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The Islander Dec 9, 1911

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Array FOR GOOD Warm Pure
Wool Blankets and  Comforters, try
I    X C
DEC lgJ9n       !
IA   B,
Neckwear and Belts,
MENS New Shirts and
v •' I'lt'iitr arrived at.
No. HO
Challenge Accepted
I hereby agree to accept Frank Be
dan's ohiiliettga ton wrestling  match
for a hei of $100 u   side, at  Cumber
hind or Nnnaini".
B. C.
Subscription price 11.50 per yaer
If you want something to
entertain your friends during
the holiday evenings you could
not get anything more suitable
thnn a Victor Gramophone. I
hnve got a "Victor" No. Ill in
stock and some very excellent
twelve inch and ten inch single
and double disc records. A-
mong these there is sure to be
something to suit you, if not
your order can be taken for
something that will, The Vic-
eor III is a beautiful instrument. It is made of quartered
oak cakinet, nickel-plated exhibition box, Victor tapering
arm, brake, speed regulafor and
10-inch turn table,|extra heavy
double spiral spring driven motor, blnck and gold Victor horn
28 inches long, 1'J-inch bell.
Altogether, there is nothing to
beat this talking machine. It
is sold on easy terms); a small
payment down and monthly
payments afterwards. You can
hear it by calling at The Island
er office.
The Girl's Guild of Huly Trinii;
Church are hulditig a dance in the Cumberland Hall on next Tueaday evening
December 12th, Thia dance, we have
no doubt, will bo a moat successful affair,
aa any dance given by the Girls' GuUd in
the paat haa always been well patronized,
and we have uot the slightest doubt but
those who have received invitations will
avail themselves uf the opportunity bj
turning out, helping the Girle, Guild,: ino
having a jolly good evening's enjoyment.
Labor Organizations Demand Enforcement of Law.  Toronto Labor Leaders Refuse to Believe Story of Guilt.
But Oh, you Meat Pie!   At the Cumberland Cufe.    The best in town. Tin
place where Homo made bread is soli
A new line of Stetson and hard
stiff hats to hand at Oampbell
Passenger Coach will leave as follow
to connect with tlio 0. P. B. at Union
Tuesday—5 p.m.
Wednesday—0.15 a. m.
Thursdgy—8 a. m.
Friday—0.45 p, m.
Saturday—5,46 a.m.
Boat loaves for Comox.
Wednesday—7 p. m.
Friday--7 p. ni.
Saturday—11 a. m.
Old Newspapers for Bale at Thi
I buy and sell Cleveland, Massey-Har
ris, Perfect and Cresoent Bicycles, ahu
guns, rifles and stoves. "Tommy's Biq
ole Shop, 3rd Street, box 300, Cumbei
land, B. C.
Watch McLeods advertising space uext
Teek. <
d, it is Said. Was
Brought about by Los Angeles Business Men.
Others under Suspicion
To Be ArreBted
At Once.
Los Angelos, Dec. 1.—
There was a tense moment in
the courthouse here today
when the McNamara brothers
plead guilty to the charge of
dynamiting the Times building. It is said this plea is a
compromise, the McNamara
brothers saving their necks
nad the state saving an ex '
penditure of a million dollars
the probaple cost of prosecuting the case.
Los Angeles, Dec. 2.—That other
persons implicated in dynamite con
ipiracies elsewhere may lie arrested in
Sun Francisco and Indianapolis and
that the McNatnaras may be called in
'o testify waa reported early today.
The confessions of the two brothers
were received with much interest iu
labor circles and the Central Labor
Council issued a statement declaring
itself against lawlessness nnd disorder
if any kind,
"The Central Labor Council," it
'ays, "stands for tho uplift of sooiety
When the McNatnaras were arrested
ind illegally deported from Indhpoli.-
io Los Angeles, organized labor believed that it was in violation of the
law and that, under the circumstance
a fair and impartial trial was impossi
ble. On the theory of the innocence
of all, until proved guilty, it came to
the aid of the acensed with moral and
financial help Upon the guilt of an
accused person being established, thc
Central Labor Council insists upon a
rigid enforcement of the law."
All Gsir. by Compromise.
Startling as was the sudden confes
sion of guilt yesterday af ternnoon of
John J. McNamara, secretary and
treasurer of tho International Associn
tion of Bridge and Structural Iron
Workers and his brother, James B.
McNaranra, the one to cnuso the Llew
el,yn Iron Works explosion and the
other, the Los Angeles Times disaster,
that'Cost 21 lives, it was more amazing to the people of Los Angles today
to learn that big business men had
brought about the surrender in a novel way It is understood that promi
nent business men of Los Angelr*
brought their influence to henr on both
the prosecution and the defense, fenr
ing that to prolong the fight, which
has already been neatly two months
in tho courts, would mean au inlermi-
ble warfare and uncertainty, detrimental to the city's interests,
The clemency to he shown the guilty
men is to be the reward for tlieir willingness to yield. For the people al
large, there is the hope that the warfare will oease aud thnt an era of good
feeling will ensue.
Clarence S. Darrow chief counsel
for the defense, re itterated today
chat the compromise was best for all
concerned; for James B, McNamara,
whn will get life imprisonment instend
of ,he death penalty, for John J. Mc-
Nai'inra, who will get a brief prison
■sentence; for the accusing side with
its pile of evidence, gathered after long
and vigorous investigation, a great
v'ctory.   There has been  no definite
lhat is the Size of the Coal Measures of which
Cumberland is the Center and
the Chief Town.
One of the greatest resources of Canada are the coal
measures. Millions of dollars have already been expended in
the development of the coal area, and yet it has hardly been
"sized up," to use the vernacular. For years to come many
nillions more will be expended before the breadth and depth
if our coal measures will even be sounded The coal is of such
tuality, the demand so great and constant, that the mining of
Hankerohiefs-A good variety,
ilain and initial; also a large line
>£ socks in all shades at Campbell
Mrs. Williams, dressmaker and
tnillin-i', opposite opera house,
Gourti in y
expression by t.io people yet,   They
seem dazed,
Torronto Labor Leaden Refuse
to Believe Story.
Montreal, Dec. 5,—Mr. Oustsv
Francois, of Jacques Cartier Tyograph
ical Union and ex vicepresident of the
Ttades and Labor Congress of Canada,
nne of the best known labor leaders in
Eastern Canada, declared today in regard to the McNamara cuso in Los
Angeles, that the organized workers
of Cauada would never approve of \ i-
olence in labor disputes. He said lie
could hardly believe that the McNamara brothers were guilty of doing
snch fiendish work and that the news
today astounded lnhor men hero.
Toronto, Dec. 2.—The news that
ihe McNamnras had pleaded guilty to
the charges of blowing up the Los
Angeles Times and the Llewclly Iron
Works and killing Charles J Haijger-
ty, eaused exoitement among labor
uled here, At first the report was
lalif ed "bogns" but. when later de-
spi*>o)\ea..ooiiclu«ivoly confirmed it, tho
union men began first to dohbt tin
genuineness of the confession and theii
to openly suggest thnl the confession
was bojight by capitalists as a death
blow tn trade unionism.
Los Angeles, Dec. 5.—James Boyd
.McNniniirn and John J. MoNtiniarn
brothers and natives ..f CinoinatM, O-
liio, the ono slim, with drooping shoulders, sallow faco and small eyes, nnd
the other a broad, robust man of rally countenance, felt today tho st-ong
hand of 'justice which they long had
sought to evade, the former boing sentenced tn imprisonment for life and
the latter to fifteen yeara in the state
bly situated than many of her
sister towns in the coal areas.
Millions have already been expended and tiie coal values
have been demonstrated.yet the
north line of the area has not
been determined.
The minimum area of the
Comox district, of which Cumberland is the center and chief
point of development, is 800
square miles, with an estimate
1152 million tons of coal in
The mining of this coal, to
say nothing of the timber and
farming,will make Cumberland
a wealthy town and a good
place to invest your money.
The development of these
coal fields will make Comox a
good district in which to invest
and make a home.
Attractive and pleasing gilt box s
'ootainini; neckwear usi suspend,rl
«ud otber suitable articles, tbey wiuld
he a appreciable as glfti to Old C un
ry friendi at Campbell Bros.
Attraotive pleasing gift boxes containing neckwear and suspenders
and other suitabl articles, they
woul be appreciable as gifts to Old
Country found at Ccmpbell Bros.
Visiting cards at the  Islander of
our coal presents glittering attractions to captal and insures
the advancement and upbuild
ing of our coal mining districts.
A table prepared by the Minister of Mines of British Columbia for 1910 shows an estimated aggregate area of 1,351
square miles, containing 40,-
291 million tons of coal in the
following proportions:
Anthracite, 61 milliiou tons;
bituminous.39,674 million tons;
lignite, 490 million tons.
Those who have litippily located and invested tlieir money
in these coal districts have displayed sound business Judy;
ment. In the years to cohie
millions will be expended in
the exploitation of these euul
fields,doubling and trebling the
value of all kinds of property.
Cumberland is more l'uvora-
For every purchase of tl 00 and over
pent in my store from uow till Christ
mu eve, you will receive a ticket free on
he following three valuable articles: -
Firnt prize Cut Glass Decanter set 128
ecoi d prize to be selected, to value of |17
liird prize One gulden onk 8 day gone
strike cl..ck value J9 00. Onme and make
y ur purohase early .mil Becure tickets fin
tones beautiful [irizu- T. P. MiLmi
Alio tickets will be on side at win,
ime for nn'itho .f th >e ben.ttful «ol..
ciit,liioiis25o per tioket.
p    '• t ■••
ncv Via';
,%o 00
ut. I
in', plain    Virtu lire   Silks,   chill'
»! • hi If, bin. k   nud   wf it*   blue au
wh  " i ri<'- nt Cnmohflli Pr"B
Great Slaughter of the
Mallard land the
Wild Goose
Messrs. Freeburn, E. Suttie, P.
Shearer and J. Wilson spent a week
at Oyster River after the wild ducks
and geese that gather there every winter. They got over two hundred in
one week. The record is ctaimed by
R. Freeburn, who got nine Milliard)-
in two shots, flying.
Honk! Honk! Geese. A hunch
of Cumberland's best shots spent the
week's end at Oyster River. One hundred and eighty two duck and gccM-
was the small bag they got for two
days' shooting.
Tho Oyster River weather prophet
faild tbo boys or there wouldn't have
been a duck left around here.
'•If it wasn't for a shell snapping
in Long Willieta gun, thoso big geese
would have beon a by-word by now.
Hut mill they honk.
Gloves«A large assortment ofall
tinds wool gloves, k gloves, fui
gloves, also .i wide range of work-
mens gloves at Campbell Bros.
tfOlt ALF -One heavy  logging
liorse mid hnrness.Will lnl;c payment in
any thing that grows upon the ranch.
Apply W, Uo.me Comox, B (J.
Beautiful i'i cokwear-The seat-
"a  V'jry Newstit Styles at Canij-
THE Y. M. C A.
Many Plans to be
At Public Meeting Monday Right
Thore was a good attendance at the
meeting in tho Council chambers on
Tuesday evening, which was held for
the purpose of organiz!ng a Young
Men's Christian Association.
Dr, Oellespio again occupied the
ohair, with Dr, McNaughton secretary.
There was much enthusiastic discussion, in which a number qf plans were
submitted for raising funds with which
to establish and maintain the organization. They were taken under con-
H;deration and it was decided to submit them to a public meeting; to be
held in the Council cMMfciiMta Monday evening.
The meeting adjourned, confident
unit tbo efforts to form a Y. M. C. A,
were i«|ont to bo crowned with success
A gnod display of Dress Goods, Fancy
V.iles and SdkCrepe de Chene, for eve-
nog wenr. Sooteh Tarltana and Cull.
neres in ull shades for children's dresses
Lelies'cloth in all  the new   colors at
Campbell Bros.
FOR SALE—Sinner Needles and OU
nt the Islam dk. Office.
FOR SALE—Sii young heifers just
lived, also two brood sows.    Apply
Mr. Walter Woodhus, of Oyster
River paid Cumberland a visit this
week. The gentleman reports that
sport is good and says there nre lots of
geese and duck in that part of the
Mr. Mike Henncssy is starting in
the chimney cleaning business, There
are many defective flues caused by
ihimneys not boing clean and owing
to this its a wonder that there have
lieen moro fires in Cumhoi land. Better got your chimney cleaned by Mike
ind protect your house from risk of
lire,    He will guarantee a good job.
Mrs. W. 8. Siddell, of this city, who
lias been on nn extended visit to the
oast, at Portland, Maine, U. S A, is
expected to join her husband here,
A shipment of fine negligee strip-
jd and fanoy shirts just arrived a
big seleotlon to ohoose from; also
fanoy vesta and mufflers at Qamp-
oell Broi.
Change advertisements for
Saturday mornings issue must
ne in tbis office not later than
10 a. m. on Thursday.
By-ihe-way, have you tried those
"it pies at Mn. Jack's) Nol Well,
•in. yu nunh' to: they are delicious
nl will make you feel like some mora.
The B 0. Garage and Machine Bhop
fur auto and gas engine supplies and repairing.
India Under Lord Curzon
(By u Student of Politics)
Thoro is uo ono living wltn writes of
India with greater wisdom uuil authority thuu Mr. Luvut Fraser. In him
BOliud judgment cornea to the uid of
wide experience. He is no urine hair
politician discoursing of whut lie knows
by hearsay. lie, too, lias played his
purt in the events which ho records. He
lias visited the scenes whieh ho describes; he has assisted at the splendid
ceremonies which incite his pen to enthusiasm. The opinions which he ex
presses aro marked by u studied moderation. Though he is in a sense a partisan ho does not permit his partisanship
to cloud his judgment. Not ovon his
eulogy of Lord Curzon is marred by a
hasty condemnation of those who refused to mipport him.
His book, indeed, is fur wider in
scope and interest than its title would
imply. It is India rather than this or
that Viceroy which engrosses him.
Though Lord Curzon's policy is the
pivot of his argument, Mr. Fruser is no
mere biographer, lie has given uh in
r>0() ample pages thc best account of recent Indian history that is known to us.
He writes as ono inspired with faith
and hope. In some chapters—as, for
instance, in his brilliant account of the
Persian Gulf and its dangers—ho rises
to a lofty height of narrative and debate. Incidentally hu 1ms sketched
with a vivid insight most uf thc personages who in our day have shaped
tho life of India. His portrait of Jam-
setjee Tata, for example, who might be
called tbe Cecil Rhodes of India, is a
little masterpiece. Of this great man,
who saw in early youth that India could
not thrive solely on agriculture, who
built mills, organized industries, encouraged scientific education, and who
spent bis money with royal wisdom aud
magnificence, we would gladly hear
more. Meanwhile, wc acknowledge
that for the scale on which it is painted the portrait could not be bettered.
However, Lord Curzon's policy is tho
chief text of Mr. Lovat Fraser's discourse, tbough bo allows himself the
widest digressions, and it is by his
treatment of that text that his book
must stand or fall. Colored as the treatment is with enthusiastic approval, it is
wholly free from personal bias. Mr.
Fraser tells us that he spoke with
Lord Curzon only once while ho was in
India, and it is the measures, not tbe
man, which tip his pen witb eloquence.
This is how be sums up tho Viceroy's
arduous work:
"lf I were asked to name," says he,
"tho four principal achievements of
Lord Curzon in India which were of a
constructive und permanent character,
1 would select tho partition of Bengal,
tho solution of tlic problem of the
North-West Frontier, the reform of the
system of education, and the formulation of a laud revenue policy which was
clear, consistent, and considerate."
There is a work which only a political Hercules could perform in a brief
span of years, and by its success or failure must Lord Curzon be judged.
As to the partition of Bengal, Mr.
Fraser has no doubts. Lord Curzon, he
tells us, ' urifted into the project by
accident and largely without the elaborate premeditation whicli usually
marked Iiis reforms; but by it he will
probably bo best remembered aud, as
nil impartial persons who have seen the
new provinco believe, ultimately blessed."
It, was by a foolish accident that this
partition was laid bold of by violent
agitators. The nonsense whioh, they
tallied about it was inspired Ity their
craving for unrest, not by the facts of
the case. And now that the agitation
is past and over, not even Mr. Suronda
Xath Bauerjeo will ever clamor again
for union. To anyone who looks at a
map of India the reason for the division is clear, To govern 'the whole of
Bengali Croft] Calcutta was, and always
has been, a plain impossibility. Kven
the Moguls were content to leave the
eastern portion to tbo control of their
viceroys. It is in these tortns that Mr.
Frasor sketches it before tho partition:
"Of all the territories in India none
was less known or less cared for until
recently than the present province of
Eastern Bengal. Assam was comparatively familiar to the world without; it
had its own Chiof Commissioner, and
the tea interest at any rate was audible
enough. But Kastern Bengal, nltl/oilgh
its chief cily, Dacca, was only 250 miles
from Calcutta, wns ground less trodden '
by Englishmen than the Khyber. It lay ;
boyond wide, brimming rivers. To roach
it was a muddled business of casual
trains aud ferry boats and uncertain
steamers. In the rainy season it is one
vast swamp. N6 wandering traveller
sailed upon iis waterways. The very
lan-[lords were absentees, squandering
tipoii the delights of Calcutta the substance which their agents wrung from
the peasant iy, . . . Oood adminis
tration stopped short al tho Qangos. Boyond was a place where millions lived
and workod and foughl and committed
crime almost unhcodod,''
The partition was made, and already
a change for the better is visible, Dacca is no lunger a desolate city, but 0
real capital. For tho (irst time in Its
history Kastern Bengal knows whut it
is to have a wise and settled government. The craft of the river pirates
has boon firmly grappled with, and
when its finances are set. upon a Bounder basis Kastern Bengal will yield in
prosperity to no other province iu the
Indian Rmplre,
Such is (he (irst achievement of Kurd I
Curzon.    The sernnd achievement cele-j
brntod by Mr, Lovat Frasor is the soly*[
ed problem of the Nortb-West Frontier
•-solved  for tho  moment, if  not   per-
.  m a 11 on tly,     This   problem   lias   puzzled
statesmen  for man yoars.    The heroic
solution would have boen to occupy the
tribal  country  as  far  as the  political
boundary,    T°   this   policy   there   arc
many practical objections.    Before tbo
country was occupied it must be sub
duod  ut an  infinite cost  of  men  and
treasure.    And  whon subdued it  must j
bo held continuously by force of a ms.
Lord Curzon'a solution of the problem
was less heroic nnt] far more practical..
Am be sai I himself, it. consisted in "the
withdrawal of British forces from ad-1
vn need positions, employment of tribal j
forces in the defence of tribal country,
concentration of British forces in British territory behind them as a safeguard and a support, and improvement
of communications in the roar." This
prudent policy has proved eminently
successful. While it appeased military
fervour it satisfied completely the exigencies of the political situation. Its essence was, as Mr. Fraser writes, "to
make the tribesmen responsible for the
maintenance of order." The effect of
this responsibility on the tribesmen has
bcen uniformly good, and a welcome
cessation of frontier warfare is the best
justification of Lord Curzon's policy.
A fnr bolder enterprise wns the reform of education undertaken by Lord
Curzon in no spirit of levity. Education
indeed is a stem test of statesmanship
all the world over. It has wrecked
more reputations in Kngland than any
other branch of political activity. Kven
to-day tbe fanaticism of its professors
bas entirely obscured its main purpose, which is the proper training of
tbe young. In India the problem was
complicated by au evil tradition. "Ever
since the cold breath of Macaulay's rhe
toric passed over thc field of the Indian
language and Indian text-books," said
Lord Curzon, "tbe elementary education of the children in their own
tongue has shrivelled and pined." The
universities were iu the hands of politicians, and their only system was a
system of money and cram. To attempt reform meant to arouse the bit
terest hostility in many quarters, But
Lord Curzon did not shrink, and intro
duced a Bill which he himself thus sum
"Its main principle is to raise the
standard of education all rouad, and
particularly of higher education. Wbat
we want to do is to apply better and
less fallacious tests than at present ex
ist, to stop the sacrifice of everything
in the colleges which constitute our uui
versity system to cramming, to bring
about better touching by a superior
class of teachers, to provide fur closer
inspection of colleges and institutions
which are now left practically alone, to
place the government of the universi
tics in competent, expert, and enthusiastic bands, to reconstitute the Senates,
to define and regulate thc powers of
tho syndicates, ... to show tbe
way by which our universities,, wbicb
arc uow merely examining boards, can
ultimately bc converted into teaching
institutions; in fact, to convert higher
education in India into a reality instead of a sham."
It is the loftiest ambition to which a
statesman can uspire. A well-educated
country is easily governed. Yet no gov
ernment bas ever yet beeu nblo to con
trivo a sound system of education. Whether Lord Curzon has succeeded in In
dia the future alone will prove. If Iu
dia be given wise teachers to carry out
a wise policy she may triumph where
Kngland with a less difficult problem
to solve bus lamentably failed. Menu
while we can hope only that, as the evil
wliich Lord Mncnulny did has survived
its inception almost a century, the good
wliich Lord Curzon attempted may bear
fruit when this generation und its con-
t "ovorsles have passed for over out of
Tho fourth task achieved by Lord
Curzon touched a yet wider public than
Lhe reform of education. This was to
formulate a land revenue policy which
was clear, consistent and considerate.
Lord Curzon was perfectly conscious of
it* importance. The Indian peasant,
said bo, "should be the first and (inal
object of ovory Viceroy's regard." And
the measures which he took as summed
up in this book arc measures of prudence and moderation.
"Ho introduced new principles,"
writes Mr. Fraser, "of suspension and
remission of land revenue collection in
times of scarcity, which largely transformed the spirit iu which the dues of
Oovernment arc collected. . . He
started a great system of co-operative
credit societies, now growing rapidly in
extent and usefulness, which enabled
thc cultivator to obtain cheap capital
nnd broke the monopoly of exorbitant
moneylenders. He saved the landholders of the Punjab froAi expropriation,
and encouraged the development o:,! bet
ter rotations between landlords aud
tenants iu other provinces. . . Finally ho accelerated the process of applying scientific principles to Indian
That is not a mean programme to
have carried out in the brief tenure of
liis olliee, and the ryot, at any rate, may
pay a tribute of unfeigned gratitude to
Lord * 'nizon.
And the tale of Lord Curzotl's services Id India is but half told. His vigorous exclusion of all rivals who Bought
tu establish themselves in the Persian
Gulf makes us prom) of our country.
With untiring zeal he did his best iu
put right the machinery of government,
Vn one wlm attempted lo increase the
i ommereo of India lockod his oncOur-
agemont, tfor did ho neglect thc d'oblo
iieritage of India's past, He rescued
from miu or base uses many a noble
mosque. In tbo stately half which he
inaugurated in Calcutta there will be
sumo day' an impci Ishriblo record of
brave floods faithfully done. A worthy
mqmoriul truly, sinco it is in the contemplation of the lives of heroes that
heroism finds its sharpest incentive.
And to accomplish all this Lord Curzon workod as few men have worked.
He worked as though he were conscious
all the while that a brief time was
given him for the attainment of his ambitions. And by the cruel irony of fate,
which too often thwarts the zealous, he
wn* driven to resign his high oflice with
his 11 licv of reform onlv half achieve 1,
Tin- subject which lei to Lord Curzon V iesi'.'nation need not detain us
Ion?;. It ha;; been discussol at far great-
cr length thnn it deserved. Lord Kit-
choiior objected to the independent opinion of the Military Department, because "flu1 exi.'.teuco of two opinions
■i tsed the Army to take sides, while
i brought the Viceroy into the arena oi'
■-'lesion on contentious military sub-
:<;-t>." The Government of India replied that they "should regard with
nosltlyo dismay any cllUUgO that would
in any degree dethrone the government
ot India lrum their constitutional con-
iui 01   Uie  uiuiiiu  army or bet  up a
lugie eouuuunuer iu tueir place.''
much could uo said oa tae utuur side.
. luuuuuuiuiy liuuuer i.uui luizuii nor
.uurd KiicUuuur lotus cuiiiptunubu, uuu
districts to balance thu account. In
tho line of mineral wealth alone, there
are indications of one of the richest
mining zones in tho world—aud the
surface bus been burely scratched as
yet.   There are very considerable areas
... jjroueacii uid uut possess tue tact of land that will produce banner crops,
nicii migut aa\o uiuuciuieit tno oil-(given  decent cultivation.   Along  sucb
Oi ences uut ween them, hvuu ut tue
use moment poucu might nave bucu
made u tae huiuo go\eiiimeut huu accented as mat uninury supply luomuur
oir bumuuu Harrow. This it detuned
to do, and liuru Luizuu ha- ao cuoicc
uut to roLUiii Hume,
touch wuu tue eustunsiblu euuse of
Lord Curzon *s resignation. 'i'Ueiu wus
uesiues sumeiiuiig iii nis temperament
wuicn made his position diuicuu. fruc-
ticut us hu is, iiUid Curzou was toucuud.
uy iuuiu uu us romantic side. From
uuyuuud he Uud dreamed ul tbe vice-
lujuity ut luuiu, and wnuu his dream
oucaiuu a reality ne attached the tusa
ttliiLJi ue huu aiways liupud wuuld uu
in.-, with a feverish activity, lie aimed
ut mulling a uuw India ia live years,
no lurgut thut ttio wo.K of government
must uiwuys bu a woru oi gruwu
lutnur i mi ii ut uulitiou, lie wuuld
nave douu more wisely u ho had .«•
mum bored tho injunction uf tbe Chinese
pluiosupiicr, umi yuu must rule u greut
btute us yuu Uoqk a small fish, auu nut
overdo it. -Su country's appetite lor
rei onn is insatiable, ami Lurd curzon
attempted to pack tno reforms of half
a century into seven yeurs.
Ho much ior tbe pust. I'or the future Air. Lovat Fisuer mingles hope
witb misgiving. lie thinks the wave
ot unrest may navu spout itsolf. "But,"
us he says, "the duty of tno government remains unabated." iio uuos uot
mention whut seems tu us tbe worst
uauger tbat threatens India—tbe prevailing passion for popular government,
ihat a democracy should govern successfully so vast a dependency as India
seems almost impossible, especially as
it designs to thrust upon India its own
views concerning tbe sanctity of the
ballot-box. iu England itsolf, where
parliaments bave nourished for muny
centuries, democracy is now for the
lirst time uu trial. Whether tbe experiment will succeed ur not tho next
generation will discover, in India its
lailure could only end iu appalling disaster. However, though wo cannot
overlook tbe danger threatened by Mr.
Kamsuy MacDonald and others, we may
at least take it iu time, and still share
the proud confidence of Lord Curzon.
"Let uu mau admit," said be ia a
noble peroratiun, "tbo craven fear thut
those who have wou iudia cannot hold
it, or that we bave made indiu only
to our own or tu its unmaking. That
is uot tlic truo reading uf history. That
is uut my forecast ot the future. To
me the message is carved iu granite,
it is hewn out of the rock of doom—
that our work is righteous aud that it
shall endure." With wliich splendid
message of pride uud hope wu tuke
leave of Mr. Fraser'a most valuable
contribution to histuqy, commending
it unreservedly to every politician iu
the couutry.
Throng*, the upper couutry, wherever
you go, yuu will hear men complain
that Vancouver and Victoria aro eslf-
satisfied. 'there muy ur may not be
some justice in the criticism; ther
is, uud it must be
rivers ns the Willow, to the eust, and
the Skeena to the west, is to be found
excellent lumber, covering large areas,
'lliere ure resources suflicient to support u very large population, and, so
rapid has* been the march of progress
in the district, it will not be many
years before that population follows
the railway in,
Witb thc central interior, transportation has always beeu tbe one insurmountable barrier to advance. No man
can live in a country for an indefinite
period facing freight rates tbat render
prohibitive both export and import,
it is the advent of trausportution—
rather tbo immediate prospect of transportation facilities—that is giving tbis
now empiro its sudden impetus, So
sudden has it been that the Coast cities
have just begun to realize it.
In connection with tbis question of
transportation the upper couutry has
somo interesting tnles to toll, in tbe
early gold rush days, meu packed a
piano on their backs from New West
minster to Quesnol to satisfy the musical longings of a lady pioneer. Even
todny eight-horse teams, supplanting
tbe mulo teams, which in turn bad supplanted the old-time packers and "bull-
teams," drag freight from Ashcroft
to Soda Creek at four cents per pound.
Hardware is scarce and dear in tho
upper country—it weighs too much. 1
have seen mining machinery tbe freight
on wbicb, delivered at Barkorville, ran
up to 25 centB per pound.
So it will come about that next season, when supplies can be rafted dowu
tbe Fraser from the end of steel nt
Tete Jaime Cache to Fort Oeorge, tbere
will be a change iu the distributing
base of the Cariboo, Goods will be
sent down from Fort Georgo to Soda
Creek by water, thence taken by wagon
to the point on the Cariboo road where
the  Ashcroft  influence  begins. A
transportation expert might figure out
where that point will be; certainly it
must come where the freight rates from
Ashcroft equalize those from Edmonton
via Tote Juane Cache and Fort George,
Today there are farmers ou the upper
Frnscr making, from their farm produce,
as much ns $15,000 and $20,000 per
year. This is another fact not generally known in tbe Coast cities, yet it is
a  fnct, abundantly demonstrable.
Fort Goorge, tho Fraser Lake district, the Bubine and Francois Lake
countries) the Bulkley Valley, eacb has
a story worth the telling. Tbe old
town of Barkorville, soon to disappear
to make way for a new, was included
in the itinerary. At Hazeltou the party
met and interviewed President Hays,
uf the Grand Trunk Pacific, as to bis
plans for the railroad. Here is one
thing Mr. Hay's said:
"Leaving myself a safe margin, 1
may freely predict that the road will
be completed frum coast to coast in
1914. This covers all possible delays
we may encounter."
The Value of Tripoli
(By J. Barnard James)
Three or four of tho clerks III u city
office were recently amusing themselves
—of course, in tbeir employer's time.
! criticism; there it j They were deeply  intent  upon   trying
reckoned with. Per- j to balance curds, instead of accounts.
Imps the largest Coast cities have been  upon   their   fingers,   comerwise,   when
too much absorbed in problems nearer j
just us one of them had u large card
their hands to  note  too meteoric rise; nicely  bulauyed,  the duor opened and
of a "new empire" in the central part  in walked the head of the firm
of British Columbia.   Perhaps the virile     "Why, I logon, I am surprised!" be
people   who   are  pioneering  along the I sternly observed.    "How ever can vou
line of the Grand Trunk Pacific Hallway are too jealous oi their own, This
much is sure—Vancouver and Victoria,
whether they wish it or not, must extend recognition to the country tlmt is
being opened up by the new transcontinental, and that shortly.
The situation is just this. Across
thc Rocky Mountains by the easy puss
of the Yellow head lies Kdmonton, a
young city, extraordinarily fortunate
in its location, ambitious, growing abnormally in wealth and importance.
The Grand Trunk Pacific, building westward from Edmonton, has passed the
Vollowhead and is creeping down towards the centre of this province, leaving a steel highway that binds the territory covered to the Kdmonton markets, Trade will follow the cheapest
c..anncls, so it is safe to predict a
time whea Edmonton—of Alberta—will
be the metropolis of central aud northern BritlBh Columbia. There is a way
out of the difllculty, but it involves
rapid decision on the part of Vancouver
and Victoria business men, some team
work, ami more than a little enterprise.
There must be railway communication
between the central interior and the
This matter is freely tal Iced of ia
the new towns that have sprung up
since the G, T,  P. invaded the upper
do itl'
ried away.   '
sir! " Hogun  replied.
Andre Jager-Scbmldt, who as representative of the Paris paper Exeelsoir,
has just set Up the-new record of Hi)
days li) hours -I.i minutes 37 4-5 seconds for a trip nround the world, summarizes tho cost of it ns follows:
"My ticket from Paris to Paris cost
$570, to which must be added supplementary fares between Montreal and
New Vork $11, aud on board the Olympic $25; all other expenses, Including
tips, came to about $000, bringing the
cost of the whole trip to $1,212,
"Tips cost mo about $100, divided
among sleeping car conductors, servants on shipboard, Boot polishers,
Pullman porters, Chinese servants, baggagemen, restaurant waiters, barbers,
nathmen, and men to tako my telegrams at staions where T had no time
to do it myself. I spent $0() in buying
new linen during my journey. I did
not spend more than $lu at hotels during my stops nnd my food, including
wine, on board the bout cost about
$ 100.
v «-.,... „„= uVu_., _       moving all the time except
country,   in   the   old   settlements  that j *9r   sixty-throe   hours.      1   slept   four
have boon rejuvenated since that same tr*1168 under :i roof—at Yokohama, Van-
event, in   ranch   houses,  on  the trail, couver, MoutrooJ and New Vork.'
-eiywliere.    At  Port George they are)	
looking for cheap freight rates by next
Ihoy   are   looking   up   tli-
Lo Tete Jamie Cache, head
, and thence over the rail-
spring,  and
rraser Rivoi
of navigatio ^^^^^^^^^^^^^
way line to Edmonton. A woek ago a
man who owus the largest ranch In the
Bulkley Vutley told mo'that "Edmonton would own central British Columbia
insidfl two yoars." This is tho state
of affairs. Now what are we going to
do about it?
First of all, is it worth while for tbo
Coast cities to bother about the trade
of this new region? That is the Important factor in the case. To answer
thc (j nest ion the Colonist and Nows*
Advertiser sent two representatives on
'tt tour of central British Columbia tills
summer to investigate conditions and
report on them, This trip began at
Ashcroft and ended at Prince Rupert.
From careful personal observation the
Inquirers have arrived at conservative
conclusions as to the future of central
British Columbia in tlio various departments of agriculture, mining, lumber! eg, ete.
Without elaborating, the net result
of this tour of investigation is a vor-
diet that central British Columbia has
a great future as a rich and favored
region. It is well woith wliile for
ili.' Const cities to cultivate her acquaintance and her favor. While all
that has been said about certain parts
nf the country is not strictly true, yet
I    The last   French  woman    who    met
nupoleon I. fuce tn fuco dio.l recently
at '|
a   Widow
ilomoBtlc i
Mme. Millus
wore on the
aco o ' I'oiitai: bleau,
iflupoloou shortly bi
of his guards, spol
palace park. Mme,
'vid recollection o.
ongh Ims beon left unsaid about other i higl
id 102. .She was
ose parents
c stofif of the Pul-
Sho Wfls live when
fore taking leave
e to her iu the
Millps retained a
| vivid recollection of this meeting until the day of her death, and ou that
account she was something of a local
Denmark hns probably the finest natural outdoor theatre in the world. Tt
is situated in the royal deer park,
about six miles out of tiie capitifl. There
the avenues of mighty trees servo ns
wings and background to a stage fronted by a beech-encircled slope that forms
a perfect auditorium. Eight thousand
poople cun be nccommodi.tod at ovo.-v
A pipe said tn be worth $50,000 is
owned by the SImh of Persia. It is
adorned with all kinds nf pvoclotiS
stones.    It is constantly guarded hv a
rt fane
That Tripoli is a sphere of Italian i
influence bas beon recognized for many!
years by the chiof European powers;
but what rowurd it may offer for the
trouble nnd expense of occupation and
development is, to sny the leust, problematical. I havo passed along the
Tripolltun coast and stopped at the
principal ports, curious to soe what inducements the country might offer to
commerce or industrial enterprise. And
the result of my observations is to occasion ut the present moment it fecliug
of surprise that any two countries
should think it worth going to war
Tripoli is pure aud simple desert,
extending on tbe north even to the
margin of tho sen. Oases aro sprinkled here and thoro on tho arid, barren
surface, and theso are the sites of occasional towns and villages. In the
interior the population is mostly nomadic, their chief concern in life being to keep within accessible distance
of water-springs, Tho town of Tripoli, like the other coast towns, lies
ou the very brink of the desert, which1
seems to grudge it its existence, and
would fain elbow if off Its sandy bosom
Into the sea. Tripoli was formerly a
place of much greater importance than
now: it was a headquarters and starting-point of caravans, which traded
right across tbe Sahara, interchanging
the merchandise of Europe for the pio-
ducts of Nigeria aud even the far-off
Congo. But these rogions have now
other and moro convenient outlets, nnd
thc greater part of Tripoli's trado haB
consequently been cut off. * Her chief
source of wealth bus vanished and her
pristine glory has waned. Caravans
still start from there on their trans-
Hnharan journey, but they bavo now
become rare events, nnd tbe profits tbey
yield are hardly commensurate with the
toil and risk involved.
It was my good fortune, however, to
witness the departure of one of these
caravans. All morning and afternoon
tuere wus ususuul bustle and commotion in thc market-placo. First the
camels, to the number of nearly two
hundred, were assembled; then vast
piles of merchandise were accumulated,
together with provisions for tho journey; theso were apportioned in proper
quantities to the waiting beasts, who,
kneeling, received their burdens with
an air of philosophic resignation, A
motley crowd of Arabs and negroes
pushed forward tho preparations, receiving an occasional word of instruction from the dignified Hbeikh wbo was
owner of thc camels und lender of the
enterprise, and who watched the operations with scruttzing attention, Last
of all tbe ladies of the harem were
brought forth, and, closely veiled, wero
piaced upun their camels. At length
ull was ready, and tho struggling procession set out. Prom the sand of
the market-plfice it passed along a sandy
street into a more sandy lane, bordered
with prickly pear, and in a few minutes the limits of cultivation were
reached. 1 had hastily hired a donkey
and accompanied the caravan till it de
bouched upon the desert. There I
stopped awhile to watch it as it gradually grew less distinct and ut length
disappeared iu the golden glow of the
setting sun.
Sand is the prevailing note nt Tripoli, aud is alike its*blessing and its
curse. An absence of evil smells in
the narrow streets and covered in souks
(as the bazaars are more correctly called) is attributable chiellly to the absorbing quality of the sand and the dryness of the air. In a place who e
there is no system of sanitation ami
wliere sometimes no rain falls for a
space of years, it is a merciful dispensation that sand should possess properties tending to purge disease and thus
prevent this town of dirt from becoming a hotbed of pestilence.
Iu certain other respects Tripoli is
of fascinating interest. Its European
population is su small as to be almost
insignificant, and there nre very few
tourists to such au inaccessible spot.
It cannot be reached at all by rail;
and the Italian steamers which call at
reg.ilur intervals are not exactly choice.
One consequence is that Tripoli has
preserved its Arab characteristics much
more than most North African towns.
Visitors to Cairo and Tunis, for example, may be much impressed by the
native bazaars; and at tirst believe that
they are beholding the real thing. Let
them go on to Kerouan or Tripoli (and
especially the latter) and they will
quickly decide that the former cities
were frauds. In Tripoli you see true
Arab life as it lias existed for ages
past, from Persia to Morocco. As you
wander through the souks examining
the wares exposed for sale; or stand
close back to u bazaar to make way
for a big loaded camel, who nearly (ills
lhe narrow struct; or watch tIio iealhei-
workcrs plying their trado, which has
been passed on from father to sou
through many genera tions; as you
mingle with the people, and for a time
live their life, you gradually absorb
the spirit, und understand it in a way
you havo nevei done before, that is
breathed through the pages of that
wonderful book "The Arabian
Nights." StnndflTg boforo ihe biass
worker's shop you mny see a lump for
sale which might hnve beeu Aladdin's.
A clusejy veiled female figure, attended by a partly veiled negrcss who need
have no fear of exposing her questionable charms to the masculine eye, recalls to the mind the adventurous
princess who entered upon on intrigue
with a handsome young mercer.
The voilcd faces of the women naturally proviile food for the imagination: aro they beautiful, or do the
veils merely screen hideous features I
To lho male visitor in Tripoli it must
necessarily remain a matter of conjecture. But I am inclined to bollovo
that there must be among the Arab
women a high degree of beauty. Wy
grounds ftk this opinion are simple
enough; the men are for the most part
n line, weli sot-up, beautifully proportioned, handsome race, wbicb fact suggests thc conclusion that their mothers
would be similarly enduwe I. Moreover, the average of good looks among
the young children that one sees nbout
support; this view.
But picturesque, old-world customs
and a half-barbarous raeo of peoplo,
iio matter whut their physical attractions, will not suflico in themselves to
make a country a valuable acquisition.
And it is difficult to see what Italy is
likely to got out of Tripoli which could
possibly compensate hor for the trouble
it is likely to cost her. Tripoli has
not been a source of benefit to Turkey;
tne latter has had to keep up a considerate garrison thore, and as tbo food
supply ot tho country is very inadequate provisions have had to bo largely imported. On the' other hand, Turkey is not a country able to make tbe
best of any of Its dependencies. Under a new and moro civilized regime
such resources as Tripoli does possess
would have a chance of development,
nud in that respect Italy would be as
capable as nny other power; but I much
doubt if its occupation will ever bo a
paying proposition. The fertile patches
of the country ure too few and too
small to look for much result from agriculture, and owing to tho lack of any
river artificial irrigation does not appear feasible. Rumors of tbe existence of mineral wealth seem to have
been unfounded. And finally, the
population is too scanty to provide a
very valuable market fur Italian manufactures. In faet, Italy herself can
hardly be going in for the occupation
of Tripoli as a money-making scheme;
her motives would seem rather to be
due to irritation, undoubted and prolonged, occasioned by Turkish methods
and misrule, paltry slights, and pinpricks repeatedly aimed at Italy in particular, and tho feeling tbat Tripoli's
proximity to Italy gave tbe latter superior rights as well ns superior interests in the proper administration of
the country.
Ordinarily one would think that a
fish iu tbe sea could go whore it wished
in the water; that is tbat it could go
as far down or como as close to tbe
surface as it desired. As thoro are
definite natural laws that prohibit this,
of course it is not possible.
Take a deep sea fish. It is under enormous pressure at its proper depth.
Let it stray too high, however, and on
thc pressure lessoning the fish gets larger, aim consequently lighter per unit
volume, and iu consequence is propelled
upward at an enormously increasing
rate uy the buoyancy of tho water, until at last it has to be expelled from the
surface of the sea with greut force. In
the meantime the fish hns suffered un
internal explosion, us it were, and its
eyes have popped out of its head and
its insides have expanded and made
holes iu the body. This is why thore
lire no perfect specimens of deep sea
fish iu any museum. Tho difficulty
could bo partly overcome by hauling
tbe fish up gradually; but, a heavy
weight would havo to he attached to
the line to overcome tho buoyancy of
the fish.
On the other hand, taku a shallow
water fish, .t dares nut stray too far
down, for the increasing pressure
would tend to make it heavier if it
was at all compressible; but as it is
not much so it would remain practically
the same volume and would find no
difficulty in propelling itself tu almost
uny depth' The increasing prcssuro,
however, would make it harder for the
(ish to move its organs and its eyes
would be pressed iuto its head.
For nil these reasons there uro well
defined strata of water ia which certain fish are found aud uo others. This
is one method of determining tho depth
of a former sea where fossils of (ish
are found on the land—the depth of
the sea at that place can be told within
certain limits by tho fossils.
Another fact known by everyono is
thc peculiar apparent bending of a
stick when thrust into clear water. It
is due to the refraction or bending of
liglit. Now, if one saw a fish iu fresh
water and desired tu shoot it, the gun
must bo pointed under the (ish; for it
must bo remembered that the fish appears as did the submerged end of the
stick, too far up. If the fish was direct
ly under the observer, however, the
light would uot be bent, and it could
be shot st ni ight at.
A fact iu regard to hunting swift
birds is well known to old hunters. To
sltoot a bird on the wing the gun has
to be aimed iii front of the quarry.
Now, just how much in front depoti ds
ou the speed of the bird, and the dis
tan co away, also the direction of flight
of tho bird and the direction of wind
at the time. While uld hunters have
learned by experience and have a sort
of aim "feel," amateurs ha\u tu roly
on i.icir judgment. But tho judgment
nn be regulated by well known principles of physics nnd the knowledge of
the customary speed of different birds
Take a wild duck, for Instance. It
flies nt un ordinary speed of aboul
forty-five miles uu hour, or Hi.tt.y i*i.v
feet' a second. If the velocity of the
rifle bullet (grutltoil that the duck was
hunted with a ville, and several hunters
use ll oth hlg else) wns twelvo hundred
foot a Second, and the duck was flying
directly across the view of the observer
at a fourth-mile distance— or about
twelve hundred feet, tho rifle would
hnve to bo aimed nbout the distance
ahead the bird would go ia a second;
for thc rifle bullet takes a second to
get there. So the distance in this case
would be about sixty-six foet.
Of course, when a shotgun is used the
distance »-t much shorter, aud tho speed
of tho shot will take care of any
slight, inaccuracy in estimating the
distance; but it requires a trained eye
to shoot on the wing with a rifle.
Tn Moscow, Russia, thc pawnshop is a
municipal affair, Last year over half
a million articles were pawned, having
n valuation of ovur $.1,1)00,000. i lt is
noticed that in Mnrch and April the
poor element of Moscow keeps the
pawnshops busy, und during that period
customarily parts with its warm over-
Hi w
Healing Among the Ancients
By Herkimer tiorikt-p e
The ait uf healing rs as old an man.
Some system *,i stopping; Mood-flow
m<l binding up wounds has beeu common to men throughout the world,
growing naturally from man's necessity, and from this rude surgery the
marvels of these latter days have been
developed, it wuuld stuun reasonable
to suppose lhat. tbe USO oi medicino
would hardiy bu as anclont ua surgery,
tor the reason that man waa forced)
through injuries met in combat with
bis foes and with boasts, io a rude
practice ot the. tatter belore he would
have awakened ta the possibility ot the
i'he primitive, instinct for roots and
herbs ot curative powers, which aui-
uuis share with man, must, have led to
au unconscious medication—if thai
■leiin may bfl .tidied--liom the very
beginning ot Uie race; but any consistent attempt to cure by moans of
drafts and potions cou id hardly bave
come unlit man was well out of the
primeval period. ^^^^^^
There is a tueory held by some, repudiated by others, tluit actual medical
practice oiigui-ucd in all countries
t-btough religious observances. In
ancient Kgypt it was undor the god
Osiris and nis wiie Uis, and the
temples and groves where it was
taught wore dedicated to lhe worship
of tttese gods, Likewise in Greece, it
was the god d hciiih, lisculapius,
nho was I ue |>rosidiiig deity.
The temples (tf ttsaiiapuis usually
stood in their exquisite classic beauty,
near a stream or springs which were
believed *o have healing tmipcrtics.
1 he records of cures were written on
thu walls ur columns, and thus a
"clinical record*' was built 114) and
elm 1 cal expedience, accumulated.
Une such temple, very famous, was
on the island of Cos, and was the
school where Hipocrates "the great"
taught early in the fourth century
Hippocrates wna the perfect representative in medicine, at tke highest
efforts ot the Greek intellect, the same
as his contemporaries wero in philosophy or the arts. The character of
physician and the practice of the medical art, as we now understand both.
have come tu us direct from this oreat
lhe Greeks taught the Romans, but
there i.s a diifarence °* opinion as to
whether they taught, or were taught
by, the Hindus. If the latter, then the
j Egyptian priesthood must have been
the means of conveying Uie knowledge; if the farmer, tjien the Alexandrian campaigns] winging tbj
Eastern and Western civilizations into
contact, were rcs[>onsible.
Certainly there was a ven- highly
developed medical knowledge among
the Hindus, and a code purely Brahmin in origin. In their literature on
the subject mention is made of an order lower than the regular physician
and surgeon, which included barbers.
naihrimmers (tirst mention of manicure), cat -borers, and tooth-drawers.
Theso were not within the Urahmini-
eal caste.
The dissection 01 the human body
seems possibly to have been suggested originally by the Egyptian disemboweling of the dead, previous to
embalming. At any rate, the study of
anatomy waa carried on in the great
medical sehool at Alexandria, founded about 300 B.C., in a very complete
manner, Human vivisection was also
practiced there upon criminals uuder
sentence of death, who were given to
the physicians for this purpose.
Ancient Kgypt had made great progress before this time, however, as
tbe \\ ell-set fractures found in mummies mutely testify. Artificial teeth
are also found ui mummies, and on
the walla of temples are pictured patients undergoing operations, and
others bandaged. The physicians, of
this period of Egyptian history seem
tq bave been specialists.
The Jews were especially skilled in
sanitary knowledge, and the Talmud
still gives hygienic laws to them. The
.medical knowledge of Kgypt forms
;he basis of these, and the isolation
of infectious diseases and their rules
about diet show thai they understood
some of the fundamental essentials
pretty thoroughly.
Many of their remedies were rather
extraordinary, to put it mildly, though
the principles of the homeopathic
ichool seem to have been rudely applied in somu cases; for instance, in
the bite of a ui.ul dog, the treatment
is feeding the patient the left lobo of
.he dog's liver, an early example of
like cures like."
Apparently, thorn were fashionable
.atering-places In Palestine in Tal-
mudic, days, for it is made known
that tho bathing season at *he hut
baths of Dinsia lasted twenty days,
and lhat thu hot baths of Tiberius
bnve curative properties.
Surgery was practised, for there ;irc
frequent references to blood-letting.
1 he Talmud explains that the biblical
i« ferencc to Daniel and his three
friends, "not even tiie scar of a laucet
waa upon tbem," was testimony to
their health of body and moral purity.
M;>ny of the Rabbinical rules of
hygiene and dietetics stand as good
10-diiy as they did at ithe time ef their
inception, and their medical formulas,
although elaborated at the present
time, served their purpose in a less
enlightened age. and in numerous instances still have their excellent uses.
In the second century A.D., the
philosophy «a£ thfc Sceptics became
dosely connected with one division of
medical thought known as the empirics, and the influence of tbis lived
through the age of Kamo, and on up
to the beginning of the Middle Ages.
The Romans themselves did not originate, nor at any time possess, a school
of medicine distinctly their own; and
Pliny says that they got on for ""six
hundred years without doctors. This
Is probably something of an exaggeration ; but it is true that the first physi
imperfect—that many of the mow eminent physicians of Graeco-Uoman
times attempted to combine the good
portions of each system inlo a comprehensive whole, Under this combination tbey called themselves
Arabia preserved tin* scattered remains of Greek culture and the heritage of medical knowledge, although
the Arabians themselves did little toward developing this bequest. They
were hampered, especially iu surgery,
by the restrictions of their religion,
which prevented them from studying
au atomy, aud their temperamental
stoicism made them accept suffering,
and not seek relief, but rather refuse
Gradually, after the Mohammedan
conquests, when learning began to be
in thfl ascendency, schools of medicine, sometimes connected with hospitals aiul schools of pharmacy,
sprang tip in all rhe principal cities.
At Damascus, under both Jewish and
Christian teachers, the medical practise bf the Greeks was earnestly cultivated. The Arabs also grew to know
Indian medicine, and Indian physicians lived at the court of llagdad.
In Spain ihe Islamite rulers encouraged learning of every soil, and
medical science shared in this. Much
was due to the Jews in Spain, as tbey
had already established schools before
the Moslem dominion. From the tenth
to thirteenth century, Arabian medicine waa at its height here.
To medieval Europe tradition alone
remained of the great ancient schools;
therefore tbe Arabian school was of
tho greatest importance in the chain
of medical history. There must be a
continuous thread—there is bound to
he iu all history, but from the fifth to
the tenth century it is very nearly
During' this dim period thc monasteries were the homes of learning.
The science did not advance under the
amount of scientific research in their
work, although tlieir facilities are not
equal to those of other nations.
io Germany, more than to any
other single nation, we owe the marvels of the medicine of to-day. Students from all parts of the world eagerly seek the classes and laboratories
of ber famous professors. A very high
standard is probably the reason for
the great success of German teaching,
five years being the time required to
obtain the degree of M.D,
In England the physician of Henry
Vill, Thomas Linacie, laid the tirst
real scientific foundation for medical
study. He possessed great, influence
at court, and this he used wisely, persuading the king to take the arbitrary
power of licensing persons to practise medicine out of the bishops';
hands, and 10 establish an examination aud tbe necessity of taking the
degree from either the university at
Cambridge or Oxford, in each of
which he founded chairs for the teach- j
iug of medicine, !
As  late as   1745  the  surgeon  was!
still  looked down  upon in  England,!
and associated with (ho barber in thc'
corporation of barber surgeons;  and
although they separated in that year,
tho  Koyal College of Surgeons   was
not incorporated until fifty years later. I
Tho practise of medicine and   the
of tko experiment* given in tbia report
made it safe to nsriumu thut cheese was
as fully digested its most of tbe ordinary food materials which have been
studbxl ia earlier exjMjrimeJiU. It
would, in faet, Iw undesirable for
larger por cent, ot' auy food material
to In- absorbed than whs the caso with
tho chooB*),
Heretofore cheese lm* mJ, lou: been
regarded seriously by consumers of any
class ou tbis continent as a possible
cheap staple food. All consumers of
choose witli vory few exceptions use it
11 luxury in small quantities nt comparatively rare Intervals, While ia tho
aggregate » largo quantity uf choose is
eaten iu tills eon 11 Iry, the quuutiy is
nevertheless almost negligible when
OOlUparod with ttoine other products of
less food value and inferior paliituhili-
The greater pari of the ubooso eon
sumod 111 this country is Ofl ton without
any preparation, while in many Kuro
pea a countries the ehoosa is either
sprinkled on other foods-~7eg0taQ.es
usually—-Or is cooked with ihe food. A
numbor of European varieties of cheese
are mado extensively und exclusively
t'or use iu connection with other fools
besides fish aud poultry, while thc an
nual consumption of cheese in only
about four pounds per capita. Even
granted that frewh ments are more pain
table to most people, some otber ex
plaimtion must bo found for thia wid*
ditl'erenve iu the quantity of tbe two
products enteu. A great proportion of
the laboring classes in this, couutry are
able to eat plenty ot* wholesome food,
but they cannot afford to discriminate
against a cheap, palatable, and wholesome food in favor of a higher-priced
food. Tho only wuy to account for the
Comparatively limited demand for
choose is on the basis of custom and
lack of knowledge. People usually eat
whut they bave been accustomed to,
making variations within narrow limits
only, aud never changing tbe general
Obaraoter of their, food. New foods are
uot (.ought.
In this connection particular interest
attaches to the quantity of salt or cured
purk products eaten iu comparison with
cheese.    Cured  pork,  hum, und   bacon,
to ubout seven times the vulue of cheese
ia ton  annually.   So one  can  sny
thut  tho  pork   products,  with  the  ex
ception of good bum, are moro palatable
than cheese, und  they are not   known
...    oi   rooking.    Among   these   is   thel*" -* WOfp healthful.   Theae pork pro
well known   Parmesan,  u  baid   cheese ducts aro usually euten by the poorer
made from .klmmod milk; and al-o Uw daises who cannot afford to bay fresh
dispensing of druffs hava'dwi « been SJP ^8° ^oeso, a small coniearsbapod meat,  but who   could  afford   to  buv
11    !^.2 TedJM high" Sst^rwitifhc^ -lilk ,m,t    ^ - ch"M makM a better f0°:'
".1. The conical form, at leust whea
it ia not short, can not be balanced
completely at certain speeds, by any
method comparable to wbat takes plnce
iu  nstiire.
"It occurs at ouce to the mind that
all tbis will apply to the coustrtietios
of dirigible balloons. These now move
iu the air in the fashion of unbalanced
models, for every oue knows that they
pitch formidably, . . . Krom the above
experiments it would appear thut the
ideal airship would br a short balloon
fitted with tin* calculated to itablllde
it iu the uir.
"Since publishing these preliminary
roMiilts, Or. Houssay has continued his
experiments, and bin pupils, with whom
he works, say that ho has obtained ia
torostlng results, yet unpublished. He
uuw moves bis models with the heavy
side up, uud he has found reason ....
for the arrangement  of the  tail  some
times in two equal lobes as in ordinary
lishes, 11ml sometimes in unequal lobes.
He has also measured by more than 1100
curves on a registering cylinder the
Strength of living Ashes, mid  all  these
results form u harmonious whole—•
complete and well dem oil st rated the
Closely   aagwimcu.       in   r.ii-iaiiu   mo   hiffhlv   seasoned   witb   Iwnhn     Tl„.   Itnl
apoto   proscribmR and. dlspen,- £5 _ft™tl fla»,& a?to ri.
nff hsowndruBS, is practicaUy the',.,,,,, „„, M   „„,,       ""<   lv'>""t
cist, lure also, for in the rural dis- s„la,i   gbakor.   With   th™   macarou
![lct^.^dru^9,<M*s,»re unknown ;wi,h cheese is a eommen dish, a."re
other   cheese   preparations.   An   excel-
the physician carrying bis drug-cas
with him   is a familiar   figure,   and
many of Uiem  have quite   complete
laboratories in their houses.
Wry early in the history of North
America lectures on medical subjects
were given and the science established <>n a systematic basis. Hefore
there were any medical schools, the
young student learned bv apprenticeship, unless ho had money enough to
go to one of the great schools on thc
continent or iu London or Edinburgh.
Out of 3,500 men practising in the
Colonies a* the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, it is said not more
than 400 hud received degrees.
In 187^ no medical school in the
United States required even a threc-
in the dietary because of Hs high pro
toin contents.
Cheese can no longer be diseriminnt
ed against because of a suspicion that
it is not a healthful food. The abtto
lute lack of any disturbance of the
general health of tho snbjects used in
lent dish  is the 'cheese omelet, whilo j tho experiments reported in thia bulle
warmed-up potatoes can be mado very
appetizing when cooked with cheese.
It may be, |>orhaps, that the American people hn ve gone so fur in the
consumption of only partly ripened and
mild flavored cheese that the probability of learning to use cheese as a flavoring are very remote, as it is only the
well-ripened or highly flavored cheeses
that are satisfactory for flavoring pur-(
poses. It is perhaps a matter for some
regret that so much mild-flavored
cheese haa come to bo used, as it is
probable thut much more satisfaction
would be felt by coiisiunors in general
with this grent food product if they
had  learned  to   like the   well-ripened
tin is proof that cheese can be eaten
iu large quantities without danger to
health. The Swii cheese.nakers, also
many of the Swiss farmers of southern
Wisconsin, eat unusually large quantities of cheese, and they are noted for
athletic attainments and physical en
durance. They brought the custom of
eating cheese from their native conn-
try, where cheese is a very important
item in the diet. Tbo consuming public, especially that part of which netds
to practice economy in buying food,
would do well to turn Hs attention a
little more towards cheese, since greater quantities eau be used at a saving
to the consumer.
The ancient "dew-ponds" of Bag
laud huve their modern counterparts on
the Bock of Gibraltar, where drinking
water .is obtained by the condensation
of the abundant dew in especially pre
pared biisiiis. The primitive process
consists in making a hollow in the
ground, and filling the bottom witk
dry straw, over which is placed n layer
of clay. On a clear night the clay
cools very rapidly, and the dew is
condensed into water in the basin. Ths
pond is improved by putting a layer of
asphalt or Portland cement under the
straw. At Gibraltar the present prac
tice is to use wood , instead of straw
and sheet iron instead of clay.
That  the peculiar and  typical  fonn j
of  (ish   can   be  accounted   for  by  the
plastic   pressure of the water  through
which   they   move   is   the   theory   propounded,   and   supported   by   hundreds
of experiments, by Dr. Houssay, of tho
Sorbonne,   Paris,    Some of his results
are described in an article contributed
j by Mr. A. Magnan to La Nature, from
'which  we translate below; others are
to appear in a forthcoming work to bc
entitled "Form, Strength, and Stability
of Fish." Study of a fish, Dr, Houssay
tells us, shows a  body swollen  at  its
forward end, pointed  in  the rear, and
also     flattened—horizontally     in   front
vertically behind.    From this body
emerge fins, some in pairs, some single.
Mr, Magnaq goes on:
"The  fish  is adapted  to an  aquatic
um; that is to say, its form is the
result of the pressure of tin
its   plastic   body.     The   resistance   op-
I by the water to its advance ex
I erts a modelling action; this resistance
has given to the fish its form  and has
evolved its fins. . . . Let us try to analyze the mechanism of tbe transformation,
"When water runs fro:
the liqv
Until within recent yearB there bad
been ascertained no trustworthy way
of finding out tho nge of fish. It bas
been shown that mere size does not in '
dtcate the age. Reibiseh, Hcincke and '
others have diseoverd that many of th*
bones, scales and otoliths of fishes have
annual age-rings, resembling those ii
tree-trunks, .and by means of these
Wallace and others bave determined
the rate of growth of plaice, showing
that some specimens attain the uge of
) twenty-five, or eveu as much as twenty-
nine years. Age can now bo correlated
with'size and weight, although it appears thnt the sexes huve a different
rate of growth.
A new process for producing artificial
fnrs is described  in   Ln   Nature.   The
raw pieces of pelt are frozen, and tbe
arefully shaved  oft, thawed and
ik in
sent to the tanneries to lie made into
l leather. The frozen fur which remains
is allowed to thaw slightly at the bottom, so tluit a small part of the hair is
freed from ice. This thawed portion
is then covered with a solution of rubber.' whieh is allowed to set. The result is thnt large seamless pieces of fur
a jo nje|Rrfl oJj^nfjujd much cheaper than those
ater ou 1 wj,ich come with the natural skin,
These same artificial furs are said to
be more lasting thnn tho real. because
they are immune from the attacks of
Top Bow: H. Gommol, G. H. Merritt, F. H. Hfgginbotkani, E. W. Turner, E. Wasdale,   Angus   Kenning;   Centre:   F.
Hrtckell, B. H. Graham, E. G. Barrett, W. A. Galliher, W. H. Cullon; Bottom: B. S. Moss, A. M. Stowe. F. M. Morgan
plan % Rome of any prominence was
i Greek named Archag-athus, who
came there in 318 B.C.
Finally thero came about, through
the introduction of one theory by this
(*ne and another theory by that, so
many divisions of thought and nrac-
iUlfcra.P.d , c^gh division so ,manifi*tlv
sy— and.e^gn
labors ot the monks, but it wat. preserved and sawed iiwa total oblivion.
Superstition and magic were liberally
mixed with Hit. scientific .relics of
lU'-dicine proper by these pious prac
titioners, aud some of their works—
written sometimes in Latin aud wnic-
times in thc vernacular—are records
of this blending.
Iho licnudictiuos were the first to
restore a higher standard in tbis, as
in so many oiimr branches of leaf
ing. A Benedictine monastery was
located at Salerno in the seventh century, but in no way connected with the
famous medical school tliere, that being a secular institution.
This school was the one important
one in Kurope during the Middle
/Vges, and Salerno flourished as a resort, many royal person.iges going
there for their health. William 01
Normandy, afterward the Conqueror,
is mentioned as a visitor.
Tiie wives and daughters of the professors appear on the lists of teachers,
and one woman named Trotula, was
celebrated as an instructor in the
eleventh century. The decline of the
School of Salerno began in tbe thirteenth century, but it bridged the period between ancient and modern medicine; and, though rts glories were
gone long before, it continued in actual existence until dissolved by an
edict of Napoleon in 1811,
In the fourteenth century--the time
of tho Renaissance—<here began to be
some reaJ progress in medical science,
and a general awakening to the possi
bilitics of its development, France
was the first to realize the necessity
fc»r thorough education for surgeons,
and to bring thorn up to the rank of
physicians. Probably their handling
of dead bodies iu dissection, and the
various other unpleasant m-ccssitics
of thoir work, had been tiie occasion
of the contempt in which they were
held by the people generally. They
were the barbers and the undertakers.
as well as being surgeons; and mention is made in literature of that period, of sending for tbe "barber" to
bleed a patient. Bleeding has always
prevailed up 10 a comparatively recent
late. Sometimes a vein was opened]
U others a leech was applied; and
from tbe latter practise the name
"leech" camo to mean  physician.
With 'the sixteenth century ramo the
rreat schools of Italy, and the Italian
product with a woU-dovoloped da vor.
It is generally Conceded that people
who like a highly-flavored cheese nover
become tired of it.
nn ova] opening, for example,
I takes after its issue the form '
f n  rubber lube twisted 90 degrees oni
[self.    The name of "inverted vein''
hafl been given to this aBpect of the liquid.     Tf, on   the  other hand, a solid J
elliptical  body  be  drawn   through   the
wnter, a  void space is left behind it,}
which tends, to be filled by tho water)
t before  it, taking the form of
au   " inverted   vein.''     Now   thie   void
space   has   the   shape   of   a   Oh   that
moves  head   foremost.   .   .   .   Tbe  bi
planar aspect of a fish'a body h thus
the prolonged result of thw modelling.
"Mr. Houssay boe reproduced in a
simple but remarkable experiment, this
phenomenon of modelling. He bas used
iui elongated, elastic raober bag filled
with a plastic lipuid and closed wilh a
solid sbntUr. The bag, while moving
in the wnter, shatter forward, takeu
finely the shape of the inverted vein,
ft flattens out in front in a horizontal
plane and behind in a vortical plane.
"The origin of tho fins must also be
attributed to tbe modeling action of the
water. At a certain speed, the form of
the inverted vein is prolonged at itn
odgos into two thin plates, one in front
in the horizontal plan*, tb<» other in tin
ertlcnl plane.    Por a greater'
years'course; while in itkw the standard had risen to lour years, compulsory course, in 141 schools—a sufficient ^momentary   in   itself   of   the 	
enonnous  progress the   science   has      A comparison of the food value of
if .. . cnbeso with that of other hlffhlv nitro
lhe-opposition which prevailed at gernous food materials may be of in
usi to admitting women to the pro- torosting value.    No kind of meat ex-
teuton  has  gradually  passed  away, coptiug dried boef carries such a large
and(women have takena definite place percentage   of  protein  Z cfaoU,  and
unong physraans.     lhis   opposition L dried beef contains a much Seator
gave rise .to such intense feeling in percentage  of  water,  tho  other  food
"Xu-T;Ul1 Th°°!s l*Vri rKrts wn.tltiiei.to aside .Y.m, the proteinS
"™?n *\l V ts- »ne w«<ncn phy«-;w«f as purchased has. woiBht for | speed, the mtatoMt of the water ents
S. hlM«£LI 5 ^J?'00*?1 ,lhc!*'i.fh!, Littlo more than half tie fowl J these two plane, op into lobes, repre
eeunrvh ^\   .'  *°m0n °f 'H Vul' r ™«* ln oithor P»telB or tot,  BOnting   the   fins. ?    . "
theM^rfSrSr.ihe S°tfin other frc*h ' lK u|iMl llIUV hl many ample of the adaption to 0 liquid en
^"LfiS .?21i '!,wJ mVinl!l ,0o0i<"' water thai  Ihey nre notloonbh  .,.
■,-,,;:IoW,,<   ,n ftk« lh" «?• '"'or to ebeeM In food value.   [Lou
■■•■"latlon aud matnculato m the or fat perk oro oxcoptions, bul their
Gorman wiversui«L     One   woman, food vafua is mo.tly ,',, tbo'fat, wnieh
thn i;^ ViH a doffrec from °°n be fl,,,i iH '•Pfowd to a great -Ment
he iMiiversiiy of Halle in .754. uponlby the carbohydrates of vegotablos at
*J rocoramendation of Frederick the H much loss cos! and so.notfinMi"rhiin
■hrisi'i.ni P^S?' M" DowlH*t " h0'-" '" M ' i;l1 0( the con-
UtratMM   Erxlcbon,   was   actually, |aUmer.      ,..n uud  p,.i!. each  hove a
The London florists recommend hot
cuter ui) to 145 deg. P, as a reuo'dy
when the plants are sickly owing to lhe
Boil souring—the ucid absorbed by the
roots acting hs poison. The usual resort Is to the troublesome job of repotting. When this is not necessnry for any
other reason it is much simpler to pour
hot water freely through the stirred
soil; it will presently eome tli rough
tinged brown. After thin thorough
washing, if the plants nro kept warm,
new roots, new points, and new growth
will soon follow. A fine Calla in A
three-gallon pot recently showed signs
of Mi-health. On examination thc outer
portion of the tilling was found to be
moldy, it being in a large part fresh
manure. As repotting was inconvenient, the plant being in flower, hot watw
was freely used. It killed the mold,
and the plant began to revive and soon
regained all its lost vigor.
Thr conditions were nnuounced last
week of the international aeroplane
race around Oreat Britain which iw to
ooeur between July 22nd and August
Sth, inclusive. Any aviator having s
pilot 'a   Dconse   of   the   International
therefore, tbe lirst woman physician
of the present age—tho pioneer of
women in tbe profession even though
German opposition held out the
A Food That Is .Much Neglected
While experiments have established
the facts as to some debatable quos
tions concerning the comparative digestibility of preen and curod cheese, |K*r
haps tho most valuuble result bus heen
in showing clearly tho great value as
food of all the more common varieties
of cheese.
The Swiss, who are a very healthy
people, ent Inrgely of cheese; in fact,
bread and cheese form tho greater part
of the diet of many of them. Mnny
other Kuropeau races ent largely of
cheese. Tho miners of Kngland con
sumo very much of the poor cheese
made in tbo United States, especially
tho high-acid choose, using it extensively for seasoning; and the Oermnns
at large quantities <>f the cheap but
highly flavored skim milk cheesn such
the hand  knse,  which  h:
the most pungent odor of nil the v
tics of cheese mnde.
In   the  matter  of  comparative  fond
notably    large    percentage    of   refute,
while eggs havo a high percentage of
water. To sum tbfl matter up, ,1 pound
of cheese has nearh Ihe sume food
value os two pounds of fronh beof or
any other fresh meat ah food; it is
worth as much as or more than a pound
of ham and is more digestible, and it is
equal to two pounds of eggs or throe
pounds of fish. In price good choose
made from unskimmed milk posts about
a third more than round steak and
twice a« much as tho cheapor boiling
j beef, while it costs practically the same
per pound as smoked ham and bacon.
It costs usually A third more tban freeh
Cottage cheese or chfiOBo mudo from
partially skimmed milk is cheaper even
than tlio American dr Oheddar cheese.
Tbe first costs about one third is much
nnd the partly skimmed product about
two thirds as much as thc so-called
" full crenm" cheese. Practically thc
only food product thai rltsll cheese in
food Vfllue and choapDOSI is dried beans.
In view of the foregoing comparison
of food values it Is n matter of some
perhaps|WOnder why there is not more of n do.
I Aeronautic Federation is eligible upon
payment of a $'idd ei.trance fee before
, June 1st. The course is divided into
five •■'ages, of which the flrst—Brook-
! lnnds to Head on (20 miles)—will be
used i" test tho sped of the machines.
1 The fastest aeroplane will start lirst in
ithe race proper, the first stage of whicli
(343 miles) cxternls from Hendon to
1 Edinburgh; the second from Edinburgh
(to Bristol iSSfl miles); the third from
Bristol to Brighton (814 miles), and
(the Inst from Krighton to Brooklnnds
' f Ifl miles). There will be three or Pour
controls at large cities :u eHch nf the
long stages, and compotltors will be allowed to stop anywhere and mako re
pairs  or   ropIneomentH   if   forced   to  do
I largo percentage[ have returned to sqnatifi Hfo after
having led a torrostrisl existence. The
water has pressed, deformed snd mod
riled them, but the adaptation bas been
less perfect, because of the previous
existence of a rigid *^>nv frn".e, So
the stability of these animals i** not m»
good; Hi Ir body hn* a tendency to turn
nbout Its axis. The COtBOeao correct
this Automatically hy the aid of their
brachial pallets nnd tbeir caudal and
dorsal (Ins. Those movements tend to
cause 11 counter-rotation which detei
mines a dlssymetric pressure of water
on the skull nnd makes it. asymetrie. '•
If this theory is correct, tbe writer
goes on to say, the effects of "model
ing'' should keep on until reHisUnoo is [Thi _.   _.__ _
At h minimum. I>r. Houssay tests this j doubtodly this estimate of the heritage
by mnking wooden models and RlMBUr land gift that Cometh of tire I^ord, so
ing thc resistance offered to their mo different from the old pnrental joy and
tion through the water. Contrary to I pride in a largo family, is connected in
hla hypothesis, the fish model met with j part with a real difficulty In launching
moro resistance than the others. This j children upon the world, in part with
he believed to bfl dno to the absence|false ideas of the quantity of this
of fins; and apparently ho was right, world's good, and pleasures without
wh»n fins were Mrted to the mod-1 which lifo is not worth living.   It is
Children   aro   regarded   ne  ' 'encumbrances,"   first   to   their   parents   and
afterwards  to  society  and   themselves.
placo is too strait for thom.    Un-
mand   for  cheese,
especially by pi
of limited menus.
It   is estimated
Amorlcat s  consun
ie  between  ifiii
since. ^^^^__._ ———^m———m
elf, thev retarded the othor shapes, bnt
did not affect the fish-form, .0 that the
latter now moved more easily than th.>
other.. Having thuR studied whnt he
considered thn typical fish form, Dr.
Rouisay next proceeded to Investigate
the offset of variation from this typo.
Hid conclusions are ss follows:
"1. The most, stable form is thfl Ehort
"2. All forms of fish are made nb-
.olutely stable at all speeds by tho aid
of their fins, In the short forms, the
relaxation or extension of the pairod
fins Is suflicient; in elongated forms the
turious that, in losing it. power of bo
iig magnificent, tho present age ha.
also lost the power of being simple. It
is siimptuou. without splendour and
luxurious without beiug .tatoly. The
duty of "keeping up ono'o position in
lifo" has become old-fashioned, but the
right to have u good time in this world
is regarded by an over-incrensiug uum
ber of people in all elanses as one of
the postulates of existonco.
Green blinds may bo greatly improved hy beinjt well brushed, and afterward, va l\
Tl      181.   NDEK, OUMBKHLAND, B.C
Decorator, Paperhanger
All Work Promptly
... Attended to...
Residence, Penrith Avenue
Cumberland,   B. <'.
. .STORE . .
For every 50 cents cash paid entitles you to one ticket for
thc prizes we are giving away on New Year's Eve.
Phone 31
Dunsmuir Ave.
Mrs. Minims will give pliuloforln le.
sun* ai hor Inns'., imy lime liy ivppoin I
iii.'iu exuopl TtiCMhiy*. AiMi'Ciss Gump
Cimil .ihn.l. Pup Is prepared tor Ilu
Riiynl College of Mu-;c
FOB SALB—7 room house, I J. Iol.
For term" apply to Mrs, Ellen Oriel
Pendrith Avenue Cumbrian 1 !>■ C.
Dr. D. Va, Kerr, clentisl will visit
Union Buy Oot, 2th io-28th; Comox
Oct. .!)i!i i" Nov. 2i«l,'Courtenay Nov.
'2nd to Hllli; Cumberland 1' thtoSotli.
Look oul. for the (Jraml Masquerailf.
Hall tobu given by the Cimrlenay BaBket
ball Lciciiil Club in the Ouurtenay Opera
lioUHu uu Thursday December 28th. Big
I'lizu Lilt.   Get buBy aula.
VOU SALE—Forty hives of bees
will sell cheap. Apply to Ed Creech,
Courtenay, B. C.
^umE>erfcm6 #afe.
RICHARDS & JiVSK. Proprietors.
When you want a good choice meal cooked to
the King's taste give us a call     ....
Having snld my hioyole business,
all accounts due must be paid to me.
Those having accounts will render
same to me,
E. C. Emde.
Are Worthy of
We haveofl'ered Previously
McPhee & Morrison
(Courtenay B. G.
DAVIS & WHELAN,    Props.
n-». 18
fl. A. Fletcher Music Co. of Nnnaiino havenow engaged their own private
Tuner whose work will be strictly guaranteed bythe firm, andthey adviaecusium-
ers and friends to notify the firm wheu
tuning or repairing is needed. The
tuner will be iu Cumberland early in
November and orders may bo left ut T,
K. Hates store and will be promptly
attended to. fl. A, Fletcher Musie Oo.
The Sole Agents for Gerhard Ueintsdman
Pimma and Colombia and Kdison Phonographs and Records.
District of OomoX,
TAKK notice thar, 1, James Strickland Beviiifl of Comox District, occupation randier, intends to apply fur per*
misHiuti to lease tlio following described
land:- Commencing at a post planted al
ihe south-west corner close to a post
marked J. U, M., N. K.C. aud beinp
the N. W. 0. if Dot 129, Comox Dis-
trict, thonce south-easterly twenty-seven
chaina following tho shore line, thence
iiorth-oastci-ly for live chaina, thence
north-westerly twenty-seven chains,
ihence south-westerly for five chains to
commencement and containing seven*
teen acres more or loss.
Dated October 10th, 1011.
Dr. D, E; Kerr, dentist, will be in
Cnmberland on aud after Noveml«r
CLOTHIN0— For one week only. Stock reduction, sale continues. J<l per emit discount. Q>nie
and see the stack, nothing but lhe besl, Coppley
Noyes & RandalUs Famous Clothing for men and
boys, SHOES - Ladies dent's antl Children's are.
tt()'erett at litis i/rcat reduction.
■'; - -I
'■■■• $
/. N. McLEOD
Dunsmuir Avenue
Notice is hereby given that the reserve
existing by reason oft he notice published
in the British Columbia Gazette of the
27th December 1007. covering a parcel of
land situated on Redonda Island, formerly held under Timber License No. 44043,
which has lapsed, is cancelled, and the
aaid lands will he opeu to location after
midnight on the Hth December lflll.
Deputy Miniatei oi Laud.
Department of Lands, Victoria, B. C.
September 12th, 1911.
Bep23 dec23
Headquarters School.
SEALED TKNDERS superscribed
"Tender for School-house Headquarters/' will be received bythe Honourable
Minister of Public Works up to 12
o'clnok noon of Wednesday, the 13th day
of December, lflll, for the erection and
completion of a large one-room frame
school-house at headquarters, in the Comox Electoral District, tt. C.
Plans, specifications, contract, and
forms of tender mny be seen on and alter
the 22nd dny of November, lflll, at the
offices of A. M, Hilton, Esq., Secretaiy
of tho Sohool Honrd, He&dpuarters, via
Comox, B. 0., the Government Agent,
OumberUnd i». C, and the Department
of Public Work's Parliament Buildings
Etch proposal must be accompanied by
ah accepted bunk cheque or certiticnte nt
deposit on a ohartered hank of Canada
made payable to iho Hon. the Minister
of l'ublic works, tor the sum of ¥250,
which shall bo forfeited if the party tend-
eriiiir decline to enter into contract when
called upon to do ao, or if he fail to complete tho work contracted for. The
cheques or certificates of deposit of unsuo
ccBsfull tenders will be returned to them
upon the execution of the contract.
Tenders will not bo considered unless
made out on thc forms aupplied, Binned
with the actual signature of the tenderer,
and enclosed in the onvolopoa furnished.
Thc lowest nr anyteuder not necessarily
Public Works Engineer.
Public Works Department,
Victoria, B, C, November 2(t'i, 1911.
nnv 25 decl'l
do, be sure to order your wedding invitations nt, The Isuniikk Office. Sample.
At this otticj.
,__-T_% i j ''iih' .>>-;. t;:,.).v.\..i ••' ■ :;•'   h y.A't 5$$ s§5 .f$i^o
The question in, where will it make the most T In a Bank at 3 per cent. first
mortage at 7 per nent, or town Iota iti Western Canada where during the year
lflll it is estimated that property values in ten town inoreaed 500 per cent, in seven-
•een towns 400 per cent, and in town tweuiy two towns 800 per cent!
Full particulars of an investment which will make youa property owner in threo
uf the beat towns and on the easiest nf terms can be obtained by mailing » -i ist-
card to
(D0JLN0W)      D#p0rde
Capital $6,200,000
Reserve 87,000,000
OF eHNftDa
Drafts Issued in any currency, payable all over the world
highest current rates allowed on deposits of $1 nnd upwards
CUMBERLAND, B.C., Bwioh-   -   -     OPEN DA!'
D. M. Morrison,  Manager
Wm.H.Hoff,  Manager.
We carry the Victor Gramophone & VictroUw.
and Victor Records.    Call and hear the latest noveity,
The Victor Puzzle Record Price asr.oo
e :r:eco:r:ds iust o:n:kj u
Church St., NANAIMO, B. C. Opposite Bank bt
Nnl. in many yean have wu lliown such
variety assortment 61 Full Suitings, in-
ollldillg all llm now cnlur ellocta in tlio
plain nnd fancy Ohevlote, Woratetll
Sootch and hiali Tweeds, Blue and Black
Serges, Casslmeros and Diagonals. Nearly
(On doBigna to Bolecb from, Cnmo in and
measure now. This iu the timo to make
Sole Agents for the  Houseof [lobberlin
Limited CatmiWB Largest Tailors
Sun-Bnk la so Very Useful
Bead bow beneficial it proved in tbls
Mrs. H. Sawyer, of Keene, Ont.
writes:—'' My husband is engaged on a
farm, and one day, while dbopplng
wood, tbo top bf the axe broke and
fell upon bis foot, cutting a nnaty
gash. The wound was so bad that we
arst thought we would have to get a
doctor, but we finally docided to dreHS
the cut with Zam-Buk.
"Well, the Zam-Buk treatment proved
a great succoss. lt not only caned the
pain, but it provcntod uny inflammation; and right from Ilrst applying
Zam Buk, the cut begun tn heal. It
ia now completely healed, and my Iiiih-
band says ho will never bo without a
box of Zam-Buk in thu house, fur we
are sure it saved ns a great deal of
Over and ovor again Zam-Buk has
been proved to bo the worker's bost
remedy. As soon us applied to u cut.
a burn, a scald, or any skin injury,
it relieves the pain nnd It sots up
healing, lt also prevents blood-poisoning or Inflammation, lt is a sure cure
too for ecaoma, piles, ulcers, old
wounds, bad log, ringworm, sculp sores,
festering, running sores, eruptions, cold
soros, chapped hands, etc. Its absolute
purity, also, makes it tho ideal balm
for babies.
Zam-Buk Boap should be used along
with tbo balm for washing all soro
places. ThiB soap will bo found excellent for baby's bnth, oven where the
balm la not Doing used.
All druggists and stores soil Zam-
Buk at SOe. box, and Zam-Buk Soap at
lifie tablet, or post froe from Zam-Buk
Co., Toronto, upon receipt of price.
Rcfnso harmful substitutes.
New Zealand dairymen have overcome the difllculty of securing reliable
farm bands In sumciont numbers by installing milking machines. They not
only savo a large labor cost, but also
prevent serious inconvenience at times
whon farm hands suddenly leave their
Careful military commentators will
not commit themselves until the films
from Tripoli arrive.
Business College
College open throughout the whole
ytar. Student! may join ataay time.
<_Z'n* Practical blbft"
Writ* for free oatalogu*.
D. COOPER. CA      ■      Principal
McMillan fuT& wool mi.
WIN Nl PE ;.               MANITOBA                '
i   u  n |  1   1     I   " ll   *   1 ll i   1   I   \ l:   !
Yon can never tell wben
• horse ia going to
develop a Curb, Splint,
Spavin, Ringbone or a
lameness.   Vet it ia bound
to happen  sooner or later.
And you can't afford to keep
bim in tbe bam. Keep a bottle of
Kendall's Spavin Cure
handy at all times. Mr. Briem,
of Icelandic Kiver, Man., writes:
"I bave been using Kendall's
Spavin Cure aid find it sufcand
Get Kendall's Spavin Cure at
any druggist's. $,. per bottle—
6 bottles for $5.
"Treatise on the
write to
Sex-Its Determination
Vanishes Forever
Proapt Relitf-PtnuHit Can
fail.  Purely ™t*-
ahle—ed sen'
but (ently ea
£<ii«   (■wow lb» ceemhaisa—briaht—
.eyas.  fcJM,WDDeoitajTriw
Genuine Mbe* Signature
No practical question is of more con.
corn to the breeder than the determination of sex. Thore aro those who claim
that the problem haB beeu solved, that
sex cnn bo controlled. Many hundred
hypotheses havo been formuluted. Most
of those have seemed to work, for a
time nt least. The reason that most
nny hypothesis will hold good for a
timo is thnt in tho wide Held of nature the sexos are ubout equal In uum.
bers. But when a certain locality is
observed for a few years one or tho
other sex prevails In numbers. That is
to suy, a single breeder Is, according to
the laws of chance, liable to lmvo a
greater number of mules thuu females,
whilo neurby another is, according to
the samo law of chance, liable to have
more females than males, lt is this in-
equality ot the sexos that eau bo seon
on different farms which has caused so
many to believe tlmt sex has boen ac-
tually controlled. As a matter of fact
I do not believe that sex control is at
all iu the pnwer of tho breeder.
My reason for malting tbe statoment
is that sex does not originate because
of any response of tbo fertilized ovum
to oxtcrnul stimuli. This statement nnd
all in this nrtlele refers to the mamma,
lian forms of life. 1 havo in mind in
this discussion tho horse and cattlo
breeder only. If then sex is not determined by extornnl influences, what dees
determine itf There is but one answer;
in tho sperm cells which unite to form
tbo fertilaed ovum, or zygote, there
must inhere a sex determining factor.
Only a moment's consideration will
mnke the statoment plain, lt is one
of tho fundamental biological facts.that
wrapped up in the two germ cells of
the zygote are all the hereditary characteristics of the adult life,' For an illustration of this wo will take the spermatozoon and ovum of a trotting stallion nnd maro. In these two minute organisms aro all tbe factors of a successful trotter, except the training. Thore
is first tho factor which decides tbat
the now lifo will bo a horse, next that
it will bo of the trotting type rather
than thut of tho thoroughbred, saddle
or draft type. Then, too, there is the
factor to which tbe peculiar family of
the parents belonged, so that the foul
will exhibit characteristics of this fa.
mily only. Nor is this ail. Wrapped up
in thoso minute organisms which havo
united to mako 11 new borse aro tho determiners for color, endurance, style,
action and speed. In like manner the
zygote carries thc determiner of sex.
This makes sex purely hereditary and
overthrows every hypothesis of sex determination.
Since thon sex comes automatically
becauso of the inherent character of
the germ cells, our next inquiry is tho
nature of the mechanism by which it ia
brought about. The result of the study
of tho structure of cells with tbe microscope is that the chromosomes are the
vehicles of hereditary characteristics.
These chronosomes are little rods or
bundles, small us compared to the cells
themselves, but largo as compared to
molecules und atoms. The number of
tbese littlo bundles iB uniform for ull
the somatic or body cells of any class
of animals. Tho ovum of tho female
contains half as muny chromosomes ns
the body cells contain, lt haB been
found that tho spermatoza of many
forms aro of two kinds so far as the
number of chromosomes are concerned.
Olio-half of them contain as many as
doos the ovum. Tho other half contain
one leBs than tho ovum. When nn ovum
and a spermatozoon witb tho same numbor of chronosomes uuitc the resulting
zygote devclopes into a female. On the
othor hand if a spermatozoon witb ono
less chromosome than tbo ovum finds
it und fuses with it, tho new life result
ing is a male. As the ova are all of
one kind, the spermatoza of two kinds,
the sex determiner is in the latter. As
the sperm cells are one half femalo ile-
termining and one-half malo determin*
ing, thoro is, by the laws of chaneo, an
equal chance for tho production of a
female or a male. But the produco of
any one dam to the same sire or different sires may all be of one sox. Any
breeder muy through n series of yearB
have first a preponderance of the male
box and thon of the female sex in his
stud. It is even possible that n particular stud will for a number of yeurs
be noted ior th oproduction of a major-
ity of ono sex. But tho result over a
largo territory will bo n very closo approximation to an equal number of tho
I nm not unmindful of the fnct that
onee in a grout while a sire produces 11
vory largo por eoat of one sex only.
This may bo explained on the assumption thut thn spermatozoa of sueh an
animal do not hnvo equal vigor. Thnt
is, those spermatozoa which arc of tho
sex determining elinrnetor found in the
offspring nro normal and vigorous,
whilo tlic equal number of spermatozoa
of tho npposito sox determining character are weuk nnd unable to find tho
ovum nnd to fuso with it. This assumption Is verified by actual experiments nn the lower forms of animal nnd
plnnt life. In many speeios a largo por
cent of the gorm cells furnishod by the
male nre unprnlilic or degoneratc.
Should this occur in mammalian forms
nnd the degenerate colls of a male be
of the female determining character all
tho produco would bo males. To explain
tlio production of females wo only huve
to suppose that tho gorm colls of tho
male, in this ense, are degenerate for
tho production of males.
Wll iio, thon, recent investigation
points to sex as n hereditary character
and not tho result of environment, and
wliile in tho mammalian forms of life it
is tlio gorm coils of the malo that deter-
Asthma No Longer Dreaded.—The
dread of renowed attacks from asthma
has uo hold upon those who have
learned to rely upon Dr. .1. D. Kellogg's
Asthma Remedy, So snfo do they feel
that complete reliance is pluccd ou this
truo specific with the certainty that it
will always do all that its makers claim.
If you hnvo not yot learned how snfe
you nro with this preparation at hand
got it to-day nnd know for yourself.
mine sex, it has not yet been proved
that age of parents or age of germ
cells before union do not ploy some
part. But If they do have an influence
it will be nn indirect one. Ago mny
determine to somo extent tho vitality
of tho spermatozoa, so that ono of the
two clasBos may be more activo or pro-
poteut thnn the othor. So also tho
timo thnt elapses after liberation of
the egg beforo fertilization may make
it mere easily penetrated by one or tho
other class of spermatozoa. But who*
thor these things be true or net, the
mnin thesis romains true, that sex Is
uncontrollable by the breeder because
it Inheres ln the gorm colls which form
the zygote.
To sum up the whole matter in a
short space, tbo ovum of the female is
neutral or indifferent. It has within
itself no tendency to produce either a
mnle or a femalo. wheu It is fortilizod
by a sporm cell of the snme number nf
chromosomes as itself it can only de-
volop into a female. But when the
sporm cell thot unites with it lacks a
chromosome tho new life is a malo. The
sperm cells of any male are produced
one-holf with un extrn chromosome. At
any mating of horses or cattle (except
at rare intervals) only oue ovum is to
bo fertilized. Tbe male at the same
time furnishes thousands of spermato
zoa. Only one of this large number
can unite with the ovum, One-half of
these sperm cells would produce males,
the other half females. This makes the
chances equal for both sexes. And wben
large numbers are considered tbe sexeB
are practically equal.
Sex then iB inherited. It is not the result of stimuli from without but of
a quality from within. That quality or
determiner is in the sporm cells furnished by the malo. Nature bas bo care,
fully adjusted these that tho wholo
rosult will be an equality of tbo two
Suppose tho farmer, in addition to
getting a good value for the flesh of
his oxon and sheep, wero also ablo to
sell their skins at tbe price of furs
liko seal or astrachanl This is precisely what a Texan, Dr. 0. C. Young,
is aiming at in experiments on his ranch
in crossing domestic sbeep with tne celc
brated Arab! or Karakul breed, origina
ting in Bokhara, Central Asia. These
animals, we are told by a writer in
Animal Husbandry, belong to the long-
wool family, from which all broad-tail
varieties descend, and when they are
crossed on the natives of any country
the result is a high grade of mutton
and costly Asiatic furs.   We read:
''As is well known, it is exceedingly
difficult to secure breeding stock from
Central isia, as these animals are re-
ligiously guarded. Dr. Young succeed,
ed, howevor, in bringing fifteen bucks
to America, aad they are now on his
rnnch in northwestern Texas, and will
bo used in connection witb the sbeep
already in the country in producing tho
high-price furs for which tbere is so
great a demand.
"Dr. Young is convinced by bis own
observations und by experiments In this
country, us well us in the Old World,
where his father has been raising fur
for thirty yearB, that tho best results
can bo secured by crossing the Karakul
bucks on some of tho long-wool breeds,
particularly ia Lincolnshire, nlthough
excellent furs hnve been secured from
hoieesters, Cotswolds, and the Wensley-
dales. Fur thus produced possesses a
lustre almost equal to the Angora gout,
and is far too superior to anything that
Asia eau produce. Experiments in
America, conducted by such men ns
Goodnight, Albright, and others, provo
conclusively that we caa produco furs
that excel in beauty and luster the Per.
sian lambskins sold in the United
States. Dr. Young states that his experience is limited to crossing on the
Lincolnshires, Shropshires, und Mor*
"Dr. Young has tho skin of a three-
quarter brod Karakul Shropshire, which
was pricod at $10. In his opinion the
Shropshire produces a much better skin
than the Merino, because of tbe fact
that the Shropshire stands betweon the
short or tight wool nnd tho long-wool
shoep. The half-bred Karakul Lincolnshire is bo much superior to all tho
o.nors that he believes wo must confine
ourselves entirely to the long-wool
breeds iu making this cross. There is,
however, very little difference between
the young of the Lincoln und tbe Cots-
wold when crossed with tho Karakul.
"As the supply of Karakul bucks is
limited, it will bo necessary to depend
largely upon half breeds, probably, to
bring nbout the improvement desired.
Dr. Voting thinks it safe to sny thnt
the BVOroge skin produced by crossing
tho hnlf-brcd Karakul Lincoln bucks
with any of tho long-wool breeds will
bring from $'» to $10. This, however,
is not' tlio only advantage gained by
the Injection of Arubi blood. This in-
traduction producos a mutton far superior in quality tn that nf ordinary sheep,
and the animals are a great deal hard-
ier. The progony has much size nnd
excellent constitution. Tho animals
grow rapidly, nro peculiarly nblo to
withstand severe drought and cold wen-
ther, can live on 11 smnll amount of
food, seem to prefer to stay out in
storms, nnd produce mutton that is wonderfully sweet und tender; consequently,
profit, from the introduction of Karakul blood comes, not only from the furs
of tho animals, but from more and bettor mutton as well. Experiments show
that the injection of 2.1 per cent, of
Karaknl blood into Merino sheep will
neutralize the shcepy tosto of thc ment,
mnking high-grade mutton witli a characteristic flavor of its own.
"Hy a carefully prepared statement
Dr. Young shows thnt by starting with
2.10 Lincolnshire ewes and introducing
at the beginning of thc third year five
full-blooded Knrnkul bucks, the vnlue
of the shoop alone is increased by $20,-
The real danger of Catarrh lies in
putting off treatment. You may have
Catarrh yourself, but you mny not
know it. Bofure the diseuso spreads
from your nose to tho stomach, lungs,
or bronchial tubes, root it out—cure
it with "Catarrhozono." Look ovor
tbo following symptoms—thon examine
Bad Breath Stuffy Nostrils
Frequent Snooting     Ears Buzzing
Watery Eyea Hacking Cough
Bad Taste Droppings
Baiting Phlegm Difficult Breathlnj
Dou't continue to burden your system for nnother day with the germs
of such a filthy, loutliBomo diseaso as
Catarrh. Get Catarrhozono to-day—
inhale its soothing vapor, fill your
breathing urguus wih its balsamic
essences, and all truce of Catarrh will
forever depart, ucad what Elwood 8.
Loe, of Sydenham, Ont., says of his
curo with Catarrhozono:
"I waa a chronic sufferer from continuous colda ln Uw throat and nose,
and for many yeara have constantly
bad Catarrh, I waa recommended to
try Catarrhozone, and find that by
using tba Inhaler on the flrst touch
of a cold or la grippa I am able to
stay it in a few hours. I bavo been
able to breathe through my nose, free
ly since using Cataxrbozone; ln fact,
I am completely cured. (Signed ELWOOD 8. LEE."
Once you try Catarrhozone you'll
realize how indispensable it is—the
large dollar size contains an indestructible bard rubber inhaler and
sufficient medication to last two
months. Beware of tbe substitutor
and imitators of Catarrhozone—use tbe
genuine and you'll get cured. By mail
from tho Catarrhozone Company, Buffalo, N.Y., and Kingston, Ont.
000 becnuse of this injection of valuable
blood. This increase is brought about
by 100 Karakul grades to be retained
as breeding bucks, to be sold to breeders'
for at least $150 each, and 500 lambs
killed for fur at $10 each, making a
total of $20,000 above what would be
secured if this Arabi blood had not
been introduced."
Dr. Young himself contributes an article on his experiment to fhe New York
Herald (September 10), in the course
of whieh he says:
'' On account of tho wonderful natural luster of the Angora goat, it can
easily be seen that a magnificent commercial Karakul-Angora fur will be
obtained from tbis cross. Wo have the
uest proof of this in a black Karakul-
Shropshire-Angora kid which was born
a few days ago and possesses groat luster, notwithstanding tbe fact that it
only contains twenty-five per cent, of
Karakul blood, aad its luster was naturally greatly reduced by the Shropshire strain.   ...
"In order to avoid all dangers resulting from in-breeding, another importation should be made, and wo have alroady received tho very necessary concession to bring another flock of fifty
hoad to this country, and have reasons
to believe that on our second trip
through the desert of Central Asia we
snail be accompanied by certain gentlemen now connected witb tbe Department
of Agriculture, as there is very much
left, indeed, to learn about this wonderful breed, which, in the near future,
when wild fur-bearing animals will have
become extinct, will have to bo utilized
for tho protection of our people against
severe cold weather.''
The peoplo of Eastern Oermany, like
their cousins in England, are being
crowded out by the existence or expansion of largo landed properties, says
Raphael-Georges Levy in the Econo-
miste Francaise (Paris). Tho Frankfurter Zoitttng, which is a democratic
organ, aad represents tho "Young
Germany" so much disliked by tho
Kaiser, confirms this saying, aud goes
into particulars. It appears that while
the rest of the German Empire hns
increased its population at the rato
of 00 por cent, during the last forty
years, the provinces of the Upper Elbe,
including Poscn nnd Silesia, show a
decrease, duo to emigration. Tho peasants leave the country because they
nro landless. They purchased tlieir
freedom from serfdom nnd feudal dependence between 1810 nml 1805 by
cnling their property to the nobles,
und in thut period nlienntcd some 2,-
000,000 acres to tho large landowners.
Speaking of tho farm binds and forests
of tho provinces of Eastern Prussia,
Western Prussia, Pomerunin, Poson,
and (Silesia, the Frankfurter Zoitung
says tbat from -10 to 50 per cent, of
the country is owned by rich men.
'Tho population of Eastern Germany, luiving no fnrms to cultivate,
havo emigrated. They began by going to the New World, bnt now they
arc more upt to crowd into the industrial centres of Western Germany. Betweon 1885 nml 10110 the plains nf
Kastern Prussia hnvo lost hnlf 11 million inhabitants, 8-1,000 more thnn thc
cxeesB of births over deaths during the
sumo period. In .1005 .two-thirds of
the territory eastward of the Elbo wns
less donsoly populated than in 1870.
Tho milliner of towns decreased, wliile
just the opposite wns tile case with the
rest of Germany where so mnny urban
centres underwent extraordinary development since the war. Ono town,
situated at one hour's distance from n
provincial  capital of one  of tho oast-
A Pill That Lengthens Life.—Tn the
man who is a victim of indigestion
the transaction of business becomes an
added misery, lie cannot concentrate
his mind upon his tasks and loss and
vexntion attend him. To such n man
Pnrmcloc's Vegetable Pills offer reliof.
A course of treatment, according to
directions, will convince him of their
grent oxeelloneo. They are confidently
recommended because they will do all
that is claimed for thom.
om provinces, asked to bc relegated
to tbo rank of a village, as it pro.
teased to bo unable to bcur the expenses
of municipal dignity. In the single
provinco of Poscn more than twelve
towns hnvo a population of less thnn u
thousand. These towns uro gradually
decaying, clinked off by thc vast estates
which encircle them und prevent them
from huviug tho elements of vitality
which are uccesBary to them. lt is
thus that tho current of population sets
more nud more rapidly toward tho west,
emptying tho towns and rural districts
of the cast."
What is most feared by tho German
government is tho inllueuce of Pan*
slavism in the province eust of tho
Elbo. "Tho kulturknmpf of Bismarck, the imprisonment of priests, the
incessant vexations of the Prussian
authorities," huvo only served to stimulate the Slnv spirit of nationality.
Polish papers aro forbiddon by law to
bo sold at railway stations or bookstands; soldiers are forbidden to enter 11 Polish cafe; Polish lawyers aro
uot admitted to practise in a Prussian
court of law, but in vain. To quote
"Tho authorities hnve alroady expended moro thnn $1.1,000,000 in attempts to bring bnek the peasantry to
Eastom Prussia and to settlo thom
there. In quite recont times n num
ber of lnws have boen passed with tbe
object of accomplishing this end and
of depriving tbe Polos of their lnnds
and introducing farmers of Prussian
nntionnlity. But the contrast between
tbo west, rich, industrial, covered with
a growing population, and the east,
dwindling in its inhabitants, who emigrate to tho .<ew World or tho west of
Europe, grows deeper and deeper. Of
course, the gaps they leave in their
native land are partly filled up by
Russian and Galician immigrants, who
work for the great landed proprietors
at low wages and contribute to swell
that great tide of Panslavic invasion
which Prnssia so vainly strives to withstand. ''
ble would hold 100,000 of them. About
a million aro mado in a mouth, but no
attempt is ever made to count tbem.
In determining tbe numbor, 100 of
them arc placed iu a very delicate
balance, and the number of the whole
amount is calculated from tbe weight.
All the small parts of the watch aro
counted iu this way, probably 50 out
of tne 120.
After being cut the screws are hardened nnd put in frames, about 100 to
tho frame, heads up. This is doue very
rapidly, but entirely »v tbe sense of
touch instead of by sight, so that a
blind man could do it as well as tbo
ownor of the sharpest eye. Thu heads
are then polished in an automatic ma
chine, 10,000 at a time. The plato on
which they are polished is covered witb
oil and a grinding compound, and on
this the machine moves them very rapid*
ly by a roversing motion, until the pol*
ish is perfect.
Stella—What do you consider a waste
of opportunity f
Bella—A freight truin going through
a tunnel.
"Dumlcy has found a cure for tiro
trouble. "Ehl What's thatf"
"He's bought a motor-boat."
Ef ery Woman
,   m-m—t_—t——u._.
MMO. WUrllif Sfdj
The smallest screws in the world are
made in a watch factory. They are
cut from a Bteel wire by a machine,
but as tbe chips fall from the knife it
seems as though tbo operator were
simply cutting up the wiro for his own
amusement. No screws can be seen
and yet a screw is made at every third
The fourth jewel screw is noxt to
invisible, and to tbe naked eye it looks
like a grain of dust. With a magnifying glass, however, it is seen to bo a
screw with 200 threads to tbe inch, and
witb a very fine glass the threads may
be seen quite clearly.
These little screws are four one-
thousandths of an inch in diameter.
It Ib estimated tnat an ordinary thini-
When Holloway's Corn Curo is applied to a corn or wart it kills the roots
and the callosity comes out without io-
jury to tbe flesh.
Maavai. mm, *» **«
Business College
Car. rsrttpAn. iriUMtnlt.
Courses — Bookkeeping,    Shorthand. Typewriting k English
Skll torm now open.   Met iny llmt.   Ws
tulit our itadonto la marlsf
iood potitloM-
Wilu tod.j lor hrso lm csulecus.
f. C. CUNTT, «. I. W1GCIM,
Pmldoit. PriiMlftl.
The Lamp That
Saves Ine Eyes
Children naturally never think of
possible strain on their eyesight whea
poring over a fascinating book.
It is up lo you to see ihey do not rum
iheir young eyes these long evenings
by reading under a poor light.
The Rayo Lamp is an insurance
against eye troubles, alike for young
and old.
The Rayo is a low-priced lamp, but it is constructed on lhe soundest
scientific principles, and there is not a better lamp made at any price.
It is easy on the eye because its light is so soft and white and
widely diffused.   And a Rayo Lamp never flickers.
Easily lighted without reaming shad* or chimney; easy lo clean aad nwick.
Solid bun throughout, with htadwnenicU fault; alio ia many other styles and finishes.
Ail yonr <I<«W 10 ikow you hi. Ii»« olR.ro k«*»i or wrllo lor imaium dnakr
lossy saves ol
The Imperial Oil Company, Limited
Owing to so much unfavorable weather, many farmers over West urn
Canada bave gathered at least part of tbeir crop touched by frost or
otherwise weather damaged. However, through the large shortage in
corn, oats, barley, fodder, potatoes and vegetables, by the unusual heat
and drought of last summer in the United States, Kastern Canada and
Wostorn Kurope, there is going to bo n steady demand at good prices
for nil the grain Western Canada has raised, no matter what its quality
may be.
So much variety in quality makes it impossible for thos* less ex
perienced to judgo tho full vulue that should be obtained for such grain,
theroforo the farmer never stood more in need of the services of the
experienced and reliable grain commission man to act for him, in the
looking after and selling of IiIh grain, than he does tMs season.
Farmers, you will therefore do well for yoursehes, not to xocopt
street or trnck prices, hut to ship your grain by carload direct to Fort
Utillinm or Port Arthur, to be handled by us in a wny that will get
for you all there is in it. We make liberal advances when desirod, on
receipt of shipping bills for curs shipped. We never buy your grain on
our nwn account, but act as your agents in selling it to the best advantage for your account, and we do so on a fixed commission of le per
% We have made a specialty of this work for many year*, and are
well known over Western Canada for onr experience in the grain trade,
reliability, careful attention to our customers' interests, and promptness
in making settlements.
We invito farmers who havx uOt yet employed us to write to us for
shipping instructions and market information, and in regard to our
standing in the Winnipeg Grain Trade, and out financial position, we
beg te refer you to tho Union Bank of Canada, and any of its branches,
also to the commercial agencies of Bradstreets and R, G. Dun & Oo.
703 Y Grain Exchange Winnipeg
insMWim wn i««iiM«ttan«g»«« TIIK ISLANDER, CUMP.ERLAKD, K.C
Published  every   Saturday   at Cumberland,  B.C.,  by
Islander Printing & Publishing Company
Chari.es C. Segrave,
Managing Editor.
Advertising rales published oltwwho r ii tl" (mpor,
Subscription price SI.DO per yoar, payafela in advance.
The editor does  not  hold   himself responsible for  views expressed by
ALEXANDER LAIRD, General Manager
CAPITAL, - $10,000^000 REST, -  $8,000,000
The Canadian Bunk of Commerce extends to Farmers every facility
for the transaction of tlieir banking business including: the discount and
collection of sales notes. Blank sales notes are supplied free of charge
on application.
Accounts may be opened at every branch of The Canadian Bank of
Commerce to be operated by mail, and will receive the same careful
attention as is given to nil other departments of the Bank's business.
Money muy be deposited or withdrawn in this way as satisfactorily as
by a personal visit to the Bank. 4231
CUMBERLAND BrtANOH,      W, T. WHITE, Manager.
SATURDAY, DEC. 9,    1911.
What the Editor has to say.
If it is true, as the press despatches report, that Scotland
has made a Mason of Jack Johnson, the colored pugilist, there
is one burning question the Masonic world is anxious to ask
Scotland, and tliere is a half dozen that might be expounded.
Perhaps to the canny soot "A man's a man for a' 0' that!"
to Ibe ricfit I ia*} lalla ct mr*, thr; have hm nimble to 11 ake
Iheir fell iMi ier? if early bi prott.ie'd Tbey bore, br never, to hate
tMt'ir Ipi] sMptvnt madr In fonri"1'' n wertt or a"
It is not too late to order NOW for this shipment.
Vancouver Island Nursery Co.,
Somenos, V.I.
The London Times holds up its hands in holy horror over
what it is pleased to term "land gambling in Canada." For
the information of the Times The Islander desires to say
there is no "land gambling" in Canada. To put your money
down on a certainty is not gambling. To invest your money in
Canadian land is as sure to bring you a good, legitimate profit
lis the sayiug is true, "Tomorrow is another day." To invest
your motiey in Cumberland realty is an immortal cinch.
The other day, at Ottawa, the opposition propounded
thirty questions and almost fell in a faint when Mr. Borden
and the new government casually and successfully answered
hem all.    That was easy.    Come again, gentlemen.
One of the foolish questions put hy the opposition to Mr.
Borden, the other day, was, Whether Parliament could legalize
any marriage ceremony performed anywhere in the Dominion,
Mr. Borden answered, No, and read the law in the matter.
Such deep questions must be quite a strain upon the opposition.
The IsLAKDER acknowledges the receipt of the Britisli
Columbia Year hook for 1911. It is a handsome volume as to
binding and the pages are beautiful specimens of the printer's
art. The book is replete with information—information wliich
should be in the hands of every citizen. Some ten thousand
volumes have been issued, which, perhaps cost something; bnt
the book is well worth every penny of its cost. It would make
a valuable text-kook for the public schools.
Copies of the Year Book may be obtained at $1.15 per
copy by applying to the King's Printer, Victoria, B. C. In
Oreat Britain and on the Continent application should be
mnde to Hon. J, H. Turner, Agent-General for British Columbia, Salisbury House, London Wall, London, E. C.,Eng.
A GHASTLY snprise was sprung in the McNamara case nt
I .us Angles when the defendants entered a plea of guilty on
December Ist. Many have felt that a conspiracy lay back of
the prosecution of this case, and the illegal acts of the ollieeis
in securing extradition not only in these, hut the Moyer-Petti-
hoiie cases in Idaho, leiitcolor to tiie feeling. So tense limit lie
situation at Los Angeles become that a travesty of justico or
it breakdown of the American system of jurisprudence was
eared. Indeed, several Canadian writers have intimated the
hitter. This is a sad blow not only to organized labor, but to
its friends. It opens the door to the fear that the unions were
privy to the violence and outrage after all.
Five minutes from school, postoffice and
store, one mile of road frontage, one-fourth mile
from beach, three miles from Comox Priee.
$3B OO per acre.    Easy Terms    Apply to
The Island Realty Co.
Fire. Life, Live Stock P. L. ANDERTON,
. . . Accident. . Phone 22.     Courtenay, B. C
First talis For le.
Orders Promptly Attended to
Pilsener Beer
The product of Pure Malt and
Bohemian Hops
Absolutely no chemicals used
in its manufacture
B ottled Beer Supplied to the Trade Only.
sssBest on the 6oast sss
Pilsenep Brewing Co..    Cumberland, B.C.
A good assortment of Berry Sets,
Fancy Cups and Saucers, Mugs, eto.
just opened out, also an assortment
of Toilet Sets.
A Full Stock of Furniture Beds and Bedding Always on Hand.
"The Furniture Store"
MoPhee Block A. McKINNON      Cumberland, B.O
^caf: Q$taf c
Offices: Comox & Courtenay.
Agents for E. & N. Lands,
Comox Distriot.
Beadenll & Thwaites
..1. Ci
i i
"Leading Tobacco King."
Better known as
Dealer in Fruits, Candy, Cigars
and Tobacco.
%__ Billiard Room in connection
Horseshoeing a Specialty
Third Ave., Cumberland
Display Advertisements
l'i cents per column lnoli per month.
Special rate fur liulf pugu or more.
Condensed Advertisements
1 cent 1 wonl, 1 issue; minimum olmrgo 2D cents.
No aocounts run for 'Mi* class of advertising
Local Agent for
The London. & Lancashire
Fire Insurance Co.
Get rates before insuring else*
Office: Cumberland
:   :   :   CEIVED   :   :    :
Up-to-date Merchant Tailor
The Club Cafe
Courtenay, B. C, Next Door to Opera House
White Cookine
and White Help Only,
Everything Eirst Class
Barrister,   Solicitor   and I
Notary Public.
The right place for a good square or a
^»mraffli«iMBi|™"l™MM'1"1 *™B^^w™\mmafi»r''
Christmas Gift Free
Merry Christmas
Merry Christmas
Merry Christmas
Merry Christmas
ises durinq the month
of December, will re*
ceive a
Christmas Gift Free
Merry Christmas
Merry Christmas
Merry Christmas
Merry Christmas
whether a purchase is made or not. Gifts are worth $1. to $5.
My advice is buy early and get selections
BATCHES   Cut filasSl Jewallery oi dl kinds.
Practical   Watchmaker
All Work Guaranteed
Dunsmuir Ave   :::   Cumberland
The  Russell
. The only Uiiy Made
in   America   with
the "Silent Knight
Vulveless Engine,"
Also made iu valve
. , . style . . .
Cleveland. Brantford, Maseey-Harris, Ferfeot and Blue Flyer Bicycles; FairbanKB Morse Gas Engines; also the Moore Gasoline
Lighting Systems. Oliver Typewriters. Repairing of all kinds.
Ilifijclt's, Seieiiitj .11 tit'ltiims, ilmts, eto.     Hcissors ttvtl Skates ground
Rubber Tires for Baby Carriages,   ffoopsjor Tubs
11 fcpii
Painter and
AU Work Done under
Personal Supervision
Orders may be left at
John Jack' store,
Dunsmuir Avenue    Cumberland
Third St. ft Penrith Avenue
AU kinds of hauling done
First-class Rigs for Hire
Livery and team work promptly
Union Loots No  11, I, 0. 0, F.
Moot! every Friday evening nt 7 nclocl
I. 0  0. V  Hull    Visiting brethern
. lui >mu
am E   Aston, BMMTARV
THE  ISLllft
a Year
Grocers & Bakers
Dealers in all kinds of Good
Wet Goods
Best Bread and Beer in Town
Agents for Pilsener Beer
***!** — ■*fl,^vw^^
= HOTEL ==
'The finest hotel in the city.
That Xmas
Present f
Won't trouble you if you
We Solve The Difficulty.
Canal Worker's Experience
Some time ago I came to this place to
work on tho i-anal and through inclement weather and exposure contracted
the worst kind of neuralgia, The pain
would fill my forehead so that 1 couldn't see; it was just awful. 1 went to a
druggist in town and was advised to
ubo a 50c. bottle of Nerviline. That was
the best advice and the best medicine
I over got. 1 will always recommend
Nerviline for any ache or pain. It is
ao Rtrong and penetrating it is bound
to curp.
(Signed)  A. B. GIORGI,
Trenton, Ont.
Doctors will tell you that nothing but
tho purest and most healing antiseptic
drugs arc used in Nervilino—that'B why
it is so safe for gencrul family use, for
thc baby as well as the parent. If you
haven't tried Nerviline, do so now—
your neighbors are almost sure to know
of its manifold merits and use*.
Kilauca, on the island of Hawaii, as
high as Vesuvius and twice as wido,
lies thirty miles from the sea in a mountain range wherein are three dead volcanoes and one partially alive. This
last, Manna I.ou, sends from time to
time streams of lava down its slopes.
In 1881 threo streams burst forth from
the sides of this mountain, and one of
them came within three-quarters of a
mile of Hilo, the chief city of the is
land. There have been several out
breaks of Kilauca in the last one bun
dred years. In 1840 there was a bril
Itant eruption of lava, the light of
which, it was reported, could bc seen a
hundred miles away.
Where the lava flowed through the
forest it left curious relics in the shape
of lava arches, bridges, and great vases.
These vases were formed by the lava
piling itself about some lofty tree trunk,
burning away the wood within and killing the upper part of the tree. In
the course of time seeds were deposited in the open top, filled with decaying
bark, until now thero is a gigantic lava
vase, holding ferns and flowers and
That Reminds Ne
'' Their chauffeur seems a sober, careful fellow." "Well, for the wages
they pay they can't well expert anything else."
Stella—When you are engaged you
tell him .aat he must economize.
Bella—And after you are married he
tells you thut you must.
Maud—You 'd nover dream of the proposals I've had this summer.
Ethel—No, dear; I'm not so good a
dreamer as you are.
Lawyer for Defendant—Now, sir, you
say that my client disappeared iu the
darkness after knocking you down.
What time of night was this I
Complainant—1 can't suy exactly.
Your client had my watch.
r DODD'S '
P "Wl C T [ 5  *_*r*   , '   .
Galetta, Ont.
"My husband used Gin Pills for
Backache and Kidney Disease. The
pain in his hack was dreadful and the
kidneys failed to do tli .ir work properly. Ah he became worse, wo fouud it
necessary to begiu treatment and unfortunately wasted time und money on
remedies that were little or no good.
Aftor taking one dose of GIN I'ILLS,
ho found tbem to lie exactly what he
needed, and after taking two boxes of
OIN PILLS, was completely cured. We
heartily recommend GIN PILLS, at
every opportunity to our friends and
rolatives." Mrs. JAMES B. MILPORD.
Writo us, mentioning this papoi nud
- we will send you a sample box free.
Then, if you cannot get the routlluv size
boxes nt your dealer's wo will supply
you at the regular retail price—50c a
box, 6 for $2.50—and money promptly
refunded if GIN PILLS do not give
satisfaction. National Drug & Chemical
Co. of Canada, Limited, Dept. B.P.,
Toronto. °1
P»toful,Knntted,8wollrnVf Ini, Milk
Lerr. Manimttls, Old Keren, Ulcer*  It
fihi'ftHinr, soothing, «trttni:lliL>nliiK awl In-
Hi a —ntluTH pain uii'l ltil!:imiu»Uoa
Moronity.  (iiTiim-luouml ..iiilsciilie.
*Mm.K. M   Kcml.T, H. I>. Mo. 1, Federal,
hail rnljrcL-il vilntt tlmt tlirnll/ broltu
ciu-sliig ciiHi'lcr.ililii lotl of blood.
j"-V        U«aABwHBimi. Jll. mid reported
i, jSm___  Nut. 6. 1J10, vclnn  «-.ttlrely hiuli-d.
Swelling mid diMMlomUrin |fiimt u<"i
oiiiUoji gono ii I'd
tv*n Ind no UPUblQ Willi thi-m llnco July KW.
Vi Hi ;',ra'..i;t h lnv;'lmib!«iiH it ui'ii'TuI hoti* '•
Eilili;iiliif,ii'il"i'"',,'"",,ll*1<Uii-i im ilLsit lliucii !•
d i iiuuU ' "mi'. (l"'V>-M':.'.'«l i-"l<l*. Hiltr-nt'fk, Soio*
ihr..au it iraovoM fatty bunt? fie i, goitre, iniann
«i-imln, *< ns, cy*K w< <•.>!"'( siwm, etc. IUi niul
|£amrMttIeatanigifUiMordoUroitn< BNilflnw*
W r.VOUNO P.O.»'..«0tvinaniBW(i.,Honlreil.fiii
, i »r*iiitn nu k wnn I
I IITWIU im * CHlBHil co, wt.e*m **_k<~
Dr.Marters female Pills
..tr-tl,., an* t*.'.inwi.tiH-tl fer w»m«n'. *.-
_.WSm, t trstatslctilj fr.au.* r«mfld. #f
MM «Htk. Tkt rMOlt (rom tb.lr at. Is
.       ru uto u dl <ni
Ohilllwaek,  Britiah   Oolumbla
rh« G»rden of B.C., In tho f.mom Fraier
r.lloj. Fineil t.rmin, .nd fruit Und In th«
«orl<f. Irrlg.tion unknown. B.O. Llectrlc Bjr.
'rom Vancouver; C.N.It. tr.nscontlnent.l .nd
;t Northern building. Ohilliw.ck . modern
,„,_w.terwork., elertrlo light, etc. Green
cr... the yeir round. The Pr.lrlo Han ■
u.r.di.e—no  frost,   no  four  month,    .now.
Write H. T. Qoodl.nd, Secy. Bo.rd of
fr.de, ChiHiw.ck, for >ll Information, book-
•tt. it.at. etc —THEN COME.
Oor. Portage Ave. and Fort St.
\warded first' prize at Worhl's Kx
position on its work and methods.
Write for a free catalogue. We also
<ife instruction by mill.
Hobby—Mrs. Bjones has a friend who
has died and goue to tho bud place.
Mamma—Why, Bobby! What makos
you say such things!
Bobby—Well, sho said that she had
a warm friend who wus dead.
Mrs. Oldtimer—Wben wo wero in
Egypt we visited tho pyramids. They
were just covored with hieroglyphics.
Mrs. Newrich—Horrorsl , Weren't
you afraid that some of tho ugly things
would get on youf
Physician—Have you nny achos or
pains this morning?
Patient—YeB, doctor. It hurts me
to breathe. In fact, tho only trouble
now seems to be witb my breath.
Physician—All right. I'll givo you
something that will soon stop thnt.
"I dunuo how Bill'b agoin' to vote
in  tnis  election,"  said the campaign
worker.     "I've hearn tell he's on the
fence.     "He wuz thar," replied the
neighbor; "but one o' tbe eandordates
let fall a dollar on the off sido o' thc
fence, and Bill    got dizzy    an'    fell
"Sir," with the haughty American to
his adhesive tailor, "I object to this
booriBh dunning. I would have you
know that my great-great-grandfather
was one of the early settlers. "And
yet," sighed tho anxious    tradesman,
thore arc people who bolieve in heredity."
.    .   *
Would you say the presidency or
the iudiciary is tho noblest institution
in tho land?" asked the Interrogntivo
Person. "Without intending to cast
n slur on either the presidency or tho
judiciary," answered tbe Opinionated
Person, "I should say that pay day
holds that enviable eminence. '
« # *
Irish Boatman (surveying the solitary result of the day)—"H's a foin
fish for the size av' ut; them'11 run
about three to the pound."
Angler—"Hardly that, 1 should
Boatman—" Well, maybe tbe other
two 'd be a bit bigger.''
Prod Lennox, spending tho summer in
Chicago, took a flat close to a railroad,
which he surrendered after a week's occupancy.
"I think 1 could have become used
to the trains going by iu thc night," be
said, "but every morning at 8 o'clock
two engines came under iny window
and rehearsed until noon."
Bobby had worn his mother's patience to the limit.
"You are a perfect littlo heathen!
she remarked, giving way at last.
"Do you mean itl" demanded Booby.
"I do, indeed," said his mother.
"Then say, ma," said Bobby, "why
can't 1 keep that ten cents a week you
gimmo for thc Sunday-school collection f I guess I'm as hard up as any
of the rest of 'cm."
Optimist—"A gran' morning tlio
Misanthrope (grudgingly)—"It's no
a'thegither ill—(brightening) but, oh,
mon, think o' the national debt."
"My! Miss Ma'r," said tho old
darky to the young ludy of the houHC
thc morning after her coming-out ball,
"you sho' did look sweet las' night.
My! I hardly knowed you. Doy wusn't
a thing about you dat looked mltchel."
Apropos to the pension of 410 a week
that the Knglish govornmont hus just
granted to the popular Knglish novelist, Joseph Conrad, n Chicago poet suid
the other duy: "The trashy novelist
rides in a French motor-cur and drinks
olmmpsgno with liis dinner, but the
good novelist is thankful for a monl
of macaroni. Our bad taste is to
lilninc. Listen to this torriulo story:
A wealthy Chicago publisher visited n
lunatic asylum one autumn afternoon,
and among tlio lunatics he noticed a
maii who snt counting his lingers and
Mntry, uiintry, eutrcy, corn!
Apple seeds nnd briar thorn,
"The publisher regnrded the mun lit
tentivel.v.      About  that  massive brow,
a.,out tlmt glowing e.ve there was something strangely   familiar.
Mntry, .tni'ntry, eutrcy, com!
Apple seeds und briar throm,
"The publisher laid his hand on the
maniac's shoulder and said sadly: 'My
poor friend, is it not true thnt in you
I recognize the pitiable wreck of what
wns once the heaven-born genius, A,
Fountain Penn, author of that immortal masterpiece '     'Blmt up!' tho
other interrupted in a fierce whisper,
and he glanced cautiously about the
room. 'Shut up, yoo old fool! Do
you wnnt to ruin mel   If none of the
Couldn't Get Strong
Seemed to Have Lost All Ambition,
Was Pale and Anaemic
Made Wonderful Recovery \«hen Dr.
Hamilton's Fills Were Used
"I was never actually Bick," writes
Mrs. La Pierre, wife of a well-known
resident of Labeniene, "yet I never
could get Btrong like other women. I
ate well enough, but somehow blood
rich and red I could never make, Whefl
I married 1 took u great pride in my
housekeeping, but it kept me tired all
the time. Mrs. Lechuuce, my neighbor,
looked well—she told me her health bad
been made by Dr. Hamilton's Pills. I
only thought of pills as a physic, but
now I know that Dr. Hamilton's Pills
are more, for they quickened my
stomach, liver and bowels—made me
stouter and stronger, gave me such color in my checks as I never had before,
They do good to parts in ways I need
not mention in this letter, but I sincerely believe Dr. Hamilton's Pilla
should be used ut regular intervals by
every woman—that's why I writo this
No medicino invigorates a woman
like Dr. Hamilton's Pills. 25c. per box,
all dealers or the Catarrhozone Co.,
Kingston, Canada.
docs get onto who I am I can stay here
all winter.' "
"Always say 'no,' " an old proverb
puts it, "and you will never be mar*,
Always say " yes" and you will
never bc divorced.
*   *    *
"A sixteen-page letter from your
sweetheart! What on earth docs he
"He says he loves mel"
A lady in a southern town received
notice from her cook thnt tbat lady
was about to leavo her service in order to enter into tbe holy stato of
"Why," said sue, "Chloe I didn't
even know you had an admirer."
"Oh, yaas, ma'am, for some time."
"Who can it be, Chloef"
"Don't you remember, Miss Lizzie,
dat I attended de funeral of a fron' ob
mine about two weeks ago?"
"Waal, ma'am, it's de corp's bus-
With the Horses
An Oil Without Alcohol.—Some oils
and nmtiy medicines have alcohol as :i
prom incut ingrodiont. A judicious
mingling of six essential oils compose
the famous Mr. Thomas' Edoctric Oil,
ami tliere is no alcohol in it, so that its
elVeets are lusting. There is no medicinal oil compounded that ean equal
tins oil in its preventive and healing
Eva Tanguay, 2.09%, that entered
the 2.10 class at Columbus during tho
September meeting, in a trial against
time, is a brown marc foaled ia 11)07
and was bred by Patchen Wilkes Farm,
Lexington, Ky.
Her racing career started in 1909,
wben at two years she competed in four
events for youngsters of her age. Her
tirst start was nt the August Lexington
meet, where, in the tirst heat she took
a record of 2.10%, but was defeated by
Hillbrooke Queen in slower time. At
Columbus she was third and fourth to
Native Belle in 2,13% and 2.12 tf, tone
was fpurth in each heat of the big futurity in the second of which Native
Belle stepped to the world 'a record mile
of 2.07%. Her last start of the season
was in thc Lexington stake, where sho
finished ;(-:i to Hue D. in 2.10% and 2.17.
In 1910 she faced the starter but twico
in both o. which events she was compelled to meet Colorado K. At New
York ehc got fourth monoy, thu timo
being 2,07'/i and 2,07%. Afterwards sue
started in the Horse Breeder stake
at licadville, and again secured fourth
money in a winning event for Mr,
Estabrook's great eolt, tho heats being
in 2.00Vj, 2.07%. This year she has
started six times for the money. At the
lolumbus august meeting sliu got third
money to Lulu Arion during the nrst
week, and the same portion tho second
weok to Klcctric Todd. At Headvillo
she took the tirst hout iu 2J4tf, but
was beaten by Peter Ited. At Hartford
she again secured the first heat with a
milu in 2.12, but was beaten in thu
money division by Peter Ked und Sue
I). Slie was second three hents tu Lady
Willow, at Syracuse, the best of wliich
was B.UVii and at the Detroit September meeting she finished third to Morning Light, best time 2.00%,
Hor pedigree disc loses a wcaltli of
producing blood.
Hue ()., 2,08tf, the fast daughter of
Todd 2,14%, that Lou McDonald marked in 2.0Si._. at "The Trots," in a trial
against time, is a brown mare, fouled
11(07, and was bred by E. tt. (laitlier,
II a rro ds burg, Ky.
Like Eva Tanguay, her turf career
began as a two-year-old, iu which season she made tive starts, all at Lexington. At the July meeting she won, taking tlte third and fourth beats in 2.2)1
luu) 2.28, At the August meet, she finished 3-fM in a divided beat affair that
was won by Hillbrooke Queen. At the
September meet she took the seeond
and third heats in 2.20 U* And 8,15%,
aftor losing the first to Louise Nvilson
in 2.17%. At the big "trots" in October she started in both the Futurity
and the Lexington, finishing 0-5 to Native Belle when that phenomenal filly
stepped her famous second heat in
2.07%, while she won the latter event
in straight heats, time 2.16%, 2.17.
As a three-year-old she first appeared
in the Horseman stake at Detroit,
where she was distanced in the third
and final beat won by Emily Ellen in
2.10%. At Lexington in the memorable
futurity won by Grace Bhe met the
same fate in tho fifth heat, while in
the Kentucky stake the following week
she finished 3-2 to Colorado E, the second heat being the record mile of that
remarkable colt—2.04%.
In both her two and three-year-old
form sho was driven by Ed. Willis, the
very capable trainer of Patchen Wilkes
Farm, and this year in Lou McDonald's
stable she has had a quite strenuous
campaign, having started eleven times
prior to her time trial at Lexington
Starting with the Grand Circuit at
Indianapolis she secured third monoy
to the famous "plowhorso" R. T. I
ihe next week at Kalamozoo sho got
fourth in a race won by The Huguenot.
At Grand Rapids sho was second in tho
2.1G trot, wheu High Admiral took
mark of 2.07%. At Detriot she was
drawn after the second heat in the 2.13
trot, won by Charley Mitchell. At
Cleveland sho was third in tho second
preliminary of the Tavern "Steak."
At Buffalo she was unplaced in the
King George $5,000 stake, won by Bel-
vasia, and in the Massachusetts stake
at Readville she got third. At Hartford she took tbe third and fifth heats,
nnd second money in nn event won by
Peter Red. At Syracuse she finished
second throe times to Lady Willow. At
Detroit's fall meeting she wns 3-4-2-3
in 2.08, 2.08. 2.08% and 2.09%. At Columbus she was second three heats to
Vanity Oro, when the Canadian mare
tramped three miles in 2.09',4, 2.11 yi,
2.12%. Her pedigree shows the intense
trotting strains to which she is heir.
true to a small extent, but it is not
probable that more than five per cent.
additional power can be obtained from
the motor by disconnecting the muffler,
and as this increased energy is only
necessary when the power plant is called upon to exert its utmost strength,
"A Grand Medicine" is the encomium often passed on Bickle's Anti-Consumptive Syrup, and when the results
from its uso are considered, as borne
out by many persons who have employed it in stopping coughs and eradicating colds, it is more than grand, Kept
in Die hoove it is always at band and
it has no equal as a ready remedy. If
ynu have not tried it, do so at once.
When the Indians travelled together
they seldom walked or rode two or more
abreast, but followed one another in
single file. It has been thought by
some that thiB practice resulted from
the lack of roads, which compelled them
to make their way through woods and
around rocks by narrow paths.
If this were the real reason for the
practice, then we should expect to find
that the tribes wbo lived in open countries travelled in company, as do whites.
The truo reason for journeying, as
tne Indians did, in single file seems to
be a feeling of caste. This feeling was
nt the bootom of other customs of the
Indians. It made their women slaves,
and rendered the men silent and unsocial.
This peculiarity is Asiatic. How it
has warped and disfigured Hindoo life
is well known. Home is scarcely possible whero it prevails. To tho women
and children domestic life is bondage.
The women of a Chinese household are
seldom seen on the street. The children, when accompanying their father,
follow him at a respectful distance, in
single file, nnd in the order of their
Lyddite, thc powder wliich has such
enormous explosive force and that can
bo fired from a gun which is easily
carried about, does uot, as has bcen
widely supposed, tako its name from u
man, but from nn ancient town near
the coast of Kent, in England—the
town of Lydd, where there is a government artillery range.
Here the tests were made that resulted in the preparation of this explosive; and the name nf the peaceful
Kentish village is now associated with
a substance that has dealt out death
to thousands. It has other odious qualities besides its explosive force, since
is fumes ure so suffocating as sometimes
to bc intolerable.
Lydd shares thc notoriety which attaches to the name of Dumdum, that
other peaceful city, in distant Bengal.
where are manufactured the expanding
bullets that Great Britain has used from
time to time.
The Ncstorian stone hns attracted
much attention from Western scholars.
One American scientist has pronounced
it a forgery, but later investigations
seem to have established its authenticity and show that its inscription presents a truthful account of tho first
Christian mission to China.
Thc stone was found by workmen in
the year 1025, Tho inscription consists
of three columns of Chinese characters,
with a few Syr ine paragraphs, the .utter language being now unknown in
China. It is a long exposition of the
Christian  doctrines of the period.
In China antiquarians have long held
the stone in great veneration. The
style is brief to a degree, but not easily
understood. It lias been contended that
wero fifty Chinese students versed in
tho various dialects of tho empire to
be employed in its translation each
would offer a different interpretation of
some part of thu inscription.
Municipal legislation to do away with
thc muffler cut-out has been passed or
threatened iu many cities. Wheu used
witb discretion, thc muffler cut-out
pedal is a valuable appurtanco of the
car, but it is because it is so often
employed us a means for making night
and day hideous on crowded streets
and city boulevards that it has fallen
under thc ban of thc anti-noise societies. There is a popular superstition
prevalent among motorists in genernl
thut tho muffler decrenseH tlio power
developed by the engine.   This may be
■   il
Foi fed, Weak, Wuiy, W.toy Eye.
MmlM Doein'l Smtrt-Sooths, En Prln
Munn. Eye Remedy, Liquid, 25c, 50c, $1.00.
■lurfM   Ey. Sain, la /ueplic Tub...  25c.  tl.OC
Hurlna Eye Remedy Co., Chicago
Ont box of tbem cured Mn. Mary A.
Oook'a Bbeunutlim from wbicb ibe
bad suffered for fourteen yean
Mannheim, Ont.—(Special) — How
quickly and easily lihounuitism can tic
curod whon you uso the right means is
shown in the case of Mrs. Mary A.
Cook, well kuown and highly rcspocted
here, ln an interview regarding hcr
cure, of which all thc village knows,
Mrs Cook says:
"I had Hhcuniatism so bad that
sometimes I would sit up nearly all
"1 first thought I would try thc doc-
tors, but luckily I decided to Ilrst try
Dodd's Kidney Pills.
"They cured me, nnd I didn't have
to try the doctors. And just to think
that after fourteen years of suffering
one box of Dodd's Kidney Pills Bhould
enrol I will recommend Dodd's I..--
ney Pills to anyone who suffers from
Yes, it is easy to cure ltheumatism
wheu you go thc right way about it.
Rheumatism is caused by uric acid in
tbe blood. If tbo Kidneys are working
right tbey will strain all the uric acid
out of thc blood and there can be no
Rheumatism. Dodd's Kidney Pills always make tho Kidneys work right.
That is a barbarous way of treating
corns—dangerous, too. Anj corn,
bunion or callous can be removed
quickly and painlessly by Putnam's
Painless Corn Extractor. Putnam'a Corn
Extractor, mark the nam?. Safe,
prompt, painless. Sold by druggists.
Price 25c.
tbe absurdity of using tbe cut-out on
level city streets and in traffic in wbicb
the engine must bo throttled is appar
ent. It is only in races and in bill
climbs in which every ounee of energy
which the motor is capable of developing is requirod that the elimination of
tho muffler serves its purpose as a
power incrcaser. Of course, the muffler
cut-out may be used as a warning instead of a horn, and it is useful iu
determining the quality and quantity
of the explosions of a well-aileneed
motor, but to depress this pedal in
crowded streets, when the freed ex
plusions cnn serve no purpose save to
attract attention to tbe car and driver,
isn" crime " of which many chauffeurs
and Borne owners are guilty, and it is
no wondor thnt so large a number of
the populace look with disfavor npon
thoroughfares which are popular routes
of automobilistB. Automobile elubs arc
doing their best to discourage this on
necessary use of the muffler cutout,
but whether tbe motor car shall be
the quiet, powerful, smooth-running conveyance for which it waa designed, or
whether it shall become a nerve-racking, spluttering distraction on our city
streets, iB a question that must be decided by the individual owners rather
than by nny club or society.
Wise mothers who know the virtues
of Mother Graves' Worm Exterminator
always havo it at hand, because it
provoB itB valuo.,
Eveiy mothpr should be careful
that the children take their baths
in a warm room. The chill of a
cold room is dangerous after coming out of the hot water.
A Perfection Smokeless OO Healer brings bathroom or bedroom
to just the degree oi waimtk you want in five or len minutes. All you
have to do it to touch a match.
The Perfection Healer bums nine hours on one filling and is
always ready for ute. You cen move it anywhere il it needed.
There it no wade of fuel and heat warming unoccupied rooms.
Just the heat you want, when and where you want il.
The Perfection is fitted wilh an automatic-locking flame spreader
that prevents the wick being turned high enough to smoke and ii
easy to remove and drop back when cleaning.
Drum, finished cither in tuiquoue-blue enamel or plain steel 1 tight end one-
mental, yet strong and durable—Miiuble far any room in any home.
Dealer.cveiywhtfe; or vrile to .ny Meacy ol
The Imperial Oil Company, Limited
'jimu. ' —:
Seldbg D.al.rt Ev*r*wh*r*
The Imperial Oil Co., Limited
» HKI m Hi Htt
Cure, the «ick anil arts a, a preventive for others. Liquid
siven on the tonpue. Snfe for brood mure, and all others. Belt
kidney renin!)'; rule and $1 a Imttle; *.'. ani $10 the doion. Bold
ny nil rfriiirimte nnd Inn-He Koutl. linuHe.. Distributors: —_ Whol,-
Galo Drug Houses.
mil imicu co„ cm mm m uetiriiimits, ioiih, iu., i. t. >.
We use our twenty jreftn' vxperiunctt in the grain busineii In Western Csimris
when nmrketing all grain coniigninenti to Ih-ki iiilvi.titi.iei' for shipper. We bundle
wheat, <Mtn, barley anil flat shipped in car lots, giving ipecial attention tu the
grading of earh shipment, and look after it until finally unloaded in the terminal
elevator. Gnud advances made on bills of lading, and after sale ii made prompt
returns aent to shipper. Our commission charge is the lowest allowed by Ihu
..ales of the Winnipeg Grain Kxehange, of whieh we are member!.
As mum ai your car is hilled forward, send tne shipping bill tu ns wilh instructions about holding or selling, and we will attend to the balance of thv
hunineHs for you. Ship one rar to ua and you will contnlue to ahlp for yeurs.
We are MCENSKI) and BONUBD. Reference: Bank of Hamilton, Winnipeg,
If you have not shipped a car af grain yet, write ua for full shipping instructions.    Shipping grain for a commission merchant to handle ia very simple.
Plaster hoard takes the place of Lath, and is fireproof.
The "Empire" brands of Woodfiber and Hardwall
Plaster for good construction.
The Manitoba Gypsum Co., Ltd.
mm^mmmmmmmmmamimm fl
Men Outnumbered in Britain
(Loudon Daily Nows).
The preliminary report of tho census
takin oa April 2 last has been issued
as a bluo book. It contains much interesting information supplemental to
the preliminary figures givon in tho
parliamentary pnpers last month,
Ia the earlier reports tho population
of Scotland wus overstatod by seventy-
sir, and the correct figures for the different parte of the United Kingdom are
now given as follows:
Inc. or dec.
from 1901
England 34,043,070   — 10.5 pc
Wales 2,032,103   — 18.1 pe
Scotland 4,759,445   —   0.4 pc
Ireland 4,381,051 1.7 pc
United Kingdom 45,210,005 — 0,1 pc
Of thb 36,075,209 persons enumerated
in Kngland and Wales 17,448,470 were
male* and 18,020,793 wero females, an
eieeM of 1,178,317 females over males,
which would, however, bn considerably
roducod if the Knglish and Welsh member! of the army and navy, of the Merchant Service nbrond were included in
the reckoning. The proportion of females to males in the population of
England and Wales was 1,057 to 1,000
in 1801; it then declined census after
census, though with some irregularity,
down to 1851, when it stood at 1,042
to 1,000. But aftor that a change in
tha opposite direction set in, and up
to 1001 there was a slight but continuous Increase in tho proportion of
females to males. The proportion of
females to males was tbe same in 1911
as In 1901, viz., 1,068 to 1,000, but when
due allowance is made for the numbor
of males absent on military service in
South Africa in tho last-named yoar
thero Is no doubt that the truo proportion of females to males was somo
what lower in 1901 than in 1911.
The sex distribution of the populu
tion differs vory greatly in the different
parts of ihe country. The following
are tho ten registration countios in
whleh the proportion of females wus
I' lowest and  the  ten  in wliich it  was
| Proportion of Females to 1,000
Monmouthshire • - M2
Glamorganshire  922
Flintshire  067
Rutlandshire  073
Durham  985
Carmarthenshire         • • 987
Radnorshire   ..'  W)
Brecknockshire  991
Denbighshire  1,008
Wiltshire  1,005
Sussex 1,218
Cardiganshire 1,211
Cornwall 1,162
Gloucestershire 1,157
Homorsotsliiro 1,HJ1
Middlesex 1,H0
Surroy U;ili
Carnarvonshire 1,128
London 1,120
Worcestershire     1,117
Tho number of families (schedules
collected) wns 8,018,857, us comparod
wiih 7,030,668 in 1901', an incroaso of
0fil,J*HWt or 14 per cent.
Parliamentary Anomalies
*"Vory instructive is tIio analysis of
tho population into parliamentary constituencies. Tho number of members
of tlio House of Commons for 408 par*
linmontary areas in England and
Wnles, not including the Universities,
boing 4!»0, nnd the population being
30,075,269, nn equal humoricnl distribution would glvo one member to 73,623
porsoits. How far the actual representation departs iu eitjior direction from
this average is shown in tho following
Population per Ropreseutntivo
No. of  No. of
Cou-      Hop-
stltuen-  reseu-
eios.   tatlves,
100,000 and upward.   ..    Sli 80
90,(100 and under 100,000   XI 38
80,000    „       „      90,000   46 -IS
70,000    „       „      80,000   50 53
00,000   „       „       70,000   70 ™
50,000    „      „     00,000   S5 88
40,000     .,       ,.      50,000   57 00
80,000    ,,       ,.     -10,000   20 23
20,000    „       „      #0,000    16 17
10,000    „       „      20,000     7 7
Under 10.Q0O (City of
London)       t 2
408 400
Noto.—Wliere uu undivided constituency is roprosontod by two members,
each mombor is rockoned in the ubove
table ns representing half lhe popula
tion of tlte entite constituency, which is
classified accordingly.
There are eight constituencies in
wliich tho population per mombor is
under 20,000, nnd thoy may bu compared willi eight oxtromos in which
the   population   por   mom bor   is   over
Durham     15,036
Bury St. Edmunds 10,785
Montgomery     16,814
Ponryn     17,024
\, hitohuven     1S,575
Windsor     19,840
Salisbury     19,840
(Jity of Loud on (2 members) ..    19,057
Romford 812,804
Wandsworth 253,797
Harrow 247,877
Wnltbnmstow '.. 240,807
West Hum, Houth 1N7.2S.1
Tottenham 180.001
Cardiff 185,881
Knfiold 180,100
In all thero aro 83 constituencies
whore nn M.P, I'oprOscutB 101,000 or
more inhnliitauts. In 1801 thoro were
onlv seven, and iu HUH there were 41,
f The Rural Tncreaso
Dividing thc population in urban ninl
thrill*, it is pointed out thut tho 1,137
urban districts In England und Wales
contained 28,108,970 persons, and the
057 rural districts 7,900,299, so that,
broadly speaking, the proportion living
undor urban conditions ts 7.S por cent.,
and under rural conditions only 22 per
cont. Tho Incroaso in lhe Urban districts wns 11.1 per cent., und in the
rural districts 10.2 per cent.
In the preceding intcrcensal period
the rates of increase in the urban and
rural districts (us constituted in 1901)
had been 15.2 und 2.9 per cent., respectively. Thus, while the rate of increase
in urban districts has declined from
15.2 to 11.1 por cent., the rate of in-
crease in rural districts has risen from
9 to 10,2 per cent. It is pointed out,
however, that the rates in tho last de-
connium represent an actual increase
of 2,818,072 persons in the urban, and
of only 729,354 persons iu the rural districts, During the tirst hnlf of the pust
century the population of 105 distinctly rural areas in the aggregate increased in each decennium, but at a gradually diminishing rate, except in the 10
yenrs 1811-21. In the second half of
the contury there is a want of regularity in tbo series, but the genernl
tendency has been for the decrcuse of
population, which first manifested itself in the 10 years, 185MH01 to continue at an accelerated rnte until the
last two decennia, wheu thero was a
notable change. This is best shown by
the following figures of the population
in the 105 districts, which contain no
portion of an urban district:
Per cent.
1801    852,313     ....
1811    913,713   "7.20
1821 1,044,331 • 14.80
1831 1,115,641   #6.83
1841 1,181,758   #5.93
1851 1,212,548   *2.6l
1801 1,207,580   xO.41
1871 1,202,499   x0.42
1881 1,187,124   xl.28
1891 1,174,958   xl.02
1901 1,189,713   xl.r*
1911 1,300,565   f9.82
"Increase.   xDecrease.
Discussing the falling off iu the rate
of increase in the population of the
towns, the registrar-general makes the
following interesting observations:
It is obvious that a falling off in
the rato of increase, or oven an nc
tun) diminution of the population resident within the limits of a town, does
not necessarily imply nny correspond
ing decline in its prosperity. Unless
the boundaries of the town nre periodically adjusted the relation botwoen itB
area and its population must constantly
alter as the latter increases, The tendency is for further increase to slacken within, and probably to accelerate
without the town limits, simply becauso there is less and less room left
within for new buildings. If at the
same time overcrowded slum areas aro
rebuilt with more generous provision
of light nnd air, and if residences nre,
placed hy railways, warehouses, and
owing to increasing site vnlue, replaced by railways, warehouses, and
business promises in the central portion of the town, it may well be that
even nn actual decrease iu population
represents not decrease, but increase
of the town's property.
"The growth of large urban communities caa only be measured by
considering jointly the population of
the centra! area and of all its suburbs,
whether tno latter *lo or do not happen
to be under the same local government
as Hie central area. The cases ot
Birmingham, Liverpool and Manchester illustrate this. The population of
Birmingham at tho census was 525,900,
an increase of 0,5 per cent. Since the
taking of the census, the provisional
ordor for the extension of the city
has beon confirmed by Parliament and
the population of the whole of the
urea to bo included within the new
city amounts to 840,1172; at the census
of 1001, 159,059 persons were enumerated within thc same area. Tho rate
of increase is, therefore, 10.7 pe;' cent.
Tho population of Liverpool at the
census wus 740,506, nn incroaso of 0,00
per vent. Within uu area, comprising
the City of Liverpool, the county boroughs of Booth* and Birkenhead, tho
municipal borough of Wallasey, the urban districts of Littierlnnd, Waterloo,
with Beaforth, (heat Crosby, little
Crosby, Higher Bebington and Lower
Beblugton, and the civil parish of
West Derby rural, no fewer than 1,-
095,558 persons were enumerated, showing an increase of 112,820 iu the decennium, or 11.5 per cent.; nearly double
the rato recorded for the city alone.
"During the past lutorconsal period
in'fnticliostor had heen extended by the
addition of the urban districts of Moss
Side, \\ ithington, Gorton, nnd l.evon-
shulme, and part of Prostwich. The
population of the city ns constituted in
1911 was 711.127; this total shows an
incroaso of 09,554, or 10,8 per cent.
If, however, we take lhe city bouth
daries us constituted in 1001, the Increase of population amounted to only
24,785 persons, or 4,0 per cent.''
Reinnrknhlo Growth
Loudon, it is pointed out, furiltsllOS
the most remarkable Instance of decline iii population in the central por
tions of lurge cities. This fact has
already heen emnhnslzed by the (Igures
given lust mouth, but il is worthy of
noto thnt the increase of 084,807 in the
"outer ring" of the metropolis iu the
las! ten years represents u number
considerably mere than the entire
population of thc "outer ring" 50 years
ngo. The rnte of increase lii this encircling bolt lietweeu 1861 nnd ION is
uo less thnn 559.1 per cqnt.
lu the report published last month
the figures for the larger towns (the
country boroughs) wero given. The
addition:! I statistics now published
show that Houtheiitl-on-Sea, with a
population of 02,728, increased by uo
less than 117.1 per cent. Other big increases ure: llfnrd, 78,205 (89,0 per
eOnfr, increase); Hiding, 01,235 (85,4
per cent, increase), and .Acton, 57,5211
(52.-I per cent, "increase), lu addition
to the four towns mentioned a month
ngo as showing decreases, viz., Burton, Canterbury, Halifax' uud Hastings,
the following art) now given: Chester,
89,0{f8 (1.9 per cent, decrease), and
Aston Manor, 75,042 (3 per cent, de-
A subscriber asks for a definition of
theso terms und they certainly aro of
considerable    interest,   and    especially
so seeing that thoy are more or less
erroneous, Tho term '' bowed'' tendon is appliod to that condition in
which the profile of the back tendons
of the log, from knee and hock to
fetlock, is bulged instend of iu a
struight YiiiQ from above to below. The
bulge or enlargement may bo at tho
upper third of tho tendon und involve
the juncture of the check ligament and
tho flexor tendon, or it may bo just
above the fetlock and implicate the
bursa nud sheath of the tendons. In tho
upper part the tendon felt between thu
fingers and thumb mny present a
"knot" or "bunch" or marked enlargement, Thut condition is at the
juncture mentioned nnd hns resulted
from a severe strain of the chock ligament. The lower enlargement usually
is longer nnd larger and involves the
sheath of the tendon. The sheath is
lined with synovial membranes, which
secrete lubricating fluid for the prevention of friction. The thickening
hns resulted from inflammation of tho
membranes and the walls of the sheath
and thoy have become permanently hardened (indurated) and thickened.
Where the sossnmoid bones of the buck
of tho fetlock are involved the enlargement will be larger and harder than
when membranes, sheaths, tendons und
ligaments alone ure involved. If there
is a soft puff above the joint, on each
sido, or to be pressed through from one
sido to the other (as seen in the condition called ** thoroughpin'' of the
hock joint) tbat is a distension of the
synovial bursa (sac) of the part and is
commonly termed a "wind gall" or
"wind puff." lt is an indication that
the parts involved have been sprained
and inflamed at some time in tne history of the horse. That also is the certain history whonever and wherever an
enlargement or puff is found in connection with the tendons and ligaments of
a joint or leg.
"Filled leg" is a common term and
may also be applied to tho tendons, but
the tendons are not "filled"; i.e., dropsical or swollen. In filled leg the condition mny either be active (acute) or
passive (non-active). When a leg is
swollen, hot, soro nnd lameness is present there is acute or active congestion and hyperemia. There is an increased flow of blood to the part and
there may be in connection effusion of
inflammatory lymph and even of extra
vasated blood into the surrounding tis
sues. The leg then is "filled," because swollen; but the products of inflammation generally are reabsorbed
and the leg is then restored to its normal condition and proportions. In passive congestion, filling" or "stocking,"
the blood circulation is deficient or
impeded. Active congestion is not pro-
sent; there is no exaggerated flow of
blood to the part. The liquid portion
of the blood (serum) has been poured
into the tissues involved and is not
removed until active exercise caused
restored circulation and the dropsical
condition disappears, rcabsorption having taken place. When rcabsorption of
the products of either active or passive
congestion does not occur the enlarge
ment (swelling) remains permanently
having become organized iuto nuw, ab
normal tissue. To such a condition in
some places we apply the term "cal
lous," usually the skin is involved, or
we may say that there is a "thicken*
ing" of a tendon, its sheath or all of
the tissues involved. A "filled ten
don" would most often mean a distension of its sheath with synovia; a thickened tendon, one Hint shows permanent
hardening and thickening of the walls
of the sheath and other surrounding
tissues; a "filled leg" a dropsical leg,
iu which condition the swellings when
squeezed show dents or "pits" representing lhe .points of the fingers and
remaining for some time after the pressure has beea removed. That condition
is seeu iu passive congestions nud stocked legs of old, run down, ill fed, or
over-worked and badly cared for horses,
or those that are insufficiently exercised, overfed and stubled in Insanitary
buildings, Tho blood circulation in
such instances is impaired or there may
bo chronic diseu.se of the heart, liver,
Or kidneys, or of all three. Wliere li
liorse suffers u sudden attack of lymphangitis ("milk leg" or "shot of
grease," or "Monduy morning disease") the leg becomes intensely swollon, hot and sore. That condition is
acute and active. Wnen inflammation
nnd fever subside the swelling should
disappear iu u few days if suflicient exorcise is ullowed. If realisorption does
not tako plnce, as it often fails to do
tvhon the horse has had several successive attacks of the disease, tho leg remains permanently thickened, especially at its lower extremities, where circulation is least active, und it remains
permanently "filled'' or "stocked";
but the condition is really due to organization of the products of Inflammation,
not to be removed by exercise or hnu-
ih'ging, and technically known as "cie
plltintmsis" or hypertrophy of thq eel
Hilar tisMies.
A "filled'' condition usually dlsup
pears undor pressure, exercise nnd the
treatment usually adopted in such con
d it mil   does   not   respond   to   treatment
Hud proves lo be u chronic, Ui curable
condition  and   blemish.   A   "bowed"
: tendon, wherever found, indicates that
Bprnlll   has   been   the   cause   and   that
1 extra exeMion nnd stress, of u sort
identical or similar to that which orig
iually   caused   the   condition,   will,   if
j Again experienced, bo likely to lead to
hi like sprain or aggravation id1 the eon
dltlon  present and  consequently" result
j iu lameness. Thi)' "bowed" tendon
therefore is u most serious condition]
the ''filled" condition likely to bo temporary, nlthough possibly and often
acute, but responsive to treatment and
not so likely to return.
In either ense the results of line firing nud blistering is to strengthen lhe
parts and prevent recurrence of similar conditions lending to lameness.
Sharks nre both cowardly and cruel,
bnt it is dillicult. to study their ways
from the deck of a ship as they move
slowly in a refractive riedium such as
water some twenty or thirty fool below
the observer. Hence the many erroneous deductions of seamen with respect
to those unsociable denizens of the
deep. The shark belongs to a type
which has survived the flight of time,
wliile other more attractive Hpecies
Imve ceased to ovist. Tho early voyagers were wont to attribute Supornn-
t li rn I   prescience to thu shark.    Often,
during light winds, one of theso son
scavengers will follow a slow sailing
ship lor several successive days aud
nights, and it was erroneously assum-
'ed that he did so because awure iu
some mysterious wny of un impending
death on bonrd which will insure for
him a sumptuous repast.
A shark's voracity is not less marvelous than his digestion. Whether ho
bo a man-eater by choice or by tho
compulsion of hunger, tho fact remains that nny ono who happens to
fall overboard in tho vicinity of a shark
is likely to bo snapped up'by tho latter without ceremony. It is tho evil
reputation attaching to tho wholo shark
tribe as regards iridifferonce whence
comes u meal that renders thom so abhorrent to seafurers. Thoy are by no
means epicures. Failing other food, a
shark will devour a relative that is
either doad or moribund.
Old sailors never weary of enlarging
upon the voracity nnd tho digestion of
sharks. When in the China sens, as
related by the late Captain Basil Hall,
K.N., a large shark was caught by
H.M.S, Alceste, which was found to contain, among othor things, a buffalo hide
that had been thrown overboard the
proceeding day. One of tho sailors explained this in ,a way which seemed irresistibly logical in the opinion of his
shipmates. "There, my lads," said
Jack, "what d'ye think of that? He
swallowed the wholo buffalo right
enough, but he couldn't digest tho
hide." As n matter of fact, the cur
cubs of the buffalo, unknown to those
amateur makers of history, was still on
board the Alceste.
Circumstantial accounts nre in evidence of instances where the shark has
been defeated by the man. At Jamaica, for example, a huge shark is said
to have beon a terror to frequenters of
the harbor he affected. Once he overturned a boat carrying provisions to the
shipping, and devoured the wife of the
boatmun. The mnddaned widower
reached the nearest ship, seized a shark
knife, invoked the aid of his patron
saint, leapod into the water, gave battle to the shark despite the awful odds
and succeeded in avouging his wife by
slaying her destroyer.
A shark is very tenacious of life,
and a well known authority has point
ed out that "wounds affect fishes generally much less than higher vertebrates. A Greenland shark continues
to feed while his head is pierced by
a harpoon or by a knife, as long as
the nervous centre is not touched."
A Norwegian Antarctic exploror, If
J. Bull, gives a startling word picture
of a shark's tenacity of life. This
man-eater was cnught at tho Iceland
cod fishery; his liver, heart and internal arrangement were removed, so as
to put u period to his career, and the
thus .mutilated body was then cast
into the sen. He simply gavo a leisurely wag of hiB tait and swum rapidly
out of sight.
Tho shnrk is comparatively clumsy
in his movements, und is compelled to
turn over in order to seize his prey,
nnd his many enomios are not slow in
availing themselves of these peculiarities. In 1889 Captain Fraser, of the
barque Thomas S. Stowe, when oue hundred miles west of the Galapagos Islands, cnught a shark which hud been
carrying about in its body tho weapons
of offence of two swordfish. The latter class of sea dwellers are plucky
fighters, and occasionally break off their
swords in the body of an opponent who
would, perhaps, rather flee than fight.
Sharks often attain to great size on
the coast o£ Southern California. In
1900 apparently tlio largest ou record
was dispatched. He measured shirty-
two feet from the tip of his tail to the
end of his snout, uud had u girth of
fifteen feet just forward of his dorsal
fin. Two children of about six years
of nge wero depicted sitting erect within the extended jaws of the slain shark,
their lugs dungling iu space.
A shark stoak, properly cooked, is
neither lightly despised nor ignored by
u-sniling ship's crew who may not huve
tasted fresh meat or freflll fish for six
months of loadon-footed hours, though
some cannot forget that the shark is a
nian-oatcr by choice.
of Chinese meat uud game products
wero sent to the United Kingdom with
great success, and iu these shipments
were included poultry und eggs. Tho
quantities of poultry thus exported,
however, cannot be given with any do-
g.ee of accuracy since the returns include such products under tho general
term of "provisions." the amount is
considerable, however, nnd it is increasing. Apparently tho only requirement for indefinite expansion of this
market is proper shipping und selling
arrangement*. The product, both poultry and eggs cnn be delivered ut exporting points in China more cheaply
than probably at any similar place in
tho world.
For hundreds of yenrs China was the
greatest poultry producing nntion in
the World, and probably this is truo today, not only ns regards the total pro-
production but also iu per capita uso.
Of the more thnn 300,000,000 population of China shown by the last census
lliere are few indeed who do not in tho
course of a year consume something in
tiie way of poultry—chickens or ducks
or geese—and certainly a large number
of eggs.
For console fable portions of the
population poultry is the only animal
tood usgd, and for more well-to-do
clnssos it is an ordinary meat diet lhe
year around. Pucks tire pickled, dried,
tinned und otherwise preserved and
-hipped to many parts of the world to
Cliineso who nre nwny from u home supply. Kggs of nil Hinds are use I fresh
uud aro cured by burying in clay nml
lime until (hey acquire something of
tho quality of cheoso and nre u gieat
Chinese luxury.
Tliere ere fow families in Chinn,
OVOil in Ihe larger cities, Ihnt do not
have at least some chickens. Neur the
ports open to foreign trade there nre a
few rather good sized poultry farms as
a rule,
I lucks ure raised iu immense uum
hers on farms nlong the canals and
rivers of centrnl uud south Clillia und
ure much more common than chickens,
Oue of the customary sights along the
grand cannl iu mid-China, for example,
is that of a Chinese dock farmer in his
boat Watching his llock feed in nnd
nlong the cnnal. The ducks are trained
to obey Ilini, and. armed with a loug
bamboo pole to guide them, lie controls
their movements und tukes them baok
to shelter for the night.
The surplus of poultry nnd poultry
products which China can export un*
nually is immense, Cp to the present
exportation |ms taken the form largely
bf egg products, mostly dried albumen
und yolks. The trade In eggs und egg
products Is rapidly Increasing, ns may
be seen from the fact, that the exports
of egg albumen and yolks in I.00S were
valued at $403,088 gold, nnd the shipments of fresh and prosorvod eggs at
1)11,234,781) gold, while in 1900 the val
ues woro *S|S,S2D nud $1,529,035 respectively.
Paring the last year several cargoes
By the present ratio of progression
it will tuke twenty-five years for every
other marriage to end in divorce. In
870 the ratio was ono to thirty-four,
in 1907 it wns ono to twelve. The
Christian Work and Evaugolist (New
Vork) estimates thnt alrendy the ratio
jlnce the latter date hns become ono to
ton. The condition has drawn tha attention of other than church people.
Government ollicials seriously discuss
the need of uniform divorce luws for
the entire country, but this religious
journal is dubious of the beneficial effect of such legislation. "It will only
be a law which expresses the composite
result of nil the laws now on the stato
books." And it is poitited out that
"practically no divorce laws iu any
state hnve beon ablo to check the
growth of divorce" No help could
come from such a source unless the law
were "ten times more drastic than nny
laws which now exist." The paper we
are quoting speaks in a despairing
"But why not accept a condition of
free lovo and bo done with itt Why
keep up the hypocrisy of marriage,
either by church or eityf Why not,
if the. health authorties wish to know
who are living together in a city and
to Keep a record of children, simply
compel the man and his mistress to go
to the justice of the peace, and say:
1 We are going to live together for the
presontf Why not set aside A large
part of tho city where huge communal
houses, with plenty of playground for
chrildreu, cun be erected? They will
need large playgrounds, poor things,
not knowing father and mother-love
care. But it is between this condition
of free love and a marriage system
much freer from divorce than we now
have, that the nation hns soon to mako
choice. And quickly, too, for eveu now,
some localities are becoming practically
freo love. Thero are women in New
York wuo when they meet one of their
husbands can not always tell, witfiout
thinking, if it is the one she is now
living with. At somo tnbles it is unsafe to address a woman by the name
you have known her by, unless you havo
inot her within half a year, for she
may have changed it.
"The plight of children is becoming
pitiable. Keepers of private nurseries,
hospitals, and even privato schools, wilt
toll you pitiable tales. More nnd moro
•dumping-grounds' for children of di-
vorcod purents are being required,
What a sight thnt recently seen, in a
New York court, of a littlo boy distracted, running back and forth, from
his father to his mother, crying pitiably
for love, whilo they snarled at each
othor in a divorce court. Lnws aro
not going to stop it. Tliere nre too
many people who want lax laws, to get
strict laws passed. Refusal of church
to many wid help a little, but not
much, for thero are justices of tho
pence who hnve no qualms about destroying the social fubric. Education
in the sucre luess of marriage is a good
beginning. Hut people get married by
impulse uud rarely think of compatibility until it is' ovor—especially in
America this is true, Only one fhing
will help, und thnt is un' inculcation
of real Christianity. This works two
ways, it establishes forbearance, charity, sweetness of temper, overlooking of
little things in tho household."
Some facts that threaten "the vory
stability of the nation," if the increase
grows in another twenty-five yenrs as
it has in tho Inst quarter of a century,
nre noted here with the ell'orts already
begun to provide the remedy. We read":
"The Census Bureau ostiniuted that,
despite the obstructive efforts of the
Church und the lawmakers, the ratio of
divorces to marriuges hud increased
fnnii one to thirty-four iu 1870, to one
to twelve in 1007. lu a letter to the
Times of January 84, 1000, Prof. Walter
I''. Willcox estimated the rutin thon obtaining ns one divorce to teu marriages.
statistics compiled lu Kansas City early
this year showed a ratio of ono divorce
suit to every four murriugo licenses
granted in that city; the Stato of Washington grnnted, during 1010, iu its most
populous Coilnty, one divorce lo everv
six i ringos, and Secretary of State
Hoywn il, of Iowa, published figures
for the siate revealing one matrimonial
action in courl to every seven inurrin
ges. The Commissioners oa Dpi form
Divorce l.nws havo been studying the
problem and devising a uuuriiige net
thai wnt sifit ii I tho states. II is also
proposed to in vile all lhe govern.us
ami attorney geneinls to a confeen.-e
on uniform divorce laws. Hut even ns
lhe prospect of such a law druws nenr,
one's hopes in its effectively operating
against llie growing evil. ' Four-lift lis
of divorces, it tolls us, are by uiulual
conseiil. the suit being never contested
by the defendant, in four out of five
cases the divorce was obtuined iu Hte
state where the umrringe was perform
ed. Strange to say, the divorce 'colonies' in the West, while being perfect
plague spots and disgraces to the nation, have had lillle mflllOUCO in swelling the 820,000 divorces granted iu the
United States since lhe Civil War.
Another thing is. that although there
is no doubt but that many tnurrlitgos
iu our great cities are Olltorod into wilh
tho understanding that it is simply a
relation of a maa to a mistress, nud
is soon to be dissolved, llie vast majority of divorces eume after len years,
'there are verv few cases whprfe divorce is the result id' an agreement before marriage. Nearly half of the.-:'
decrees woro ior desertion, Imt desertion is generally a 'fake' reason agreed
upon by both parlies. One-fifth wore
granted  for drunkenness."
The islnnd nf Heligoland, in the
North Sen, is u triangular rftck of per-
Imps   ii   hundred   ncres,   but   theriT  is
probably uo spot of equal sizo on the
earth's surface that is of more interest
to the ornithologist. Nearly every ono
on tho island is a born ornithologist.
The flight aad note of every bird are
familiar to every islander. A new bird
is instantly detected. The fisherman
steers with a gun at his side; the peasant digs his potatoes with u gun on
tho turf, und u heap of birds on his
Kvery bird that appears is whistled
withiu range with marvellous skill. The
common sorts are eaten, the raro ones
sold to the bird-stutter, und the new
ones taken to the ornithologists.
The autumnal migration is n spectacle
that ornithologists from nil over the
world are wont to uttend. On one such
occasion a distinguished bird-student
was waked at half-past twelve in tbe
morning with the news that the migration hnd already begun. Hastily dressing himself, he at onee made for tho
lighthouse. The night was almosl.pitch
dnrk, but the towu was astir. In every
street meu with large lanterns and a
sort of angler's landing net wore making for thu lighthouse
At the lighthouse an interesting sight
fresented itsolf. The whole zone of
ight withiu range of the mirrors was
alive with birds coming and going. No
thing else was visible in tho darkness
of tho night but the lantern of tbe
lighthouse vignetted iu a drifting sea of
birds. Prom the darkness in tue east
clouds of birds were emerging in an
uninterrupted stream,
No one could guess bow many hundreds of thousands of birds there passed
in a couple of hours, but the stray birds
which the lighthouse-keeper succeeded
in securing, as they fluttered against
the wire-netting, amounted to almost
three hundred. The nlgbt was starless
and the town invisible, but the island
looked like tho outskirts of u well-
lighted city, being sprinkled all ovor
with brilliant lanterns. Many larki
alighted on the ground to rest, und allowed the islanders to pass their nets
over them. On some nights as many
as fifteen thousand skylarks have boon
taken on the island. At about threo
o'clock in the morning the clouds broke,
the stars camo out, nnd the migration
came to an end. or was continued abovo
the range of human vision.
Iu connection with the Nile irrigation
system at Wadi Kom-Ombo there hu
been constructed a canal of steel, five
thousand two hundred feet iu length,
wherby water from the service reservoir
is distributed to the earth canals.
In section this metallic canal is U-
shaped, twenty feet brond and twelve
feet deep. It is made up of sevnteen
sections, connected by expansion joints,
aud the riveted steel plates of which
it consists nre six millimeters in thickness. During the construction the engineers were troubled among other
things by the unequal expansion of tho
metal. Tho expansion wus greatest on
tho side where the sun happened to
shine full upon tbo plates, and the inequality was often suflicient to displace
the end of u section about to be joined
as much as four inches to oik. side or
the other.
Daniel Webster went to Dartmouth
College iu a homespun suit of which
probably every thread wus carded, spun,
nnd woven by his mother's hand from
tho wool of their own sheep. It was
ti dyod-in-the wool suit, und the color
was indigo blue.
iu the South butternut was usod,
but though the Yankee dames knew al!
nbout the uses of butternut bark, anc
the subtle power for slate color that
luy in the sumach berries und bark of
white maple, and were not unacquainted
with the vnrious dyes that root arm
llower, bark and leaf, eould be tmmo to
yield through lho agency of vitriol and
alum and copperas to "set." them fast,
the universal stand-by iu New Kngland
wns the blue pot, pur excellence the
"dye pot," that stood iu the chimney
corner of every kitchen iu that legion,
So Webster was fitted out. in indigo
bluo from collar to ankle. Hefore reaching Hanover, there came du one of thoso
drenching tains thut wet a man to the
skin. The suit held its own, but it
parted with enough dye to tinge Dnniel
blue from heud to foot.
Webstor had a liberal stmtuin of
sentiment in his mental make-up; nnd
for some reas.nn lhe color of his young
man hood renin iued his favorite wear
through life, lie' wore bluo coats to
his dying day. If any one ever saw
him iu one of a different color, the fact
has not been made of record,     (
It would nppear thai the mail qf
genius usually tequirei ll large supply
of substantial food. Intellectual work
demands full nutrition to repair the
waste of brain tissue. Scott was wont
to attribute his oxtrnordlunry capacity
for continuous work In his good diges
tion und lhe whojegoino restraints of
his appetite iu his youth. "I have
as keen an appetite now ns any man "
he said, "but I know wheu to stop."
Mirabenu is stated to huve been un
enormous feeder, outing us much nt u
meul as would suffice three ordinarv
men. Talleyiand was also a noted eater. Oootlio ami Nupoloon ate large
quantities of food, but carod lift'' for
the quality. Bismarck wns noted for
his appetite, which was insatiable, hut
his food was (if the simplest.
Many ►torlos are told of lh.' gross
delight iu eating evinced by the two
'Dumas, father ami son. one of which is
thut the yoiingf't. being n\v,r.ikuu by
e lorni, took refuge iu a Itotei in I'aris.
T.ventv four turkeys were hanging upon
tie »pit. .
" And nil fnr a single fitvollor.*'
explained the host.
"("est mon pore!" exclaimed Alex-
utidro.    lle wns right.
Kngland is Nnvnl Cadet It. P, Whcele-,
whu is just fifteen years of age, nud
who recently took his certificate at the
Hrlstol Salisbury IMnin School. After
leaving his training college the young
cadet joined the Bristol school on* August Hth, his tuition lusting only four
waotts, His progress throughout wns
,apid, and his first solo flight was made
only five days before lift gained his
jmmmumtmm_^_m_____m___i TIIK tSl.ANDKU, CCMnKULANn, B.C
.'jzijz-.s_w.,y:..". ".:;i_.x
_-*_i   1
NO—But just as good as Standard Oil when it started
Has been made from refining crude oil.  It was made by John D. Rockfeller,
whose benefactions to date are in excess of $150,000,000.
The Segur Oil Refineries Ltd.
is building a big thousand-barrel-
a-day plant opposite Barnet on
Burraru Inlet. Crude Oil from
California, whieh costs very little
more, f. o. b, Vancouver, than at
San Francisco Bay, will be
brought in tank-steamers tothe
Segur Refineries, (duty free,) and
a full line of by-products, from
gasoline down to the finer oils,
will be takenoff.
The biggest business in the world today, -
the business that the most money has b'-en
made out of--is refining oil. This will be
biggest oil refinery in Canada. The plant
is now under construction, and it i s about
one quarter finished -
The capitalization is $1,000,000. you
can buy shares for 75 cents each, half
cash 30, <>0 and 90 days.
Operated intelligently, this should be the besl paying
institution on the Pacilic Coast. Pul a little of your
money here !
For further information or prospectus see or write       _^s___i___im
L. C. NELSON, Cumberland Hotel
Here a few days only. Head olllce 319 Pender Street, Vancouver, B. C.


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