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British Columbia Federationist May 30, 1924

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. Blocking Trade by Artificial Barriers Absurd—Evil Effects
Well Demonstrated
Probably Disposed of This Week
by the Civil Service
'■ Competition Between the National
Groups and Wealth Concentration of World
[Extracts from Speech of S. J. Garland, Progressive, Bow River, Alta.]
HERE was a time in primitive society when the producers were the
farmers an'd-the hunters. They secured in some way what was required,
and they consumed it themselves.
Later on came the leather maker, the
tool maker, and the weapon maker,
and trading commenced. Even then,
though the farmer of the valley traded with the herdsmen on the hills,
and the weapon maker ln the village,
they lived practioally isolated, neither
caring nor concerned about conditions
elsewhere in the world, or how other
people lived. Such isolation is no longer possible. The economic life even
of the" individual has swept out into
ever-widening circles, beyond the valley, beyond the hills, beyond the oceans
and beyond the continents, until today
each individual life encircles economically the whole'world. The industrial
revolution wtth its labor-saving, space-
destroying, and immensely productive
inventions, brought about and cemented tliis condition. It brought to us
the seeamboat of 1807, the locomotive,
the power press, the making of paper
from wood; it brought the telegraph,
the transatlantic cable, thc wireless,
the telephone, the radiophone. Thus
we have today that condition which
brings every individual In this world
in as close touch with his fellowmen
as wcro tho people of neighboring: villages in past centuries.
Now, the effect of this industrialism
and of these labor-saving inventions
is to create an interdependence of nations, chiefly because nature has not
located tho raw materials , necessary
for an Industrialized nation In equal
quantities throughout the earth, not
as she haa distributed sunshine and
air. For example, every nation under
our present industrial system, requires
coal, iron, copper, oil and certainly
wheatjandsjind meats. They aro localized in their distribution. . Canada today ia dependent on other nations for coal. France, Italy, Austria-
Hungary—since divided—are all dependent on outside coal supplies, especially Italy. Italy producod one
million tons, and consumed ten million. Modern manufacturing and
transportation depends on these min*
erals and the fuels I have mentioned.
Nations must and will depend therefore upon each other. The principal
deposits of iron ore, copper and petro'
leum happen to be in the western
hemisphere. And the world requires
them. On the other hand, we require
the products of the rest of the world,
and must get them. Therefore, trad*
ing is only natural.    .   .
The blocking of trade by artificial
barriers Is absurd, but the evil effects
of this practice have been only too
well demonstrated by the never-end'
ing state of war, in which the world
hns found Itself. Think of the tens
of millions of people who are at this
moment co-operating throughout the
entire world in the production of the
necessities of life and in their transportation, or the attempt to transport
them, and think on the other hand, of
the effort that Is being made by privileged interests in every nation to block
and check the transporting of supplies
betwoen nations. Each great nation
in the world must provide itself with
the essential raw materials, and so we
find that each nation is busy securing,
either by aggression or by flnanclal
Invasion—it is called "investment,
but as far-reaching an evil in its influence as any invasion of force could be
.—the largest possible resources of raw
material, and each ot these nations in
turn Is then using trade barriers to
[.prevent other nations securing their
requirements on equitable terms—all
.except free trado Britain. I have no
hesitation, then, In stating that one of
the groat world problems is the com
jpetitive struggle between national
groups for trade, for markots, for resources, and with this problem, ot
,course, goes Its partner, the excessive
concentration of world wealth in a
few centres and In the hands of a few
individuals. Real peace Is impossible
under these circumstances. But pre
paration for war is the negation of in
telligence. This problem must be
Bolved. The wnr has shown that war
means world-war. It also has shown
to those who think, that peace must
be world peace and that prosperity will
,be world prosperity. We suffer here
because Europe suffers, and to-day wc
must recognize that it is impossible to
destroy the economic well-being of an
integral part ot the world without destroying the general prosperity of the
■whole world. . . . And so, by all
[means, while striving for peace, while
striving for this great ideal of international free trade, let us prepare for
.that war of which everyone is at the
moment speaking. Let us prepare for
•it in the most' effective, the most
'comprehensive manner, by the enactment of legislation for conscription of
health and industry, as well as of manpower. Take the proflt out of war—
Ml the proflt—and there will be less
1 (Continued on pace 4)
Federal Cabinet \ M Ratify What-
ever Final      elusions
Are Arri\     At
■ %
A   press despatch fr   o Ottawa on
Tuesday states tht*.' r ie matter
of salary revision for the "postal workers probably will be disposed of this
week, after a month's consideration
by the government, the civil service
commission and the audit board.
It is understood that the audit
board's report, to be considered at a
conference of representatives of the
audit bureau, the civil service commission and the post offlce department will embody material changes In
the last report of the civil service
commission. The nature of these
alterations is not divulged, but it Is
expected they will not be to the dls-
advantage of the postal workers.
The civil service commission's last
report is understood to have contained a recommendation for an increase of 15 per cent, in basic salaries.
The cabinet will ratify whatever
final  conclusions are arrived at.
In answer to questions by W. G. Mc-
Quarrie, New Westminster, Premier
King said in the House to-day that
the threat of a strike- by postal workers was not the reason why
thcir claims wero given first consideration by the civil service commission.
The audit bureau, he added, was not
a board of appeal from tho commission, but was supposed to co-opeprate
with it. The magnitude of the work
wns the only reason why the commission's report had not been tnbled.
The rise of half a dozen men sprung
from the ranks of manual toil to the
front bench and the cabinet was one of
tho romances of democratic life, and
unmistakably marked an epoch.—J. L.
Patronize Federationist advertisers.
Tabloid Issued by United States
Department of Labor, at
Washing-ton, D. C.
Unemployment—Since June, 1923,
the upward'trend In unemployment in
Austria, varying from 92,789, at the
close of that month, to 126,734, at the
beginning of this spring, has been decidedly unfavorable.
Labor Disputes—A strike of the Valparaiso lightermen, Btevedores and
seamen, and a lockout of 10,000 build-
ing trades mechanics by the building contractors, are examples of a
general restlessness of Chilean employers and workers which is largely due,
it Is said, to the gradual shrinkage in
the purchasing power of the peso.
Immigration—Of the total number
of immigrants entering the port of An-
tilla during the quarter ended March
81, 1924, 5653, or over 90 per cent,
were made up of Haitian laborers, recruited in the republic of Haiti for the
Cuban sugar mills.
Unemployment — During March
1924, tho number of unemployed persons in Denmark decreased from 57,-
600 to 49,954.
Shipyard Workers' Strike Settled*-
The shipyard workers of Southampton
havo returned to work, nnd the lockout of the employers' federation has
beon withdrawn. This action terminates a strike disorder, tho consequences of which had spread Into
■ *    Finland
Proposed New Emigration Law—At
a recent meeting of the Emigration
committoe of Finland, proposals were
drafted for a new emigration law, up
holding the freedom of leaving tho
country, but containing new restrictions and regulations looking to the
general welfare of tho emigrants both
before and after leaving the father-
Unemployment—During the flrst
eight days of April, 1924, unemployment in Poland increased from 113,000
to 118,000 persons, but since that time
the increase is stated, by the government, to have been very small.
Cotton Mill Strike—It is said that
more than 150,000 employees were out
during the Bombay mills strike, largo
numbers of whom loft Bombay for the
country districts, from which they had
been recruited. Latest available reports state that about half of the mills
have resumed operations, and that
many departees are retiming to work
In the mills.   .
United Mine Workers ratify throe-
year peace agreement by overwhelming vote.
Canadian Labor Party Convention
TV/HAT marks, perhaps, the most im-
** portent step yet taken by the
various forces of labor towards the attainment of the objective, which has
been tho hope and desire of every earnest supporter of that movement, the
united front of labor," was taken on
Saturday and Sunday last, when the
first convention of accredited delegates
to the B. C. section of the Canadian-
Labor party was held.
There were lacking, perhaps, the
shouting, cheering and signs of debauchery which are so often noticeable
at some other conventions we have
seen and heard of. There was present,
however, a spirit of earnestness on the
part of every delegate at the meeting.
Every one seemed to realize that the
local labor movement was on the
threshold of a bright and glorious future, though, perhaps, strenuous. Some
74 accredited delegates from the various local unions, and labor political organizations wore present.
The meeting was called to order by
W. H. Cottrell, at 3 p.m. The minuteB
of the previous organization meeting
were read and adopted, as were also
the reports of the various meetings of
the provisional executive, which had
been held. The chairman briefly reviewed the history of this local movement. He stated, how, at first, many
of the various affiliated units were but
lukewarm towards the movement, but
that now they were entering wholeheartedly into the spirit of the movement, belleving.it to have been the
one step necessary to bring the workers together.
In tho provisional programme, it
was noted under the heading of "affiliation fees," that ten cents per member per annum should be paid by the
initiated societies to the "Provincial
Party Fund." It was pointed out, in
a manner that brought hearty applause from those present, that this
was a grievous error, since the "provincial party" was no friend of the C.
L. P. Needless to say, this was corrected.
Officers were elected for the ensuing
ear. W. H. Cottrell was made president by acclamation. Vice-presidents
chosen wore: H. Neelands, Wm. Dunn.
Angus Mclnnes. Tho choice of four
representatives from outshle districts
was left to the discretion of the executive. F. L. Hunt was elected secretary-treasurer.
Various changes were made in the
provisional programme before it was
finally adopted by the convention
It was agreed that the Labor Party
should consist of all its affiliated organizations, including trades unions,
socialist societies, co-operative societies, trades and labor councils, local
labor parties, and farmers' organiza-
ftions, and other organizations havingfmove elsewhere.   It was resolved that
How Any Adult May Join the
Canadian Labor Party in
British Columbia
No doubt there are many through
out this city and province who are
heartily in sympathy with the labor
movement, and who would, if the opportunity afforded itself, gladly join
the ranks of those who are trying to
make the political life of this provinco
what it ought to be, clean, wholesome,
constructive and in the best interests
of the masses.
The Canadian Labor p:arty is, in
this province, purely an affiliated body,
It is an attempt to co-ordinate the activities of thc various labor and socialist bodies, and such othor organ!
nations as subscribe to its platfofrm,
and so mako thom a more potent
power for good than they could ever
hope to be, working as individual
Any one who belongs to n union
which is affiliated, is a member, lf
the union does not affiliate as a whole,
then those who may desiro to Join,
may join as a political unit from that
union. Thoso who do not belong to
any union have the privilege of join
Ing any pf tho affiliated political labor
parties, such as the Federated Labor
party, Communist party, Socialist so
cletios, or any other organization, ln
their particular locality, which is In
sympathy with the movement, and can
aftiliato with the C. L. P.
If there is no union or labor party
in your district, then communicate
with the socretary of the Federated
Labor party, and such information ns
you may desire will'be gladly given,
and every assistance rendered.
It is hoped that our readers will
realizo tho fact, that this political
strugglo requires all tho financial as
sistance it can get. Tho other parties
have sources from which they derive
their monetary assistance which labor
questions. These sources aro Buch that
labor eould not stoop to receive such
assistance from them. Thoso who pay
the freight receive tho goods. If you
expect to receivo the benefits, you
must expect to meet somo of tho
charges. No contribution is too large,
and none too small. Do your bit.
Send your contributions now to tho
treasurer of the Federated Labor
party, 319 Pender street west, Vancouver, B. C.
The superior man does not set his
mind for or against anything, What
ls right he will follow.—Confucius.
the same objectives and subscribing to
the Canadian Labor party platform.
To organize and maintain in parliaments and country, municipal, provincial and federal, a political labor party.
To co-operate with kindred organizations, in Joint political or other action,
ln harmony with the party constitution and standing orders.
To give effect, as. far as may be
practicable, to the . principles from
time to time approved by the party
The abolition of capitalism and the
securing for the producers by hand or
by brain, the full fruits of their industry.
Generally to promote the political,
social and economic emancipation of
the people, and. more particularly of
those who depend directly upon their
own exertionH by hand or by brain for
the means of life,
All candidates endorsed by the C. L.
P. are to appear under the designation
of "Labor candidate," with the words:
"endorsed by the Canadian Labor
party" underneath, in" parenthesis.
Several resolutions were brought before the convention for its consideration, some of which were as follows:
Resolved, that the convention go on
record as not permitting the elected
candidates to .hold any government offlco under, or affiliating with, any of
the other parties. This was to impress
.upon all candidates the fact that labor
must not compromise with any of the
old-line parties. It was further resolved thnt no' speakers were to be allowed on the platforms of the C. L. P.
candidates, who were not affiliated
with some workingclass organization.
A resolution favoring abolition of the
poll and road taxes was passed. The
use of armed force in industrial disputes wus condemned. A resolution
favoring the extension of tho franchise
to orientals on the same basis as to
other races admitted to citizenship. It
was felt that if they were, qualified
and flt for citizenship, then, by that
token, they should bo granted the franchise. -In caso of unemployment, a resolution favoring trades union rato of
pay on basis on Labor .Gazette, was
urged, when work could not be provided.
Mention was made regarding the unfortunate plight in which the average
farmor today, found themselves, in
their struggle for existence, and it was
considered opportune that we make
it a part of the immediate programme
of tho C. L. P., that we endeavor to
establish a farmers and workers government.
Another item fit interest that was
brought to the attention of thc convention was the activities of the B. C.
Loggers association, which, it was alleged, was instrumental in driving
Trom this province between one and
two thousand workers, who were
members of working class organizations, and as such, had
been "blacklisted" by that organization. Their livelihood having
thus been taken from them, In this
"land of the free."   Thoy have had to
the candidates be instructed to obtain
the removal of this disgrace, a part of
the platform.
Candidates for Vancouver and district:
For Olty of Vancouver
Only five candidates were nominated
by the C. L. P. for the city, since J.
D. Harrington had been nominated by
the Socialist Party of Canada, his candidature was unanimously endorsed by
the convention, thus giving lahor six
candidates in the field.
Candidates for surrounding districts
which received the endorsement of the
convention, were as follows:
South Vancouver—R. H. NEELANDS.
New Westminster—R. C. HIGGINS.
Comox District—T. A. BARNARD.
Nanaimo—W. A. PRITCHARD.
Summerland—JOHN LOGIE.
A wire was received from Victoria,
whilo the convention was in session,
stating that they had the best fighting organization eve'-, and that
prospects were bright for the capturing of at least one seat, if not three,
in that city.
|Editor Glenn Frank Addresses the
Methodist Conference on
Oreat Question
AVomcn's Lnbor Party
A meeting of the women of the
labor party of New Westminster will
be held on Wednesday afternoon at
the home of Mrs. R. C. Higgins, 709
Fifth avenue, New Westminster. It
is expected that these women members will be of groat assistance to the
labor party during the forthcoming
League of Xnflons Sorlety
On Friday, May 30, at S:1G p.m., in
the board of trade auditorium, the
president of the society, Mr, Roble L.
Reid, K. C, will lecture on "Tho Permanent Court of International Justice
at the Hague." Tho establishment of
this court Inst year marked an epoch
in human history.
Building Activity ln Point Grey
Building permits amounting to
$345,200 have been issued in Point
Grey municipality during thc present
month. This brings ihe total for 1924
up to Jl,728,000 which compares
with $1,109,450 for the first fivo
months of last year. The permits for
the first eight months of last year
were fl,769,450. With one big permit in sight, for (he new Magee
school valued at $95,000, interest now
centres on when tho permits will pass
the $2,000,000 mark. Last year's permits totalled $8,807,76$. During 1923
permits for 493 dwelling houses wero
issued; the total for 1924 is already
.Stirling Nominated
The Lnbor pai'ty I'or Kaslo-Slocan
riding at Nakusp nominated Georgo
Stirling, fruit farmor, of Salmon Arm.
He is an old timer in ihe labor movement and  will  poll fl   heavy voto.
Labor Party
TF YOU subscribe to the
1 principles for which the
F. L. P. stands, write your
name and address plainly
below, and send to Secretary Federated Labor Party,
Room 111, 319 Pender West.
Painters Hold Successful Smoker
The local section Brotherhood of
Painters and Paperhangers, who are
conducting an extensive campaign of
reorganfntion, held a most successful
smoking concert on Friday evening at
their headqarters, 318 Pendor street,
west, Vancouver. Delegate C. Cfioffel
was an efficient chairman and there
was an encouraging attendance of
fully 250. The programme of song
and story was much enjoyed and tho
smoker proved a happy affair.
Study of History of Man Should
be Embodied in School
Protestantism Doomed If It Keeps
Silent on War and Suicide for the Church
AT Springfield, Glenn Frank, editor
of the Century Magazine, recently
told the Methodist general conference: "Christianity, in its central
message to the world, is not to be
found in any mere social, economic
or particular platform. Protestantism is doomed if it keeps silent on
war. It must make a clear and courageous stand, cutting loose from the
whole war business, or it will be
suicide for the church. The church
cannot make its god the ally alike
of General Pershing and Hlndenberg,
and bring them back unsullied in
time of peace. All our flne dreams
have been scrapped. Corruption and
money changing of the baldest kind
in now rampant in the temple of
government. Instead of a war to
save souls we .have trimmed our
mission down to the saving of our own
The audienco applauded significantly when he said: "We are now engaged in the high spiritual adventure of converting the United States
into a sheltered Shylock of the nations, whetting his knife and gloating over his pound of sovereignity."
"War," lie continued, "is the utter
negation of all that the religion or
Jesus stands for. The church must
choose between Jesus and the gener-
Mr. Frank pleaded that if we ever
do go into anothor war lot us go into
it honestly, "admitting that ft was
made necessary by the cupidity and
stupidity of the human race.
"Don't say that you will not bless
wnr and thon follow that assertion
with the weasel phrase, "except for
wars of self-defence. It is wiser for
the church to remain silent on war
until it is ready to speak yith a swooping courage that will mobilize thc
mind    - " - world against war."
Unsettled Alf airs Among Workers
Prevail All Over Old
Affairs In Greece may take a change
for the better now that tho plebiscite
has declared for a republic. Greek
history sinco 1915 has boen the history
of Intrigues botweon European powers and Greek officinls, and oven now,
thero nre those who think that the
republican element has been financed
by France in order to strengthen the
letter's position In the near oast.
King George of Greece refused at
first to take marching orders, but like
all royalty, ho is easily pleased, and
has been pacified by permission to retain his title of king of the Hellenes,
and four-fifths of his income,
Since the abolition of the caliphate,
the grand national assembly at Angora
has beon busy on the now constitution. In regard to the frnnchiso, every
male, on reaching eighteen, is eligible
to vote in the parliamentary elections;
the ladies are not yet included.
Ismot Pasha, tho premier and foreign ministor, declared that it Is unnecessary for Turkey to side with any
group of powers, as thc sole aim "ot
hor foreign policy is to insure tho security of the country and the maintenance of peaco.
Tho Independent movoment in this
country is led by Dr. Shahbender, who
is at present In the states attacking
tho French for oppression, Little news
leaks out from Syria, because the
French censor nil politicnl news. Thoy
do not object, howover, to our learning that some earthenware vases havo
been found alongside a mummy or
This country, alas, cannot follow
suit and dethrone its monarch. Tho
peoplo really wish a republic, but like
many of their brethren in other lands,
the Moslem clergymen and theological
students aro extremely conservative,
nnd so they saved Persia from lis natural development.
Tho Opium Traffic
Tho league of nations Is turning Us
attention to tho growth of the opium
traffic, nnd Is thus trying to undo somo
of the work of civilization (otherwise
known as organizod misery). Tho cultivation of tho poppy in China is a
fruitful source of taxation, nnd is most
useful for the upkeep of tho provincial i
Gems from the Great Work of
William Morris, Artist,
Poet and Socialist
Last week, a-brief, outline of the life
and work of William Morris was
given. It might be worlh while to
considor his book "News from Nowhere," if quaint, thoughtful work on
socialism, though the reader will
easily perceive that its literary value
Is less than that of his other works.
Nevertheless the ideas of so distinguished a socialist cannot fall to
Thero have been many books on an
Ideal state; perhaps Plato's "Republic," .More's "Eutopia" nnd various
wroks of H. G. Weils are best known.
Though no one knows better than a
socialist "just what wo want" of life,
It Is well for us to use our imagination
Here are a few of Morris's idoas;
it should be borne in mind that they
are supposed to be voiced by an inhabitant of our earth In the 21st
He says; "Thore used to be such
lunatic affairs as divorce courts, but
all the cases thnt camo Into court were
"matters of property quarrel," [By
property no doubt he moans either
goods or persons. J We have ceased
to be commercial In our lovo matters.
. . . Fancy a court for enforcing a
contract of    passion    or   sontlmont
Neither is thoro a code of public
opinion Which takes the place of sueh
courls nnd which might be JuBt us
tyrannical and unreasonable as they
wore. . . .
Of children nnd education he says:
"No child could eome out of such fl
mill (the modern school) uninjured;
and tlu.se who would avoid boing
crushed by it would havo the spirit
of rebellion strong In them, in tho
nineteenth century land thc twentieth) socioty wns so miserably poor
owing to the sysiematised robbery on
which it was founded that renl education was Impossible; The whole
theory was to shove a little informntion into n child. . . ; tho hurry of
poverty forbndo anything else. . . .
Wilh us that is different. Wo do not
hurry. Wo do not force people's
tastes; Wo don't encourage early
booltlshness. As a rule children
don't do much rending except stories
until they are nbout fifteen years of
nge. Rut ns they are given to imitating their elders, nnd these nre engaged in genuinely amusing work,
so that is what he children wnnt to
be doing.
*      •      *
Knglnnd wns once a country of
clearings amongst ,tho woods with a
fow towns Interspersed, which wore
fortresses for the feudal nrmy, markots for the folks, gathering places
for the craftsmen. It then becamo
a. country of huge nnd foul workshops and fouler gambling dens, surrounded by ill-kept, poverty-stricken
fnrms, pillaged by tho masters of
(Conttnutd on page 4)
Humsji Nature Is Not fhe Same
Yesterday, Today and Forever—Is Changing
A STUDY that should he embodied
■"■ in the school curriculums of all
nations is the history of man from our
earliest knowledge of him gained from
the caverns, tombs, river beds and
soils of the past, through the written
records of* the last few thousand
years. Not a colored history of the
Intrigues and robberies of a few kings
and rulers, but a true account of the
terrific and tragic struggle through
which man "has slowly and painfully
evolved from the lowest savage to the
state in which wo flnd him today, outwardly veneered and presentable.
As the character of man, that Is human nature, has been slowly evolved
out of his painful environment, an
intimate knowledge of his history
will enable him, nt thc present stage
of his development, to take into his
own hands tho making of his character, and to lift himself out of the animal instincts which cling so persistently to him.
In this fact lies tho Incstn .able
value of the study of the hist-'.-y of
man, and it ie time now t..at the
world's workers should intact that
such a course of study be add^d to our
Bchool curriculums. Too long have
they patiently allowed 'h -lrtjar-h rulers to mould them to a pattern beiKii-
cial to those rulers' interests.
Tho science of physiology upches us
thai man lias about eighty vestigial
i <-rmiins in ills mechanism, that is, remains of organs which through disuse
have ceased to function. In this category we lind auch muscles which onco
wagged our ancestors' tails and flapped iheir earfe. This Jb common knowledge, but tho fact lhat in our natures
are many vestigial mentnl and moral
remains is not fco commonly recognized, and that much of our thought
and many of our acts have descended
to us from our savage ancestors ci. tho
remote past, will no doubt be distress* .
ing newa to some of our refined and
suporbred neighbors, who regard
themselves with such complacent satisfaction.
Yet our natures teem with such romains, und a knowledge nf this faot
bestowed by a study of man's history
would help us to think nnd act differently, nnd lend us on our upward path
lens painfully amt more expeditiously.
A few f-v.mples.will suffice to demonstrate t lu ■ 11 ,1th, but with a littlo care*
ful .ii ... ht any Intelligent being who
cares to analyze himself, can find dozon 3 of others.
In tlie first place, Jet us forget tlie
untruth that human naturo is tho
same yesterday, todny nnd forever.
It ls not. It Ib a product of our
experience, and is ever changing.
The man of today isn different being
to the man of a hundred years ago,
and the man of a hundred years
hence will lie quite different from us.
Let us grasp this fundamental truth
clearly, and wo cnn set about moulding our nature on a higher and a nobler pattern. The destiny of our race
lies directly in om- own hnnds, and It
rests with us whether tho upward
trend shall be painfully slow or movo
with accelerating ease.
The primitive savage Is a child, selfish tc- the bone, cruel, superstitious,
fond of approbation, dreads blame, Is
o. posed In any chango in his thoughts
nnd habits, his prowess in fighting nnd
killing, a constant boast, and he loves
io dock himsolf out In gaudy (Inery;
and it must he always borno in mind
that the Su-ealled civilized peoples of
today are direct descendants of these
Wild peoplo and still possess, if only as
vestigial  remains, all their traits,
This fact will explain mnny acts nud
Impulses of ourselves nnd  oui- neigh-
dofb whioh sometimes puzzle us, and if
wo could always remember this fact
oach time an unworlh,. thought or impulse possesses u.-., m should undoubtedly resist it rathor thnn knowingly
lapse for the time boing Into savagery,
Let us condemn thnt miserable palliation of vice and folly wo so often
hear In the expression: "It is only humnn nature," for human nature not
being n (ixed quality, can bo directed
by proper oducation and a littlo determination on our own part to greater
moral Heights, to a clearer perception
of the true menning of life and to a
doepor happiness than we yet have
dreamed of.
When wo tremble In the dark, believe In dreams, have an undue desire
for the approbation of our neighbors;
when wo slavishly follow the fashions
set by tiio loaders of fashion, and wear
foolishly shaped clothes that do not
suit us, und calcimine our beautiful natural skins; feel fonr of and lavishly
flatter our rulers nnd employers, and
deck ourselves out In ugly finery; when
we strenuously opposo each new idea
or mode of thought; when wo feol
envy, hatred and malice, a desire for
revenge, to kill our fellow beings,
whether human or animal, to inflict
bodily or mental pain on nny living
thing, rest assured that wo are back
again in the state of primitive savagery.
Undoubtedly the most shocking evl-
(Continucd on page 4) ____ss«_____i___«!ih
sixteenth year.  No. 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA FEDERATIONIST Vancouver, b c.
FRIDAY May 30,  1924
Published every Friday by
The   Hritish   Columbia   FederationiBt
Business and Editorial Office, 1129 gowg St.
Tlio policy of Tho B. C. Fedorationist in
tontrolled by the editorial hoard of tho Federated Labor Party of British Columbia.
Subscription Rate; United States and Foreign, $3.00 per year; Canada, 92,50 per
year, $1,50 for six months; to Unions subscribing iu a body, 16c per member per
FRIDAY May  30,   192*4
WHAT appears to have been the
most successful attempt ever made
by the local labor forces to unite, was
made on Saturday and Sunday last, at
the Canadian Labor Party convontion.
Never has there been exhibited u
greator spirit of unity and a more earnest desiro to further the cause** of
labor in British Columbia, than \
shown on this occasion. Although all
the parties present were not agreed
as to the ways and means which would
best enable them to accomplish the desired end, yet they wore in agreement
on this one important feature, that the
capitalist parties must be defeated
wherever and whenever possible. To
that end they are united. To. that ond
they are pledging themselves to vote
to a man, for tho candidates they
have ehosen to represent them in the
. local political contest.
The candidates who have been chosen are, in our opinion, most worthy,
representative and trustworthy citizens, and have at heart tlie best interests of the great masses of the
people. Few, If any, better individuals could have beon chosen to
carry the labor banner to victory. It is up to tho workers of
this city and province to rally to theft
support on election day and so make
it possible for these candidates to
mako felt upon the political life of
this province the humanizing influence
that it so greatly neods.
THE MORNING SUN, through the
medum of its oditorial columns,,)
has seen fit to advise the olectors of
British Columbia lhat they should not
allow themselves to be saddled with
the curse of having three or four parties represented fn our house at Victoria, especially if it moans that British Col'inibia is going lo havo government by compromise rather than by
definite govornmont authority.
Surely tho editoj- of the Sun realizes
that the electors are Quite aware that
they have had tho latter form of government for some considerable time,
and that lt has not produced very desirable results from the standpoint of
the masses. Of course, we are not saying that the results were not desirable
for some other folk. It has been so
alleged, ofttimes in the past, and we
are rnther inclined to believe the allegations, fii spito of our unsuspecting
"Theoretically," they said, "straight
party government may have its
faults." (Tho wrokers know from
practical experience—that, is thoso,
who have been true to tlio cause of
labor—that party government has its
faults.) "But up to date, it is the only
system that gets things done. And
getting tilings done Is the ono big crying problem oi' the wost," they added;
Wd know that it gets things done; tlie
electors havo been dono so ofton now
that thoy ought to know. But getting
things done, Important and all us
that may be, should not onlweigb the
importance of having things dono
right, of having them done honestly
and In the interests of tlie people,
rathor than In the intorests of a few
politieal  grafters.
"Follow the Mother Land," is a goo"
slogan for the workers. Thoy can do
nothing better. England today has tho
best government she has ever hnd,
and as yet it is a government by compromise. AVorkers, I hi true to your*
solves. Voto tlio straight labor ticket,
Don't br fooled again,
long, in fact. No doubt, though, the
latter have ail got used to their penal
servitude in airless, stuffy buildings;
the leaden hours and the monotony or
the heated rush do not quicken the
thinking powers, and when the 6
o'clock bell goes, one forgets everything. Perhaps, though, we are get- I
ting excited over nothing. Such a calamity could not happen. Perhaps not,
but it is rathor interesting to wonder
what attitude the unorganized workers
would take. They have been so well-
trained; their minds are so safe and
sane (often perforce) that though
mueh might be said (for silence is not
supposed to be a femfnlne virtue, and
most of the employees are girls), nothing would be done. Says someone,
writing In protest at the suggestion,
"Don't do anything to make these employees get behind a union aa the
craftsmen have had to do. Well, now,
If the abolition of the Wednesday closing would work this miracle, we would
say by all means, let us have the law
abolished, If only the workers wore
organized, thoy need not fear for
their precious (because too few) holidays and they could go much further
and demand their other rights, besides helping the people's cause generally. Provided they were class-
conscious to some extent.
E have noticed that the Eveningf they had a mind of their own thCTi,
the Powell river spirit becomes manifest.
The Oliver government would never
have been in power today were it not
for tho workers putting it there. Are
they to be blamed? Not only have
the workers voted for the government,
but some have even allowed them*
selves to run under their banner. Don't
blame the government for their wrongdoing. You must bear the responsibility,   You put them where they are.
"Women and
Children First"
Ag MENTIONED in last issuo, a local
pen-pusher advocates tho abolition
of the law which compels Wednesday
closing. Either because lho employees
are confident that this cannot happen,
or because they are renlly indifferent,
thore has boon very little protest from
the workors themselves.
The above-mentioned scribe points
out that by keeping the stores open all
day on Wednesdays, business will Increase, In other words, by making a
brilliant show, we shall tempt stray
tourists to Bpond their money in Vancouver—not because they really need
to do so, but because they cannot resist the temptation, "nder our present vile system, hundreds and hundreds of peoplo spend their time and
energy In persuading othor people to
buy; in convincing tliem that they are
getting bargains; In "palmlng-off"
high-priced rubbish very often. And
It Is suggested that they exert thoir
•fish-hook propensities on their only
holiday (unless they aro heathen
enough to call Sunday a holiday.)
Well, If the stores remain open on
Wednesday, the storekeepers will no
doubt beneflt. But the employees
won't. They wilt not recoivo any proportionate Increase In thoir wages, and
however much trade improves, the
prices of necessities will not be lowered
Of course, the bosses must bc considered flrat and foremost, but lf one
could get in a word edgeways, it might
not be amiss to urge that the hours of
the employees are long enough—too
TTOW ofl we have heard that statement: "To many of us, lt is associated with the traditional heroism
of the British seamen. There are
many Instances in history that justifies it, on their behalf. We recognize, too, that men, who owe
no allegiance to tho British flag
have likewise boon f deserving of
honorable mention, and just as
honorable. Nevertheless, it is a slogan
of which wo have just reason to feel
proud, and it is one that we should
endeavor to at all times prove ourselves worthy of, no matter in what
field of activities we may be engaged."
lf it Is a gallant act to sacrifice
one's life in order to savethe life of
some unknown*woman on a sinking
ship, far out on the raging billows of
a tempestuous sea, or to save a helpless child from* sleeping forever, in a
watery grave, surely, then, it would
no less an honorable act on the part
of our "would be" gallant gentlemen
in charge of our ship of state, to render overy possible assistance to those
unfortunate women and children, who,
today, at$ barely able to keep their
heads abovo the level of the sea, in
Which we today are all floating
in this social and industrial
storm. Many wno, today, enjoy
the privilege of sailing in a comfortable boat over this sea, with
some slightly less unfortunates at tho
oars, exhibit, in our humble opinion,
a spirit so lacking in gallantry, and
self-sacrifice, and so devoid of the human touoh, that thoy have no just or
lonnblo cause to consider themsolves worthy to belong to thnt nation
whose flag they honor and whose
traditions they cherish.
If It Is a tradition of honor, a tradition so worthy of our respect, then,
why ln the name, of all that is high
and noble should not our politicians
who are supposed to guldo-us safely
over the storms of social, industrial und economic strife, feel
that the tradition cherished by
tho British snliors is one worthy
of  their emulation?
Do we find that? The answer is
most emphatically in the negative. In
Canada—and Canada Is not alone in
this regard—from tlie Atlantic to the
Pacific, in practically every province,
ln every governmental department, In
every great public enterprise, condl'
tlons have boen, or are being brought
light, that should bring to the
Cheek of every honest and right-thinking man and womnn a blush of shame,
a feeling of sincere regret—almost of
dismay—to think that those We have
chosen to represent us In our various
housos of parliament, are so devoid of
common decency iu the conduct of
our public affairs that all they give
their attention to is to how thoy fan,
the most effectively, flit thoir own pockets with the money or securities that
by all the laws of equity anil Justice,
belong to helpless women and Innocent
ohlldren. Today theso victims are
wondering helplessly, begging for raiment, food and shelter, treated as misfits In life and worthy of little more
than the crumbs from the tables of
their masters. And all the whilo our
statesmen, so-called, stand idly by, and
with calm Indifference to the strugglo
which the unfortunates nre experiencing In life, as they find lt today.
Suroly such an nttitude on the part
of our representatives Is not one to bo
proud of. or one that we, as Britishers, should tolerate any further. If
the British sailors can uphold tho honor nnd dignity of thoir calling by willingly sacrificing thoir lives, if need he,
surely our statesmen, politicians, financiers and captains of industry, If they
have a semblance of manhood in their
make-up, should he willing to sacrifice thoir superfluities—If nothing olso
—to aid suffering women and child-
"Women and children flrst"
slogan that, in the political Held, belongs to and is being put
Into practico, by labor. To thoae who
feel an Impulse to aerve humanity,
thore will be found within the ranks
of the united labor political movement
an avenue through which such Impulses may be given expression, Join
now and holp the cause along.
Sun is having a "Whoozlt Contest.". It Is apparently considered a
harmless pastime. We wonder if
thoy will not soon be having a
"Boozit  Contest."
* *     •*      *
It has been  roported that fortune
tellers have become such a pest in
many large Austrian cities that
twenty-two prisoners, who included
many^ women of the aristocracy were
hailed into court at Budapest charged
with making too much proflt at an
illegal oporation. If such' activities
were to commence in Vancouver and
all the various fortune tellers that
wc- have ln our city, such-as brokers,
bond salesmen and the various real
estate and flnanclal stock boosters,
were hulled before ouf courts and
fined or deported the coffers of our
city would be very much enriched or
the population markedly depleted.
*****      •
Labor leads. Let other follow who
can! The young people of the baptist churches In Ontario and Quebec
adopted a resolution ngainst the continuance of War. They described it
as anti-christlan and aa a suicidal
policy resulting only In the colossal
destruction of life. Labor has been
consistently stating that such was the
* *      *      *
Fifteen members of the Progressive
Party ot Ottawa were willing to go
to such a length as to forsake tlieir
party and support an amendment introduced by one of the labor members
This is very significant. It would
seem, indeed, that we niight look forward to close co-operation between
these two sections, both of whom are
fighting the common enemy—"Capitalism."
Our  Rotarian    friends,
igo, were telling us that
Is   n
was just around tho cornor." They
are not having anything to say about
It now! We wonder if they are
wrong, or perhaps "prosperity" has
boen hero and gono again and we
failed lo notice it.
* *      *      *
Several of the logging camps llp;|
the coast have already closed and
many othors are about to close.
Hundreds of men will be thrown out
of work as a result. That does not
look vory prosperous like. Our daily
press is having very little to say about
the few ships in our harbor at ihe
prosent time. Apparently the little
bit of prosperity ■ we did have has
slipped around the corner. It- mist
be great to be able to live on "anticipation," ride in luxurious motor
cars and livo on Shaughnessy Heights.
We cannot do that even though we
"work" ten hours a dayi When wc
cannot get work, we are simply "out
of "luck."    No doubt lt "is* tho Lord's
Did you ever see sucli a hilarious
bunch as our old timo politicians,
Just now? It must be groat to live in
a "Fool's Paradise." They have beon
"living in holies" for so fong now
that tbey have grown callous towards
the wretchedness and squalor that
exists everywhere about them. Don't
you think that a man who tells you
lhat he is a liberal—or a conservative,
since thore is little or no difference
botweon thom because his grandfather, or father was one, is a fit
subject for a mental hospital. We
think thai if we do not soon put them
there—or some other place, as safe—
they will have us all either in a menial hospital or a poor house.
It will not be the fault of the political workers in tlio old lino parlies
If thoy have not boon able to get
respectable candidates to represent
tliem. They certninly have tried. But
after all what good purpose will it
serve—other than make the political
heelers safe for a little whilo longer—
having such men and women represent us. If they are respectable—
and we wouldn't suggest otherwise,
then they certainly must be simple
minded to got mixed up with the
crowd that they are" with. Do you
wonder that wo are not elated over
our future prospects?
* *      •
Ex-Premier Stanley Baldwin atated
in a recent speech of his that'wo havo
got to break this govornment," in
inferring to labor. We are inclined
to feci It will be up to the politicians
themsolves however, for it is becoming more nnd more apparent that tho
poople are not inclined to assist
them. Certainly, if the recent Liverpool by-election means nnything ft
menus that labor la gaining In strength
daily. Lnbor Is humane in its outlook,   that's why.
* *      *      •
Presidont Beattle of the C.P.R. in
a statoment at a recent annual meeting of the company announced the
need of continuoua and extensive
expenditures on capital account for
the purposo of keeping the company's
property nt the peak of efficiency.
Our local guardians of the wolfare of
our city and province seem to think
that by reducing expenditure, -neglecting much needed repairs and improvements and laying off men who
have their wives and childron to Bup-
port, are helping us to reach our
peak -of efficiency, The good book
records this: "By their fruits ye shall
know them." We do! Still, wo may
bo wrong. They may have picked
our fruit for Us!
•     * ■    *      *
We read in the Dally Province tho
othor day that tho Powell River spirit
Is even greater than its pnpor plant.
We don't doubt it. 'We hnve talked
to some of the men who hnvo workod
there. If they behave like nice little
children, all's well. If they daro
think out loud, or rend the "Federa-
tionist" regulnrly, or do anything
that might lead the authorities in
that  company's town  to think  tkat
At lhe Trades and Labor council
meeting a short time ago, they passed
a motion to the effect that lhe council
had no affiliation with any of the
three old line parties. They were
wise. Keeping out 9£ bnd company
is a wise practice for us all. Too
bad they can not impress that thought
upon some of their more reckless
members. These chaps will find out
that they cannot play with fire without getting burnt some day; then they
will come home to roost, like good
little chicks. '
• •      *      *
We have Just boen thinking that
it cannot be so great n crime for labor
to be divided a little within its own
ranks when tho churches are so much
at logger-heads over church union.
• ' *       *
We saw a banner about the city the"
other day on which wo read: "Honesty and Ability Counts. Vote for the
Conservative Candidate." It seemed
presumptpous to us. We did that on
previous occasions, and we know.
Seeing is believing. Vote for the O.
L.' P. candidates—100 per cent, for
the people.
* *      *
Will campaign managers ever tell
us the truth about the source of their
campaign funds? Would they have
judgeships offered their candidates if
they did? We wonder! Help labor
clean up tho political mess.
* *      *
All the capitalist political parties
look alike to labor. Thoy aro always
tho under dog—savo for a week or
two beforo elections—no matter which
is in power. If you would be true to
others then to yourself you must be
true.   Vote Labor,*
I  TII&EB   r.
[The opinions and Ideas expressed
by correspondents ore not necessarily
endorsed by The Federatlonist, and
no responsibility for the views expressed Is accepted by the management.]
Apprecate The Federatlonist
Editor B. C. Federationist: Aloirg
with our subscription to your paper,
we would like to say a word or two, to
show our appreclattioh of the evident
efforts of you and your colleagues to
make The Federationist what a labor
paper should be. We have noted with
keen delight the marked improvement
noticeable in the general tone, and the
class of material used in making, we
believe, your paper the best labor
paper we read, outside some of those
from the old country. And believe
that your paper Ib now following the
proper course by which labor as a
mass may be brought to the state of
mind necessary to approach any subject, by the ■ mental road, unbiased, and with a fixed determination to get at the truth, and the
whole tfruth. Thus leading the public
mind to feel and to soo that we, as
socinlists, are not out to pull down the
old, without having the plans drawn
for a much better edifice. That we are
not fighting the capitalists as individuals, but are out to break down the
system that produces capitalists, and
to make this old world of ours, more
worth while living in, even for the'
capitalist himself. Wishing still more
power to your pen, feeling assured
that you will have the whole-hearted
support of at least the intclljgencia of
the working class, or, for that matter,
the intelligencia of all classes. We remain, yours in the cause of Justice.
Per M. Kirkness.
Van Anda, B. C, May 23, 1924.
Locomotive Engineer Defends
Among those who have disagreed
with our criticism of the practice of
seniority on American railroads is
Ernest McKeniicy of Tncoma,'Wash.
"Without seniority," Mr. McKenney
says, "it is possible for favoritism to
be shown in the question of choice
runs and hours of duty." While our
observation, and therefore* our comment, on this subject was largely devoted to olllce practices, in Which We
have seen good men held back whilo
incompetent men were advanced under "seniority" r,ules, thore certainly
is no Question that among the men in
actual train service, this practice is
popular and highly desirable, judging
by lho comments which have reached
us. But we can still refute those assertions by tho following instance,
wliich occurred in the ■writer's own
office: A man—competent, it is true,
but only recently employed—was the
son-in-law of the official In charge of
the offlce. Ordinarily, strict seniority was the rulo in making promotions. But a vacancy occurred, and
this man was placod in lho position
over tlie heads of at least five men.
There is little doubt that he wns the
right man for tlie job. That is admitted. But if seniority is to be the
practice, it should be used without
partiality, since it is to provent this
vory feature that seniority rules wore
flrst introduced. Fortunately, there
ai»e not many railroad officers who
cater to family and religious*claims,
as happened in this instance.—Boston
Chinese Appeals Sentence
Adjudged guilty and onco more
under sentence of death, leave to
appeal lias been granted Chong Sam
Bow, four times tried on a charge of
murdering Arthur Jones, a B. C,
Electric railway electrician and a
member of the iocal Elecerical
Workers' union. Tho Chinaman hns
been sentenced to hailg July 18, and
lho appeal will be heard in Victoria
on June 3.
I am not afraid of monopolies provided the public control them.—Ramsay Macdonald.
Birth Control Is Au Economic
Editor B. C, Fedorationist: A certain correspondent thinks that this
doctrine is pernicious, Wo beg his
pardon for differing, and ask leave to
state that a more woman was responsible for the said pernicious doctrine
shared by thousands of Uie moro enlightened and thoughtful nmong men
and women, (Mostly women; natur-
rally they tuke a different viewpoint.)
We are told that If Canada Is to become it great nation, she must have a
largo population. It should bc borno
in mind that * Canada has had her
chance us tar as population is concerned, but she cannot koop tho people;
they have lo leave for the States or
other more prosperous corners of the
world. Certainly the government is
spending (or wasting) largo sums of
money to induce poor wretches to leave
civilization and* settle down in the
groat, lone places to pass their days in
toil and solitude fighting weary battles
with nature; themselves cut off from
many of tho things that make life, tolerable; their children Isolated very
often from the fow opportunities that
life offers to the masses. We all know
the reward of this toil in many cases.
(They get It in heaven), No, Canada
wants something besides largo families; she wants a decent government,
whose aim ia the good of tho people,
not the profits of a few; in fact, she
wants socialism. Large families are
not nn asset; they are the very reverse.
They make for low wages, poor conditions—a glut in tho labor market, nnd
thoy make wars possible. And as for
the statement that our children mnko
the best citizens—they may one day
flght for us; they readly swallow tho
false patriotism doled out; they become enthusiastic flng-fiappcrs, but no
more, Evidently the writer is full of
the old Idea that the British are the
"whole cheese," or the "salt of the
earth." Bui then we look at things
from an entirely different angle, tlio
one from tlie nationalistic, the other
rom the international standpoint. So
we are bound to quarrel. In conclusion, the writer quostions the logic of
ho birth-control doctrine. But then
women never wero very logical, were
they? Perhaps this same lack of logic
inspires a return of the complimont—
n the beat of good humors, though.
vince. It will continuo to ship its pulpwood out of Canada, instead of manufacturing it Into pulp and paper with-
n the province."
Plans for the erection of the new
mill above referred to were announced
by the St. Regis company several
months ago, about the time that parliament passed a bill empowering the
govornmont to stop -the exportation of
raw pulpwood, but which has never
been implemented. The mill was to
have beon capable of producing 200
tons and later on 400 tons of papor a
day. It would have given regular employment to betwoen 200 and 300 men,
nd "support to probably 1000 to 1500
Tho rensons why the company prefers not to build thd mill at presont,
and to continue to ship its Canadian
pulpwood to the United Statos to be
manufactured, nro not far to seek.
This Is not the only development
held up by the delay in applying the
pulpwood embargo authorized by parliament.
Montreal, May 21st, 1924.
Result of Delaying the Embargo
Editor B. C. Federationist: The current issue of the Paper Trade Journal
(New  York),  contains the following
"The St. Regis Paper company has
docidod not to carry out, its plans for
the erection of a paper mill in Canada
for the present. The company recently acquired a site near Quebec, and it
has extensive timber limits in the pro-
Purity First
'PHROUGH every process In the
* brewing of "Cascade" runs the
predominating thought of "purity"
—it jealously guards its right to be
classed as a "pure tonic beverage."
Think of that when buying been—
then you'll INSIST on "Cascade."
This advertisement Is not published or
tttplajred bf the Liquor Control Board or
*ty th* Go .ernment of Brltlih Columbia.
Store Opens at 9 a.m. and
Closes at 6 p.m.
Khaki Outing
Apparel for Girls
JJIKING SUITS in bloomer-middy stylo for ages 8
to 16 years aj. $2.95 and $3.25.
MIDDIES, in regulation or cuff bottom style, with
long sleeves, for ages 6 to 14 years, at $2.25.
PLEATED SKIRTS, with detachable white cotton
bodice, for ages 6 to 14 years, at $2.95.    >*
BLOOMERS, in pleated style, with banded waist
and elastic at knee, for ages 6 to 14 years, at $2.50.
Drysdale's Junior Shop, Second Floor—
575 Granville Street
Phone Seymour 3540
HAVE you ever had a real drink
of Puro Applo Older during tbe
last few years?
To moot tho desires of many clients,
wo havo introduced recently a puro clear
sparkling apple cidor in pint bottles,
oither puro sweet or government regulation 2% hard apple cidor. •Theso drinks
aro absolutely pure and freo from all
canbouic ncid gas or preservatives of
any naturo. Writo or phono your order
today, Highland 90.
Older Manufacturers
1066 Commercial Drive, Vancouver, B. 0.
Patronize Federationist advertisers,
Summery Wash Dresses at
"Famous" Low Prices
THERE'S no better timo than now to
ehooso your tub dresses. Seo tho
wonderful range at the "Famous," new
color schemes nnd designs, uow fashion
ideas, costing so little you can easily nf'
ford to buy several.
Famous E8&&
THOSE magic boots of old—tho soven-
leaguo boots—wero tho work of nn
imaginative mind. Who could ovor expect to walk seven leagues in n single
Tho story of tho sevcn-lunguo boots wns
written in (ho lays of* long boforo the
present timo with its grent possibilities.
These days thoro is no need for sueh
wonderful steppors. Thoro is tho telophone. It is on effort now to tnlk a
hundred times st'Vi-n leagues. The world
is virtuully nt one's door. This ago of
wonderment is based, ton, on imagination,
but it. Is imagination plus practical experiment and great dovelopment. .
Bird, Macdonald & Co.
401-408 Metropolitan BnUdinf
837 Hutlngi Bt. W. VANOOOVEB. B. 0.
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[By Charles Hill-Tout, F. R. S. C,
F. R, A. L, etc]
(All Rights Reserved)
TN THIS ARTICLE we were to start
. upon our consideration of the evidence which science has gathered in
support of the doctrine of organic
evolution; and we cannot do this better than by flrst considering the
nature and character of this evidence.
We find it Is of two kinds—direct
and Indirect or inferential,
All human evidence belongs to one
or other of these two classes, direct
or circumstantial as lt le more commonly called; and experience soon
teaches us that we have to rely in far
larger measure upon the latter for
our decisions, judgments and conclusions than we have upon the former.
In most of the circumstances of our
daily lives, and in all the events of
the past, with which we have no firsthand acquaintance, "and especially of
the historic or distant past, we have
to depend entirely upon circumstantial evidence for our knowledge of
By far the greater number of the
criminal cases that come up in our
law courts are tried out, and a verdict or judgment given, on evidence
of this kind. Direct evidence on most
things is scanty in comparison with
indirect evidence.
We do not as a rulo doubt the judgments or conclusions we arrive at on
that account. Wo feel reasonably
sure that they are in the main as cor
rect and reliable as those formed
from direct evidence.   *
By fnr the greater number of convictions in murder cases, for example,
auejjased entirely upon indirect or"
circumstantial evidence.
And in respect of the circumstantial
or inferential evidence upon which
science roaches bor conclusions in the
case of organic evolution—and leaving out of account altogether such
direct and  objective  evidence as we
momentous event of this nature took
place at least once in the history of
organic life; and so might conceivably
take place again. But these events
are rare ,and they are not the usual
method  nature  employs;   and   apart
from the wholesale wiping but of the Calnozotc or recent-life period.
We cannot now see our earth as a, hIgner forms of llfe and thus altering     In this middle-life period the doml-
whole realm of life of this adaptive
modification on the part of organisms
is seen in the results which followed
the geological changes which brought
the Mesozoic or middle-life period to
a close and ushered in the succeeding
fiery * mass of gas or molten matter,
slowly forming .a solid crust on its
surface and gradually becoming the
earth as we know It today; but we do
not seriously question science when it
tells us that this was its mode of evo
tution; nor do we seek to discredit its
pronouncements on this head.
We accept what science teaches
here because we feel its conclusions
and inferences are founded upon a
large body of observed facts which
have no significance, or meaning for
us unless interpreted and related ln
thts way.
We are satisfied that our deductions
are well-founded and follow logically
from the facts as far as our human
understanding can grapple with them.
Why then should we ask so much
more of biology than we do of astronomy? Why lf we accept the Inferences in the one case do we cavil at
and question them ln the other? They
are arrived at ln precisely the same
way. They are logical deductions from
bodies ofpatlently and often laboriously acquired facts.
Darwin, the founder of the doctrine
of organic evolution, spent over 30
years in observing and accumulating
his facts before he ventured to set
forth his conclusions; and scores of
Industrious students of biology since
his time have been adding to his body
of facts until, as was stated just now,
no scientific truth is more firmly established or more widely held by scientists than the doctrine of organic evolution.
We know, of course, why such prejudices have arisen in many mindH
against the evolutionary doctrine. It
conflicts with certain Inherited or acquired beliefs concerning the nature
and origin of man.
According to the tenching of organic
evolution, man is closely and genetically related to the othej* mammals.
He has risen from some lower forms
the equilibrium now exlitlng, in the
organic world, we have no grounds for
thinking any radically new forms In
the higher divisions of life can or will
oome into being.
But what can take place, and what
is taking place all the time, is the
modification of the upper and later
branchlets and shoots of bur life-tree.
These still retain some of the original
plasticity and modiflability of living
matter and so can respond more
readily to the influences surrounding
them. Their cells are nearer to the
protoplasmic condition; they have not
yet become fixed and aet. It is ln the
adaptattonal responses we see made by
the shoots and tips of the branches of
our tree, that ls by the present species
and races and varieties of our planta
and animals, to these influences, that
we get some of our positive and direct
proofs of the truth of the doctrine of
organic evolution.
The same process which wrought
all the differences in the organic
world—which we have tried to systematize 'by separating the different
forms into kingdoms, and phyla and
classes and .orders and families and
genera and species and races and
varieties, according as they resemble
or differ from each other, or have
near or remote relationships—is still
going on, 'and may be perceived at
work ln the constant evolution and
appearance of new variations from the
characteristic life-forms. But because of the settled and fixed conditions and characters of these type
forms it is only such modifications and
variations as these that can now arise.
Strange and entirely new forms
types cannot arise in this way.
We cannot expect a horse or a cow
or any other of our well-marked and
specialised animals to change into, or
give rise to, totally different types of
animals. No evolutionist looks for or
expects auch transformations as this.
[The most he expects is what we see
life as they have.   This inferential takInff p]aco nI1 the tlniGi name]y, the
fact is repugnant to such minds and
possess,  it may be at once stated as hence their attitude towards the ovolu
an incontrovertible fact, that the eir
cumstantial evidence which she has
brough't together in support of tb.
doctrine of organic evolution is of bo
convincing and decisive a character,
that if evidence of half its force and
cogency were brought against a person charged with murder, it would
assuredly hang him a dozen times
over, if that wore possible; he could
not hope to gain acquittal. -
It can truthfully iw said to be the
strongest and clearest evidence of
circumstantial or inferential kind
human reasoning has evor built up.
There is no fact so well attested in
the whole realm of science as the
principle or fact of organic evolution,
The truth of this statoment is borno
witnoss to by the formal affirmation
Issued by the council of the Ameri
can Association for the Advancement
of Science at its annual moeting in
December of I!)23. Speaking upon
this very subject, this is what the
Council says:—
1, "Tlie Council of the Association
affirms that so far as the scientific
evidences ol the evolution of plants
and animals and man are concerned,
there is no ground whatever for the
assertion thnt these evidences constitute a "mero guess" (as charged by
Mr. W. J. Bryan in his public attack
upon evolution). No scientific generalization is moro strongly supported by thoroughly tested evidences
than is that of organic evolution.
II. Tho Council of the Association
affirms that the evidences in fnvor of
tho evolution of man are sufficient to
convince every scientist of note in the
world. Tho evidences are increasing
in number and importance every
III. Tho Council nlso affirms that
tlie theory of evolution is one of the
most potent of the great Influences
for good that have thus far entered
into human experience."
This is very u net) ul vocal, and utrong
language but not too strong, we think,
for the occasion or. the case. The
many converging lines of evidence, as
Bateson has remarked, point so clearly to the central fact of the origin of
forms of life by an evolutionary process that we are compelled to accept
thia deduction.
It haB beon necessary to stress this
fact because there soeniB to be a considerable amount of misapprehension
In the minds of many people concerning tbo character of the evidence, and
the authority, upon which the doctrine of organic evolution rests.
The opponents of organic evolution
are for evor demanding objectivo
proofs of the working of the evolutionary law and of the appearance of
new forms. They want to bo shown
the process actually in operation by
which, as they express it, one organism grows or passes into another of
different kind. They are not satis-
fled with the same kind of circumstantial or inferential evidence as
they accept ln other problems and in
the ordinary affairs of life. They
want direct aud ocular demonstration.
Well, science is not without what
she regards as direct, objective proof.
She has gathered thlB -as well as the
indirect or circumstantial kind. We
drew attention 'to some instances of
this ln a former article, and moro
will bc given later when we come to
deal with this side of our subject.
But to take this pol|\t of view and
approach the question with this attitude of mind, not only shows a strong
bias and prejudice against the whole
subject, but also a fundamental misconception of what the doctrine of organic evolution meanB and teaches us.
It ought to be readily seen by any
fair-minded person that event.-, which
relate to the ascent of lifo from lower
to higher forms, belong for the most
part to a distant past, and, therefore,
Cannot now be observed taking place
directly before our eyes.
tiouary doctrine. Thoy do not seek to
loam whether it is true or not; their
strong prejudice against such an
origin for man puts it immediate-"
ly out of court for them; they will
not consider it at all, But earnest
seekers after truth follow whithersoever it leads them, irrespective of religious or other prejudices, or what so-
over cherished ideas they have to givo
Thoy seek to examine with open
minds the evidence as presented to
them; and if the facts and the reasoning in the cuse seem sound and good,
and commend themselves to their
Judgments, they accept the logical
inferences and results which follow,
no mutter what distress of mind it
may for the time cause them; and
seek to readjust their beliefs in accordance with the new truths they have
All fair-minded people must admft
that this is the ideal attitude of mind
ono should nt all times strive to take
in questions of this kind; and this is
the nttitude we shall endeavor to maintain throughout those discussions. _
And Just hore it may be well if we
give a little time to the consideration
of what the evolutionary process
means and teaches us, and so clear
away some of the misapprehensions
which seem to have crept into the
mind of the genernl reader, as well as
into the minds of mnny of those who
find themselves opposed to organic
evolution, concerning tlie nscont of life
and the passage or transformation of
one organism into another. Much
misunderstanding exists on this point,
which mnkes the doctrine of organic
evolution seem at times ridiculous and
Impossible to many peoplo.
Let it be understood, then, in the
first placo that life-forms as we flnd
them on the earth today, especially
among those most familiar to us, such
as the ordinary mammals, aro relatively fixed and stereotyped in their
characters. Radical or deep-seated
changes or transformations are not,
therefore, to be expected ln them.
Our division of tho life-forms into
definite classes, orders, families, genera nnd species shows that tho lines
of their evolution' have become relatively fixed and settled—or we could
not thus classify and arrange them.
This applies to both life kingdoms.
The most wo can expect to observe
in our day is the nppearnnce of new
varieties of tho same form; which, by
continued variation or by a sudden
mutation, such as we saw happened in
tho case of tho Evening Primrose, bo-
come changed into new species.
ThiB kind of transformation is still
going on and we may seo new varieties arising all the time, and some of
these passing into new races and even
into new systematic varieties, that is,
new Bpecies.
No one who understands the evolutionary process expects the present
forms of plants and animals to give
rlso to absolutely new kinds or forms.
That ts not what the doctrine of organic evolution signifies or teaches?
We shall best understand the processes and possibilities of organic evolution If we conceive of life undor the
simile or figure of a well-developed
and many-branching tree whose limba
represent the various life divisions.
The development nnd branching out
of thiB tree was largely effected In
past ages. No new branches are likely
to spring from its trunk while prosent
conditions last. What might happen
if these conditions were radically
changed, lf, to carry on our metaphor,
it were perchance "pollarded," that ts
its main limbs severely cut back to
the trunk, no one can surmise. That
new branches would grow out we cannot doubt, but what forms they might
take we have no moans of Judging. It
would depend largely upon surrounding conditions and the Internal forces
of the tree.
We know as a matter of fact that a
appearance nf new varieties, which,
by continued modifications over many
generations, or by a single leap in one
generation, as sometimes happens—
the evolutionary law apparently working both ways—become new races;
and by still further modification, new
Beyond' the production of new
species, or possibly new genera, as the
life-world is now constituted, we do
not expect the evolutionary process to
To expect more would be to overlook and forget the law of Heredity,
which works in the world of life equally with the law of Variation.
It may be recalled that In Bpeaking
of the laws of life we termed this tho
conservative or static principle of the
lifo realm; and observation and experience havo taught us that tills stabilizing force of Heredity tends to hold
well-marked and highly-differentiated
life-forms, as most of the conspicuous
and best-known plants and animals are
today, withjtn more or less hard and
rigid lines; that it ts only tlio simpler,
more generalized forms that fall under the Influence of tho law of Variation aud change Into new forms.
We havo learnt also that when environmental conditions and circumstances are stable and constant and
ihereJs no need for adaptatlbnal response on the part of the organisms,
thore is consequently little or no variation or change of form or function
taking place.
We have knowledge of simple, organisms that have an unbroken "line of
descent from palaeozoic nr very ancient times down to our own day,
which havo scarcely altered in form or
characters through nil those millions
of years.
Under the working of the law of
Heredity this would happen all tho
time but for the Influence of the opposing law of Variation. And when
for some reason or other, wblch is not
alwaya clear to us, this law fails to
operate, organisms remain practically
stationary and alter little through long
This may be observed, by the study
of fossilized life-forms, to have taken
place in certain particular lines of life.
Thc same form is pussed on from generation to generation with practically
no alteration; nnd then all of a sudden ,as it seems, something has happened In the lifo of these organisms
and thoy begin to manifest ail unwonted degree of variability nnd produco
muny new forms,
This may go on ovor u series of
generations and then t hey seom to
sink back into their old static habits
and remain quiescent for another
The causes of those suddon or spasmodic outbursts of creative energy are
rather obscure and we know little
about them at present. The effects,
however, seem to be much the same as
those produced upon all forms of life
now by the advent of spring, after the
comparative quiescence of life-energy
during the winter period.
That changes in the surrounding
conditions of an organism mny evoke
reBponslve changes In form and function, the Instances of modification we
quoted in the second article—-which
might be supplemented by a host of
other examples—make quite clear.
The changes in the life conditions of
the inqiilllnes whon they became tho
guests of the ants caused Immediate
and deep-seated modifications in these
beetles; Just as the cbunge from a
North Amoricun environment to' a
European one, with all that that entailed, caused un unwonted tendency
to vary and produce new forms in do-
Vries' Evening Primrose.
Changes, whon of this adaptattonal
naturo, are clearly called forth by
changes ln the external conditions of
thc organisms. There are other
changes also which have their origin
within tho organism as we shall see
Perhaps  the  best  example  fn  the
nant life-forms were the great reptiles
—the dinosaurs—many of which were
of colossal size and of frightful appearance, i
Sharing the earth with these monstrous forms during the latter half of
their period, were the earliest mammalian forms, which In the next period
were to succeed them and, become the
dominant creatures' of that period.
During reptilian* times these early
mammals could apparently make no
headway. As far as we can learn from
their fossilized remains none of them
seems to have exceeded a rat ln size;
and all were of a very generalized
type, with none of the marked and
highly-differentiated characters exhibited by their reptilian contemporaries.
These latter had, under the Influence of the law of Variation, become
so highly-specialized and fixed in their
types that lt became impossible for
them to make the necessary adapttv*
response to the radical environmental
changes which came In with the new
geological conditions towards the
close of their'particular life-period;
with the result that they soon apparently passed entirely out of existence
ahd disappeared for ever from the
face of the earth; their place being
taken by the lowly and more generalized and, therefore, more adaptable
little mammals. _.
From these -'tuple, tiny, undifferentiated forms sprang by variation and"
adaptation, under the taw of natural
selection or survival of the fittest, all
the highly-differentiated and specialized mammali m forms that live on the
earth today, or whicli have since past
away apd left their fossil remains behind in it's crust.
"The lesson this fateful episode
loaches ue is thut It is not the highly-
specialized and highly-differentiated
life-forms that produce new lines of
life, but the simple, generalized forms
wliich still possess the necessary plasticity and adaptive power to respond
to their environmental changes. And
thero ean be no doubt that if somo
great cataclysmic chango overtook
our globe and wiped out the great
classes and ordors of mammals of today, a new line of creatures would
arise as in i e past from the simpler
and more generalized forms that
might come .'irough tlie changes.
In seeking, then, for direct proofs
of the evolutionary process we must
always bear theso facts in mind. It Is
not the organisms with well-marked
characters and specialized forms that
over change radically, but only the
simpler and more generalized ones;
and these in our day all belong to the
lower and unspeclallzed forms of life.
These are the^forms Nature seems
always to keep ln reserve. We shall
make acquaintance with some of theso
when we come to trnco out tho various
links in the chain of life.
Exactly how far an organism can
respond lo its environmental changes
will depend largely upon its degree of
specialization. If this bo high, as It
was in the case of the majority of
the great reptiles, ns their fossil romains testify, then it stands littlo
chance of survival if the changes be
considerable and widespread. They
are doomed to pass away and give
place to less specialized and more adaptable forms,
We shall have accomplished thc
purpose ot this article if in Mils short
dissertation we have succeeded in
clearing away some of the mlsundcr-
tandlng which hus arisen in the minds
of so many people regarding the evolutionary process and what is meant
by It.
What has been snid ought to mako
Plain, at any rato, wby we do not seo
new and distinct forms arising in tho
life-world, or tbo present forms
changing Into others quite different,
under our eyes. To look for such
things is to misapprehend entirely
tho menning and the teaching of organic evolution.
In the next article we will consider
tho world of micro-organisms and seo
what may be taking place there whtch
hns evidential bearing upon our problem.
We may close tills article witb the
remark that the life and activities of
theso wonderful specks of life furnish
with some.of our strongest evidence In support of organic evolution;
for here in this world of Infinitesimal
life-forms we may actually see and
trace Home of tbe early steps which
must have been taken by those primitive forms of long ago that began the
ascent of life, and made tt possible for
others higher in the scale to carry it
(To bo continued)
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INCUR Pa RAT co       io.o * *—* *"**a~t
Extracts from Budget Speech
[By J. T. Shaw, M.P.]
'THE revenue, last year, according
to the Minister's statement, was
$394,000,000, repressing a per capita
tax of $44, which to the breadwinner of a family of five represents an
annual expenditure of $220 to meet
his .federal  obligations alone.
On March 31, 1914, the year of the
war, the gross debt of Canada stood
at $544,391,300. There were assets
outstanding against that, loavlng the
net debt at $335,906,850. On March
31, 1923, Just nine years' later,' the
interest bearing debt stood at the flgure of $2,053,809,212. . . . Tho yearly
interest charge stands at something
over $13S,000,000—a sum in excesH of
tbo total annual expenditure of this
country in  prewar years.
On March 31, 1923, of the Canadian
public dobt there was payable in
London, $304,770,700; In New* York,
$10,933,000. and hi Canada—making
allowance for a small sinking fund
—$1,937,031,954, to which must be.
added temporary loans lu the form of
treasury notes, unpaid bills and so
on, amounting to $95,432,000. There
Is our problem to-day.
* *      *
First of all, the debt growth Is due
almost entirely to war. . . .
• »      *
The seeond  proposition is that the
continuance of debt is, due very large
fwhom he may nominate; and in that
Way a living generation is bound by
thc wishes of a wealthy deceased
* * *
Then the second question, what
right haa '.be hoir to receive? I have
already suggested the principle that
the title tp proporty can only be mcr-
ally based orf Hit- result of one's own
effort. tOncJias no right to proporty
because his father earned it.
I flnd that in' the year 1922, tho
United States, with a population of
110,000,000, collected $456,000,000
by customs taxation. In othor words,
tho United Statos In 1922 collected
per capita $4.07, while we collected
per capita $11.75. ... In the United
States they depend on customs texa-
tlon only to the extent of 10 per cont.
of tho revenuo, while lu Cantata we
depend upon it to tho extent of 30
per cent.
Despite rules, despite parliaments,
tho people everywhere are gradually
omlng buck, ir I may say so, to thoir
normal senses; and there is obsorv- '
ablo in all parts of the world a restoration to sanity. When the common people of all ihe belligerent
countries come Into control and tako
charge of affairs, they aro going to
flnd out the causes lhat make for
war and provent them from living In
poace and  harmony  oven  with  tbelr
Iy to financial weakness, first to the  own countrymen
failure  to   tax,  and  then  tlie  systom
of  carrying   loans   to   excess.
* *      •
The next thing r want to suggest
is, that tbo great increase of the publlo debt has caused redistribution in
all these countries of private wealth.
First of all wo can take steps now
to eliminate future wars. I suggest
that can be done by passing—not in
tiie future, but now—a universal
draft law that will mobilize not only
wealth, but men, so that in time of
tiie nation's peril every fit man and
woman will know that back of him
or her in lhe effort to preserve the
country Is placed all the available
wealth, evory resource, and every activity in the country, tu other words,
lo pool the country's reHouesos of
both men and wealth to meet thf
national peril, whatever lt mny be.
1 think that would take much of the
profit out of war. The best way to
prepare for war is to prepare for it
in tbe piping days of peace. I think
this method would effectively discourage war. That is the Ilrst thing
that I suggest. We do not need security against war for tho futuin.
Now Is the time to obtain tbnt security.
In this connection I want to speak
very shortly ubout one method of taxation, because It is referred to in the
motion of the hon. member fur Centre Winnipeg (Mr. Woodsworth) and
that  is  the   Inheritance  Tax.
• i    •
First cf all, what right lias a deceased person to give property" Why
should tbe fouider of an estate bind
or control a coming generation'.' One
generation ordinarily cannot bind
another. . . . Ho cannot do it. Inheritance means that tbe founder Of
an estate compels HOOlety l<> feed, to
clothe  nnd   to  shelter the  beiiellehirv
Tlio termination of the war had
Ill-ought great hope for reconstruction, Hundreds of thonsahds of
men returned from it with a now
vision for Canada.' Thousands bora
who had been spared contact with
Qitropo also shared in that optimistic outlook. We turned aside from
tlie high opportunity tlmt we had.
Wo deserted tlio pathway thnt invited our foot, and we went back as
a nation to the old order and the old
control. These things still persist.
Thut Ih ono reason why 100,000 of
these soldiers who offered, for a mero
pittance, thoir services to their country in the time of Its peril, accompanied by thousands of others—all denied the security of a livelihood in
tbls country—have sought shelter and
asylum In other lands. Thai In tbo
situation  to-day.
a        * a
These problems are oconomic and
geographic in Canada; they do not
yield to the same treatment as our
problems of fifty yenrs ago. Our
forefathers were then disturbed with
the questions of political freedom,
of the right to vote, and of equality
before the law. In that struggle tho
political parties of to-day undoubtedly took an active and a worthy
part, but in the struggle thoy exhausted themselves and are unable to
copo wltb the now situation arising
to-day. As a matter of fact their
achievements lie behind us on tho
field of battle concerning political
freedom. What we need at tills timo
aro men and women who will face
thc problems of to-dny. The main
economic problem is now Ibo equitable distribution of the products of
industry, and, in conjunction with
that, to ascertain a common denominator that will weld out of this
country, out of its varying and diverse interests, a harmonious whole.
Freeh Cut Flowers, Funeral Designs. Wedding tlonqncte, Pot Plant",
Ornamental and Shade Tm**. Seeds, Bultw, FlorlKin' Sundries
Brown Brothers & Co. Ltd.
to tluUni- Btreet Eut        !—STORBS—I        US GrenTlUe Street
sey. tis-«.»       "uav it with PLbw___tsk       ser. mw-imi PAGE FOUR
sixteenth tear, no. 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA FEDERATIONIST vamcopvub, aia
FRIDAY.?. May  30,  18}
Signs of the Savage
(Continued from page 1)
dence of the nature of our savage ancestry still left in us, is in the glorifl-
catioa of the greatest of all crimeB,
the wholesale torture and massacre we
call war; and when you hear of educated men and women claiming to bo
refined and civilized, distributing pictures and writing verses to glorify war,
you can be quite certain that beneath
their fine linen and fair skins lives In
all its repulsiveness the wild barbarian.
Whether their enthusiasm arises from
a savage admiration for slaughter or
to foster the feeling in others to further their own material Interests, matters not, lt arises from savagery, the
pure and simple savagery of ten thousand years ago,
When you hear of gentlefolk <a
beautiful word, very often misapplied)
fluttering and fussing and erecting
piles of ugly stones to honor the dead
victims of war, and callously allowing
the living victims and their children
to half starve in their misery, rest assured again that those gentlefolk, In
spite of their own inflated self-
opinion, aro still back—far back-
in the state of savagery,
But let us not be prone to see the
savage ln our neighbors, and forget
that we ourselves ore of the same ancestry. Let you and me, and all of us,
study our inmost natures carefully,
guard our thoughts and impulses continually and try as far as our social
system, which Is founded on savagery,
will allow us to raise ourselves from
the savage selfishness, which is in'us.ij
and make of ourselves as soon as possible that pattern of the perfect human, which was in the ejternal mind,
when the flrst feeble pulse of life stirred In the primeval mud.
Tnbby's Got A Girl!   Tubby's Got A Girl!
The greatest assistance tlmt tlie
readers of The Federatlonist can render us at this time, Is by securing a
new subscriber. By doing so you
spread tlie news of thc working class
movement and nssist us.
Court of Revision to roviso tlio Specinl
Assessment Roll for works of Local Improve*
inoiil will commence its sittings nt tho Municipal Hnll, KiTrisdnIe.^H. C, on Fridny, Julio
•21,  102J. nt 8 p.m,
C, M, 0,
Wost   Boulevard,
Is Peace Possible?
(Continued from page 1)
eagerness for lt; there will be less talk
about lt; there will gradually come a
cleor realization that the true law of
nature is co-operation, not war. .We
should have paid our war debt out of
the tremendous war profits as the war
was fought. As it is, not only is Industry in our own country staggering,
but Industry throughout the entire
world is in the same desperate statei
and most nations engaged ln the war
are Insolvent. Another general conflict would most certainly ruin modern
civilization. The Toronto Star in
recent article, expressed the following
opinion: "The world is realizing that
war and, civilization cannot tolerate
one another much longer. One or the
other must go."
The soldier went over and got $1.10
a day, and the danger, but the farmer
and the workman who stayed at home
fared fairly well. The manufalturer
and the capitalist, who operated or
owned a factory, made fortunes, I am
in favor of legislation providing that
not only shall the young of our
country be conscripted, but that
labor and capital be drafted as well
Wben the nation is at war, let )io
one  proflt  by the  nation's peril. .
Socialism and the Individual
Municipal   f'.i!'.
Van con ver, B. C.
Hand your neighbor this copy of
The Federationist, and then call
uround next day for a subscription.
Tickets on Sale
MAY 15th to SEPT. 30th
Final Return Limit
 OCT. 31st
Tickets on Sale
MAY 22nd to SEPT. 15th
Final Return Limit
OCT. 31st
Canadian National Railways
Ask for
Pale Ale
A full-bodied, fine flavored Ale
ttat will compare in quality with
way of the fiamoua imported
dee, and at mnch kas cost to the
At all Gov-miiuait Vendon
Tt_b a_fcc_t-te____nt is not pnMiil_td or diipliytd bf
ths liquor Control Bosra or by tiie QoftiuuKst or
Britiih Cofannbu.
frjuiia^ i»*»anai»a»M m .»i* mi immh wm
[By Socialist]
TT IS very often asserted that under
socialism the individual would lose
his freedom; even a keen thinker like
Herbert Spencer stated that "all socialism implies slavery."
All socialists emphatically deny
that socialism will interfere with individual freedom, for socialism implies freedom. Capitalism, the system under which we live, knows no
freedom. The churches may teach
that each of us has perfect free-will.
But have we? Do not the forces of
heredity and environment mould our
characters, decide our actions, and
plan our happiness or otherwise?
Very often Otherwise. And our immediate heredity and environment
are the results of the system of capitalism.
There is no individual liberty for
any. class under tbat system. The
leisured class, thougb their existence
Is a bed of roses compared with that
of the classes wbo provido tlieir dividends; though they may enjoy that
variety whieh is the spice of life;
though they are free from tbe wants
and fears which haunt the lives of
labor, stlli, even they are not free.
They are the slaves of wealth nnd
fashion and tradition. The professional classes are not free. Art,
scientific progress and individual
principles are often sacrificed to position and wealth; originality and research arc held back by the routine
of wasteful professional duties. And
the working classes have still less
freedom. The farmer who sweats
and tolls to provide food for us ail is
harassed by mortgages and railway
rol>bcr><; the industrial workor is
forced to put in long hours at harc^
very often disagreeable, often dangerous work; those engaged in the
distribution of commodities pass their
lives in monotony or the whirl of
competition. And the women of the
laboring classes fore worst of all;
many have to go out to work in addition to their domestic duties; most
of them pass their lives burdened
with too many children, continually
solving the problem of how to make
both ends meet; the victims of squalor and ignorance. And the only
moity of liberty these slaves possess
Is freedom to be idle (though that is
often a compulsory condition) and,
freedom to starve. Not in Vancou-'
ver perhaps? In a million places.
Labor conditions today the world,
over form a picture of dreary, soul- j
destroying montony, harsh sordid-
ness, ugliness, ignorance of even fundamentals, poverty. It is so in the j
hightly civilized British isles; it is I
worse in India, the Sudan and other
treasuries of the white man's wealth.
Then we wonder why labor, thc giant,
Is so apathetic; we wonder why, even
with centuries of tradition, ft takes
everything for granted, why it acquiesces so humbly.
Is this tho lot the workers would
choose if they had thc liberty of
which we havo heard so much? Evon
though their education does not bring
forth high hopes or Ideals; even
though It rather keeps them down to
tho dead level of fitting into a system,
would they choose this slavery? It
is hard to say, for the most discouraging fact, thc most tragic attitudo
of labor is thnt the workers themselves do not realize their slnvery;
they are blind and content,
Individual liberty Is a fiction for
the biggest proportion of the pooplo.
Wo may be ablo to choose tlio color
of our hats or the cut of our suits
(within limits determined by the
everlasting dollar), but from the
schoolroom all through lifo, ovon ln
such a personal affair as marriage,
we are slaves whose slavery is determined by the economic system
undor which we live.
If there Is no freedom now, or
very little, how can it bo said that
socialism can do worse? Even opponents must give the devil his due
Socialism spells freedom; mass freedom and individual freedom. Socialism implies the collective ownership
of the social tools of production, and
tho collective management of
dustries based upon the use of social
tools. Thoro could be no party politics, for these are merely a phase
of capitalism. And because the in:
dividual would not "be engaged in a
struggle to keep body and soul togothor, or as in the jso-ealled upper
clnsses, to imitate tlio elito, or to
create wealth, thero would be time
and opportunity to cultivate special
talent; there would be no necessity
for long hours; there would be a
freer choice of occupation. Work
would he done because it was necessary to tho community; production
would be for use. The social spirit
would have a chance to develop; the
tasks which needed somo self-sacrifice
would  be  readily undertaken.
Under  such  a  system,  Individuals
^tendencies would be recognized and
-appreciated; mankind would be less
of a pattern. The school would not
have as its object, the turning out
of -one standard of excellency; similarly society would not tend as a
whole towards uniformity. Uniformity is born of inequality, because the
'inferior' tend to initiate the 'superior' classes. Therefore with something approaching equality (and
equality must not be mistaken for
uniformity of character or achievements) we should flnd greater independence and individuality. The
world will hardly know itself then.
'To-day' wrote Ramsey Macdonald
our furniture, made by the thousand
pieces by machinery; our meaningless, monotonous pleasures; even
our religion, stereotyped in set formula? and pursued by clockwork methods, indicate what are exceptional
characteristic individuality is." Then
we talk about losing our freedom
and   individuality   under   socialism.
A. A. Brookhouse Describes Conditions As He Saw Them
in tbe Old Land
A. A. Brookhouse, of the Arm of
Cowan Brqkhouse, Ltd., returned from
a three months' visit to the old land
last week. Describing conditions in
England he says that the labor government seems to be giving general
satisfaction and the pooplo are more
optimistic now than at any time since
the war. In the industrial centres,
much unemployment prevails, with
the exception of the districts in which
the automobile industry is located.
The budget, which was made public
a few days before he left gave general
satisfaction amongst the poorer classes
as it meant as much as a dollar or
two reduction in the grocery bill in
a medium sized family. Food stuffs
and other commodities are just as
dear 'as in Canada; woolen goods
being the only exception. Coal is
sold nt ten to fifteen dollars per ton,
and much suffering was felt amongst
the poor as it has been a long and
cold winter. Bricklayers and stonemasons are ln great demand and the
printing trade ls good, and workmen
In either of these lines have no difficulty In getting work. The average
wage of a British workman is about
fifteen dollars per week. The old
system of piece work is still Jn vogue
fn many trades. House rent has
gone up about forty per cent, since
the war, and the shortage of dwelling
houses is worse than ever; many of
tho workmen going as far as ten miles
to and from work each day. and then
having to share part of a house with
perhaps two other families and even
then being fortunate In being able
to get a roof so near as that. To
try to get possession of an empty
house fs like getting to a bargain
counter on a dollar day. The hotel
bars and beer houses are still on a
war schedule which has not been repealed and are only open from 11
a.m, to 3 p.m. and from 6 p.m, to
10 p.m.; while the glass of beer costs
Just double to what It did before the
war. Tobacco and cigarettes are
double in price and matches are 2
cents, per box of fifty and then made
In Poland. The ship yards are
mostly Idle and many of the large
factories and manufacturing plants
are on short time. England seems
to be feeling the effects of the late
wm- much moro than in Prance and
Belgium) where the Englishman is
strongly disliked owing to their attitude on the Ruhr question; while in
Germany It ls Just the reverse. Canada is getting quite a lot of advertising throughout Europo at the present
time through the splendid exhibit
at the Empire exhibition at Wembley.
The exodus of the English and Scotch
emigrant is not nearly as large as in
formor years, the letters of those who
have come before opening the eyes of
those at home and while lectures and
all kinds of propaganda are being
broadcasted .throughout England
making tho poor worker think that
Canada is the land of milk and honey
yet the transportation companies
aay that business is bad and that
tho people are not emigrating as in
the past,
"News From Nowhere"
(Continued from page l)
Mr. Macdonald's friendly personal
appoa! to M. Poincare, his subsequent
tribute to the lntter'B "Instant nnd
hearty co-operation," and his insistence on "perfectly straight, absolutely
frank," diplomacy, have made
notable contrast to the adroit wrangling of Mr. Lloyd George, the passive
placidity of Mr. Baldwin, and the
"beastly cleverness" of Lord Curzon
—A. M. Thompson,
the workshops. It is now a garden
where nothing is wusted and nothing
is spoilt, with the necessary dwellings, sheds and workshops mattered
up and down the country all trim
and neat and pretty,
• *     *
The men have no longer any opportunity of tyrannising over the
women, or the women over the men.
The women do what they can do best,
and what they like, and the men are
neither Jealous of it nor injured by it,
• ',". ♦, . •
Our parliament would be hard to
house in one place, because the whole
poople fs our parliament; we havo
no government (as modern people
know government). Government ■ as
these know it was but the necessary
result of the careless, aimless tyranny
of the times; it was but tho machine
of. tyranny; now tyranny lias como
to an end, we no longer need such
machinery; we could not pnslbly use
it since we are free. Therefore in
that sense of the word, we have no
We have no criminal law. Violence sprung from tho results of the
law of private properly; even those
crimes which sprung from passion
were in reality the result of proporty laws and ideas. The woman was
looked upon as-the property of tfio
husband or the father. Another cause
of crime was tho family tyranny.
That is ail ended, since families aro
held together no longer by bond of
coercion, legal or social, but by
mutual liking ^and affection, and
everybody is froo to come or go as
he or she pleases.
• *     *      •
When the (civilized) world-market
coveted a country not yet fn its
clutches, some transparent pretext
was found—the suppression of a
slavery different from but not so
cruel as that of commerce; the push-,
ing of a rellsion no longer believod
In by its promoters; tho rescue of
some desperado or homicidal madman "whoso misdeeds had got him
into trouble amongst the natives of
the "barbarous" country—any stick,
in short, which would beat the dog
at all. And the best of the wares
for the market wero of a low average in quality; thc worst were transparent make-shifts for the things
asked for. But the wares which wo
make are "made because they are
needed," not for a vague market;
nothing can be made except for
genuine use. Moreover, we have
now found what we want, so we
make no more thnn we want. There
is no difficulty in finding work which
suits the special turn of mind of
* *      *
During the transition period of
this Utopia "the workers got so
strong" that most commonly the
mero threat of a strike was enough
to gain any minor point; because
they had given up the foolish tactics
of tho ancient trade unions of
calling out on strike a part
only of tlie workers of such
and such an industry, and supporting them while out of work
on the labor of those that remained
in. By this time thoy had a big
fund of money for the support of
• *     * I
The belief in heaven nnd hell ns
two countries In whieh to livo has
gone, and now wo do, both in word
and In deed, believe ln the continuous life of the world of men, and as
It were, add every day of that common life to our own individual little
stock of days.
* •     *
Only slaves and slaveholders could
livo by setting machines going. In the
half century that followed, the great
change, machine after machine was
quiotly dropped undor the excuse
that the machines could not produce
works of art, and thnt works of art
were  more  and  more  called  for,
* *      #
I understand that the offlce of a
government is partly to defend its
own citizens against attack from foreign countrios; and if, for instance,
the French had invaded England
and conquered it, they would not
have allowed tho English workmen
to live well. To which Morris replied,
"As far as I can make out, the English masters of the English workmen
saw to that; they took from their
workmen as much as they dared, because they wanted it for themselves.
And if England had been conquered
by the French, tho latter "would not,
could not, have taken more." The
English workmen otherwise would
have died of starvation, and thon-the
French conquest would have ruined
the French. (Perhaps this is the
moBt fitting answer to those who
plead that Britain was forced to
I flght In the last war, otherwise she
A Hundred Years Ago
tBy W. W.J
TT is just a hundrod years ago today since my grandfather waa
married. The factory system was in
its Infancy. The working men did
not have the vote as we have it today. They even had to meet in
secret to organize (even gather arms
to use) and later tore up the rail'
ings- round Hyde Parlt before they
got recognition. The women in our
time lnshcd themselves to the railings, what were left of them, the
railings, I mean. The co-operative
movement was started in opposition
to the old_ truck system, but the
workers preferred dividends to real
benefits, and the movement while,
helping the uppor working class, left
the poorer people lo struggle along
in their hovels, and only of recent
years has (his movement really been
of benefit, say twenty years, when
they started their own factories, mills,
and controlling their own wholesale.
The trade unions struggled through
drastic times, for long years sending their masters to represent them
in parliament. Tho Iale Lord Beac-
onsnold when on n visit lo Russia
during the old regime, when men
and women were sent to Siberia for
even being suspected of boing reformers or for organising, was askod
by a grand duke how they, in England, managed to._koop the workors
in their place (noses lo the grindstone) remarked: "We divide thom,
half liberals and half tories and they
figlit onc another.*' My grandfather
did not liavo one-tonlh of my income, yet had a family more than
twice the size of ours. His children
were clothed in strong homespun and
wore leather shoes, ours wear shoddy
ones and shoos of paper. Our children may have moro variety of food
(and ice cream, not cream) but can
anyone say it is more wholesome than
oatmeal porridgo and milk, home-
fed bacon and real broad, made from
flour ground with tho old millstones?
They may be bettor educated but
what use will they make of it?
Fellow workors, just pause a moment and do a Utile serious thinking and then get busy. We have less
than a month in which to turn the
tables nnd to prove ourselves men
and women. We have an opportunity here in B.C. to put into effect
what our forefathers missed and can
send every labor candidate at the
top of the polls. Let us rise to the
occasion and acquit ourselves like
men so that when tho results of the
election on the iJOth of June are made
known we will have reason to feel
proud of our work, knowing that our
efforts have not all been in vain, in
this great movement of which we
all form a part.
might have been overrun nnd conquered. The unfortunnte British
working-class cpuld not have been
in a worse plight than they were
*     *     *
Morris concludes his dream thus:
There is yet a time of rest in storo
for the world, when mastery has
changed into fellowship, but not before. So ho must go on living, seeing all round him people engaged ln
making others live lives which nre
not their own, while they themselves
care nothing for their own lives—
men who hate life though they four
death. He must go on living while
he may, striving with whatsoever
pain and labor, to build up, little by
Uttle, the now day of fellowship and
rest  and  happiness.
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Glasses not proscribed unless abaolutely necessary. Examinations
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We grind our own lenses. Lewes
duplicated by mall.
Optical House,
{Formerly Brown Optical House)
Be  sure  of  the  address—Above
Woolworth's Store, near
Suite 36, Davis Ohainbors,
 Phone Bey. 1071	
Ask for CATTO'S.    For sale at all Govornment Liquor Stores
Thl, advertisement Id not published or displayed by the Llattor Control Board or
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346 Hastings Street East
Sey. 2399


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