchandise. They represent important insurance interests, a large nnmber of standard
manufacturers and several shipping lines. Mr.
R. P. Ritbet, of this firm, is the President of
the Victoria Board of Trade. Messrs. Welch,
Rithet & Co., have their headquarters on Wharf street, and are commercially one of   the most important	
- -txranecrrniB with every important city
in the mercantile world.
Vancouver Brewery.
Tbe brothers R. and T. W. Carter
are the proprietors of this thoroughly
appointed brewery, which has a capacity of 288 gallons, brewing three times
per week. The Messrs. Carter have
the exclusive right of supplying the
*Canteen,"a pleasure resort designed
exclusively for the use of sailors for
the British navy. They also supply
the officers of the nuvy with malt
liquors of all kinds, their brew having
h reputation excelled by none in the
province. The product of this brewery is conhidered fully the equal of any import- | great popularity of this  excellently  conducted
frames, mouldings, etc., and-do all kinds of
wood turning, gig and band sawing to
order, and build any desired kinds of ^ood
mantels, store counters and fronts, and other
inside finish, furnishing estimates on request.
Their lumber is dried by their patent "Excelsior Dry Kiln," insuring perfect seasoning.
Their factory, on North Government street, occupies two stories, 100x50 feet, and is furnished with the most improved machinery. The
industry is an important one, and receives substantial support from all quarters.
W. R. Clarke.
Tbe merchant who will act carelessly with this trade or
without due consideration for fair business
principles, adopting the penny-wise and pound-
foolish policy, not only injures his own business, but that of every other dealer in the
United States, creating a distrust and making a
bad name for all American industries in a section of country that is destined to be of paramount importance in our commercial circles.
We heartily dislike to resd a lecture on this
subject, but are justified iu it and think that we
will be thanked by conservative business men
for suggesting a bint of which practical observance will undoubtedly be taken. A word to the
wise, particularly to those who are interested in
the retention and enlargement of this trade,will
not be amiss.
THE   KING   TYE   COMPANY,
WHOLESALE IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN
GROCERIES, OPIUM, ETC.
ainniafaotvirers    of     Olotlilns.
TEMl'ORAltY   Ol'r'ICK:
CORMORANT ST.,   ;-    -    -    VIOTORIA, B. O,
Exports from tbe Port of Victoria B.
During the Quarter Ending Dec.
1882.
Gold In dost and bars f25VMf.
t-osl. .vj.sistun"  1*0.101-.
Iron Ore, 100 tons ,>tl 00
Total HS6.J.12
THK rrsBXaiBs.
sslmon. canned, 7,TO*,038 Vs*...
Salru  i). smoked	
Sa'moo, p ckl'd. 1033 bols	
Hslibut. rrtBh. 2.095 ft*	
Herri   K-. pickled, 208 bbl	
Flab, oiber, plckl, d. 8 obis	
Ftsb Oil. 13.<28 galls	
Marine Furu	
Fl.h Manure	
$323,393
m
7.M3
l&J
l.i*i
aa
s,o*a
.      2.901
20
Totsl $340,571
THK  FOHVST.
Plant, and Boards %
MtaUsnd Spirs, 223	
7.SI7
433
Total $ 8,04)0
ANIMALS  ASD  THS1K PKO   rcK.
Horned Tslt'e. 65 $ 2.042
Batter. 67 lbs  St
Furs, andr* sed  18,631
Hi <es. Horns snd Hoof*  15.477
Hest.. fresh in 1 sslr, 19 009 ft*....  1,323
Wool, SMS? lbs  5,900
Feuther-. 35 Bw  «
Hair, e03 Ibi    100
Totsl S 43.930
S1ISCKI LAKK.1C8.
Indian Curios.... S
100
aKcAprrCLATroK.
Produre of ihe M'nes $436,253
r-roduce of tbe Fisheries  840.671
Produce of tbe For St       8,080
Aniasi.ard their Produce     42,9:10
MlBce.lsneous  101
Grand Total.
 $1,338,934
Public Schools
The public  schools are  iu the hands of the
people—free to all, without distinction of race
or oreed—strictly non-sectarian—highest morality inculcated—no religions dogmas or creeds
cd goods, and the proprietors have built up a
very large trade, which is constantly increasing
through the actual merit of their output.
R. Maynard.
Since 1>G2 this house has been an important
one in the boot and shoe trade. Mr. Maynard
supplies tbe trade with lea ther and shoe findings, boots and shoes, doing a I.irge trade in his
own monnfactnre of boots and shoes, rubber
font wear, etc., throughout the province. He
is also proprietor of a large and thoroughly appointed photograph gal ery, which has been es
hostlery. The building itself is large and
commodious, thoroughly fire-proof brick. Its
situation is an excellent one, at the corner of
Wharf and Johnson streets, fronting on the
whnrves of tbe California, Puget Sound and
Frazer River steamers and commanding a
beautiful view of the harbor. The main portion of the building was f-rected in 1858, since
which time it has been enlarged, and now contains 7U light and well furnished rooms. The
dining-ro«»m has ample capacity for nil gne*t*
of the hriu^e. and, having the pick of the markets, the tables are supplied with the best  and ' earned confidence and good  will of the entire
ing also the offices of harbor master
and port warden. His salesrooms are
in a large fire proof building on Yates
street. To facilitate the sale of real
estate he has complete maps of Victoria, Esquimalt, New Westminster and
the Districts. He makes liberal advancements on consignments, and
parties desiring to avoid the trouble of
an auction sale will find a cash purchaser by calling on Mr. Clarke. He
has also the agency for the British
Columbia Wire Works, filling all or-
<lers in this line with neatness and
desp- tch. Mr. Clarke is a pioneer of
the colony and one of her most enterprising business men.
Lowen & Erb.
Mr. Joseph Lowen and Mr. L. E. Erb, are
proprietors of the Victoria Brewery, the oldest
one in the province, having been established
over twenty-six years, and under charge of
these gentlemen since 1870. Their brew of
malt liquors is a formidable competitor even to
imported Hrticles, and bas a high reputation for
purity and flavor wherever known. Throughout the province and with shipping the firm
does an extensive  business, and has the well-
tabtished 2-t years, making a specialty of pho-
. tofiraphs of scenerv throughout Britisl. Colum-
praYiaion stores in the city, situated on Govern- [ £, Gf which he has a l.rge anda.t.stic Mo.-U.
ment street, n«ar Fort. He handl< s largely the j His factory, store and gallery are sun <i- .1 at
California Cimrker Co.'s goods, Gnittard's choc- ■lhe corner of Donglas aud Johnson street*,
olrites. Cutting and  S»n  Jo«#* canned  goods, j King Tye and   ""o.
Skeena River ca  ned clams and a l»rk!e and ex-I     „,.   . ,   ,,    ., .—.
ce.Ient assortment of teas c.flees. dairy pro- | This is probably the most important Chinese
duce and gene al groceries. Mr. FinUyson en- j concern in the province, and is in:enti6ed also
joys a larve trade, and hia bouse has a high rep- ! with the firm of Tye Soong *fc Co. Thev are
utation throughout the province. I krge dpajera in pocerjes and Chinese general
William   Jordon merchandise, making a specialty of dry goods.
Mr. Jordon is proprietor of the City  Bakery ' They are direct importers, and are a'so owners
and Grocery on Johnson street. The establishment is one of the neatest in the city, and we 1
siocked wi'h an excellent class of goods. Mr
Johnson enjoys a large local trade and is an eu-
terpri-ing and reliable business man.
Samuel Gray.
We present herewith an ill us'ration of a patent com1 ination safety elevator and twin
stars, the invention of Mr. Samuel Gray. Th's
elevator is the safest, and occupies le«s room
than any oth*-r ever invented.    The twin stairs
of considerable real estate in the province. To
Mr. W. Cumyon, the intelligent manager of the
English branch of the busiufss, is due in no
small measure its enviable success. The house
has a high reputation throughout the province
tor reliability and enterprise, and is of recognized importance in heavy commercial circles.
W. J. Tippena
Is a thoroughly practical confectioner, and tbe
manager of one of the largest candy manufactories in the Province. Mr. Tippens has
been established in this business for five years,
and does a large wholesale and retail local and
export trade. The capacity of bis works is
abeut 300 pounds a day. At the last Fair of
tbe British Columbia Agricultural Association
his wares took tbe first prize over all competitors. He uses nothii-g but the purest sugar and
fruit extracts, and his goods advertise themselves through their actual merit,
S. Leiser.
Mr, Lt-iser does a large wholesale and retail
grocery    business,   impoittng   his   goods   di
rect.    His  spices and coffees are selected by
experts with the utmost care, forwarded to Victoria, and there ground, their purity and  quality  being  thus   assured.    Mr. Leiser makes a
specialty   of   tropical  ond domestic  fruits, of
J which be carries a Hrge  stock  in   season.      In
I dairy prodnce ami general groceries he does ■
large business, ami haa earned  the confidence
and a l»<rge share of the patronage of tbe community.    His address is Johnson street.
Elite Gallery.
are self supporting, requiring no walls, parti- i Mr. Lewis Peterson is the proprietor of this
lions or iron columns. They prevent obstnic- ! popular photographic institution, and is Ihor-
tion as one is for ascending and the other d«- | nnRnIv familiar with every branch of the busi-
scending, are highly ornamental,  and   can  be i      **    J,_. ,, ._   ,_ .    .        , .
constructed of wood or iron. The elevator.can ne88- Thc B*"^ rovers 40l4° feet' nnd tnn,s
he worked by mannal, horse or steam power, out artistic gems in panel, promenade and
The stairs and elevator hav,-   met   with marked j bohdoir portraits.    Mr. Peterson uses   no-bine
but the most approved appliances known to the
daintiest viands in profusion. An agreeable
feature of the dining-room is tbe presence of
tour attractive young girls, yclept Martha,
Mollii, Mary and Sarah, who qnic-ly, inM'i-
gently, noiseless'y and modestly snpp'y the
wants of guests, seeming almost to anti ipate
what is desired. A quiet 1 ut elegantly fur-
utshe.i bar a'.d billiard-room is connected with
the hotel, the bar being supplied with the
choicest brauds of Canadian and foreit-n liquors. While f sseutially a h tel, tbe Occidental
bas more of the nature of a quiet and com-
fortab e home, and no neater, cleaner or comfortable hostelery exists in the North.
Bavaria Brewery.
Mr. H. Walther, the proprietor of this, one of
the neatest and   most thoroughly nppointed ee-
tablishmentsin thecity,is a thoroughly practical
brewer,and the resultof his experience and care-
community.
Eli Harrison.
Mr. Harrison's name is a familiar one to all
bu-ines-» men in the province, having been a
resident for over twenty-six years. He does a
very large business, with entire satisfaction to
his patrons, in painting, glazing, wall papering, carriage painting, etc. He has also the
exclusive agency for the celebrated W, R. Bent-
ley Star Mixed Paints, which are very popular
with the trade. Mr. Harrison gives employment to a large number of hands, and is everywhere recognized as a reliable and progressive
man of bubiness.
A. B. Franc ia
Is a leading dealer in hardware, crock ery, wood-
enware, cutlery, tinware, etc.,  with   headquarters at the corner of Johnson and Store streets.
fill management is a brew of ale, beer aud porter   Mr. Francis is a careful and thoroughly experi-
success wherever offered. Mr. Gray offers
rights for sale throughout the T'nited States.
His San Francisco «d<lfm !■ Ra IMS Kfaarioa
Btreet.
"The Senate.
The above is the title of one of the con est,
neatest and best conducted saloons in the pro
vince, situated on Gorernment street, opposite
tbe Northern Eipress ('ompany's office. Messrs
B. C. Pettingell and Amos Wider are the proprietors of the "Senate," and to their no irinp
efforts is due it« popnla.ity. The i-aloon ha** a
large patronage from the bett'-r il«-s of Vieto-
ria's citizens, is stocked with the best VnoM and
liquors, and order and nnietnes-. ar<- riL'idU
maintained A lance reading room, where the
)at*-st issues of standard publications are kept,
is attached to the place.
Harrison o> McAliat r
These gentlemen are situated on Johnson
street, above Government, and do a very large
grocery husi nesa They have been established three years, and «re direct importers of
groceries, wines and liquo-s. Tiny have the
sole agency for the celrbrxted Kitlup River
Fishing Company's boneless r-alraon. for which
they have built up a very large trade. They
are conservative, progressive men. and intelligently handle an extensive business.
Steitz Bros.
One of the cosiest and neatest restaurants and
bakeries in the province, is that which bears the
above caption, and of which Mr George Steitz
and Mr. J. P. Pelletier are proprietor!.. The
business bas been established  since   1871, and
f large p
^ allt-ry is on
profession, and makes a Specialty
trait*, landscapes and views. Thi
Government street
Bank of British Nortli America
This bank is situab'd on Vatim Bt»tt, between
laingley and 'rovemra- nt, and is • ne of the
soundest concerns in the province. Thev da a
general banking and exchange husinrs--. buy
goid dn--t, etc., and have correspondents in all I
important cities in each hemisphere. Their
conservative business principles nn<
responsibility lmv.- built up
that bas attained a great popularity throughout
tbe city and province. The business has been
established over fourteen years, and pays its
practical proprietor a handsome return. The
name Bavaria is a particularly appropriate one,
Mr. Walther being a native of that home of
Gambrinns, devoting to his trade in Victoria
his experience in that country. The Bavaria
ranks high in its line in the province, doing a
large home and export business.
Empire Bakery.
Under tbe proprietorship of Mr. J. J. Moore,
a thoroughly practical man in his line, this
neat aud excellently appointed bakery has be*
come extremely popular in Victoria. From
ordinary buscnit and bread to delicately flavored and artistically prepared weddinir cake,
tbs bakery does a large business. In connection with the bakery Mr.-^*fr«oTe KSB aTfiS a
neat grocery store, well stocked with an excellent selection of staple and funcy groceries, in
which he commands a large retail trade. The
store aud bakery are on the corner of Fort and
Iflnuchard streetp.
Victoria Bakery.
This is one of the Pioneer establishments of
Victoria, having la-en established over twenty-
Nix years. The bakery consumes something
ovet 100 barrels of flour a month, aud its output, in purity, flavor and general excel ence,
bas built up an *-nvinble reputation for the
establishment, which haa the patronage of the
elite of the province, as well aS a large trade
throughout the province. Mr. M. ft. Smith,
the proprietor, is a thoroughly practical man,
and a ma-t-r of the business in every detail,
and to his intelligent management of the bus-
ineea is due in do small measure its success.
Phcemx Brewery.
Ale, porter nnd beer, of unexcelled quality,
and to the amount of 60,000 gallons a year, are
produced at this brewery, which is thoroughly
supplied with the most approved machinery.
Mr. Charles Gowen. the proprietor, and his
sons, are thoroughly practical men in every
branch of this boaiaaaR, and the results of their
expert* nee are HOVJ in the exex llent goods which
they offer t» the publn- and trade, with whom
they do a large and constancy increasing busi
known
lien He for this
valuable as it is extensive.
concern that i:
Came aud Minis.e.
This firm consists of F. Carne, J
In nun The boun has been established for
ni:inv years, ami has earned, de-.rvedly. a large
share of the patronage of the province.
a. McLean & Co.
Are situated on Fort street, and carry a very-
large «nd intelligently selected stock of gentlemen's clothing, furnishing goods, bats ana
caps. They OL-cupy two stories, 25x">> f-et.
ami have been established twenty-three years.
I Th-- g oils of   this house an selected by Sir.
and Wm.
Munsie, and though established bnt little over
half a year, has already built up a large retail
grocery  trade.    They  handle  a  well   s< Ic-ti ,1
stock of Oregon and Island pr duce, ruined I Mel.-an iu peison. who makes regular trips to
goods «nd general groceries, and by strut ob- j Europe and ibe Eisl for that purpose, sending
servance of conservative business principles j to tbe house a stock unexcelled in quality and
command a large patronage.    Their store is in   atlowfiguns.    Tiie firm has  a string hold OB
the patronage ef the entire community, and is
one of the most reliable and progressive in the
the Odd Fellows' tiuildmg
Neufelder & Ross.
This firm was established over ten jean ago
by Mr. E. C. Neufelder snd Mr. T). H. Ross,
and is one of the most important wholesale and
reb.il grocery establishments north of San
Francisco. Tbey oecupy two stories on Government street, 22x110. completely filled with
one   of   the  most  carefully and  intelligently
province.
. Kurtz and Co.
This is the largest cigar manufactory of the
! province, giving employment to about fifty
hands, and is the pioneer, exclusively white-labor factory of the trade. The factory occupies
the entire upper story of the large brick building at the corner of Government and Trounce
enced business man. and handles in a large way
one of the best selected stocks in the province,
in size and variety capable of supplying anything from a small cabin to a palatial hotel.
Hi* trade is an extensive one, and is rapidly increasing.
A. Bossi and Co.
This firm, composed of A. Bossi and Charles
Giesselmann, does a heavy retail and jobbing
grocery trade. Tbe business has been established since 1858. The store is a large one,
30x60 feet, and is situated on the corner of
1 Yates and Broad streets. The firm dees a
targe business in coffees, teas, canned goods,
wines, liquors and fancy and staple dry goods.
They are backed by a large capital of their
own, and are one of the enterprising and responsible firms in the province.
William Grimm
Is a practical blacksmith and farrier. His
premises, on Johnson street, between Douglas
and Broad, occupy a space 90x75 feet, and are
tilled with the most approved machinery for the
j execution of carriage and agricultural implement work and all Kinds of repairing and job
work. Ten skilled bands are constantly employed, and the business, which was established tourteen years ago, has attained enviable proportions.
John Robertson.
Mr. John Roliertson is a practical blacksmith
and boilermaker, and a pioneer of the province.
His large establishment, on Store{street, 00x120
feet, is filled with the latest and most approved
machinery, and turns out the most finished
steamboat and ships' work, agricultural implements, miners' tools, etc. Mr. Robertson gives
employment to » large number of skilled hands,
and enjoys a large and constantly increasing
trade.
rhos   Nicholson.
Mr. Nicholson conducts one of the grocery
stores in this city, admirably stocked with carefully selected goods, at the corner of Pouglass
and Johnson streets. He has been in the business eight years, and has built up a large
trade. He handles also large stocks of hay,
grain and feed, and has lately built a large, two-
story warehouse for the latter lines, adjoinin.:
his store. He is a live man, and deserves the
large patronage which he has secured.
Muirhead and Mann.
The Victoria Planing Mills, of which these
gentlemen ore proprietors, are situated at Rock
Bay bridge. They manufacture and deal in
mouldings, doors, windows, blinds, sashes, etc.,
and do all kinds of planing and sawing to order. The material used is the l>est seasoned
lumber, and all their orders are filled promptly
and intelligently. The firm deserves and has
gained a large patronage,
Br.tlsh Columbia Market
Messrs. B. and Isaac Van Volt;enburgb, comprising the firm of Van Volkenbnrgh *fr Bro.,
are proprietors of this market, which is a very
larg' establishment at the corner of Government and Yates streets. They are purveyors
to H. R. H. Princess Louise and H. E. the
Marquis of Lorne, H. M. Navy, Pacific Coast
S. S. Co., Oregon Railway aud Navigation Co.,
Canadian  Pacific   Navigation   Co.,   for   fresh
Total Gooda tb© product* of <">n»d».
(J cod a not tbo produce ot Canada	
.91,327,933
11,011
—tuiifaEzn ti*ii-HcA<-ilco
I every year by t"
the -Provincial Assembly—
school vote, 1884, over $75,000—a Superintendent of Education, who visits and inspect]
School Districts where there are 15 pupils between 5 and 15 yeans—the p< ople choose every
year from among themselves three School True,
tees to manage schools—trustees get tnonev
from "Public School Fund," on application
endorsed by Superintendent of Education -
teachers, three grades—appointed or removed
by Trustees—must have certificates of qualification from the Department of Education.
The settler will well know how to estimate
the capabilities of this school system. The St.
John's (New Brunswick) Telegraph newspaper
says: "Let us take care that the young sister
province on the Pacific does not lead Nt
Brunswick in education." '1 here is an excellent high school at Victoria, and one is being
established at New Westmioster. There are
very good church schools and private schools,
for both sexes, in several of the large towns
An education befitting the children of gentlemen can be obtained for both boys and girls at
Victoria, New Westminster, Nanaimo, etc., on
reasonable terms.
Bay Tannery.
Messrs. E. C. Johnson and R. Magirl are the
proprietors of this establishment, which
thoroughly appointed throughout. The business was founded in 1883. The firm prepare
and tan all kinds of hides, calfskins, sola and
upper leather, harness, &c, using forty-two
vats. They solicit consignments of hi.lei and
calfskins, making prompt returns, and have
built up a large trade.
J. and J Flett.
This firm is an important factor in the retail
grocery trade of the Island. They deal largely
in English fancy groceries, California canned
goods and biscuits and general groceries, making a specialty of teas and coffees, which they
import direct. The firm has been established a
little over three years, and has the confidence
of the entire community.
Hunting aud Angling;.
To the sportsman and angler the province is
attractive. The sportsman has his choice of
easy shooting in the more pettled districts, where
various kinds of grouse.prairie chickens.quails,
ducks, snipe and geese abound, with the com-
STEITZ BROTHERS,
Restaurant  and Bakery,
YATES STREET, NEAR GOVERNMEN \ ViCTORIA. B   C
WEDDING CAKES OP ALL STYLES
MADE   TO   ORDER   AT   SHORTEST   NOTICE.
Pies   and   Cakes   of   Every  Description.
CHAS.   E.   REDFERN,
WATCHMAKER AND JEWELLER,
Government Street,       - -      Victoria, B. O.
CHRONOMETERS, WATCHES, CLOCKS ANO JEWELRY
REPAIRED AND GUARANTEED.
OPTICAL GOODS IN GREAT VARIETY.
CHARLES MORTON,
IMPORTER AND DEALER IN
Books, Stationery. Cutlery, Fancy Goods, Etc.
A   FULL LINE   OF
SEASIDE AND FRANKLIN SQUARE LIBRARIES.
ORDERS FILLED WITH PROMPTNESS AND CARE.
Government Street,
Victoria. B. C.
Subscriptions Received for all Newspapers and Periodicals.
CTOHliT
CM
IMPORTER. WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN
FXjmisri,T,or^Hst
,A.SSAV^I*JE.   CARPETS,   ETC.
UPHOLSTERY IN ALL ITS BRANCHES.
Fell's Block, Fort Street,
Victoria, B. C.
WELLS, FARGO & CO'S EXPRESS
CARRIES   AND   DELIVERS   PROMPTLY
Letters, Money, Valuables, Packages, Parcels, Merchandise, Etc.
MAKE5 COLLECTIONS AND FILLS COMMISSIONS.
The Company's linM covering over 35,000 miles, extend over Railroad, Stag" nnd Bte
boat root<-s throughout the States mod Territories weat of the Missouri and Mississippi m
inelnding a through line to the City of Mexico, by steamships and San Franciaoo to all Pa
Steam-
rivers,
aciflc
Coast Ports, embracing Alaska, and from New Orleana and  New York  to  Liverpool, London,
Havre, Paris and Hamburg.
Connections are made at Eastern termini with the American. Adams, Cnitcd States and
Southern Expreas Companies, thoa reaching Cniieil States and Canadaa. More than 10,(100
agencies.    Low rates and quick diapatch.
A. A. GREEN,. Agent, Victoria, B. C.
T. N. HI B HEN & CO.
IMPORTING
Booksellers and  Stationers,
MASONIC    BUILDING,
Government Street,      - Viotoria, B. C.
[ XI »T A 3£3 TjI
X1X9   IJXT   18O0.1
Foil Office Building. Victoria,  B. C
mon deer; or if he lovesthard sport, the moau-
tain goat, mountain sheep, ounboo, American
elk, and bean*, both black aud Rrizzly, will try
his endurance and pr woks. The fur bearing
nnimalft of the zone art1 numerouK. An experienced trapper can inttke good wages iu m»ny
parts of the province. Excellent angling
streams abound. In the lakes, as above Buid,
sturgeon, white fish,and many varieties ot tiout
and perch may be caught.
A. W Lawson.
Mr. Lawson's livery ntnl 6m d stables, at the
corner of Trounce and Hroad streets, are well
known to all Victorians. Mr. 1-awaon has
hicks, carriages and buggies for rent at all
hours, and his liv:> ;*nd r»> ling stock are the best
procurable. The buxiuesK has been establish
ed for six year*, aud u profitable and steadily
increasing.
Thk uovemknt East of Oregon fruit, which
all far-seeing people predicted would tollow tbe
completion of the railroad, has begun in earnest. Telegraphic and mail orders are being
received daily by dealers in Portland from
points along the line of the Northern Pacific as
far East aa St. Paul, and even from Winnipeg,
Manitoba. Several car loads, also, have been
forwarded on orders of the Urge dealers in ( al-
ifornii. fruit in St. Paul and Chicago. It has
been reported that Oregon fruit has been voted
iu the I-asd rn markets below that from California. If this ia true, it will be but temporary,
as the superior quality of the Northern fruit
will soon make it appreciated, even if somewhat smaller in size than tbe Southern product. California fruit has won a great and exaggerated reputation, having occupied the field
alone for fifteen years: bnt merit will make itself felt, and it cannot be long Iwfore it* precedence will give way to th« delicious Iraits of
Oregon.
JAPANESE BAZAAR,
CHAS.   GABRIEL   &   CO..   Proprietors.
IMPORTERS   im WHOl.KSAI.V. DEALERS IN
JAPANE tat-E.    O O O I> «s» ,
■   -SUOH  -A.6S....
Teas, Vases, Porcelain, Bronze aofl Lacqner Wau, Silts. Etc.
GOVERNMENT   ST..  V CTORIA.   B.   C.
Wm.
VICTORIA
M hit!akrr & Sonv
BATHS>
Proprietors
JOHNSON STREET, NEAR GOVERNMENT, VICTORIA, B. C.
SHAMPOOING AND HAIR DRESSING.
Private Rooms for Ladies and Children.
PRIVATE    CUP8    FOR    REGULAR    CUSTOMER8.
ttnii \ CITY VlAMMi MILLS,
JOHNSON,   WALKER    &   FLETT.   PROPRIETORS.
iivmriiKiB.   AND   i>K\i.t 11-   IN
All Kinds of Sash, Doors, Blinds, Glared  Sash. Moulding, Window and  Door Frames,
Brackets. Scrolls and Piazza Fillings, including all kinds of Gig and
Band Sawing for Ornamental Purposes.
WOOD   TURNING   O*   EVERY   DE.CRIPrlON   TO   ORDER.
New.l PosU. Balosten. Ratlinaa. rtc, St.-. El-g.nt Woo t Hanbsl*.  at r.  Oonot.ra  and  FYoiits, OnV. ftwtU and
. -oih.r Iisld. rini.h.    Wit. oar Patent Ptcam " Kictiator Dry Kiln." ir. can a.a T. tar ca>toii>ots
Inst th.r will a*t goods mat ufaf tut. I fjom tho oughlr s* aoitpd Inmbsr
•ST-  Prlrr   Lists,   K.llmal.a   and   olh.r    Informal Ion    faralsh.il   aa>   .ppllr.ll.a
FACTORY, NORTH 00VFRNMENT STREET,      -     -      -     -    'VICTORIA, |. C.
P. O. B>i 3«S A fall was] Casapl.t. PJlot-a rewstantlr ob llaad SAN FRANCISCO JOURNAL OF COMMERCE AND PRICE  CURRENT.—Victoria, B. C, Edition.
ESQCTIMALT    AND   HANATMO  R.   H.
History   of  an  Important   Enterprise—A
Railway to Open one of the Richest
Countries in the World.
The Victoria and Nanaimo Railway, now in
oonrse of construction through Vancover Island,
from Esquimalt to Nanaimo, is, in proportion,
probably the greatest enterprise yet undertaken
in British Columbia, and one whose important
relations to the industries and general prosperity can hardly be estimated. From the San
Francisco Bulletin of August last we qnote the
following
BISTORT  nT THE  INTEBPBiaE:
It appears in the history of this enterprise
that on the 21st of August, 1883, the Coloma,
Legislature passed a bill entitled "An Act relating to the Island Railway, the Graving Dock,
and Railway Lands of the Province. This
till is prefaced by a preamble reciting the existence of negotiations which had for some time
been pending between the Canadian Government and British Columbia, relating to the
construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
and reciting that for the purpose of settling all
existing disputes and difficulties between the
two Governments, it had been agreed to release
certain landB on the mainland, within the
Provinoe of British Columbia, to the Government of Canada, and also to convey to the
Canadian Government three and one-half millions of acres of land in Peace River district
of British Columbia, in one rectangular block
east of the Rooky Mountains, and adjoining
the Northwest Territory of Canada. And the
Government of Canada, on its psrt, after the
adoption by the Legislature of British Columbia of tbe terms of the agreement, should seek
the sanction of the Canadian Government to
enable it to contribute to the construction of a
railway from Esquimau to Nanaimo the sum of
$750,000, and to place that monev in the hands
of the authorities of British Columbia, for the
purpose of subsidizing a railroad line, described
!>■ tbe agreement and situated on  Vancouver
FIREMAN'S FUND INSURANCE CO.
Si£?n*    of  Itas   >Growth   and
Pi-ospeiri-fcy.
Enlarged Accommodations—Spacious and
Elegant Offices.
LANIlS  WlTHJH  TBS  RAELWAT   BH,T,
The GoTernuoent of Canada was to be bound
by the agreement to offer for sale the lands
-within the railway belt upon the mainland upon
liberal terms to actnal settlers; while the Government of British Columbia was to offer a subsidy in lands, to be joined to the subsidy given
by the Government of Canada, for the immediate construction of a railroad from Esquimau
to Nanaimo, which road was to be computed
by tbe 10th day of June, 1887. This agreement
was to be accepte^by tbe province as a full settlement of all claims against the Dominion
Government on account of delays in the commencement and the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway and the non-construction
of the Esquimau and Nanaimo Railway. To
simplify it to its lowest terms: tbe province of
British Columbia claimed to have been damaged
by the delay in the commencement and construction of the Canadian Pacific Hallway and
in the failure to construct the Esquimau and
Nanaimo Railway on Vancouver Island.
A  CASH  BUBSIDY.
Whereupon a Commission appointed by both
Governments agreed that tbe Canadian Government should subsidize a road on Vancouver
Island, from Esquimau to Nanaimo, with a
cash subsidy of $750,000, and should permit
the Provincial Government to give an additional subsidy in lands located on the isl ml
and immediately contiguous to tbe line of the
road. The Government of Canada was to purchase the dry dock at Esquimau for tbe sum of
$250,000, and to complete that work as a Dominion enterprise, and should further pay to
the Province of British Columbia whatever
amounts might have been expended by tbe
Provincial Government. The Provincial Government was then to give the Government of
Canada three and one-half millions of acres of
land in the Peace River District in British
Columbia, in one rectangular block east of the
Rocky Mountains, as heretofore specified. In
pursuance of the result of this conference, the
Legislative Assembly of the Province of British Columbia ratified, by an enactment, the
action of the Commissioners and made an appropriation of about two millions of acres of
land on Vancouver Island, and ceded three
and one-half millions of acres of land to tbe
Government of Canada, in the Peace River
District. The Government of Canada, on its
part, accepted the task of completing the dry
dock at Esquimau, paying $250,000 for what
had already been expended, and agreed to carry
forward that work to completion as a Dominion work.
BAII/nOD B0ILDEBS OF  CALIFORNIA.
When the railroad builders of California,
whose names are given among tbe parties to
the agreement, approached the subject, they
found tbe sum of $750,000 in coin, and from
one and a half to two millions of acres of land
on Vancouver Island, offered as a subsidy to
any.company which would construct a road from
Esquimalt to Nanaimo, a distance of seventy
miles. In this land grant there is no reservation on account of mineral. The language of
the grant declaring that the grant itself includes: "All coal, coal oil, ores, stone,
clay, marble, slate, mines, minerals, and substances whatsoever thereupon, therein or thereunder." This language, as will be speedily obvious, conveys everything on the surface, under the surface, or in the ground, the employment of the words, "thereupon, therein, and
thereunder," being accepted as a marvel of lucidity. The company also has under the charter, the authority to construct vessels, steamers
and ferry boats, and operate the same on and
over tbe gulfs, bays, and inland waters of British Columbia.
CONDITIONS  OF THE   CONTRACT.
The parties to this agreement are: Robert
Dunsmnir, James Dansmuir and John Bryden,
all of Nanaimo; Charles Crocker, Charles F.
Crocker and Lelsnd Stanford, all of the city of
San Francisco, Cal., and Collis P. Huntington
of New York, of the first part, and Her Majesty,
Queen Victoria, represented therein by the
Minister of Railways and Canals, of the second part. The parties of the first part, as
above mentioned, have agreed to build a railroad, which is specifically described both as to
location of line and character of construction.
The railway is to be a single line, with guage of
4'feet 8% inches, with necessary sidings. The
alignments, gradients and curvatures shall be
the best mat the physical features of the country will admit, the maximum grade not to exceed 80 feel to the mile, and the minimum
curvature not to be of less radius than 800
feet. In all wooded sections the land must be
cleared to the width of 50 feet on each side of
the center of line. All brush and logs must be
completely burnt up and not thrown on the adjacent lands. All stubbs must be grubbed out
within the limits of cuttings under three feet in
depth, on embankments less than two feet in
depth. All stumps must be close cut where
embankments are less than four feet and more
tban two feet in height. Through settlements
the railway must be inclosed with substantially
built legal fences. Road crossings with cattle
guards and sign boards shall be provided
wherever required. The width of cuttings at
formations snail be 20 feet, embankments 16
feet. Efficient drainage must be provided either
by open ditches or under drains.
BRIDGES, BALLAST AND STEEL RAILS.
All bridges, culverts and other structures
must be of ample size and strength for the pur-
Eose intended. Piers and abutments of
ridges must be either of substancial massive
stone masonry, iron or wood, and in every essential particular equal to the best description
of like works employed in the construction of
the Canadian Pacific Railway in British Colum
bia. Arch culverts muBt be of good solid ma
sonry, equal in every respect to similar structures designed for the Canadian Pacific Railway
in British Colnmbia. Box culverts must be
either of masonry, iron or wood. The passenger station-houses, freight sheds, workshops,
engine-houses.other building and wharves shall
be sufficient in number and size to efficiently
accomodate the business of the road, and they
shall be either stone, brick or timber of neat
design, substantially built. The rails are to be
of steel weighing not less than fifty pounds per
lineal yard, of approved section, and with the
most approved fish-plate joints. The roadway
must be well ballasted with clean gravel or
other suitable material. Sufficient siding accommodation must be provided by the contractors as may be necessary to meet the requirements of the traffic. Sufficient rolling stock
necessary to accommodate the business of tbe
line is to be provided by the contractors, with
stations and terminal accommodations, including engine sheds, turn-tables, shops, water-
tanks, machinery, wharves, etc. Such, then,
was the offer and such tbe specifications for the
accomplishment of the work, for which the
offer was made.
UNUSUAL FEATURES.
Some additional and unusual features, however, remain to be presented. It is provided in
the Act of the Provincial Legislature that the
railway, that is. the work-shops and othtr necessary buildings, also all tbe capital stock of the
company, shall be exempt from municipal and
Provincial tax .tion for ten years from the completion of the road. This additional subsidy
is equal to the amount of taxes which would
have been levied against the company. Another
feature, not to be found in any grant of aid by
the Congress of the United States, is found in
Section 28 of the Act granting the sub-idy, in
these wordB: "Tbe railway to be constructed
by the company in pursuance of this Ait sbal'
be the property of the company." From this
it would seem that the Provincial Legislature
has determined to settle at the outset the question of tbe ownership of the p.operty, and declares in advance when the road is completed
it is to be privote property and the property of
the company constructing it, or its assigns.
LENUTH   OF  THE ROAD.
The length of this road will be about seventy
miles. The work of its construction, according
to the specifications and standards of construction established, will be very costly; but owing
to the value of the coal and timber lands grantee* in aid of its construction, the exemption
from taxes, safety found in the element of private property vested in it when completed, the
privilege of connecting it with steamers, rightB
of navigation of inland waters, bays and inlets,
and farther, and the most important consideration, that inevitably this will be a link of tbe
Canadian Pacific Railway, affords some guarantee, at least that the undertaking is reasonably
judicious, and will prove reasonably remunerative to its builders.
Connecting with the through line of tbe Canadian Pacific, this rood will in a short time complete throngb communication between Dulutb,
which is practically tide water on the Atlantic!
side, and Esquimalt, the most accessible port
and harbor on the Pacific Ocean within B/itish
possessions.
FUTURE POSSIBILITIES.
Railroad and water communication is also
projected and partially completed from Portland north to Paget Sound, and the completion
of the California and Oregon Railroad, connecting with the Central and Southern Pacific
r';ems, will virtually confer npon San Fran-
o the advantages of a Pacific Coast terminus of these lines. The completion of the Island Road is an assured fact, and we are informed on no less an authority than Mr. Robert Dunsmnir himself, that Victoria will certainly be tapped by this line directly. The importance of this line on the provinoe generally,
and on Vancouver Island particularly, cannot
well be conceived at the present time. It wid
certainly open up,to settlement a country of
vast proportions, and almost unexampled agri-
caUural and mineral wealth. An area 350,000
miles in extent is effected, with immense possibilities in agriculture, mining, grazing, milling
and manufacture.
Our readers who believe in patronising home
institutions will be interested to learn of the
progress of the largest Pacific Coast iasuxance
company—the Fireman's Fund. The company
writes both fire and marine insurance. Its stability and success reflect great credit upon its
officers. Organized in May, 1863, its affairs
have been managed with such prudence and
ability that it has shown a constant, rapid and
safe growth and has maintained its place at the
head of the home companies. Its business has
increased to such an extent as to require ampler
accommodations; so the company have recently
bought the adjacent building, No. 405 California
street, have reconstructed its architecture to
correspond with their former building, have
added another story to both buildings, improved the interior and laid a new artificial
stone sidewalk—the purchase and improvements
costing about $100,000. The Fireman's Fund
Building, thus improved, is located at the corner of California and Sansome streets, one of
the very best and most central locations in the
city, being only half a block from the Mer-
ehantrf' and Produce Exchange and near the
leading banks and business blocks. The building is now 69%x80 feet, four stories and basement; has an elevator, speaking tubes, electric
anuueiators, etc., is well lighted throughout,
and is in every respect one of the best office
buildings in the city. Some twenty handsome
offices have been added, and those not needed
by the company will soon be taken up.
The large business transacted by the Fireman's Fund is shown by tbe fact that it has
over 1500 agencies in the United States, its
principal branch office being in Chicago, under
the management of Thos. S. Chard. The stability of the company h-*s been proven by some
severe tests. It paid over $500,000 losses caused
by the great Chicago fire of 1871 (more than its
entire capital at the time), and was the only
Pacific Coast company that did not either fail
or retire from that field. It also paid some
$160,000 losses by the great Boston fire of the
following year. But notwithstanding these and
the multitude of smaller losses paid by the company, aggregating over $5,000,000 during the
twenty-two years of its existence, so well satisfied have its stockholders been with their investment that they recently voted to more than
double its capital.
The fact that the Fireman's Fund conld go
safely through two such trials in successive
years shows more than ordinary soundness and
stability.
The company now has a paid-up capital of
$750,000, and assets aggregating over $1,500.-
000. Its net income in 1883 wo* $848,167 97;
losses paid during the year, $366,89*2 08.
The officers are: D. J. Staples, President;
Alphens Bull, Vice-President; Wm. J. Dutton,
Secretary; E. W. Carpenter, Assistant Secretary.
As the Fireman's Fund derives its income
from all portions of the United States, and has
less than one-third as much at risk, for its size,
in San Francisco as the average of the other
home companies, its city patrons are amply
protected in case of a large conflagration, and
still have the advantage of dealing directly with
the head office in event of los*, thereby avoid-
ing formality and delay.
The whole history of the Fireman's Fund
shows able, economical and conservative management, and the growth and success of this
home company are a credit to San Francisco.
The Journal of Commerce wishes it continued
prosperity.
HOWARD    HOTEL,
Established in  1868,
The    Leadin g   Hotel   of    the    Town.
SHIPMASTERS'   HEADQUARTERS.
JOHN   HOWARD,        -
Proprietor
Fishing and Logging.
The fishing industry of British Colombia is
one of great importance, and is rapidly aesum.
ing colossal proportions. The four quarters of
the globe are dependant on these waters for
the finest quality of salmon known, greatly surpassing that found in more southern regions,
the seas, coast, bays, rivers sod lakes of«ShK
provinoe swarm .witb prodiaious lumbers of
salmon, herring, cod, bass, flounder, halibut,
and the rich candle fish or oolachan. Sturgeon, sometimes exceeding 1,000 pounds in
weight, are found at tbe entrance of rivers and
in the upper courses and larger lakes. The
coast abounds with shell fish of all kinds, with
the exception of lobsters, which are being introduced into these waters. Whales and fish
of the shark  species, yielding oil, are numer
ous, while in the hundreds of lakes of the interior are found a profusion of trout, white-
fish, pike, perch and eels. During _ the,
spawning season the Frazer and other rivers'
are crowded with immense shoals of salmon,
In the smaller tributary streams they are
crowded together like wisps of straw in a bale,
thousands being crowded out from tbe shallow
water and left on the banks to die. The fish,
by mil ious, leave the salt water and seek the
great spawning beds, a great distance up the
Frazer river. The subjoined photograph is
a faithful scene often witnessed in British Columbian waters during the salmon run, and we
are told in sober earnest of a wagon crossing
from one bank of a stream to the other, crushing scores of salmon, so thickly are they crowded
together. These salmon are tinned and sent to
Great Britain and Australia. British Columbia
alone can supply tbe world with them.
Salmon in  Gordon Creek,  near Vale-,  B.  C, from 3 Photograph.
Eastern and   Foreiyn   Money   Market?.
There has been a greater firmess in the New
York stock market during tbe past few days,
and everything seems to augur a renewal of activity. And now that election matters have all
received their quietus it is not unlikely that as
Government stocks have been advancing both
in New York and London, that this progress
will probably be participated in by other stocks.
It is, however, attributed to the plethora of
money in the banks of New York and the lack
of or indisposition to make other investments.
Silver, which had temporarily recovered itself,
is again in the shade, being below 50d. It will
probably improve in price with other commodities, though as long as it is ostracized by
England and Germany, and given the cold
shoulder in United States Governmental and
Eastern financial circles, it will still have a
downward tendency. This bodes no good to
aught save the possessors of the much coveted
yellow metal. The Director of the Mint gives
the gold product of the fiscil year at $30,000,-
000, and the silver product at $48,200,000,
making a grand total of $78,200,000. There is
here quite a discrepency between the product
of gold and that of silver, which if long continued would make gold the scarcer by all odds.
Of the precious metals, however, $00,542,709,
or $29,975,596 gold, and $31,403,113 silver,
was deposited at the United States mints.
Over half the gold, or $17,966,265, was deposited in the San Francisco mint, which receives
the largest gold deposits in the world. There
was a good deal of silver imported Monday.
This was, however, exported to China for the
most part—the rest being used in manufactures
and the arts. As before stated, there was added
to the stock of gold in the United States about
$2,0U0,000 by arrivals from Europe, for the
week ending Nov. 15th. For the same week
the New York banks added about the same
amount to their to their resources. This will
serve in this country to restore the equilibrium
of silver and gold, though it may disturb it in
Europe, especially in England. Speaking of
treasure, the latest trouble is how to reduce the
surplus in the Government vaults. To this end
it is proposed to abolish certain Internal Revenue taxes, or to reduce them greatly. It is
thought that the forthcoming message of the
President will recommend the repeal of taxes on
tobacco, in all its forms. It is proposed to cut
down the duty on whisky to *>0 cents ?»er gallon. As there is no probability of tariff reduction this will probably be adopted instead. The
question is not if the policy »f such taxes, or any
special hardships iLflicted by them, but of tbe retention in the hands of the government of money
that should be in circulation among the people.
The bearing of this may be noted by recollecting that were all the circulating medium
amassed in the Treasury, to remain there, the
people would be reduced to bankruptcy, and
that the retention of any considerai le amount
helps to clog the wheels of commerce and industry in proportion to its value.
The unintermittent reduction of wages in the
East, and the concurrent closing of factories
and mineB or the adopting short time is not a
very healthy sign, and indicates that the dullness in business is not by any me*ns over.
Such means, bowever,only aggravate that which
they are intended to allay. Most articles of
manufacture are used by the millions that
produce them. Cut off the source of thatj
million's income and there is still further ne- j
cessity for restriction of production. Let us'
hope that we have passed through the worst.
The Central and South American Commission which held its session in this city last
week will be d'.ing a great deal of good if it can
gain the attention of the citizens to neglected
opportunities and unite counsel as to how best
to improve. Now the trade of Central and South
America is restricted at seven to eight hundred
million dollars a year. The New York Fin an •
tint GhronteU thns comments on matters in tbe
Empire City: "The railroad earnings for the
first week of November are particularly unfavorable, owing to the excitement throughout
the country during that week, and the remaining weeks of tbe mom*, will probably be better. But as to any decided improvement in the
net income of the railroads, there has been little reason to expect it before the close of navigation; then the lake and canal rates no longer
come into competition, and tbe trunk line
managers can establish and maintain rates if
they determine to do so.
With the political contest settled; with the
expenses of railroads reduced to the lowest
point, and Winter freight-rates thoroughly
maintained: with adjustments made by a number of the principal corporations now embarrassed; and with tbe   banks and trust compa
nies overflowing with money that is waiting for
investment, it seems quite possible that there
should be a revival to some extent in stock exchange business before we see that more general revival in mercantile affairs which is so
greatly hoped for."
Mail news from England says: At tbe close
of July the Bank of England held £24,301,344.
but the total is now only £19,832,209, showing
a diminution of £4,529,135 The total reserve
also has in the same period declined from £14,-
122,644 to £10,062,009, or to the extent of rsth-
more than four millions sterling. Bearing in
mind that the falling away has hot been from
excessive totals, a four-per-cent. rate is fully
justified.
Tbe question now arises whether even that
quotation will suffice. The currant year has
only two months to run, and while there are
apprehensi >ns of failures, merchants are not
likely to feel disposed to extend their operations. If the bank rote should be further advanced, it will be entirely due to the gold
movements, which are still a questiou of uncertainty. Gold for military purposes is sure to
go to Egypt for some time to come, and the
American exchange is still against London.
And yet it should be remembered that, although
adverse gold operations may continue to drive
up the value of money, the .scarcity of trade
bills is calculated to check the movement. Outside rates have not responded to the advance to
any very great extent. The open market rate
of discount for three month-*' bank bills is half
per cent, below the new official rate, and the
banks and discount honses are allowing one-
quarter per cent. less interest than is n^ual.
Since then the rate has been advance to 5 per
cent.
The following indicates the amount of bullion in the principal European banks Nov 15th,
and at the corresponding date last year.
Bunk of England., t Ml* J»    	
Bank. . f Krajice ..II *>»58.' tt.WSll
Bank oi (.ermaov   n.-*4".iMi 2U.3.IU.OW
Total thla week... T.tatTn *lj6l*.Wl
Total oreT aweek.fiH.17^.j;.% HjSSjaVI
,—Nov  14, 1883—,
O-Io. SUrer
£ £
22.0**3.1*i    	
.1>..1I7.-'"-, 40.43I.lM
6^3.750 20,771,230
6T.3j4.I4l fil.2TC.409
•;T.:i«J.-i>l bl. 142.828
Agriculture and Pasture.
In the northern part of tbe interior plateau
of British Columbia there is an extensive country which, from the resemblance of much of it
to parts of Scotland, was called, formerly. New
Caledonia by the Scotch officers of the Hudson's Bay Company. It lies chiefly north of
the 51st parallel and west of the Fruser river,
in the basin of the Xechaci and other tribn-
tui- ft. The soil is almost uniformly good, but
it is gem-rally densely wooded with western
"crab pine and otter trees. Cntil much of the
timber is alaani off, the climate may not be
found tntirtly suitable f.-r amble purposes.
Owing to its tttftsaaaa at present from com-
municiitioDH, this region i> not likely to be occupied for these purposes soon. The prevailing passw an- not ot the bmmbh-gnm species,
Imt. c hiefly. red-top and blue-joint, with pea-
vine on the slopes of hills having a southern
aspect. These mixcl grasses of tbe northern
part of the country, probably, are as nutritive
as ibe hanch-gniMt of the arid southern part,
and afford equally us tine summer pasture.
The difference is that they die when the frost
comes, while the bunch-grass remains succulent during winier. But the northern hay and
Matars giaasw grow high, and perhaps could
be cut and cured f..r tribter without the necessity of driving the Htock elsewhere. This faUB
not been trie.i.
Exports of Breadstuffs.
New York, November 2flth. Exports of
nrendstuffs from Atlantic ports to EvTOfWfbr
the week enrttng the 2d. were as folows: Barrels flour—New VMik.;'»i.2i:»; Philadelphia, 12,-
760; .i»ltin,.,,-<•.•-'.<;_'".. Bo*taa,38,610; Montreal.
6,175.    Wheal   hnahals    New   York,   903,817;
Philadelphia,    13.000;   Boston,   opt;  Montreal.
13,476. Corn bn-heU— New Fork, 166,794:
Baltimore.77,142; New Orleans,18,690; Boston
627,831.
Fai ures for the Week.
The Brudstrtet Mercantile Agency reports 20
failures in the Pacific Coast States and Territories f.-r the week ending the 21st iust., as
compared with 16 for the previous week and 21
for the corresi>onding week of 1N*3. The failures for the ]>ast week are divided among the
trades as follows: 4 grocers, 3 general b to res,
2 butchers,2 hotels,I Chinese goods. 1 plumber,
1 drugs, 1 livery, 1 publisher, 1 baker, 1 restaurant, 1 jeweler, 1 photographer.
Business Failures.
New Vosk. November, 21st. Business failures throughout the country for the past seven
days. J77. This is a striking increase as compared with lust week, when the total was 236,
and for the previous week 214. The increase is
mainly in the Western and the Southern States.
0PPENHEIMER BROTHERS,
IMPORTING AND  WHOLESALE
C « O **'
V
Commission Mercnants, Etc.
WHARF   STREET    Finiayson's   Block,)
TICTOKXA*  »*  47-
W. J. JEFFREE,
CLOTHIER AND OUTFITTER
IMPORTER    OF
Canadian, English and American Clothing-,
YATES   STREET,   opposite  Langley,
VI€¥QB!&.   S.   C
NESBITT   &   CO.
PUIS m F1.WV CRMERS, SHIP AND PITOT BRR19. ETC.
Fort  Street, between   Laneley and. "Wharf,
VICTORIA,   B.   C.
W. HBATHORN,
7
Boot and Shoe Manufactory
VICTOEIA,   B.   C.
SIsLdZOIN"   LEISER,
Importing-   and   Wholesale   Grocer,
Manufacturer    of
COFFEES    A.1STD    SPICES.
IMPORTER   OP
Eubber and Hemp  P&cking and a General Assortment of
Ship and Steamboat Stores.
IE.    IB-    JML .A. IR,"V I 2sl%
Ship Chandler and  Sail  Maker,
Importer   and   Dealer  in
Manila and Hemp Cordage, Anchors. Chains, Tar, Pitch, Rosin, Oakum,
Sheathing Metal, Xails, Spikes, Cotton and Hemp Canvas,
•    Paints, Oils, Varnish, Glass, etc., etc.
WHARF   STREET,
VICTORIA,   B.   C.
THOS. F. WILSON.
C. H. WILSON.
VANCOUVER   FOUNDRY,
Heraia   Street,
P.O. Box 141.       VICTORIA, B. C.
WILSON BROS. <fc CO.
Iron and Brass Founders.
F. CABNE, Jb.
WM. MUSSIE.
CARNB  &   MUNSKL
Importers   arj.ci   Dealers  in.
MQ^MMIMM,   PM@ WX8J&NS,
OREGON AND ISI>AM> PRODUCE,
p. o. box as.. ODD FELLOWS' BUILDING, DOUGLAS ST.
i>  Bi   C«
Queen's Market,
GOVERNMENT ST., VICTORIA,  B.  C.
GOODACRE Z DOOLEY,
Wholesale and Retail   Butchers,
THE LARGEST RETAIL 1-STABLlSHMKXT ON TBE PAC1FL COAST.
Contractors by Appointment to Her Majesty's Royal Navy.
siExnPHPiio'a-   suppliIEd   ajt?   LiOwbst   :e=i._a_te:s-
A. B. FRANCIS,
Importer   a-axci   Dealer In.
HARDWARE, CUTLERY, CROCKERY,
Woodenware, Tinware, Etc.
COR. JOHJVSON A WD STORE STREETS,
P. O. Box 233. VICTORIA. B. C.
IMPORTEK   AND   DEALEIt IN
Groceries,    Provisions,    Liquors,    Etc.
JOHNSON   STREET.  VICTORIA,  B.  O.
BRANCH STORE AT ESQUIMALT.
Purveyor by Appointment to Her Majesty's Navy.
SECIFS'   BTOIVXXGi   A.   SPECIALTY.
Sole   Assents   for   W.   &   A.   Gilbey'e   Wines   and   Spirit-*.
Atr-nt Windsor rannlnjr Company.
■'       NiMner Sar i«nyx.
Atl'nl Tag Pil-I
**       sinir. Barbar. Bo.coivitz, e'e.
ELI   HARRISON,
ORNAMENTAL,
Painter, Gilder & drainer,
IMPORTER   OF
WALL PAPER, PAINTS, OILS.
GLASS, VARNISHES, BRUSHES, ETC.
Douglas  St., near the Citv  Hall, "Victoria, P. C.
INSURANCE f COMPANY.
OF   CALIFORNIA.
Casb Assets 91,500,000 i Losses Paid Over $5,000,000
THE    LARGEST   PACIFIC   COAST    COMPANY.
D. J. STAPLES. Prosident.
ALPHEUS BULL, Vice-Prenident.
WILLIAM J. DUTTOV. Secretary.
E. \v. CARPENTtR, AssisUut decretory.
HOME OFFICE:
S. W. Cor. Cahforrra and Sansome Streets, San Francisco. Cal.
EASTERN DEPARTMENT:
THOS. S, CHAED, Manager, Chcigo, 111,
AtiENTS     IN    ALL     PRINCIPAL     LOCALITIES.
VICTORIA PHARMACY
■El.     C A. JS/L PX
deaijBh   ijst
EL.L,
Drugs, Medicines and Chemicals,
TOIVET   ARTICLES.   SPOXGE-i,   BRUSHES,   M.TC.
Perfumery   Made   from   Island   Flowers.
Corner Fort and Douglas Streets, VICTORIA, B. C.
PHYSICIANS' PRESCBIPTIONS ACCURATELY COMPOUNDED.
BAVARIA    BREWERY,
VICTORIA,   B.   C.
H.   WALTHER.
Please  Cork  and Return the Cask when Empty.
NUTS,    FIOB,    T)ATB8.    XTTO.
Yates Street, near Wharf, VICTORIA, B. C.
Victoria Nursery and Seed Establishment.
I^rvLlt  sixxcL  Ornamental  Trees
HARDY HERBACEOUS PLANTS, BULBS, Etc.
FOR    S-A-IjE    IB^Z"
P. T. JOHNSTON & CO.
Su-ccessors   to  HVtitcliell   cfc   Jolinston,
PURSERmiEX, SEEDSMEN AND FLORISTS,
VICTORIA,   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
Nursery, Cadboro Bay Road, Seed Store, Occidental Building, Fort Street
R. MAYNARD,
Boot    and    Shoemaker.
DEALEK IN ALL KINDS OF
LEATHER AND SHOE FINDINGS.
Uppers in Great Variety.      Silts and Elastics.      Roans, all Colors.
IJHOTO   .RAPHK.;    ,BUH,DI * G,
Cor. Douglas and Johnson   Sts.. VICTORIA, B. C.
City Bakery and Grocery,
VICTORIA,   B.   C.
WILLIAM   JORDAN,
Johnson     Street,
ALBION IRON WORKS CO.
LIMITED,
Office,  Chatham Street, VICTORIA,  B.   C.
R. DUNSMUIR, President. |R. P. RICHET, Vice-President.
W. F. BULLEN, Secretary.        |a. GRA.Y,  Manager.
A-   LEWIS   «5c   CO.
METALS, STOVES, RANGE®, Etc,
AGENTS   FOR   THE   CELEBRATED
WINTHROP RANGE and ALBION RANGE.
YATES   STAEET, VICTORIA,  B.   C.
SHIPPING  WORK  A  SPECIALTY.
VANCOUVER   HOUSE,
Yates Street, bet.  Douglas and  Broad.
Board and Lodging per week $5 50
Board per week  4 00
Beds, single  25
THE BAR IS SUPPLIED WIIH THE BEST OF
WI^ES,    LIQUORS    AND    CIGARS.
BERNHARD   WREDE, Prop'r.
VANCOUVER    BAKERY.
THOS. HARDING,
FORT   STREET,
Proprietor
VICTORIA,  B.   C.
Bread Delivered to all Parts   ,{ the City Daily.
A.  McLean & Co.
GENERAL   OUTFITTERS
VICTORIA   BAKERY,
•TABIiXBECXX)    1808,1
FORT   STREET,   VICTORIA,   B.   C.
IMI-    Ft.    SMITH.
All Kinds «f Cakes Made to Order and Supplied at Short Notice.
BREAD   DELIVEKED   TO   ANY   PAKT   OF   TUB    CITY
iy Orders   Respectfully Solicited.
OCCIDENTAL HOTEL,
Cor. "Wharf  and  Johnson  Sts., "Victoria, B.  C.
LUKE PITHER, Proprietor.
FIREPROOF   BUILDING. EVERYTHING   NEW.
Board and Lodging, $1.00 ti $1.50, According to Boom.
FINE   BAR   AND   BII.J IARD   ROOM^   ATTACHED
THE "SENATE,"
Government   Street
OPPOSITE NORTH!
B. C. PZTTINGELL * 39.,
» Victoria,   "B.   C.
OPPOSITE NORTHERN PACIFIC EXPRESS OFFICE.
PROPRIETORS
Tb.o   Plno.t   Brjunda  of
WINES,   LIQLTORS   AJSTD   CIGvARS
1ST  THE   PROVINOE.
A. W.   LAWSON,
Corner Trounce and  Broad Streets, Victoria, B. C.
LIVERY AND  SALES STABLE,
-A.3>TI>    CARRIAGES
SUPPLIED   AT   ALL   HOURS.
M. W. WAITT <& CO.,
BOOKSELLERS AND STATIONERS,
IMPORT PIIIKOT FBOM TBI
Leading Manufacturer* in the Eattern State,, Canada aud Europe.
K«EP CONSrtNTXY ON HAHD A FVLL LINE OF
Bl.nk   Bwki Writing   P.p.r and  E.T.Iop.i, 8k..i  Mn.lc  and  Kfa.lr.l lailr.m.ili.
Oil   Color,  and   Artl.l.' Material*, Gold Pni and  Pencil.,  Ph.I.
AlbM*. C'.IIrrr, Dougbtny'i Playing- Curd..
AreoU for Dealer Bros ' OI. b .led PluofortM. M.foo ft  B.mlln urguu, i.  ft J.  T.rlor'l Fireproof a*n>,
(Print a Co'• Art Pii.llcatlon..
A Foil Stock or Gage's and oUicr School Books at Pablinh«d Ratea.
BubvcrtplloDi rreetred for ibe leading Newspaper, and Periodical! at Publlebtra' prices.   Intending purchaser, ars Invited to Inspect our isrge and varied stock.    We guarantee fair price, and a .uparlor claas of eot>ds.
CO TO THE
I T IE,
LEWIS PETEESON,    -   -   Proprietor,
FOU    THE   VERY    HKNT
PHOTOGRAPHS.
Portrait Work of  All   Kind,, including   the  Famous Panel,  Promenade   and   Boudoir
Photograph,.
St. James Hall, Government Street, Victoria, B. C.
J. B. FERGUSON & CO.
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL
Stationers and Booksellers,
GOVERMVIE1VT   STREET,
Third Ooor South of Po.tofllce,
P. O. Drawer 23.
VICTORIA, B. C.
HALL & GOEPEL,
AND
INSURANCE    AGENTS,
VICTORIA,   B.    O.
Agent, for  Northern   Pacific  Express, Liverpool,   London  and  Globe   Insurance Oo.
Travelers" Insurance Co. of Hartford, Conn.; California Marine
Insurance Co. of San Francisco.
W.  J.  TIPPINS,
WHOLtSALE   AND   RETAIL
KTFE-CTIOISTB
Choice  Fruit*, CTKte, IIt*9*
TOBACCO  &c  OIG-JLI^S
Fort Street, between Douglas and Broad,
VICTORIA.   B.   C.
HUDSON BAY COMPANY,
VICTORIA,   B.   C,
DEALERS   IN
General Merchandise
WHOLE8ALE  AND  RETAIL.
Highest Prices Paid for Furs of All Kinds.
AND IMPORTERS OF
GENTLEMEN'S    AND    BOYS    CLOTHING,
FORT  STREET, VICTORIA, B. C.
Cloves, Shirts, Umbrellas, Etc.
SAMUEL  GRAY,
Stair   Builder   and   Steam   Joinery   Works.
Patentee and Inventor of the
GEOMETRICAL AND SELF-SUPPORTING
Twin Stairs and S ifety Elevator.
Estimates given for all kinds of .T-'iner*s Work.    Alt kinds of Stairs, Hand KaiU,  Newell   Ponta
nnd Halusters made on the shortest notice and most ruasonaMe terms.
Factory, Corner Government and Chatham Streets,
AJCTORIA,   Ji.   C. P.O. Box 39
R.   T.   WILLIAMS,
BOOK   BINDER  AND   PAPER   RULER,
Office of the British Colnmbia Directory,
Government   Street   and   Broad   Street.
VICTORIA   B. CI
National Assurance Co.
ojf' ifl"f;t «Aity-p.
E3ST^.2r31LiISE3:E!X3    .A..    X3.    183a
Authorized Capital, ---_.. $10,000,000
Subscribed Capital,      ---_.-. g.OOO.OOO
Assets, ----.-.__    s,080,667
H. M. NEWHALL & CO., General Agents for the Paoifio Coast
OSaco,     BOB     Sanaomo     Stroot,     sSatxx     Z*x-.*>»olasoo.
LEWIS   LEWIS,
Wholesale and Retail Dealer in and Importer of
FURNISHING   GOODS,
♦OJL.OTL7im>irC3l-.
Valises, Trunks, Carpet Sacks, Hats, Caps, Etc, Etc,
YATF>   STHF.ET.
VICTORIA.   B.  C.
J. FINLAYSON,
TEA   AND   COFFEE   DEALER.
Slilxxs   Suppllea Tvitii   stores.
GOVERNMENT  STREET, VICTORIA, B.C.
Harrison & McAlister.
IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN
GROCERIES,
Xjiqi uors,
CORNER JOHNSON AND GOVERNMENT STREETS,
VICTORIA, B.   O.
Grand Pacific Hotel,
00R. JOHNSON AND STORE STREETS, VICTORIA, R 0.
This new three-Btorj- Fireproof Brick Bnildins was expressly built for a Hotel, with sixty well-
farmnhe<l rooms, nod is one of the best located houses in tbe oitjf.
RATE   OF  CHARGES:
Board per week.   S*00 j Board per dav Sl.OO
Board and Lodg-inr per week    6.00 i Beda SOe. and OOe
AUD ttPWAXUM. MO  BC1SU TO ROOM. I AUD CPWaRDS. AOOURDIMO 1X> ROOM.
Faamilie. AooosnasocUtsd os> BwwasM, Tsrsu
Tbe Bar will be found stocked with the beat brands of Wines, Liquors and Cigars.
IvlOIST^-rtCII   IBrT_,XjT^.IH.X3   -A-IsTID   POOL   TA-BLiEIfc
DAVID ELLIS, l.t. or co--..™*.. Prop. SAN FRANCISCO JOURNAL OF COMMERCE AND PRICE CURRENT.—British Columbia Edition.
[Continued from First Page.]
formed by the Frazer. The physical reason
for its existence is the pressure of the insular
barriers, principally the great breakwater of
Vancouver Island, whioh lie off the month ot
the river, and by calming the sea have prevented the detritus of the Frazer from being,
entirely wasted in the ocean, as in tbe case of
Col imbift River, which, at its mouth, is exposed to the western surges. Even tbe Frazsr,
however, of course, must always have carried
forward and projected over the bed of the
ocean, most of tbe matter which it brought
down. Still, geologically, the history of this
del tic flat is recent, and we now in viewing it
can easily back-trace this history to the time
when the whole district was a shallow estuary
of the sea, and then retrace, first, the sand
banks and xnudshoals formed by the pounding
back of the river water by the tides setting
into the estuary, then the joining of these
banks and shoals into islands studding the
flnvia-marine expanse, which, in turn, by accreting the river debris and marine silts became deltas, and, finally, one main delta next,
overspread by Inxuriant vegetable growths,
which, dsfcayiap, mingled with the earthy de-
brie to make the rich, exuberant, loamy soil,
which my friend in tbe slouch hat could not
praise too much. There may also have been
geologically tecent oscillations of land and
sea, bnt I had no time to observe more than
the broader features of this  remarkable  estu-
streams deep sank with earthy banks, which,
where clay prevails, are weather worn into
fantastic pinacles. Terraces in the valleys—
the remnants of the river beds when at higher
levels—are here1'common. The slopes are
gentle and nobly spread out when seen from
an eminence, otherwise they are diversified
with innumerable swells and falls, hillocks
and knolls, with the prettiest tiny valleys and
baains among them, which the traveller enters
suddenly. These soft, sweet hills with their
endless intricacies, these awry upland slopes
and the luminous atmosphere, are very attractive. The gradual ascent is a source of
enjoyment—and one can ride everywhere—
every tnrn in tbe climbing paths opens some
fresh object of admiration or thiows what one
has already seen into a new light. High up
we breathe the peculiar air and feel the very
spirit of a mountain land, yet the whole landscape is soft not harsh. You do not see hanging woods or any variety of timber, but the
single pine that dots the surface is in keeping
with the scenery. It has a handsome Bhaft,
with reddish brown bark and foliage not of a
sombre green. At this season the light orange
of the aspen with their silvery stems and
branches and the brilliant scarlet and yellow
of the sumachs were very pretty in the valleys.
I saw hundreds of lakes, lakelets and pools o.<
all sizes, generally long and narrow, whose
blue water enlivened the pale pastures. A
man might ride about in this district for six
months   ar.d have  a fresh hill, lake or river
maud of the prolonged forest-laden Colnmbia
waterway north and sooth for great distances.
The characteristic trees of the coast—not
found between the Frazer and Columbia, reappear hers—Douglas fir. red cedar, hemlock,
etc., with tbe addition of the tamarac or western larch in great abundance, a tree not found
in British Columbia rest of Shuswap Lake. I
crossed to the left bank of the Columbia at
Eagle Pass to visit the town site of Columbia
City, which an engineer was surveying, a
beautiful, extensive, sheltered bench with a
southern aspect, fine, dry soil and cooi streams
at hand. There will be a large railway bridge
here. Thia is likely to be a most important
point of supply for the great mining and forest region of Kootenay, as a sawmill town
also, and as the only place between Winnipeg
and the Pacific where United States traffic can
tap tho Canadian Pacific Railway hy a navigable waterway. Tbe height above sea level is
about 1400 feet. We are now in November,
but the weather ia fine. It was the same, I
was told, last year, but I fancy the seasons are
somewhat uncertain. How noble the Columbia looks, already 220 miles from its northern
lakes, how glorious in every direction these
hills and mountains drawing on their winter
caps. But my time is up and I must return
as the taciturn stage driver already has waited
for me, an I, ostensibly en.a^ed about a harness
buckle, is giving vent to tbe longest, most emphatic bnllwacker oath that it baa ever been
mv tad fortune to listen to.    An rtvoir.
from point to point by means of twin propel-
lors,(worked by the same steam power which at
other times is employed, for the purposes of the
cannery. The cost of the vessel, with its adjuncts, was about $60,000. Mr. Spratt has a
roving commission from the Government to fish
anywhere in the marine waters of the province,
including th* lower tidal waters of the Frazer
River. Among other appliances on board is a
system of steam boilers, by means of which
the oil contained in the offal of salmon is extracted—a source of profit overlooked by the
stationery canneries. Tbe offal, a source of
partial offense elsewhere, is thus satisfactorily
disposed of. Mr. Spratt is one of the most
wide nwake and public citizens of British Columbia, and a man of extraordinary business
sagacity.
Canadian Pacific Navigation Company.
Mr. John Irving, of the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company, represents this company in
Victoria.5 and is an experienced and careful
manager, of rare executive ability. The other
officers of the company are Mr. William Charles,
of the Hudson Bay Company, President; Mr.
W.C.Van Horn, Vice-President; and Mr. James
Lawson, Secretary. The company own and
control a line of nine elegant and speedy steamers, commanded by men of long experience
and perfect familiarity with the routes. The
names of the vessels are tbe Yosemite, Princess
Louise, Enterprise, R. P. Rithet, Western
Slope, William Irving, Reliance, Gertrude nnd
Otter. The stock, a large one, is owned by
substantial business men. The steamers ply
between Island ports, the northern coast and
the mainland, commanding the bulk of transportation on their routes. The company has a
well earned reputation for speed, safety and
accuracy, and the confidence of business men
generally throughout the province.
J. B. Ferguson and Company.
The members of this firm are Mr. J. B. Ferguson and Mr. H. Bell, one of the most enterprising copartnerships in the province. Tbey
are wholesale and retail stationers and booksellers, with a^Iarge store, 25x80, on Government
street, three doors south of the Post Office.
They handle every variety of station-ry and
c.ffice supplies, among the r other specialties
j being blank books of all kinds. Gage's school
• books, Shannon files, Stafford inks aud print
ing iuks, news, flat aud wrapping papers, letter
presses, the "Standard" square bags, the
noted 'Lansdowne" cream bad note paper,
Fairchild's gold pens, architects' supplies, *C
They publish, also, exceilent views of Victoria
and vicinity, and a souvenir album, containing
views of British Columbia. The firm commands a very large trade, and is one of the
most wide awak econc ma in the province.
Alblou
ion Worke, Victoria, Lritiah Columbia.
urine formation, now the scene of agricultural'
industry. The surface of the New Westminster district iB low, except a few gravelly
ridges; the characteristic soil ia deep black
earth, a very modern deposit, on blue clay,
diversified in parts with sandy loam. Towards
the sea shore and iu some other parts it is
open, but in general is well timbered. The
treea seen by me were the Douglas fir (the
commercial tree of Puget Sound) Meozies fir,
Grant cedar, Wt stern hemlock, r.d alder, bal-
•tam poplar, birch, large-leaved maple, etc.
The natural hay and grasses are good for stock
and particularly for dairy cows.
As to the climate, I collated carefully official
records with tbe testimony of settlers and of
medical men. Between the years 1874 and
1880 the mean yearly temperature was 47° 9';
the highest maximum 92a 0*; the loweet m<ni-
mnm 70M 0'; the mean rainfall in inches59.66.
Ice forma in the river for a short tit e in most
winters. Commonly buow begins in January
and goes in March, seldom lying continuously. There is no ague, which some might be
afraid of in a rich, low-lying region. You
don't see men sitting among black furrows,
drearily, with pale children. I su. pose that
the stimulating mountain and- sea breezes pre
vent ague. In a word, the climate, though
mild, and in some parts rather humid, is
braoicg and zestful; it is responsive to the
demands of every physical neceFsity. With
respect to
th.. actual yield ik fai.ming.
I found, after careful inquiry, that my steamboat friend in the slouch hat bad a realty
sound basis for his statements, though made
in an aggressive, wagering fashion, which inclined me to disregard them or at least not to
credit them off hand. On evidence which I
cannot doubt tbe following exceptional yields
seem to be authentic—three tons of timothy per
acre in the twelfth consecutive crop, 80 bushels ! ^,
prospect at every meal, and then leave as much
behind him unseen. The sun is hot, very hot,
in summer, but ihe nights always ars cool.
The whole district tbiough which the railway passes from Lytton to Eagle Fas-*, that is
to pay, between the Fraser and the Columbia,
and more th'an 100 miles on each side of the
line, is, as I have said, specially
of wheat, also 62 bushels of fall wheat p-r
measured acre. As the average on a veri.l
well-tilled farms, the following may be noted:
Wheat, 40 buahtls per acre; oats, 60 to 65;
barley, 40; timothy, 3 to 3% tons; turnips, 40
to 50 tons. The roots are enormous: potatoes
and vegetables, with squashes pumpkins,
melons, cucumbers and tomatoes, also varieties of oorn, do very well. Hops are a good
crop. The ordinary fruits of a temperate
clime grow large and fine in all parts of tbe
district. I Baw a 2-tb pear, a 1% ft> apple end
an S-ounce plum.
With these facts before me, substantiating
what might be inferred from Ihe natural character and climate of the district, I cannot bat
give a good report of it. I have spoken of
farming only, but the New Westminster district is not a merely arable or dairying district. The lamberijjg and salmon canning industries already are very large. Silver lodes
exist. Almost anything is possible in a territory with such a soil and climate, so well supplied with communications, and lying, too,
upon a sheltered seaboard. Progress here
must be solid and permanent. The population lately has considerably increased.' I am
inclined to think that lew placee offer better
chances to real farmers with some means; it
la not, perhaps, a district to be recommended
to men of very limited means.
The question now with me was, whether to
return to Victoria from Hope, pa'isfied with
my inspection cf this distinction coast district
or to make a rapid trip into the inteiior ta fx-
amine other sections along the railway line.
I have had no reason to .egret my decision to
visit the interior, fo> the weather continued to
favor my wanderings, and I can now give you
aome account of the country along the rail
way as far as Columbia Rtver, a description
which, with that of New Westminster district,
will include nearly two-tbirds of the whole
length of the railway line in this province. I
sent back my " cayoosh," crossed tho Frazer
at Hope and went by railway to Spencer's
Bridge on tbe rivtr Thompson. For a new
line the railway is good; we ran steadily, with
a miscellaneous train, and rapidly, exc-pt at
curves.
THB   SCENKBY   IS   VEBY   FINK,
particularly for 60 miles or so, up to the bridge
across the Fraz-r, below Lytton, which la at
the junction of the Thompson with the Fiazer.
Not to weary readers with an itinerary, I
may say that, having reached, by railwuy
Spence's Bridge, on the Thompson River. I
went up Nicola Valley and returned to the
bridge I then proceeded to Cache Creek and
to Savina's Ferry, crossing the new bridge
over the Thompson at the latter place, and
thence by road to Kamloops. By land I then
want to Spellumcheen (Okanagan Lake I had
not time for) and crossed to Eagle Pass. On
my return journey I went by water as far as
possible, instead of land. I took steamboat
at the west end of Eagle Pass, crossed Shuswap Lake, down Thompson Uiv<r and through
Kamloops Lake again to fcJavina.s Ferry,
whence I reached Spence's Bridge on the
Thompson River, and so to Port Moody on the
seaboard by railway.
This second zone of travel was through a
country entirely different from the seaboard
section—New Westminster District—already
described, different from the same cause that
differentiates Eastern from Western Oregon,
namely the occurrence of a generally north
and south high mounain range. This produces a different climate, with different flora,
east of tbe mountain-. Nor is there in the
interior of British Columbia any large connected alluvial tract like the New Westminster
district. I shall describe the surface o* the
interior, then its climate and capabilities. A
journey through this interior district on bora.;
back in summer must be very pleasant, as the
surface H open so that one can ride almost
anywhere. Camping nt wi'l, and with good
low country shooting and fl-thing and wilder
sport if one cares to geek it. On my present
trip, however, tho limited time'at my disposal
made me hurry on, for tho most part, by stage
or steamboat.
Tbe first village I caiuo to ou the railway
after embarking opposite Hope was Yale, tin
head of continuous navigation on the Frazer,
115 miles from its mouth. This picturesque
little town has aomswhat fallen from Its c tute
owing to the effect of the railway in Icss*-uing
river traffic.
THE   yRAZER   RIVEK   AT   YALK
is compressed between rocky walls and its anger
and struggling mabe a brave sight. All the way
up to Lytton, 57 miles, the river, along which
the railway goes on one aide and tbe wagon
road on the other, has a similar Bull«n,
squeezed aspect in its narrow, tortuous channel among high hills rising for tb'* most purt
with abrupt steepness on both ■ides—a country unfit for settlement, but grand beyond description. The wagon road, viewed from th«
cars, seemed to cling in parts, high up the opposite precipitous aides. Soon aftor leaving
Yale one noties a change in the vegetation; the
plants of a drier zone appear. Turning up the
Thompson Valley from Lytton, tho characteristic interior region shows itself. It it very
extensive; we must reckon here by hundreds,
not soores, of miles. Its general chaructcr will
be easily understood by those familiar with
Eastern Oregon and Waabington, which the
southern interior of British Colnmbia much
resembles, except that is more rolling arid
hilly, with better shelter in consequence, for
stock, from severe winter winds. The peculiar
dryness, as compared with the coast region,
one notices at once. Crops her*?, except in a
few localities, require irrigation, but, with irrigation they are copious, the soil^being very
fertile The surface ia lightly timbered—one
prevailing pin-, tbe heavy yellow pine, (pinus
ponderosa) dots the surface or appears in
groves. We miss the luxuriant forestry of the
moist coast. Along the watercourses are
willows and poplars. Bunch grass, or sa-je,
wbere the bunch grass is eaten off, covers the
country up to 2000 feet, ana above that height
there are good summer pasture grasses. This
is distinctively a stock-raising region aud one
of the best anywhere. The stockmen have
done well lately, owing to Ihe rise in the price
of cattle. I got good quarters everywhere
along the road, with a few inconveniences,
from the demand by railway men upon available accommodations.
THIS INTKBIOB   DISTRICT,
Through which the railwuy passes, is a
rolling plateau, from 700 to 1200 feet
above sea level, with bills r;,;.og in all
directions up to 2000 feet and more- The
hilly framework, a* a whole, is complicated, but the valleys, as a rule, are not
twisted; the Thompson Valley, which tbe
railway follows, ia well defined and regular.
The valleys are iu general narrow and  the
A   STOCK-BAISTNO   COTJNTBY,
Admirable adapted for cattle, hor.-es and
sheep, bat there are few flocks of
sheep, as no accessible wool market has existed and cattlemen do not like sheep on their
oattle ranges. An experienced American stock
raisers, one of the wealthiest csttlouen in the
province, told me be considered that this was
a better stock country than any region known
to him to the south of it—the good summer-
age is so abundant up to such a great elevation and the winterage also comparatively
favorable owing to the inequalities of the surface which I have above described. Cattle
have run out during some winters, but a moderate provision for winter is always desirable
here as elsewhere. Horses more successfully
winter out. This a first-class horse region.
The fine air and grass and the uneven bet
gentle swellings and the sinkings of the surface help to give fine quality and muscle to
the animal from its youth. The beef eannot
be beat; the grass-fed, as I can testify, is as
good as any stall-fed I ever tasted. Cattle
have doubled in price within the last couple
of years and are not likely to be lower in
price, notwithstanding the approaching cessation of the demand for railway workmen. The
coast of the province is nourishing as well as
ihe interior, and always will draw its beef sup-
pli- 3 from the latter. They can grow excellent
beef on the coast, but it costs more there to
produce it. The people of the interior say
they defy the extensive farming regions east of
Rocky   Mountains   to   produce   cattle   or
horses equal to theirs and they in consequence
may look for an East rn demand for British
Columbia stock should there be a local surplus. Most of the choice locations for ranches
in the interior country are occupied, and incomers should have command of means to boy
out others or make new steadings. The sum-
merage is still ample, but most of the natural
hay meadows and easy wintering spots have
been selected. Cultivation to supply food for
stock in winter will be increasingly necessary
and for this, in most parts, irrigating streams
must be found.
I could not help thinking that this region
must soon become
A   OBEAT   FRUIT   RKGtON,
As the rapidly growing settlements iu the vast
Canadian Territory east of Rocky Mountains
can only grow there such hardy fruits aa are
grown, for instance, in Russia, while here, in
British Columbia, the choicest fruits of Western Europe ripen well, naturally, in the
open. At Lytton, Spence's Bridge and Kamloops and other places all along the railway
line I saw excellent orchards. There is no
reason why the railway should not run for 200
miles through orchards in the Thompson Valley, tbe produce of which soon wculd find a
ready market east of the Bockiea. This is
on- of the great lateral industries along the '
railway line and one which should be at once,
taken in band. I do not know what to say
about the further expectation of the people j
here that wine grapes will grow successfully
in this region. A south country Frenchman
who knows the Lillooet country well,
which is a short way up the Frazer north of
Lyttou,said to me he was sure that some
variety of wine grapes wou'd do well there,
and also at least for fifty or Bixty miles ut* tbe
Thompson along the railway. He said: "You
will see f-oon all these hillsides covered with
brilliant vines.'' Without being much of a
wine expert I may say that this possibility i
worth examination. I am inclined to think
thut it is at all events not absurd to suppose I
that this particular region may become a wine
exporting region. Delicious grapes fur the
table grow well in the open air, and with a
suitable soil and climate and a great eastern |
Canadian territory to supply, why should not
wine grapes grow in hUlricieut quantities to
make vinyarding profitab'e, when experiment
shall have shown what ia the proper grape for
the locality ?
The peop'e here say confidently that a traffic
from this province to the country jast of the
Rockiec will soon follow the construction of
the* railway—lumber and fish at once; settle
and horses an soon as wanted, and by and by
fruits aud wines in great quantities. The
cereals will be chiefly required for home consumption, but any quantity of garden stuffs,
if wanted, can be sent Eatt. Coal of course,
too, if the coal of the eastern Canadian territories turns ont less good than expected. The
above shows that preconceived views as to inclemency of the climate of the southern interior of British Columbia, through which the
railway passeB, must be erroneous. It is in
fact a climate of which the best counterparts
are in France or Italy, not in northern Europe.
Though farther north than Oregon, yet from
local cause* and diminished heights above the
sea level, the climate is as good as the best
paitof Oregon. In some respects it is, in the .
opinion of many, better over a wider area.
THE PBCCLXAR DRY cLSMATK
Of this extensive region between the Frazer I
and the Columbia rivers (called, I believe, J
Yale District) may be said to extend easterly through the diatriot of Kootenay t
(between tbe Columbia Rfvera and the i
Rockies), but of course with many modifications, owing to the more mountainous charac-,
terof Kootenay district.    The climate between
Albion Iron Works
These works, established in 1*62, are situated
on Stote and Chatam streets, and occupy a
ground space of eight town lots, in addition to
two lots fronting the harbor, with extensive
wharves and commodious storehouses. The
machine shop is 250x50, two stories, and fitted
with machinery of the newest and most approved kind; there is nothing to compare with
these works north of San Francisco. The machinery comprises two large and powerful
lathes, five smaller lathes, one planer with a
twenty-five foot bed, one planer with eighteen
foot bed, one shaping machine, one gear-cutting machine, three boring machines, one emery
wheel and a very powerful crane. The company manufactures steam engines of every
description, fish canning machinery, and can
complete the largest wcrk required. In the
pattern room all the patterns required for the
works are made. The brass finishing shop contains all necessary machinery. The blacksmith
shop, boiler house and foundry are also completely supplied. In the stove foundry are
turned out more than thirty different kinds of
stoves, for kitchen, parlor, hall and other purposes. An average of about 100 skilled
mechanics are employed. The enterprise is
one of the most important on this coast, and
deservedly successful.
Victoria Customs.
The Victoria Customs Department occupy a
handsome three-story and bisement building on
Wharf street, 100x100 The officers are: Hon.
W. Hamley, Collector; Mr. C. F. Finlaison,
Chief Clerk; Mr. G. Frye. Surveyor; Mr. N. R.
Milne, Appraiser. Mr. Hamley, bas served in
his present capacity for 25 years, himself and
Messrs. Finlaison and Frye having been appointed before confederation, when British Columbia was a crown colony. Customs reports
indicate a most healthful condition of trade.
For the fiscal year ending in June last exporta-
tions of dutiable goods amounted to $788,287;
ten years ago exportations averaged but from
$30,000 to $40,000. During the month of October last dutiable goods to the extent of $107,-
000 were imported, the largest amount known
in the history of the province. These figures
are but one of many reliable indications of the
revival and steady and permanent increase of
business throughout British Columbia. We
take this occasion to return thanks to the gentlemen of the Cnstom's Department for valuable assistance rendered us in the preparation of
this issue.
T. N. Hibben & Co.
We herewith present an illustration of the
i establishments of one of the most flourishing
stationery houses of the province. Messrs.
Hibben & Co. have been established over
I twenty-six years, the firm being composed of
T. K. Hibben, C. W. Cammerer and W. H.
Bone. They carry a complete stock of general
stationer*^ and are, in addition, agents for
Cow»n 8rJo., of Edinburgh, Folev's crolH pens.
Butler's reading cbarts, the Halt ISaie auu \.<<- k
Company's snperior fireproof safes and vaults,
the Judd Paper Co., Gage -.V Co's refers, and
various other standard publications, including
a full supply of admirality and other charts of
the Pacific coast and ocean, and nay particular
attention to orders for legal, medical and scientific works. They make a specialty of their
news agency, procuring any newspaper or periodical required, either at publishers prices,
mailed to subscribers direct from the publication pffice, or supplied from their office at
special rates. The Ann is one of the most enterprising in the province, and has a large and
well deserved patronage.
a J. Pitta.
Mr. Pitts* large new store, on Ista ;-tr.-«t,
occupies the sight formerly covered by old and
delapidated buildings. The gentleman is a
wholesale grocer and commission merchant.
He has the exclusive agency for many of the
most standard English, American and Canadian
manufactures, and is ■ direct imj-orter of teas
and other foreign lines. Among his other special-
tie^ is the exclusive agency for the sugars and
syrups of a grape sugar manufaetory of Windsor, Ontario. These goods have a high reputation for clearness, puriiy and flavor, both
throughout the   Canadian   provinces   and   the
th- Fro rand Columbia as compared with that; United States, and command large and ready
of the coast, though little differing in the ; H(l!j,s Hr. Pitta b ft pioneer merchant, in the
mem seasonal temperatures, has a greater enjoyment of a large and rapidly increasing
contrast in the extremes.      The heat is greater j ,ri,<je, and is a  public   spirited  businessman
and the cold is greater.    The rainfall is great
ly leju; indeed the total precipitation, iuclnd   ;
ing snow, is less than on the coast. The high- j
est temperatures range from about 30° in Jan- '
uary up to the nineties for a few days in  Aug-!
ust—tbe summer enrve, from end of April   to f
beginning of November being from   the  small J
seventies buck to the aame.    The lowest for a j
few days mny be 25** below zero, but in Jaou- I
ary, February  and  March say from 5M to 10**, i
following which, for nearly eight months, the
range is from 25° to 15", pretty much what it
ia on the coast.    The   mean   temperatures in
the ripening months, which is what   tillers of
the soil wish to know, is from over 60° to -75"
in .Time, July, August   and  September, giving I
a summer mean of little  under iM)w, or fully j to th* Utter point In-dug s. nt
10° higher than the summer mean of tlie coast     general store on   Total   stnel
His house is well known as one of the most
progressive and reliable in British Columbian
wholesale trade.
C Strousa & Co.
TKTs firm <ras established in IMS, and is
composed of Mr. Carl Strouss, who resides generally in England, and Mr. E. Bloomingdale,
Ban Francisco. They are wholesale importers
and dealers in dry goods, fancy g>K>ds, h*bi r-
dashery. 8»-otch, Knglish, French and Aui«ri
can clothing, jewelry. «ilks. velvets, cloakings,
etc. Their trade is<>ne of ibe nn--t impi.rt.int
in the proviuee, and extends as far K...-t us the
Boaftrj Mountain* and north to Alaska, go.-ds
i bead. Their
is one of the
largest establishments no#th of .-an Fri.in-i-.ro.
They have also a large fire proof Ixmded watnm.
bOfMM for reserve stock, '_'<> ImI bossi by 120
feet deep. The firm is one of the soundest ami
most intelligently managed e.>.,e, rns in British
Columbia, and has Utf eonfidene* and a great
titan of the tr;ob of il" j rpri—,
Victoria Boaid of Trade.
The snow fall, or snow pack, is greater than
on the coast, but seldom exceeds t*o feet us a
maximum on the open, while, in many parts,
nnd in aome years, it is less than half that.
The wind blows the slopes bare. There seems
to be about eight months of very enjoyable
bright weather here and a short four months
of winter not continuously cold. The soil is
very good, nut irrigation, as I have sa<d, is
for the must part required. Much of thcdualj
and seemingly useleas thin soil along the railway only requires water to shew its fertility.
Wheat, barley, oats, peas, beans and all kinds
ol vegetables, also large und small fruits, art)
snre crops over an extensive surface—the gen
eral yield of wheat being about 25 bush* Is per   Robert Patterson   liithet,   Esq.. •?.   I'.    I o   i
Esq., Vie.   r,. -i
This exc Deul  liirtllnllnn   was fan orpotati d
in 187*. and eoMMi af s^ lm u,.»mm, ~i~ of
which are residents of Vict'-rt i. Hm remainder
being scatt- red through tie tOVSM «.f the BafOHf-
ine.-.    The general officers of   the   Boaid   nr<-:
acre, while on particular farms double that
yield ha-i been got; al-o 6(1 to 811 bushels of
oat", 65 bnshefs of peas and 35 tons of turnips
per acre. The farms, hitherto cultivated, are
on tho river bottoms, terraces and lower elopes,
where it has been convenient to get water.
Tomatoes, melons and cucumbers do well in
the open .air. This p.ppiies genorally to the
whole country through which the railway
paBRes between the Frazer and Colnmbia rivers. It is a stock-raising country pre-eminently, but very fertile with irrigation, the soil
aud climate being excellent for fruits Taken
in connection with tbe coast district cf New
Wi'Htruinster. already described in this letter.
I  have  now described about
FOUR  HtTNDRKD  MILES
Along the railway line. The remaining, Koot
enay section, which I looked ut from the east
end of Eagle Pass, extends between the Columbia and the Rookies. Scores of men who
have been employed on railway trail making
confirmed in talk what iB said of this stction,
that it is mountainous, with aome bay bottoms
along and at the mouths of streams, but chiefly a forest and mineral region. Tho timber in
likely to be in great demand for east of the
Rockiea and it is very abundant. The maiu
sawmills are likely to be at this point. Eagle
Fassf where the railway crosses the Columbia a
second time} as there is from that point a com-
' dent, and Edgar (row Jt*k
returv.    Then- lo feloa ■   ' •
feq., M. T.
■t   eight
dent;   KbsUmh   1     Tuh—miii  i-.-i)
Se,-
llllf
Arbitration   Board «.f   two!re   onjihofo.    The
Boaid So mmmtmA <•(  -ui-t;ntiai, .ouiiooiila
tive merchants from Ovorj branch of bade, is
admirably . ->n<lu.cted and baa I .. oOM a necessity in the mercantile circle- of tbe pfuvirjee.
Its influence is wide-sj.read and powerful, oojd
hears directly on th-- pr<--[..nty and advancement of  t.rit:sh Columbio-
Jooeph   Spratt.
Mr. Spratt is one of the most . nt. rprisiTii:
citizens of the province, with large ojnJ varied
intends. He bas liv. .| m the province onHM
IMS, and originated the .Atbion Iron and Stove
Works (notice of which will be fonnd else-
where), but sold out boa interest some two
years ago. He ia the owner of the Herring
Oil Manufactory at Hurntrd Inlet, erected at
great expense, which is in active and prosperous operation. He has also successfully completed an undertaking of a novel character, the
construction of a floating cannery, built something like an enormous barg<\ of perhaps UN
tons. In this vessel all th<- appliances for cannery purposes are comprised, while the upper
structure embodies all necessary uccocimoda-
tions for employees engaged*in the prosecution
Ch.s. E. Redfern,
Formerly Mayor of Victoria, is a practical
watchmaker and jeweler, occupying a large
store in the handsome new fireproof building
on Government street, below Fort Mr. Bed-
fern has the agency for the American Watch
Co., and carries a large stock of watches, clocks
and American and English jewelery, and optical goods. He repairs chronomoters, watches,
clocks and jewelry, guaranteeing his work.
His workshop is complete in every respect, the
store containing fire and burglar proof vaults
in heavy masonry. Mr. Redfern has been in
business twenty-one years, and enjoys an extensive trade throughout the city und province.
Munroe Miller.
Mr. Miller has one of the largest ond most
thoroughly appointed printing establishments
in the province. In addition to all kinds of
job and newspap< r printing, he has lately
added a complete pLuot for engraving and colored label printini'. : ome samples of his late
work in this respect showing excellence of design and finish not excelled by the largest San
Francisco houses. He has lately added a large
Hoe four-cylinder press, and is now prepared
to do satisfactory work at reasonable prices in
anything in his line.
Thomas Earle.
Mr. Earle is an importer and wholesale
grocer, with an extensive trade throughout Victoria and the entire province. .He is one of the
proprietors of the Pioneer Coffee and Spice
Mills, the output of which has a high reputu-
tion wherever known. Mr. Earle is a direct
importer, handling largely all standard brands
of groceries, tobacco, &c, having also exclusive agency for well known and superior
lines. His office is on Wharf street, and is one
of the busiest places in the city.
Young Bros.
Messrs. Young Bros, have a neat and ably
conducted restaurant and oyster saloon on
Government street, between Yates and Johnson.
They are two of the most practical men in their
line "in the province, and, having made the subject of oysters one of careful study for years-
are enabled to procure and scientifically pre,
pare the succulent bivalve in unexcelled manner;
they are authorities on this subject. The firm
does a large local trade, also exporting oysters
throughout the province.
Woolen Manufacture.
Victoria is entirely dependent on foreign importation for her woolen goods. 'A demand has
been mode for home manufacture, and an offer
has been made by the authorities to any enterprising individuals who will build and operate such a factory. The offer embodies a large
cash subsidy and other considerations of free
rental, freedom from taxation, etc. Further
particulars can be obtained by addressing the
Victoria Board of Trade on the subject,which is
certainly one worthy of serious consideration.
Hall and GoepeL
These gentlemen, Mr. R. Hall and Mr. W. J.
Goepel, are ship brokers and insurance agents,
and have been established for three years.
They make a specialty ol the former branch of
their business, and represent the California
Marine Insurance Co., the Travelers' Insurance Co., the Liverpool, London and Globe
Fire Insurance Co., and the Northern Pacific
Express Co. Their business is an extensive
one, and rapidly growing, the firm being well
known as an enterprising and reliable one.
Cur Obligations.
For information and valuable assistance rendered in preparing information for this edition
of the Journal of CoitmercB we return thanks
to the Colonist, Times, Standard and Post, to
public officials and to many others in the commercial circles of Victoria, and trust that it
will be in our power to discharge the obligation
in the not distant future.
Chas. Morton.
Mr. Morton started his stationery house in
1883. on Government street. He handles a
large line of all kinds of books and stationery,
office supplies, cutlery, fancy goods and standard cheap publications. He commands a good
local trade, which, under his intelligent management, israpidly increasing.
A.  B. Stevens.
Mr. Stevens has been established two years
in the hardware, crockery, cutlery and glass-
■ware business. He is a direct importer, and
bis large premises are completely stocked with
a full and well selected assortment of everything in his line. He commands a large local
trade.
WELCH, RITHET & CO.
Commission    Merchants
I1TOTB4TOK A®Wm
Wharf Street, between Bastion and Fort.
VICTORIA, B. C.
SPENCER & HASTINGS,
PORTRAIT t£ LANDSCAPE
DEALERS   IN   PHOTOGRAPHIC   MATERIALS
MANUFACTURERS OF DRY PLATES.
AND
Fort Street,
Victoria, B. C
JOHN    ROBERTSON,
bl-A-Oicsimiitih:
HUDSON BAY COMPANY,
VIOTOPt,!^,   IB.   O.,
DEALERS   IN
General Merchandise
WHOLESALE  AND  RETAIL.
Highest Prices Paid for Furs of All Kinds.
•AND--
DILiER    TuTJS
Store Street, opp Telegraph Hotel, Victoria, B
C.
Steamboat and Ships' Wox-k.    Agricultural Implements
Miners' Picks, etc., Made and Repaired.
R. DUNSMUIR & SONS,
PBOPBIETORS
Wellington Collieries,
DEPARTURF BAY, NEAR NANAIMO.
Offices: Departure Bay and Victoria, B. C.
SAN  FRA^wClslaaO^OFFICES:
620 East Street, bet. Pacific and Jackson.
Canadian Pacific Navigation Company
Lu I 3£ I T E D ,
-VXCDTOTtXJ^,   IB.  O-
EAST COAST ROUTE.
Steamers of thia Compapy leave Victoria  for  Nanaimo and fwy porta every
Monday, Wednesday and Friday, at  7 a. m Returning.   leave  Nanaimo
each following day at 7 .\. m For Comox every alternate Monday.
FRASER RIVER ROUTE.
Steamers leave Victoria for New Westminster and way porta «very Monday,
Wedneaday and Friday, at 7 a   m Making connection  at Victoria  with
steamers of O. E. & N. Co. and P. C. S. S. Co Making connection at
New Westminster with steamers for Hope and way landings on Fraser River.	
Connecting at fort Hammond with trains of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
NORTHERN ROUTE.
A steamer will leave twice each  month, about  the  1st  and litb, for Fort
Simpson and way ports.    SSf Subject to change without notice.
The scenery on the different routes traversed by this Company is unsurpassed
by any on the coast, aud a trip up the coble Fraser, a visit to the extensive coal
mines"on the East Coast, or a voyage North, will well repay tourists
reduced rates will be given.
Nov. 1, 1884.
to whom
JOHN IRVING, Manager.
VICTORIA   PLANING   MILLS,
P. O. Box 228.
Rock Bay Bridge.
 MArFACTTKERS AND   DEALERS IN
MOULDINGS,
DOORS,  WINDOWS,   BLINDS,   PLANING   AND
SAWING,   ETC.
T!uTTJJLFCJEIEl-A.lZ>
PROPRIETORS.
VIOTORIA, B.
THOMAS    EARLE.
COMMISSIOIST    aVCEStlCJH.A.3>»TT
...IMPORTER AND WHOLESALE DEALER IN....
Groceries   and   Provisions.
P. O.   BOX  111.
i »v
PROPRIETOR OF THE PIONEER
Wharf Street.     -     -     -
COFFEE AND SPICE MILLS.
Victoria, B.  C.
VICTORIA   BREWERY,
JOSEPH LOWEN, L. ERB,
Proprietors.
Brewers   of    Beer,    Ale     and     Stout.
VICTORIA, B. C
W   R. CLARKE,
Auotioneer,   -A-T>"P>i"«^iis^x"
A.3ST3D..
CO MjMIRNI OIS'     MEIUJCi^T,
Fireproof Bt.Ud.ng, Yates St.: VICTORIA, li.
('.
Claims for dMMgM to  !>*■   made within twenty-four hours after sale.    No deduction made on
Koodti after they have lift tht* Store.    No allowance for sample lots.
LIBERAL   ADVANCES   MADE   ON   CONSIGNMENTS.
G.   BOSSI
DKALKK IN
Groceries,    Liquors,
of   salmon    fishing.    The   vetMel   is propelled
Near Johnson and Store Streets,
Opposite Wn.ldin-ton Alloy, VICTORIA.
J. & J. FLETT,
FAMILY     GROCERS.
FARM PRODUCE AL VAYS IN STOCK.
Southwest Cor. Fort and Douglas Sts., Victoria, B. C.
GOODS   DELIVERED   FREE   OF   CHARGE.
J.   BOUCHERAT.
M,  CAMSUSA.
BOUCHERAT 4 CAMSUSA.
WHOLESALE  DEALERS IN
Wines, Liquors, Groceries, Provisions
HAVANA CIGARS AMD FRENCH PRESERVES,
-      VICTORIA, B. C.
S. J. PITTS,
Importer   and   Wholesale
MERCHANT.
Yates Street,Victoria, British Columbia.
MRS. R. MAYNARD,
WiotocftAWitc mnsr
...AND...
Dealer in All Kinds of Photographic Materials.
VIEWS OF VICTORIA AND BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR SALE
 POUCLftS STREET, VICTORIA. B. C.
EDGAR   MARVIN.
MARVIN & TILTON,
Successors to EDGAR MARVIN
IMPORTERS   OF
Iron
AGENTS FOR THE
E0WAR0 G    TILTON.
V1GORIT   POWDER
 VICTORIA,   B
CARTER
COMPANY,
C.
YATES STRfcET,
McKILLICAN & ANDERSON,
Contractors and Builders.
Job Work Executed with Neatness and   Despatch.
ALL WORK GUARANTEED TO GIVE SATISFACTION,
STAIR BUILDING A SPECIALTY.
Government   Street.
Victoria,   B.   C.
Matthews, Richards
m p. mi S li 11 a a .
ENGLISH HOUSE,
MATMEW3, RICHARDS & TYE,
IMPORTERS    OF
IRO
ENGLISH
9
AND
E X-
AMERICAN HARDWARE.
Sole Agents for BUCKEYE MOWEBS snd REAPERS.
YATES STREET, VICTORIA, B. C.
DR1ARD   HOUSE.
The Only First-class House in the City.
REDON & HARTNAGLE,
VICTORIA, B. C.
PROPRIETORS.
KURTZ & CO.
Manufacturers of Cigars.
TOBACCO IMPORTED DIRECT FROM HAVANA,
And Only White Labor Employed.
Office. Store and Factory:   Corner Government and
Trounce Streets, Victoria, B. C.
A. GREGG & SON,
IMPORTERS   .A-UID   DEALERS  IN-
Fine Woolens, Cassimeres, Worsteds,
ENGLISH, SCOTCH AND FRENCH SUITINGS.
Genls' Garments Made to Order in the Latest Styles, Neatly and Promptly.
TERMS CASH.
Cor. Douglas and Pandora  Streets, Victoria. B. C.
Ale   and   Porter   Brewers.
Have Exclusive Right to Supply H. M. Navy with Malt Liquors-
VANCOUVER    BREWERY,
VICTORIA, B.  C.
owiehan Lumber Yard,
North End James Bay Bridge,
WILLIAM  SUTTON, PKOP'K.
M&UGE and DRESSED  LUMBER.
DOORS, SASHES, WINDOW BLINDS, ETC.
Seasoned Lumber Always in Stock.
All    Orders    will    Receive    Prompt    Attention.
H.   A.  HARRISON,       -       -       -       .      -       Manager.
SAMUEL   CLAY,
Tea Dealer, Family Grocer. Etc.
Cor. Johnson and Douglas Sts., Victoria, B. C,
F*9* Pmomvem *#& Ge.xb**l Fm Sromm.
WINES, LIQUORS AND CIGARS.
Goods Delivered to any part of the City free of   charge for carriage.
i BOSSI & C UIESSELMN,
IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN
GROCERIES, LIQUORS, PROVISIONS
British Columbia Coffee and Spice Factory. .
Cor. Yates and Broad Sts.,   -  -  -  -  Victoria, B. C.
All Gooda Delivered Free to any part of the City.
WILLIAM   GRIMM,
BLACKSMITIt,    I\
Agricultural Implement and Carriage Maker,
JOHNSON STREET, bet Douglas and Broad, VIOTORIA, B. 0.
REPAIRS AND JOB WORK DONE IN THE BEST STYLE.
Charge* Moderate. Satisfaction guaranteed.
BAY    TANNERY.
.*
JOHNSON
T a ix il e v #   ai ii <i
Importer ana Wholesale Deale* in
Groceries,   Provisions,
TOBACCOS AND CIGARETTES.
Government and  Fort Streets, Victoria, B. C.
Cor
p
O. Box 92.
Orders from country dealers will have especial attention.
HUSON   &   MOSS,
(SVrCKSSORS TO J.  RHODE.>
Dealers in Groceries and  Provisions.
BREAD AND CRACKER BAKERY,
Store Street.     ------      Victoria, B. C.
THE
Bank of British M America,
Manager
B.OBT.   BUKNS
Acting Manager     Cr.   B.   BTJB.NS
Yates Street, near Government,
VICTORIA. B. ('.
C. STROUSS & CO.,
IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN
General    Merchandise,
COMMERCIAL   ROW,
Wharf Street,
VICTORIA, B. C.
THOS. NICHOLSON,
Jjrl Uvvl lt?s
IAIjBII   IISX
. .sums,
WINES, LIQUORS, ETC.
Corner Johnson and Douglas Streets,     -      -      -     VICTORIA. B.
('.
GOODS   DF.L1VERKD   FltEE   OF   CHARGE.
New rnnuma sakcby
RESTAURANT    AND   SALOON,
YOUNG BROTHERS,   -    -    -    -   PROPRIETORS
Government Street, between Johnson and Tates, Victoria, B C.
Private Dining Rooms for Ladies.     Meals at All Hours.
Bread. Cakes and Pies Supplied to Families. 1 ionics, Balls, Etc.
<fc   CO.
l»Ii».ii\vfa.ctij.i-oi-s  of
Sole. Harness, Calf, and all kinds of Leather.
Cash   Paid   for   Hid  s   and   Calf-skins.
VICTORIA, B. C
P   O. Box 2 I 7.
c£   CO.
C0313IIS>!«IO?f     MERCHANTS,
ana wholesale dealers in
FLOOR, WHEAT, BARLEY. OATS, BRAN, SHORTS, MIDDLINGS, HAY- CHOP FEED.
BUTTER, CHEESE, EGGS, POULTRY,
POTATOES,    ONIONS,    CALIFORNIA    FRUIT,
■ And  all   Kinds  of  Country   Proiluce,
YATES   STREET, next to Amoii.:m Hotel,
•\7-X«Z?T«r>n.XA,   B.   O.	
PHOENIX   BREWERY,
CHARLES  CO WEN,
Proprietor.
.BBEWEB   OF.
Beer, Pale lie and Extra Stout
Corner Yates and Blanchard Streets,   -   -   -
-   -   Victoria, B. 0.
COMMERCIAL   HOTEL,
Cor. Douglas and Cormorant streets, near City Hall.
VICTORIA,   R •   C.
Thit» now Fire-1'roof Bri.k Huildiug was expressly built for ti Hotel, with   all   imniorn improvement., and is one of the best locnte.l House?, iu the City.
BOARD, TER WEEK IS 00 I BOAHD AND LODGING, PER DAY.        1 00
BOARD AND LODGING, PER WEEK., a 00 | SINliLF. MEALS       85
BEDS. X AND M CENTS.
ln.<iiiilies A.cfouiniti. Intt-d oil   X=lt?f,t30ii«l ->1<~  Toni:>j3.
Tbe BAR will ha I. iirtl well aUK-ked wltb the Beat   Brand, of WlDe*. Ltauora and Cigar..
J. C. JOHNSON, Proprietor.
 Ml    < IIIMCMK     KMPI.OYKD.
DeWeiderhold & Co.
WHABF STREET, near Government. VICTORIA, B.
Commission Merchants.
c.
_A.isr 11   i iea i ii.J3n.i-
3IST
COAL, WOOD and
JACOB SEHL,
M AM F.UTlKKIi OF
FURNITURE,
Bedding, Carpets, Mirrors, Picture Frames,
MOULDINGS, CHILDREN'S CARRIAGES, ETC.
(tOVEHNMKNT street,
VICTORIA,  H.   O.
WENTWORTH  F    WOOD.
J. A. T. CATON.
WOOD* UtM
Manufacturers'
*00*
Agents,
Cor. Fort and Wharf Sts., Victoria, B. C.
P.  O.   B.< 101.
Cigars, Carpets, Furnishing Goods, Cutlery and General Merchandise.
Agents for the London Assurance, incorporated 1790.

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