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The Standard Sep 13, 1916

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vStl��fi*i)1i Shortly af*jer the National Pol'cycfcie into effect SiQljohn A. Macdonald was appointed president of the Manufacturers' Life Assurance C6*rh-
.... pany, Toronto.    Ik accepted theg^^^on the tf|^^^nding that.tficconifany would bfr placed on a sound bask,   if A young man rfamed J. F.
....E.l.lis wasa^iiointed managing director.  "Ellis was a strong Liberal,   f ffl tin* days went on and lousiness continued with the company to be poor, "Mr.
���Ellis was adjised to go to Ottawa sjig&ask Sir Joliijrfojr*personal letter from the then Prkue Minister which coul4.;be used to induce Macdonald's
personal- ftiejids to buy*-stock ifglfif flumpany as wel||*;]\]^riufacturersk'^i(jhcies.   ft Here an** Mn Ellis' own words jn repeating what happened dur-
The Words of Sir John A.
Macdonald rebuke the men
of B. C. who would debase
the name of the Conservative Party.
'Trig his Interview with Sir Johif.
ihn���"Do PuiWlrstand that OMler&im has made thc company good and that.it's debts have been paid up?"
ft Mr. Ellis���'"No, Sir John, b'ut we are getting along fairly and this letter would help us all out of a hole." f Sir John���-"You ask me then to use my
position as Premier to advance my interests as a stockholder of this company? My boy, go back to Toronto and tell them that they have my resignation as president. I have been charged in my life with many crimes, but I shall never be guilty of using my public office to enrich my private
purse."   So the interview closed.
II Sir John A. Macdonald was the greatest Conservative Canada ever knew. But Sir John would not use his public office to enrich his private purse,
and so died a poor man. fl Compare the record of Sir John vvith that of thc men in Hritish Columbia who style themselves leaders of the party,
fl Dr. Young, when he dealt in Pacific Coal Stock and took rich bounties in return for his work as a public officer brought shame on the records of
the party. Xow we have the spectacle of lhe Premier of a grcat Province who calls himself a Conservative admitting that he was an accomplice in
the Wrecking of the Dominion Trust Company; thai he acted as a Solicitor for that Company and as Attorney-General for the Province, and piloted fake acts through the House in the interests of the Company; that he acts as Solicitor for the Pacific and Great Eastern Railway and also as
Solicitor for the Government in granting the Pacific and Great Eastern rich subsidies from the people's treasury.
The proper function of
Government is to make it
easy for people to do good
and difficult for them to
do evil.���Gladstone.
Vol. V, No. 20���Established 1911
Price Five Cents
FOR more than twenty years Mr. John W. Weart,
the candidate in the South Vancouver���Burnaby
division, has been a resident of the riding. He
cleared up a "homestead at Burnaby in the early days,
and there raised his family, one of whom, his youngest
son, is now with the boys in the trenches. Mr. Weart
is a man of constructive personality, a self-made man
in the best sense, is a successful business man, a man of
integrity and wide experience, whose election will mean
honest representation of the people of this important
riding. His policies are widely known. He is a radical
and an independent.  He is a forceful orator and writer.
one of Vancouver's pioneer families. He was
born in Winnipeg and was brought to the coast
at two years of age. He has served as a driver of a milk
cart, farm boy, laborer in a foundry and is today, though
not yet twenty-nine years of age, one of the most successful young barristers in Vancouver. He is a self-
educated young man, with a tremendous capacity for
work. Since the death of his father he has lived at home
with his widowed mother. Two brothers are at the
front. Mr. McGeer has taken a manly stand on the liquor question, is progressive in his Liberalism, and his
election will mean that a debater will be given Mr.
Brewster from the Richmond Riding, as well as a man
well qualified to act in the interests of the people of that
Liberal Leader in British Columbia
Liberal Candidate in South Vancouver���Burnaby
In the year 1837, long before the days of the ballot,
the men of Upper Canada
raised a standard of protest
against tyranny, machine
rule, government by highhanded administrators.
* * *
We have a Family Compact in British Columbia today as dangerous as that of
1837. The canker of political patronage is eating at the
heart of the Province. But
we have won the right to responsible government along
with which we have the sacred institution of the ballot.
A vote for Mr. H. C. Brewster's men is a vote for simple honesty in the public life
of the community, a vote a-
gainst Family Compact methods.   Let the people rule.
GERALD GRATTAN McGEER, Liberal Candidate
in Richmond
_T��_ .
	 WEDNESDAY, SEPT. 13, 1916
The Skull and Cross Bones
Of Railway Construction
UMAS made the Three Musketeers famous. British
Columbia, not to be outdone by a romanticist, has
made them rich. Dumas christened his heroes
D'Artagnan, Aramis and Porthos. British Columbia did
not christen hers���she dowered them. Long ago their
parents christened them Timothy Foley, Patrick Welsh
and Jack Stcwait. Ireland and Scotland, optimism and
canniness, a Celtic combination which never shrinks under
any circumstances, even when it undergoes a public washing. Dumas' Three Musketeers were road contractors to
the great Cardinal Richelieu���that is to say they did most
of their business on thc roads of France. British Columbia's Three Musketeers arc contractors to anyone who
will make a contract with them. They do business on the
railroads of British Columbia, D'Artagnan, Aramis and
Porthos used their swords, Foley, Welch and Stewart
their wits, which command a higher price in these material
days than swords were able to obtain in thc days of Richelieu. The grcat difference between Dumas' Three Musketeers and British Columbia's famous trio is that Cardinal Richelieu guaranteed them bonds if they did not
succeed in carrying out their contracts with him. British
Columbia guarantees bonds for Messrs. Foley, Welch and
Stewart as long as they succeed. If they fail British Columbia receives the bonds as a kind of decoration for folly.
However that is a mere detail���so let us to our tale.
The construction of railways in British Columbia is an
art, and as such not properly appreciated by that section
of the public which, not being in politics, believes it to
be a business. Real art is not realism, but illusion. The
true artist does not attempt to reproduce Nature, but to
interpret it according to his genius. In the same way the
true railway contractor does not attempt to build a railway
but to promote it according to his genius. Having promoted it he graciously allows the public to construct it
under his guidance. A very excellent illustration of the
real art of railway building is provided by the Pacific
Great Eastern railway, which is popularly supposed to
run from Vancouver to Fort George. It does not run, it
halts until the public comes to its aid with stimulants in
the shape of money. The process by which this illusion
of running is created is common to all latter day railway
construction in Canada. The artistic contractors project
a railway. They select a picturesque route and an enthusiastic government. Between the two the country is opened up. Incidentally so is the public treasury. It is a very
interesting process, well worth analysing.
Behold then the three musketeers, an enthusiastic government, a full treasury, and a tract of land some four
hundred and fifty miles in length. At one end of this tract
is the progressive city of Vancouver, at the other the
future city of Fort George. The missing link is the railway which will unite in indissoluble interest bearing bonds
these various and varied interests. It is necessary to state
that the three musketeers were not the only heroes ready
to open up the country for public service. For a considerable period prior to their appearance on the scene it had
been recognised that the head of Howe Sound being tidewater, provided exceptional facilities for transportation.
Moreover, there were large tracts of timber, thousands of
acres of arable land such as Pemberton Meadows���beloved
of the settler, but like most beloved things, hard to obtain
���and innumerable mining prospects, all of which might
well need transportation to markets. All that was needed
was to bring this natural wealth to tide-water and for that
a railway was a necessity. Certain far sighted business
men of Vancouver had for a considerable time been interested in this problem and having acquired timber licenses
and land in the ordinary way, had built from tide-water ten
miles of railroad, at their own expense. Premier McBride
on February 13, 1913���those who arc superstitious will note
the conjunction of the fatal number 13���stated that several
"large organizations had interested themselves in linking
up Vancouver and Fort George by a line of railway���the
contract with Messrs. F'oley, Welch and Stewart had been
made in the general public interest." Obviously so; the
interest of the public is quite genuine, it has just amounted
to over $300,000 this year.
But presumably these large organizations were not considered sufficiently artisitic to construct a railway on
approved principles. To do this the government sought
the aid of men who had proven themselves great artists,
and thus naturally there appeared upon the scene the
three musketeers whose names were a household v/etrd in
the annals of this peculiar art. Of the various, adventures
of these three there is not space to tell. The Grand Trunk
Pacific, the Canadian Northern Pacific knew them well.
To those railways, the three musketeers were contractors.
That is they actually constructed portions of the lines
under the aegis of others. This time they determined
that others should construct the Pacific Great Eastern
under their aegis. After all why should they work for
others. If their experience had taught them anything, it
was to be first on the ground���not railway ground bflt
government ground. Art was concerned only with the
letting of contracts and the promotion of railways. It
had nothing to do with labor. If the government of British Columbia was willing���and its willingness had been
tested by no lesser personages than those other great
knights of the road, Mackenzie and Mann���why not take
advantage of the situation? It looked like what is commonly known as a "lead pipe cinch"���and it was. The
British Columbia government made its contract with
Messrs. Foley, Welch and Stewart and at the same time
recognized an agreement entered into by the three musketeers with the Grand Trunk Pacific Branch Lines Co.,
which gives that company an option of sixty days over the
Pacific Grcat Eastern Railway in case any one offers to
purchase same, and provides for the routing of all freight
and passengers over thc G. T. P. and vice versa. The
deduction is simple. The Three Musketeers wanted the
contract for construction. The final result could bc sold
to the Grand Trunk Pacific at a nice profit, as the latter
would naturally desire entrance to Vancouver. Thus the
people of British Columbia were to pay for a railway built
by thc Three Musketeers who would sell it to a purchaser
who was already in evidence.
The exact procedure followed by these three musketeers
is a matter of small moment. The procedure is much the
same in all cases. It consists of forming a company to
build and operate a railway. Thus is born the Pacific
Great Eastern Railway Co., the directors of which are
Messrs. J. W. Stewart, D'Arcy Tate, Timothy Foley, E. F.
White, and Frederick Wilson. Of the three musketeers
ft will be noticed that only two are directors of thc railway
company which presumably must operate the road. Tbe
shareholder r** of the company are Timothy Foley, Patrick
Welch, John W. Stewart, D'Arcy Tate, E. F. White, Frederick Wilson and the firm of Foley, Welch and Stewart.
Talk about a Highland foray���from over the border! It
was nothing to the descent of the Celto-American combine on the innocent government of British Columbia
It is -obvious that the Pacific Great Eastern Railway Company is merely Messrs. Foley, Welch and
Stewart individually and indivisibly. The government
of British Columbia presumably deals with the Pacific
Great Eastern Railway Co., which would let the actual
contract for construction of the railway. Under ordinary
circumstances the company would call for tenders. But
the circumstances are not ordinary. The company and
its shareholders in solemn form seem to have let the contract to one of its shareholders, Mr. Patrick Welch, who
strange to relate was an individual in this case, and apparently refused to be associated with his firm or fellow
shareholders in the matters. He had other things to do.
He was the bookmaker or commission agent who took the
bets of the sub-contractors on the course of the railway.
Apparently no less than thirty-six firms were employed
as sub-contractors of the Pacific Great Eastern railway.
To these thirty-six firms are attached fifty names. Of
these fifty names, twenty-six are the same. The name of
Wilson appears in two different firms of sub-contractors.
There is a Frederick Wilson named as a director of the
railway company. The name of Welch appears in four
different firms, once under the initials, J. A. Welch. Stewart appears in one firm. Foley in none. There is no reason
why sub-contractors should not take different contracts for
different parts of the line with different partners. Thc real
matter of interest is thc method of letting these contracts
Were they let by tender or were they awarded to certain
firms' If they were awarded who had thc choice of certain portions of thc line? It might be far easier to construct one five or ten mile section than another. According to thc information given by thc government, the contract was not let at a price per mile but at unit prices for
thc various kinds of work performed and material moved.
By this information it would appear that the original contract for construction was let on this basis. Rock work
is more profitable on the unit system than straight grading. Favored contractors can choose thc most profitable
kind of work. These matters, however, have really very
little to do with the art of railway building. They arc the
sordid details of business which arc more or less wearisome and unromantic. Yet to really appreciate art it is
necessary to know something of technique. There is more
technique in letting sub-contracts than appears on the
surface, as may become apparent a little later.
The amateur who has no training and no technical knowledge of the art of railway construction, or the art of
politics, would be inclined to proceed on very simple lines.
He would put himself in the place of a government which,
stirred to action by the clamor of the populace, determined
to construct a railroad from Vancouver to Fort George.
Knowing nothing whatever about the construction of railways, he would engage the services of an engineer of repute whom he would ask to lay out the route and estimate
the cost. The Turkish government was able to engage
such an expert for building its new waterways in Mesopotamia.    There is a distinguished Canadian engineer, Sir
Fifteen-Thousand-a-Year Sir
Richard McBride. A King's Ransom for this retired politician;
but for the Returned Soldier a
piece of land in No-Man's Land.
Sir Charles
Hibbert Tupper
"Where the offence lies, let the great axe
'f* *f. Jf* Vf.
"I am a supporter of Borden. He is not
only a Conservative but an honest man.
"Who are these whippersnappers?"
*   *   *   *
"Bowser wore the Grit collar in '96 for
$50.00. Yet he talks of party! He calls himself a Conservative! His is not a party���it's
a rotten caucus."
"If Sir Robert Borden, to whom I owe
fealty and party allegiance today were in the
powerful position of Bowser, I would be
just where I am now���Voting for Opposition!"
*   *   *   *
*   *   *   #
"What a farce���all nodding as the leader
nods. Doing everything in caucus. What
better than Kaiser rule?"
"If the situation were different���if Borden had all parliament at his back���I would
vote the Opposition in the interests of my
aUj* #ta��J>arfl
Puilished every Saturday at 426 Homer Street, Vancouver.
relevkeae Seymetir 470
Beglstered  at  the  Post
leoead Class Mall Matter.
Office DepaKsseat, Ottawa, a*
T* all peinte In Canada, Unite* KiSfdea*,
���Tew Zealaad and other Brltlek Possessieaa:
PutiK te American. European an6 other foreign eeuntrlee
H.M per rear extra.
The Standard will  be delivered to any address la Van-
eeaver er vicinity at ten centa a month.
Meeaher of the Canadian l'reae Asseclatlen.
The Standard, with which le Incorporated the Saturday
Chlaook, circulates in Vancouver and the cities, towns, villages and settlements throughout British Columbia. In
eelltlce the paper is Independent Liberal.
Publishers The Standard Printers
Breezes of Indignation
And Information
A BLOW AT the Government is a blow at patronage.
* * *
KILL PATRONAGE AND you break machine politics.
* * *
KILL PATRONAGE AND save British Columbia.
* * *
PATRONAGE IS T*HE curse of Canada.
* * *
THERE IS TODAY before the people of British Columbia one issue and one alone; the fight against the blind
monster of party patronage.
�� * *
men out of the Province, has placed their dependents in
bread lines, has brought its programme of tax sales, has
set British law at defiance, and has trailed British traditions in the slime of the gutter.
* * *
IN CASTING YOUR VOTE remember that it is not
Bowser, nor yet Ellison, nor yet Taylor, Miller or Ross-
whose political existence we wish to destroy; rather it is
the patronage system in the hands of which these men.
are the helpless vassals.
MR.  H.  C.  BREWSTER,  leader  of the Liberal  party,
makes this pledge to thc people of British Columbia:
Percy Girouard, who, no doubt, would be quite capable of
building any railway for a government. The amateur,
then, let it be supposed, having obtained the services of
Sir Percy, would await his report and on reviewing it,
publish it so as to advertise the grcat work he was about
to undertake. Sir Percy in his report would state that
the railway would probably cost $35,000 a mile to construct. He would also carefully estimate the probable
development of the country through which the proposed
railway would run, which would enable the amateur to
estimate the probable revenue. Sir Percy would also
state that he would advise construction to commence at
two or three different places and that it would cost about
$5,250,000 to complete 150 miles of railway in the next
twelve months.
Being in the place of the government and, therefore,
able to raise money on the various resources of the province, the amateur would then consider ways and means.
He would ask a reputable broker to ascertain whether it
would be possible to float a bond issue in London or New
York, and what the cost of such a flotation would be.
The broker would reply that the credit of thc provincial
government being excellent and its natural resources vast,
he considered it possible to place a bond issue of from five
to ten million dollars at two per cent, discount and four
per cent, interest. The amateur would take a sheet of
paper and estimate that he could complete his first year's
work if he borrowed six million dollars and that he would
probably be able to obtain even better terms later on if
thc province continued to develop as expected, and the
investors were convinced that the railway was being constructed on a business like basis. Having obtained $5,880,-
000 by this means the amateur would turn to Sir Percy and
ask him to go ahead and construct the railway. The latter by this time having been engaged as engineer by the
amateur, would have purchased the necessary plant ���
which is not very expensive or complex���and carefully
considered the question of labor. In thc latter case he
would have the help of the amateur, who being the government, would know all about labor conditions.
In due course Sir Percy would pitch his various camps,
and the amateur being desirous of constructing the railway as cheaply as possible, would appoint a sanitary engineer and medical officer for the whole construction,
who would in tu>*n have their own staff. In each camp
there would be a general store where the amateur would
sell such things as the men desired at a price which would
cover the cost of running the store. The amateur realising that the men on the work were human beings, would
also construct a large building in each camp where they
would be able to read, or write, play cards, and generally
enjoy themselves when their day's work was done. This
would be in addition to the ordinary sleeping and eating
quarters. Probably being an amateur and therefore a fool,
he would also endeavor to stimulate the interest of the
men in the work by various competitions and extra rewards.    He would shock the moral susceptibilities of a
(Cenlinued on page 8)
In the fight to re-establish in British Columbia representative government, probably the most effective literature which has been published is
contained in THE TURNING
POINT, a booklet issued at great
cost by the publishers of THE
STANDARD. This booklet is from
thc pen of thc writer "Critical," and
carries an introduction by Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper. While the press
of British Columbia, with the possible exception of the VICTORIA
TIMES, has refrained from commenting upon THE STANDARD'S
contribution to the fight, the outside
newspapers have been free in complimentary references to the publishers and authors.
The Vancouver SUN published this
week the following reference to THE
TURNING POINT from that grand
pld Liberal paper, the Toronto
Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper, a born
and bred Conservative, declares to the
world thai in the present election in
British Columbia he is supporting
the Liberals against the Bowser government, whose Tory premier accepts
and acts on the political maxim that
"it is necessary to grease the palm
of an Indian."
The quality and directness of Sir
Hibbert Tupper's own political lineage
all Canada knows. The genuineness
of his loyalty to the Conservative
party, of which, through a lifetime,
his father was one of the most distinguished leaders, is quite above suspicion.    His own personal integrity,
alike in his professional career and
in politics either as a member of the
government at Ottawa or in private
life in Nova Scotia or in British Columbia, has never been questioned
even by his opponents.
It is as a Conservative Sir Hibbert views the political situation in
British Columbia. He writes the "Introduction" to an elaborate story of
the delinquencies and dishonesties of
the Bowser government, entitled "Thc
Turning Point," with one sign pointing "Bowser," the other "Brewster."
He denounces the government as the
embodiment of Prussian "kultur" that
plays "to win by fair means or foul."
He says:
"I am a Conservative and always
have been. I do not believe, however, in supporting a government simply because it calls itself Conservative, especially when that government is in the hands of a man whose
sole conception of politics is 'kultur.' Mr. Bowser himself states that
it is necessary to 'grease the palm of
an Indian' at times. I deny there is
any such necessity. For the premier
of a government to excuse bribery
on the ground of necessity is exactly the same as for a nation to
excuse the violation of Belgium on
the ground of necessity."
There you have the essence of true
loyalty to one's political party that
is not at the same time disloyalty to
the first principles of one's country. For a thorough party man like
Sir "Hibbert to make that declaration
and to live up to its letter and its
spirit through the stress of a fierce
election campaign is highly creditable to himself, honoring to the par
ty in which he was reared, and, most
of all, hopeful for the politics and
public life of the province that is honored by his citizenship.
It is quite true that the wholesale
plundering of thc province of British
Columbia, carried on year after year
under Sir Richard McBride's government, was more than enough to rouse
the indignation of any honest citizen.
And when the chicanery of McBride
was rewarded first with a knighthood
and then with an office of very extravagant emolument in London at the
expense of the province, and the game
of corruption and exploitation was
taken over by Hon. W. J. Bowser,
and things went from bad to worse
���when loyalty to the government became disloyalty to the party and the
province, even an honorable Tupper
was warranted in revolting from a
Tory whose ideal in politics is "to
grease the palm of an Indian."
The "Indian" with the "itching-
palm" is everywhere, in all the provinces, in white skin far oftener than>
in red. And everywhere, too, is the-
Bowser politician whose political morality meets the "necessity" of
"greasing the palm." That is the
curse of political life, the bane and'
the baseness of the party system.
One would wish, as The Globe devoutly wishes, that in all parts of
Canada political leaders of both high,
and low degree, Liberals as well as
Conservatives, showed as sincere respect for their party's good name as
Sir Hibbert Tupper exhibits in breaking with his party when his party's
leader lowers both himself and his-
government to the level of the palm-
greased "Indian."���Toronto Globe.
I    - ...... - -- ������-���-: ���
t   l* S t ���
WEDNESDAY, SEPT.  13.  1916
Northern Securities Limited
Established 1906
Seymour 1S74
We have numerous inquiries for six and eight-roomed houses in
good districts.   List your house for rent with our rental department.
the:  muTisir Columbia coast has  been described
"North by West in the Sunlight"
Eight Vessels "8" in Regular Service
Apply to our Publicity Department for brochures "Outward Bound"
and "North by West In the Sunlight," and particulars on Special Fares,
Hotel Accommodation and Tariffs, etc.
llcnil  Offices mid Whnrfl  UNION  DOCK, FOOT OF CARRALL STREET
Take Car to Columbia Avenue Plione Seymour 300
raraara*ragfff!<imj4����J^ MUlllfWn
Compare the Price of Long
Distance Telephoning with other
Means of Communication
One hundred and eighty words can be said in
one minute speaking slowly and distinctly.
Now, take the Long Distance Telephone rate
to any point and compare with the price per word
.with other methods of communication, using
either the day or night rate of each.
Remember, Long Distance telephoning is not
a mere word message, it is a conversation���a conversation in which emphasis and personality can
be used and a definite and complete understanding reached.   There is no waiting for an answer.
The mail is quick; the telegraph quicker, but
the telephone is instantaneous.
There is but one grade of Long Distance Telephone Service���it is not deferred.
Reported from the Fraser Valley
Pack up your rod and reel and take the B. C.
Electric to the Nicomekl, Serpentine or Vedder for a
fine week-end or even a day of sport.
One sportsman brought back a catch of 20 trout from the Serpentine last week; another brought 10; other good reports have been
received from the Vedder.
For points this side of Jardine, take train from Carrall Street at
6.30 a.m. (5 a.m. on Friday; 6.50 on Sunday).
For the Vedder take trains at 8.30 a.m., 12.50 p.m. and 5.30.
Write for our fishing folder. It tells where to go, how to get
there and the bait to use.
Carrall and Hastings
Plione Seymour 5000
Elimination of all useless dead-wood from the Statutes.
Strict enforcement of the Statutory law as enacted by the Legislature.
A comprehensive land settlement policy, colonization and   co-operation   between   the
Government and the settlers.
Revision of the Revenue Act.
Reconstruction of (he Civil Service���non-partizan, merit to count.
Vigorous policy in the development of natural resources.
Establishment of Government  Customs  Smelters, treating ore at cost.
Encouragement to the iron and steel industry; bring into use the vast deposits of Coast
Government owned coal and coke plants to supply cheap fuel and cheap coke for smelting.
Ownership of public utilities.
Eight hour day; Minimum Wage; Abolition of child labor.
Superannuation at a fixed age.
Prohibiting the employment of any person underground who cannot rend or speak the
English language.
Amendments to the Divorce Act; Marriage Act; Dower Act; Guardianship Act; and
Yours truly,
Liberal Candidate for South Vancouver���Burnaby.
Issue of $100,000,000 5% Bonds Maturing 1st October, 1931.        I
The Minister of Finance offers herewith, on behalf of
the Government, the above named Bonds for subscription
at 97i, payable as follows:���
10 per cent on application;
30     " "   16th October, 1916;
30     " "   15th November, 1916;
274    " "   15th December, 1916.
The total allotment of bonds of this issue will be limited
to one hundred million dollars exclusive of the amount
(if any) paid for by the surrender of bonds as the equivalent of cash under the terms of the War Loan prospectus
of 22nd November, 1915.
The instalments may be paid in full on the 10th day
of October, 1916, or on any instalment due date thereafter,
under discount at thc rate of four per cent per annum.
All payments are to be made to a chartered bank for thc
credit of the Minister of Finance. Failure to pay any
instalment when due will render previous payments liable
to forfeiture and the allotment to cancellation.
Subscriptions, accompanied by a deposit of ten per cent
erf the amount subscribed, must be forwarded through
tlie medium of a chartered bank. Any branch in Canada
of any chartered bank will receive subscriptions and issue
provisional receipts.
This loan is authorized under Act of the Parliament of
Canada, and both principal and interest will be a charge
upon thc Consolidated Revenue Fund.
Forms of application may be obtained from any branch
in Canada of any chartered bank and at the office of any
Assistant Receiver General in Canada.
Subscriptions must be for even hundreds of dollars.
In case of partial allotment"* the surplus deposit will be
applied towards payment of the amount due on the October
Scrip certificates, non-negotiable or payable to bearer in
accordance with the choice of tho applicant for registered
or bearer bonds, will be issued, after allotment, in exchange
for the provisional receipts.
When the scrip certificates have been paid in full and
payment endorsed thereon by the bank receiving the
money, they may bc exchanged for bonds, when prepared,
with "coupons attached, payable to beater or registered as
taxes���including  any
of legislation enacted
to principal, or for fully registered bonds, when prepared,
without coupons, in accordance with the application.
Delivery of scrip certificates and of bonds will bo made
through the chartered banks.
The issue will be exempt from
income tax���imposed in pursuance
by the Parliament "f Canada.
The bonds with .'nupons will be issued in denominations
of $100. $600, 11,000. Fully registered bonds without
coupons will !>'��� issued in denominations of $1,000. $5,0011
or any authorized multiple of $5,000.
The bonds will be paid at maturity at par at tbe office
of the Minister of Finance and Receiver General at Ottawa,
or al the office of the Assistant Receiver General at Halifax
St. John, Charlottetown, Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg,
Refiua, Calgary, or Victoria.
The interest, on the fully registered bonds will be paid
by cheque, which will be remitted by post. Intereet on
boads with coupons will be paid on surrender of coupons.
Both cheques and coupons will be payable free of exchange
at aay branch in Canada of aay chartered bank.
Subject to the jiayment of twenty-five cents for each
new bond issued, holders of fully registered bonds without
coupons will have the right to convert into bonds of the
denomination of $1,000 with coupons, and holders of bonds
with coupons will have the right to convert into fully
registered bonds of authorized denominations without
coupons at any time on application to the Minister of
The books of thc loan will be kept at the Department
of Finance, Ottawa.
Application will be made in due course for the listing of
the issue on the Montreal and Toronto Stock Exchanges.
Recognized bond and stock brokers will be allowed a
commission of one-quarter of one per cent on allotments
made in respect of applications bearing their stamp,
provided, however, that no commission will be allowed
in respect of the amount of any allotment paid for by the
surrender of bonds issued under thc War Loan prospectus
of 22nd November, 1915. No commission will be allowed
in respect of applications on forms which have not bcejn
printed by the King's Printer. V
H Subscription Lists vvill close on or before 23rd September, 1916. ;=
ss    Department of Finance, Ottawa, September 12th, 1916. *��y
iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiin mm*
THE Premier of British Columbia, the Honorable Wm.
J. Bowser, need not rely too much on the comforting assurance of his supporters, that the defeat of
his two cabinet ministers in the byc-electiona in Vancouver and Victoria was solely due tu the desire on the part of
the electors tu see an opposition in the local legislature.
That there is such a desire everyone will admit, but it does
not attain the majorities under the weight oi which Messrs.
Tisdall and Flumerfelt sank from office. The sentiment
of the electors has been plain for months; only those who
were blinded by the past and their own personal bias could
have failed to appreciate it. If Mr. Bowser had been up
for election instead ol either of his ministers, he wo.ild
have been defeated by still greater majorities. The plain
fact is that the people of British Columbia neither see
Mr. Ilowser as he sees himself nor do they take hill) nt his
own valuation.
Mr. Bowser sees himself as a dominating personality,
a virile statesman of transcendant power.-, a dictator, an
aibiter, whose lightest word is taken seriously, and whose
mental powers are so far above those ui other politicians
in British Columbia that he alone can judge what is or is
not good for the people, Like many vain men of small
stature, he thinks he resembles Napoleon. _ Mr. Bowser
poses as a man of indomitable strength, a lighter, an incisive and decisive speaker, careless of criticism, self-
sufficient, concentrative.
To thc public he is nothing but a hard-working lawyer
who has succeeded through politics in building up a private
practice of somewhat large dimensions. Shell him from
his surroundings and he remains exactly what he always
has been, a commonplace, undistinguished, arrogant, ambitious man, not over scrupulous, and willing to slave his
head off if it will give him power and money, both of which
are synonymous to him. He is clever, or rather shrewd,
but he has no imagination, and no sense of humor. He is
calculating and cunning, and has succeeded as a politician
but utterly failed as a statesman. His one public virtue
is that he means what he says though he very seldom says
what he means. This gives him a reputation for directness, fearlessness, and decision, when, truth to tell, it is
but the impatience of an autocratic nature with a democratic constitution. His reputation for fearlessness rests
entirely on the political foundation of his fortunes. With
all the cards in his hands, he struts like a gamecock. With
opportunity but no cards, he coos like a sucking dove.
Witness thc abnegation of this politically reflected autocrat the week following Mr. Tisdall's defeat, the knees
of his fortitude gave way and he grovelled in a manner
which disgusted his most ardent supporters. He ordered
his non-political minister of finance, much advertised as a
pre-eminent business man, to announce a shipbuilding
programme of which the only definite feature was the
fact that $2,000,000 was to be set aside in order to suckle
an infant industry. He positively crawled to the prohibition delegates, ascribing his defeat in Vancouver largely
to their machinations. But all in vain. Prohibition was
proved to have had nothing whatever to do with the government's defeat in Vancouver, because despite the triumphant departure of the delegation from its interview
with the premier, Mr. Brewster defeated Mr. Flumerfelt
even more signally than Mr. Macdonald defeated Mr. Tisdall. But it did prove that the electorate was not to be
whipped off the scent by any of the usual political potions
with which it used to be regaled by parties desirous of
stimulating its latest emotions at the eleventh hour, The
real issue between the electorate aud Mr. Bowser is not
political but personal, and unless the premier and his supporters recognise this, they will go down to defeat at the
coming general elections. Both Messrs, Tisdall and Flumerfelt were strung candidates, but their strength lay in
their personalities, not in their policies; their weakness,
which proved their damnation, lay in their association with
Mr. Bowser.
The supporters of Mr. Bowser make this fundamental
error. They imagine lhat times have not changed and
lhat there has been no spiritual awakening of the people.
They still pursue the habits of an ostrich and cover their
heads in lhe sand of quibbles. They excuse Mr. Bowser's
connection with the firm uf Bowser, Reid and Wallbridge
on the ground that every attorney-general in Canada
when in office keeps his law practice alive They say lhat
at worst it is human nature to throw business tu a firm
in which an official supposedly representing thc people,
is personally financially interested in the fortunes of that
firm. They cry with truth that Mr. Bowser is extremely
hard working, and has borne the labor of administration
in the past. They ask with a good deal of reason why a
tried man like Mr. Bowser should be discarded in favor of
a novice. They appeal for support un the foundation of
the past. They call attention tu Mr. Bowser's quickness,
his abilities and his directness.
But they ignore the fact that a man cannot scr.c t >
masters. The cardinal sin of Mr. Bowser in thc Dominion j
Trust disaster is not his connection with, the paradoxically
illegal legislation by which the managing director, thc late
Mr. W. R. Arnold, looted thc company, but his connection
with the firm of Bowser, Reid and Wallbridge, the solicitors for the defunct company. The electorate desire to
know without quibbling the exact sum paid by the Dominion Trust Co. to Messrs. Bowser, Reid and Wallbridge
for legal advice in the last six years, and what part uf
that sum was pocketed by Mr. Bowser as a partner in
the firm. They do not really care whether Mr. Bowser
was hoodwinked by the late Mr. Arnold. What they do
care about, however, is the speech made by Mr. Bowser
in his own defence the session before last, which raised a
new standard of political morality by ignoring the real issues, and dwelling with considerable unrtuousness on his
great sorrow for the robbed depositors, while he jingled his
portion of the fees paid to his firm as representatives of
the Dominion Trust Co. in his pockets. Has Mr. Bowser
ever attempted to return those fees or at least his portion
of them?
Mr. Bowser in his speech in Vancouver the Thursday
evening before Mr. Tisdall went down to defeat, mentioned the case of the Kitsilano Reserve. He stated that the
public was misled by the similarity of the name of Mr.
Hamilton Read to that of Mr. Reid, his law partner. The
latter, he said, had no connection whatever with the Kitsilano deal. It was consummated by Mr. Hamilton Read,
a former clerk in his office, who had severed his connection with the firm before the deal was completed. Now
Mr. Bowser knew perfectly well that nobody was misled
by this similarity of names. The public wanted to know
when the deal was begun, when Mr. Hamilton Read first
became cognizant of it, and how many days or hours before it was completed he severed his connection with the
firm of Bowser, Reid and Wallbridge. Moreover, it wa;
frankly curious about the division of the so-called' commission.   The public may be pardoned its curiosity seeing
that the Supreme-Court of Canada was also curious about
it. '' It knew that Mr. Hamilton Read received $40,000 from
Mr.-Alexander as a "bonus" out of the $86,000 "handed by
the government to Mr. Alexander, a government.official.
It also knew that Chief Cole, thc Indian principally responsible for the deal, claimed $20,000 commission from
Mr. Read, which he did not receive. But what lhe public
did not know and what it desired to know, was what became of the $-��).(XK) pocketed by Mr. Bowser's clerk, Ham'-
iltun Read, as his share of a deal which apparently was
initiated by Mr. Bowser himself. Du the clerks in Mr.
Bowser's law office usually receive such splendid honorariums for cases which Mr. Bowser puts their way? If so,
what surt of fees do the firm itself rcccjvfc for such business as the attorney-general of British Columbia is able
to recommend to their notice? Mr. Bowser pleads that
Ihc investigations into these deals discovered nothing.
That is "nothing" according to his standard of political
Thc foregoing arc two specific cases of how difficult
it is to serve two masters. Air, Bowser may be as honest
as he is straightforward, when it suits him. But he cannot escape from what may be called the attorney-general's
dilemma, which is to separate his private and public practice. As administrator uf the department of justice, Mr.
Bowser represents the people, and is paid a salary for
su doing. As senior partner in the firm of Bowser, Reid
and Wallbridge, he presumably draws a portion of thc receipts paid by clients. Do those clients have business
with the people of British Columbia whose attorney is
Mr. Bowser? In the case of the Dominion Trust, they
did. liow many contractors, who have business wilh the
pcuple of British Columbia, are represented by Bowser,
Reid and Wallbridge? Supposing, for instance, a contract
for clearing government land is let to a contractor who
draws his money from lhe government, and that contractor
does not pay his workmen but goes into liquidation before
the work is completed? What sort of redress have the
workmen, who may be foreigners, when they find that
the solicitors for the contractor are Bowser, Reid and
It is admittedly a dilemma. The new Liberal member
fur Vancouver is Mr. Macdonald, a lawyer, with a practice.
Supposing the Liberals victorious at the general election,
and Mr. Macdonald, attorney-general. Is he to sever his
connection with his firm? As attorney-general he would
draw a salary of $6,000 a year. As a private practitioner
he might be making considerably more. He may be public spirited, and animated by a desire to achieve distinction in public life. Is he to forego that perfectly legitimate
ambition because he makes a larger income at the bar? Is
the community to lose the service of an able man because
he cannot afford to trust to the fickle favors of the electorate? He may find himself in office just long enough
to lose his practice. In any case there would be a natural
tendency to put such business as he could in the way of
his previous partners. He might refuse to allow his firm
to practice criminal law, just as it is believed Mr. Bowser's firm refuses criminal cases but the enormous amount
of other business available through the office of the attorney-general would amply compensate any firm for the
loss of defending or prosecuting a few criminals.
The only way out of this dilemma is by discussing it in
the court of public opinion. Legally there is nothing
criminal in taking advantage of the situation thus created.
Morally it depends upon the standard of personal honor,
always most rigid when  concerned with  some une else f
honor, but most etlTSTl**" when applied to personal matters/1
If,' however, the legal position is' secure, the moral *iosi:'.'
tion can be.outflanked.   At least lhat is the point of view'
of so many politicians.   There is nothing illegal in getting;
a reliable business, iriend tu gather options on property*
surrounding a  new  site  fur a  public  building before ang
nouncoiiient of that'new site has been  made public, and
selling those options when the announcement is made, auj
a very nice-profit    There is nothing illegal in appointing'*'
at an excellent salary a close relation entirely unfitted by
experience or training tu a post of considerable technical^
responsibility and large expenditure uf public funds. Then}-
is nothing illegal in receiving applications fur pre-emptions:']
and holding them back until another reliable friend has had.
lhe opportunity of examining tlie property and pre-empt: ���
ing it for himself.    These things are not illegal���they are
merely  monetary  gain.    They  arc   playing  the  game  uf '���
business with marked cards and wilh public funds.
Moreover, those things are very difficult of proof even
before the court uf public opinion. It is difficult to obtain evidence as so many people, in a country of lavish!
public expenditure, rely un some part oi that expenditure
for Iheir livelihood. In one form or another great pro-
sure can be exercised on any man likely to "sipieal."   The
multiplication of government officials and of government
supervision ur direct governmental activities iu the life of
any community multiplies the supporters uf government. :
Under a system uf elective government ownership of pub- ;
lie utilities or of industries connected with the government, j
the danger is increased a thousandfold.    Any man who is.
more or less dependent on politics fur his livelihood is
liable  to  excuse   cheating  on   the  ground  that  his  party
must have funds for their political campaigns,    Truth to
tell, even the public is apt to excuse this form of cheating
on the ground that one man is as bad as another and lhat
every politician will take advantage of his position to push
his personal interests.
Now and again, however, there is an awakening of the
public conscience and the politician who ignores that
awakening is smothered by thc accumulated ammunition
of his opponents. His personal honesty is assailed on every side and if in addition to the mud uncovered by the
falling tide of his political fortunes, his disregard of ordinary courtesies and his greed for personal power provide the attack with a fair field of fire, his defeat is almost
a foregone conclusion. This is what has happened to the
Honorable William J. Bowser. He believed he was the
autocrat of the electorate, forgetting that autocracy demands an aristocracy of intellect. Mere boasting cannot
take the place of statesmanship nor the most efficient political organisation thc place of leadership. The oil of party
patronage may make the machine run smoothly when once
it is set going, but it cannot supply the motive power when
the personality of leadership is lacking. Mr. Bowser's cup
is full of lost opportunities. He showed political ability
as long as he was merely managing clerk in the holy
order of ward heelers. Directly he assumed full responsibility for the fortunes of his party he proved that to-
attain the Heaven of his ambitions, he relied on the God*
of the past to whom he had made such lavish sacrifice.
But the gods of thc past could be placated by choirs singing their praises in unison, while thc gods of the future
are deaf to laudation. Mere promises of reform sound
too much like death bed repentances. Is it any wonder
that Chief Justice Hunter should remark that the administration of law in British Columbia is tainted at the Fountain Head?
Phone Highland 137
Grandview Hospital
VANCOUVER     .     B.C.
Medical : Surgical : Maternity
Rates  from $15.00  per  week
Tickets on sale daily,
June 1 to September
30, 1916.
Return limit three
months, not to exceed
October 31.
Massey-Harris Bicycles
For Rapid Delivery or Messenger Service, the "MASSEY" is a
general favorite.
Built to stand the hardest usage, very easy running.
MEN'S ROADSTER, $45.00. IMPERIAL, $30.00
General Agency Transatlantic Steamship Lines
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Do you ask for, and get, just a "loaf of bread," or do
you, like the wise, discriminating buyers, order
SMAX and
These are wholesome, nutritious���made in a modern,
sanitary bakery���in every detail as good bread as
conscientious effort can make them.
jj   Every loaf crisp, tender, delicious���done to a turn.
if vou  grocer cannot supply you, phone Fairmont
i   443 -j.oi we'll get it to you prompt.
Bakers of Better Bread THE STANDARD
SIR GEORGE 1*. FOSTER, Dominion Minister of
Trade and Commerce, in a recent speech, declared
that patronage was the curse Of politics in Canada,
lie might have added it was thc purse of politics, or rather
of political parties, fur parties consider the purses of their
���atrous far more than thc curses of their opponents. The
government knows the opposition will avail itself of every
pportunity to attack the inevitable outcome of thc patron*
lS system, hut will never attack the system itself, lest at
,ny time thc turn of fortune's wheel places it in thc position of dispeuser*of the loaves and fishes on thc political
taple. 'lhe honest politician���and he is not such a rare
bird as the politicologists aver���almost inevitably becomes
irrtangled in ihc net of patronage and is Captured by the
dispenser of government favors. As a young and ambitious man he may filter the political arena determined to
live on his salary and make his way purely hy forensic or
���ther abilities ami turn bis head from all subsidiary interests. Hut his constituents desire government patronage
or expenditure aud judge him by the cash result of his
ic'tivities. The public works department of government
is the dispensary to which Ik- must apply for those medi-
'incs which are popularly supposed lo cure his constituents of their inalienable right to grumble. Thc more perilous his scat thc more soothing medicine required. So
he becomes a constant suppliant for dorks, warehouses,
elevators, post offices, public buildings, and all those things
which bespeak progress and prosperity even if their real
value to thc taxpayer is  somewhat problematical.
In the days of ancient Rome the master who had freed
his slave but still retained sonic paternal rights over him
was known as a patron. This gave rise lo what is known
as patronage ami which today when applied to thc body
politic means the right of nomination to political office
and also the offices, contracts, honors and so forth which
a public officer may bestow by favor. It will be noted
that it is distinctly a matter of favor, not a matter of fitness. It has nothing whatever to do with appointments
which are given to men whose abilities qualify them for
positions. In tlie public service of Canada today there
are hundreds of men totally unfitted by experience or
training for the positions which they hold in the public
service. They consist to some extent of politicians who
have succeeded in becoming members of the Dominion
or Provincial legislatures, and on retiring have been presented with a postmastership. a customs billet, or some
other post which pensions them at the expense of the
It is natural, therefore, that during thc life of any one
party the members of that party are liable to look around
for some sinecure into which they may step when they
feel it is time for them to resign. The salaries paid our
legislators are not such as to attract any business or professional man if he has to devote his entire time to politics, which largely consist in obtaining favors for his constituency. His expenses are heavy, as he is expected to
be a liberal contributor to all public activities. If he cannot address an association for the promotion of the public
welfare he can at least send a cheque, which is received
more gratefully than the address. Popularity is chiefly
a matter of the satisfactory digestion by his constituents
of the loaves and fishes he can secure from the dispensary.
To be successful the member must be backed either by
those who desire something in return for their support
nr by an awakened public opinion which, as a rule, takes
no interest in politics until its local interests are at stake.
The result is that politicians who arc honest are not
believed to be honest. They are all tarred with the same
brush. Their nest is popularly supposed to be lined with
the same feathers. If a perfectly honest politician, who
cannot afford to depend entirely on politics for his livelihood, is engaged in any other form of business, any increase in the growth of that business is attributed to government patronage. If he is not engaged in any other
business it is considered an absolute certainty that he is
making mouey out of politics. As member for his constituency he is supposed to have the patronage of 'tliat constituency. He may at election time inform his audiences
that patronage will be left in the hands of a committee,
hut the committee is merely a convenience which adds
to the number of channels through which governmental
favors flow. In Vancouver today it is believed Dominion
patronage is exercised by the member, acting through a
committee which is composed of certain men whose knowledge of politics may be profound but whose knowledge
o'f policies is bliss. 'Tis folly to be wise when ignorance
is no barrier to preferment. All work to be done which
comes under thc aegis of the Dominion Government or
Provincial Government, must be examined by the patronage committee and its recommendations are final. Naturally it would not give work to a rival who might vote
against itself. Thus the committee serves the country and
itself, no doubt to its own perfect satisfaction and with
due regard for the efficiency of the public service. It is
the same with both parties. It is not considered extraordinary���it is normal and legitimate politics.
An excellent illustration of patronage is the Vancouver
Hoard of Harbor Commissioners. This is appointed by
the Dominion Government and the members thereof are
salaried. No one knows what they get; the sum for some
reason or other is not puolishcd. A veteran business man
and Conservative member of the provincial legislature is
chairman. Probably few men would make better chairmen. In due course he will retire, possibly when the
member for Vancouver gets beaten or retires from Dominion politics. The member may then be appointed to
the Hoard us chairman. Knowledge of the business is
not necessary. One member of the board is a most
respected marble mason, whose exceptional gifts as a
designer of tombstones no doubt fully qualify him as an
assessor of shipping dues. Thc member for the constituent* recommends certain people for such appointments to
headquarters in Ottawa. Naturally he recommends men
who have done him a good turn, been active workers for
thc party which he represents, or arc members of one or
other of the societies to which he belongs.
There is no reason whatever why the harbor board
should not be administered by a secretary, engaged because of his experience with that class of work and supervised by a board chosen from among business men interested in the development of the harbor, who belong to
the various transportation, shipping, dock and other interests. To belong to such a board is an honor and no doubt
there are several business men who would consider it an
honor and not ask for payment. The powers of the board
can be regulated by legislation and all their meetings
should be public. But this most simple method, which is
common to all other countries, is abandoned so as to
allow for the full play of politics and provide jobs for
certain people who are politicians, not business men. A
member who has given up his business and gone in for
politics must look out for a soft billet in case he is forced
into oblivion at any election. If his party loses the election then all these appointments are liable to be revised
by the party coming into power. Consequently there is
no devotion to duty, merely a devotion to party.
The post office is another excellent example of a similar
state of affairs. The permanent staff may be filled with
capable men with expert knowledge of administration.
The heads are usually "dead" politicians. Consequently
there is no reason for men working hard and doing their
best. They can only reach assistant jobs even if they can
reach those. The Sewerage Board in Vancouver, a creation of the Provincial Legislature, is another example of
patronage. It expends large sums of money, and any department which spends money is a legitimate oiler of the
political wheels.   AH such bodies should really come under
the head of a permanent civil service. Tliere should not
beany question of party politics; there is no reason why
tliere should be. The civil service of the country should
be considered a regular profession for which men are
trained just as they arc in Great Britain. Special experts
such as engineers can be obtained by selection, but the
selection should be made by thc permanent civil service
staff just as the directors of any company select experts
to advise them on special matters. Thc present system is
not only archaic and wasteful, but it is stupid. It is specially designed to get the minimum of result with the
maximum of graft.
Under Ihe present system is is only natural that every
kind of governmeni business is constantly lo .ked on with
extreme suspicion. The most honorable man with all the
determination in the world to do his level best ior his
country cannot escape from the miasma which surrounds
all public offices, it i- a poisonous ami most insiduous
gas which permeates all public undertakings. The opposition can always find fault with some appointment, can always find some person more or less personally interested
in government jobs. In a country like Canada where the
government undertakes so many activities, every one of
those activities sooner or later comes under suspicion.
A n an may make .. line record for himself in his private
business and then when the government offers him nn
important post regardless of what his politics may be,
he is at once singled out for nil kinds of abuse. There
is not a man in Canada today who would accuse either
Sir Wilfrid Laurier or Sir Robert Borden of making monev
out of politics. P.oth are men of the highest personal
honor, yet both are victims of a system which has put
Canada on a level with the United States as the worst
country in the world for political corruption.
partment. The contractor wants a job from the government. He may get that job On tender but there are invariably extras. The case of the Kelly firm and the late
Manitoba government is in point. It is supposed that the
money stolen from the people, went not to any one politician but lo the party funds, not only tie provincial party-
funds but those of th( Dominion parly as well. Locally, in
ih" i :ent inquiry into the commission oi f75,OO0 i-iv-en to
Mr. J. S. Matson, proprietor ��� i the "Colonist" and "News-
Advertiser," Mr. Mat-"!: confessed that he ; aid the "News-
0,000, saying that be owed it that sum. Mr,
'!   ��� may   really   have   borrowed   that   .-,11111   from   the
Advertiser, bul the publi 1 nbi ri 1 it because 11 knows Mr. Matson has a great deal 01 govern-
mcnl printing, in other v. irds, is a government contractor,
and        -luh probably contributes  large!)   to  th-    ;
fund      But tlu- public jumps to 1! 11 thai
1 ��� ni back to I. ���  part;   fund .    1    ,:.      .  rds, that the
Conservative party took public 1 loney for their
own   political  purposes.     It  will  be  admitted  that  it  is
very hard on  tin   I' vativi   part)    1  d  very  hard on
Mr      atsoi   thai   -1 h ti   ughts should spring into men's
mil Hit that is the result oi j ati nd proves the
evil :t o es.   The most perfectly innocent transaction doe.
not es ape similar opprobrium.
The Liberals cm
'I i:< ir 1 ccord in pa
the hands of one 1
business men in V
stupid to blame at
advantage from
provides him with
Roth countries must spend enormous sums of money
through their public works departments. The Panama
Canal is an excellent example of work done for the country by men whose sole purpose was to complete a job
which would redound to the honor of their country. But
in order to do so the work had to be taken out of politics
and made a separate business . And it is most interesting
to note that it was handled on thc military system under
military officers and engineers. All Congress did was to
vote the money. It had nothing whatever to do with appointments. These were made entirely by Colonels Goe-
tbals and Gorgas who were in charge of thc work, the one
as engineer-in-chief, thc other as medical supervisor. The
result of that work and the excellent example it gave of
public work untainted by political influence has been of
untold benefit to the United States.
In Canada thc lesson has not been learnt. The Public
Works Department is nothing but a political dispenser of
loaves and fishes. It docs not matter in the least which
party is in power, thc minister at the head of the public
works department is invariably the target for criticism,
with "graft," in other words, sheer dishonesty, stealing, embezzling public funds, or whatever you like to call it, as the
field of fire. Does thc Dominion Government construct
a wharf, then the question of tenders, the names of the
contractors, their relations with this or that member, come
in for careful scrutiny. If a pile falls out of a wharf and
kills someone, or an accident takes place, the government
is accused of "graft." But it is the government's own
fault. Why on earth no premier has had sufficient strength
to alter the system and earn for himself undying fame, the
mere man on the street cannot tell. Presumably he also
is a helpless victim of the system which saps the strength
of every government and invariably is the chief cause of
its defeat in the long run.
A political party must have funds, and these funds are
supplied from various sources. Apparently the chief
source is the government contractor or public' works de-
not complain - i the Conservatives.
-t year.- when tin ir patronage was in
if the shrewdest and hardest working
incouver, was appalling. It is simply
yoiie who finds he on reap much
;��� political system which practically
1 special license in ni! his business un
dertakings, for making money out of politics. He is in
business not politics. His intimate acquaintance with political parasites who cling like limpets to his office door,
renders him extremely sceptical of any man's honesty.
He perceives men of far better education than himself
flattering him and doing many things to obtain his favor,
which he himself would despise himself for doing. He
likes the feel of power, to order this man here or that man
there. Ile is perfectly indifferent to the politics of the
day. All he desires is to exercise the political patronage
and if it costs him a large sum in cold cash he regards that
sum purely as a business investment. He will very likely
be found subscribing to both parties, from two different
sources. He would never think of allowing any clerk in
his office to take advantage of a customer; to get thc better of a rival in business is another matter altogether.
He will give the best service possible and sell the best
goods because it is good business. If the people of the
country in which he carries on his business are fools
enough to lend themselves to an archaic political system
which he can turn to his financial advantage, why should
he be blamed? He is there to do business, not teach people common sense.
The want of common sense, of the most ordinary business capacity, in the administration of our various governments, is caused solely by this system of patronage which
chains the most energetic, honest and able men to the
gangs of politicians who exist on the crumbs which fall
from the contractors and "bosses" tables. Thc crass
stupidity of imagining in these days that thc community
can be bribed by giving its representative some public
offce, through which his constituency will receive the full
benefit of patronage, is obvious. Vet cabinets are usually
chosen by districts. There may be two members from
Vancouver in the local legislature who are pre-eminently
fitted to. hold ministerial rank, but only one of them will
be appointed lest the constituency of Kamloops deem
itself slighted. That sort of thing was all very well ten
years ago but British Columbia has not remained in baby
clothes. No one really cares today whether a cabinet
minister sits for Vancouver or Timbuctoo. What the
people care about is an honest and efficient administration.
The cure lies in the hands of the people. They should
demand  of  every  candidate  his  definite  adherence  to    a
resolution  which he will pledge himself to bring t'orwar
in the house if he is elected.   This resolution sin ifUi provide  that  all  public    work  should    be    undertaken    ������niy
through the public works department, which should be''a
permanent department of the civil service.
This is. 6f bourse, ��� I 1 'hut intention whi h paves
thc road t 1 the bell of corruption. lint the intention is
marred b) the politi al - 1 essities of parties. The ninister
oi publi. tvorl ' ��� ; loiter of 1.1> department instead
ol it- i.i   11 His -niy duty should be 10 acquaint
himsell  with the pi I nec< :    l.i- del artmept
and !;��� ' bel ire the  permanent  ��� fficials.
���  ���    [fi iali -ie uld fall ihe responsibility for all con-
;-!l    it    ui di ��� tal - ���      i he    can 1 itimate from
ear to year t raw
up  what  tbi he tin-  necessary programme,
would in-  e to limitatio        ���    the
regular budget and the m  ney providi    fori rl  lent.
��� 'i"     ���   ��� ' itever in the as ign-
���    1 trael tual work.   All em-
pli >��������� contracl bc '    solely to
Ithe permanent officials.   It 1- scai     : , prepi sterous
! that -������   ������������!���       lii   .        ain an of a wai e al-
, lowed    1 ii       la] 1 for work    1 em jobs.
1 The department should Wi I ting
es.   Tl.'  [ cm ai ent head of the dc| upl
��� t'.e -n:  e sort      position      is       ipii airman 'I
!'.������ railway board.    It woul -ml
of money every year if thi- wen   di ne.   Tie- minister c*.
'���lie department cai   advisi suit but h<  should not
be allowi d to interfci e with the wi thi 1 ;.;icnt.
Essentially the idea on which our form of government
is based is that tiie government of the country i- a business of which the people arc the shareholders and Ihc
ministers the directors elected by those shareholders. The
directors are appointed by thc premier, who is really
thc chairman, to various departments as supervisors and advisors. They should be merely the
links which bind the whole business together. Each
j deprtment should have a general manager and the general
managers should really form a secondary cabinet which
could at all times advise the directors and if the directors-
refused to carry out their advice could resign en masse-
and refuse to be responsible for the carrying out of such
wishes of the directors as they considered inimical to the
best interests of the country.. These general managers
should be paid at least $2.\(KX) a year each and their posts
should be permanent. When they resign after a certain
number of years service there should be a suitable pension attached. By this means the best men would be attracted to the civil service. Moreover, a permanent body
of such officials behind the merely political body would
be of untold benefit to the whole country. If the country
demanded a certain policy and returned a party to power
pledged to carry out that policy, it would probably be
modified in accordance with the business necessities of
the situation. Behind the heat and sentiments of party
politics would stand a permanent body of sane men icady
to advise and construct.
It might bc said that the creation of such an inner cabinet would be the basis of an autocracy and tliat the people
would not he able to rule themselves because of this permanent official body which was not subject to the whims
and fancies of thc electorate. But it is plain that parliament
and the ministers would really control policies, The permanent officials could only advise or amend, such amendments being submitted to parliament and debated. This
is merely the roughest outline of the sort of method which
would bc able to establish efficient control of all our
public services without interfering with democratic .government.
Patronage with its evil trail lays a heavy toll on the life
of Canada. It throttles all finer aspirations, makes politics
a morass which destroys those who would tread its paths,
besmirches the reputation of the most honest of men,
allows personal interest to batten like a cancer on the
whole body of political life. Once eliminate patronage
from politics and those who desire to serve the country
honorably and honestly can do so without fear. But under
present conditions, to serve the country means to lose
every shred of personal reputation. The public service becomes the refuge of self-seekers, the permanent home of
intrigue and dishonesty, Thc chairmanship of some ward
association is more important than the head of a government department. There is no more narrow-minded and
ignorant autocracy than the autocracy created by special
privilege. Patronage is tbe mother of privilege, and politics the husband of patronage. Their spawn is spread like
a mire over the whole of Canada. Out of it springs corruption. Every single instance of political corruption in
Canada can bc traced back to patronage. It is no use
blaming individuals or parties. Patronage is the natural
outcome of democracy sacrificing its principles on the
altars of Mammon. If democracy is to survive it must be
British Columbia expects every citizen to come to her aid between now and September 14, in the fight
to kill the blind monster of political patronage, in whose slime is developed graft,
bribery, theft and fraud.
Phone Seymour 9016
for the safety of your valuables
and Document*.
A  Private  Box
in our Safety Vault
$2.50 Per Annum
To  buy your  SCHOOL BOOKS at
G.   S.   FORSYTH  &   CO.
Corner Homer and Hastings Streets
  . ' SIX
Bright New Goods and Splendid Values Are Being Hurried
Forward Daily
New Fall Neckwear
for Women. Excellent
Value at 25c
���the most pleasing variety we've
ever shown at this price. Thc assortment includes roll and dainty
floral effects iu round shapes, together with colored hemstitched
and vestees. Choice
In the Bargain
On the Main Floor
for   women   at   	
women;  reg. 35c  for   	
Reg. 60c  for   	
Reg. 35c for  	
Women's Chamois
Gloves at $1.25 pair
���well made gloves of good quality skins, reliable finish, and with
one-pearl button fastener. Sizes
5 3-4 to 7 1-4.   Per d��1  Of
Seamless Silk Hose
at 89c pair
���one of thc most reliable hose
that we carry. It's full fashioned,
full length, in black*, sand, grey and
old rose.   Very special OQ/��
Sturdy Suiting Serges
For Sturdy Youngsters
���WE MAKE a specialty of Fox's world-renowned serges for boys'
wear. It is the same serge as used by the British sailors, very
strong, and absolutely permanent dye. Extremely hard wearing,
almost untearable.
31  inches wide, per yard..$1.25. 56 inches wide,  per yard..$2.50
Good for girls' school wear, too.
Plaids! Plaids! for School Girls' Dresses
TARTAN PLAIDS, little fancy plaids in dark colors, and bigger
broken plaids in a heavier kind. We have QC/�� onrl V-lS*
a nice range to show now at, yard 0*J\,  CUlU   I kJX,
Rich Black Duchess Satin, a New Large Shipment
���VERY FASHIONABLE, always desirable, very reliable. Rich
black duchess mousselines for suits or dresses. Pure silk and guaranteed dyes at, per yard���
$1.25, $1.50, $2.25 and $2.75
Great Bargain in Boots for
Women and Big Girls
Regular Values to $5
Special for
���Every pair remarkably good
value at thc regular price���an
unequalled bargain at $2.95.
They are excellent boots in the
assortment for girls who can
wear sizes 2 to 4. The collection includes lace and button
patterns, with low and medium
heels and uppers of gunmctal
calif and kid. Nearly all of
them are Goodyear welted and
are quality boots in every respect. A Wednesday)
bargain at  	
(Trtr Ii u rjsons Bay crompnn])
Does not have to seek a position.   A position seeks him.    Business men seek "Success" graduates.   We
cannot supply the demand.   Why not get ready now?   Our Fall Term opens September 5th.
COR. 10TH AVE. AND MAIN ST., VANCOUVER       Schools from Coast to Coast      Phone Fair. 2075
Here Are the Standard-Bearers for 1916
Below will be found THE STANDARD'S tabulated list of all the constituencies which have nominated
their candidate for the coming provincial parliamentary elections, along with the namns of the gentlemen wha
are to represent their different parties.
Alberni   ..
Cariboo   ..
Columbia .
Comox ...
Fort George	
Grand Forks  	
North  Okanagan  .
South Okanagan ..
New Westminster
North Vancouver
South Vancouver .
H. C. Brewster
Frank Mobley
J. Yorston
E. D. Barrow
K. Duncan
John Buckam
Hugh Stewart'
Dr. J. H. King
A. D. Patterson
John  Oliver
A. W. McCurdy
A. I. Fisher
Dr. J. D. McLean
J. E. Thompson
M. B. Jackson
F. W. Anderson
John Keen
J. B. Bryson
A. M. Johnson
Wm. Sloan
Dr.  K. McDonald
Leslie  V.   Rogers
4����� ��� ��*;    - +--q��.��i,
Socialist, Lab. or Independent
David  Whiteside
A. M. Manson
Dr. Sutherland
W. D. Willson
G. G. McGeer
F. A. Pauline
R. S. Conkling
T. D. Pattulo
Chas.  F.  Nelson
Mayor  Hanes
J. W. Weart
M. H. Sullivan
Ralph Smith
M.  A.   Macdonald
P. Donnelly
Dr. Mcintosh
J. S. Cowper
J. W. deB. Farris
H. C. Brewster
John Hart
George Bell
H. C. Hall
Joseph. Walters
J.   G.  C.  Wood
W. X. McDonald
J. A. Fraser
W. D. Macken
W. H. Hayward
Dr. Taylor
M.  Manson
T. D. Caven
F. J. Mackenzie
W. J. Manson
R. H. Pooley
W. R. Ross
Thos. Uphill
J. R .Jackson
E. Miller
W. W. Foster
J. P. Shaw
R. J. Long
Archie  McDonald
Dr. W. O. Rose
A. E. Planta
Price Ellison
Mayor Jones
Dr. Dier
Thos.  Gifford
F. M. Dockrill
Hon. T. Taylor
L. A. Campbell
W. J. Baird
D. M. Eberts
L. W. Shatford
Wm. Manson
W. Hunter
G. H. Morden
Rev. Boulton
Jas. A. Schofield
W. J. Bowser
C. E. Tisdall  ;   *
Dr. McGuire
Walter Leek
A. H. Macgowan
Thos. Duke
A. Stewart
Reginald Hayward
John Dillworth
Leonard Tate
Alex. Lucas
J. D. Kendall; A. W. Neil (I.)
Geo.  Casey
W. Pritchard; S. Wrigley (S.)
J. A. Macdonald (Soc.)
J. Mclnnes (S.); W. Gillet (I.)
J. A. MacDonald (Soc.)
L. L. Boomer (Ind.)
S. Skinner (Soc.)
Parker Williams  (Ind. Soc.)
W. J. Ledingham- (Soc.)
(The Cycle Man)
Wm. McNeish (Ind. Con.)
J. E. Wilton (Lab.)
J. Goodwin (Soc.)
J. Harrington (Soc.)
H. G. White (Ind.)
Robt. Cassidy (Ind.)
W. R. Trotter (Ind. Lab.)
E. C. Appleby (Ind.)
J. H. Hawthornthwaite (Soc.)
P. Williams (Soc.)-
Dr. E. A. Hall (Ind.)
P. R. Smythe; A. Morley (I.)
Dan Pougard (Soc.)
Send    for    47-page    illustrated
catalogue���post free.
Through their representative
going to the War, the famous
Australian firm of Trewhellas
want to immediately quit 6
(SIX) of tlieir world-renowned
Tree and Stump Grubbers
$150   EACH   CASH
for the full equipment, which
was selling at $200 before the
big rise in materials. Otherwise���we are instructed to return them to Australia if NOT
OPPORTUNITY for anyone
wanting the world's best clearing machinery.
Send CASH $150 and Order
Now to
The Campbell
Storage Co., Ltd.
Norfolk Suits
Norfolk Suits for Men and Young Men
Blues, Fancy Worsted, Browns, Greens and Greys
Navy blue suits under $20.00 do not carry our guarantee to be fast color.
WM. DICK, Ltd.
"Two Big Stores for Men"
Classified Advertising
Seedsmen, Florists, Nurserymen, 4$
Hastings St. E., and 782 Granvillt
Street, Vancouver, B. C.
wanted to clean and repair at th��
factory, 438 RICHARDS STREET
Barrister*, Solicitor!, Etc.
1012 St������Urd Bank Bldg.
Vancouver, B.C.
Primarily, look for healthy security and buy from a responsible
Company that has carefully scrutinized the investment.
Second, consider the interest returns.
The safeguards of a true investment can be easily verified. The
B. C. Municipal Bonds we handle are a charge on all properties
within each respective municipality. They yield from 6tt per
cent, to 7X per cent.  Consult our Bond Dept. in person or by letter.
Canadian Financiers Trust Company
Head Office: 839 Hastings Street West, Vancouver, B.C.
PATRICK DONNELLY, General Manager.
Baby's Milk
MOTHERS! What action have you
taken regarding  Baby's milk?
Arc you continuing to use that mills
of questionable quality and freshness?
Health and medical authorities all
over this continent arc daily warning
parents to take more care of the little
ones���to give them pure, clean food
and plenty nf iresh, clean milk.
Do not risk thc health of Baby���or
the grown-ups for tllat matter���by
serving milk  of uncertain  quality.
Investigate thc superlative merits of
Sou-Van Milk���a clean, rich, wholesome and nourishing milk tliat is
scientifically pasteurized and delivered fresh in sterilized bottles. A
trial bottle sent to any mother who
phones Fair. 2624.
Rich, thick and fresh. Delicious
dishes can bc made with this wholesome cream. Half pints,
10 cents
SOU - VAN BUTTERMILK delivered daily���try a quart.
South Vancouver
Mi Ik Company
Scientific Dairymen
Phone Fairmont 2624
Know all ye by these presents:
That for Factums and Briefs, no printers give
you better satisfaction than ��ty &imiflarfo.
That for Letterheads and Envelopes ��!|?
�����tatinaro is the place to buy.
That for Book Binding, Engraving, Ruling,
sooner or later you will come to
Wt $ta��tarfr
The Man As He Is To Those Who Know Him
��j| RICHARD BURKE, being found in a reverie shortly after an extraordinary display of powers in parliament, and being questioned by a friend as to the cause, replied:
"I have been thinking how Edmund has contrived to monopolize all the talents of
the family; but then again, I remember when we were at play he was always at work."
THE EORCE of this anecdote is increased by the fact that Richard Burke was
considered not inferior in natural talents to his brother; yet the one rose to greatness,
while the other died comparatively obscure.
*J AND SO we find a young man in Richmond forging rapidly to the front in the
public life of British Columbia, whose playmates of but a few years ago are still engaged upon their studies, or are but starting upon their careers. The secret of tin's
young man's success is like that of Edmund Burke's work.
*j| IT is fitting to open a sketch of the career of .Mr. Gerald Grattan McGeer with a
reference to the great Burke. Mr. McGeer is the candidate of a reform party, is a Celt,
bears some resemblance in personal appearance to the great British statesman, and is
an orator of the Burke school, having few peers in this Province.
*]| IN THE days when South Vancouver was a dense bush and the only thoroughfare
to Lulu Island was a corduroy road which has become the Fraser Street of today, the
late Mr. James McGeer and family lived on the southerly edge of the settlement known
as Vancouver.
*j] THE McGEER family were pioneers in the community, coming here from Winnipeg, where the head of the house had seen honorable service on the police force. Here
James McGeer opened up a dairy, purchased milk from farmers on Lulu Island, and
carted it about the town for sale. It was in the dairy business that young McGeer got
his first experience before the public. As a boy of ten he drove his father's wagon
through the wilds of what is now a pleasant suburb, suffered the trials and hardships
peculiar to the business.
IN^ THOSE days Vancouver was not on a prosperous basis, and it was customary
for citizens, if times became too hard, to seek out the beach and there dig for clams.
And it was the experience of young McGeer on many an occasion to come home to a
meal where the succulent clam formed an important, if not a dominating place on the
Til PROBABLY ON those rides on the milk wagon before the hour of five in the morning, the imagination of the lad was active. Within burned ambition. It is not surprising therefore when opportunity afforded that the youth gave up the business of milk
and went for a short time to a school in Mount Pleasant. He left the school to follow
the work of a moulder, and served an apprenticeship in the foundry of Letson & Burpee,
and graduated from that place of industry a radical trades unionist and a splendid
mechanic. As a member of the union he was sent to Quebec to attend the great Trades
Congress convened there in 1909, took a prominent part in discussions at that congress,
particularly denouncing on the floor of the floor of the parliament of labor the policy
of allowing Orientals to enter British Columbia and force the while man from employment in British Columbia industries.
7J RETURNING TO Vancouver the young man decided that he would seek lo serve
labor in some more effective manner than as a worker at the bench. He mapped out
for himself a law course. And while his fellows spent the nights playing baseball, lacrosse and otherwise enjoying themselves, at the McGeer home in South Vancouver
into the late watches of the night burned a light in an upper chamber. And by that
light sat a young man, pondering upon his studies. Work by day in the foundry and
study by night enabled McGeer, after many months, to enter the Dalhousie Law School,
in Halifax, N.S., and in that place of learning, paying his own way, he secured a part
of his legal training from the institution which numbers among its sons many of the
great men of Canada, including in British Columbia the present premier and the present agent-general at London, Sir Richard McBride.
RETURNING TO British Columbia in 1911 immediately after the Federal Elections, in which he took some small part in Nova Scotia, campaigning for the Hon.
William Fielding, Mr. McGeer entered the law firm of Harris, Bull, Hannington and
Mason as a clerk and was duly called to the bar of British Columbia. As a law student
he was honored with the post of president of the Vancouver Law Students' Society, and
he was regarded as the most capable student in British Columbia in his day. No sooner
had McGeer concluded his law studies and equipped himself for the battle of life, than
the shadow of death fell across the threshold of the home, and the head of the house,
the honored pioneer of British Columbia and loved citizen, was called to his fathers.
The widow was left with a large family and an estate heavily involved, like many
others at the time, which was immediately after the breaking of the boom. Thc young
man took charge of the affairs of the family and has since held that responsibility, A
younger brother, James McGeer, is now either at the front or on his way, and another
brother, Dudley McGeer, has heard and responded to the call of King and Country.
Unable himself to go forward, Mr. McGeer has left unturned no stone that would assist
in urging on recruiting and in the work of aiding those enterprises of a patriotic character which are doing such splendid work in Vancouver.
MR. McGEER, like his father, is a born radical. He takes naturally to politics, and
is at his best in the centre of a campaign. He strikes from the shoulder and asks for
no quarter. While he abides by the tenets of the Liberal Party of British Columbia, he
does not hesitate to express an independent point of view. His position on the liquor
traffic has brought to his platform leading prohibitionists, among them that staunch
Conservative, Mr. C. M. Woodworth, of Vancouver, while his record throughout has
drawn to his support the leading independent men throughout the constituency of Richmond. Not yet 29 years of age, one of Vancouver's leading young barristers, competent business man, fearless and energetic public man, Mr. McGeer may be looked upon
as a man well endowed to represent truly and well the people of Richmond in the next
Friends were not surprised when the young candidate's nomination received the
hearty endorsement of such old stalwarts of Richmond as Messrs. Thomas Kidd, ex-
M.P.P., James McQueen, Dan. Grimmett, councillor, Mr. Robinson, councillor, and
Frank Burnett, Sr.
Cf HIS SUCCESS so far has been a matter of hard work and good habits, and if it is
said that he has outstripped many of his fellows in the game of life, it may be said as it
was said of Edmund Burke, "when they were at play he was always at work."
^f HERE THEN is a candidate, fitted by instinct, by training and experience, to re:
present Richmond in the next Legislature, one whose high character, intelligence, whose
years of experience as an actual worker, and whose technical training as a lawyer combine to fit him for the sacred task of framing sound and progressive legislation for all
classes of the people.
Store opens at 8.30 a.m. and closes at 6 p.m.
You Will Appreciate Our
Display of Navy Blue Serges
IT is a matter of special
*��� importance that we have
maintained large stocks of
serges in reserve and are
in a position now to quote
prices that cannot but appeal to economical patrons.
The qualities of our serges
are high-grade; the dyes
are dependable and the
values, according to the
present-day market, are
If you are wanting serges
we would suggest that you
call and view our assortment. We would be glad
to have you compare our
Our two popular-priced lines are���
48 to 50 inch Serges at $1.25 a yard.
And 56 inch Serges at $1.75 a yard.
Other qualities range in price to $4.50 a yard.
Phone Sey. 3540
bottom of these scandal'*? What about the undue waste and extravagance that has been going on in this Province for years?"
"You know as well as I do that it is political patronage, and I
want to say, as a citizen of Canada, and one who has followed
and taken part in active political life when patronage was indulged
in by both parties, Liberal and Conservative, 1 want lo say tliat
in my estimation Mr. Brewster stands above any statesman that
has stood upon any political platform in Canada in having the
courage of his conviction and the absolute fearlessness to see
them through."
"I would rather vote for an Independent than n Liberal, but
1 am not going to play the fool with my vote; 1 am not going to
be drawn aside and loose the effectiveness of my vote, for even
one vote may be important. 1 am going to put it where it will
do tbe most good for the cause at my heart, and that is to dismiss
from office these false trustees in Victoria. 1 am, therpfore,
going to vote for thc straight Liberal ticket in Vancouver."
Mr. T. O. TOWNLEY: "Fifteen years have elapsed since I
was in public life and during that fifteen years the political machine common 1) known as Bowserism has sprung into existence.
It has grown to such an alarming extent that it has crushed the
life out of tbe free government of the people. Canned politicians
are one of the by-products of the machine and patronage, corruption and graft keep it fed. Local party politics have become putrid. Bowser, by his own statement, admits that he permitted the
Dominion Trust legislation to become law, knowing it to be illegal,
for the reason that if he did not so act it would kill the party. This
is the limit of corrupt politics and Bowser and liis machine must
be smashed and thrown into the scrap heap.
"To assist in bringing this about was the outstanding reason
for my seeking election as an independent Conservative candidate.
After carefully considering the matter and after listening to Sir
Charles Hibbert Tupper, K.C., and after discussing the question
with Mr. Geo. H. Cowan, K.C., and other prominent Conservatives, I have come to the conclusion that 1 can best attain my
object by withdrawing my name from the list of those seeking
election and by throwing in my lot with the Liberal candidates."
diet ,u .tihs .YAaaawaaw
-     A*ViV'--
��� ��� fi*ff>-�� *a��=MMM
^mt  ffp^fef       fl.I,     ?n
The Skull and Cross Bones
of Railway Construction
(Continued from Page Two)
great many people by making the building of the railway
something of a sporting proposition among the workers;
this gang against that gang and so on. It is easy to sec
that thc amateur is one of those foolish persons who believes in putting himself in the place of the worker and
treating him accordingly.
However, the amateur having once started on this extraordinary and altogether unheard of career, would bc
very difficult to pull up. He and his dear Sir Percy would
probably find at the end of the year that they had constructed 175 miles of railway at a cost of $5,250,000, having added 25 miles to their estimates and saved some $50(X)
a mile on llie cost of construction. This may seem a slightly optimistic forecast Imt your real amateur is always an
optimist and simply judges such things by the experience
of others. "Hut," cries the gentle reader���by the way why
is the reader always gentle?���"whoever undertook any government work in such fashion?" The amateur would probably retort that most civilised governments proceeded ill
such fashion; that Sir Percy Girouard himself worked
under Lord Kitchener in Egypt, in similar style and that
even the government of tbe l'nited States constructed
tbe Panama Canal under such circumstances. Of course
the amateur would admit that if Ihc experience of others
is to guide such a very wise and excellent government as
is installed at Victoria, there would be no profits for contractors and such   a condition of affairs is unthinkable.
But what an amateur might do and what a government
combined with an artistic contractor can do, are two entirely different things. Let us disregard for a few moments our three musketeers aud jog along the ordinary
route pursued by most gentleman of the road, whose
methods hardly vary at all. So commonplace have these
methods become that it is feared the various governments
existing all over Canada have formed a habit of which
none of them can get rid. It must always be remembered
that lawyers are great on precedent and that if the government of Nova Scotia does something wrong and is not
found out, the wrong is established as a permanent excuse. The discovery of the wrong is merely an incident
which warns others to be more careful in covering the
trail. So the government which wants to build a railway
negotiates with certain well-known gentlemen whose success in railway contracting has given ihem fame and
wealth. That is going by precedent. The general recipe
for construction follows���anyone can use it if they have
a good cook in a well-equipped political kitchen as a
personal friend.
Take a large section of country, as new as possible, and
���draw a line anywhere across it. If someone else has already done this it makes no difference, except in the
color of your line. Then call on the nearest government
and ask for guaranteed bonds. All governments keep
a large stock of tiiese. They are thc commonest produce.
Be ready to sign any agreement requested. It makes no
difference what you sign if you only make sure that the
lawyer who represents you is a partner of the lawyer
who represents thc government. Having secured the
necessary guaranteed bonds, proceed to London or New
York and mix them as quickly as possible in tbe money
market. They will come out dough. The exact weight
or amount is not of much importance, but for thc sake of
clarity it may be as well to use $10,000,000 of guaranteed
bonds as an example and basis on which to commence
cooking. These bonds would probably lose about $300,000
in the mixing process, which being accomplished, place
the resultant $9,700,000 in your bank account and take the
first boat or train back whence you came. On arrival at
once form a company with yourself as president. You
knead the presidency with thc dough which you have
produced. Place this dough of $9,700,000 in the oven of
the company, first extracting $970,000 with which to cover
travelling expenses and commission for securing the necessary material for further proceedings. Thus the ovens
of the company receive $8,930,000, which must be left to
warm for some days. It will rise to a contract in your
name for the construction of a railway. The dough will
have lost about 5 per cent, in this process, so that you will
receive $8,483,500 with which to proceed. (As president
of the company you will receive a large share of this loss
in weight, so there is no need to worry about it. In fact
the whole idea is to make the ultimate dish as light
as possible. It requires deft handling at times, especially
during the kneading periods. The more you knead the
more you can sweeten with guaranteed bonds ��� but it
necessitates care).
You now have a contract, a company and a large dough
which has lost no less than $1,516,500 in the foregoing
process. At least $1,250,000 of this should be locked up in
your private store room in case you are ever in danger
of starvation. The next step is to form yourself into
% contractor and multiply yourself as many times as is
convenient, by adding different partners to yourself. Partners may bc plucked from your company singly or in couples. When you have used up your own name and those
qf your partners, let them repeat the process. If there are
not enough of you to take contracts for all thc profitable
portions of the work, friends will always oblige. This
rather complicated process will probably lighten the original dough of any odd weight. Thus from $8,483,500 it
will probably bc reduced to $8,000,000, but you have added
the three letters sub to your title of contractor and multiplied it at least a score of times, which is a costly business.
Sprinkle the $8,00(1,000 evenly over all. To maintain the
flavor now add an employment agency, and get 5000 horny
handed sons of toil, charging each one a dollar for the
honor of being "gotten." Then add a doctor, of the
family or partner brand, and take a dollar a month from
each man for medical attendance. That means $60,000
a, year from 5000 men. This portion of the process is very
profitable if carried out properly, The harder you can
make thc conditions of labor thc more men will be constantly leaving you and every change of this kind means
another dollar for the employment agency and another to
thc doctor.
FOLEY���-Is that Fort George I see before me?
STEWART���Nay, nay, that's a lang way awa'.
WELCH���Sure an' it'll bc still further when I let tlie next contract for construction.
Get large quantities of good food and
to the men at five dollars a week, or $260 a
per head, or a tolal of $1,300,0(50 a year,
adding a good trustworthy wholesale grocer to your
combination, you .will get a better flavor. These, however, are garnishings which can be added according to
taste. Then secure station-men, they are easily found, and
allow them to make gangs out of your 5(KX1 men, putting
thc gangs to work on the construction of the railway
and making them as discontented as possible in order
to keep changing men. The more discontented they arc
thc more likely they will change, which means more money. Your contract with thc station-men provides that
they buy all their supplies, tools, everything through you.
You charge them ten per cent, above tbe invoice price
and ten per cent, for handling, so that they may appreciate
the great privilege. When the station - men have
finished their portion of the work, hand them
an account showing that they owe you a certain
sum of money, $5,000 or $10,000 is not too much, for wages, supplies, etc. If they object see that your lawyers are
still in partnership with the attorney-general. The government may inspect the sub-contractors work from time
to time, but as you yourself are concerned with all the
profitable sub-contracts, there is no need to worry. The
government engineer's report will agree with yours. If
you find you owe the station-man anything ��� the recipe
is wrong and you, as a sub-contractor, must go into liquidation as quickly as possible, beginning over again from
thc time the contract was added. Thc station-man has
no money to follow you back as far as that so he loses
Supposing, however, all goes well and the station man
sweetens the pot, you are well on the way to turning out
the finished product. It is as well to proceed slowly with
the whole recipe, for while it continues to simmer it becomes richer all the time. Don't let it boil over, it makes
a nasty mess and is due to carelessness. If it does not
seem rich enough to your taste after a year or so, add
guaranteed bonds as often as possible. If by any mischance the government you originally obtained them from
has changed and the new government has none for you
in stock ��� the recipe is really spoilt for good. Throw
up the whole thing, go into liquidation at once and shrug
your shoulders. You have no further interest in the matter. Probably the country was not as new as you expected. Purchase a large country house in Scotland and a
town bouse in London and go in for society.
(N.B,���This recipe is quite genuine, though it can be
varied according to taste and the nature of the government. It will be noticed that it depends on guaranteed
bonds for its entire success. If these are not forthcoming
the dough which is the basis of the whole dish, will not
That is thc real art of railway construction. Ii is simply carelessness on thc part of thc contractor if any subcontractor not immediately connected with the original
contractor or company makes money. Thc sub-contractor
who is not in the inner circle usually finds he owes money
to thc contractor from whom he has to buy everything, i Welch and Stewart any more money eit
Part of his contract is the purchasing of supplies through  ~ '
the contractor. Eggs, meat, everything down io matches
must bc bought from the contractor's store, which usually
charges ten per cent, for handling and at least another
ten per cent, on the invoiced price. Heaven, the contractor
and his friend, the wholesaler, alone know how much profit thc invoice price may really signify. In this manner,
if you cannot work out thc cost of construction on any
portions of the line you choose at any price you choose,
you better get out of the contracting business. The whole
art of contracting is to shift all expense on to the shoul-
i ders of those who do thc actual work and not allow any
I possible profit to slip through your fingers anywhere.
The money spent is not yours, you do not even have to
pay tbe interest on it, unless you consider it ultimately
profitable to do so. The railway thus constructed should
belong to you if you care to have it, but you will not care,
as operating a railroad under such circumstances would
not bc profitable.   It is better to allow it to be reorganized.
As far as our three musketeers are concerned, they
could not be blamed if they took- advantage of thc circumstances and constructed the Pacific Grcat Eastern Railway on thc foregoing recipe. Undoubtedly the cost of
construction is in parts extremely heavy. As Attorney-
General Bowser explained three years ago, it might "cost
from $100,000 to $125,000 per mile in portions, especially
that of the Howe Sound end." Therefore, the three musketeers evidently wishing to spare thc public, have not attempted construction at this end beyond White Cliff,
at the entrance to Howe Sound. According to
charter, the company was given an authorized
capital of $25,000,000, that is, of $55,555 per mile
and borrowing powers of $27,000,000, that is, of
$60,000 per mile. The government guaranteed the principal
of $15,750,000 and interest at 4 per cent, or $630,000 per
annum, which equals $35,000 per mile, since raised to $42,-
000 per mile and 4 1-2 per cent. Interest. In return it received a first mortgage over the whole line and a personal
bond from Messrs. Foley, Welch and Stewart of $250,000
in securities. Three years ago Premier McBride assured
the people the line would be completed in two years. The
war of course is as usual to be blamed for the delay. As
a general scapegoat the war beats anything Hall Caine
ever conceived. Thc railway in addition to the guarantees
mentioned, received a right of way grant of 100 feet in
width through all crown lands as well as vacant crown
lands necessary for the construction of siding stations,
embankments, etc. Vacant crown lands were also granted
for townsites at divisional points, consisting of 1280 acres
at each divisional point and 6640 acres at each other town-
It is quite plain that railway contracting is a very high
art and a very profitable one under such circumstances.
The operation of thc railroad is another matter and it
hardly concerns our three musketeers, as they have the
agreement with thc Grand Trunk Pacific which has been
mentioned. The problem before the people of British
Columbia was this. The Pacific Great Eastern or Messrs.
Foley, Welch and Stewart wanted the people to loan them
another $6,000,000 or so to complete the line. They are
said to have already invested their own money to the tune
of some millions, nine is the sum mentioned, in its construction. It is more than likely their personal investment
is the $250,(100 of securities already referred to. If they
do not think the railway a profitable investment, would
they have put up any of their securities? Possibly thc
security consists of common stock in thc Pacific Grcat
Eastern. Help I Yet it is obvious that under the usual recipe they might have made, or P. Welch, contractor, might
have made, very large sums out of construction. Why
should not the government of British Columbia complete
construction  itself?    Why  should  it give   Messrs.  Foley,
as a loan or as
guaranteed bonds. Where is it to raise the sum required,
which Messrs. Foley, Welch and Stewart, who will own
the railway, are not willing to raise themselves? What
has become of the securities given to the government by
Messrs. Foley, Welch and Stewart? Why were not these
used to pay for the defaulted interest of $316,000 paid iu
January by the people of British Columbia.
to make money? If the balance of th^sSWaeeded were
to go"*Jfrect to thq station men or even to sub-contractors
who actually did [the work, no one would have cause to
grumble. But wl en it filters from the company to the
contractor and fron thc contractor to sub-contractors, and
from them to other sjibrcontractos��yBn*f��o on down thc
whole grade, losing a e'iciain percentage of its value all the
time in friction caused try its passage from one pocket to
thc other, the absurdity of the situation is plain. A business government would tackle thc situation in a business
like way. In the first place thc company and the three
musketeers would have to produce their books and vouchers for all expenditure, which would he checked by independent auditors and engineers. The books of thc sub-contractors would also bc examined and their relationship to
the contractor questioned. The profits of various stores
would have to be known���in fact the whole scries of operations would be subjected to searching analysis. By this
means the exact cost per mile would be known and compared with thc actual money expended. The government
Statement that its engineer estimates the cost of completing the line to Port George at so much has nothing to do
with the case. That apparently docs not include the cost
of the Howe Sound portion of thc line, which, according
to Premier Bowser, is likely to be thc heaviest.
The Minister of Finance stated in the House one day
that it would cost about $6,(XK),(M)0 to complete the line, the
next day tbe public is informed in reply to questions that
to link up Vancouver with Fort George would cost over
It would he most interesting and profitable at such a
time as this lo make an experiment. Let the government
undertake to complete the line and let thc Three Musketeers advance thc money necessary. Let us reverse the
present position and see what happens. Surely the Three
Musketeers between them can raise a paltry $6,000,001
from among their friends. Let the people of British Columbia accept such guaranteed bonds or securities as the
Three Musketeers can offer and sec whether they can
make a profit out of the transaction. If the Three Musketeers can, why cannot the people of British Columbia"*
If the Three Musketeers cannot find the money necessary, why on earth should the people of British Columbia,
having found the money, pay it into the coffers of the
P. G. & E. railway? The people have not millions to
throw away, wdiy not hold what they have and spend it for
their own profit not for that of three gentlemen who, however excellent their original intentions, have not yet .been
able to pave thc road to Port George with steel. Granting
that every detail of thc work done in the past has been
most efficiently carried out, it must also bc granted that
the contractors have not completed their contract and that
in consequence British Columbia is forced to assume a
liability which really should he shouldered by thc contractors. Yet docs anyone imagine that they have nol
made a profitable business of the contract? Eventually
it looks as if British Columbia would have to foreclose
and such a proceeding would complete the recipe,
given for railroad construction iu every detail. But
alas���it would also make an unsatisfactory ending to British Columbia's romance of Three Musketeers, and the pub
lie dislikes sad endings. For thc sake of art it is better to
sacrifice our own credit to maintain the reputation of three
such gallant gentlemen of the road. Moreover, it would
be a pity lo prevent our business government publishing
another comic section. Humor must bc preserved at all
costs in these somewhat dull days.
Remember the Pacific Grcat Eastern Railway is only
an example of most efficient business management by a
firm of contractors matched against the most inefficient
business management of a government. There is. no nee I
to accuse the government of stealing the people's money
and handing :t over to the Three Musketeers. That sort
of accusation could not bc proved and there is no evidence to show that the members of the government responsible for the original contract were given any common
stock or cash for making the contract. It is foolish to
hurl such allegations at those who may be politically opposed to you. The railway was voted by the people of
British Columbia and the government cannot bc blamed
for carrying out the demand of the electorate. But thi.
sheer stupidity of conducting business in such a fashion
is surely apparent. It is the same all over Canada. The
contractors make enormous profits out of everything but
the actual construction which they only touch if they cai;
make certain sections profitable. Otherwise they leave it
to sub-contractors and station men and practically bet
them ten to one they cannot make money out of it. The
money voted by the people in the form of guaranteed bonds
does not go into construction until it has been thoroughly
picked in every way possible by passing from hand to hand
in a perfectly legitimate manner. The men on the work
have absolutely no interest in it, and it is quite obvious
that they can be made to contribute very considerably
towards the profits of the contractors. It is all rotten,
rotten to the core and the government and everyone else
is fully aware of its rottenness, but finds it politically profitable. Some day thc public will insist on contractors
being dealt with in a business like way, and then these
knights of the road will disappear like other decorative
figures of the barbaric ages.
Perhaps it is foolish to ask questions, but seeing that
contractors are not in business for philanthropic purposes,
why should thc people give them more money out of which
If a government believes a railway should be built
and is willing to guarantee thc bonds or otherwise assist
the contractors, the contract should be let by tender and
thc terms of thc contract published in full. Another method which is certainly more business like than the pre
sent is to pay the contractor ten per cent, over and above
the actual cost of construction. The one thing necessary
is to keep a proper check on the contractor and all his
works. He is there lo make as large a profit as possible
and he cannot bc blamed if he takes advantage of min
who arc only too willing to bc taken advantage of. He
has only to suggest that he will let them know exactly
where he will piace his townsites so that thcymay "gel
in on the ground floor," and they will extol him as a
public benefactor. If crown granted lands arc given
away as townsites, to the art of railway construction is
added the art of the real estate agent and it is through the
exploitation of real estate that the harm is done. But now
that it is useless to exploit real estate, perhaps the government will bc a little more business like and if it has
to advance money to complete the Pacific Great Eastern
it will at least keep some sort of check on the operations
of the Tliree Musketeers.
f mtt ta f ta f nltttral K^m
Though he, a varlet, was of humble birth,
Yet smart did Billy Bowser struggle here on earth.
He strived did with might and main
And so a small Napoleon became.
Promoted he the sad Dominion Trust
And P. G. E. interred with his dust.
atuag Btptmbst 14, l<Ufi, Atttto lomtttt
SUqmmat tit Ite
< i


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