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The Red Flag Oct 4, 1919

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(Continued From Page Five)
timet   Cap we rely upon such a man for an impartial presentation of what he chooses to designate the "Unsolved" Riddle of Social Justice!
"The one thing that fa wrong with Socislism,"
■mga Profe-aor Leacock, "fa that R wont work."
Tfae profenor writes of Soeialfam u though R
wore nme kind of a plan of a new society, afl
scaled and blue-printed and worked out to the
final details, and presided over by an ideal State.
In fact, he does further on so define the Socfalfat
"Let the State take over.j ~
how don the prof
know that it wont work! Hn it ever been tried!
Has Mr. Leacock ever had tfae opportunity of observing the results of such trial! Tea, indeed:
During thc recent war, the "State" in many of
the beligerent countries practically took direct
control of all the means of produetion and distribution, and, in fact, extended ita control even
into the private life of the Chilian population.
Great Britain fa as good sn example as any. Does
not Mr. Leacock know that a greater efficiency in
production and distribution wu achieved there by
State control than ever before? Doe* he not know
that no lem a person than Winston Churefaill. observing the successful results of sueh State epsj»
tool, wu moved to publidy announce that he wu
converted to Socialism as a consequence—Mr.
irchill's conception of Soeialfam being appar-
y on a par With Mr. Leacock V own! Of course
the riddle of social injustice waa not solved thereby. But the point is that R worked, whereu Mr.
Leacock says it will not work. Obviously Ufa not
any particular system wfatefa he believes will not
work but only anything wfaiefa fan tfae name of
Soeialfam attached. According to Mr. Leacock,
anything that fa lsbelled Socialism will not work,
even if the label wu stuck there by Mr. Leacock
himself end oven if tfaat very system fan proved
that it will work. Mr. Lescock hu allowed himself to dtp fato a position wfafafa fae will have
some difficulty in maintaining. .'
As a matter of fact, thfa system of State control which Mr. Leacock seems to imagine fa Soefalfam, fa actually nothing of the kind. H Mr.
Leacock knows snything about the origin, history
and function of the "State," he must afao know
that State control could never solve the economic
inequalities which constitute the main objection
to tite present system but would more likely operate to intensify them. If State control is dl that
tfae term Soefalfam suggests to Professor Lescock,
then he hu much to learn.
And the reason why it will not work—thi* thing
the professor fan inis-called Socialism—is, if you
please, because it fa band on Altruism and, moreover, a degree of altruism—"of willingness to
labor for the good of others,"—"such u the world
has never known nor fa ever likely to know.'?
Well, for our part, tfae profenor may ban fafa
Soeialfam on any old thing he likes. "Bfa Socialism
is no concern of ours. But fa tite matter of Altruism, we must again toko issue with our learned
friend. If Altruism fa indeed a willingness to
labor for tfae good of others, then, wfaat of the
modern wage-worker'' He is not only willing, but
anxious, even eager, to lafaor for others. And he
fa by no means particular aa to what others. Is
tfafa Altruism! H it be, tfaen surely tfaere fa enough
•and to spare -even to work tim professor's next
little system. Bat perhaps if tfae professor knew
more about the nature and origin of Altruism, or
tf fae were disposed to tell tfae truth about n mucfa,
U fae don know, fan might tell fafa readers timt
Altruism fa nothing more or fan than an instinctive reaction to the ateecfative iiiindple—that
prindple whieh teaches that tfae wdldmfag of tfae
• vldud fa dependent upon tfae well-being of tfae
group. Hundreds of toousands, perhaps millions
of men braved hardships, suffering and death dur-
fag the recent war in response to the urging of
tfaat fastinet Tfaere wn Altruism fa abundance
and tetensRy, nuedirected R fa true, but Altruism
, Its direction fa Isrgely s matter of
When those same men who fought n
for Capitalism on tim fields of France
shall realfae that tite best interests of society demand it, be sure that tfaey will fight against Capi-
tansm wKfa every fafa ae mucfa ardor.
And wfao fa Professor Leacock tfaat fae should
attempt to.set"e limit to tfae future devdopment
and recognition of tim asaocfative principle! It
fa conceivable that a time wfll came wfaen a pro-
ciety might be retarded thereby and indirectly
he himself would suffer. That would indicate a
degree ef Altruism to which Professor Leacock
hear spparentiy not yet attained. f
Mr. Leacock devotes practically' the whole of
thfa fifth chapter to a discussion of Socialism go
a possible solution to the "Unsolved Riddle."
Consequently we might expect to find haw ad-
vising tfae fullest investigation of Socialist teachings. To understand modern Socialism—not the
dummy Soeialfam of Mr. Leacock but the reel
thing—It fa necessary,
scntfal, to have some
development from the idealistic Utopian Social
the eighteenn century to the Scientific
m of today as taught by the Socialist
Party of Canada, Socialism which i* scientific in
the highest and comptetcst sense of the Word. We
may judge then of how desirous Mr. Leacock
really ia tfaat fafa readers shall thoroughly understand tite subject he discusses when we find him
burgeoning forth with such a gem aa this: "We
may omit hen all discussion of the historical
progress of Socialism." Quite so! And forthwith tfae good professor omits it all, except for
the statement that Socialism has become "a purely economic uVmttaat."''i-:'v ;'V
Perhaps if Mr. Leacock had permitted liimself
and hfa readers a review of the historical pro-
Ifaetolfam hewponbj never hove had the
to mske snc> i statement u this last
which, to place it in ite proper category? is utter
nonsense. Socialism fa not a "purely economic
doctrine''—or  stay,  perhaps Mr.   Leaeock's  So-
,   *•»*      m-Mm*t   uvwTvu   *o   v*e*  .' *n.aemennno    •aaww^ ^^***5^*
we read of this chapter five, the less are we able
to imagine just what weird, business tfafa Socialism of Professor LeacOel.% fa. The only thing
we fnl sure* of fa connection with it fa that it is
like unto no Socialism that we care to have any.
thing to do with. W^'-.h:  *■<■
"Tfaere is no need to decide whether the'Materialistic Theory of History fa true or false,"
says Mr. Leacock. Here again may be noted a
pronounced indisposition on hi* part to state definitely whether he accepts; or denies the Materialistic Interpretation. And perhaps he fa
wfao, for, if he denied it, most certainly every
might almost say es-    to demo-ifl\ »»•   But we have emerged unscathed
mi^l^mmt   Z^SZ^mTmZmmT ** h"to*
cording to Mr. Leacock fa the dream of the Socialist. In some peculiar manner it hu got all
mixed up with State Ownership/of tbe means of
production. Mr. Leacock appears to faave fa
mind someone who imagines State Ownership to
9*** ^atnst^Miiiea^nwsaa)*., ssuu   vnvt vMi   ao   use   a^vj"   w   «Uv   ataaaa»T*5
chapter five. Mr. Leacock hu been doing hfa utmost
Brst we faave emerged unscathed
And tfae explanation t It fa quite simple. The
good professor baa been hurling hi* bolts at what
he imagines to be the Socislist porition. Never
wu-man more cruelly deceived. We were not
there. "We have not been there for aome time.
As a matter of fact, we loft there nearly one
hundred years ago. That fato aay, Socialism,
about one hundred years ago wu something like
wfaat Mr. Leacock imagines it to be today. Mr.
Leacock is very much behind the times. We are
tempted to wonder if be believes Ptolemy's
theory of the heavenly bodies represents the
. science of utronomy. It would be just u logical, just u effective, and every bit u dishonest
to attack the science of astronomy because it
once taught that the earth wn the center of the
universe, u to attack Socialism fa the manner
and on the grounds upon wfaiefa he is attacking
Socialism today fa Scientific. It is not founded
upon a dream, a virion, a divine discontent, or a
speculative belief.   It fa founded upon such rolid
> mmmm m. mm ■     . a    '   B ■    . .' K mm >       -m m\.        -■   ■■
rocks u The Materialistic Interpretation of History. Tfae Class Struggle, The Marxian analysis
of Cspitalist Production, The Principle of Evolution and tfae Positive Outcome of Philosophy,
does not build castles in the air or plan ideal
Utopfas but studies sodd and organic lawa
seekB to understand current events by the lig*
of them. It does not advocate revolution. Thc
is no need. The social revolution fa almost
us. Even now it* rumblings can be heard at
great distance.. Socialism cries doud to society,
other profenor on the continent woufd be laughing at him, while if, on the other hand,*"he ad
mitted it he would automatically make huh of
hfa, whole 'argument.    Consequently  he  fa  compelled to "pussy-foot" around the subject, which
he does rather clumsily.   Furthermore
that "nine out of every toil
have never heard what
. of History is." It is doubtful if Mr.
Leacock could have made a statement farther
removed from the truth thafi this if he had tried.
The Materialistic Interpretation is one of the
fundamentals of Scientific Socialism. Every Socialist worthy of the name fa quite familiar with
it and the average Wage-worker in the camps,
mines and mills of British Columbia has a far
better grasp of it than Mr. Leacock appears to
have., '"^^m
Another of the fnndimentafa of Scientific So-
cfalfam is The Class Struggle. Mr. Leacock
adroitly evades it thus: "No need to examine
whether human history fa or fa not a mere record
of elan exploitation, since the controversy hu
fang shifted to other grounds." Quite correct,
profenor I The controversy hu shifted. But
why did you shy at telling your readere thatr
wfaen R shifted it left the theory of Tfae Cfan
Struggle complete Victor fat full possession of the
field! The Capitalfat pren would hardly be
publishing your artide* if you had said anything
n indiscreet u that, profenor. Is it permissible
to wonder if that possibility influenced you fa
i-*j-yRti%'   -'"^ - * : ^"%-:-.-"
Mr*. Lescock then proceeds to review tfae So-
dafaeta "fadtetment of the manifold weaknesaes
and Obvious injustice of tfae system under which
we Eve," and admits that tfae Socfalfat fa thfa
fa correct But R appears that, "He (the Socfalfat} looks so long that a mist comes before hfa
eyei He loan sight of the supreme fact that,
after all; in its own poor clumsy fsskton, thC
machine does work." We must eonfen that we
were not prepared ' ar toe Socfalfat loses
sight of the feet that in its own poor clumsy
fashion tfae Capitalfat machine don work. Tfafa
fa quite a new one on us. But what if tbe machine don m i we then -If. ear watch, for
nnmm99fmmwm^**aa   - w*^*** *a"aeu    viiniawtiiv     -mn*ran ■  ^Wr^^^me ■ wmn^sra**   ■ we— ^  Mf^m
no attention to the matter, but be thankful that
fa falling, about your ears.   It fa
discover, while there fa yet tfate, the
for its downfall so that you may build
better next.time."
We would recommend to Mr. Leacock a 1
book entitled "The Manifesto of the
Party of Canada,*' and another entitled, "
e assert!*, cialism, Utopian and Scientific." If lie will
0Tm these he may get a glimmering of what an a
fool he has been making of himself. It may be
that he hu read them. It is more charitable
though to assume that he hu not, in whieh can
he is merely foolish to have been led into writing
on a subject upon which fae fa not informed. But
if he hu read them, he fa in the position of a
man of some little reputation who hu deliberately written for public consumption, upon a subject of vital importance, that wfaiefa he knows to
be untrue.
In any case we are of the opinion that
Leacock might better confine himself to the Writing of funny stories. He fa more at home there.
He fa too careless in treatment, too impuldve,
and altogether too J biased to write oh serious
Next week, we understand, it fa Mr. Leacock'e
intention to discuss Bellamy's "Looking Beak'
ward." By,which we gather that he intends to
set up "Looking Backward'' u nfa dummy repre-
senting Soefalfam tor the afarer unhallowed fay of
knoekfag R down again.
We wish Mr. Leacock joy of hfa teak. "Looking Backward," fa fa many ways a remarkable
book. But n a serious contribution to sociological tfaougfat R fa worthy of fast about u much
eonrideretion u Mr. Leacoek'a chapter six fa
likely to fae C. K.
A resolution strongly condemning fatetference
with Russia (rays ear Parfa correspondent) wee
passed unanimously fay tfae Conference of French j
SnHsrlste held on Saturday ' fa ' pnpirilkei -. 'for. 1
the general election.   Alexsndre Blane said: "As
a deputy and a candidate at tim eonting de<
tion, I align mysdf whh Lenfa and Trotsky am.
tite whde Russian revolution." '
■ ns
ics and Mr. Cox
comparing the product of a man cultivating a
field with only a spade, and of a man cultivating
0 field witfa a plough and horses, or a motor-
plough driven by petrol. He concludes that the
difference belongs to the man who supplies the
plough/Now thfa kind of sophism—the sophism
which tries to fay down the portion of the product
due to a particular factor by asking how much
could be produced without it, and then assigning
. it tile remainder—can fae made to prove anytiting
the demonstrator wishes. Mr. Mdlock uses the
nme sophism to prove that two-thirds of modern
fa due, not to manual labor, nor to the
of means of produetion u such, but to
"directive ability.■.' I could match the two of
them, if I chose, fay proving that every atom of
wealth is due to manual labor, and thai directive
ability and means of production add nothing, inasmuch as they would product nothing without
manual labor.   Which of us fa right!   •
A Dialectical Juggler's Trick.
In truth, none. The whole thing fa * dialectical
juggler's trick. Every useful material thing,
under modern conditions, is obviously a joint product, in making which human labor, mental and
manual, hu been assisted by natural and mechanical resources; and it is no more possible to isolate the single effect of each cause than it fa to
discover whether the barrel Or the hole fa the more
essential part of a gun. Practically, however,
economist* are concerned with the distribution of
wealth among human beings; and in assesdng
their claims, we confine Our attention to the human
factors in production, and ignore for the moment
the causality of machines and so forth. Accordingly, we repeat that all wealth fa produced by
human effort or labor, and that all parte of the
total product, paid to persons not contributing to
that joint effort or labor, are necessarily deducted^ from the portion payable to labor. This
is not metaphysics • it is mere eommonsense.
"Ohf but," says Mr. Cox, "you have foirgotten
^      p^Iaehoods On IfiTf'itf''* PoUcy. the-man.'who supplies the means of production."
w     .« ^     _.     mx. m. m*.   m, * ka.^a.1 ^wtastA Messed  word, "supp-inl*'    Let us  consider.
It wfll be noted>titat ^*****l**^ ™* Who doe^snppiy tim means of productiont   The
a fafaehoooWvfa., that Socialism proOecds f^ • ^rr^ *^
^^^   '■ - '-- "   '
(By Robert Arch, from "-
(A reply to an opponent of Soeialfam.
thfa carefully.   Edit. E. P.)
There was a time wfaen Mr. Harold Cox Wis
considered tfae most brilliant of tite intellectual
opponents of Soefalfam. It must have been a very
long time ago; for everything he writes nowaday*
produce* on me, at least, a deepening impression
of senile decay. An article contributed by him to
tin "Sunday Times" of August 3, entitled "How
Itf Grow Poor," is about the lowest fault yet
reached by any reputable controversialist' on tite
"Socislist policy," Mr. Cox informs his readers,
•"contains two main ingredients: first/ an attack
on capital; secondly, a restriction of the output
of labor." The attack on capital fa based on the
"untrue assertion, derived from Earl Marx, tfaat
tim whole product of industry rightly belongs to
the manual worker." Tfae truth fa, says Mr. Cox,
that efficient mean* of production or capital, multiply the product of unaided labor a hundredfold
_.        mmmt     .1kmmm*mmm,     "*m     >**U»
or more, and therefore "in strict justice" the
capitalist, who provides it, fa entitled to the whole
increased value due to thfa factor. That the capitalist does not actually get it all fa due to tfae
cheapening of Capital by competition among investors^ Socialism, by destroying the motives for
accumulating capital, will drive the workman back
on hfa unaided labor-power. The second ingredient of Sodalfat policy—viz., restriction of output
—fa hypocritically countensneed fay "tim more
Intellectual Sodalists," although they appreciate
fts mischief, because they find it useful in thdr
campaign sgsinst capital 1 It now hu behind it
Parliamentary authority in the shape of the Act
re tfae restoration of prewar trade practices. The
result will be further reduction of output, for
which we have to thank Socialism and the poli-
tidans.   Such fa Mr. Cox's statement.
mMmamMmmmmmmmmammmmn    timt  Soeialfam	
an untrtte assertion of Marx that the whole product of industry rightly belongs to the manual
worker. Thfa falsehood fa probably not Mr. Cox's
invention, since it hu previously been put forward by Mr. Mallock and other writers, and is
eagerly believed/ by ignorant members of the
-"educated" classes who faave never read Marx,
made no suck assertion. It was not hfa ob-
U an economist, to say how the product of
iustry ought to be apportioned, but to investigate how it wag apportioned. Those people (very
few, I fear) who have taken the trouble to read
Marx's chapters on capitalfat production, will remember passages in which he expresdy points out
the neeesrity, under organized industry, of dasse*
of workers, other than manual, for theN efficient-
direction Of lafaor. Thfa obvious fact wu subsequently trotted out by Mr. Mallock, fa a serin of
ponderous tomes, u if R wu a brand-new discovery of fafa own, which all previous economists,
including Marx, had ignorantly missed. The self-
important Mallock tried to buttress his previous
"discovery" by falsdy sttiflmting to Marx an
assertion that all wealth wn the exclusive product of manual labor, and ought therefore to be
^^^TB^nly to tfae manual laboring class.
: may have coined thfa falsehood from.Mr.
Tox,. however, fa not concerned witfa tfae
award the
that, the bulk of wealth bring due to faa-
thfa fay
■*. I
means of production consist of land, buildings,
mines, machinery and the rest—useful materid
things, which, so far^u they are not derived from
Nature <lilce virgin soil,) are/like other wealth,
joint products of human labor and natural and
mechanical resources. The means of production,
in short,'are produced fay labor just like other
wealth; and the "man who supplies" them fa the
worker. But Mr. Cox, when he speaks of the
"man who supplies" them, means the owner--a
different person dtogether. We are indebted to
Mr. Cox for a new summary of capitalfat economics. "Bo notwork—own. 'Supply? the win
it call!" .
What the Capitalist Is "Morally" Entitled To.
"In strict justin,'' rays Mr. Cox, "the capitalist who provides the instruments of produetion fa
morally entitled to the whole, increased vdue
which those instruments produce." I wfll not
enter here on, a digression u to the difference
between value fa use and value in exchange, but
will take for granted that Mr. Cox means that^the
capitalist is entitled to all tile increase of wealth
due to modern mechanical invention, and leave ft
at that. Look at tfafa proposition, comrades and
friends: read, mark, learn and inwardly digest R
—and laugh! In strict justice, and u a moral
right, the capitalist class ought to have received
the Whole increase of wealth since, ray, the beginning of the industrial revolution. Tfae working elan, fa strict justice, ought to receive today
tfae total they received in 1780, and not a tin-tack
more.   For the dii
espitdfata who "supply" the means of produc-
tion: tfae workers have contributed nothing. Tfafak
Hindu Labor Politically Ctoxudous.   -
The muses in India, and among the factory
laborers, said Mr. B. P. Wadia, president of the
Madras Labor Union, before the Jomt Committee
of the British Parliament, hsd a power of understanding political and economic issues. The Indian
laborers loathed the idea of slavery in any form.
There were, he raid, some 17,515.000 workmen employed in industries, of whom 9150,000 were fa
large establishments. There was an Indian Factories' Act, whieh wu originally passed in 1881,
and which was last amended in 1911. Tfae. law
permitted 12 hours work a day. Women were
worked 11 hours and children between the egn
of nine and 14 were worked for six hours. Wages
and sanitation were beyond human calculation.
Britfah Strangling Hindu Editors.
How the British strangle Hindu editors will be
evidenced from the. order served by the British
magistrate on Mr. D. Shahbaz Akhgar, late editor
of the "Punjabi,'! a daily published in Lahore,
Indian Mr. Akhgar waa ordered to abstrin from
sending or receiving personally or through a third
party, by post or by telegraph, or by hand or by
any ether means, direct or indirect, any written
communication Or other matter of like nature to
or from any person whether within India or without, until Ouch communication shall have
ana hy the Deputy Commissioner of hfa district.
'!.'.'',."'    .<'"'   ' ■''..''..!■ -   '■■     "■' '    ''      ' '
it out, snd laugh! Or rather, don't laugh at M, r.
Cox, but pity him and take warning; for tide fa
what comes to prostituting a decent intellect to
the service of an economic creed in which no one
any longer believes whose range of information
and intelligence exceed that of a Sunday journal-
fat-  - .   .,
The capitalists, then, ought to receive thfa share
of the national income. But they do not. It fa a
hard worid, my masters' The capitalist is docked
of his just reward. And whyt Because "niost
people, as they begin to grow richer, save much of
their money for the sake of their children or for
their own use,in old..agOv''Thon..'ravfa^ii are invested, with tiw result thst in normal times of
peace, capital tends to grow cheaper, and thus
the manual worker can obtain the use of mechanical instruments of production st an ever-dimfah-
ing cost-" "WiccApitalfat class, condemned to cutthroat competition among themselves, are exploited
and fleeced, while tfae bloated proletarian squanders his ill-gotten gains at Monte Carlo and other
' Continental sinks of vfee!'
Economic Methods Exposed.
It Would be difficult to eompren a itreator
quantity of economic untruHi into a single aen-
tence than Mr. Cox hu done in that quoted above.
"Most people, u they begin to ''<Pff*m0*,■****"
ete. Most people dent, for the sfaipTreasotf that
they don't grow rfarsaWaV^'^t'.awfaig.ta tin operation of tfae system of propertv defended fay Mr.*
Cox. fa the privilege of the feW. Thc result of
saving, and the eonaoqu"** "cheapening of capital," fa, says he, that tfae worker obtains tbe ere
of innrameota of imoaHietien "at an erer-cfaeepen-
fag cost.*" It fant. Mr. Cox fa here forgetting
the existenee of two elassn of capitalist—the
moneylender or financier, wfao Esn on taterest,
and the entrepreneur, who lives on profit, tfae
entrepreneur, or sctual owner of means of pro-
duetion—the employer, n we oommonly call fafan
—fa the central figure of the economic process,
an*d all analyris ought to start witfa fafan.  The re-
efaeaper aeeen to the means of production, but
to enable tfae employer to gain cheaper aeeen to
the ana** of o-rafaar!*^^ l*fat*.
But I defer farther cluddation of this till next
woofa". -
/TVi    Haa     ftfifaaJ^fl**^a*aea
■ There fa quite a little controversy going on just
now, relative to what fa railed "The Freedom of
the Seaa," and a "League of Nations." Now
What exactly does those two phrase* connote!
Whet fa their rignifiesnee! Let to take a look
at tfae fatter pfaran first. When we understand
that, the former will become elearer.
Recording to its sponsors, a League of Nations
noma to connote an agreement, to be entered into,
between a number of nations, for the avowed purpose of settling amicably, whatever disputes may
them; and as a corollary, to abolish    organises a foreign nrvice; appoints foreign mini-
executive government. And precisely u
tion of function and relation, is sn indispensable
condition of industrial efficiency, so, co-ordination
of the machinery, requisite for the disposal of the
surplus becomes likewise an imperative need. For,
just n friction fa tfae certain concomitant of capital fa tfae realm of produetion, n fa R the unavoidable sccompsnyment gf capitalist rivalry* fa
the eommerefal sphere.
It fa at tfafa point tfaat the central government
come* into pity.   It ratoblfahes e
Manifesto of the Socfalfat Party of Canada . . 06
par 100.   Single copin 10 cents.
Slsve of the Farm .
loSnta,    '
war. 'Let us bring the terms a little closer, ask,
what fa tfae nature of tfae disputes occurring be-^
tween nations! How comes it that disputes arise
at all! Why can not they be settled peaceably
now! And what occasions war! To answer those
questions with any degree of explidtncss, we must
first understand the. nature of our social fabric.
Tfafa is where I propose to help stir the tea-cup.
In the present organization of society, thon
things essential to the maintenance of life, are
produced, quite naturally, under the terms of timt
organization. And the terms are: that the resources and machinery of production, and distribution, as Well u the total of what is produced,
are wholly owned- and controlled by one dam fa
' society, the capitalist'class, and that no other section of society ran hsve access to thon means of
supporting life, saving upon the condition imposed
by capital-production for sale, at a profit. Unless,
therefore, capital derives a profit from the operation of industry, that Industry comes toe standstill. But if capital sees that profit forthcoming,
it will put forth every effort, apply every invention; adopt every device; to operate that industry
to the fullest limit of capadty, wRfa the object of
incressing the volume of production, since the
greater that volume is, the greater fa the profit
But before profit—which is contained in the
commodities produced—can be realized, thon commodities must be sold.   But Where sold!   Not at
home, certainly, beeause owing to the competition
of the Wprkers among themselves for jobs, that
portion of them, actually engaged in the production of commodities, receive as wages the mere
subsistence necessities of life. And since those
wages, by no mesns represent the vdue of what is
produced, and since the purchasing power of the
market is measured by wages capacity, capital fa
left with a vast sucplus to dispose off elsewhere.
And dnwhere ran only be the international market.
Since, however, sll countries produee under this
system of capitalfat .commodity production, then,
necesssrily, ell countries, must look to the world
market for the rale of their goods; necessarily the
capitalists of all countries must Compete, not only
u rivals for the gale of their goods, but also for
possession of the market iteelf, and necessarily
again not all of thorn capitalfat countries can he
successful competitors. Two supremacies can not
exist in one market. And it fa never to be for- ,
gotten, tfaat in thfa relentless and merciless rivalry,
there is no sickly sentimentdfam of "live and let
Bve." "enough fa n good as a feut," and other
similar hoary platitudes. Tfaere fa but tiie stern
.   t,' of irrevocable necessity. ->.-"-
Again," • successful., snd efficient produetion,. involves tfae co-ordination of tfae productive foren.  ,
Tfae capitalist elan of any country must so ad- -
I    '       :
"with.democratic principles"
■ titration, wage
other fiipitali*rtr*i contrivances are or*
* tim supreme control of the central
stem; seta up nmUntra and legations; fan Re
advisory councils; listens to tfae behwts of foreign
syndicates; all organised and adjusted .by tite
capitalist elan executive government, in tfae sole
interests of the capitalist class; for the express
purpose of controlling the World market All tin
powers have representatives at every court where
there fa any bearing of interest, and it fa their
business to see timt the government to wfatefa they
are accredited don not overreach the government
they represent fa the diplomatic quities of "eon-
cessions," "spheres of interest," and other sucfa
dave guarding schemes. When this over-reaching
is successful, it involves, of course, greater freedom of toe market for the state which secured
the favorable deal and obviously, a limitation for
the loser.
The small States, because they are small States,
and live off the rivalry of their big brotiiers, are.
compelled to listen to the "advice" and "suggestions" of the foreign office of the great powers,
insofar u the poliriu of tim Uttie States ounfifat
witfa tim eapitaJfat interests of the great powers.
If they do not show inclination to the ''reason"
of tiie great powers, there fa a change of government in that country, and the -new executive fa,
of course, (sinbe it is amenable to "advice,1')
"honorable,"  "appreciative  of order,"
and so on,«ad-
nauseute. This is where secret diplomacy gets fa
its fine work. But this political method of action
does not obtain—it can not indeed, between tfae
great powers"! themselves, knowing each other's
methods and objectives. They possess huge fighting machines; mobilizing organization in instant
readiness; vast stores of reserves of sll kinds; al-
most unlimited resources. They are ready to resent and prepared to "defend" any infringement
of what they call "right," with powerful self-
contained orgaiurations of prostitute pren and
rostrum, to help dong toe due appreciation of
"democracy,'* and if a breach fav opened, and beyond the power of diplomacy to stop R up, war
is the inevitable result.
Now let us look at the "League of Nations" in
tiie light of this philonphy. Tbe stetement, thst
thfa league will be rapitalistic, needs no defenn.
Being capitalistic, it implies the old anarchy of
industry, production for ssle, and u already
pointed out, produetion for sale, entails a market
to realfae tim profit. Tho cxistenra of tim small
States in thfa league (or cut of it,) fan no influence fa tfafa matter. Therefore'the great capitalist power, daily eomn fato eloser contact and ever-
shsipening sntagonism, with another similar
power, and soon or late, out of tfaeir necesssrily
conflicting faterests, a dash fa bound to eome.
They can not avoid it, berause tim tremendous
foren of socisl produetion, generated within themselves, compel tfaem to obtain a market for todr
goeds, in order to Keep tfadr wage staves working, or *0so-the inevitable alternative—thon
slaves, co-ordinated and organised by capitalist in-
i enforced idleness snd facing starvation,'
wfll. abolish - both the capitalist State and Rs
AllQ    wa*1©        J"xC^!ClOin    OI-  nWI    fcS*Wnsj   -     WaMaX    vL Jal .
Simply thfa, that the greet power, aEve to ita fa
ff par 100.   Single
The Present Economic System, by Professor W. A.
Bonger . . $6 per 100.   Single copies 10
Socialism, Utopian and Scientific . . Single
15 cents.   $13 per 100.
Wsge Labor and Capitol
#8 per 100.   Single
Capitalist Production, being the first nine chapter*
of Vol. L Marx's Capital - . Sfagte copies, paper
cover, 50 cents;   doth bound. $1.00.
"Ten Days That Shook tfae World," By John
Reed-JE-lO. %
Kolchak, Autocrat and Tyrant. The actual story
of gToMiafr and fafa methods told hy an American
oftefal -recently returned  from  Siberia.   WRfa
. tfafa fa induded, Anti-Bolsheviks and Mr. Spargo,
by William Hud. Taken, with anoloetoi from
the July 9 "New Republic" . . $6 per 100. 10
-   Cents per single eopy.
"Industrial History of England," By H. De sV
"Six   Bed   Months   fa   Busda."   By   Louise
' 'Postage Paid;  •.
Make afl Money Orders payable to C. Stephenson,
401 Pender Street Bast, Vaneouver, B. C.
(By John Reed.)
John Reed wu in Russia during the Bolsheviki
Bevolution and tfafa book records his observations.
He is a journalist, thus a trained observer but besides this he had the advantage of understandfag
the hfatoricd nature of tfae foren at work. Price,
$2. Portage paid.
(Prom toe "Daily Herald," Aug. 21)
The Barcelona eorrenpondent ef toe "Pane," e
Madrid Republican paper, make* a sensational exposure of tfae part played fay toe Employers' Association in tfae recent disorders, wires our Ssn-
tander Correspondent
The asssssinstions of Sabater end the rest, and
the homfa explosion seem to faave been the
of a gang of ruffians, aome* of whom wen
bers of the police fores.
It fan been virtually proved tint tide gang wn
paid fay members ef tfae Employers' Assoefatiom
to create a reign of terror in Baredona, wfaiefa
Would faring about mflitoiy. suppression Of tin
tereste fa the world market, must central tim trade
routes leading to that inarket, on penalty af lee-
fag its comnmtafal supremacy. Por wfaatew
obtain fa times of peace, wfaen tiw dash
tite power controlling tim trade route* at nme Onto
off all communication of external
off Allied asstetanee; \ bars \ afl.
ana ue oeieaguereu aaa, nan eaopt every oawsra?
that ingenuity can devfas to break that blockade.
Just n nothing can prevent the natural rivalry ef
capital, so nothing can offset tim tactics of military m unity end,' just as no law ran obviate tfae
irrealatabfe eeanonfn of .tfae mseafne, neither can
anr league, or eovenant. er Unlf. or gwaraatec,
^*^**mW f******ma******W. ** - *M*W*-W WPWIwmmWm^m;        V% m^m,mj^^mr^m  * a. m mmf-mmmmmm*-m—
however solemnly engaged upon, tarn aside tin
titanic neceawtiu of aOetsl prodnotioe-
mm** •   -■
■0&?l: ■-;, .iv:::[-ll'&Js':.- ';■■
■ ■   ..
rawn flfS
!|M -n
CoBcerBing CoBfJuct of Ecobobhc Classes
more honest for Mr. Leacock to faave refrained from implying that which hfa knowledge of
tfae facts wffl net support.
And again, "tite whole history of humsn cirili-
of the weak by the strong." .
what Mr. Leacock may conceive to be the
features fa tide record we
But if R is his intention to deny thst.
"tim spoliation of the week by tin i
wfaat stande out; shove sll else in the history of
civilization why don he net fae honest and ray so
—or fa he afraid that fail brother professors
laugh at him! "■"',  "
Once more, "Even the domain, of the
wu needlessly invaded end' all forma of speculative belief were rudely thrown aside fa favor of
a wooden materidfam." "Even toe domain of
tfae philosopher," mark you. Ia there any good
reason known to Mr. Leacock aad fatdlagihlc to
tfae rest of society, why, in tim search for truth,
/"pHERE is, st the
JL    sble incresse in
fa tim interest
Tarn ia ine
' istralu   fmmm*   toe   svatematie   studv   of
Economy and kindred subjects wee the
. mm**m*~*********mf    *******--»■ -    -—    *• mm**m '.■""**•     w****-w-    "******;..
faetive, if not tfae 'meat attractive  n
Xow. tfafa being tfae tine of yesr
sre* fa nroeen of faimalioa R fan near ml
wwwmr.mm.-      r ^^^v    . ^^M****W**mrmm^mmm    , F_^RP^|.    ;- mB^^J^mmMMW****^****** mt*W ■       m^M^^mW -—-*---■ ■   IP a^A m m*
the writer, wfao fan had some Httle experience fa
Id fae well, for the gnid-
for the first time, to give
Inn some of tite results of that experience. I am
the more impelled to do thfa beeause I an
strongly of opinion thst the method of study fa
of n grrat, tf nn s^ntn, faiportanee than, tim
time, a very notice-   *-* bottom to coasfat of a question of defimtion.
of duns and   Msny words snd terms fa general use have aa
ppliration or may mean so msny
iga that for the purpon of
they must fae limited to invariably fa-
> thing or  category ef thing*    Sueh
"Wealth,"   "Commodity,"   "Vdue,"
natttsre snd will often fae found anal
fferent  things  fay
0 definite rignification 1
******». -*--*j*tl!MM-mmm9w^********mm ,   WSr^SBSm
itwrtafafid and tfae term need
fa that way but in aay caw mme definite mean-
ing should be attached to it and tfae Word or
used, invariably in that sense. While tide
may be followed fa the cue of » word,
tfae can fa very different when we come to 's
statement of fact. The stetement or |n-oporition
fa true or it fa not true, that fa to ray, ft agrees
subject matter, so fsr u beginners are concerned.   That fa to aay, that one of tfae main objects   **«* -** facta or it don not and ao
to be attained is the development of a certain
attitude of mind—the. scientific method. Posses-
sfac tfafa attitude  of mind,  believing:  nothing.
fc-MMM^^ W«»«^* Wmw^^mmwmm.^^^m ■   mm-m± mmmmmmmm^J *^^^—^^- w 9VBK mm Wm ^M^^^^M» ^
the domain of the philosopher should be favfafatot   questioning all things, insisting on dear and ac-
And what have they done, then impendent in-   curate definitions, testing every stotement by an
vaders of the musty sanctity of the abode of
physical befuddling*? Tfaey faave ruddy thrown
aside all form* of speculative belief. Not speculative thought, mark you, which, in its place, fa
quite legitimate and useful, but speculative be-
.Of all tfae maestones which marktin progress
of human knowledge can Mr. Leacock point to one
wfatefa fan"not been set up in the place oboe oc-
cupied by a "speculative betief?" Can Mr. Lea-
oock advance any good reason why any apeeula-
tive belief sfaould not be thrust aafafa to make
-room for another milestone standing for podtive
Knowledge t As for the blind, metephyried vaporing*, which once occupied wfaat fae refen to n
tite "domain of tbe philosopher," hn Mr. Lea-
Oock found a resting place for tfaem within fafa
orahial cavity or fa thfa another of hfa little joknt
The materidfam which fae characterizes u
-"wooden" fa fa essence that same Msterfalfatic
Interpretation whiefa Mr. Leacock take* frequent
.occasion to attack by implication but fa no plan
is honest enough to deny openly; wfaiefa he frequently usn without acknowledgment, but readily
abandons when it can not bo twisted to serve fafa
arguments—a very unetfaical proceeding wfatefa,
we will wager, don not rain fain fa the estimation of fafa fellow scientists, even toough tfaey may
lack tin courage to rebuke fafan.
However, impartid Mr. Leacock may faave
aeemed to be in bfa previous chapters, however,
apparently disposed to concede two ddn to an
argument, ft fa evident tfaat fa tfafa fifth chapter,
lie fan nt out to argue himself fato a certain eon-
alusion and intends to Permit nothing to stand fa
fafa way. Neither truth nor logic nor any consideration of tfae intdlectud rectitude ineumbent
upon a sdentifie mind engaged fa andysfa fa'to
lie allowed to deflect fafan from fafa preconceived
aeondusion—"Soefalfam will not work," not any
Irfnd of Socialism, It fa bad medidne, all of it.
all Wnde of R, everything tinged wfth, ueoefated
wito or suggestive of R fa no good. Even tt »
isn't, R fa. By reason of tfae fact timt many ef
tfae Busdsn Bolshevik leaden are Marxians and
many Marxians are fa sympathy witfa, the Bolske-
wika, the Bedsherik regime fa naoeiated wRfa So-
-eialfam. Enough sddl "The una nh shir, savagery of Bolshevism," rays the profenor.
Is it possible that Mr. Leacock fan not read tfae
d experience of recent happenings in Russia T
appeal to tfae facts, the student fa fa e
to securely pick hfa way through the men of
li—fr m'^-fT^fscptati'W*' and dotted nonsense which
fa modern popular literature.
Tfae matter of dass-organiution and methods
may, I take it, be lef t to the commonsense of the
elan, Rnlf, but tim procedure -wfll, fa general,
consist of reading fa turn from the text book,
followed by questions and comment by tite members. As to the text-book, "Wage-labor and
Capital" will probably be the facet for a start
hut, if thfa book is used, it will be well to get a
sufficient number of the revised edition recently
famed by the S. P. of C, u most editions of thfa
book are very defective. For advanced students,
the first nine chapters of "Capital" eould be
studied. "Value, Price and Profit," starting at
the sixth chapter, fa also very good. Other
standard works ought to be at hand and the clan
should possras a really good dictionary.' Every
word has, and every statement ought to have, a
meaning, and it fa the business of tine dan to
find it. No portion read fronxtim text-book ought
to be passed up unsifted and tim chairman should,
so far u possible, an that every member of the'
dan fa satisfied before proceeding. Many con-'
trorerstes and most arguments wfll bo found at
«        i ' i i  '• i    . ;.    i i    .     i      i       i      ■  i ■-
■ ■■■ii.. i i.i—i.i. ii.. ■-Ii.-.»iI.i..i.ii. ii—■■■wn.—nw. i.i—.uu. ■ —
but a -nan Witfa toe courage and honesty to speak
the truth n he ana it, had tide to aay recently
to a gathering of American busfaen men: "There
aaa i*awa "a» n^m *^v ^ana^a *m*n wM*mwn *. ^m*^nn mnwmMM^*mMM^ mmm Mm w m **—ap *■ •^•^^
a^warl    aaTAaastsAwaT' nnrljiw*   Paean   Ti**JealaAaTa'nT"   ''WaAa'ilmii    Tata*Ana*aa*0
WOamiA        ^^V^miW ^"V *a-a4pVt aW^aS Mm^W^W^**m^*mf W 9^*9 M W ■WlV* Mt^*m9mmmmm^mmmrp
than under tfae anti-Bolshevik Kerensky.—A population u orderly, fully u orderly, u the population of New York or San Franefaeo. Gentlemen,
the people wfao tell you that the Soviet system fa
bat riots add robbtehm, and mobs, abd
, are leading you to your own destrue-
Bofahevfam fa a system wfaiefa, in practice,
oa ite record, can put human beings, fa millions,
fate aa ordered aoeial group, and can gat loyalty
from them, and obedience, and orgsniaed consent/'
Migfat we be permitted to wonder why Mr. Lea-
ooefa should cfaoon to foeae Mt attmtfan apaa any
nvagery which may have onarred fa far away
Russia while the thrice nnapeakable ssvsgeries of
CspftaHem are thrust right under hfa noset Hn
he never beard of the race riota, or rather nma-
aaeres, wfatefa take -dan every so often in tim
rJ-ra**s*«OT»!i» $i*zLii^tmt*?.
tohn Reed, of Bessie Beattie, of l^ouise Jlryant,
faya Williams and a host of others, and, last
perhaps most Illuminating, of Colonel Bay-
» of tfae Ameriesn Bed Cross?   U fae
I these, then he faaa no moral right to
pen   which he fa'not informed
of literary prostitution fae fa committing when
of the "mwnmakaMc nvagery of BaV
Qefanel Eafafaa,  a
whieh occur therein?
sWy savage ever
wnma persanea
over four years?
in the face of sueh
g more unspeak-
tuoody shamble*
a of Europe for
man fa thfa wfao,
can find ft in
authority will fadp it fa any
It is customary to quote strings of authorities
in support of thfa, that or the other proposition,
and ft fa a weakness with many Socialist* to
quote a tag from ray, Capital; aad to imagine
that the question fa thereby finally settled. Tfae
opinion of an accurate observer and TfaHitakfag
investigator sueh fas Darwin or Marx hss, ef
course, due weight but should always be accepted with the reservation that aa appeal to
tim facts fa the only proof of which any propori-
No statement fa worth randdering that can
not be expressed in good, plain, simple Englfah,
and the dan should be encouraged to use tfafa
mode of expression rather than the cryptic and
exotic tenninology so mucfa affected fay many
members of the Marxian School.
The selection of a chairman te rather important.
It fa hfa busfaen to see thst the diacusrion don
not wander from tim matter in hand; that no owe,
including himself, monopolizes tfae time of tite
dsss; to encourage timid, bashful members to
take part and to see thst the discussions are carried on courteously and in regular form. I do
not, for one, approve ef tim appointment of a
teacher or instructor but tfae cine would bo n
well to faave e director whose function ft would
be to be responsible for tfae work done. It weald
be fafa busfaen to look up in advance the matter
Rafale to come up, to verify tim definitions, etc.,
and be prepared jo initiate and carry on tim dfav
ensrion. Tfafa office may fae combined with tint
of chdrman or tt there fa no one wflflag to act
permanently, individual students sfaould fae made
responsible for tim proceedings si each meeting
of tfae elan. That fato any, tint, Oa work of
each meeting sfaould fae laid out in advance end
some one member made l-esponrible for ft.
It fan been my erperfnmo tint classes of thfa
kind are liable to be infested wito a variety of
. freaks and cranks   of   ana'  kind and
Tfaen people, of course, should have a
faearinc fa o*fa-naTOan. but sfaould not be allowed
■^^^W^^^^^^^^P ^^^ ^********'************^** ^^W»W    "WWWWmmmrmm^wWlM - ■  MM****m ^M*WM   •'   -WFmm^^wrWm WW^**,
to monopolise tim tfam of tin dan and, if peon
nry, shodd fae firmly inppreend; a Ettie veriml
brutality will do tfaem no harm snd wifl fae *asfa>
ful if timy ere any good.
Orally interested fa tin propagation Of
imBlhid or religion thooiica aad it should fae
remembered tint tfae Object of tin dan fa tim
study of Political Economy, timt fa to way, mm
science of the production and distribution of
wealth under GnaRalfan enS not to draw plana
for tim New
bis heart to traduce the duly ofaeted leaden of a
fandy people who are ''defending.' ifaninilni
against half tim profit-mad nations in the world
and, fay tfae evidenn of disluteinlod observers,
withfa tfaeir own faoun at tite
(Oontiaued on Page Eigfat)
I am reminded that I momised te
^^^^^   . .^ ^^^^^a^^a^^Pl^T^aW      ^^^W^^W      .f^      MT       ********^*W**M*,       m*WF
ths  ilfaf iimlnii  of    "imu iriuo" tin*
Tfafa: I have not had tine to. take up
have substituted the foregoing *wfateh I
■arji    oi^mr   mnHnm. ■   *"wpu^n^no   aarsa   aan   m^aaip ■ ^emui^am
hope to go on to tfae otfaer next week D.
T. "haaaaEaaaVaVMBETi
A". Journal
Working CU».
Publuhed When Circumstances and Finances Permit By
i . • **^     **^a"***   ' J*   . ♦ US *>y      wMM     ^f»\Mmm  rmr
- F        "'i. .        •'■• •'•?•'
401  Pender Street East. Vancouver, B. C.
'   ■ -,
; • a *...      C  Stephenion
',.....       ...
Red   Flag"..
OCTOBER   4,    1919
Education—A Comparison
A pamphlet fan come fafa OUT. possession on
education in Soviet Russia. Just u we received it, the ratepayer* of Vancouver turned
down tfae appropriation asked for fay the school
This is the situation n R stands fa Vancouver.
No new schools here been erected for four yean;
the number of school children have increased at
the rate of 800 to 1000 annually.   At prerent the
\>uej~aja"wsf    niv    a^*o**a-ej     *e*"i*tu'<    aaa    sFauwaaaanwjra-eawa*-'. nauraia>
ventilated and increasingly crowded clan rooms.
Tfae  double  shift  fa in   practice,  one    lot    of
scholars attending from 7 to 12, and another from
1 to 5.    Imagine  this  condition.    That "dread
vidtant," the black plague, fa considered a pes-   affair* tint will arouse  tbe envy of their col-
ribility during the cold winter months, and tfae   leagues in this country. The pamphlet* we refer to
medical health officer fa sounding hfa wanting,   "Education and Art in Soviet Busda,'' may be
"avoid  crowding  and  colds  tfafa  winter.*''    In   had for 15 rants from the Secialfat Publi*hing
order to meet current expenses fen for attends   Society, 15 Spruce street, New York City.
One lut quotation from the preface before we
don. It is a quotation taken from the Appendix
of John Reed's book, "Ten Days That Shook
the Worid," and fa a paragraph from a decree
of the Commisssire of Education, Lunaeharsky:
"PROFESSOR Leacock in hi* fifth article
•nV strives to convoy tfae impression timt Social i*m had at one tine discreditable cenncctfona
As a matter ef fact, it was only those ignorant
of ita history who have roaridrrrd it to be ss-
socisted with tbe "propaganda of the deed'''Or.
the advocating of the destruction of tim family
or breaking the marriage tie. Neither St. Simon,
Fourier, or Bobert Owen -of the so-edled Utopian school, or Marx, and Engels of tite fater
scientific school ever advocated such thing*. Tfaey
did postulate ehsnge however. They, in feet
eould not escape their time, for scientific enquiry
in the domain of history and sociology revealed
that society and its institution* are the1 products
of an evolutionary process end, u such, can not
escape in the future the implications entailed fay
that process. The Msteridist conception tint
the changing means of production ere tfae factors wfaiefa determine tfae form and nature of
fa fafa articles amply demonstrated, though without acknowledgement to Marx and Engel. who
first formulated tfae theory, and to whom sc-
knowledgement was due.    The professor himself
n ii urn iiiig-B-g-as  ■ Hcssagsaqys=s===^s=-aSBn«
hour day, all extra work fa pud u overtime. The
teaching body fa Bania new holds frequent conventions and congresses,snd expresses ftntf freely on the conduct of the school*, a condition of
ance at high school are charged, hence tfae children of the poor am denied that clan of education. Part of the mm ssked for Wee for a technical school and ite equipment towards wfaiefa tiie
government wu to grant $50,000, should the by
law pan. The industrial metropolis, of the West "One must emphasize the difference between fafa without a technical school. Only a modest struction and education. Instruction fa the trans-
sum wu asked'for in all equsl to twenty-five mission of ready knowledge by the teacher to hfa
cents on every one thousand dollars assessment
or for the general householder about one dollar
a year. The pleaders for the caure of the children had a good cue. Probably the sum asked
for waa less than what wn spent during the recent day's virit of, a personage. Probably tfae
pecuniarily enlightened ratepayers thought that
after-that, splurge retrenchment wu in order
when they turned the school bylaw down. Then
ratepayers of Vancouver are almost to e nan
and woman anti-Bolshevik. After reading tim
pamphlet containing the Soviet eduntional program and comparing ft witfa tfaeir action ea the
school appropriation tfaere remaina no shred of
doubt tfaat tfaey are anti-Bofaherik u tfaey are
afao antteduration. Tfae two antfa evidently go
together. Bolshevism fa Bunfa fa -rynaniwaona
with ©duration, fatendve education. Tho pamphlet wo have bren reeding contains 84 ifauuminti,
promulgated fay tfae Soviet of People's
drn and tim Commfanlrra of Education.   Tfaey are concerned wftfa en forma of edu-
pupil.   Education fa a creative process.   The personality   of  the  individual   is  being  -educated'
. throughout life, fa being formed, grows rieher in
content, stronger and more perfect.
"The toiling masses of the people—the workmen, the peasants, the soldiers—are tbirsting for
elementary and advanced instruction. But they
are afao thirsting for education. Not the Government, nor tfae intdlectuds, nor any other power
outside themsdves, can give it to them. Tfae
school, the book, tfae theatre, the museum, eta,
may here be only aids, they have their own
idras formed bv tfaeir aoeial position, n different
^mMMmwmmm**'    *vafMViraa    ^^aT     wwwww^^w*    ^^^»^^^^i^»   ^^**wwm*9w^mWW*)*Mm.   m^mwm     ^v«^»^^ v  - ■ ■
from the position ef these ruling .cfann and fa-
Tfaey faave thdr own ideas, their own emotions,
their own ways ef approaching the problems of
personality end aocioty. Tfae efty laborer after
-fafa own fashion, the rural toiler aeeerdfag to fafa,
wfll eaefa build fafa dear
meated with the elan idea of the
fa no more superb or beautiful nlwimaasnon titan
Us tfaat tite
iditions of life today,
tionships, legal and otherwise.
^^^^^^n»  ^*M^f^^^^*w   •--—    ^wmm^^wMwim   mMwMmm   a*m*9 * ^nMmwmm/a  wv ^pum   """""a.   sf-apawP   aan
materidism." He objects to tiw materialist
ception invading the field of philosophy and religion. But if tfae fa*jedimtfan of a new method
of produetion fan produced sucfa change* fa the
material conditions and fa tfae ideu of men
wfatefa he nys tite machine method faaa, now then
can fae object to Socialists invading the fields of
philosophy and religion in order to see to wfaat
m*m^Mw   l V^W* Wm      Wm*mi Wi ■■      auaJWri^^^A      mmm      ^w^mm^mw
fa other ages by this fundamental factor.
Whatever Professor Leacock says, Socialism fa,
we assert, u Socialists, that it fa first and foremost s critique of the present socfal order. It is
this, first, because of necessity, for how esn men
rid .society of the evils afflicting it unless first
they understand their canoes, and also understand the nature of those institutions whieh may
tend to alleviate aoeial evils or wfatefa, on tfae
other band, msy foster, or fae need to foster, tfae
perpetuation of thon evils. He, himnlf, hn
shown us that the wraith and power of One section of society today exists fay 111400 of the impoverishment and misery of another Be-.-fan
practically said thst thst condition fa the statu
quo, Can he assert wftfa truth, tfaat neither
philosophy or religion hsve ever been used to
preserve a statin quo? We think not. For then
reasons, u well u fa the ever present socfal
ii.j,nailji of testing the truth of afl doctrines end
ideologies which affeet the lives of men* no so-
eial institution or doctrine can ever bo sacrosanct .from our criticd cTamfaation The professor ray* that Socialism "hu become a purely
economic doetrine." This fa hat fa part true, and
like many other of fafa sssertions shows a aad
lack of scquaintanee with the Socialist Philosophy or else—something efae. The importance
and time given to economic factors by Sodalfat*
follows u a matter of eourn from tfaeir materialistic conception.
In thfa fifth article he states tfaat the Socialists
say that tfae fault of tfae present order lays in
tfae waste of energy due to duplication of labors
and reryiees, u for instsnee, fa too many milkmen and bakera delivery rigs; eta, running Over
the nme ground. Efaeu! We are at a Ion Wfaat
to *****-*f of him. Hi. binwilf fa fafa former
article* related to us of the etimfaation of the
multitude of small acattered textile producers of
tim hsndiersft days fay tin nmnetition of the cooperative method of labor fa tfae iactorin, end
tfaat this labor-saving method fan resulted in no
improvement  of tfae  condition   of tfae  laboring
t~na\a~B**ht»a~t        aa/w#an   iauata   *ra*w*eaT   T*"naTr4aueTm*I   aYa*   1*1TiflJi1tlJ»I lift     ll#»
said, "we era now probably a Itandredtfams
more productive time fo-rnmriy." Socialists faave
been pointing thfa condition eat for fifty yean
at "neat, and afao that though the maehfaery of
al; and : tfae system of distribution were
to perfection It would net result in any
to tim wage-working elan under tfae capitalfat system ef produetion for sale. On tim
contrary, fewer af tfaen weald be needed fa tfae
fadeatrjn owned fay tim capitalfat elan fa order
to supply the market, tn fafa fourth artide, P*e-
■eaeoek kfamflf printed oat tfaat in-
productivity fa itself did net mean   a
cation, artistic, sdentifie, vocational aad rmeral   the one ef wfatefa our rsnreat dneendenta will fae   higher return to the laborers for tfaeir lafaor. Tfae
and are an astonishing tribute to tite energy end
idealism of tfae leaden of tim edueationd move-
nmnt fa proletarian nfa-afa.
We give two dsuses of Duuamwl Efe. 8. (1)
"Every person, regardlen of dtisemmip and aex,
reaching the age of 16, can be admitted n a
member of tfae student body to any of the higher
institutions of learning (universttfae) without
submitting a diploma or testimonial papere at-
(5) "Tuition fen in faigher edueationd
itutiona  of tim Bussian  Socialist Federative
ie year, 1918-1919, sfadl be refunded accord-
both witness and participant*: the building fay   inereau
collective Labor of ita own general  rich aad
free aouL"
"The problems tint fan us are great, reepon-
sfale and pressing." says tfae appeal of tim Proletarian Cultural Organisation, "but we believe
that the foren wfaiefa will come to our inistsnr-
are afao great."
Wfafle tfae pecuniary minded ratepayers . ef
Vancouver faave saved e dollar, ft fa to tfaue
Bolsheviks, then educators, thdr country surrounded by a world fa arimr "agafaat ft, wftfa
sfaertage of food, ami mil tire inraleulsble,
shoulder ' 'tim.' burden '■' of  tfae  children's •• future
of weaftfa
ef tin
In giving vent to hfa taetfags on hfa iflnhirge,
aa old soldier wrote to fafa fato eoload: "Bfarv-*-
After what I have suffered, yon aaa tafl tin aany
to go to hett.**   ■■-■-.■
In due eourn he received tfae following: "Str,
---Any iiiggietinim or inpwjrfas at to
of toooM moat fae noon
•awe* . an"*awaraaaFw. asw*-*w*»w    on    wsnassmsap
Xx% a eopy Of wfaiefa I
school."   tfaey   cry,
MLm   M-.
faoratory ef tim
sslsrfas of teachers aw based on a four-
Oa Sunday eeaafaar* *Eot 5,
wffl apeak from tim 8oefaIfat
st tim
W'a        <^. *m .m    M
. a. *rnnatan
Party af ^Lm'
.VMdel has been said in the
to the
(Pre* tim '•Justine,'' September 4.) fa the only remedy, Ida meaning redly fa tfafa:
Russian Soviet Government about, tfae so-    T^avafc!^ l"*ed bj ** *********** ***** ** the nWte flk.   U
' working men wfll work harder or for Iras
way changed hi it* value relation
cry's, nufanftf^^ .wav^^
while to explain tfae reel facta of the finaneid ""J-       *_^*   ?"■' ffW *,ld *** ****** J***
eriris. ^^ Tould ******* ***-*-   B« «« »° »** the state-
^5£'*t  £ d.   m    hi ment fa net cerrcet, hecaun the United
A?taaftaSL*2rtrTisfii^^r^ to.**-*****^***
that the British £1 fa only worth 17a,   ete, m
pet true.   Betfa coins aft ■ to snv serio a vdue
power of the chairman of tim Soviet of Peo-
Nikolai Lenin. Tbe
***a******f*******'\: ****-   n*"pWw*^"e**"u**"a;    nan    ee-a*an    ana
ii Lenin, is given by
new   book,   "Arbeidernes
of the Workers," Cfariatianfa, If]*;)
idition that restricts admission to this
to a certain portion of tim nation fa ef
temporary.   It fa pinund tfaat ulti-
people wfll support tim
and tfaat tite very coneep-
lution will pan away.   Gradu-
it ire nation wfll fae eome a nation of work-
by one common interest; the perman-
of tie Revolution. Aa tfafa
right to a participation fa par-
will be extended, until it embraces
population.  Wfaen no one fa any longer
tfae Revolution, wfaen all recognixe their
solidarhy-with the new soetety'then also, dl will
be adraptted/to the legfalstive body.  But u long n
fmytfa u to the despotic dictatorial power
in Communist Russia fan almost become
fato an 'axiom' in the conseionsness of
who have not bad an opportunity to
witfa tfae reel eonstitution of
nblie, its spirit and ite provirions.
dear from the wording of
n wdl u from Rs appliea-
that the following fa (tite cue:
Not Lenin, but the All-Buadsn Congren of
Set*,' which fa convoked by tfae All-Russian Cen-
of the same relative vslue thst they were before
and during tim war; both are quantities af gold
of which equal weights and. fineness are of equal
value fa the same place, as tfaey always were.
Whet redly has fallen ft tfae vdue of Britfah
accepted bills of exehsuge in relatfaa t<
bill*. The evil, so far u ft fa aa evil, fa tfae
aary result of international trade bring conducted
ny pnvan e-tnrpraev •
The exefaange of goods between this country
country as a whole. Under a rational system based
on the facte tbe account would- be a ample dotes
sad credit sffsir kept by bookkeepers of average
ability who could' strike the balance weekly, daily,
or hourly, u required, without taking up the
valuable time of bankers, bill brokers, snd an
army Of telegraphists and newspaper finaneisl experts. •." -,.
CJapRalist "Working fa tfae Beefa"
. Tfae capitalfat system breaks up tfae business of
each 'nation into fragments; eseh fragment in
charge of an enterprising person or firm.; each
firm working for its own personal gsin in enmity
wftfa the other firms, or, at tfae best, fa the dark
u to what the others are doing. Tfae true national nature of the business fa proved fay tfae fact
that account* must be balanced and then tfae private enterprise wfaiefa fan been "tested fa the
gamble begs or bullies its Government to help it
and fa efae the only country that don not want
of Ho Avail.
Executive Committee at least twin a year, fa
the supreme power and authority fa the Russian,
Socislist, Federal, Soviet Republic
"2. This All-Rusrian Congress deeta a   Central
Executive Committee of not more than 200
Executive Committee is reaporurible
to the Congren of Soviet*.
reen sessions of tfae Congress, tfae Executive Committee fa entrusted   witfa the supreme
legislative,   administrative,   and   supervfaory authority.
"5. The eople's Commissaries are appointed by.
the Centrd Executive Conrmfltee.
"6. The decren snd proportion* of the People'e
Commfasarfae must be approved fay fae Executive
"7. The Executive Committee fan tfae right   to
pass^tiecrees of ita own and to postpone Or annul
^iuy action of the Soviet of People's Conunisurtes.
Although Lenin fa tfae President of the Soviet
People's Commtanrfae there being ao Preri-
nt of the Sovid Republie u sucfa, aad eertafaly
'imperator'—and although Lenfa, fay reason of
fafa political genius, fato a very greet personal nv
fluence, fae hn no despotic power of any kind, and
certainly fan never asked for such power. Tfae
relations between tfae People's Conrmfaaaries and
Ul Rusrian Central Executive Ctmunittee are
nd tfae Storthing (r*ertiament) in Norway.
hip fa Russia don not rigntfy the aboolute
- individual dictator, but tfaat of a whale
democratic bads, sgefast tfae Tnurgeefaee and tim
cent editorial article in Izvestya. .{official
re been trained in tite   sublime   Uaefafag
m) of Gei-many's greatest genius, consider
out of tite
When Mr.
that tfae only
,way to balanu tim account fa fay labor producing
goods for expert. Finance and statesmanship are
of no avail; only Labor can save the dtuation. In
tfaat can the laborers should see thst their buri-
ness is better managed in future.
^ Tfae difficulty fa not hard to understand if ~tfaO
foete are dearly stated. The theory of capitalfam
vegnfan eeefa export of goods to be paid for by
an import of gold. Tfaat is impossible in practice,
and therefore bills of exchange are ereated which
npposed to represent the goods, and in many
have in •/set the bOIs of fading or warefaoun
receipts pinned to them. A genuine bill is a kind
of pawnticket for goods fa tranrit witfa tfafa difference—thst tite pawnbroker fan not lent actual
nmney on the goods, but hu promised to pay for
them on demand or fa 00 daya, lete, and he fa not
to get thc goods till fae don pay. Capitalism-in
its ffaanefal department-makes .there bill* fato
commodities, or ghost-eonimodities, end buys and
sells them for a time u if they were real com-
modities. The'employer-espitslist who supplied
the goods gets immediate cash for a hill which
only promises cash in, say, three months,.and for
tide advantage he pays away part Of fafa profit.
The bills are then bought and sold between brokers
and bankers until they become due for settlement.
Lloyd George ssys timt production
all institutions to be provfaional, and we know jrery
wdl that even the Soviet Government is provfaional.
The government by a Dictatorship of the Proletariat will later yield to a government by tite whole
Communistic Society, in wfaiefa there shall be no
division into elssses, and in wfaiefa a cast-iron dictatorship will therefore be unnecessary.'"
Various other evils are grafted on this system; '
for instance, the bills are renewed—that fa, en-\
dowed with another 60 days of ghost-commodity
life, etc Bills are also created for which no goods
are fa existence. Apart from these evils there fa
the fact that Britfah and American espitdfats sre
creating claims against each other wfthout know-
ing what the total national elaima on' each dde
to.   Tfae system illustrates the latter half
HALF A-MltUOE IDLE IE GREAT BRTTADI.   °£*** U -*W*****'* **7**m\ "OnAer fa the work
The unemployment figures faave an important
bearing oA tfae* problem of tfae question of production.
tf increased output fa desired, the plain man
would assume at lead tfaat dl available labor
would be employed.
Yd tfae Board of Trade reports tfaat fa the en-
ginecring trades done there were 75^960 workpeople drawing out-of-work pay on July 25 last
In. tfae ahipbuUding trade 12,089 .were out of
The numbers of workpeople unemployed-fa the
insured trades oa tfae same date were 460,511 men
aad faoye. and 00>7t women snd girls, a total cf
shop, anarchy fa the market.'
As the bills eome due for payment they cancel
each other .fa so far u the claims of euh country
;are equd, and. thc bankers adjust the individual
aceounts fa thdr books. If the difference fa slight
—up to s few mBfaons—gold fa snipped to pay thc
•tefieft, hi the meantime the general man of bills
rin and fall fa price, and new bills can only be
taken fato the gameaorardingiy. The capitalist*
who export and import goods lose, or nil, any
control they might faave in the matter, and become
tfae creature* of tfae finance capitalist* who have
ao concern wftfa the production or use of the
wfaiefa form the reel substance of fater-
It fa safe to foreease, wires a Eome correspondent, that adhesion to the Communist Inter-
natmruti of Moscow will fae voted by s greet majority at tfae next Congren of tfae Italian Socfal-
fate. An iutagnlgial fraction wfll strongly oppose the participation of the Party fa tfae next
deetion*. It is beaded by three members of tite'.
present executive   namely, Serrati, Gennari and
International exefaange of goods fa a relation
between two or more national bodies of producers,
and u such is capable of simple management, ft
fa new carried on u e series of private adventures. Bankers and fan brokers are nice, intelligent people wfao would fae useful at some kfad of
productive work, fant'tfaeir present oeeupstion fa
merely a necessity of a bad system.
^The rate of exefaange crisis fa not an isolated
problem and can not fae settled fay itself; on the
contrary, it.fa part of a great rradjuatment o
ternati        trade wfatefa mud be considered as a
****** S. B. jfc left
Talk With the Workers'
Socialist," August 21,  1919.)
., (From  tho '
The Rate of
""QANKS are institutiou which you and
JD    very little occasion to use, and
penny savings banks attached to -tf*$i
dubs or Sabbath  schools of our
tions which our parents were ||jp||pjgti to patronize—our experience may fas said to be practically nil.   So far u pound notes are" concerned
. our acquaintance witfa them fa purely a "passing"
one, and U for cheques, ** bills of discount," "bill
on 'Change," etc., these'are entirely "foreigners"
in 1 he fullest sense of the word. Nevertheless,
though as ah ironmoulder, a miner or an engineer,
- your purpose in life is supposed to begin snd end
with work, leaving such questions as rates of exchange, bills on London, etc., to the collar-and-
tie brigade, there are oceuions when a dight acquaintance with such things would, not fae entirely
out of plsce.
Conrider for a moment the industrial aad commercial mess the war fan left behind it. Tfaere
fant a newspaper in the country outride of the
Socialist Pren but hu articles or the report* of
politicians' speeches setting forth what they would
have you believe to be the reasons for the present
inability to get, the industrial machine a-running.
Tfae one blames ft on foreign "dumping," others
blame it on our unionism, on ca'canny principles,
on our method of time-wagu payment, etc. Bat
while most of them put the blame on you and I.
you will notice they are all agreed that we hold
the key to the solution. What that key is we
shall see presently, meantime a question of interest
to yon deserves your attention.
You may have noticed in your newspaper the
other day quite a lot of talk about the "rate of
exchange" between America and this country and
how that a British sovereign wU only now worth
17a 6d. The Food Controller, Mr. Bobert*, wfao
used to belong to our ranks, fa reported to have ?
said that" when he sent a sovereign to Americs fae
only got food to the vslue of 17s 6d., tfae reason
being that the New York Exchange wu heavily
against tfafa country.
Wfaat b a'"Bffl Oa I^ondonT"
Now, conrider for s moment faow thfa ••exchange
business works out and you' may then be in a
podtion to judge whether or not the question fa
'of importance to you or I, and if so to wfaat
Strictly speaking, when the Food Controller
talked about rending a-'-sbrereign" to America,
day, many of them undergoing more complicated
movements then sueh u We have just described,
you can realize what delicate institutions banks
redly are. These -lefp accumulate by thc hundreds fa the
figure below
ata profit or
full vdue.   ThuPi'aE^fatf^^ for flJOO
might be bought for £450 if A wu anxious for
immediate cash or Credit (tfaat fa what fa
discounting,) the buyer either selling it
for-£475, or waiting till the date wu due and
making £50 profit. J*|
•Now note, because then bills cancel
i.e.. paying imports with exports and
tnoae Who dear fa suth bills are held up to yOu,
and as benefactors to JPo|^^H|;fjirmj' it is no
exaggeration to say tfaliv ift are
paradtes on our elass, differing only in degree
from those, who deal directly with your labor
power and mine. How many of them actually are
in existence would prove very interesting to know.
You can now, I hope, see through this one of
the msny bogie* bring raised before us at present
to serve our masters' interests, vis., the problem
of the rate of exchange in America being agafaat
our Brftfah capitalists.
Because in New York there ere many men
paradtes wfth faflfa on London to sell than tfaere
are others who want to buy them, reams of paper
and gallons of ink are uaedTto try and prove to
us that not- Only fa the remedy in our hands, but
that it is to our interest to remove tide difference.
Impressions of Soviet Rule.
On the Esthonian Front.
I send through Reval the bare outlines of my
attempt to  reach Moscow with two other men,
And how is tfafa to be done t Obviously if buyers
could be created for those bill* then the rate of
exchange might be equalized. To do that, or reverse the situation, more foreign buyers for British-made goods are wanted. But since the capitalists in other countries are dl more or less* in thc
• nine boat, the question finally resolve* itself into
a competition for cheapness, since only by cheapness can tfae foreigners be induced to buy.
Here then is where we come in. As things are
arranged today, production is carried on for profit. Each cspitalist or group of capitalists—and,
this applies in all countries—wants to be the only
sellers of the commodities which our class produce,
but whieh our masters Own.   To be able to do so
• e
they must be continually devising^ methods of reducing the cost of production, hence the dedre
for nmre and more machinery, the opposition to
trade unionism, the slandering of you and I and
he wu uring what teachers of grammar call a   our fdlou* generally because we refuse to dlow
figure Of speech, i.e., he did not mesn that he ae-
tuslly sent over a sovereign, because- imports are
generally paid by exporting other goods fa exchange, differences being balanced by '•bills" and
only rarely liquidated with gold.
It works out, something lfl-e this: A capitalfat
fa New York named, we will ny, A, eefle qn a certain date goods to the vdue of £500 to a merchant
in this country named B.
Having dispatched tim goods, A wrfteo out a
document sddressed to B, advising tfaat the £500
be placed to hfa account, say three months from
tfae date of dispatch.
B hu got the goods and on writing hfa name on
the back of the document sent by A (what fa
called endowing R) returns it to A, who now hu
written claim on B for 500 British sovereigM. A,
however, may sell this bill to someone else in New
York, who plseta it into his faank, Tfae Imnk mo-ait to somebody efae in New York," wfao perhaps
pods ft On to Paris, Mere ft finds its way fata the
France, the manager of wfaiefa sens ft My.
lue, to B. who pay* tfae cash.
When y*
documents of "Mil
them, to use us Eke doormats or horses.
But even if we did so, and by reason of our
stupidity and docility, exports so increased u to
turn the scales against the "foreigners,*' would
it in any way solve our problem! Not a bit of it.
As a* matter of fact we would be cutting off our
noses to spite our feces.
Cheap production for you, and I and the elan
to whieh we belong means cheap food, clothing,
etc. That means fa tite competition for jobs we
can sell Ourselves cheaper. In any can the hedge
of slavery remains ss pronounced and degrading
as the red patch on the Apn% of a German prisoner-of war.
V_ ■   . .•- . ~ - r
Our problem don not begin or end with rates
of exchange, bills on London or other difficulties
of capRslism. You' can leave tfaen gentiemen to
look after their own business. Wfaat you would
be well advised to do fa to pay attention to YOUR
own business, and that fa tim problem of wages
fad cftfau^udTtLm   whi*h ended n Velike Luke, one train stage from
Axxm   „d Moscow, where we were turned baek through what
B|t believe to be the incredible folly of our leader,
a Finn. It was a trying experience, but very ure-
ful. and I hope, the next attempt will be completely successful.
Finding difficulty at Pskoff, we returned to
Isborski, got to the lines wfth much toil, crossed,
and were sent to Ostrov, Reshitsa, and finally Ve-
Jike Luke. Going and returning we crowed over
a good half of the government of Pskoff. We1
passed through the out pod lines and brigade and
divisional headquarters, stayed in one town, and
travelled on foot, by lorry, by horn, and used!
the railway for hundreds of verst*. I talked to
commissaries, officers, soldiers, istvostchiks. peu-
ants, and women. For nine days We were prisoners of the Bolsheviks; yet we were, treated witii
the greatest consideration.
Amused at Western Opinion.
The soldiers in thfa sector were mostly Communists, end were fa hard condition, wdl fed,
equipped and armed. The officers of the outpost
company and the brigade were men of the intellectual class, with the manners of gentlemen and
the sympathetic consideration of men of the world.
TO us, who had dropped on them from the clouds,
they were kindly, even generous, and they were
intensely amused at the opinion of them held by
the Western world. No Brftfah officer could have
behaved better, and the respondbility for our failure don not tic at tfaeir door.
Disdpline seemed weak at the output, but an
attack wa made while We were there, and fa a
few minutes every man wu at fafa post without
comment. Elsewhere the discipline wu stiffer,
and the old military tribunals are re-established.
Men conscripted from thc land go unwillingly, and
are the weak spot in tim Bolshevik srmy, which
yet contains two million well-trained men.
Food fa Pskoff fa bad and very doer, but elsewhere the people sre not fa bad condition, in
spite of food prices, and beggars are no-more
numerous than in pre-war days. Tim story that
the peasants refuse to work the land fa in this
sector quite untrue. The crops are vut, in excellent order, and nearly ripe. There fa dearly
resentment among the peasants, but they work
even in the.lines with complete indifference. In
Ostrov,'the bourgeofa are hostile, but submit, and
dl work for the'Soviet.
WeU-Managed Railways.
The .railways are well managed, and,/the permanent way and stations are in good order. The
rolling stock and engines are worn but carefully
mended and used. Military traffic amounts to
95 per cent, of the whole. It fa a triumph of organization, pointing to able and constructive ad-
minfatration both of the railways and the military. The private shops fa Ostrov aw largely
dosed, but there sre two stores' of the Soviet,
formerly eo-operative stores. A. faoth coots nothing. The theatre fa open, and fa packed -with
i The whole appearance of thfa countrydde fa so
different from tiw fantastic descriptions given fa
the Wed that the shock of disillusion is great.
The general impieerdon I gained ii that the governing administration   fa a   strongly   organised
davery.  Not faow you can merely can ft, but how 'Communistic system, changing According to force
you can abolish it.   To abolish the wagn'system of circumstances.   The weak point* are the land
of capitalism fa tfae only remedyvand it fa fa your question and the   unwilling conscripts, but tim
own hand*                                                 T. B. ring of enemies only stiffens tim fatcrnal resfat-
 — ' slice and helps Bolshevism.   Petrograd wfll never
Article* are desired on the Socfalfat Philosophy fae taken by tfae North Rusdan Corps nor Moscow
or on current events interpreted fa tite light of its by Kolchak or Deniken.
principles. Wig. T. Goode.
:ti r
~-J3is Straw Socialism Exposed
ii\TL THO is there," rays Professor Leacoek,'   on economic*.   But thfa'^vine discontent" staff
W "that fan not turned at timn from tho is beyond a joke,
fever end fret of tfae world we live fa, from the it would seem that in this fifth chapter of hfa
spectacle of its wasted energy, its wild frenxy of scries, in which he at last comn to dose grips
work and ita bitter inequality, to the land of witfa wfaat fae apparently imagine* to fai Soeialfam.
drea-aa^te the pictured virion of the ***Mmfc Professor Leacock fa more than ever inclined to
night be. merge the professor of economics in the writer of
•♦This virion," oontiaun thc professor, "fa the   short storire.    No small part of thc art of the
ot that divine discontent wbiee apfa*   firtfanfat fa the writfag of enphoniou* nothings,
above fafa eavironaaint," • nwotiifa ffawfag   sentence*   and   weU-rouaded
Divine Fiddlesticks I Thfa praetite of attribut. **erioda wldek mean-~*ething. '♦The earlier Sofas; tfae nun of certain obrerved pfammmena to cfalisni,V rays thefearer, f *wu a plan to make
tfae faterpodtion of a "divine" something or other dl poor together. Modern Socialism fa a plan
fa feeble enough fa afl uiiseieaee oven fa p^fao   to make aU rich together."  This certainly sounds
very nice. It fa just tite sort of epigramic utterance which certain types of writers so delight in.
But doe* it mean anything!   H it correctly des-
"divine discontent" Bon the profenor really
know what impression fae wishes to convey t Don
he Win to convey anything at all intelligible, we
; by the whole of chapter five, except J
If, u it would^scem, ]
discrediting   that  peculiar
cribes the old
where tim sought for eaun fa not evident.
But to auefa an iastanre u quoted ebove ft fae-
eonma rank nonseime. If tin professor fa wafly
aonnswed wfth ilfaiWtlllaT tfa» eaun >
opening sentence.   Thfa "virion" of a better
of affaire to which the mofemor refers fa very
aptly ao described.  It fae viafaa, ;aatentalvfaaon,
It fa something wfaiefa, n far n we know, fan
never exfated save in its mental vidonary form.
It fa an idea, an ideal, and ae auefa fa tim -Wimi^***** » *****> m **"*&- -without a north, or a
outcome  the reflex; not of any "divine c"foeot> pftj$e*f*iemt a, bottom, or a left without a right.
tent," whstever timt may lx, fart of thon very
matter just
tint "•4cfa*Vend^i
If he had given thc
are relative terms, tfaat
there can be no poof without rich, and no rich
without poor, any more than there can be a north
So that obviously if all the members of society
■•^^•*T*r    ■   *Wm* TV •**^*a^»        mV       ^*MgwJ^*^^^MMmW
f)fjf£. -
indeed the outcome of tfae
■■ ,■'■' .■".'.""   **}■      "*" ""    , >■?  ■ 1 mmT** V,      ******   ;   w^***W_
age brought wftfa'
it. But thfa is Materialistic Interpretation with a
vengeance. What can the good professor be think-
Again, referring te the passing of Feudalism, he,
HftHftfaB rfat."at tite new maduno-power had
old system." Not the sdffah rathe rising bourgeofaie, mark yon, nor
their plot* and intrigues and incitements to rebellion agdnst the old order, bat the '-rite of
nmelnttepo-o#.*^ M short sentence the professor reveds an ability to look beneath the surface of events and a complete endorsation of the
Materialistic   Interpretation, 'which  fa  truly  re-
materid conditions which, in the professor's own
words, an a complex of "wasted energy," **wfld
frensy of work" and "bitter inequdity."   Such a
virion experienced by a few isolated individuals
might be the outcome of a disordered mind or en   impression that the
overworked stomaefa.   But a virion u widespread   all the members of
were on a leydlfaiiaddly there would be no rieh   niarkable-remarkable, that fa,;%.-.a.'anm mhn can
and no poor, and thus the good professor's statement turns out-to; be, '*0^SISBimMW^^^
Apparently MrJ||a^jt| desires to create tite
propose to reduce
y to a dead, monotonous
u the one in quertion is admitted to be a neial level.   Nothing could be farther from tim truth,
virion, a socfal ided, and forecast* just sueh a In the first place the Socialist* do not propose to
socfal movement at the professor fan ere this, fa reorganize society in any way.   They do, however,
an unguarded moment, perhaps, ventured to inter- predict tfaat the time is close* at hand when society
pofate fa the light of the Materialistic Interprets- will be compelled to reorganize itself.   And they
tion of History. hope  that,  when  that  reorganisation  hu taken
We Ore inclined to be indulgent toward Mr. place, those "bitter inequalities," which even Pro-
so easily cast it aside when it
mentSj "Tfae
nw around
''divine discontent" J/
There are occarionel passage* fa thoaa/artidn
by Mr. Leeooek wfaiefa suggest that he could write
mme really good stuff if he were not a professor
with a certain social standing to Ion by writing
the truth u opposed to the prospect of financial
gain for writing nonsense.
In  other passages fae    contents   himself wftfa
Leacock.   He fa better known to no n faumo-"*et   feasor Leacock* can not faring kimadf 4o deny, wffl   merely suggesting, implying by a nrt of taken-
tfaan u a sodolOgfat, and we feel free to confras   be conspicuous by their
to a fondnen for fafa quaint humor, traces of   fident, moreover. tfaefaf
wfaiefa we seem to discern fa
of lus remarks
for-granted attitude, tint certain things ere other
than Socialists conceive them to be. For instance:
'-the Christian churches were to them (the
Socialists) merely ' the parasitic nrvanta
tyrannou power of a plutocratic state." If Mr.
Leacock were more sure of himself or of tfae confiding shnplldty of hfa readers, he might tell no
how, fa view of the attitude of the Christian
A Man Meeting willbe Iteld* the Avenue   R dfapond to "tinder rather than to help in tfam.   *****$** ******** **• ****** ***> ha "*m& tto *****
fa sufficiently informed u to the caures of thon "inequalities"
that tfae reorganfaation will indeed have the effect they hope for. Conaequently, tiie Socialists
stand for tfae fulled and widret disnmination of
knowledge conrerning social laws and pe*noarena
Professor Lescock, judging by hfa efforts to date,
rheatre,  Main Stmt,  Vancouver,  on  Tuesday,   For reasons bed known to himself he don not
Oct. 7, at 8 pam.  Jofans, Bray and Pritehard will   think tite public are to be trusted wftfa tfae truth.
"pararitic ser-
be tfae speakers.
Send afl money end make dl ekequu payable to
J. Welfa, k 0. Feaei^^ Van*
eouver, B. a
Collection ageniy for Alberta: A Broatch, 1208
Eighth avenue east, Calgary, Alta.
Central Collection Agency: J. Lew. Secretary,
Defenn Fond, Boom 1, 530 Main St, Winnipeg.
Lawyers for the defenn fa Vanwuver, Bird, Mac
ft Baric.
After telling us that tfae "vision" which fae eon-
ceivn to be Soefalfam fa tim outcome of "divine
dmeontent," tfae professor, in the very next paragraph proceeds to completely rtultify "oinmelf.
"Modern Soefalfam fa the direct outcome of the
sge of machine production. It takre its first inspiration from tfae glaring contrast* between
riches end poverty presented by the modern era,
from the strange paradox described above between
human power and ho failure te utfafy human
Indeed!   ffafa fa e very different thing from
rebutting the charge that they are
of the tyrannous power of
" H he could find no fault in the attitude
of tfae Christian ehurehre in Allied countries wfaat
don he tfafak of the attitude of thon seal*.
churches in enemy countries? vr. Leacock makes
no attempt to clear up thfa point. And fae fa
win. For be is without a doubt quite well aware
that the altitude of the C*orfatian churcfan not
only during the recent war but throughout tfae
whde of tfaeir history u state religions, pleads
guflty, unfafasfaingly, to the charge. Might we
suggest that it would faave been if not wiser at
/ f*.aW g tl mm m  "fa A~tmm\        WW —  — - *"****"*?  "nu     \
tuonunuca on rage rvra.)


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