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The Red Flag Sep 20, 1919

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 THE Vancouver **|*roV"uee'\ of /Saturday,
Sept. 13, contains the third of Professor
Leacock*» weekly articles on the causes of tfae
social unrest. In this third article fae examines
critically the "natural liberty" doctrines of individualism which all men held to be "self evident
truths" in the 18th and 19th centuries.
The professor tells us that the economists and
leading thinkers of tfaat period taught that tite
greatest possible happiness snd social well-being
would ensue fas society which adapted its policies to what they conceived as "natural laws." It
waa conceived that each man, having hfa "natural
liberty" and having entered into free competition
with hfa fellows in the selling of goods and services, Would then have allotted to him, aa a result
of the competitive struggle, just tfaat due reward
warranted by his ability and activity. Thus from
thfa premise, it is deduced that the laborer -for $2
per day, gets the full value of hfa labor, that being all tbe value, tt fa conceived, that he creates.
It is thus with tfae produetion engineer or manager or the president of a corporation, each and
all are rewarded according to the dictates of a
vblvra around'-tfafa simple fundamental equation
that selling value equals the east of production."
Just here the professor performs tfae cuttle fish
act He deeends to logic chopping. First he says,
the economists proposition is s fsllscy. Then fae
seya it fa aa true as that two and two make four.
Then he rays that tt fa like the latter statement
and means nothing. "It fa not fa itself fallacious;
how could it be? But all tfae socisl inferences
drawn from tt are absolute, complete and malicious fallacies." Socialist, ss well ss bourgeois,
only more so. He then explains what tite economists held was tfae basis   "    **      "urt***   '  "
ravage makes a bowv
.,..■; ~ :  ,-'■-   . -
labor be compared! Ac different kinda of laborr
they'do not fa fact enter into the rote of the formation of exchange value,
product of social labor and when
latiou with each other for exefaaiige, appear ;%
thst relation, not ao the results of useful fotreto
of fabor, a. rarpentar or blaekamitiu. aWU^
unskilled, but as labor in general,
undifferentiated, abstract human
values tfaey are the result of different kinda of
Igbor, differing individually from One another.
But as exchange velum they represent the same
of*, value,   "A primitive   homogeneous labor, i.e., labor from which the fa-
in a day; it takes   dividuality Of the Workers fa eliminated. Skilled
him a fortnight to make a bark canoe. #In that
fact rests tfae exchange value between the two.
The relative quantity of labor embodied fa each
object fa the basis of its value. But the idee that
quantity of labor governs value wfll not stand
examination. . . As king as we drew our illustrations from primitive life where one man's
work fa much the same aa anothers, and where ell
operations are simple, we seem easily able to compare . . ..' But fa tim complexity of modern
natural law wfatefa automatically registers in wages industrial life such a calculation no longer ap-
or salary tim value of tfaett labors fa the produc- pife,: the differences of skill, if native Ingenuity,
tive process. ^^^< and technical preparation become enormous.   The
He shows that thisiSnjpears to be borne out hours work of the common laborer is not the same
when we examine ssnf'psrtioular business, ae no thing as the hour's work of a watchmaker or an
employer can- afford, all other things being equal, engineer directing the building of a bridge. There
to pay higher wages than hfa competitor any tt no way of reducing these hours to a common
more than he can jump out of hfa akin or if he bssfa.'' He says, the economists attempted to slip
does pay more he does it at tbe expense of de- out of the difficulty, but failed, by measuring thc bestowed upon them.
generating into a philanthropist and so to ultimate quantity of labor by what was paid for it. "Skill-
bankruptcy as a capitalist Nevertoeress, he says, ed labor fa worth, let us say, three times as njamfa
because people look at but a fragment of the as common labor. . . Hence by adding up all
structure tfaey draw' erroneous ronclusions.    Re-   the wages paid, we get something that -stems
indicate tim total quantity of labor,.measured not
simply on time but Wttfa an allowance for skill
and technical competency."
According to Professor Leacock, upon thfa rock
cause one brick in a wall fa immoveable, they forget that the wall itself might be rebuilt. "But
tins," he continues, "aa a matter of pure economies docs not interest the individual employer a
particle . . . it has nothing to do with business. But to society, at large, it fa of infinite importance^ ' ■«",::■
"Bfat consider for a moment the peculiar nature
Of tfae linutauom* themselves. JUvery men's limit
of what he can pay and what he can take, of how
much he Can oiler, and how much fae will receive,
m im»*4 ^ other people.
They are reciprocal to one another. Why sfaould
one factory owner not pay ten dollars a day to
hfa hands! Because the others don't. But suppose they all do, then tim output could not be sold
at the present price. But why not sett the produce at a higher price. Because at a higher price
tite consumer ean.not afford to buy it. But sup
pose that the consumer for the things which he
himself mokes and sells, or for tfae^ work which
he performs receives morel What then." . . .
He says, in despair, "One searches in vain for tfae
basis on whiefa tfae relationship rests. And at the
end of the analysis one finds nothing but an
anarchical play of forces, nothing but a give and
toko, noting on relative bargaining strength.
Everyone gets whet he can and gives whet fae has
to." But fae aaya "the earlier economist held, so
ho thought the thread , . . and thfa thread
waa hfa "'fundamental   equation   of   value,'"
tends'to be sold) under free competition at ite
cost of production. . . .. Here was your aell-
inr price as a starting point Given tfaat, you can
see at once tfae reason for the wages paid and tfae
full measure of the payment To pay more fa impossible. To pay leas is to invite competition that
will force the payment of mow. Or take if yon
ttke, the wages as the storting point; • • • the
selling price will exactly and nicely correspond to
cost. True a part of the coat concerned will be represented not by wages but by cost of materials,
but these, on analysis, dissolve into peat wages.
Hence the whole process and ite explanation re-
Jsbor fa regarded as a multiple of unskilled labor*
This reduction of differentiated labors to simple,
homogeneous undifferentiated labor may be seen*
illustrated on the market when commodities sre
brought into relation with each other for exchange. Tfaeir value fa then expressed in gold
prices. Gold, the universal medium of exchange,
acting as a looking glass in wfatefa all commodities-
see tfaeir relative values reflected as gold values.
To quote Marx, (page 66, Value. Price and Profit)
"You exchange a certain amount of your national
products, in which a certain amount of your national labor is crystallized, for the produce of tho
gold and silver producing countries, in which a
certain quantity of their labor fa crystallized,
is in thfa way, in' fact by barter, that you le
to express in gold and silver the values of all \
modities, that fa the respective quantities of 1<
Looking somewhat clc
into • the monetary expression ■, of. value, or.
comes to tfae same, the conversion of value into
you will find that it fae process by whieh
ye to values of all commodities an fadsjma
lent and hoauogsneous form, or by which you express them as quantities of equal social labor.'"
What Professor Leacock says can not fae done, fa
actually done every day when commodities are
splits tfae theory of value of the bourgeofa econo-   brought fato relation, with each other for exchange
mists and all their structure of economic science
falls away because of the impossibility, aa he conceives it, of measuring the value of a commodity,
embodying labor of various degrees of skill fay reducing these, labors to a common basis of labor
time. As the labor theory of value was left by the
early economist, fail criticism fa justified, but,
where the earlier economists,  Adam  Smith and
in the innumerable buying and selling transactions.
The question now fa, how shall quantities of this
homogeneous social labor be measured t In thc
exchange relation, commodities appear as quantities of labor values whose only distinguishable
property fa their duration. Motion fa measured by
' time, so fa labor measured fay labor time.
The Marxian law of vslue fa that the value of
Ricardo, etc, had left the, defective labor toeory   commodities are determined by the amount of
of value, Karl Marx took up tfae argument The
earlier economists had worked in s vicious circle.
Tfaey asked what is the cost of producing commodities, and had answered the cost of labor.
Then thc question was, what fa the cost of producing
the labor, and they completed tfae circle without
arriving at a determination by raying, the cost of
a certain quantity of. commodities, aa food and
dally necessary labor involved in their production measured by time. Price, the monetary ex-
pression of value, is a variation from value due
to the conditions of supply and demand. But over
a period of time tite mess of commodities exchange with each other at their value.
The Socialist inferences, berated by Professor
Leacock, are drawn from the Marxian analysis of
clothing, etc. What fa fact these eronomiste called tfae capitalist system of production. Tfae keystone
tfae value of fabor, wee, aa Marx showed, the vslue of tfae Marxian system fa*he afaeve law of vetoe-
of lafaor^power whieh exists fa tfae peraonality of   Many doughty ecoiwmfata have trial to pry
the laborer and which he sells to the capitalist as
e comsjodtty. The values produced fay tfae laborer vary fa any degree from the value of. fafa commodity labor-power, toe veto* of whiefa fae may
produce in five out of tim ten hours wfatefa be
works, tie remaining tiro "hours fae produces
values for tfae rapttabst
Tfae problem of reducing labor ef various degrees of akfll to a common base er multiple fa
order tfaat tfaey might be compared waa afao tim
work of Marx wfao thus solved the problem left
unsolved by the economists and which fa now
given up apparently in despair by Professor Lea-
eoek. Tfafa subject of exchange value requires a
more extended treatment than we can give tt here.
Fore toller exposition of the Marxian law of value
we recommend a rosing of1 the literature of
Marxian economies, and wherever possible, attend-
*Ine qwestion fa, faow can tim different kinds of
loose:   Before attacking Socfalfat inferences, Pro-
fessor Leacock might show tite fellicy of their
The attempts to deny tfae Bullitt
given before the U. S. Foreign Relations Contmtt-
tee, would be comic were tt not for the tragic
memory of hundreds of thousands of lives wasted
and untold miseries visited on the. population of
Russia, through a starvation blockade, not to mention those in the Allied countries who, because
they protested against the attempt to suppress the
Russfan worken' republic have been subjected to
persecution, brutalities, and long terms in prison.
Articles are desired on the Socialist Phflosophy
or on current events interpreted fa tfae light of ite
principles. :WKKKmKB**J*WWm****mmm**mXB^^^S^ "'■•'' r\
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The Socialist, (Glasgow.)
The Bogey of ''tocrcased Output"
Ol" will notice a great deal of talk going ou
at# present about the need for increasing
production. Since the Armistice this has been the
song of all those who are interested in keeping
m» jp. ***> jg Mm* Tory f*l ^^
types 9# Labor politicians have urged It by speech
and pen as the cure-all-for our social His. Some
cynics suggest that these gentlemen think that the
more attention we are paying to work and tfae
more we exhaust ourselves in the process, the lose
able we will bj to watch and exercise politics.
Certainly it fa quite a plausible explanation where
the politician's advice fa not born of sheer ignorance.   But when you hoar those great industrial
'' ''
ing"and other methods of paying wages. Such
methods of payment give the appearance that
wages come from the product, and, therefore, bene-
YOU will notice a great deal of talk going ou   *•***• to *** we***** beeauee their amount .teat present about the need for facreaafag   ***** **'''•**' outi*rt instead of time.. You wriuld
be irefl advised- however, to spurn such -proposals,
since it fa a case of "heads I win and tails you
lose." '■ '>
Pavment Bv Results a Benefit to Emnloven
>. #"""?""""!*■'*%;*,-*^!*;   +%'■****! a9*wm*^**** ,
All these, ntetfaodaeeo intended to take the place
of the bully-ragging foreman as an inducement to
?*mf^>Q&\**f '^W^t**** * *: *" *f$**^*^f •M^''m'wB^^':-'^,W*V^**BW'     faaaWawn    MIMA
compare them wttfa tfae time-wage principle you
will find that, spread over the life of the worker,
the net *result fa a decided gain to the employer
while you are the sooner in your grave. . ,
In the ease of the Trade Union principle qf a
magnates who pride themselves op being tfae uaiform standard wage for its adult members,
'•raptefos of fadustry'' fargfag tiie same idea and what the experienced middle-aged worker-ie.,
predicting natkujal rufa if their advice fa neg- within the average life in the trade-loses because
leeted, it fa as well that we should have some de- 0f suy artificial restraint of .that Union he gainsj(t'
finite opinions on the subject. ^O^flMfa,'either aa an inexperienced youtit or
If you should require to face your employer on when he is coming up for hfa superannuation.
eome of those irritating grievances whiefa always Coder payment by results what he gains fa this
seem to be with us—and you would do well toJm nuddle period* he loses at both ends since hfa in-
always prepared for such emergencies—it fa4ton, experience and youth fa a handicap; while as soon
toSpne he will not let you go without reminding as he has crossed the hill he fa thrown out as
you about the need for working harder, "doing * urates^'^/^gt^lt being that more of hfa life
your damndest" he limy put it if he fa one who has been used up, and that quicker than if he had
tikes to be familiar with you for, of course, ob-    followed the standard-wage principle.
^sis^.jef^'.,tt makes little difference whether you
are robbed two-thirds of the Week as in time-wages,
OF only poid one-third of the value of your product as in the piece system. In both esses the
profit you allow to go to the employer comes from
your efforts and industry.
Now when you are farted, to increase production it fa taken for granted that you agree tfaat
tite more you produce the more you will get. Of
course, you know tfaat the. heat of employers are
not philanthropists, although seme of them look
gift-horses in the mouth. But it fa perhaps ae well
to know tfaat tfafa' great discovery of the need for
increased production fa based upon a fallacy fa
economics, once popular and current—a fallacy
indeed which, though long ago exploded- has simply been dressed up for the present occasion when
Capitalfam has been proven a failure, and there
. fa need to tide over sn awkward situation. That
fallacy fa tfae belief timt your wsges can only
eome out of your product, and, therefore, , the
smaller your product the less you can get, and
vice-versa.   Lot us examine tfafa.
For the product which your employer sells today he gets a certain price.   Now this price must
fae such thst it will replace the raw
worked up, the proportion of tim
Crises Jnteatifted
What you would de»w*.l to fix in your mind fa
the fact tfaat it is from our labor-power, applied
to the natural and socisl agencies of today, timt
all wealth, including profit, fa produced..
There fa no real co-ordination today between
paredaetfafr at would he the
fa a community whose first consideration was socisl need instead of private profit Production
being carried On for profit tt fa your employer's
business to squeeze ss much out of you aa he can.
The more he squeezes out of you cbmpsred to
whst you get" as wages simply means that tfae
harder you work—low tfae greater the output—
the sooner the markets will be glutted, and there
you are back again to crises, epidemics of unemployment, etc. j
Again, take rare you are not misled by specious
schemes, whieh, though actually putting more
coin fa your envelope or tin on Saturday, still
leaves a greater margin fa the bank-balance of
your "bora'' If, for instance, you increase your
normal output fay ten; fant only get three while
your employer gets seven, then, though you are
getting more, relatively speaking your position
fa worse, since your employer fa now fa a position
to lord tt over you witfa more power at hfa disposal than before. :
ivot only must you faave regard to your nominal*
i.e., money Wages, or your real wagavt>& faefa
Jpur-chitflne;pewer, but you must always hsve sn
eye on your relative wage, iel, what you get ss
compared with profit
Tfae Baal lam at lie. /
In a little- booklet which forms the substance
of a lecture delivered a long time ago fay Karl
Mar-;, and named "VMue, Price and
there is an illustration which compares the
tional wealth to a huge bowl of soup. Marx very
aptly puts the case in a nutshell by saying that
it fa neither the narrowness of the bowl nor tfae
scantbiess of tts contents that handicap the worker, but the smsllness of their spoons. Not until
the bowl and the soup are at the disposal of tim
community, instead Of a class, wfll there be s real
incentive to increase output.
Till then tfae appeal of employers for increased
produetion will remain what it fa today-a bogey
to mislead you and I and the class to whieh we
faeieeg. f. B.
Five years ago tfae Japanese and their wares
were unknown in the Marshall Islands, and. tt
might be added, anywhere in the Central Pacific
Islands.   Australian trade, despite German ownership, was paramount.   Today too Japanese hold
snd nuv    the tra<Je of the who,e of '•* M»ren»n CTTonp en-
ehfaery used up, le" t"te^reer and'tear^aiid wfaet-   M»ft *}°* ** ov6r *¥^'.* year to Aijstrelia
ever other instruments or tilings tfaat were needed   *** Brit^*}-    *»*. ye*r *M Mc *** end to An8"
in the lsbor process. The price must slso include
the replacement of the wage to you and year,
mates, slso tfae employer's profit. But tiie raw
materials, tods, etc., used up represent; pre-existing values. The replacement of your wages and
life profit represents new value added hy your
own and your mates' efforts. It might appear
tfaat since year wages are replaced from tim now
value, that. therefore, tfae more now value you
produce the more wsges you will get Tfafa fa en
Illusion, however, since your wage may be paid
before tfae arMt fa sold. Indeed, the article
might never .nffBd. In any case, you know from
experience tfaat what you get fa wages haa always
to be fought for. In fact tt fa like drawing blood
from a atone to get an extra halfpenny of a rise.
^^MAW&mm.mmmmmm mmmW mWt^Lmmm^mm:     ^^^^M     -   -   -    —
auxeou or Tnmvwages. *•
In this respect time-wages expose the fallacy of
the, whole argument of increased production as a
solution to our bread-line wages, since it reveals
at a glance, by the continual strikes that go on,
bow the amount of your wages depends net ao
much on what you produce as* on the strength of
the combined efforts of yourself with your mates
to foree the employer's hand. This fa one, of the
reasons why employers are so keen on" payment
tralian trade in those islands, after a faithful service of over 25 years. Japanese trade fa spreading
rapidly in the Britfah Crown Colony 0' the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, and mainly through tfae
apathy of the Colopisl Office, which fa well acquainted with tim facts.
Five year* hence the Marshal's will be a populous snd prosperous New- Japan. Commercial magnates of Japan have already planned to put these
islands, which by ignorant people were supposed
to 1»e commercially unimportant on a progressive
commercial basis, snd several industries fa connection .with the cocoanut palm and its products
will be established.
In preparing for the future, the Japanese authorities are Jookfag far ahead. A line of modern
tourist stesmers of 2000 tons, specially built for
the trade, plies regularly between Japan and the
Marshall* retornfag via the Carolines and 'the
numerous adjoining Islands.
American *finperia"tem at Work-
Mr. R. Lundqufat, resident representative fa
South Africa for the Commercial Department of
the United States, has during tim past few months
been making a complete four of Britfah East
Africa, Rhodesia and Uganda, with thc object of
these Britfah Protectorates. He fa reported to here
been most successful fa fafa efforts.     ,
Railway rolling stock in large quantities continues to arrive from New York at Beira for the
Beira-Maahonaland and the Rhodesia Railways.
A Hurt to Uneashire Cotton Workers.
In the three yesrs, 1916 to 1918 inclusive, the
imports into China of plain eotton cloth manufactured in Japan exceeded tfae imports of similar
cloth made fa England! Here are tfae quantities
as given in the report on the Foreign Trade ef
China fai 1918, fast issued from the Inspectorate
General of Chinese Customs. The figures indicate
1916. 1917. 1918.
Rritfah  — ti,*m573    44W,4U    2,634,432
Japanese 5,588,895    8.045,816    7,007,488
LONDON, Sept. 10—A Bolshevik wireless despatch from Moscow asserts that Admiral Kolchak
lae applied to Japan for help, offering as compensation the Russian "portion of tiie Island ef
Sagahlien and the Casuri rejton.
A Tokyo despatch rays that Japan amy find tt
necessary to   despatch   more- reinforcements to
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by- resutt, premium bonus, piece work, profitsttar-   encouraging tfae expansion of American trade wttfa
(By John Reed.)
John Reed wss fa Russia during tim Bolsfaevflri
Revolution ami thfa book records fafa Ohm, i satipam
He fa a journalist tites a trained observer hut besides tine fae had tfae advantage of understanding
tim historical nature ef the forees at work. Price,
&  Postage paid- (From toe "Christian Science Monitor," Aug. 29.)
Extract from The Socialist, (Glasgow.)
Obedient to the Marxian principle of concentration
of capital, the forces of industry and commerce
are rapidly moving today fa the direction of big
uusiness. Sucfa, s movement, accelerated aa it was
during the wsr in the demand for speedy and large
•ted element, needed for big bustaees trae b^^ijeuri ismorted that, despite the deplorable dif-
*f fwvok* hoetitttjr ftom various quarters. Being   ^^^ of intellectual Hfe, Russian
now the order of the day, the combines, amalgams-   ^ wew worktog   ''under
tHE progress of scientific research fa Soviet
Russia was the subject of a report recently
read before the, French Academy of Sciences,
based Upon the observations of Prof, Victor Henri
of the Sorbonne, who* visited Petrograd end Mos-
mfasiou for tite French Government. Ac*
etc., are sweeping aside the small
and middleman or else converting them into "
- or professional wage-workers in the service of the
"trust." On the other hand, it baa removed tite
industrial wage-slave further and further away
from the owners of capital. In short, there fa grow
ing up on all sides the soulless corporation i
which drags into its maw all and sundry crossing
its path; becoming a veritable menace, in ite present form, to the whole community.
It was to be expected that tnose who ieel the
squeeze should "sing out, ' and: that demands
should come trout ail quarters to shackle the monster. Aeeordta#fa, we are noteuyp^
sent agitation for "inquiry*' wttfa tfaat end in view,
nor at the futile political safety-valve in the shape
of the Government's "Profiteering Bill." Still less
are we surprised at tite.
Socialists who can not see geyond tfae horizon of
bourgeofa political society have no other alternative
fan to plump for,State control. AH other suggestions are "undemocratic."
We. however, have no illusions on that score.
•'Profiteering Bttls," Food Ministries snd sll
schemes of national control are in tfarir very essence quixotic, not to say harmful to the Labor
movement. Tfaeir harmfulness lies in tite failure
to appreciate the forees moving for a social change
in the basis of, society, and, therefore, revolution;
timy are quixotic, since tfaey ceil not solve the
wages-slavery problem of capitalist industrialism.
That the trust has many evils can not be denied.
That tt is fraught with social advantages fa cquslly
true; chief among these being large scale production. As such, large scale production fa welcomed
by Socialists, seeing in the monster machine the essential means of satisfying the needs of the eem-
tions." New institutes snd laboratories have sheen
created under the direction of the Academy. of
Sciences of Petrograd, which has taken all the
existing museums under its protection. A great
commission, with 33 sections, has been constituted
of Russia's natural resources. Among
the newly created scientific depsrtmento are spe-
muntty in the minimum of time and wtth the niini- j^ ^^  Mg8in$t fa opposition of cxtremfato
mum of energy. .- who protested, according to Pravda of Feb. 20,
Shall the trust be smaafaedt   H there should be   that it amounted to a "peaceable occupation of
any doubt on that score let the recent Government   North Russia by foreign capital./'   The govern-
report on the subject speak for itself.   It will be   meat,--however, held that the immediate Cajnetruiv
seen front tfae investigations that we eould not if   t'on of the road was of more importance to Russia
we would.   On that score we needn't worry, since   than « mere doctrinaire adherence to the
we would not if we could.  It fa only the "artistic"
and anarchist Utopians, revealing   thereby   their
petty bourgeofa idesls, who would smash the trust
and go back to small production.
As to nationaliration—the favorite dream of lop
sided Socialists the report just issued by that
watch-dog of vested interesta, the Federation of
Britfah Industrie*, is a timely document. It reveals
fai no uncertain manner tfae vigilance of tite rurfag
class towards rounteracting the political demands
of Labor generally, while assuming a paternal interest fa the welfare of tarn worker.
Tim report sounds e warning to those mooncalves who are for' ever chasing the bogy of State
eodtrol as a solution to Labor's problems and indi-
cstes clearly that we are np sgsinst the fight of our
lives.   .   .
True to history, toe report shows once more how
a ruling class driven to the last ditch by tfae rising
slave clsss.' seeks to reform itself, **to prune tiie
abuses of its system, all fa the vain hope of prolonging its existence.   The committee pretends to ap
predate, the evils of monopoly and seeks to curtail   ere' pocket etc, offer safcty^ralves whiefa are cat
these.   It dilates upon the value of the State under-   culated to "ease" the pressure upon capital.
system of Russia."   According to information
tatoed jn a recent Daily Consular and Trade Report of the   United   .States Department of Commerce, tfae franchise carries wttfa-tt vast concessions in timber and mining righto fa North Russia,
Mew Discoveries
.    Hrofe^or Henri cited among the schievementa \
of the newly   created   scientific   bodies the dP
eoyery by the platinum institute of a secret gp
cess for separating platinum from jridium, hitherto, known only   to the Germans.   Reports   front'
other sources tell of similar accomplishments by
Russian scientists working to overcome shortages
due to the blockade.   Arthur Ransome tfae English writer Who visited Moscow last winter, tells
fa hfa "Russia in 1919" (Huebsch) of the. ,-ejajr'
"Soviet   matches,"  something   like  our  fi
paper matches in folding covers.   They are
of waste paper impregnated with a grease obtained from wool,   in   substitution   for   paraffin, of
Which there fa great shortage.   "Tfaey Rtrike and
burn better than any matches I have ever bought .•
in Russia." rays Ransome. They were to be
tributed by tfae card system, and to sell for Ef
kopecks a package, as compared with the prevailing price in Moscow, of a ruble snd a half for a
box of ordinary matches. a. Ransome also reports
a notable discovery in the textile field, which
helped to meet the cotton shortage. Previously it
had been considered impossible to combine flsr
witfa cotton in such s wsy thst the mixture could
be worked fa machines intended for cotton only.
But through investigstions carried on under tite
government's central textile department, two professors, the brothers Chilikin, discovered three different processes for eottonizing flax, aa 0 result
of which, some mills were actually using a mixture
of 50 per cent, flax in the old cotton machinesr
and had even produced materials experimentally
with as mueh as 75 per cent -.        '
"Two young technicians from the Centro-Tex-
tile," writes Rsnsome. "brought me a neatly prepared set of specimens illustrating these new processes and asked me to bring them anything of
fVpfans for the fadWial d^rvelopment   *»*, ****** *>** fWEngland fa retarn. Tfaey were
not Bolsheviki—were, in fact, typical non-politicals. Tfaey were pleased with what the Centro-
Textilc. was doing and said that more encouragement was given to research than ever formerly-
But they, were very despondent about, the ccono-
mie position. I could not make them understand
why Bussia was isolated and that I might be unable to faring them technical books from England.'* I
Natural Setentfate Wanted.
mmmjwmaMmm^   ^^*w*******-^mr^*^w     w*~ •^'•rv-*. •
This recalls the experience of Professor Henri,
ss reported fa Le Temps: Professor Oldenburg,
theory of stste construction. The official report president of the Petrograd Academy of Sciences,
upon tfae granting of tim franchise ssid: "If the begged Profeteor Henri to inform French scientific
franchise is refused, we shall be unable to build circles and the publte tfaat tt Would fae an excel-
thls road ourselves for decades; yet the road fa of lent thing for future Franeo-Russten relations if
the utmost importance for the Whole economic French natural scientists would[go to Russia and
"' "' ' ''''l'"! '■■" ' " ■ ***=••" assist m its scientific development The Bolsheviki
taking "services open to tim whole emnmuuity"
(presumsbly railways, transport, etc,) bntit takes
a definite stand against the State eitgegfag in production for exchange. In other words, while they
are not adverse to the State controlling the arteries
of production, tfae ruling claas wfll fight sgsinst
yielding tfae workshops, etc.
On the question of tfae "control of industry"
they have no two opinions. Tfaere ran be no *'en-
croachment upon the operations of the management or the authority of the forenmn." The workers sre only "lutods.''   These "hands," however,
rial institutes for chemical research, for tfae development, of building materials, for tfae study of
sails and fertilizers, and for tbe bettennent of
sheep stock. New laboratories for the study. of
radium, X-rays, theoretical -end applied optica,
crystalography, hydrology, have been in operation
fey several months. The Petrograd Academy of
Sciences has begun a series of
is at work upon a magnetic map
existing institute of weights and measures hss
enlarged by the addition of new laboratories.
;. lfailroad vxttoctxfas.
One of the, commissions for the study and dec
velopment of natural' resources left Moscow last
winter for Petehora. to investigate and report upon
tfae resources of worth Russia. According to
r'konoraitcheskaya Zhizn (Economic Life,) toe Official organ of the Supreme Council of National
Economy, the expedition consisted of natural
scientists and men of practical • experience in
northern conditions: "There ere among them
specialists in deer breeding and transportation by
pack animals on' the northern highways; expert
geologists, specialists in northern agriculture, and
This expedition formed a part
of North Russia, which include the granting of a
franchise to foreign capitalists for the construction of the Great Northern Railway, from the Obi
River in Siberia to Murman, via Kotlas. The
franchise was approved by the Soviet Government
ait doing everything pcerihle to get German natural reientists into the new scientific organizations.   It would be useful to offset thfa influence."
bVplaining the ttbereltty af the government toward savants and tfae readiness wttfa whteh sit
credits asked for resesrefa sre granted. Pionfaitir
Henri pointed out tfaat tfae 8ovtete eoiteidered tfaat
natural science had nothing to do with polities.
This attitude is revealed fa tfae Words of the iifeaV
dent of m$ Committee on Public Works, aa quoted
by Ransome:
"If we get peace, don't yew think there will be
have lnanyaoeial grievances, grievances which, if   engineers and skilled laborers fa England **<
will volunteer to eoote out and help ust There
is so much to do tfait I Jean promfae tfaey will have
tim beet we can ghe tfaem. . . And of eourao,
they need net be SeetaBstt, so long as they are
good engfaeers.''
not removed, Jteedme   the basis of the
Consequently, /housing reform, better   education;
payment by results to put more coins fa tite work-
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were not merely opposed by ministers; they were
held up to opprobrium as mischievous and dangerous characters. It wss not the least of the
services of Sir Robert Peel to hfa country that
when he became Home Secretary he took a very
different tone from Sidmouth.
Tfae unpopularity of Oastiereagh fa a.standing
mystery to some historians. They point out that
he was the only successful War Minister we produced during the war, that as Foreign Minister he
was much more liberal than: his contemporaries
believed, and that fa the negotiations that followed the defeat of Napoleon he waa a powerful force
on the side of moderation. AH thfa fa true. But
it fa equally true tfaat no statesman of hfa time
was a more eonapicuous representative of tim spirit
of persecution at home, The Radicals snd work-
fag elass reformers remembered of him, that* he
marched German mercenaries into the streets of
Ely *to keep Older at the publie. flogging of Bns>
Ifah militiamen, and tfaat lie waa tfae most determined supporter of the odious system of government symbolised by Peterloo. For the menatreua
injustices snd cruelties thst marked those years,
toe three men mainly responsible were Sidmouth,
Canning and Csstleresgh.   Canning lived to make
'atonement. Sidmouth waa too feeble a creature
to survive in history. Thus it fa that tim bitterest
memories have clung to Castlereagh as tfae best
remembered of all the men who prosecuted that
savage war of tfae rich agafaat the poor.
■:    ' '   WMWmM^MWMMmMm\w\\\\\\\\\\\WM
mmmm.   or has, physically speaking, has come from,   city, fa much used for-tim trssssnms
nature and must fae continually renewed from; tfae   ***** and in rb r trkel a nifa ^ataiii all j
same source.    Man's iiccessities snd desires en-       jt ^ w-^n _  ^
force continuous effort on hfa part for the sup- raaeny seen
port of himself and fafa dependants. That fa to
say; he has to hustle for a living, for food, clothing and shelter. 1 shall here quote from "Capital," chapter VII.
L.1      t      -'«
properties, upon which rest tfae use-value of copper' are independent of tite quantity that cam near
pocseas, or of the scarcity that may exist en
market or of whatever anyone may think of
Further, as Marx points out, "Tfafa prog
(utility) of a commodity fa faifaprndmit ef
amount of labor required to appropriate ita useful qusttties." Thst fa to say, that a pound of
copper, correctly so described, fa tfae aasae aa any
other pound of the same substance whether it has
' "Labor is, in the first place, a process in which
both man and nature participate, and fa which man
of his own accord starts, regulates snd controls
the material reactions between himself snd nature.
He Opposes himself to nature as one of'her own     •    •• >  -, ■■■- —	
forces, retting fa motion arms and legs, head and S^^^'l**'***^ Wl *™*T •*.-***** *-
hands, the natural forces of his body,, in order to
appropriate production in a form adapted to hfa
own wants. . The labor-process 1 . /fa
human action with a view to the production of
use-values, appropriation of natural substances to
human requirements; It fa the necessary condition
for effecting exchange of matter between man and
nature; it is the everlasting nature-imposed condition of human existence, and therefore is independent of every social phase of that existence, or
is common to ever
'J ;.:*•'
■ •
For theae reasons, Marx adds tfaat
fag Of use-value, we alwaya asatone to fae
with definite quantities, such as dozens of
yards of linen or tons of iron.'* •'
•'^•^:--;. ', ■    W
To return to our illustration: before the copper
caw fae made available for rase; the ore
mined and subjected to the various extractive processes and the metal turned out ss ingots. These
form the raw material for those industries wfatefa
produce copper sheet, tube or wire, or which turn
out the infinity of objects made of brass ar lima
We see, then, thst every nse-rslue fa a "eombina-
*J°n of two elements-matter and lafaor.**   It fa
thfa^enet that we ssy timt wfrile lafaor can net
create matter, tt can and does create use-values
Tfafa tt does fay cultiveting tfae sofl or by extraet-
In the earliest periods of human history, tfae
part of man in the act of wealth production consists of "simple appropriation." that fa, in merely
taking such things as nature spontaneously provides.   In course of time the simple operations of
ffading and taking are sujrplemeutad by those of .fag. tim natnre-given materials from >flfa> zsfae,
nmJrfaf such articles as may be found to be use- forests or waters, by transporting them from place
fttl or desirable. Wc find, therefore*, among use- to place and by changing their form in order to
#^ ^ exfono^fag  from   make them available for commmption.   It will be
those things which are enjoyed without any ex- observed that it fa the quality, not the quantity
penditure of labor, such as air and sunshine, to     ' ^ "     -
those which exhibit the maximum of human ingenuity snd effort, such as a printing prem or a
locomotive: Corresponding to thfa we have fa
society that continuous progression snd increasing
complexity in tiie means of wealth production
which forms the basis of the historical process we
Sll civilization. As Marx has ft: "To discover
e various uses of things fa the work of history."
Labor, then, applied to natural objects produces
those things which in the aggregate we call
wealth and of which the unit is a "use-value."
As we have already seen, there are use-values
of which the "utility to man is not due to labor,
such as air. virgin soil, nstiirsl meadows, etc." I
shall not here discuss this point as we ere only
concerned at present, wttfa those wfatefa ss
says, "constitute the substance of all wealth
ever may be the social form of that wealth."
"The utility of a thing makes it a use-vslue.
But thfa utility fa not a thing of sir. Being
limited by the physical properties of the coinmod-
ity it has no existence apart from that commodity." As we see from this quotation, for Marx,
as for all the classical school of political economists.
tim utility of an object fa purely objective and depends entirely upon the natural properties or qusli-
ties intrinsie to tfae tiring. Considered "quslitative-
ly" it is s use-vslue, "an assemblage of useful
Let us tske a look at one of these use-values,
ray, copper.
Copper belongs to that elam of substances known-
aa metals * it fa red in color; has a specific gravity
of 8.6, .and fuses at IMC degrees fab. It is vary
ductile and malleable; an excellent conductor of
beet and electricity, and offers considerable resistance to corrosion. These properties are possessed by the substance copper or, more correctly
perhaps, this set of properties, plus a position in
space and time, fa whst we know* as copper. Hy
virtue of these properties this metal has been and
is of very great use to man. For instance, by
reason of its ductility it may be drawn into wire
of any degree cf fineness and this again, on sc-
of toe productive labor tfaat
Some economists'distinguish different forms Of
ntnftyiiuch as:
fl) Ben^entary ntfltty. Thfa refer, to tim natural properties snd qualities of the substance of
which tfag article fa formed. That fa for instance,
toe nourishing properties of food-stuffs, the best
values of fuels and the chemical and other useful
qualities of the metals, etc.
' (2) Foim-utiHty. That fa, tfae special form given
to the matter. For example, wheat must be ground
fato flour and thfa again baked into loaves; flax,
cotton and wool must be spun into yarn, woven
into cloth and made into clothing: steel forged fato
tools snd ao on.
(3) Plsoe-utility. Tfafa is developed wherever
transportation fa involved as fa the case of coal,
lumber or electricity.
(4) Time-utility. This becomes of
in the ease of such products aa are seasonal fa
their produetion or uses. For example, ice, which
is naturally produced fa winter when it fa not required may be saved till summer.
AH use-values must possess elementary utility
and may possess'any or all of the
All of which boils down to the
article muz* be produced in tim fone.
and where tt fa wanted. Finally, aa Marx observes, "Use-values become a reality only by mm
or conaumption.'' Marx himarlf does not pursue
tins aepect of tfae question further, probably because he waa only concerned wttfa tfae facte ef
medaclion, ncverthelsss, tfafa particular
marks the .darting point for the study of
values aafafaatttexy considered. Tfafa lends up'to
''marginal utility'' and the theory of vslue famed
upon it   litis will be taken up next issue.
Newsagents fa Vancouver for the Bed Flag.—W.
Love* Hastings street, next to Royal Tlmatre. Columbia News Agency, corner Hastings and Columbia.  John Green, Carrall street, near Water i PAGE FOUR
■ ■ -.■■■■ • ,■ ■ ■ - '
•    " .' .
. ■..•-..
. . —    '    • ■     -,,_        ., ,   ■■
other peoples drifting
A   Journal   of   News   and   View*   Devoted   to   tot
Published When Circumstances and Finances Permit By
The Socialist Arty of Canada,
401 Pender Street East Vancouver, B. C.
EdUor      C.  Stephenson
SotMcripttoits  to "Red  Flag"..   20 issues, $1.00
, ■'
The Next Great War
The "War to end War" is over and the propaganda for the next war has begun, coldly, calculatingly. The millions of young men sacrificed during tfae last war are but a drop fa the cup that
capitalism prepare,-for the humau race, and which
must be drunk to the bitter dregs. Saturday's
.Sept. 13 issue, of the Vancouver ''Province," sup-
: 'plies us witif 0 fine sample, of that propaganda. Sir
 SEPT£MBEI( 20.  1919    ****** Footer Frazer, one of those journalists who
Refused Shipm
i \ .        v -;
(Seattle Union Record, Sept 19.)
to lis Fate
supply regularly, syndieatf articles on worid affairs to the press fa '
Frank Waterhouse, Seattle shipping magnate,
declined to' become s party to the shipping of munitions to Russia for tiie slaving of Russisn working men by Kolchak. it was declared Thursday
afternoon by hfa waterfront representatives.
Three carioada of rifles now on tim government
dock will be turned over to tite government J^
rials fa Seattle, according to tfae
The government is being notified fay tim
Waterhouse company that thfa
."sTL^r^SsaZ   ml^mmtmW^^^^Sm
financial interests, has a three column article in
'>«*Hr •
T IS announced that tfae Allied Powers an to
withdraw thrir forces front Russia and (save
the mark) leave tfaat country to ite fate. A proviso fa said to be, that Soviet Russia recognize the
independence of small nations on its borders. Thfa
proviso fa s mere matter of the. Allies attempting
to rave their own face. One casern for tfae ARtea'
decision to withdraw vfaidtimt tfaara anuR-nations
■-.        .J?" ™ -"''    *-,wmM- '       /'*      ^'    '."7.. i^^-!V*w**mf'- ■*m*p**9W   mt^-amm    mm^*-mw*Mm^-w
had, refused any longer to be the est'spew for them
and were coming to agreements witfa the Soviet
government', And, as to leaving Russia to its fste.
tfae Itoarian people will aee to that. Neither by
popular demand nor by any independent governmental body were tfae Allies asked to intervene fa
Russia. In fact, all the Russian political groups of
airy numerical strength united to protest end ngfat,
end as event turned out, fight wccessfully against
tim presence of the Allies.. Those who were cited
as supporting intervention were the universally-
despised parasites, and opirrramrs of the old Tzar-
BL    rBWuift " Mt^-'i* -'"'-" '"'"■%■ #jai,'
The whole story of thfa military sdraajture to
harness sgsin the working class of Bussia to the
■       *~*WWmmmm; ^QP'   ■   ai 'I      ,1™»^ ,_     "T^^^^W   '      ***********    .   *W^* 'f ^Wm****-f****M**l   jJpHR, .jml^W****     ■
of an exploiting system, fa one of callous
deception of the peoples of the Allied countries ss
to the truth about Russia and a cynical disregard
of the common conceptions ef whet fa decent. Aa
toe truth gradually became known, however, a
wave of disgust spread among all the more-enlight-
•elements of the people at tite revolting policies of the imperialistic gang whiefa dominates in
"^i|p-nmental affairs in their respective countries.
For the tfam being thfa dangerously powerful
international gang of imperialists have hsd a act
back. But they, remain dangerous because of their
control of the mechanism of finance and their alliance with the military clsss wfao faave incressed
fa every country during tim war. There fa a elose
affinity of spirit between these tWo groups of the
bourgeoisie. War is tfae trade of the military
caste. All activity must have a purpose.' The
study of war and the training to arms induces the
spirit that longs for and Welcomes tfae opportunity
to put them to use. The military mind familiarizes
itself with tfae thought of war and conquest and
of disciplined and servile popufations. The imperialist, he has hfa investments in every country.
He is a cosmophile of the basely materialist kind.
Ho desires a World of docile, industrious slaves
toiling to fill his coffers. Egypt. India, Africa are
nulls grinding out wealth for fafan. Ite dreams of
economic subjugations. And so when we apeak ef
imperialistic capitalism, it alwaya stands for military conquest and capitalist cyflottalfam of subject peoples. That fa what the Russian workers
fought sgsinst.
We trust the news fa tree that tim immoral
war and the fiendish starvation blockade agafamt
Soviet Russia is to cease. The infamous record
of it, however, wiB stand as long aa tfae printed
wor^ endures. The enlightened proletariat of
aU nations win now believe tfaat Soviet Bussia
fa entering into a new and happier era of social
regeneration. *rfaey will wish its people success and that they wfll. fa tfaeir future undertakings, keep that enduring courage snd undfanmed
vision which marked them fa their fate adversities.
that issue. In the article he so arranges fafa material .that the next war Will find the opposing
forees lined up as follows. Germany, Italy, Russia
and Japan oa the one bend and the United States,
France end Great Britain on the other. Germany
of course, he says, is the evil spirit inspiring it all,
even while, in order to make a plausible story, he
is compelled to show that it fa tfae conflicting capitalistic interests of those countries which is driving
them into hostile camps. How ever the future may
deal witfa tim details of his prognostications, it fa
certain the world is drifting into another catastrophic blood f est, unless its victims, the masses of
the peop)e, wake up and challenge the basis of tfae
present anarefaie social order out of whieh the drift
to war springs. We were promised universal disarmament, when this "war to end war" had been
fought sue ram fully, but Foster Frazer gives us
some figures aa to the increase of naval programs.
He ssys, "but hss it not been remarked that tfae
United States and Great Britain are ▼ery busy
arming for tfae future? The naval construction in
America is far ahead of that of Great Britain.
America fa building or has projected thirteen new
army in Siberia.
The action of the Waterhouse company fa fa the "*
nature of instant support to the action of 12 dock-
workers who walked off the job at Pier 5 Thursday
morning when they found timt cases being loaded
on a Japanese freighter contained rifles, munitions
and machine guns intended for tfae wholesale slaughter of the supporters ef Russia's working-class government. -
'***%■•'. ****^^*****\   \**r****$?
«•, .-•.;
(Vancouver Province)
SEATTLE..Sept 19—Business agents nt tfae local
Longshoremen's Union, backed, it is said, by approval of the/Central Labor Council, yesterday refused to allow longshoremen to load a shipment of
arms and munitions destined for Siberia on thc ship.
pfag bosrd's steamer Delight.
The labor sgents held that the
material was fa violation of labor's pact entoreced
battleships against tfae British four; 238 destroyers   fa the peace treaty.   A heavy fine and suspension
as against 104, and   83   submsrines   against   79.   for two months was the penalty threatened nun
America fa building 860 warafaipa agafaat 210, and   "delating tite order of the business agents,
the compsrative tonnage is 1,124,473 American, as       Frank Waterhouse A Co. operators of the vessel,
' a    ....   *mm mmmm mm. m.im   <■
opposed to 475.796 British."
And so the grest game goes on. The armouries
of the world ate busy ringing with the beating ef
plowshares into swords. Poison gases, snd new,
and more horrible forms of destruction and death
ere being prospected for. And all tfae while the
specious pleaders in the press, the hired tools of
the vested interests, tragically prate and prate of
constitutionalism, of law snd order, and responsibility snd of tim unfittedness of tite "uneducated
masses" to take part fa tfae ordering of the affairs
of thrir respective countries. They prepare the
soil and sow tim seeds of racial and national prejudices, distrust, suspicion, hatreds and all evil
tilings wfatefa will result ultimately in a fresh harvest of human destruction and incalculable sorrow
snd misery. The weekly cheque for the press hsck.
The quarterly dividend for the news syndicate and
news publishing companies! For them, sufficient
for tim day fa the evil thereof. ,
said the shipment would be loaded anyhow.
At the regular meeting, Friday night, Sept It,
of tite Vancouver Longshoremen's Union a telegram announcing tfae absolute refusal of the Seattle
branch of tfae same organization to load munitions
for Russia waa received with applause. A resolution to the same effect was unanimously passed by
the Vancouver branch which at the same time heartily endorsed the stand token by their Seattle brothers.
I       •    •    •    ••
Send sll money and make all cheques psysble to
A. & Welle, B. C Federationist, Labor Temple; Ven-
oomite,.*oVtt"'"\.  :-. <:\. -... ■•'**- *.'"
Collection agency for Alberto:   A. Broateh, 1208
Eighth avenue east, Calgary, Alto.
Central Collection Agency:  J. Law. Secretary,
Defence Fund, Room 12. Labor Temple, Winnipeg.
Lawyers for the defence in Vancouver, Bird, faTec-
donald * Earle. :. **•-;?*,' '■'  V"'. •■•*;-..£
Because of dfaeriminstion against contributors,
whose names faave been published aa   sending , fa
moneys far the defence lead, acknowledgment fa
future wffl be made fay mafl.
Prince George, per Tom Mace—i, -.-P75
in taking thfa action the longshoremen show foresight, for tim sooner the Tzariet military adventure
in Russia is stopped the sooner will legitimate
trade and commerce with Russia revive. Immense
stocks of native products have been stored up during the war for exchange with thc products of the
outeide world and tfaey only await a return to
peace and toe lifting of tim blockade to begin to
move to where they are needed.
A statement of > the theories aad conclusions
of Scientific Soetelfam.
$8 per 100
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Newsagents handling ''Red Flag" fa Vancouver,
W. Love, next to Royal Theatre. Coiumfafa News
Agency, cor. Columbia and Hastings. John Green,
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■   ■*■>■•'   ■* ■   •■   ■ ■■■*      ■   -^ nVwRjrr' ?a*£ailM fim^to''"
The Old Order and the New
'***■»'' ■■■m\99imWwmM&!~        ■■■■        *
BEFORE this article is printed Binnfagham,
the city where I live, will have celebrated
"peace." The City Fathers have arranged a pro-
the details of which I have not troubled
A "peace" tfaat fa represented by tfae
Imperial British Lion digging its bloody paws fa
tfaa lacerated breast of the Hohenzollern Eagle has
no interest for me. The bands will plsy. the pro-
esajfans will mareh, fireworks will flare; flags will
wave, and bonfires will blsze. The
crowds will maffick, but I shall not be a
ot the scene. I am not fa that act. On that day, 00
s delegate to a Hands-off Russia Conference, I
shell protest against tfae infamous ilatqta.gw of
British eapitslism and its allfas against the prole-
tarisn republic of Russia. Wkue many ef my fellow citizens are celebrating tfae sham pesce of Versailles, our Hands-off Russia Conference wfll denounce tim criminal war on tite hard-won
of Prat\re iTe tim^roferafon^^
stained Witfa tfae incriminating blood of thrir victims.
"peace" orgy, 1 have been a not uninterested observer of rehearsals by children of their programme
******. w ,.w *' r  ***** - *F Tf^^^aa^^^^ ^|fl^^^^     ^^97   '   ^^W^T^^Wl^^wmmmmi      ?^^     W****w**M^   rJ^      -^Wn******^^^*^*^**
for the forthcoming celebration. The other evening, passing through oneljfthe worst^onarters of
the huge atom area on the south ride of the city, I
saw.several hsnds of children parading the streets.
Numbering about a dozen or so, each of these processions was headed by a. Union Jack flag
followed by urchins beating tin cans or trays,
three Or four tiny toddlers straggling in the
Oi the pavement, marching witfa the precession fa
the road was a boy, begging for coppers for tite
chidlren—a truly typical Empire stunt. Some of
tim "tetter clothed of these poorly clad kiddies were
dressed in khaki auimnrade out of totur father's
cast-off uniforms. Others masqueraded in their
big brother'a suite, looking very comieal in" their
baggy trousers and upper.lip sdorned with false
moustaches. Some sported father's brass helmet,
others wore fancy dresses. In one procession tim
Children had improvised a streteher with bearers
and two little red cross nurses in attendance. Thus
these juvenile patriots inarched along, thoroughly
enjoying their game at malting processions. Blissfully ignorant of tfae future snd revelling in their
flesh and blood, and that their lives would as surely be blighted by capitalism as tfaeir health was box
ing vitiated by the factory-tainted air timy
Ahead of one of these roving bands I came
across a couriing couple. A shabbily dressed youth,
with a dirty cap on his head, his hands thrust in fafa
trousers pockets, was strolling along tim middle of
toe pavement. About six paces behind fafan, slink-
fag against the Wall Eke a whipped cur, was a girl
about 17, looking ss though she wanted to speak
her mind to the young ruffian in front, fant dared
not fast fae gave her a blow fa exchange for her
"lip." Aa I psssed them fae gave her a look—a
brutal, vicious look—wfalch cowed her ae a.kick
cows a dog. Across tfae tray, goaefpfag to neighbors-drrty, slatternly, underfed—1 saw the kind
of wife tfafa young girt would probably become-fa
.fatter years. Faitfaai on, through the half-open
doer of e low down "pub" I hsd s glimpse of
grimy, coarse, degraded wage^aves^drinkfag beer
—types of the kind of husband the graeeless youtfa
on the pavement would no doubt develop fato. On
both sides of tha street were rows of miserable
hovels, with here and there small old factories and
big-hew ones, built amidst tfae homes of,the "Empire's** workers.   Some of the rows of houses fa
so thst during tfae working day. tfae noise of the
machinery (grinding out profits for tbe bow, who
nuisance, affecting   health   and   temper,   to the
wretched women whose lot it was to reside there.
Ui^,^iTO»,^;.%   weaker   of  the  two
** *_*j* to blame for this rapidly matur-
' classes
in from
In view of the unexampled inquisitorial raids set
^^^^^^^^^^ SlJ*-*- - the community into tim M
Iienion and property. £ should be worth whole to on tfae one sfcfo and i*ff^ uftderlyins nonnlatlo«
of these disquieting creuuurtsnees that are driving should it surprise or alarm anyone wfa, iaT'all lit
the Guardian, of the Vested Interests to dfatraction formed, or wfljfagtofasfafornm? !♦ V      ^
snd frightening the Aontinfatrtttipn fatoTefawS fete fa the worid^of buriZTnliS^^^ taP
ofeoreeemmd*^^ few years. iTfalJlJon^^
ly, an uneasy situation ha. arisen out of the war, sWaep of*foreea wfaiefa |m ntea can witlistand ^^^^
and more immediately Out of the faigtlyroinaifa»'-"to*.  &*Vt*to <faai*dfaM^
am Peace fawfaicfa the waefara been^fa^ to e ^n unefaj tooeoTum^
provisional close.   Tfaere fa touch at stake in the it fa toe whole duty of these Guo^nirf tit^
W1mt ^^.St SSESgUta f *>*» ' *"- °*" * «*"•» *T •» "^enVfen^f^
carious enough,   "ffaeaa^dfaquieting eireumetenera fleet t^
whteh go to make up thte enemyItazAiou .» am, conteel,' Sue?*!*2Tof Ura aeVt* "*".**■
verge to the general upshot that Bolshevism fa . in sight fa fa timlXSr* ofTntoral ininossit^
menace to the Vested Interests of privilege   end for the keepers of the Old Order ^*HM$
property-   Tite, dreed reality of this menace to the
Vested Interests fa not to Ite dented or made light
*?^? W^^kMM M M *****
rial welfare 0$
realize also that
gfanihg to be
Guardians fail to
massive fabric
and supports
stolid and
ibmissive in
population, and to
population fa be-
efect But the
s very stubborn and
and wont surrounds
of   Tfae Vested Interests are doubtless riding for tinned rule of these Vested Interests of pri
a fall.   But there is also nothing to be gained by and property runs at cross-purposes with the
over-statement and extravagant alarm.    Hysteria -•-•—-•-
is neither comfortable nor convincing.    .
*** ■: -*^aWa^-»^»*r*   ■■    wmWMT^*******:** **m^**W**Ww   ■  ^^r**** W-^T^^ T .**-********]*
The guardians of the Vested Interests in America are doubtless wise in toking all reasonable precautions ; they are presumably right in their evident
belief that the continued rule Of these Vested Interests is no longer so seCnze as they would like;
but the Guardians would doubtless be stUl wiser to
confine their efforts to reasonable precautions fa- its inbred
stead of scresming Wolf! -Won?! when there U no to
wolf in sight. But if is not easy to keep an Oven ait
temper when tite blessed bestitudes of special pri- manage,
vilege are in a way to be compromised. The Guard- duatry/  „__«_„ ,*» „ ^
ians of these blessed beatitudes have been swept off vert an ever-mereasfag share of the country's fa*
their footing fay the discovery that a division is be- come to their own profit; end the Guardians are
ginning to run between tfae Vested Interests end no longer able to avoid? all knowledge of tint notor-
the under-lying posntiatjo-i, arid titet toe VeetejHa- ioiw state of things; and they have let those known
TilH .liH.  iJLiTippi'liffJ.iiil     IIJIW. IBM facte drive them to tile hasty  c*n0luaion  toatTo
This fa a picture oMhe home 'surroundings of an soon as the population at large come to know tite
immense population fa the imperial city Of Bir- same facte and to taicc stock of them, there must
mingham. So far as I know, this state of things immediately follow a headlong popular revolt and
haa been unchanged for nearly half-a^cntury, and a sweeping disaEeWenea-Of afl these obstructive
previous to thst was worse then it fa now. During vested rights of pririle%e and property. The Guard-
that period housing reform has been promised by ians(of tim -v*cstt# Interests ere presumably right
and unremittingly, and to di-
the political liars of all psrtics. All that has hap
pened has been the clearing away of rookeries to
make room for fine new streets fa the centre of thc
city, snd of rows of houses condemned by the
health authorities as being unfit for human habita-
fa believing tfaat tile existing state of things in business and industry should logically lead to rVvfaf*
and dispossession as soon as the facta of the case
are known; but they overlook the main considere-
tfan, witifaat the irailalmj^ »le^ to .Aeep to JS'TM^t^afilTmZ^
take the pl^e of there cleared away.'   Naturally, "Ll 5?t^l "J%^fL    l^^   °tt
tfafa has made the evfl. of overerowding more acute W^ isIr^L ?  1* ""V* &P°^ °f
than ever, so that at the preteeTZe^timfaS the^sta^                                 on toehold
problem fa Birmfagfa^ina^timovea^^ ^aS^Gfa^t^ ^J^8^
d^rradatfan, diraomf^ and zefaery of its poorest StJl^^^
faneJnrante.   Yet awjto aro.the eontradkn^a^ eoinmon sense.
eega^.aei^,tfa*tim™ -bedWteioa^^
from its ruthless exploitation are the most loyal DfcL        <******<***in restrafat of tobrtety.-The
and patriotic         ._
The slum proletariat fa tite Worst paid'class Of
workers and fa consequently the worst housed, fed
andefatfaed. GsmWing, debt, spendthrift drinking,
proatitution, faaanhy, wasting dJaaese, tfae gaol and
the woifahouse, srmalid homes-tins is the hell of
tfae slum proletariat. To defend timt hell ita adult
males were tfae first to volunteer fa tfae great, war,
whiefa tim cynical prof rational atatesmen, who man
the ship of State en behalf of the capitalist dam,
claimed to be waged fa the interest* of freedom
and democracy 1 Tfafa claim was backed up by the
"Lafaor fakirs who. like tfae noble Duke of Vork,
mareh tite Labor Party up to tfae top of the bill and
then march it down again. If they want proof
that their support of the great war Was sheer cant
and hypocrisy, let them witness, a* I have witnessed
tfae little children nf the slums organizing "peaee"
Let them east their eyes over tiie surroundings
ol these little ones and then see whether \hey can
truthfully any tim greet triumph is worth the expenditure, of a single Victory Bond.
11    "I''    ■.	
The Times correspondent's message from Tokyo'
on August IS, (times, August 16,) must not be
left unnoticed.   He says that people must not take
' *r..     « i' 'm
the labor disturbances fa Japan too wrionsly. A
continuance of strikes fa most likely, ''but off
petty character, for it is impossible for the more-
meat to assume a dangerous form owing "to the
absence of machinery for combination." He explains that the law absolutely prohibits Labor
Unions, and these disputes can be easily isolated
and settled; hence, the disputes^ "have not the
serious social aims which characterize the labor
wars in England and America." "Warned by
foreign exampfes, it its tbe last thought of w.
Government to confer privileges on workers only,
or to encourage the development of organised
Subscriptions to the "Red Flag,"
Il.0f>for» ■"■•'■■' P5SH
.   ■-.... ■■- .- -.	
... ■-- - •.■»...
■.............- -. . ,.
: ■■■■.
* ■ »A
My   : ,
PAflt?. TWlt
Activity of
<By Alexandra Kollontay, front "Soviet
'a Commissariat for
arose from the will of
revolution,  representi
a^vdeparpK for Russia. There fa
past that is equivalent to it
nissariat f 01
tfaeir expression fa tfae ^Provisions for Social Wei
-fere for Workers,'' confirmed October 31, 1918,
fay tbe Council of People's Commisssires, In accordance witfa these provisions, welfare work applies without exception to all workers wfao obtain
their livelihood by their own Work, without exploitation of other people's work, and when we
recall that witfa the nationalization of capitalistic
enterprises, the bourgeoisie meat disappear in Soviet Russia, it fa clear that in the near future tim
social welfare work must include sll classes of tbe
population of tiie' Russisn Federative Soviet Republic.
Welfare activity is applicable, according to tite
new decree, to all cases that have lost all mesns
of subsistence, either through temporary incapacity for work, through general debility, mutila-
tion. pregnancy, etc., or through permanent incapacity for work. Aerording to the law, one haa
a right to welfare attention, even fa oases of loss
of tbe moans-.of' subsistence, tisreogh unemployment, where sueh fa not the fault ef tfae unemployed. It is far from the intentions of the organs
of social welfare to take steps to prevent sickness
and mutilation, but R fa their intention to provide,
ft* the whole population, every possible kind of
medical aid, beginning with* first aid in esses of
sodden illness, up to every possible medi
ment ef a special nature, sucfa as timt provided
ambulatories, ssnatoriums, etc In addition, every
worker haa a claim to mediramente end to tfmefal
medical instruments, artificial limbs, etc. fa cases
of temporary loss of the ability to work, through
disease or mutilation, compensations mounting to
this Section from the fact that it provides aid for
fugitives, from the localities that have been taken
by the White Guardists.
(according to tfafa law, eourts are abolished for at present forced upon Russia, make it impossible
minors snd they are assigned to the care of the to earry out this decree witfa absolute complete-
People's (-ommiasariat for Social Welfare); (2) ncas; for this reason, the favsHipM has been al-
Mentally abnormal children; (8) PkysicaUy abnor- ready mentioned, obtein aid in tfae form of actual
mal children.' The Section for Children's Homes necessities, at the various homes,
in tfae establishes asylums, communes snd homes for chil- vi. Temporary Aid. 'As s matter of principle,
regime, dren in order bjithU way to replace tfaeir families, aid fa grunted to the needy soldiers of tim old
the needy population depended entirely on the fa these asylums and homos, the principle of labor army, namely to 400,000 men (according
scant alms of charity organiations. The fatter re- an©; tfae principle of children's independence are \ ftaahcfal report more than 1,000,000,000
presented merely the caprice of '^m^mMm, mmmm»ti-n^ The children's homes sre connected have been paid out this way.) In addition, the
fanow, how to fafll time j the practical results of witfa libraries, clubs, playgrounds, workshops, etc. Seetion hss established workshops of all kinds, in
their work was therefore equilrasagA>sVl^'aW The After attaining a certain age, the children of these order to secure work for the needy population.
'November revolution has done away with this asylums and homes, as well as all other children, For the ssme purpose government constructions
charity, and has put fai ita place tim duty must attend the schools which are open to all. In are being undertaken, cheap and even free eating
state toward all working citizens. The many the children's homes and asylums the i?"tijdran re- houses established, dwelling places and night lodg-
aetivity of the Commissariat for Social Wei- main until the age of seventeen, wfcrcupon they /^jjLfcOpened. A great amount of work arises for
fare, and the tasks which    it must   meet- found    enter life for themselves,    without relieving thc
state however, of the continuance of ite care, fa
accordance with the "provisions." According to
the reports, up to January 1, 1019, more than 100,-
000 children are under sucfa supervision in Russia,
and there sre 1500 children's Homes. In tfae near
future, a further considerable number of homes
and. asylums are to lm opened.
*********     ***■     *anTilP*ail*l I m    wirll     iniatDluei
line. Section has established, in large numbers, asy,
lums and homes for the pregant. For women fa
confinement, lying-in establishments have, been organked. in which the mothers obtain instruction
in the nourishment and. cere of children.   After
leaving such establishments, the mother, together
with the new-born child, fa placed in a new home
which fa under supervision of special physicians.
In the factories snd works, as well as fa tfae country, at the time of work in the fields in summer,
day nurseries are established, in which mothers ran
feed tfaeir own children;   orphaned infante are
token esre of in special institutions under medical
supervision, ini whiefa -the children are fed.   The
Section for the Care of Mothers and Infants hss
ita own dairies, in whiefa milk is provided for the
mothers and children.   In addition, tfaey supervise
the milk trade, in so far as the latter is intended
for children.   Tim, Seetion has  also  estsblished
treat-   courses for tim fastrueticn of those supervising   J^^ to'tfae fo^o, a nnifomfanjoot forth,
led fa   torae homes, fa which the students *eeelve. fajJ**   entW bsrritory of Soviet Russia; for tfae remsin-
dition to general instruction, also certain trperifie j^ varieties of welfare work, the amount to be
HX Section for toe War-Maimed.   The    chief
task of this Section is to make the maimed capable
of performing sucfa veriety of work as is eom-
the sum earned by tfae unemployed are granted up   patible witfa tfaeir individual mutilations. With this   fnnds  together  constitute
to the time* of   complete   restoration of health.   jn view, tite Section aims particularly to secure the   p^a for Social Welfare
Pregant and confined women receive etas of Hke   greatest possible restoration of normal healtfa\fa ■' ,',""*■■'.
amount for a period of eight Weeks preceding and tim individual in order to prepare him for worfa
eight weeks following confinement, if timy ere that will be fa accordance with the character of
physical workers. Other cases receive such aid hfa mutilation. For cripples, there is a great num-
f or six weeks. Jn eases of unemployment, the old faer of the most varied workshops 4n which they
is granted up to the day of re-employment, at tfae nwy apply their forces end their energy, fa Mos-
rate Of the smsllest compensation, in in* locality en,-, there are ten vocationsl courses for cripples,
fa question that fa permittedfafits tariff In eases **f ^fa,. *# fnrnHds. According to data
of permanent lack of employment, pr nneespl^r- tfaus far received, whieb are ss yet by no means
ment for more than sixty per cent of tfae working   i^Jrfrte, thfa Section fa st present taking rare of
about 85,000 old men and women, who are living
in 3000 tames. In the, near   future,   a .thorough
transformation of the homos intended for invalids
is proposed:'tfaey are to be baaed on a model unit
went, of working time, three^uertere dime   for 80 and 100 tomato*, instead of toe. numbers
VIL 8ection for Aid te the vtetims of toe
ter-revolution. Tfafa Section provides aid for
workers in tim Soviet and tim Party, who
suffered under tfae counter-revolution, also to
political fugitives who are returning with the Red
Army. For the purpose of siding fagftives and
victims of the counter-revolution, sll sorts of agricultural communes are established, while persons
of this kind may obtain, previous to their assignment to sueh communes, a financial aid eonlvelcut
to the minimum necessary for mafatefafac Hfo.
■****■ ,^^^( ■   ^********^***mt******      *j r,*'*a******w**^ff    *\*~-r" ■    m*^****fw****^*gt[^***^jf, t •wv"
VHL The Section for Rations provides for the
rationing of tfae soldiers of the old army end" tfae
families of the Red Guardists.
In addition to tim above cited chief Sections,
tfaere are also less important sub-divisions, such aa
waas^sjp ■   a****,    . vsssHr - \*^^*asaai'^oww»**sBk   , opss,    m^^m*^^ta^**mna^**mMmf   g*se*sem-    *a*m
street wending.
In the second half-year of 1918, the People's
Commissariat for Social Welfare spent 800jd00,000
rubles, while the proposed budget for tim first
half-year of 1919 was for more than 2,000000,000
rubles. The funds of the People's Commissariat for
Socisl Welfare consist of payments of the follow-
ing classes: For aids paid to mothers and the un
paid in fa fixed by tfae local organs of the Poo.
pie's Comniisssriat, on the bssis of tariffs depending on the danger-class to wfatefa eaefa occupation
is assigned by   tfae local   authorities.   All
-W'     ^*ww**m^**w^
mClIt   IW   M*V*aa   laaaa..  v~—-j    m— ——   -r
time, a full allowance fa paid; fa otter worde, for
one month, twenty-five times tim average daily
wage ef tite locality fa whiefa the unemployed man
Eves; wfcore unemployment amounts to *nV8|-*er
j*   mSJLiJ'm.\
lowance fa paidjfor *M« per seat, one half; for j WbwtJ> afaeltered.   In tfaese homes, the principle
15-80 per cent, one-fifth of the full a^p-awnee. ^ 1gbor ,nd tim prfatefale of independence are ear-
Aceordfag to,its functions, ffarCVitaunfamrfat for rf^ ^ ,s fer ra iioasftlc.-
•Social Welfare fa divided into tfae foEowfag ere-      v Oefaide Aid.   Permanent financial aid fa at
tfans: ' present granted not only to the unemployed, but
X Seetion for fjhildrett'a Jaeates.   Among tfae &* te tfae fsmflies of Bed Army men.   At e very
duties of thfa section   are   tim care for ehfldren^ earfy date, a decree will probably be issued ae to
without guardians, sucfa ss   tfae   exposed   efaEd the rare of families of pfaysicians snd victims of
(foundling,)   orphans;   Ulegitimatcs.   children of tfae connteT-revotation. Tfae maximum annual al-
faeggar women snd prostitutes, ckildren wfao faave lowance ef tfafa kind fa 2000 rubles per person. In
been taken aWay from their parents by law (crim- *t- a_^a. -* *k« ft—n -a n-^>i^»- n.—.immmUmm
inals, drunkards, street vendors, etc.), as wott as
abnormal clrildrcn of three daases: (1) morally
abnormal, wfao have committed a aBfate, and to
wrfaom tfae lew of January 17, 1918, fa applicable
tfae deeretof the Council of People's Commisssires
on Social Welfare, the payment of sllowsnees to
all men over fifty. aU women over fifty-five es
provided: vel tfae serious ffaancial situation, to-"
getfaer wRb the continued war needs, wfatefa are
I (Despatch to Vancouver "Sun.").
If toe United States fa to save its own economic
interests, eeift toe president, it must rave the
nomic interesta of the world. That
sen, fae continued, why the United, States ahould
have a representative on tite-powerful reparation
commission. If there were no American votee fa
this eoinmission, fae asserted, thfa eountry would
faave to put in the hands of foreign interesta aeefa;-
fag to control world aterkete.
A Froaen Out Hand.
Eatpfamfafag faow economic features figure fa
war, Mr. Wilson deacriltfag faow tim*Gerroana had
dismantled Belgian factories. The war, he added,
was not a political war, but a
industrial war."
U. 8. Alone Must Be Vatfos fa
Should the United States stand apart, economically and politically, the president continued, then
it must be "physieally reedy for trouble." The
notion must become, he tfaid, "a nation fa arms."
Germany was not the only nation whiefa had a
secret rarwe, .Tha .aran$ but every etfaOr wetfa-ff-la
Europe also waa spying on its neighbor because
they all had to be ready for shames of conquest to
be sprung. Refuse to Load]Munitions fo
tolls Fate
*W*^r        ^m*-^^*mw *^ w»^ w wtm~
"The Unsolved Riddle"
'J4"M •'■"■' "• ■-■■  gagS**   "" '■• ■'-• :'"-"• #■:"
**  '    •       ■
▼0L. 1   NO. 85
£&?'■■ V*'^
' '   i    I I     '       n'ff
Saturday, August 18, fa England, was held the to combine openly whenever they Eked the magfa- *      * W *"W***-nAaUU l«llXlUI||5
eenterary of the Massacre of Peterloo.   The years tratw were able to put the great mass of the work- aMF :*afHI»    miCt
following the battle of Waterloo ware desperate people entirely under the power of their master*. **W*   *«»*   leU/ltJI      4>
ones for the worker, of England.   Jfa   their   ex- It fa only from a studyof the Home Office paper*    f^OMRADES W. A. Pritehard and R. Johns
tremity they resorted to peaceful demonstrations of the period that we eau learn how mercilessly    "O Istely released on bail from Stoney Mountain
to seder to awnfaan the rutin*: elass to tfaeir condi- tfae ruling authorities made sre* Ota tite general    penitentiarv. where th#r wei* ««*!«». s&i  3
I' a I
rtrt-j^^tfj^r*^ o^^^^^jss^s: iT^mAZmwv:-m^m^
*********** -** *- i-r-a~ ?.^**M^mSf^- gry^as^ Ssm
Tb.y had    like tmUfm. of Bolton, ,, SSjSSi H*. tf ««k-    *«&. ta W(M. to twTtrigl «^Jw2
fato o. th.   imm, fa a Mprt, ffato of fa**.   lb, fag fa.   ottajhiy.   *mj Urn .fa. fc^iL*TS
A^_.     _*trt. JSk^    *aJ.     4_4*^    &*    Mmtiimmmmmlk    *Sa—      ^^^^.iWSM.''*mm.    *W      '- -»    ■ ■ '' ■    '    W   J""*±"*    'a       \ZT^   ,"^W"**i""fW
atme fnwn all parts of thc isciury msincw «u wot umr, is a >up«ru piece ui  injur,     tucv  nau i-cas < miiaFu
north,   bringing  their  wive, end  children Witfa care for justice or for peace than general, like on the rituationeea^etoed^^ W Wfanipeg and tfai
**—    A totally unarmed >nd peaceful meeting Byng or Orey, who commanded the troops in the Eaat during the late strike snd afterward*    On
with the mmal remedy a penis, iilnatrfal districts, and were ovfan aeas4alin4 by Sunday »agfat timy Wffl ado^ tima^P«f>
j«w»a^Mim bi«t^b. uur wn.     /                                  "i'^"' *******OTg*te tne ensnrass Theatre    On tii» hS<,k*   e
were killed and wewmfad. '^Ktan.roani^
WJw'    - •        ■■   j ^^^«^   ^w   ^m*   ••■v*** wsas^BspsBBBj    wssamsyv■ wmm^m^m *** ***mm*****wmn****^Tp   bjqbbbbbbbbbj«    ^ptaw   "w> *H ■sltFsisifiSsT   *gpnf|    rasa    Iteelsrn
at*   gathering   of half- hoSreen  Uncaahire  and torfanfaire.    The aoeial in the Arena.   All osasrade. toould do thrir ut
a and their children rode n*oWem created by the todustrial revolution wra meet to ***«ra-^^
Through this huge
. back snd forth -tim. ihftrg*fTg
some senses more *w~fe|j| Lancashire than fa
m, v„MP^m
success.   During the
TB!>d*d"   5f *fH ^ to**^,*^** •*?-   l««kfin*totneeetto»*we^ fagn aa jmmraie~fa~oro>7to rorreet, on esrtofa
" ' ""' """"^ *^"  -aW-a-a-a-a-a-a-a-asunnnnRm
the field but tfae dead and tfae   Yorkshire.   For misery on a groat scale wc nfaat
ike    "       —   "^^*a*^^ BSSSSSSSWSBSnSBBSW^
-jfaWEij—,—, 11      ■ssaansswassfsswnansm>raans^an^ i"ITM*^BBM*aWBI*faMIW"*sgg
• -aetisooVtho rsdfag «U^              dsyceeya^^-Eww*-'!W^ VJ^Wl^a* If U j nil,1 wly^ff-*lolstiy -fecafataeTey tfae oapltallte press.
toi solving England's problem.   It will be noted   plied the great permanent mass of poverty in tim
faow closely sometimes history repeats itself:          Lancashire towns.   With the help from time to
•    •     •     •                                 time of enlightened employers like Ashworth, of
Thc teaching of history hss always tended to    Bolton, or the great John Fielden, of Todmorden, ,._..
emphssire the wsrs which the poor have levied    the. weavers tried to persuade Parliament to give .   ™ 7*J~j~ .      "°d S*,,on, ,**bor Part"/'
against the rich; it hss been inclined to pay lem   them a minimum wage.   They foiled, and their "?*V™2K2l~ WJjeeegatmn   of those
against the poor.  A
IjD     Dl    AK     jp*ntr****g*l**W**H*?t    IH                     .in    ■ —IL      —       LSI     mm-www mmm-wmw^.      naM    ««,            ■*■• vwvuivwi              «hv       ■*a»*»^BBBBaK^UeWai*SS      U&      BSJBXTn| — ■        ISSSWS.IIISIITWT ~     ******           ~
carried on witfa less scruple or mercy than in Lan-   brought to ruin imrtiettfaf elssses of workpeople "'K fo*t*d "**** .**• P^P*** rf c*Md» ^ drotmnlmar
easfaire.   Peterioo was tfae most dramatic symbol   in Yorkshire, such ae tiHltoaesWaen or croppers- ^ '^T^™* S °? the   Wi"nipeK -trike*
oflfaat war, and therefore it came to stand, in the    whose sttsck on Cartwriaji^ asfll,     	
«n not merely of the poor but of the   fa sfawcribed in "Shirieyyor tbe     y jla line^ii **«*--m^***mB nm.
of comfortable snd educated people who Whose terrible fate lends f tragedy to the kfatory /'Whereas wc have seen through the public press
resented sueh proceedings, for aD the afamra-and af Bradford in the late twVntiea, But tf we fake of this city thst the chairman, Judge Robson, of the
huustiera timt. were associated Wfaa^ls|;eMej|*^:-# affects on tfae wfaole iiam of workpeople, the commission empowered to investigate the cause snd
regime fa England. ^^^^PWflR^'1- revolution ™**i "»«« rataatronhic in effect of the recent strike in Winnipeg, has seen fit
Lord Bobert Ceefl had a good phrase the other Lancashire than in YorkaW The woollen fa- whilst those spokesmen sre kept in jail, and re-
day about people who wanted to perpetuate the dustry passed much lwnwfcraduslly thsn the cot- ferred to them ss rascals, thst therefore be it re-
war mind. Tfae Peterioo maassere occurred four ton industry into the itsRD aohred that we fa meeting assembled go on record
yean after the eondusion of the war with Nape-       the industrial problem, Jhen, waa less acute fa aa requesting Judge Robson to withdraw his stoto-
the publie press
• • i
*niei Bt-astaH
duction of s
farm.   But fa tfae mfad of the governing claas of   Yorkshire.   But &
tite complete ea-    ments
fa tim two ateaatiea. be it resolved that we petition tim Provincial Gov-
tfce new eapital- ernment to withdraw tfafa commission aa it can fill
I the nrngfatrates were no useful purpooe."
trade uniana and re-
^faLoweamute. J*? ^^l™**? T* -
sates never took m*w*y '** ** **Ww* "■■nti'teid party,
ssswa ^ssrrar took ^ mf. ^ ^^ hm| ^^
faTagfand the war wRk Napoleon was only part of planation of tfae _
the setters! stiuggln against all the forees and de- In Yorkshire, as fai «•«
fay tim Frenefa Bevolution. Tfaese fato were often hard men,
 _j were present fa IsTadtntl as timy severe and net lees fact
kad been fa France.   Hence tite war mfad   wee formers than tfaeir fo
perpetual.   If a man had found himself fa Bolton But tim practice of a
er Oldfaam in 1811 or in 181* he would have found root fa Yorkshire ss it
fsfaamif fa a district under railitary occupation.      But ef comae it wou._
I        gwverned by maArmtratui wfao spake fa tfaeir let- the blame for tfae state of
ten fo the Home Office of the mass of tfae people saretes.   The cfaief
ef tfaeee towns ss if they were adntittedly a face- Within the limit* of
tite population.   Tfaese magistrates employed spies, lenm created by the
and soke of the moat srandslous efaaraeter.   and soluble. More than once
they were not ashamed ef obtaining a conviction faeturers were
on the sole testimony of men whom tfaey knew to mehidfag s rah
be unto-urtworthy.  Tfaey were able to leek up men duction of tite efa*ldren*s
and women under tfae Tasnwamy Acta, and tfaey of tfaese proposals were
used ffafa power freely.    The Gunfafaation Acts nmgtatiwtee.   But tim
made it impossible for s ami I men to take a single hostile.   Tfaey hated
step to imsprove fate position without tfae risk of w*faeM ttet airw Ml  _ ..r          w .„ .^
end fay nsfag tim (Vnfaaiititm Acts tire to a House of qravnens in whieh Old Sarnm    eral eruelty snd unfairness of the law,—and tfaey
fir workmen ami allowing tim amfliijm Bad two seats, and they were owlte satisfied tfaat (Geaafaned on Page Ftve.) '
11. Iflt; at their general
fae fair to tfaww ail Tourj troly,
Ire en tfae magi- JAa.Qs^eeA, Secretary,
» tite  mfafaters. '    ,?"Eeem 2, Jordon Block, Port Street,
the aoeial prob-  _£ . Winnipeg. Man.
revolution were fa-' wmm*m~m~m. ' '    '*«*»wsBBssswsra
Laneosanre menu- a .town with oter a hundred toourand inhabitants
easurea ef reform, should be under tho same feudal government aa
wee-ma and a re- a village.  AE tfafa tfam tfaere were men fa PsrHs-
fa thc mill. Some ment trying to reform tim went abuses   tfae fa-
fay individual stitution of blood money (Nadfa, tfae Deputy Con-
tfce'day were stoWc for Maaiefaester at tim time of Peterioo,
reform.   Tfaey \ maA* a fortune out of fafa> office,) tite use of
to sends ressessnta- tfae srfaitrary powen


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