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The Canadian Labor Advocate Mar 18, 1926

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 The Canadian
f Industry and Farm 	
k How Silk WorkerB Uve ..
. 1
■  <
f Labor  In  Russia  	
■took Review 	
W-__ %
B'conomic  Survey  	
With Which lc Incorporated THE B.C. FEDERATIONIST
Labor .Unity in Britain .. 1
Scabs Dislike Medicine .. 1
Industry Slows Up  1
Australian Labor Newa .. 4
Enslaving Children  (
ghteenth Year, No. 11.
VANCOUVER, B. C, THURSDAY, March 18th, 1926
Six Pages
5c AC0fl_"
tdustrial Development
threatens U.S. Farmers
How Silk Workeri Live
Capitalism's Natural Heritage
I Leland Olds, Federated Press
lEAP food and plenty has been
lhe demand ot city civilisations
le past. To obtain it, they ex-
Id their power over agricul-
populatlons. The Increasing
Inds tor food tribute eventu-
lillghted the country, the food
|y dwindled, the parasitic
starved, and another ex-
|r empire passed into history.
American elly empire, ruled
INew York, Is going that way
armers are feeling the pres-
Cheap food Ib necessary tor
Inonnous industrinl and coin-
Pal populations serving the
nllst mnsters. But It can only
jhtnined at the expense of the
ers who still hope to fend off
k nlamity by tariff legislation.
|icm New York replies through
Reld tn The Annalist:
Sty dwellers ln tbe United
3 could hardly be expected to
t tariff protection for an ngrl-
ral system that tailed to sup-
heir wants. Scarce and dear
ls not likely to be tolerated
|n expanding Industrial system
by a sharp foreign compett-
fventnally as our Industries be**
i more and more dependent on
abroad they will have to get
production costs down as a
|(s to moeting foreign prices. It
ily when surpluses are small
they can be regularly dumped
sacrifice.    When   industriai
Jietltlon becomes  keen,  as  it
Itably will as Europe recovers
Ithe war, capital and labor In
Jjnlted States are likely to be
Id  111 opposition to any plan
palntaining food prices at an
jclally    high    level    by    high
and Insufficient production,
any contest on a  question
fng   living   costs   the   result
not be In doubt.    The ballot power, insofar as power Is
Rented     by    numbers,    has
lpany Spotters
)og Miner's Steps
rt* Shields, Federated Press
BBLING, W. Va.—(PP)-Four
Iny spotters followed a miner
aer who accompanied me to
oundsvllle pnltenttary where
coal diggers are serving long
for their loyalty to labor.
Inlon representative explained
le was dogged by these or
stools wherever he went In
nhandle region,
•y nonunion operation in the
idle Is surrounded with ln-
(ms.    Most ot these  Injunc-
ire comparatively fresh, Bince
eaks with the union in 1922,
nd 1925, hut they are modeled
the oldest panhandle injunc-
hat named after the Hitch-
lompauy, of fifteen years ago.
[injunction Is  based   on  the
j-dog contract, enjoining the
[from attempting to persuade
ker to violate his individual
■it with the company*   That
pt pledges the miner to have
to do with a trade union
he remains in the company's
l   This Injunction haa been
™ by the U.S. aupreme court
Interpreted to   forbid   all
activity except  such  as   a
ent society might follow.
1,800 ot the 7,000 miners In
nhandle  are  digging   coal
union contract today.   Half
others    are    affected    by
The panhandle  Is  under
! lsdlctlon ot District 6, United
Workers (Ohio). Unemploy-
s serlus hut not so grave as
o where it Is estimated that
Irds of the 50,000 miners are
shifted from the country to the
town. Agricultural prices maintained at artificially high levels by
nothing more substantial than the
tariff would not stay there any
longer than it suited the urban
population to have them do so."
City workers have not' lined up
with capital against the farmers.
But the long pressure between the
demand of capital for lower costs
and agriculture for higher prices
is yet to be felt. Then city workers
will have a choice. Either the way
of ancient Rome to decay with the
capitalists or with the farmers to
create a new society ordered to
produce for human use Instead of
for profit.
Deep Sea Scabs Get
A Dose of Medicine
AUCKLAND, New Zealand—(FP)
—Tbey won't ever acab again! The
nonunion volunteer crew who took
the British steamer Arawa from
Auckland to London at the time of
the British seamen's strike has returned to New Zealand seething
with indignation. They declare
that the quarters were a positive
disgrace, thirty men eating and
sleeping in a place unlit for human
beings. The officers treated them
iljke dirt. Sanitary /arrangements
were primitive, and 'the men had
no baths when they came off duty,
only buckets of water.
They were promised protection ln
Knglnnd, but there were no guards.
Several times they were in grave
danger from union British seamen,
who resented their presence. They
were given third-class passages
back and herded In the. poorest
quarters on the vessel. They were
emphatic In stating that they would
never scab again.
PASSAIC, N. J. — (FP) — "My
house," said the striker, "is a
company house."
We went in through a tunnel of
a hall. The door opened on the
kitchen, lt was as black as a pocket.
It was totally without ventilation.
My friend was finishing the children's breakfast. Children swarmed over the place. A little baby
toddled around, the older chlldren
getting ready for school. They
were tow headed children with big
blue eyes. The food that they were
eating came from the strikers'
Both tlle black kitchen aud the
light front room were gay with
cheap cretonnes. There were cretonnes. There were cretonne curtains at the door and cretonne
hangings and table cloths. In the
front room a big skeleton double
bed was folded up. Two large
bunches of paper flowers In gilded
vases made the room gay. Tills
woman loved her home.
"We are having a bad time here
when It freezes and snows and
freezes and snows," ahe said. "All
day I am mopping up water and
putting bags on the floor. We
cannot keep dry."
Next to the kitchen were two
silts of bedrooms, one totally dark.
In these rooms seven people lived.
Tho father makes $20.00 a week,
not. enough for nine people, The
mother goes to work In the mills.
I go to work when my husband
conies home. We work all night
long. At twelve o'clock I have 15
minutes. No time for dinner. Then
I come home and get the chlldren
ready for school, but in the day I
cannot sleep because the babies play
around. "Oh," says says, "how tired
I am, how tired I am! And now
another tfaby comes." Her eyes
filled with tears. "What are we
going to do? And they cut us 10
per cont!"
On the wall there was a picture
of this woman ln her wedding dress
beside her young husband. How
proud she looked and strong with
ber white wedding veil. The house
with dark rooms whose walls
sweated water. Night work at the
mills, work that never stopped.
Work that went on through the day
and began again at night. Life
that was a maze of fatigue. Life
where the coming of a new child
was such a tragedy that she could
not speak of it without tears. Ab
she lives, so live hundreds of the
women ln Passaic, These aro the
people whose wages have been cut
ten per cent. It Is from such families that the rich mill owners have
taken now $2.20, now $1,70 a week.
The General Relief Committee,
Textile Strikers, issues a call to all
labor organizations to aid the hundreds of families who are destitute. Children need bread, babies
need. milk. Remittances should be
stilt- to 743 Main avenue, Passaic;'
N. J. >,
British Miners to Have
Labor's United Support
Workers Determined to Win
No Need To Worry
Over Income Tax
CHICAGO—(FP)—Two-third of
Chicago's families have an annual
Income ot less than $2,500, the
municipal department of public welfare reports to Mayor Dever. Rent
is now twice as high for most ot
these families as It was In 1914 and
the occcommodations are often very
bad, some bouses being without any
toilet facilities and without any
running water. Tho faucets and
toilets ot neighboring houses have
to be used, the commissioner states,
asking for condemnation and destruction of at least one per cent,
of households visited by the department.
New York Building
Trades Raise Wages
NEW YORK — (FP)—Building
trades union settlements are not
fully announced but the carpenters
have been added to the list of those
getting wage increases, Alexander
Kelso, district council secretary, is
notifying Individual employers that
the new rate is $12 a day, $1.50
gain. Stone masons previously won
a $14 rate Instead of $12 and bricklayers and plasterers are expected
to get the same. Electricians won
$12 instead, of $10.50, but helpers
at $7 were abolished for apprentices
beginning at $3.60. Gains of painters and the reBt of the thirty-seven
trades which have been negotiating
since November are still pending.
MOSCOW.--(FP)—Trade unions
ln the Soviet union face the
same problems as labor organizations In other countries. They have
their jurisdictional disputes; their
struggle for amalgamation; their
strikes; their wage agreements.
Melnlchansky, director of tlle organizing department of the Russian
Federation of Trade Unions, tells
the story in an interview on the
problems facing the Russian unions.
Theoretically, tlle Soviet unions
are organized in shop units. One
factory belongs to one union. An
exception ln practice is the newspaper office where the editors are
members of the Education Workers',
union nnd the men in the composing and press rooms belong with
the printers. Ab a rulo all of the
workers In one plant belong to one
union, and tlle factory of mino or
shop is thus the basic unit of organization.
Theoretically, again, tlle Soviet
unions are Industrial. They are
divided Into four main groups: extractive industries, fabrication, distribution, service. Practically the
Seamen, tlie Transport Workers,
the Rallwaymen and the Postoffice
employees are organized ln four
different unions. I put this point
to Melnlchansky.
"In the first place," he said, "the
unions here are very young. They
have not* yet had time to solve such
problems. In the second place, they
have not yet luilt an organization
strong enough to carry the administrative responsibility of a super-
organization. These four unions together have 1,250,000 members. It
takes time to construct machinery
for such an Immense membership.
The principle of amalgamation into
Industrial unions ls here. We must
work lt out as the Issues rise."
' On the question of strikes Melnlchansky was equaly emphatic. "Ot
course we use strikes," he said,
"but only as a last resorc. There
Is a collective agreement for each
Job. A division of the local factory committee is responsible for
seeing that this collective agreement ls lived up to, Where state
organizations are doing tbo employing, they are Just as much concerned ns the workers to have
things go right. After all, the whole
thing here ls ours. In the case of
private employers we sometimes
bave trouble. It is apt to be short
lived for three reasons: 1, they
cannot* get strike breakers; 2, they
have no assistance from the police;
3, they get no aid from the courts."
Melnlchansky smiled. "You will
see from this," he said, "that the
position of the employee In the
Soviet Union ls somewhat different
from his position in the United
By Leland Olds, Federated  Press
THE solid front with which
British labor opposed the attack on the coal miners still holds.
Repeated attempts of tlle owning
class to split it during the nine
months industrial truce failed.
British capital must fight the entire trade unton movement if lt
renews the attempt to lower miners' living standards when the government subsidy expires May 1.
This is the meat of a joint statement Issued by the special Industrial committee of the British
Trades Union congress and a subcommittee of the miners' executive.
'The committees," the statement
says, "gave full consideration to
the possllility of a crisis arising
in connection with the mining
situation. The attitude of the trade
union movement was made perfect-
Co-Operative 'Phone
Proves Successful
NEW YORK—(FP)—One small
but successful co-operative telephone company, among Whatcom
County, Wash., farmers, has managed for over twenty years to resist the advancing telephone trust,
thc Co-operative League Monthly
Co-operation tells. "One of the
chief sports of tho* Boil system Is
buying up these farmers mutual
companies at a figure slightly above
what the shareholders have paid
and then raising the rates to recoup on tlle Investment," says the
magazine. This co-operative has 880
shareholders, surplus reserves of
$74,230, more than net operating Income, and although lt has not tried
to pay dividends, its financial position is "so strong that there is
little dangor of its being swallowed
by the Bell System." Rates have
been kept as low aa possible to keep
on a paying basis.
ly clear last July, namely, that ft
would stand firmly and united*
against any attempt further to degrade the standard of life In —O
coal fields. There was to be no reduction of wages, no Increase —
working hours, and no Interference
with the principle of national
"This Is the position of the trade
union movement today. The tw*
committees are awaiting the report of the coal commission, aal
will meet again Jointly specially
to consider the report aa soon it
it is available." '
; Railroad workers are standing
firmly behind the miners, C. *—
Cramp of the National Union ot
Rallwaymen, says, "I am certain
that I speak with the approval ot
the great mass ot railwaymea
throughout this country when I
say that lf any attempt is made W
bring down the remuneration est
the miners, as was done last Joly,
the same resistance will be showa
again by the rallwaymen as waf
shown then." •
When the union order to stop
all movement of coal was Issued
last July the question asked by tha
rank and file railroaders wu
simply, 'Does the order Include an
fuels, coal substitutes aa well ai
/the actual product of the mines?"
Tbere was no question about the
men's determination to cut off the
power which drives English Industry. This made premier Bald-,
win back down.
1925 Profits of Hudson Motor Company
Totals Over Twenty-one Million Dollars
mlnatlng John W. Slayton for governor and Cora Bixler for U.S.
senator the Pennsylvania Socialist
party enters the 1925 campaign'
with a platform for gradual approach to the co-operative commonwealth.
By Island Olds, Federated Press
A PROFIT more than one and a
third times the entire value of
the company's extensive plants Is
the record made by the Hudson
Motor Car Co. through the highspeed exploitation of its employees
in 1.25. The total profits ot the
three years, 1923 to 1925, were more
than three times the average value
of the plant used during that
The 1925 profit amounted to $21,-
378,000, an increase ot 165 per cent,
over 1924. ThiB profit is reckoned
at  about  $16.20  a  share  on   the
1,320,050 shares of no-par common
stock. But this Isn't half the story,
which tells of such magnificent
profits on the original Investment
that Automotive Industries, the
leading Journal of the Industry, Is
Inspired to carry a long article
dealing with Hudson's financial history.
Starting in 1909 with an investment of about $100,000 represented
by 10,000 shares of $10 par value
stock, the company has grown to a
net worth of over $43,000,000 almost
entirely ' through the reinvestment
(Continued on Page 2)
Industry Slows Up
As Spring Advances
CHICAGO—(FP)—A decline of
265,917 tons during February in the
unfilled orders on the books ot the
U. 8- Steel Corporation following a
drop of 164,584 tons In January
raises the question whether this
continued falling off means a recession ln business. Tho total tonnage now stands at 4,616,822 compared with 5,033,364 at the end of
December and 5,284,771 at the end
of February, 1925. Tills Is the poorest February roport since 1922. It
Is more than fifty-six per cent, under
February 28, 1923, when tlle unfilled
orders called for 7,283,989 tons. Tlle
Wall Street Journal suggests that
this Is not necessarily ground for
pessimism, pointing out that the
railroads will take much more steel
this year than they did In 1925.
A drop of seven per cent. In the
building permits Issued in February throughout the country Is
another feature of the situation
which is causing speculation about
future Industrial activity. According to reports from 440 cities received by S. W. Straus & Co. the
total pormlts fell from $290,274,630
In February, 1925, to $270,100,172
this year. Losses are shown In
Chicago, Detroit, Philadelphia, Los
Angeles. Washington, Boston,
Cleveland, Portland, Ore*, Pittsburgh, Milwaukee, Oakland and St.
Louis. While gains are reported
from New York and Ub surrounding
cities, San Francisco, Seattle and
DENVER—(FP)—A 6 per cent
dividend payable March 15, was
voted by the annual meeting of the
Power Publishing Co. of Denver,
owner of the Colorado Labor Advocate.
Speed-up Devices
Jeopardize Miners;
NEW YORK — (FP) — Speed-upf
aad electricity may soon be the
greatest hazard In American coal'
mines, declares D. Harrington, con*;
suiting engineer of Salt Lake City,
in the industrial safety issuo of the
Annals of the American Academy
of Political and Social Science. The
use of electricity, Harrington saya,*
"looms as probably the greatest
cause ot future fires and explosions,
as well as causing numerous eleor
(mentions, etc., by contact."
Harrington blames the speed-up.
orders by men who "frequently
know little or nothing of coal mining—having been chosen because*
of family connections to higher
officials" etc. for ruthlessly endang*,
orlng workers' lives by forcing disregard of safety measures. I
The engineer charges that not
only mining compnny officials but
even miners are not full Informed
on the best safety devices, though
miners could not install safety devices anyway. He charges that lira
bosses and foremen are too often
Ignorant and yet get by examinations that would make college graduates blink. He asserts that mln-*
Ing Iswb In most states are out ol
date and "practically never enforced."
Militarists Jail
Filipino Editor
NEW YORK-(FP)-"Mllltary despotism Is seeking to enthrone itself in my country," asserta Antonio D. Faugula, councilman-elect
of Manila, Philippine Islands, In a
cable to American Civil Liberties
Union accepting its assistance la
fighting his second conviction fair
criticising Governor-General Woo*
In the political campaign. Paguia
was charged with sedition. Paguia
considers "the cause of constitutional freedom under the American
flag is at stake" ln the Philippines
and that appealing his convlctl-m
will help safeguard constitutional
guarantees of free speech and Individual liberty. Page Two
March 18th, 19213
(Editorial page
Address  Atl Letters  nnd
Remittances to tlie Editor
De Canadian Labor Advocate
$2.00   PEIt  lEAIt
815 Holden Uull.liiiK. .10 Hustings St. E.. Vancouver, B.C.
Plume, Se}. 2133
GREAT and Increasing Interest is
being taken by Canada in the
Innd around the north pole. The
other day a map was tabled In the
house of commons showing that
Canada claims all land weBt of
Davis Strait and East of Alaska
north to the pole* Seemingly Mackenzie King is looking for new
territory where he can ship Immigrants to.
* *      »
DOWN in Denver they have
unique ways of doing things.
The authorities have discovered
that when a person wanted wine he
asked for a preacher, lt he wanted
whiskey he asked for a minister,
and it he wanted beer he asked for
someone to officiate at a baptismal,
and if he wanted moonshine he
asked for a red- faced sky pilot.
Suppose he asked for Billy Sunday
what brand would he have got?
* *      *
SOUTH Vancouver has formed a
boosters club. The gentlemen
who are behind lt are guaranteed
not to boost the dilapidated sidewalks, and miry streets which
abound in that fair municipality.
* *      *
rls reported from Ottawa that
the Government has no intention of Introducing legislation tor
pensions tor the blind during the
present seslon. Evidently the
King government figures on retaining office for some time yet, so they
are In no hurry for their pensions.
Union Directory
■•atk.      Prealdeat,   t.   R.    White,
aeeretary, R. H. nit-land*,, P.O. Bu
In 111, 31* Pender St. West.
■■aim meetinga let and 3rd Wed-
asaaistr evenluae. R. H. Neelanda,
okalrmaui E. H. Morrison, aec.-treaa.i
tuu Maelaala, OOU Prineo Edward
atroot, Vaneoaver, B.C., eerreapon-
denee aooretary.
Anv diatrlet In Brltlak Columbia
ieelrlng Information ro aeenrlna
epeakere of tho formation of local
feronekea, kindly communicate witk
Provlnolal Secretary J. Lylo TclfoN,
IM Blrka Bide., Vanconver, B.C.
Teleakone Seymonr 1383, or Bayvlew
. .Heeta oeeond * Thuraday every
auntk ln Holden Building. Preaident, J. Bright well, flnanelal eeere-
tary, M. A. Bowron, HI 1.111*1 Ave, Ii.
JS—Meeta drat and tklrd Frldnya
la tke montk at 14S Haatlnaa W.. nt
■ ».m. .Preeldent, R. K. Brown, SUIT
Ckarlea St.! aeeretary-treaeurer. Geo.
-     -        11S_ Parker St.
UNION, Local IM. A. P. of M. —
■eeta In fl.W.V.A. Hall. Srvmonr and
Pender Streeta. second Sundny at
1* a.m. Preaident, E. C. Miller, Ml
Nelaon Streetl aeeretary, E, A.
Jamlcaon, BOI Nelaon Streetl flnanclal
aeoretary, W. E. William*,. ft»l Nelaon Streetl oraanlaer. P. Fletcher.
HI Nelson Street.
UNION OP CANADA—Headquartera at Rooma 5, 0 and T. Flaek
Building, ISS Hnatlnaa Street W„
Vanconver, B.c. Tel. sey. aeen.
Pnaldent, Robert Thomt Vlee-Preil-
dent, David (illleeplei See'y-Treaa-
arer, Wm. Donaldaon. Victoria
■raack, Room II, Green Block,
Broad SIreet, Victoria, B.C.    Pkone
—Preaident. R. P. Pettlplece, vlee-
■reoldent, C. F. Campbelll aecretary-
treaaurer, R, H. Neelanda, P.O. Boa
M. Meeta laat Snnday of eack
aaontk at 3 p.m, nl Holden Building,
I* Haatlnaa St. E.
D, Maedonald, aecretary-treaaurer,
J. M. Campbell, P.O. Boa «89. Meeta
laat Thuraday of each montk.
labor Bifoocate
Witk Whlek  la Incorporated
By tko Labor Publlahlng Co.
Bnalneaa and Editorial Office
■II Beldoa Blda., 10 Hnatlnaa St. E.
Tko Canadian Labor Advoeate la n
aoa-faetlonal     weekly     oewapaper,
giving   aowa   of   tke   farmer-labor
aMvement la aetion.
hWerlptlon   Ratea,     United   Statea
aad forelan, OOM por year, Cann-
1   da, «3 per yoar, »I for ola moatkai
ta anloaa anbacrlblna la a body.
Ma per member por naoatk.
■ember of Tko Federated Preaa nnd
Tko  Brltlak Labor  Preaa
A Reply to Miss Wentworth's Challenge
ONE cannot erect a toll building on a foundation of quicksand, neither
can one build up a sound argument If it is not based on existing fact.
To answer social questions one must Ilrst enumerate the various conditions affecting the point at iBSUe, and from that firm rock reason inductively to concrete conclusions* When this Is done few mistakes sre
made, and when made are usually the result ot failure to recognize
certain conditions, or to correctly appraise their influence.
Miss Wentworth challenges anyone, anywhere, to show cause why
one nation should declare war upon another "In these days," but makes
no effort to show why wars have happened ln the past, and what conditions should be removed to prevent their happening In the future. She
believes that "causes of war" should be settled by "legal procedure," but
makes no mention who is going to enact these laws, the Inference being
that we are all going to take part. She says the "people" are betrayed,
but falls to state who the "people" are, and ly whom, or why they are
betrayed. Does this mean that we are all guilty? She claims that "war
persists solely becauso people have been brought up to believe in its necessity," but does not state who so brings them up, or why it is done.
*   \ .      .      *      *
MTN THESE days," when the economy of capitalism holds Bway, Bociety
J* is not an association ot free individuals, as Miss Wentworth seems
to imply. Society "ln these enlightened days" Is class society; a condition
under wliich a small group owns and controls practically every influence
capable of dominating the thoughts and actions of mankind. This group
has always determined what should be considered just and unjust; right
and wrong; honorable and dishonorable; and always decides when there
is "sufficient or adequate ground for declaration of war." "The ruling
ideas ot each age have ever been the Ideas of Its ruling class" (Marx,).
This fundamental fact Miss Wentworth either forgets or does not know,
because she lumps all people in a nation together, as If they were a more
or less homogeneous entity. Prom this we conclude that she accepts the
philosophy of capitalism, and merely objects to a few of Its more odious
MISS Wentworth. in her "Challenge," does not differentiate between
the Interests of the ruling class and the ruled. She speaks of "vital
interests" and "national honor" as tetng causes of war, In such a way as
to lead one to the conclusion that ln her opinion these are "just" causes.
Of What does this national honor consist?.
On the desk on which this Is being written Is a report sent out by
the U* S. Department of Labor (Children's Bureau), which tells ot child
indenture being permitted "by the statutes ot twelve States in Twentieth
Century America"; of a boy ot 9 who was whipped, by his master, until
"his body was black and blue"; and of a girl of 12 who "did housework,
helped care tor three children, prepared breakfast, milked Ave or six
cows every evening, and helped with the farm work, but her foster father
told the Investigating committee that he would 'never take another child
unless I can get one young enough so that I can break 'em ln to work'."
Of such things does the national honor of capitalism consist. One might
as well speak of British honor tn permitting British financiers to force
Hindu women to toll underground in the coal mines of India for a tew
cents a day; or of Belgium's national honor when the rulers ot thatf
country Inflicted the most brutal tortures on the Congo natives.
American national honor was being upheld when the marines of that
nation were landed from the battleship "Galveston," at Celba, Honduras,
to break the strike of the banana plantation workers, and to force them
to work sixteen hours per day for fifteen cents. It was promoting Uncle
Sam's "vital interests" when American troops massacred thousands of
atriklng Phllipino sugar workers tn Hawaii; and it is defending his
"dignity" when Judge Williams ot Baltimore Alls the natives of the
Virgin Islands with American democracy "at the point of cold steel, and
by means of hot lead," but these incidents in no way add to the "national
dignity" of the strikers at Passaic, N. J., who, "in these enlightened
days'' are having their "vital Interests" attended to by policemen's clubs,
and their "national honor' treated to a dose of tear gas. The sole nexus
between "honor" and a modern commercial nation Is cold cash.
IF MODERN hlatory teaches us anything; it ls that wars are Invariably
fought over such Issues as wresting foreign markets from a competitor
country, or to acquire "spheres ot Influence" where hankers and
financiers can brutally and wantonly exploit native populations and
natural resources. Such were the Issues at stake during the late European war, just as lt was the reason for the Great Powers sending their
ironclads to threaten China last year, or Great Britain's insistence on
retaining Irak despite Turkey's protests, or the French war in Morocco.
In each case the fundamental reason was the same; and In each case,
according lo the concepts of capitalism, "In these enlightened days,"
"national honor," and the "vital Interests" of the country concerned
demanded that a War be waged lf necessary. When the ruling class told
us that "national honor" was at stake during the European war they did
/lot He. They did not have to. The national honor of a capitalist nation
Is capitalist honor, and they judged according to that standard.
IT may be that Topsy "JubI grew" but nothing ln this universe "just
happens." There Is a cause for everything, and this Miss Wentworth
seems to forget, despite her remarks concerning the cause of wars. Let
ub hove a look at some of the causes which may lead Miss Wentworth's
"honorable" country Into war.
During 1924 United States financiers made 78 foreign loans, and 28
corporate foroign Investments, In 2? different countries, totalling
over 11,600,000,000, U.S. Investments ln Canada exceed $2,500,000,00.
Prior to the European war American foreign investments totalled some
two billion dollars. Today her foreign investments exceed twenty billions.
The Standard Oil recently loaned Poland $30,000,000 on condition "that In
the event any interruption of the service ot the loan occur, the representative ot the bondholders may administer the railroads ln their Interests." Last year the United States loaned France $100,000,000 to prop up
the franc, and a short time ago loaned that arch murderer—Mussolini—
$00,000,000 to render the same Bervice to the lira. Less than a year ago
J. P. Morgon established a credit fund of some $300,000,000 to put Great
Britain back on the gold standard. So much for the Investments, let us
see what goes with lt.
A WALL Street banker and his satellite are the virtual rulers of Germany* A Boston lawyer ts the financial director of Hungary. Persia;
Bolivia; Haiti; Salvador; Nicaragua; Panama; and Eucador have either
American flnanclal advisors, fiscal experts, or customs collectors. The
United States has not only a Ilrst mortgage on a large part of the world,
but lt has bailiffs In charge. What would happen should some of these
countries decide not to live up to the agreement they have contracted?
War, for the protection of American "vital Interests" would immediately
occur, and according to capitalist standards of morality It would he an
honorable war. It Is a dishonor for a person to refuse to pay his
"just" debts, and so It Is with nations. We cannot swallow a part ot the
concepts and social relationships ot private property and refuse to eat
the remainder.   "The tall follows the hide,"
Our Open 3*orum
Readers are invited to send letters for publication in "Our Open
Forum.'' Communications should not exceed 250 words. No views
will be censored so long os writers refrain from indulging in personalities.
The management of the ADVOCATE assumes no responsibility to*.
opinions expressed in this space.  _=____:
EDITOR, Lai or Advocate;—When
a woman loses her husband, and
Is left with a family, providing she
has resided in the province the
specified number ot months, she is
provided with a pension for herself
and a certain sum for each child
up to a certain age. The reason
for the government making this provision is, I believe, to make it
possible for the mother to care for
her chlldren at home, and not have
to go out to work.
On behalf of the mother and
children this government pension
is to be commended very highly, but
what provision has the government
made for a father left with a family? So far as I can learn, none
This is a tact to be deplored.
Surely some provision could be
made for the children left without
a mother, as in the case of children
without a father. They are the
same children in either case, and
yet there is provision made for
them under one circumstance only.
Is not a father as much entitled to
keep his family Intact, on the death
ot his wife, as ln the opposite case?
Take my own case for an example. I recently lost my wife, and
have five children left on my hands,
whose ages are 9, 5, 4, 2 and 1 respectively* As much as I would
have liked to keep them at home
with me lt was utterly impossible
as I cannot afford to hire an housekeeper to take care of them. The
consequence ls they are scattered
all over the place, deprived ot a
father's natural care, and company,
and a father is deprived of his children's society.
Were the children, left without a
mother provided for, as in the case
of those without a father, the father
could pay for a housekeeper to look
after them whilst he was at work,
and the home and family kept intact, as tt should be, instead of being broken up. It is hard enough
for a man to lose his wife without
being deprived of his children as
Both my wife and I have resided
in the province for eighteen yearB,
and yet no provision is made for
our children, because lt was the
mother who died instead of the father. What a one-sided piece of
legislation, to be sure!
Surely you could  bring this to
the notice ot the Labor members
and they In turn could seek some
remedy from the government.'
teachers so badly that lt cannoi
commodate more than half the'
number of students now eligible!
education, there are factory schod
for  young and  adult workers, :|
which  students are  supported'1
their trnde unions.    Workers
sent from factory groups to higl
schools,  fully  supported  by thf
trade unions or co-operatives,
ferent governmental department!
likewise; so that a trained bod J
workers is rising to make Ru|
more efficient in meeting the i
tide, Industrial, politicnl and so]
problems of her future.
-*&     _Wtw/ 0teuihn
By Esther Lowell, Federated Press
AMERICAN labor's effort to make
education today more dynamic
and an aid to social and Industrial
progress ls hailed as "one of the
most hopeful signs of the times" by
Agnes De Lima In her book, "Our
Enemy the Child" (New Republic,
N.Y., $1 book series).
The bulk ot the book considers
the present elementnry school system of the United States, with its
rigid regimentation, discipline,
teaching by book and authority, killing of children's natural curiosity
and constructive tendencies — the
whole unnatural procedure of keeping children quiet at desks all day.
I The few experimental spots In the
school syBtem are discussed with
their contributions toward a more
effective educational plan. The
author does not find the Gary sys.
tem nnd platoon schemes so basely
run as organized labor, especially
tu Chicago, has sometimes charged.
She believes that the Increasing
manual training is necessary and
does not mean that employers are
controlling public schools to limit
employment opportunities for
workerB' children. She considers
such plans as attempts at mass
But what Agnes De Lima seems
most to favor Is a complete change
ot educational method, a throwing
overboard of old airtight compartment subjects, and a development
of elementary schools where the
children learn by doing. In one
such actual school the children
themselves conduct the classes
largely, the teacher advising when
nsked and giving references. The
children run thetr co-operative
supply store, visit fnctories, museums, etc.. study life directly with
the best books for guldeB only.
Wholesale experimentation with
this newer type ot education Is go
ing on In Russia, Scott Nearing reports in his. Education In Soviet
Russia (Intl. Publishers, New York,
50 cents, paper; $1.60 cloth). From
kindergarten through the highest
Institutions, Russian students learn
from Ute rather than from secondhand sources. The children firBt
study autumn, for instance, and
bring in autumn leaves, fall fruits
and other exhibits of autumn life
und activities. The object names
are written on the board, with qualities, and thus reading and writing
are learned Incidentally by the students, not as separate subjects.
Arithmetic ls learned similarly.
Russian education ls social education, Nearing says—aiming to
help Russian children find out what
kind ot a world they live ln and
how to make It better. American
children know almost nothing of
the actual life ot the world, he says
in his lecture on Russian education.
Russian children manage their own
classes, are responsible for discipline, sit in conference with teachers
and other school workers on management, are represented with
teachers In considering curricula.
Teachers are advisors and no not
Intrude themselveB as they would
be forced to in America.
The general cultural education ex.
tends over the 8 to 15 year-old period. Then the children begin to
specialize and prepare themselves
as trained workers In their chosen
field. If they have the ability to
warrant they continue through
higher technical schools (like colleges) and It they are exceptional
go to Institutions tor research, from
which they are expected to make
valuable contributions to science,
government, diplomacy, education,
Besides the regular educational
system, which lacks equipment and
1925 OVER $21,0
(Continued from page :
of excess profits made during!
period. The new cash paid]
stock in the Interim amount]
less than $500,000.
This growth out of prolltd
been accompanied by a serlj
stock dividends, 900 per
1910, about 90 per cent, in 1911
per cent, in 1922 and 10 per]
in 1924. In 1922 there wer*
IsBUed 200,000 shares in excH
tor the Essex Company whicli]
absorbed and in 1925 10,000 f
sold to the factory manager.
A. Motello in Automotive Indues]
"Allowing for the shares
for the Essex business and ttt
small Issue ot shares to empld
the original Investor has now
proximately 100 shares for
share in 1909."
As each share has today a:
of more than $30 this meana)
nn original Investment ot $1
grown ln 17 years to over
In addition the company has ]
cash dividends ranging from :
cent* to 75 per cent., a total of!
613,000.   Altogether the original
vestor has thus received appf
mately $1,300 ln cash on eacaj
Invested in addition to the
gain In the value ot his Invest j
a total gain of about $4,300.
The possibility ot such profli
a saving ot $10 should certalnl j
courage wage earners to thrift!
propaganda might read some]
like this:    Invest $10 out ot f
month's pay for 12 months aij
the end ot 17 years your year's
Ings   will   have   Increased
wealth by over $60,000.   That I
kind of return that a  natloj
capitalists haa a right to expei
But ot course when labor ls j
to Join the investing class the]
that it is offered is a seveq
cent, preferred stock. And
end of 17 years if all dividends!
reinvested, an amount soma]
short ot the $60,000 would
from $120 Invested by the ol
of industry, without relnvs]
their enormous cash dividend!
Hudson's current dividend i
$3 a year on each share of i
But as each original $10 shall
blossomed into 100 shares I
means a regular annual retuf
$300 ln cash on each $10
ln 1909. A regular 300 perl
cash dividend Is rather better/
the 7 per cent, which wage ea
draw on their scattered hotdlrj
preferred stock.
THESE are the days of capitalism ln Its highest stage of development—
.Imperialism. Tiie very nature ot capitalist society tends to create
wars. Wars are the shadow of capitalism. It is only by uprooting the
rule of capitalism and supplanting it with the rule of the working class
that wars can be abolished; and they will not be abolished because they
are bad; unjust; dishonorable, or undignified; nor for any other moral
reason, but because the root from which they spring has been destroyed.
One of the tasks of the working class 1b to abolish private property ln the
means of life, and with the disappearance ot the relationships of private
property and the competition which It generates wars will disappear, not
Miss Wentworth challenges anyone to give any reason why one nation
should war upon another In these days. These days are the days of
capitalism, and the political horizon Is beclouded with reasons. Can she
not see them?
fled for membership" ln the (
natt Central Labor council
charge ot "having been lnstru|
al In the organization   of
Nash Tailoring Co.," Ib the
fate ot Phil B. Ziegler, edttol
Railway Clerk, the official jj
of the    Brootherhood of R|
Clerks.   When the so-called I
Rule clothing workers Pres,.
Kummer of the central bodj
he would rather see It rem
open shop than go with the]
pendent union.
THE following are some th|
just come off the press I
available for our  readers
prices quoted* Send in youl
to the Canadian  Labor Ad|
with your remittance.
British Lai or Bid for Poweri
Stopping A War 	
Russia Turns East 	
World Labor Unity 	
Education in Soviet Russia . kursday, March 18th, 1926
Page Three
■ASSIFIED ADS.      A Challenge
to, BIRD B LEFEAUX, 401 Metropolitan Bldg.
(Pacific Bldg., 744 Haatingt St, W,
KINS 8 ELLIOTT, 800 Pender
1 W.   The best makes of bicycles
) easy terms.	
f HARVEY, 58 Cordova St. West.
|PIRE CAFE, 76 Hastings St. E.
J. D. A. MeMlLLAN, Palmer Grad-
|ate. Open daily and evenings,
L.3 Hastings Street West. cor.
Danville Street.   Phone Sey. 6954.
J W. 1. CURRY, 301 Dominion
trdova and Carrall.
[stings St. E.	
fcta'ng,  SilDerinj,  fleoellinj
Irdova St. W.. few doors west ol
todwatd's.    Sey. 8687.   Whole-
t and retail window glass.
Grandview     Hospital — Medical,
laical, maternity.    1090 Victoria
live.     High. 137.	
, BRUMMITT, 18-20 Cordova
BRUCE,   LTD.,   Homer   and
f stings Streets.
BRUMMITT, 18-20 Cordova
fjNS REPAIRED, Bows Repair-
Columbia records, needles.
Iramophones repaired. Bagpipe
Ids and supplies. WiU Edmunds
Kusic Store, 965 Robson St. Sey.
Bastings West.
KGORY 8 REID,   117    Hastings
freet East.
Carrall Stteet.
I CHALLENGE any porson to state
any reason or cause which will
serve as sufficient or adequate
ground for declaration of war by
ono nation to another In these dnys.
Causes of war are disputes and
should be settled ly arbitration or
legal procedure. What are somo
ot the causes of war as represented
to the public?
First: Circumstances or events
that Involve national honor.
Wherein does killing by wholesale—the massacre of millions of
the enemy and perhaps as many of
your own people—the bombing of
villages, towns and cities,—retrieve
or avenge or maintain thc honor of
any nation? Does It not drag honor
tn the mire? Is honor more likely
to be maintained by persons "seeing red" or by the calm and deliberative procedure of arbitration by
tho best minds among a nation's
people? p
Second: Circumstances or conditions Involving vital Interests.
Wherein are vital interests furthered or maintained by collective
homicide, the sacrifice of millions
of persons innocent of wrongdoing
or thought toward each other? Does
it not seem reasonable to assume
that the vital Interests of any nation would be far better sustained
ly peaceable procedures ensuring
the preservation of property rather
than by destructive methods?
Third: Tlle preservation ot rfgbts
in a foreign country.
Again I ask, wherein does the extermination of legions of lives —
the greatest possible number of opponents that can be killed—maintain with justice the rights of any
foreigners In a land other than
their own? If tho laws or practices of any land do not suit, let
foreigners keep awny. We claim
the right, to make laws to suit ourselves. Wfc must grant that same
right to every other country. Why
should any country dare to claim
tho right to Interfere with or dictate the laws ot another?
* There nre causes of wnr which
arc not publicly announced but
which nro falsely represented as
nntionnl  honor, vital Interests, et
cetora. To misrepresent* theso to
thc people of any country by falso
propaganda ls the most gigantic betrayal, the most colossal wrong,
thnt con be perpetrated upon a
That ls what was done in every
country before the World War, for,
as Lord Robert Cecil hns said: "If
the situation had been known to
the world no nation could have
forced Its peoplo to fight."
It is for the peoplo to see to it
that they ore not. deceived nnd betrayed again, it ls for tho peoplo
to refuse to believe war propaganda—however specious It may be
—nnd to demand the truth, the
w'hole truth and nothing but the
Then the war-mongers will have
no chance to ply their trade. War
persists solely because these people have been brought up to believe
In Its neceslty; and this atrocious,
antiquated nnd absurd falsity keeps
thc world In darkness on this point,
obscuring the light of truth. War
ls a left-over product of savagery.
There Is no possible excuse or
pretext or reason that can bo
thought up that will serve as sufficient ground for declaration of
war, since every controversy can
to settled by legal procedure and
settled with a degree of satisfaction
and justice Impossible to obtain by
other means.
Who wil try to think up a reason
or cause that is sufficient in these
days for entering upon an orgy of
slaughter of millions of military
forces, accompanied by the destruction of non-combatants in villages, towns and cities hy bombs
and poison gases?
Who, wishing to maintain and pre-'
serve his country's honor and dignity on the high plane which such
qualities deserve, will state an adequate causo for warfare In these
enlightened days?
Who, clear-headed, thoughtful,
Intelligent nnd unprejudiced, will
answer thc challenge?
The challenge Is open to everybody.
Ilrookllno, Mass.
Want More Power
For State Cossacks'
NEW YORK— (FP)—Organizod
labor In Now York Is menaced by
the concentration of greater government power in the hands ot tho
governor and executives ot twenty
departments proposed by the Hughes
report to the legislature, chargos
WilHojn Welnstone of the Workers'
Party. The proposal to place the
state police in the new executive
department, under direct control ot
the governor, "creates a force of
cossacks to Intimidate pickets and
break strikes," declares Welnstone.
The report on reorganization of
state departments gives among the
functions of tho state police: "To
collaborate with other departments
of the state or with the local authorities to arrest without warrant persons attempting to commit,
within their view, a breach of the
peace or other violation of the
law," etc., which refers to strike
duty. The roport states that "tho
state police are a quasi-military
body" and "furthermore, it was created against what is believed to
have been a mistaken but very
strong opposition of n part of the
Painters Hammer
When Iron is Hot
CLEVELAND—(FP)—On tlle second day of tlle painters and building laborers' strikes In Cleveland
success seemed assured for tho
painters' five-day week and the laborers' $1 an hour scale. Two
thousand painters have already won
the shorter week and an Increaso
to §l.",T/_ an hour, with victory
near for the remaining 2,000.
.Lalorors succeeded in tying up a
major part of the building operations when union mechanics refused to work with nonunion laborers.
The laborers' demand for a $1 scale
is based on statistics showing that
they work on an average but 175
days a year, owing to inclement
weather and seasonal slumps.
Under the new scale, a union laborer's annual wage will be $1,760 or
H_r*0 short of the department of
labor's American living wage.
. Both strikes were called at tho
start of the spring building season
with millions in construction awaiting tlieir sottloment.
AND      p
.Subscribe to the Canadian Labor
Ivocatc and help us In our work.
typHEAT Britain has not gone
as far as many other nations
in nccoptlng the principle ot compulsory arbitration In international
difficulties," was one of the outstanding statements made by Miss
Eva McNaughton ln her address to
tiie International Club of Vancouver
on Saturday last, at tho Ambassador Cafe. To many who feel that
Britain leads the world in the making of sincere "peaco gestures,"
this came, no doubt, as rather a severe shock.
The speaker urged that wc cease
to become mere echoes of the opinions of others and that wo exercise
the great spiritual force, which Is
the attribute of "thinking men nnd
women" which will serve to carry
the world to a higher and nobler
plane. Then and then alone, wlll
wars bo made to cease.
The speakor was present when
Sir Austin Chamberlain made his
great speech ln which he opposed
the   Geneva    Protocol.     "Nothing
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could have been more coolly received by any audience than was his
attack upon this, and the following
day, no less than eight representatives ot other nations deplored tbe
attacks of Sir Austin, Hnd tho
Geneva Protocol been ratified, as lt
was originally intended, it would
have meant that any nation having
International differences which it
refused to have arbitrated would be
considered the aggressor nation In
the event of war, regardless of the
merits  ot the  question  involved."
Miss McNaughton was loud in her
praise of Mrs. Swanwlck, editor of
foreign affairs. She said that her
short address before the assembly
was one of the outstanding features
of that assembly and that it received one of the greatest ovations
ever given there. Little was heard
of ber work there, she asserted,
since It Is apparently felt that
women only make good copy for
tlie press when they figure In n dc-
vorce case,
Tlle next speaker before the International Club will be Professor
Soward. He will speak "on "Main
Currents In Post War Europe," on
Saturday, April 27th.
Punish and Reward
Theory is Obsolete
CHICAGO — (FP) — "In England
we have tried the policy In voguo
in America of rewarding our friends
nnd punishing our enemies and our
experience was that in actual practice the working class was poorly
and Inadequately taken enre of,"
was tho statemont of Oswald Mosley, former labor member of Parliament, to assembled chiefs of the
Illinois trade union movement, In
the Chicago Federation building.
Those who welcomed him were
John Fitzpatrick and Ed. Nockels,
of tho Chicago federation; John H.
Walker and Victor Olander, of the
Illinois federation; Wm. Boyer, ot
tho broom and whisk makers'
union; James Connors, of tho
switchmen's union; Robert Fitchle,
of the mtlkwagon drivers; and
Mary McEnorney, of the bindery
women's union.
Oil To Be Extracted
From British
Fur Workers Show
Solidarity in Strike
NEW YORK—(FP)—Up and down
the streets of New York's fur district several thousand strikers
picketed shops In a mass demonstration of their right to peaceful picketing. For the first time since the
strike began the pickets were not
interefered with by police, although
fly cops ln Ford runabouts dashed
around the blocks and specially detailed officers watched the situation. Over 200 strikers had been
arrested on picket Hues prior to the
mass demonstration. Half were discharged, some to be rearrested as
they were leaving tbo court. Thc
others were given fines ot $1 to $5*
The union Is appealing the case of
one workor givon 10 dnys In the
workhouso. Constant picketing of
the shops by small squads will continue to prevent shipping out work
to shops In Philadelphia, Boston anil
nearer towns to which It cnn bo
trucked easily.
LONDON.—The discovery of a
process by which British coal resources may be much more economically utilized has been perfected
here. The "L. & N." process, as
the method has been named by Its
two orlgnators, Bryan Lalng and
Harold Nielsen, wlll produce
through tho low temperature distillation of coal a smokeless fuel
for household purposes and general
industrial use, and gas at a much
lower figure for city consumers.
As a matter of vital interest to
Great Brtain ls that the discovery
will make lt possible by the complete and more efficient utilization
of coal to produce electricity with
Its use as cheaply as trom water
The saving of from 10 to 15 per
cont In the consumption of coal Is
so Important an Item, being by
far the largest, In manufacturing
costs that British Industrialists
have displayed great. Interest In
the discovery. A plant operating
In Yorkshire to tost out the possibilities Is handling 100 tons of coal
dally.    '
following ihe Glcanf
By J. S. Woodsworth, M.P.
Continuation of a pamphlet, written by J. S. Woodsworth, Labor
M.P. for Winnipeg North Centre, which the LABOR ADVOCATE it
publishing as a series before issuing it in pamphlet form.
IN 1907 I presented my resignation, with the accompanying statement, to the Manitoba Conference of the Methodist
Methodist Church.
"To my brethren of the Manitoba Conference:-—
"It is, perhaps, due to you and to myself that I should.
state my reasons for resigning from the Ministry of the
Methodist Church.
"According to our Discipline (Sec. 538) a minister is
ordained only after 'due examination.' Every candidate
for the ministry must be examined, flrst by the Quarterly
Official Board (Sec. 201) and later by the District Ministerial Session (Sec. 168). A number of questions ara
asked — 'to each of which a distinct answer shall be re?
"Some of these questions concern discipline: 'Have
you read the whole Discipline? Are you willing to conform to it? Have you considered "the twelve rules of a
Minister," especially the first, the tenth and the twelfth?
Will you keap them for conscience sake?' In the tenth rule
we find tho following: 'Do not mend our rules, but keep
them; not for wrath, but conscience sake' (See 57), and
the next rule (Sec. 58) exhorts, 'Remember 1 a Methodist
preacher is to mind every point, great and small, in the
Methodist Discipline!'
"Now these promises involve obligations which I
cannot keep. Let me give examples. Among other
duties of a Superintendent is this--*-'To explain and enforce vigorously, but calmly, the General Rules of the
Church, in harmony with Paragraph 35 of the Discipline (Sec. 196 p. 4).' Paragraph 35 reads as follows:
'Note: The General Rules are to be understood as forbidding neglect of duties of any kind, imprudent conduct, indulging in sinful tempers or words, the buying,
selling or using of intoxicating liquors as a beverage,
dancing, playing at games of chance, encouraging lotteries, attending theatres, horse-races, circuses, dancing parties, patronizing dancing schools, taking such
other amusements as are obviously of a misleading or
questionable moral tendency, and all acts of disobedience to the Order and Discipline of the Church.'
"I do not believe in these rules. I cannot enforce
"Again with regard to the Ritual (Sec. 80 p. 4)
'In administering the ordinances, let the form in the
Discipline be used.'
"In the Order of Baptism for Infants, the opening '
prayer is as follows: 'Almight and Everlasting God, who
of Thy great mercy didst save Noah and his family in
the Ark from perishing by water; and also didst safely
lead the children of Israel, Thy people, through the Red
Sea, figuring thereby Thy Holy Baptism . . . .' I do
not believe that in any sense these incidents 'figure'
Christian Baptism.
"In the Form for the Reception of Members the
following qustions, among others, are asked: 'Do you
believe in our Lord Jesus Christ as the only, and all-
sufficient propitiation for the sins of mankind, and do
you look to Him for the remission of sin and eternal
life ?' 'Do you believe in the Holy Scriptures, and accept
the same as a sufficient rule of faith and practice?'
'Will you be cheerfully governed by the rules of the
Methodist Church? . ..." I do not believe that such
tests should be required of thosi who seek admission
into the Christian Church.
"In the Order for the administration of the Lord's
Supper, 'If the Minister be straitened for time, he may
omit any part of the service, except the Prayer of Consecration,' which reads — 'Almighty God, our heavenly
Father, who of Thy tender mercy didst give Thine only
Son Jesus Christ to suffer death upon the cross for our
redemption; who made thereby His oblation of Himself
once offered, a full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction for the sins of the whole world
..." We have here a clearly defined theory of the
atonement stated with legal preciseness. I do not accept the theory.    How can I use the form?
"These examples will suffice. Forms should be more
than forms, or they become a mere mockery. Some of
the forms I cannot use. Some of the rules I cannot enforce. Yet I have promised to do so. My position is indefensible.
"Again, some of the questions concern the theological belief of the Candidate: 'Do you sincerely and
fully believe the doctrines of Methodism as contained
in our twenty-five Articles of Religion, and as taught by
Mr. Wesley in his Notes on the New Testament and
Volumes of Sermons, especially the following leading
ones: the total depravity of all men by nature, in consequence of Adam's fall; the atonement made by Christ
for the sins of all the human race;'the direct witness of
the Spirit; the possibility of falling from a state of
justification, and holiness, and perishing everlastingly;
the absolute necessity of holiness both of heart and life,
and the proper eternity of future rewards and punishments ? Will you endeavor fully and faithfully to preach
"In addition to the leading doctrines specified here,
are others mentioned in the examination for Local
(Continued on Page Four) ,    ' Page Four
Thursday, March 18th,
With the Marine Workers.
Conducted   by  W.   II.   DONALDSON,   Secretary   Federated   Seafarers  ol
THE    Workmon's    Compensation to Vancouver for treatment.      Ho
Board lias refused to puy tlio paid his faro to Vancouver, and was
claim of Harris Miuios, who was In St. Pauls Hospital for 36 days,
Injured while working on ono of tho while receiving treatment from Dr.
barges of the Coastwise Steamship J. Glbbs*
& Barge Co., at Anyox, B.C.   Sev-      The matter Ie being taken up with
eral letters, In connection with this the Board, who ovidently seem to
caso, have been sent to the Board, think that no compensation should
all of which  have been  promptly lie pold in this case although it is
answered.   The last letter Btated, In the result of an accident, nnd Mnnos
effect, that  after  considering   the is still unable to work.
evidence obtained from the medical 	
was  of the
reference  the  Boai
opinion that any disability of moro ^^ ^ alnce (. o uma)gamatiott
than three days duration which „ ,kii „„,,„„„,„,, 0„„f„„„,._' TTninn
Mahos may have suffered, was not
Delegates   Morgan   and  Griffiths
port that since tho amalgamation
of the Federated Seafarers' Union
  and tlie National Sailors and Plre-
the result of his accident.   It Was ^^ Unhm t|)o men M tl)_ w_t_r_
also stated that tlio Act does not ^^ ^ fceglnning t0 ,„„,,,„ tliat
provide for    compensation    tole w(u ]mve tQ ,)e 0rganlzu<1 |n
paid  for  the   flrst  three   working ,— to g_. .^ conlHt*on9; al.
days,   and   that   any   reasonable .. ^ ^^ me mme 8__raen ,n
medical expenses which had been ^ ^.^ o[ U|a cpR   __(. th_
incurred  would have   the Boards ^^  gt_nm_hll,  Co     wi,„  refuso
consideration. t0 0,.ganil.B untn those who are or-
Tbo caBe is being taken up by gan|ze,i   secure   totter   conditions
the Federated Seafarers' Union on t]lan t;iey llavc at pl*esent.
behalf of Manos, who wns born in Bet0).e  tho  amalgamation    there
Greece,'   and  who,    unfortunately, we]._ raally w|10 werc (ianBi|ng on
has not a very great knowledge of the fence.   ti,c latest excuse of this
the English    language,    and who, .)|mch    ,_.    „wilat are y01, doing
therefore, Is not in a position to a1)()Ut _n eigM hom. (toy tor sea.
take the case up tor himself. men,„   An(1 tWS| -,e )t notGd, from
It Is to be noted that this accl- BOme 0f those who have not got. suf-
dent happened    on    October 14th, ncient nerve to approach their em-
1925; and it was not until March 1, pi0yCis about their present working
1920, that Manos was examined by conditions,
the Compensation  Hoard  doctor. 'fha Union has many questions of
Manos received medical"attention Inlorest to take up witli the various
nt Anyox, and while convalonscent companies    regarding    trnnsporta-
thc company nskod him to do some tlon. Recently some seamen Blgneil
light work on   one   of   the other on one ot tbe vessels of the C.G.
barges, which  he did, but as his M.M. Ltd*, ot Vancouver, and were
bond got worse lie received a lotter discharged at Halifax before they
from the doctor tellling htm to go had earned sufficient to pay thcir
  faros back to this port.    Two of
lT___--__^!!-?!5™-___-.^^,!!-^,S' these mon wore receiving very small
wagos. This matter wll be taken
up with the Department of Marine.
Since last issue of the ADVOCATE
SEALED 'tenders, addressed to the several visits have beon paid to St.
LL.rn.LX*  «™r* p   ,    Hospitol to see J. Etchells.
kJ    undersigned aad endorsed   Tender ,„,,*,„.., ,.„.  „,,,, „ian  A
[or dredging. False Creek, B.C.." will   who Is In Ward 101   and also A
be received until ll o'clock noon, Fn-   Bell; J. Kentland; S. J. Bye; and
D. McKinnon. J. Worrell has been
discharged, and G* Watton is still
In   the ,General  Hospital.
day, March llth. 1016.
Tenders will not be considered unlcs
made on the forms supplied by Ibe Department and according to the conditions set forth therein.
Combined specification and form of
tender can bc obtained on application
to the undersigned, also at thc office of   Atkins,   J.
the, District Engineer, Post Office Build-   Beckett, H.
ing, New Westminster, B.C. Bates, H.
Tenders must include th. towing of .        .,
:hc plant to and from tbe work. "
The dredges and other plant whicb  Boultllier, G.
are intended to be used on the work G. Carruthers
shall have been duly registered in Ca-   Coll, J.
nada at the time of the filing of the  ^.Q^er   l.  r
tender with thc Department,  or siia'l '     '
have been built  in Canada after the  Gallaclier, v.
filing of the tender. Humlll, B.
Each  tender  must  be   accompanied  Hannah, T.
by an accepted cheque on a chartered  j0nes  T.
bank payable to the order of the Min-   T       '    *-,
ister of Public Works, for 5 per cent   Jensen' ^
ol the contract price, but no cheque to  Lovo, W.
he for less than fifteen hundred dollars. 	
Bonds of the Dominion of Canada and     BOSTON—(FP)—More   thnn   100
bonds of the Canadian National Rail- an(,   woraen   membeI,  ot the
way  Company   will  also  be accepted   „    . ,     ,        ,.   ,       _, ,,,
as security, or bonds and a cheque if  Bo3ton      Amalgom.l}.od      (.lothing
Maddlgan, M.
McCann, J.
Mcintosh, N.
Miller, J.
McLean, L.
McLeod, M.
Osterhout, 0.
Rhodes, H.
Stephen, O.
Starr, J.
Tarratt, C.
Welsh, F.
Worrell, W,
All Unionists on the
War Path
MELBOURNE—(FP)—Tlio whole
of Australian labor ls on the
warpath against the federal antl-
lalor government's attempt to
crush trade unionism. Tho last week
of January the government introduced a bill to amend the crimes
act, to provide for imprisonment
or deportation in case of Industrial
disturt ance.
Should a strike take place, the
governor general would l*o empowered to issue a proclamation declaring the existence of a serious
industrial disturbance. Anyone
wbo during the operation of such
a proclamation urges, aids or encourages a lockout or strike affecting transport or tlle public service
will le liable to a year's Jailing and
If not, born In Australia to deportation. Obstructing or hindering tlie
,,'ork uf scabs will constitute an
Strong measures nre sot out
asainsi. the formation of unlawful
associations, which are described
"(A) Any bo_y of persons Incorporated which by its constitution or propaganda or otherwise
advocates or encourages (1) The
overthrow of the government by
revolution or sabotage; (2) tho
overthrow by force or violence of
a state or of any other civilized
country or of organized governments; (3) the destruction cr injury of property of the state, of of
property used In trade or commerce with other countries, or
which Is or purports to be affiliated with any organizations whicli
advocate or encourage nny of the
doctrines or practices specified in
this paragraph.
"(B) Any body of persons, incorporated or unincorporated which
ly Its constitution or propaganda
or otherwise, advocates or encour-
rges tho doing of any act having,
or purporting to have, as an object
the carrying out of a seditious Intention."
Any person who advocates or In-
cites to crime wlll be liable to two
years' jailing. The giving or soliciting ot contributions for unlawful
associations will bo punishable
with six months' Imprisonment.
There will be a similar penalty for
tlle publication or sale of books
Issued  by unlawful  association j.
Notes From the Camps
Conducted by J. M. CLARKO, Secretary L.W.I.U. of Canada
INCREASE o/ 25 cents per day
in thc lOagc of outside city
workers, bringing tbe basic wage
to $4.50, if os aproved unanimously by the Conciliation Board
meeting at tbe City Hall, Thursday.
"The Conciliation Board members,
comprising four aldermen and
four representatives of tbe men,
with Mayor L. D. Taylor as
chairman, reached agreement that
thc basic wage of $4.25 is too
low to provide a living wage to
city workmen"
■_..■       *»**»• || J  ,        *U»        UUIIU.1       LlUU       tl       -.IllljlIlL
required to make up an odd amount
By order,
Department of Public Works,
Ottawa, February 26, 1926
Workers of America are on striko
ob a protest against a reduction in
wages. The shops of nine other
local manufacturers will be struck
unless they restore tbe schedules of
  wages previously paid tlieir employ-
Fresh Cut Flowers, Funeral Designs, Wedding Bouquets, 1'ot
Plants, Ornnmentul und Shade Trees, Seeds, Bulbs,
Florists' Sundries
Brown Brothers & Co. Ltd.
•18 Hastings St. E„ Sey. 988-672   665 Granville St., Sey. 9513-1391
151 Hastings St. W., Seymour 1370
Mail Orders Receive Promt Attention
Subscribe to
The Labor Advocate
EARLESS Is Its light ngainst the forcos ot renction.
OIU'EFH, In championing the cause of the workers
HATERNAL towurdn all lionn-flile Labor organizations.
;UR policy Is to publish Lnhor news and views, free from fnc
(tonal bins.
$2.00 per year.
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Labor Owned Radio
Best in Australia
SYDNEY — (PP) - The union-
owned and controlled wireless
broadcasting station at the Trades
Hall, Sydney, now rivals the most
powerful private and government
stations in Australia. For long distance communication It is the most
powerful in the southern hemisphere 2KY has been beard In every
stnte of Australia, In New Zealand
and In Soutli Africa. It has communicated In Morse code with the
United States. It is the sharpest
tuned station In the Commonwealth,
according to official reports, and
maintains Its wave length better
than any other Australian station.
Its main purpose Is to supply
trade unionists In Australia with
trade union nnd Job news, working
class education, local and International propaganda, arbitration matters, health Instruction, general publicity on strikes, lectures nnd debates, and entertainment. Broadcasting ls carried on every afternoon and night.
The Australian Workers' Union,
the largest union In Australia, Is
Installing wireless In all Its offices.
Tlle union executive is thinking
nlout establishing Its own broadcasting station. Officers think It
should be possible when n permanent station Is completed to provido
travelling organizers with small
sets and keep thein nnil the members In direct touch with headquarters.
STEEL gangs', graders, firemen
and others on the low paid jobs
in the lodging industry should lo
interested In tbe paragraphs quoted
alovo from the Vancouver Sun of
March 6th.
Tbe mayor and aldermen of the
city agreed that 54.25 Is not a living wnge, and have raised tlie basic
wage to S4.fi. per day. Comparo
tills v/ltb the miserable pittance
paid !o unskilled workers In the
logging camps.
I am, unfortunately, one of the
unskilled, nnd in the last camp I
worked at I received $3.2ii per day.
By the week this amounted to
$19.50. Out ot this was deducted
$10.50 for loan!*—more than half
tlie week's earnings—and six cents
for workmen's compensation. This
left .$9.04 for tobacco, overalls, and
riotous dissipation.
Time wns when the unskilled
worker leaving civilization going to
the logging camps squeezed a drop
of comfort from tlle knowledge tlmt
Ills wages would be more than he
could obtain In the city. Thin
helped to offset tlie isolation nnd
monotony, nnd other dt&'comfdrts
nnd Inconveniences of camp life. He
now suffers the same conditions,
gets less wages than n city worker,
and works harder.
The government Is hand ond
glove with the lumber Interests—
tlie minimum wnge in the Industry is
to be 40 cents per hour—nnd Is
pouring Into B, C. hosts of "farmers" from the Old Country. These
farmers are settling in the lumber
camps of British Columbia. I suppose the Idea Is that they take up
stump ranches after the province
Is logged off..
Tbe British government Is giving
the prospective Canadian immigrant
correspondence courses in farming.
I would suggest that tbey supplement the curriculum and give those
coming to B. C. a practical course
fn eating tn cheap Oriental restaurants, and throw' in a few lectures
on subjects such as "How to get live
meals out ot a dollar In British
J. A. B.
THIS ls another ot the concerns
that fattens the dividends of
tho shareholders in the Union
Steamship Company. There Is a
steady flow of workers In and out
of the camps of this outfit all tho
I Wagos ave a i low na the poorest
paid camp on tho Const. Board
$1.35 per day; blankets another
$1.00 por week. Board Is poor for
tbo price. Twelve men are jammed
at tables intended for eight. Waiters
have too many mon to attend to,
necessitating long waits before one
gets onough to eat. Bunkhouses
are filthy despite a staff of three or
four bul!-cooks. Bunkhouses fitted
up for electric light, but this company prefers to burn oil. Two
smnll tamps to a bunkhouse. One-
third of the crew curry nose bags.
About 250 men employed. A cheap
outfit. —11  22.
King of Flivvers Joins
Drive to Hound
"Red" Aliens
WASHINGTON—(FP)— Secretary
of Lalor Davis' perennially promoted scheme for compelling alien
workors In tho United States to
register once a year has been taken
up hy Hen.'y Ford.
In the current issue of Ford's
magazine, the Dearborn Independent, now sent to all press writers
In Washington, Davis Is given the
place of honor to explain his plnn.
Opposition has been so effect Ivo In
the country at large, and notably
in the labor movement, tbat be has
dropped the word registration, nnd
taken up enrollment. The new word
means the same as the old—a system of silent terrorlzntlon of the
alien as to his political,. Industrial
nnil social thinking nnd expression.
Any federal judge or other enrollment official mny decide to block
his citizenship, according to the labor spokesmen who hnvo, since
1921, protested against the iden.
"Enrollment,'' says Davis In
Ford's magazine, "would diminish
the effect of propaganda by irresponsible agents of anarchism, Communism and tbe like, because tbe
foreign-born would better understand American principles (after
being officially directed to Americanization agencies) and would realize the folly of red radical doctrines. At the same time it would
reveal the existence of these sinister Influences and aid us In our endeavor to rid the country of foreign-born agitators, of that character."
Subscribe   to   the   Labor     Patronize  our  advertisers,
Advocate. and then tell them why,
AUCKLAND, New Zealand—(FP)
—Meetings nre being held throughout New Zealand protesting ngainst
the Jailing of Bourbeau and Thomas,
members of the Auckland branch
of the Communist Party, for selling
worklng-clas literature. A demand
lias boon made on the Now Zealand
government for a review of the sentences imposed on the men.
(Continued from Page Three)
Preachers: 'What is Evangelical Repentance? What
is Justiying Faith? What is the Difference between
Sanctification and Entire Sanctification?'
"Then, in the Articles of Religion, we have the
important Articles 2 and 3, containing a statement as
to the nature of Christ, involving the doctrine of original guilt and affirming the Virgin birth and the physical resurrection and ascension of Christ. The Articles are as follows: (2) 'The Son, who is the Word of
the Father, the very and eternal God, of ona substance
with the Father, took man's nature in the womb of the
blessed Virgin; so that two whole and perfect natures,
that is to say, tho Godhead and Manhood, were joined
together in one person, never to be divided, whereof is
one Christ, very God and very Man, who truly suffered,
was crucified, dead and buried, to reconcile His Father
to us, and to be a sacrifice, not only for original guilt
but also for the actual sins of men.' (3) "Christ did
truly rise again from the dead, and took again His body
with all things appertaining to th*3 perfection of man's
nature, wherewith he ascends into heaven, and there
sitteth until He return to judge all men at the last day."
"Such are the doctrines of Methodism. Without
discussing particular doctrines, let me briefly state my
position thus: Many of tho doctrines of course, I believe, but, thero are some that rest upon historical evidence which, for me, is not conclusive. Some are founded on psychological conceptions and metaphysical
theories quits foreign to modern thought and are, for
me, meaningless. Some deal with matters upon which,
it seems to me, it is impossible to dogmatize. Upon
some, I must suspect judgment. Some I cannot accept
in the form in which they are stated. Some I cannot
accept at all. Yet I am required to "sincerely and fully
believe thc doctrines of Methodism" and to "endeavor
fully and faithfully to preach them.'
(Continued in Next Issue)
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the family
B. C. Telephone Company! hrch 18th, 1926
Page Fi'v*
©16 Country ftabor flews
fThe conference of delegates from
rkers in the radio organizations
jyiernmny, Austria and the Ger-
F'.i region of Czecho-Slovakla that
|hs held last December, has issued
(manifesto calling upon all work.
; class groups In all countries to
ropagate ln the  labor press the
Bcesslty of building up workerB'
filio organizations.    The cultural
[velopinent ot the workers must
i. hastened by the use of the radio
the contact  oit the  workers
|in the vnrious countries lncrens-
[ lt Is maintained.   The formation
radio international ls urged.
uitarism in
Coal Mine Owners
Sparring for Time
Economy Experts Cut Soldiers' Rations
the fake character of the Bul-
|an government's recent am.
|,y is shown by the fnct that It
\ises from jail 1,076 persons
fenced or awaiting sentence un-
Ithe "Defense ot the state" act
It* 1,083 are excluded. These
Ir are, hs might be expected,
le sentenced for the longest
hs and therefore, precisely
lie for whom amnesty Is most
Red. The amnesty bill was deled to place the murder gov-
jhent In a favorable light before
■people ot Europe and thus blind
to the continued outrages
hh still mark Its career.
LONDON—Great Britain wlll
spend approximately (558,000,00 on
her armed forces this year, according to the estimates submitted by the
various departments. Of this
amount 1(292,600,000 will go to the
navy* The army wlll be apportioned $212,500,000, and the air service, which is under a separate minority, will get $80,000,000. The
estimates are $10,000,000 below
those of 1926 each for the army and
navy but an increase of $2,500,000
on the air department. The air
service through additions last year
now numbers sixty-one squadrons,
with a force ot 35,600 men.
The effectiveness of aircraft, Sir
Samuel Hoare, minister of air, states
hus been demonstrated ln Irak and
Somallland in the punitive expedition against the Mnhsud, a tribe on
the northwest frontier of India ln
last March and April. In the last
few weeks aeroplanes have been
employed against rebellious natives
ln the Nuba mountains ot the Sudan.
The valiant British aviators have
rained deadly bombs on natives, de
stroying their villages and murdering their wives and children, because they objected to the exploitation ot their country.
The British garrison in Irak will
be progressively reduced, tlle minister declares, "provided there are
no untoward political developments." In other words, If the
Turks make no further protest
against being robbed ot that territory, the armed guard will be cut
To stimulate Interest in aeronautics at the universities it Ib recommended that a fund of $20,000 be
appropriated for student training
at both Oxford and Cambridge. At
Oxford the chief aero Instructor Is
a professor.
The government's Idea ot economy ls shown In their decision not
to serve the soldiers any mutton
this year. During the past yenr
they got mutton once a week as a
variation In their fare. Churchill
expects to save $250,000 a year by
this cut.
British Bosses Wireless Operators
Prepare For May     Lose Marine Strike
lie registered unemployed ln
Ciiany at tlle end of January
fleered $.030,000. This is the
Ihest number ever recorded ln
(country. The .Dawes plan pay-
fits must be met whether the peo-
T exist or not, though some or
[ more farslghted boureols lead-
|are beginning privately to ad-
the scheme ls bound to show
| absolute failure soon.
That the British capitalist class
has been sparring for time in the
face of the coal crisis appears In an
attempt to short circuit the report
of the coal commission. While the
public wonders whether the long
Investigation will produce plana
for a fundamental reorganization of
the Industry, Lord Londonderry
proposes that the operators and
miners resume negotiations in the
class collaboration spirit exemplified by Prime Minister Baldwin.
Londonderry owns extensive coal
lands and draws laree royalties. His
proposal has been publicly en-
dorsed by Premier Baldwin. Apparently the big capitalists behind
tho present government realize that
the commission's report must be
futile and fear labor's solid front.
The owners want negotiations resumed on a district rather than a
national basis. Certain districts as
a result of the long pressure of unemployment are suspected ready to
accept terms rejected by the national organization.
The employers demand lower
wages and longer hours. London,
derry tries to disguise tbls hy say- ....
ing that a demand for lower piece ,..„
rates need not necessarily mean
lower wages. What he means Is
that the low rates wlll speed up the
miners into producing more to secure a bare subsistence for their
■THE business houses whose advertisements appear in
■*• The Labor Advocate are interested ih the welfare of
not only their own help, but of workers generally.
Vancouver Turkish Baths
Will   Cure  Your  Rheumatism
Lumbago, Neuritis or Bad Cold
744 Hast. St. W. Phone Sey 2070
Hand Made loggers' and
Seamen's Boots
NO. VANCOUVER   Phone 1181
I have just purchased a line of
Scott   Christy   Dodds   and   Borsalino
The Newtst Shapes and Shades and no two alike.
Hats that Sell regularly up to $10 for..
Regular $7.50, $10 and $20 for 	
A chance of a life time to get a real quality hat for
little money.
he ministry of labor ls forinu-
a code ot ethics to govern
I treatment of workers and their
■duct in economic disputes.
Bduardo Aunos, minister of labor,
..j that he Intends by means of
total   committees   to   deal   with
and hy boards of concllla-
i to remove all friction between
jiltal and labor. Under the new
Jle all  workers  would have  to
ranlze subject to certain rules
Elgned to secure Increased efflci-
The minister wants to remove
! labor iBsue trom politics.
1 Barriers, Solicitors, Etc
101-408   Metropolitan   Building
Is7 Hastings St. W„
1 Vancouver, B.C.
■Telephones: Bey. 6866 and 8887
LONDON—Speaking recently at
the annual dinner of the Bromley
Dlstr.'ct Chamber of Commerce, Sir
W. Joynson-Hicks said he was determined lo assist tlle trading section of the community by reducing
Its heavy burdens.
The coal subsidy would undoubtedly plunge the Exchequer Into a
deficit at the end of the flnanclal
year, but lt was Important to see
that the deficit did not occur in
another year. The continuation of
the subsidy was quite out of the
question. i
The estimates for the police last
year were a quarter of a million
higher than the previous year, and
this year he was going to ask, and
because of his responsibilities was
compelled to ask, for another Increase In the police estimates.
There seems to be no doubt in the
mind of "Jlx" as to the need of
more "protection' in the coming
LONDON — The strike of the
marine wireless operators has been
settled hy the men going back to
work at the reduced wageB offered
by the companies. All matters ln
dispute, Including the wage question, are to be subject to negotiations between the operators and
their employers* Upon failure to
reach a settlement the dispute wlll
be arbitrated.
I The strike began last November.
The companies have been despatching their ships without wireless operators and this haB been allowed
by the Board of Trade In utter violation of law. But what Is law to
these huge corporations when tt Interferes with their profits and their
chance of beating down their employees.
LONDON—Ways and means of resisting the threatened attacks on
wages and conditions will be discussed at a special conference of
action, called by the 'National
Minority Movement, to be held at
Latchmere Paths, Battersea, March
21, with Tom Mann as chairman.
Delegates from trade union
branches and district committees,
Tradea Councils and Co-operative
Guilds, and other working class
organizations In nil parts of the
country, have been Invited to attend.
We Make a Special Effort to Get Goods Out by First Mall
Atter. Receipt of lour Order
Corner Cordova and Carrall
Vancouver, B.C.
£45,800,000 was paid out in British Unemployment Beneflt during
the calendar year 1925*
During the calendar year 1925 the
amounts contributed under the
British Unemployment Insurance
Acts were £20,030,000 by employers;
£17,760,000 by workers; and £13,-
250,000 by the National Exchequer.
Every man that is a friend of Labor will further his interests by buying here.
Suits front $14.75 to $37.50
We carry a complete line of men'g furnishings; work and
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Mail orders receive prompt and careful attention.
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, CLARK-   J. KANE, Props.
Vancouver, B. C.
J A Popular Priced Hotel
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Newly  Decorated
New Fixtures
J Dining Room ln Conneotlon
■RATES! 10c Per Day anil Vp
■Telephone: 21 Water St,
■Sey. 1492    Opp. Union S.S. Co,
CHICAGO—(FP)—Eighty dollars
is the record scale demanded by
Chicago Hebrew Typographical
Union 903 ln negotiations now under
way with the Hebrew publishers.
The present scale is $65 a week
which, with New York Hebrew
Typographical, is the top notch In
the I. T. U* Local 903 has thirty-
two members. ItB working week
ls six days of six hourB each or six
nights ot four to four and a half
hours. The regular union week In
other Chicago shops is forty-four ln
the job department and forty-live
on the newspaper side.
Out* Economic SuFtfey
Iwe have Some Good Buys In
leash Payment As Low aB t__
I Phoae Sey. 7405   IMS Gnm. St
Interest on the BrltlBh National
Debt, during the year ended March
31,1925, cost £6 19s. per head of the
City of Vancouver
THE undersigned wlll receive
tenders up to 12 o'clock
[noon, Tuesday, the 23rd day of
L March, 1926, for aproxlmately
1200 pairs summer wear Po-
lllcemen's Boota. Sample td be
. supplied.
Purchasing Agent,
— Stay at the —
Hotel Stratford
The Place Called Home
Corner GORE AVE. and
Phone Sey. 8121
200 Elegantly Furnished
60  Rooms  with Private  Bath
.Moderate Prices
Out of Town Readers!
Please remember that any of the business houses
advertising in the Advocate will attend carefully to your mail orders.
By Leland Olds, Federated Press
THAT tiie wage system in America rests on hundreds of thousands of men averaging less than
$4 a day is revealed In a U. S. department of labor survey ot wage
rates for common labor. Figures
gathered from all the major manufacturing Industries In all parts of
the country show that In January,
1926, the average wage rate for
unskilled workers wos 40.2c an
The low, high nnd average hourly rates by Industries are:
Cents per Hour
Low High Ave.
Automobile    35.0   02.5   46.6
Brick, tlle, etc    16.0   65.0   41.7
Cement    28.0   45.0   40.4
Electric Equipment   31.6   50.0   41.5
Foundries, machine
Bhops     16.0   60.0   30.7
Iron and Steel ....   23.4   50.0   41.1
Leather      22.5   60.0   40.7
Lumber     20.0   45.0   30.8
Paper and  Pulp...   22.5   66.3   40.5
Petroleum    36.0   62.0   49.1
Meatpacking    32.6   45.0   41.2
Utilities      25.0   60.0   40.6
Such wage rateB make the decent
support of a normal family Impossible. The low rate ot 15c an hour
meanB about 8420 for the year based
on 280 dayB ot 10 hours.   The high
To Carting Contractors
TENDERS    wanted    for the entire
.  carting collections,  deliveries,  removal of ashes and rubbish lo and
from all schools and all other carting
work of the School Board.    No extras
Full particulars given by Storekeeper
on application.
Contract for one year. State fixed
sum per month. Lowest or any
tender  not   necessarily  accepted.
Reply in sealed envelope    endorsed
"Carting Contract" by noon. Wednesday .the 24th March, 1926, to:
Vancouver School Board.
rate of 62.5c on an 8-hour basts
means about $1,400 for a year's
work. The average ot 40.2c gives
a man about $1,700 a year If we assure a 10-hour day. Nothing less
than the 62.5c rate will provide a
family of five with a bare subsistence let alone decency and comfort.
The unskilled laborer's wage ls
the basic wage on which the entire
wage Bystem rests. At a pauper
level it tends to drag all wages
down, even the wages of the most
skilled workers. This becomes
more true as the progress ot automatic machinery steadily enlarges
the proportion of unskilled and
semi-skilled labor to the total employed ln Industry. As long as the
great majority of the country's unskilled workers are left outside ot
organized labor, to shift for themselves In the wage market, union
standards will be inadequate and
Phone Ser. **** for Appointment
DOCTORS are now .recognising the relationship between diseased teeth aud bad health.
Every week or two aome physician sends me a patient to
have bla teeth attended to. and In the majority of caaea the doctor's suspicions are confirmed, and the health improves when the
Dental needs have been supplied.
This Is natural; good blood depends on good digestion, and
this tn turn depends on mastication.
DR. CURRY combines Long Experience with most Up-to.
date Methods.
Cost of Sickness
High in Australia
—in Patent Brown  and
Black Calf.  All styles and
sizes   to    choose   from.
New Spring Stock, just ar- yfiSSL™*..:.*.*.     ......
rived, r "'"'"
Special $4.95 to $6.85
—all the Newest Styles. A big assortment to choose
from. See these before buying. Satins, Patents, Black
and Brown Kid and Calf.    In straps and Oxfords.    They
are wonderful values at 93*95 to 95*85
Our Men's Work Boots  9*3.95
Boys' School B»otc  .$3.95 .___
Kibler's Shoe Store
(The Best tor Less)
163 HASTINGS ST. E.       (Almost Opp. the Library)
MELBOURNE, Australia—(FP)—
Figures compiled by the Royal
Commluion ou national Insurance
show that each year in Australia
$42,000,000 In wages Is lost on account of sickness or accident, and
$83,000,000 on account ot unemployment, representing a total loss ot
approximately $125,000,000 In wages
yearly. The resultant decrease In
the value of production ls estimated
at $500,000,000. Each worker loses
an average of ten daya a year
through sickness or accident, and
twenty days a year through unemployment. The Commission wlll
shortly present a scheme to deal
with unemployment and sickness
Insist On Our Label
Guaranteed Finest Quality Page Six
March 18th, IJ
The Truth About Russia
By DR. W. i. CURRY
ONE of tbe Indictments against
Soviet rule Is that Is has
"abolished religion, and dethroned
It ts, however, well to remember
thhat the religion which the Workers' Republic repudiates Is "the
theology of the ruling and exploiting class, and the degradation of
women. Paul, the real founder of
Christianity, advises us that as "the
Church Is subject to Christ, ao let
wives be subject to their husbands
In all things."
The history of the Church Informs us that at the Council of
Macon, in the fifteenth century, the
question "Has woman a soul" was
acrimoniously discussed and voted
upon, and the "ayes" won by a
email majority; but since all divinities and angels mentioned in
Jewish scriptures are males, it appears that our mothers and sisters
bad a narrow escape.
The Women's Report oh Soviet
Russia shows that while the emancipation of workers in general has
advanced rapidly in Russia since
the revolution, the position of
women has progressed still more
rapidly. This was natural, Bince
they were considerably behind their
"lords and masters," and since
those who endorse tho new social
order have the equality of the sexes
as one of their objectives.
Four delegates, representing
Printing, Garment Workers, Textile Trades and Transport Workers,
left England on April 23rd, 1925,
and arrived back in London on July
4th. They covered practically the
same ground as the men's delegation of the preceding year, but their
report deals more especially with
the life of women and children.
None of these women were associated with Communist movement, but
they were sincere in their desire
to know the truth about Russia,
and the workers of that country
were even more anxious to welcome
these Investigators.
Many readers of this will remember, that Maxam Gorky, the eminent author and dramatist, was refused admittance to the "Land of
the Free" because he was a revolutionist, and a few months ago
Saklatvala, the British M.P., was
excluded from the same country for
the same reason. Evidently capitalism .cannot endure the light
while the Left Wing Labor Move-
Dent Welcomes investigation,
This Women's Report says: "Our
delegation was met everywhere with
the greatest enthusiasm and kindness. We were everywhere overwhelmed with Invitations from
workers to visit fa-.iorles and clubs.
Red Army soldiers and officers requested us to visit their headquarters. Teachers Invited us to visit
their schools; nurses and doctors
put In similar claims regarding rest
homes and hospitals. Boys and
girls trom the children's homes
begged a visit for their particular
"We found everywhere among
the workers a sincere desire for
unity between Russian and British
Trade Unions. This thoy regard as
a first Important step toward the
unity of the trade union movement
of the world."
In comparing tbe reports of the
men and the women's delegation we
can see that in the year between
these two Investigations considerable progress was made and we
know that ln spite of the League
of Nations and the Locarno Pact,
which were to have ushered In a
reign of peace and plenty, Imperialistic capitalism shows everywhere evidences ot disintegration,
and in every paper we read of
financial and political chaos developing in Europe.
The Women's report emphasizes
the paramount fact that Russia is
now an industrial democracy.
There the workers are the ruling
class, and their dictatorship uses
the state powers to maintain their
Says the Report: "What struck
us most in the factories and workshops we visited was the Important part played by the Factory and
Workshlp Committees in the life of
the workers.
"In Russia work ls no longer the
curse of the enslaved, but It means
rather the expression of life and
freedom. Industry, education, and
culture go hand in hand. The factory and workshop committees are
elected every six months, and the
duties of these are especially to see
that the management carries out
labor laws, particularly those protecting the wbrkers. They fix
wages, standards of work, and endeavor to Improve the conditions of
labor, including housing, etc. These
committees organize clubs, lectures,
musical and dramatic societies, and
classes with the object of stamping
out Illiteracy."
Social insurance ls one of the important functions of this Labor
State. Our Labor M.P.'s at Ottawa
are now struggling with the political puppets of plutocracy to have
"Old Age Pensions" legalized, and
it it is passed it will mean but $20
per month for a small clasa who
happens to survive beyond the allotted 'three score and ten."
The Women's Report says: "All
wage and salaried workers are insured against temporary and total
Incapacity, unemployment, death of
the bread winner, etc. The contributions towards this Insurance are
paid exclusively by the enterprise
and factory. The workers pay
nothing towards this insurance, and
employers are prohibited from deducting any part of their wages for
this purpose."
In Russia the landlord ls the State
and the State recognizes Its responsibility to the unemployed.
During unemployment there is no
rent charged by the State. Unemployment benefits must be not less
than one-sixth of the actual wuges
during employment.
In the Federation of Socialist
Soviet Republics there are now five
million workers Insured.
Next week we will deal with the
subject:  "Women In Industry."
The Week in Ottawa
By Laurence Todd, Federated Press
WASHINGTON-(FP) - Guatemala's dictator has put
through his obedient congress a law
making strikes punishable by Imprisonment ot strikers for terms of
eight years. It anyone ls killed as
a consequence of strikers' activities, all the Btrlkers are held guilty
of murder. Two years' Imprisonment ls the penalty for any striker
who induces a strike-breaker to
quit work. The military have full
charge of administering this law,
so that Industrial life In Guatemala
ls now ruled by threat of court
martial proceedings and the firing
When the newa of this legislation, which became effective February 16, reached Pan-American
Federation of Labor headquarters
In Washington, it drew an immediate protest from William Green,
president of the Pan-American and
of the American Federation of
"This will subject the workers of
Guatemala to involuntary servitude
against which the world ls continually fighting," he said. "It Is certainly a violation of the agreement
made by Guatemala with the other
Central American governments and
with the United States, to safeguard the inherent rights of citizenship to the workmen. Compulsory labor ls a violation of that
Guatemala is one of the most reactionary spots on the political map
of the Americas. North American
finance is entrenched there, to hold
a frontier against the southward
spread of the labor movement now
dominant in Mexico. The American
Btate department has a long record
of favoritism toward Cabrera and
other  anti-labor   despots   in   that
country, and at times the Mexican
revolutionary government has been
compelled to issue sharp warnings
against the harboring in Guatemala ot counter-revolutionary
groups of Mexican refugees, upon
whom the hopes of American oil
companies and other owners of
property In Mexico were pinned.
The fact that this decree was required to prevent the outbreak of
strikes In Guatemala Indicates to
labor officials the degree ot fear
instilled ln the dictator by labor
agitation. Because the trade union
Idea ls one ot democracy among
the workers who until now have
been treated as feudal retainers,
labor agitators are unwelcome In
most of the Latin-American republics. The Pan-American Federation
of Labor cannot safely send its
spokesmen Into these countries* Yet
tbe example set by organized labor
outside Guatemala appears to have
been sufficient to create unrest and
agitation there, with consequent
strikes and the fear of labor riots.
If It were merely the A. F. of L.
that were trying to educate the
workers in these backward countries to trade unionism, its efforts
might be frustrated by the accusation that It was an agent of Wall
Street. Native politicians would demand that the North Americans go
back home and leave Guatemala,
or Venezuelans, as the case might
be, to deal with their own affairs.
But Mexico ls a leading figure ln the
Pan-American Federation ot Labor.
Her labor movement ls free of all
suspicion, even in Latin America,
of being friendly to Wall Street
business men. So the dictators
must adopt military rule to industry, and Justify it on tho ground
that trode unionism means revolution.
Jubilee Labor Hall Notes
RECENTLY Mr. Cahan of Montreal gave some very striking
statements with regard to taxation:
"Our taxation weighs upon our
people today as a grievous burden.
Twenty-flve per cent, of the entire
productive Income of this country
goes year by year to pay federal,
provincial and municipal taxes
which are Imposed upon our people.
On the average every Canadian
workman, out ot a year of twelve
months, lt he works twelve months
steadily, gives approximate three
months of his toll to earn sufficient to pay the taxes which are
placed upon him."
In the old days serfs were some
times required to work several days
in the week for their feudal lord ln
order to have the opportunity of
working the remainder ot the week
for themselves. Surely this Institution Is not dissimilar. Mr. Cahan
would probably advise the cutting
down of expdenltures but it should
be remembered that the greater
part of our expenditures consist of
what are known as fixed charges,
that is, interest on our indebtedness.
Some of us do not believe that our
problems ot taxation would be
Bolved short of dealing with those
fixed charges. Why should tiie majority of the people continue to
work for three months of tho
twelve for the advantage of a comparatively small group of Canadians who now hold the mortgages
on the productive Industry ot this
country?   |
An item in the Auditor General's
report shows the expenditures In
connection with a luncheon given
to the Canadian Manufacturers' Association at the Ritz Hotel, London, England, amounted to the sum
of £330 9 Od, as follows:
173 Luncheons at 32s     £281 2 6
Floral Decorations        21 0 0
Services of Usher          2 7 0
Gratuities, as requested..      26 0 0
Total  ., £330 9 6
Another Item ln this conned
was the "payment of £26 0 5 to
American Express Company for
motor charabancs used to conve
party of representatives of the Ca
dian Manufacturers' Assoclal
from London to Wembley andi
We wonder lf by any chance st
of the ordinary farmers and la
men ot Canada who pay these t
could contrive to reach Engl
whether they would be feted so g
A recent editorial ln the Canad
Railway Employees' Monthly dl
with progress and tolerance, j
quote several very Illuminating s
fences: ,
"Every man who tries to Imps
our present economic syBtem ha
face opposition from three poj
ful groups, the well to do, the]
norant, and the Intolerant."
"Surely every worker who pj
Intelligent consideration to the
ter realizes the progress and
betterment ot economic condl
must come from the efforts nil
the well to do or the ignorant
the Intolerant but ot the eomu]
tlvely  few men  who  are  wil
usually after a hard day's wor)
take time and energy to searelj
saner  methods  of   producing
distributing the necessities and
uries of life*   Such men are i_|
precious to the race than gold
Jewels—like poets, they are h]
not made."
BRISBANE, Queensland
—Having refused to sign the
Communist pledge submitted by]
Australian Lator party, niemberj
the Labor leagues and unions*
ut * Brisbane and decided to fori
now party to be known as the
dustrial Labor Party. The new ]
ty will not ally Itself with the C
munist party, but will work for |
alms and planks ln the A. L._
On Wednesday .March 10th, the
Study Group of the Independent
Lnbor Party, South West Burnaby
branch, continued the reading and
discussion of Walter Thomas Mills'
valuable book "The Struggle fori
Existence." Great Interest Is token'
by those comrades who have attended the class. We have room for
more. Come along and study, with
us, the evolution of humanity
through the stages of savagery,,
barbarism and serfdom to the present civilization. There is no collection.
Last Saturday our weekly
social evening took tlle form of a
Court, whist drive followed by refreshments and a dance. We have
to thank Comrade Frank Browne,
SI.L*A., and Mrs. Browne for the
kind donation of prizes. Don't forget, the Labor Hall is open every
Wednesday night and every Saturday night,  j
West Burnaby Branch, be an outstanding example!
Starting of Heelings
Our meetings nre billed to commence at _ p.m. This means S p.m.,
not 8.15 nor 8.30.'' It has been the
practice in the past for comrades
to arrive late, thus either delaying
the commencement or causing a
commotion by late arrival. Please
endeavor to be punctual—you have
to be for the boss! It Is only a
matter of leaving home a few minutes earlier, and tbe habit can
easily be acquired. "Time and Tide
wait for no man."
Enslaving the Children
HARRISBURG, Pa.—(FP)—Virtual peonage has been found In many
Pennsylvania fruit and vegetable
canneries, state department of labor and Industry Investigators report. Migratory working families
are obtained by a "roe boss," who
contracts with the canner to supply labor foi; BOc to $1 a head,
' Many canners do not pay their
workers until the end of the season,
giving them metal checks which are
accepted by storekeepers for supplies but cannot be exchanged for
cash until the employer Is ready.
!.hla system prevents workers from
eavlng or rebelling against the very
bad conditions under which they
|ire forced to live and work.
j Overcrowded, fire-trap, flimsy
wooden barracks are given tbe
workers to live In. One family to
ia room, one straw-tilled wooden
|>unk, one window (eome without
(lass and almost all without
screens), thin and incomplete partitions. Toilets are all outside and
"their condition was universally
bad.'' Usually one water pump for
the camp, no bathing facilities, no
slopslnk, poor drainage, tew gar.
bage receptacles and these seldom
Many minor children were working unlawfully.   The report says
"It seemed; likely that the number
ot children actually working was
considerably larger than reported,
as investigators repeatedly saw little fjgures fleeing from the canneries and disappearing into the
woods. Many ot these smaller children, whpn questioned, admitted
that they did skin tomatoes or
husk corn." Youngsters attend
their mothers ln the canneries,
walking barefoot on filthy floors.
Children and women worked all
hours, day and night—long hours
when a load of perishables came ln.
Laws limiting hours were almost
never posted and rarely obeyed,
Children and women workers had
to stand at work, often on wet
"In more than three-fourths of
the canneries the guarding of machinery was Inadequate," says the
report. Canneries were found far
from sanitary, endangering those
who buy their products as well as
iiOO Drive nnd Dunce
Next Saturday at 8 p.m. the I.L.P*
South West Burnaby branch, will
hold Its weekly social evening which
will consist of a "500" drive and
dance. Refreshments will be served.
Come along, you 500 tans, and try
your hand. Good prizes! The proceeds will go towards a donation
to the orchestra. Yes, we have an
orchestra now!
Junior Lnbor Lengue
] A branch ot the Junior Labor
League has been formed at Jubilee
Labor Hall. Tbe young people had
very able assistance rendered by
the Soutli Vancouver Juniors at
their first meeting. The Junior
Labor League of Jubilee held their
first social evening at the Hall last
Thursday (March llth) where a
most enjoyable time was spent.
Here's to the success of the league.
Hard work will accomplish It,
the workers. M^^^^^
The workers are completely unorganised. Most are Polish families from Baltimore and some are
Italians from Philadelphia, Tht
Investigators ordered observance ot
Pennsylvania's labor laws and re-
Inspected the worst canneries to aid
Lahor Party Wlll Add To Hall
During the summer months an
addition will be made to the Jubilee
Labor Hall. This will be used as
kitchen and cloak room. It ls also
proposed to. use the additional room
for. committee meetings where the
large hall Is not required* Plans
are now under consideration. Circular letters have been sent to the
Trades Unions In Vancouver and
New Westminster asking for their
financial support. Any aid forthcoming will be greatly appreciated.
We desire to teach class-consciousness to the wbrkers, and give them
an understanding ot their relation
to society at large. Surely this
object Is worthy ot the support of
all progressive Trade Unions who
In the past have had to fight their
battle alone. Don't forgt the old
adage "Unity Is Strength!"
Comrades of the Independent
Labor Party, are you all subscribing
to the Labor Advocate? Bring the
matter, up. at your branch meetings
and see that each comrade buys a
copy each week.   Come on, South
Ladles' Auxiliary lliuiim-
The Ladles' Auxiliary of Independent Labor Party, South West
Burnaby branch, are arranging for
a bazaar to be held on the afternoon
of April 1st ln the Jubilee Labor
Hall to be followed by a 500 drlvo
and dance on the evening of the
same day. The proceeds will be
devoted towards the completion of
the Labor Hall,
The Big
Shoe Sale
for every member of the family.
Robinson & Warren
(Directly Opposite The Standard Furniture Co.)
1087 Granville Street
The Norwegian Buildings Trades
Union has invited the All-Russian
Building Trades Union to send representatives to Norway to take up
negotiations about the tranafer to
Russia of unemployed building
trades Workers. The Invitation has
been accepted, and three representatives are expected, among
them the chairman of the All-Russian Building Trades Union, Bog-
What Is declared to be the largest bombing plane In the world ls
under construction at the Kawasaki
works here. It Is claimed that the
wings of the machine are ninety
feet long, and the body sixty feet
The British Columbia Electric Railway Company is much gratified by the
public's response to the offering of 6 per
cent, cumulative preference shares of
the British Columbia Electric Power &
Gas Company, Limited, which offering
is already largely oversubscribed.
Consequently no further applications will be received after NOON on
Saturday, March 20.
British Columbia Electric Railway
Company, Limited.


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