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British Columbia Federationist Mar 20, 1925

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Should  Investigate  Work  That
Each Individual Citizen
Is doing.
io the iirobaM*-vpWttieal otiTiseiiuen-
, of the Ifabor. H#rW adopting such
:tlcs.        jk>*w&'-    'Jix
There is HtHe doubt; tliftt it would
n-nr.e   n   ■ iiMllOoli ttmattrn   of  the
The Effects of Over-Production—
Modern   Business  Methods
Encourage Dishonesty.
[By J. C. Harris]
W7E have asserted in previous articles that the flrst duty for the
Canadian Lnbor Party is to demand
an Investigation into the work that
each individual citizen is doing. We
do not mean what wages people get,
nor what property they own, but what
they do, to justify them in eating
the food that we fanners grow, or
living in the houses that carpenters
and masons build, or Bending their
children to the public schools, or use-
ing tho roads and railroads, post-
offices, etc., that the public provides.
Wo attempted in the last article
to set forth some of the facts that
such au enquiry would be likely to
emphasize, such as a very Inefficient
system of distributing the products of
our labor. I
That modern financial control and
thc law of supply and demand are not
sufficient to regulate modern industry and more effective means must
be found to control production and
secure the producers from, the frightful effects of overproduction.
That modern business methods encourage dishonesty and meanness.
That there are large industries ln Canada producing goods that are of no
social value. rp^'""
Lot us now consider wJWtf^the effects of an affttAtJorf foi* BUCh an investigation of ihe . lflili*'^, ■■frouid be,
also the i>.obabfcr, ptdttteal odnseuuen-
ces '       *
There .-—^^^^^^^^^
produce ii lliilHlwH ■OIiMlli n of the
flrst importMO^Uit .McKjm squabble
over the tftmr^^uW/jfe superseded,
and the que*t*o*q olj-tho.day would become, WtiQ 1* doliitf weful work in
Canada? ' Those^.fc^fliw'were doing
work of UhdottbLed »6cUl value would
tend to We!con&**h*/jnl|fl£eslion. Their
work woujft^nft' $• light and truth
would havo $9, letrorp^fbr them.
Tho^'^g^^igBfiihtful of the
value .^-tfcilrrvVort^Would be less
comforts*)!*,-.** JMf&f thein. would
bo br0»WVf^e*"w;JSwe with the fact
that their livei w^r,ejteing wasted.
Noif^^igJUtJo^ should be conducted lo' a jnoU Wqflly manner; few
Individual^' -^r^'i^^onsiblc for the
sort of work ttwylSfre doing and are
not to be blamed for the general stupidity of society which has tolerated
the conditions under which they have
grown up. .-
The Labor Party could well afford
to deal generously with its opponents.
It would find itself in a very strong
position; holding the trump cardB tn
every debate, and with the only concrete and practical proposal before
the country.
Canada is sick, and knows that Bhe
Is sick. She has no faith In either of
the old parties and before long, she
would in all probability, turn to the
one party that had a sensible, practicable idea to put before her.
There is little doubt that we should
get i our committee of investigation*
There Ib also little doubt that the finding of the committee would not *be
unanimous. We should be certain to
have a majority and a minority report
and the majority report would consist of whitewash and plenty of it, but
in spite of the whitewash many useful facts could not be concealed, and
the minority report would e like an
X-ray showin up the diseased parts
of the nation. More Important still
would be the effectTof the wide dls
cussion that the agitation would produce in the country. For the flrst
time most of our citizons would understand real economics and get n
glimpse of what Karl Marx meant
when he talked of "production for use
and not for exchange/
As democrats we must depend on
getting our Ideas into the peoples'
mind and getting the old rubbish, that
has passed as politics out. Therefore,
the facts of the nations manner of
working are of the very flrst importance.   It is the essential step to take.
Besidea demanding the facts, Socialists should begin careful work on
the planning of the new social structure. A forecast should be prepared
of a Canadian Nation properly proportioned to do its work. This forecast would be the ideal to work to,
and experience would be constantly
modifying it.
I am even optimistic enough to be
live that the majolty of our citizens
would soon understand our doctrine
and support it, so that we should win
a majority In Parliament, and power
to put our policy into effect. Quite
possibly, our flrst action would be to
pnss a resolution defining our nttitude
and intentions which might be as
Inasmuch ns every Canadian Citizen
falls heir to a great national heritage
in the shape of public works and ser-
vifces, such ns our highways and railroads and our civil service and system
of laws.
And  inasmuch ns  each  individual
Pioneer Youths
Pregnant Wit. ^
tar Movement
uture Pos-
Second Annual Conference Held
at New York—Timothy
Healy Explains.
[By Mrs. Rose Henderson,]
rFHE pioneer youth labor movement
—a movement pregnaitt with future possibilities—has just concluded its second annual conference ln
New York a few weeks ago.
Two hundred dolegates representing 103 labor organizations attended.
The movement has for its purpose
the teaching of the sons and daughters of trade unionists what organized labor stands for in the betterment of the human race.
Indirectly, the labor movement in
all Us struggles had for its ideal the
making of life more tolerable for the
masses, but overlooked the power of
the children who were left to schools
and capitalistic Institutions to be educated and trained to respect and
obey the enemies and exploiters of
labor, consequently, out of the homes
of the masses went forth labor's
greatest foe, the youth, 98 per cent,
of whom could always be depended
upon to do their masters' bidding
and undo, through their ignorance,
the work of organized labor, both
on the industrial and political field.
Today labor ls realizing that its
hope, and the hope of the world,
lies ln its children. As they are
trained and educated, so wilt they
act ln later life. Tomorrow labor
will realize that the greatest influence for education, for progress or
reaction, are the mothers of the race,
who, In their ignorance, have been
down through the ages the real bulwark of the ruling class, and, realizing this fact, labor will glorify, not
the slave of the kitchen, but the
woman, free and intelligent, taking
her place beside htm, co-operating ln
every department to make earth a
fitting abode for their offspring.
Timothy Healy, president of the International Brotherhood of Stationary Firemen and Oilers, chairman of
the conference organization committee, announces that steps have been
taken to immediately extend the work
and Interest the membership of labor organizations throughout New
York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania
in the Pioneer Youth movement.
Healy Explains Movement
"The work of Pioneer Youth In
New York has proven so worth
while," said Mr. Healy, "and "the
summer camp and seventeen clubs
which Pioneer Youth has so far conducted have brought such gratifying
results, that we feel justified in undertaking an intensive campaign fn
nearby states."
It was voted by the conference to
conduct two summer camps for children this year, one In New York and
the other ln Pennsylvania.
"The conference here last week of
labor men and women took the most
significant step In child education
that organized labor has advanced
since its fight for a free public school
system 100 years ago," said Chairman Healy, and added:
"The Pioneer Youth movement provides the means for educating our
children to the real meaning of organized labor's efforts for better conditions and for a better day for all
men. When American trade union
lsts are compelled to strike for their
rights, the boys and girls will grasp
the principles of liberty for which
their fathers and mothers are fight'
ing. They will learn the noble history of the American labor movement written ln steel and coat; and
the manufacture of all the goods by
which America lives."
This movement will grow. It Is in
line with the great evolutionary
forces in all lands working toward
the abolition of tho terrible trinity
of war, poverty nnd vice, now like a
cancer eating Into the very vitals of
the body politic.
The Canadian labor movement
must follow suit. The Pioneer Youth
movement is labor's greatest ally.
Why should not the children of the
working class be used to work with
labor, instead  of against it?
Why not call a conference to discuss this question and lay plans for
a national movement, later to link
up internationally with the youth of
the worid?   Why not?
eHE FEDERATIONIST is endeavoring to make a determined stand for the betterment
of the conditions of all workers, whether by hand or brain. It is a fight that requires
the co-operation and assistance of every one who has at heart the interests of humanity as a
whole. Labor herself has not yet learned the lesson that she would -teach to the world. She
must do it if she would succeed in her mission—a mission that is worthy of the highest and
best of which we are capable. Until she.has learned that lesson, until the various forees
within the ranks of the Labor movement realize that they must unite if they would accomplish the objective which is theirs, all their efforts will be, more or less, in vain.
THE FEDERATIONIST, controlled as it s, by the Federated Labor Party of British
Columbia, is determined to forward, by all the means within its power, the best interests of
the masses. To do that, and to make its influence felt to the extent <that it should, it must
have the co-operation and assistance of all its readers. Help The Federationist in its fight
for unity of the workers. Subscribe if you are not already a subscriber; then pass your copy
on to a friend and urge him to do the same. Nothing worth while is ever accomplished in
this world without some sacrifice. If you are looking for something for nothing, your search
will be in vain.
Patronize Federationist advertisers
now living, profits by the vast labors
of past generations who have tolled
and hoped and suffered, for the improvement of social conditions,
Inasmuch also as each individual l«
Indebted from day to day to his fellow citizens for most of the comforts
and necessities of life.
Thereforo we declare that oach and
every citizen of Canada Is deeply Indebted to tho community and that the
CannuiBn Govornment intends to open
nn account with each of its cltlzona,
who will be required to do their bcut
by their own labor of hand or brain,
to balance their account.
In tho noxt article wo will further
consider tho social and political effects likely to arlso from such a
Investigation of Fruit Combine-
Farmers Must Amalgamate
With City Workers.
[By Our Own Correspondent]
Summerland, B. C, March 18.—We
are probably all familiar with the old
story of the huntev who was imprisoned by Indians in a cave for a
month and who managed to survive
by swallowing the lump which came
in his throat whenever he thought of
his wife and children at home.
This story recurred to us as we
read the account of the investigation
of the Nash fruit combine which has
just been published In the daily press.
In connection with a plan to "dyna-,
mite" the fruit growers' central, the
manager of one of the Nash companies suggests that a levy of 25 conts a
box be made to cover a deficit and
writes as follows: "The Adam's apple of every member of the co-operative will be travelling up and down
like an elevator as soon as the propaganda lands."
Commissioner Duncan expresses
wonder that the grower has survived
and now we know the reason. He has
simply been swallowing his Adam's
apple. The poet says that it takes
more than one swallow to make a
summer, but if deficits are to be the
criterion of the number of swallows,
as Mr. Snow says, they are then the
poor fruit grower has plenty on hand
not only to make a summer but to
carry him well into the middle of
The publication of some of the cor-j
respondence of the fruit combine has
been very illuminating as showing the
methods of modern businss concerns
in dealing with the producer. The
average farmer looks on the working
of the economic system as being as
inscrutable as an act of Providence,
the rain which sprinkles his fevered
brow or the snow which gives him
cold feet.
In fact, farming is the original
cross-word "puzzle. The poor farmer
gets the cross words from his banker
and the merchants to whom he owes1
money, and the puzzle is to make the
farm pay, Now, to his amazement,
he finds that there is such a thing as
a fruit combine which "thinks it quite
in order to commit any crime, murder excepted," ln order to gain its
ends. He scratches his head and
asks, "Can such things be?"
t present the fruit growers ln this
neck of the woods ure buzzing like
a bunch of angry hornets, We re-
fuso to become excited however, as
we have known these facts for many,
many years, and when we tried to
toe! these same farmers that there
was a fruit combine which they would
have to flght sooner or later, wo were
like unto a v61ce crying ln the wilder nesB.
A prophet Is usually without honor
in every country until after ho is dead
but we are going to take a chance
anyway and venture the prediction
that the farmer's flght Is only beginning. He has found out that he has
not embarked" on a Sunday school
picnic, but Is facing a life and
death strugglo with a foe which
knows no scruples and wilt stop
at nothing. Thon when the fruit
combine has been beaten he will
find other combines, equally rapacious and unscrupulous facing him.
He might as well realize flrst as last,
that his only oconomic salvation lies
in an amalgamation, industrinl and
political, with his fellow-worker In
the city In ordor to put -an end to
the system which enslaves them boLh.
In tho meantime, if the family flour
barrel runs low and the grocery bill
I- In arrears, ho can be comforted by
the reflection '.''at thero is no danger
of starvation, ut- any rate. He cnn
nlways conjure up a fow more deficits and keep on swallowing his
Adam's apple.
Mrs,  Rose  Henderson Explains
Aims and Ideals of Labor in
Masterly Manner,
[By Our Own Correspondent]
Cranbrook—A public meeting was
held on Sunday afternoon, March 8th,
In the Auditorium; the attendance
numbering close to 100. Mrs. Rose
Henderson was the speaker, with Mr.
J. Sims (Invermei'e) presiding. Mrs.
Henderson took as her subject: "Labor Marching to Power," and took the
opportunity to explain the alms and
ideals of labor With rapt attention
the audience listened to the speaker,
who dealt with her subject in a masterly manner. To Mrs. Henderson
belongs the prtvllge of being the flrst
person to bring the gospel of labor
to Cranbrook, and her next visit will
be anxiously awaited,
The Chairman made an earnest appeal for new members. A good collection was taken up, and a fairly
good sale of pamphlets was made.
The dictum that truth always
liiumphs ovor persecution is one of
thoso pleasant falsehoods . , . which
all experience refutes, History teems
with instances of truth put down hy
persecution, If not suppressed forever, It may be thrown back for centuries.—John Stuart Mill.
Rev. L. 0. Wright Represents the
Churches in Cleveland Labor
Cleveland, Ohio.—Not to be outdone by the official trade union movement of New York, which is actively
co-operating in the work of raising
$15,000,000 for the building of the
Cathodal of St. John the Divine, the
Cleveland Federation of Labor, recently seated the Reverend Louis C.
Wright as a representative of the federated churches.
The federated churches acted upon
an invitation extended by the Fedra-
tlon of Labor. The reverend gentleman will have the right to take the
floor but not vote.
'I think it is a fine opportunity to
establish mutual understanding be
tween the churches and the federation" Dr. Wright said.
Cleveland was the scene of the
heresy trial of Bishop William Mont
gomery Brown, last summer. The
churchmen are evidently determined
to follow up their flght on Bishop
Nobler Standards
I am convinced that the day will
come when even the humblest man
will find his individual life merged
into the fullor life of the community,
and his Isolated, circumscribed horizon broadened by means of festivals
of poetry, music, art, thought, and
humanity until it coincides with the
horizon of the entire human race,
thus leading him oh to nobler standards of development and setting before him the grand Ideal of a perfected humanity.—Max Nordau.
and War
'THOSE individuals, or groups,
•*• wishing to get pamphlets
which have just recently been
printed are urged to send in
tbelr orders nl once. Thore nre
only a limited number printed.
They are tho following:
By Mis. Roso Henderson
10 cents.
By Georgo F. Stirling
G 'jonts.
These pamphlets aro well written. They contnin a wealth of
information, and are, to soy
the very least, thouyht-provok-
Send  In  Votir Orders nt Onco
Vou Cannot Afford To llo
WJtho.lt Tliem
i ■■•■■■I* ••.■••■< ■•>•*..*..*..<
Former President T. and L. Council and Pioneer Railway Conductor Dies at 87.
Mr. John Pearey, pioneer resident
of Vancouver, died on Tuesday, March
17, • 11*25, at the advanced age of 87
years. He was one of the "old originals" and former conductor of the B.
C. Electric Railway company, serving
that institution for some 35 years. In
the early seventies he left Scotland,
his native country, and became a farmer in Bruce county, Ontario, A few
years later he removed from there
and took up land in Dakota, where
he became active in politics, serving
as county treasurer for some years,
and when that territory became a
state was an unsuccessful democratic
nominee for congress, Owing to the
declining health of his late wife, he
brought her and the family to British
Columbia, where he has since made
his home at \H Hamilton street. Of
a cheerful disposition he made many
friends and was popular with the travelling public.
He was elected the flrst president
of the Street Rallwaymen's union, and
was a delegate from that organization
to the Trades and Labor council, also
serving that body as treasurer and
president. Mr. Pearey always took a
keen interest In the public questions
of the day.
During the past 15 years he has
bcen in the position of messenger with;
the company, having been superannuated owing to his great age. The
late pioneer is survived by one daughter, Mrs. E. G. Bishop, and one son,
Marion L, Pearey.
The funeral, which was largely attended took place on Thursday morning from his late residence to Holy
Rosary Pro-Cathedral, whero mass
was held, Rev. Father Thayer officiating.
We had an Interesting and instructive time at our weekly meeting -at
the Municipal hall, Forty-Third and
Fraser avenue, on Tuesday night.
H. Neelands, M. L, A., was Invited
to address us next Tuosday. Delegates
roported progress, and delegates were
elected to wait on the reeve and council and demand work or full maintenance.
It was stated that a certain magis
trate had Bald "work was available
for those who sought it," but we still
have nearly three hundred men who
would liko to know whero work can
be found.
Unemployment Is a menace to the
employed as wages aro cut to a doll:
or two a day, we must get busy, or
wages will be reduced. Swedes were
Imported at low wages for throe largo
contract Jobs proceeding In the city.
Your duty to yourselves and follow
men Is to attend these meetings.—E.
D. Brewer, secretary pro tem, 4854
James street, South Vancouver.
"The Iron Heel"
Dr. Curry has finished his lecture
course, and Is now taking up the
reading and discussion of Jack London's famous revolutionary story "The
Iron Heel". Tlio meeting begins at
the usuul time, 8 p. m.. In the C. P.
hall, C0(i Homer street, and will be
conducted this week by Mr. Haw
At fl P. m.p an hour of singing boffins, under the leadership of a. competent instructor. If you are Interested, come and help us organize a
Workers' Choir, singing labdr and
popular songs,
Human Degradation
Whnt moro crushing proof of hu
man degradation than to sell one'i
labor of hand or brain? This act,
too degrading for any citizen of Sparta or Rome, is the only rcsnhrro left
to tho producer In our capitalistic
society; wage lnbor Is a form of slavery.—Paul Lafnrguo.
Brutalize Whit* People and Commit Crimes Without Number In the Ruhr
Thp public thnt sinks to sleep,
trusting to constitutions and mnchinery, politicians and statesmen for the
safety of Its liberty, novor will have
Assualt Women and Children and
Rob and Beat Unarmed
[By Mrs. Rose Henderson]
"pOLORED troops!" What horrors
what hideous memories, these
two words coming not alone to the
people and mothors of Germany, but
to those who have seen these troops
on duty in Germany.
Crimes unspeakable—crimes with'
out number—have been committed by
these troops on defenseless women
and children of both sexes.
We do not minimise th excesses
Germany was said to havo coaimiUed
in the "Great'War." Iu saying this
we also aprlogize for our own behavior, now that we arc fully aware of
the causes of the war, and the guilt
of all nations concerned.
I'or the past four yeart France has
garrisoned blnck troops, armed them,
and given them authority td command
and subdue white poople, in the
Rhlneland, Ruhr und thr. Palatinate,
The late E. D. Morel, M. P. in tho
British house of commons for Dundee,
issued a pamphlet entitled "The Horror on the Rhine," setting forth the
crimes committed by these armed
half savage troops. The facta aet
forth were never refuted by France,
or her allies, and created scarcely a
comment in the dally press.
This phase of France's policy is
carefully hidden from the .mblic; and
no doubt, is responsible for the fact
that there has been no dr...nite move
on the part of the white people in
Europe, England and America to
bring pressure on France to remove
these "black troops." It seems almost
unbelievable that this crime of crimes
can be enacted year ln and year out,
without Inspiring a united effort to
organize public oplrflon, on behalf of
these outraged people.
Here and there a voice ls raised,
but lt is as a voice In the wilderness,
because of tho policy of silence pursued by the press, and politicians.
The menace of the black troops to
the white population cannot be too
often, nor too strongly, emphasized.
A correspondent in Foreign Affairs
reports a series of outrages, which
took place in the Palatinate last November. The people have appealed
to the French government, again, and
again, for the removal of these troops,
but to no avail.
Here are a few examples of the
outrages committed by black, armed
troops, on unarmed white people. I
November 16, at Bellhelm, In the
district Germersheim, two colored
soldiers threatened with their side
arms a man and robbed him of his
purse, One of them drawing his bayonet kept the crowd at bay. On the
same day in Lingenfleld, in the same
district, two Moroccan soldierB attempted to rob a pensioner of Blxty-
eight years of age. When they found
nothing in his pocket, they struck
him in the face. Proceeding further
one of the soldiers threatened a police
sergeant with his side arms, and when
a hotel keeper hurried to his assistance he received a stab In the left
breast, which necessitated taking him
to the hospital.
On November 28, at three o'clock
In the afternoon, an Inhabitant of
Germersheim, a woman of sixty years
of age, was assaulted by a colored
soldier when gathering wood in the
Bellhclmer forest. The details of this
outrage are ho appalling that they
cannot be published.
What crime has Germany committed, that can be compared to the
crime of arming black men, and turning them loose on a defenseless white
If publto opinion wore not still suffering from the blunting, and deadening moral effects of tho war, long ago
lt would have domnnded the recall
of these troops. Thc government of
Great Britain has a Joint responsibility for the occupied area of Gormany,
according to terms of the Versailles
treaty. And, again, may we ask,
where, Oh, where, fs the Leaguo of
Sinco 1918, Franco hns become one
of the most formidable militarist
powers in the world, but unlike other
nations her power rests on a black
basis. French women do not supply
onough man-power for her armies,
This has necessitated hor training her
colored population. Franco has 43,-
500,000 people under her sway In Africa, 22,500,000 In Asia, and has applied to all those people her laws of
military conscription. Sho Is raising
and training great njillvo armies for
service In Europo. If need be to bo
permanently stationed thero. If great
armies of black men, arc lo bo trained
and armed to fight white nations,
what Is to he tho future destiny of tho
white race?
Is tbo next phnse of civilization to
bo the enslavement of white people
under the domination nf black mercenary troops? If so, the enemy of civilization Ih nol bolshevism, nor yet
lhe yellow peril, but the statesmen and
politicians responsible fur the arming
nt the black races against tho white.
Is this tho civilization millions of
white men, and women, died to save?
Member for Centre Winnipeg Delivers Important Speech
Decidedly Not One Represents
* tive of the Great Masses _t ■
the People.
(From Hansard of February U);^,;
[Concluded from last week} ^ ^
glad  to  have   members  of  tip.
House refer to Hansard for what WM
said in regard to that matter.     ■
Mr. MURDOCK: Will the ho*.
gentleman correct that Btatement bf
reading Hansard himself and flvlnff
the House the statement made by taft
Minister of Labor? The reason,?
make that request is that all over tho
country according to the press, the
same misstatements have been mode
by the hon. gentleman.
Mr. WOODSWORTH: Mr. Speaker,
I can only reaffirm what I Bald. My
recollection of Hansard—and I think
I ain correct in this—is that what waa
said was in line with the statement
I have just made. I have no dealre
to misrepresent the Minister of Labor
(Mr. Murdock), and if on reading the
statement ln Hansard I find I have
not quoted him correctly I shall be
very glad to bring the correct statement before the House.
Fifth. Tbe adoption of a weekly
rest of a least twenty-four hours
which should include Sunday whenever possible.
Yet we have had for example tho
steel works in Nova Scotia when they
are in operation working their men
eleven and thirteen hour shifts, and
every other week twenty-four hours
on end. We have even had the seven-
day week existing here ln the city of
Ottawa among some of the government's own employees.
Sixth. The abolition of child labor,
and the Imposition of such limitations
on the labor of young persons as Bhall
permit the continuation of their education and assure their proper physical development.
I am glad to know that the Liberal
Association recognised their responsibility along educational lines, even
although that is not expressly stated
under the British North America Act.
I am quite aware that the actual
conduct of education comes within
the scope of tho powers of tho province, but the fact is that there are
thousands of children across Canada
today who, because of the prevailing
economic conditions, are being withdrawn from school. In my own province wo have had a largo number
of schools shut down because of insufficient financial resources. Further
than that, we have had the government carrying on tho existing system
of juvenile immigration which has
involved a very large supply of child
labor for the farms and homes of
this country,
Seventh. The principle that men
and women should receive equal remuneration  for work of equal value.
I can find no effort whatever In the
clvl! service even to carry out this
Eight. The standard set by law In
each country with respect to the conditions of labor should have due regard to the equitable economic treatment of all workers lawfully resident
I cannot find that any effort has
been put forth to mnko good this
promise. As a matter of fact, we
have not even the political rights
that ought to be accorded to hi tor,
and to all citizens. Wc slill have oor
statute books legislation by which certain groups of people horn outside of
Canada arc deprived of the right ot
trial by jury, und other legist'ton
very decidely limiting freedom of
speech, freedom of the press and freedom of assembly, I am nol entirely
blaming ibis government; I wan', to
point out conditions an they oxlst thi
perhaps, I should sny in fairnesi to
lhe government, that one or two Sn
forts havo been mado to amend ipo
Immigration Act but that theso ,m-
endments have been rejected by the
Ninth. Each state should m >ko
provision for a system of InHpcctioi in
which women should lake part In *r-
der lo Insure the enforcement of he
Inws and regulations for the prol 'e-
tion of the unemployed.
I cannot loarn that any action ms
been taken along this line. Furl ier
this dooument goes on to sny:
1. That the Introduction Into he
government of Industry of princfi Ml
of representation whereby labor : nd
the community, as well as capital,
may be represented fn Industrial control, and thoir interests safeguarded
and promoted In the shaping of industrinl  policies.
That hns not been enrried out even
in government departments. In the
Department of Public Works for instance, and in our olher civil service
doparttnents, especially the Post Office Department, where It would have
scorned possible to introduce some*
thing along the line of tho Whltoly
Councils, so far that has not been
dono. I road further:
2. That in po far as may be practicable, having regard To*- Canada's
financial position, nn ndoqnnto system of Insurance against unemployment, sickness, dependence in old nge.
(Continued on page 4) •AGE TWO
FRIDAY March 20,  192&
.ritish Columbia Federationist
Published every Friday by    C;
fhe   British  Columbia  Federatlonist
3usiness and Editorial Office,   1129 Howe  St,
The policy of The B. C. Foderationist is
:ontrollod by the oditorial board of tho
Federated Labor Party of British Columbia.
Subscription Rato: United States and Foreign, $3.00 per yoar; Canada, $2.50 per
year, $1.50 for six months; to Unions
subscribing in a body, 16c per member
per month.
The  Federationist is  on  sale at tho  foi'
lowing news  stands:
E. J. OALLOWAY 940 Granville Streot
 1071   Granville   Street
P. O. NEWS STAND 326 Granville Streot
JOHN GBEEN 205 Carrall Street
 Oor. Hastings aud Columbia Avenue
B.C.E.R. TRAM NEWS .-.»■   .
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NEWS   STAND       .
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BEN TOON'S BOOK SHOP....421 Granvillo
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PROCHNAU & GATES....169 Broadway East
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E0KHA?T   NEWS   STORE Seattle
FRIDAY March 20,  1926
WE are told that Britain's dealings
with Russia are not encouraging.
Quite naturally. The pink politicians
expected alt sorts ol Impossibilities
immediate revival of trade and decreased unemployment among British
workers. The other brands expected
cessation of political propaganda. And
now are disappointed and disgusted.
Prosperity and consequent trade cannot come all at once in a country
where chaos and slavery have reigned
so long, and where disorder is bound
still to exist. And as far as propaganda is concerned—people will no more
give up their cherished political
creeds than their masters will give
up their profits.
British capital has found that Moscow cannot keep her promises. People who live in glass houses shouldn't
throw stones. A large proportion of
the world has found long since that
Britain cannot keep faith either. Not
because Britain Ih naturally bad, but
because profit is the greatest thing In
the world.
Certainly it Is rather annoying for
agitators of various political creeds to
stir up trouble among harmless and
exploited natives, whether white or
otherwise. Politics cnn become a passion, like profit". If such propaganda consisted In stirring up discontent,
one would be inclined to condemn It.
But It Is generally found that those
who nre progressive In ono direction,
progrepslve in another. Thc fight is
as much educational ns political, ond
Is waged as much against ignornncc
as against the forces of capital.
Moreover even the tender consciousness of the imperialists do not
hesitate to spread their doctrines—In
the interests of expansion—peaceful
and otherwise. Ro why should not
the progressive workers educate the
masses in the interests of freedom
nnd justice, for even tbo most ardent
disciple ot Imperialism bas to own
that both slavery and injustice exist.
they will be called upon to do, and
the remuneration they will receive
ln return.
We are most certainly in agreement with thc idea of guaranteeing
work to all. That is the very leaat
that any government should hope to
do, and get by. To think that able-
bodied men and women are unable
to find work which will guarantee
them a decent livelihood in this country of ours is an unpardonable condition, and no government should be
allowed to get away with when they
exhibit such incompetency. We real
I'/.e that our social system will have
to be changed before such a guarantee can be given; but, nevertheless,
it must be dono, and the sooner, the
better for all concerned.
SIR SAMUEp HOARE, the British
air minister, warns the nation that
our power must be controlled lest It
menace civilization at some future
date, It would have been just
wise to have advocated control of
tho use of gunpowder in the Middle
Ages as to draw up a list of rules
and regulations for the game of war
nowadays. Air -power and its possibilities will have to go the limit
Man is not yet far enough removed
from his savage origin to exercise
such control, or even to see that war
can hardly be regarded as civilized.
The British nir minister seems to
recognize these facts, for in the same
breath as his warning he asks no
less than ¥77,000,000 for the air
force. He believes this will help to
"minimize slaughter" on the principle
that the country which has the greatest air forco will be Immune from
attack. No doubt other countries are
of the same mind- France already
has three planes to every one of
Britain's. The question is, when will
each know when to stop. Every cent
spent on armaments means so much
less for the work that counts.
Sir Samuel Hoare is optimistic
enough to imagine that Europe cannot be so mad as to involve itself in
war which might destroy civilization.
So thought most people before the
last Uttle catastrophe. War-makers,
however, do not sit down and calmly
consider the effects on civilization.
PREMIER OLIVER haa been com-
..   plaining of late that certain  ad-
vertiaementa, which were being run
by the C. P. R., were misleading.
They told only half truths, he declares. We hope that he does not
thing for a single moment that he Is
telling us anything new in that regard.
In this connection we could not
help but be amused by thc suggestion offered by our morning contemporary, where it was suggestod that
Premier Oliver put on an advertising campaign telling the real truth
—the whole truth. We never did
have any faith in our capitalistic
press. We have always felt that they
were in the business for the sake of
making profits, and not for the sake
of enlightening its readers. Now we
feel we have been shown another instance which would justify our belief.
Spend on an advertising campaign
some $30,000, so that the truth might
be made known! If one would spend
$30,000 advertising In our daily press
thoy will just about make their renders believe anything you want to
make them believe. Their news columns and editorials are regulated by
their advertisers. It ia evident to
every thinking man and woman to
day that little headway can be made
to right the mnny social ills to which
humanity has fallen heir to until the
daily press is owned and controlled
by the people themselves, and not by
mere profit-seekers and money-grab
bers who, in our opinion, control
them today.
Workers9 Condition
Challenge to Society
Problem of Unemployment and the
Machine Is More Than One
of Mathematics
[By J. A. MacDonald.]
For the first time in the history of
civilization, mankind has reached a
point where the meana of satisfying
Its needs arc in excess of the needs
themselves.—Prince Kropotkln.
Unemployment Due to Ability to Produce Too Much
W/13 have seen that the mode of pro-
WE noticed n recent press report
to tho effect that there were
aome 5000 immigrants coming to
Canada from tho old land. They
wcro being assisted by their home
government with their passage, nnd
our government is guaranteeing work
for them.
Wp can well Imagine tlie feeling
of our own men and women In Canada, who havo boon searching In
vain fnr months for a position that
would assure them of just a decont
livelihood, when they rend such a
news Herns. It does seem odd to
think that our own government cannot provido work for its thousands
of unemployed, and yet it undertakes
to guarantee work to immigrants.
Poor, unfortunate Immigrants! We
have a mental picture of thc work
IT MAY bo moro blessed to give
than to receive, nevertheless it
gave us much pleasure to receive
last week a copy of the first issue
of tho Weekly News, a new weekly
published at Winnipeg in tho Interest of labor. Tho editor of this
lusty youngster la B. J, Farmer, M,
L.A., and a former mayor of Winnipeg. Ita first Issue Is an exceedingly
bright paper full of material that Is
of the greateat Importance to the
working claos, It also carries fea-
turea that aro not uaunlly found in
the  ordinary lalior paper,
If the Weekly News can maintain
tho high atandard of quality of Its
first Issue it will merit tho support
of all who are anxious to bring about
a bottor condition of affairs than now
maintains, and It should have a long
and useful career,
The circulation of a labor paper
In Canada la of necessity limited, and
tho work to bo dono very great. Wo,
therefore, commend the AVoekly News
to thc pooplo of Manitoba ns a paper
well worthy of their most generous
Modern Arts and Letters Club
The speaker at tonight's meeting
of the Arts and Letters Club, at
which a large attendance is expected,
Ih Mr. J. C, Ooho. Ilia aubject will
be "Tngnre'a Contribution to India's
Art and Llteraturo," nnd an Interest?
Ing and instinctive evening will undoubtedly bo enjoyed. Mra. Wm. McKlnley ban kindly conxented  to alng.
Tho parson who forgets that a man
haB a body na well aa a soul is only
dolnft hair hla job.—Rev. W. Rowland Jones.
duetion of a little moro than one
hundred years ago was tho hand tool.
Thc energy that was laid up in the
bodiea of men was tho sole weapon,
the motive power in
against nature. There
main bc no increase in the amount
of wealth that was produced without
a corresponding Increase in the num
bers of workera, that ls of mouths to
feed, bodies to clothe and shelter.
The limitation on the amount of com
moditles that could be produced was
instinct in the system of production
itself. With the machine all this
changed. With the harnessing of the
forces of nature, as shown in the last
chapter, to do the bidding of man,
one worker, with only one mouth to
feed, one body to clothe and shelter,
could produce vastly more.
The transformation brought by the
machine is startling. At the beginning of the last century, Lancaster
was one of the principal seats of the
cotton trade of the world. Yet Mr.
Leon Levi calculated that with the
modern machine, fifty men could do
all the cotton spinning that was done
by hand in this entire district one
hundred years ago. On the other
hand, he computed that to make the
yarn spun in England ln one year
with the machine by hand, would
take the continual labor of one hundred million workers. That la, to produce by hand merely one of the present products of English industry
would take twice the preaent population of England if all were of working
age, and none In the hive of English
industry were drones.
Dealing with the textile industry
of the United States, atatisttcs show
that a hand spinner could produce
four skeins of yarn, but with the development of the machine, in 1835 a
child in the same time could produce
1,700 skeins. Thua as the result of
the Industrial revolution, in 1835 a
child was able to perform in this industry the work that would have
taken 425 men. In one and one-quarter minutes a child with the machine
could produco what waa the day's
work of a spinner before the machine
era. Tho same or greater changes
havo now occurred in the other pro
cesses of the textile industry. For
instance, once there was a weaver for
each loom, and the loom was slow
and small. Now one person attends
fifteen, twenty, twenty-flve, thirty,
and in rare instances even forty
Northi'op looms. These looms work
so automatically that ln textile mills
one finds hundreds of them running
unattended during the noon hour.
Whon the labor of fifty men with
machines was equivalent to the total
production of one of the big centers
of thc cotton industry, that some of
the population should be without
clothing could be understood. But
what is to be said of the scarcity of
clothing for many workers at the
presont time, when the labor of
child in one and one-qunrter minutes
la able to do the work of a man for
ten hours? The reason ls not that the
minute and one-quarter working day
has been establshed for the textile
Knitting Stockings fnr the Soldiers
During the war period women were
asked to knit socks for the soldiers,
with knitting needles, one of the
many idiocies of tho war from an induatrlal point of view. Let*us see
what these women were competing
with. "Hore is an automatic knitting
machine which with no one near
shapes the sock at thc heel, substitutes white yarn for blue, which It
does again at the toe, narrows it off,
cuts the white yarn, layB down the
sock, and begins nnother with bluo
yarn, completing a pair in ten minutes. Ono boy keeps twenty of these
machines oiled and supplied with
yam, and theae twenty machines pro
duce' one thousand pairs of socks a
dny." (Vido 'Our World," by Joalah
We see around ua mllllona of workers Ill-shod, There was a timo when
this condition had Its logical basis
In tbe method of making ahoea, When
shoos wero thc product of tho individual shoemaker with the hand tool,
that some of the population ahould
bo without shoes was to bo expected.
As late aa 1852 all ahoea were made
in this way. Tho Mar-Kay Rolo Sewing Machine, Introduced In 1862, now
docs In ono hour what would take the
journeyman eighty houra to perform,
that Is, with tho machine, a workor
can do In seven minutes what wilh
the hnnd tool would tnko the labor
of a wholo day. At due stroke, with
tho development of thla machine, the
Goodyear, the King lied Shaver nnd
Trimmer, and other machines, ond
lhe concentration of the workers Into
tho Industrial efficiency of the largo
factory and tho division of labor
which it Involves, there waa no further industrial roason why anyono
ahciuhl bo without shoos. But thoy
aro, by tho millions! Certninly the
reason la not thai ihe sovon-minute
working day prevails In the ahoe industry. Even tho advocacy of tho
seven-hour day would be fought with
all   employera'   power.     It  would   bo
'"rank anarchy"—a crime they would
call on the state to punish with the
utmost rigor.
In 1923 Jamea L. Davis, U. S. sec
retary of labor, said that the boot and
shoe industry of the United States
had a productive yearly capacity of
758,000,000 pairs of shoes, and that
the number actually produced was
less than half of this.
Thero ia abundance of the mater
lala out of which to make shoes and
the machinery to shoe thc world, the
men to use the material and the machines, but the material is largely
unused, the machines are rusting and
the atruggle tne Workers are unemployed,
ould In the     „ ., ..*.■■■.
There  waa a time whon the jars
for honie-preserving fruits were made
through two distinct processes. The
body of the jar was blown, and the
neck and shoulders were pressed.
Then the two sections had to be annealed together, These processes
took time and skill. Then was invented what is known as the "Owens'
Machine." The place of the skilled
craftsmen, who charged a fee of eight
hundred dollars to join their union,
is taken by this machine, which produces a jar each second of the entire
There is not here the space to deal
with all the different machines that
have transformed industry. The workers in the various industries know
them; they handle them; their pace
is aet by them. In fact, unfortunately, they are ao cloBe to them, they
form ao much of their environment,
that they do not realize their significance and potentialities because of
their very nearness.
The following paragraphs taken
from "Description of Industry," by
Henry C. Adams, LL. D:, professor
of economics at the University of
Michigan, are illuminating on the Increase in productive power that has
come as the result of the industrial
"Since the significance of machinery consists in the substitution of Nature's power for the muscular force
of man, and since the consumption of
coal in the boiler of a steam engine
is the chief means of effecting this
substitution, it follows thnt thc labor
required to mine the coal, na compared with the power for work that
Ilea In the coal mined, will ahow how
much tbe Induatrlal world haa gained
by doing the work In this round-about
"The latent energy in a pound of
average coal la something like 12.000
heat units. Tho pound of coal, if
burned,in an engine of fair efficiency,
delivers for work an amount of energy equal to 082,000 foot pounds. If
now, the coal miner ia nblc to mine
two tons of coal a day, ho gives to
industry, as the result of eight hours
work, an amount of available energy
equal to 4.480 (the weight of two miner's tona) times 982,000 or 4,390,000.-
000 foot pounds. This figure must he
compared with the energy, measured
in foot pounds, which our minor
would give In a day If he applied h;s
muscular energy directly to the production of thoae thlnga that arc now
produced by mnchinery, tii.ven by nn
engine, fed with conl, which aa a
miner he hns dug.
"For this comparison wo accept the
engineer's formula that one horse
power is equal to 33,000 foot pounds,
nnd that a man power la one twelth
of a horae power. From this It follows that the standard measurement
of a man power is 2,750 foot pounds.
It ahould next be noted thnt tlie horae
power unit ia confined to one minute
of work. It means the amount of en
ergy which It would take to lift one
pound, one foot In one minute. Thc
figures given above for the coal dug
by the miner nre he result of eight
hours of work, from which it follows
thot the 2,750 foot pounds, which
menna the amount of energy thnt
man can deliver In ono minute, must
be multiplied by 480 |o find tbe nmount of energy delivered in an eight
hour dny. The multiplicallon shows
this to be 1,320,000 foot pounds,
'Wo now have the figures to be
compared. Tf the minor of coal worka
eight hours a day nnd produces two
tons of coal, ho crontea available
power of 4,300,000.000 foot pounds;
in doing thla work he expends mus
cular' ienergy to the amount of 1,-
320,000 foot pounds. The net gain to
industry in available energy is the
difference between these two figures.
The efficiency of the workers,- due
to the machine, is Increased three
thousand fold.1 Three thousand times
as much working power gets into
work as was tho case when the man
used tools.
"The above analysis la, perhaps,
more graphic than accurate. It takes
no account of the sorting, transportation, and otherwise handling the coal,
in order to make it available for factory purposes, nor the loss of power
if uaed for from the place where it is
generated, but the compariaon ia sufficiently accuratp to support the lesson taught."
It will be noticed that Professor
Adams supposes that a miner Is able
to dig two tons of coal in a day. No
mine owner would come to any such
supposition on the basis of the number of tons mined for each man in
his employ, whethor miner or mine
worker. The Secretary of Labor of
the United States is authority for tho
foot that the coal minea of tho United
States have a capacity of one billion
tons of coal a year. Dividing this by
the total number of mine workers
connected with the mining of coal, on
the basis of 300 days a year, we find
that the daily production per man un
der such conditions would be five tons
a day, inatead of two. It will here be
noticed thnt this also provides for the
sorting of the coal at the tipple. Now
to make the computation conform
with the induatrlal facts, the three
thousand which ia given must be mul
tiplled by two and one-half, giving
an increase in productive power of
7,500 fold.
Now allowing for one-half for the
other factors mentioned in the last
paragraph of the quotation, and for
the very small pro-rata of the labor
of building the transportation system,
the engines and boilers for the changing of the coal into mechanical energy, we find that the Increased efficiency due to the machine Is 3,750
Later In the same work we flnd the
following statement:
Some years ago, a computation
was made designed to shew the increased efficiency of machine work
as compared with tool work. The re-,
suit of this computation applied to
the present population of the United
States Is, that it would take 426 million people to produce with tools what
100 million now produce with machines."
Putting Everyone to Work, But
Only on Paper
"One hundred million now produco
with machines!"
One mbst admire the ease with
which the economists can put everyone to work ln a single clause. If
they could put everyone to work as
easily in industry as they do in books,
there would be a solution for unemployment and may of the other evils
of our present industrial system. "The
people," a political term, do not work
in industry. In industry there are
not people or citizens—another poll
tical term—but wage workers. The
people included in the ono hundred
million aro partly children who have
not been weaned; old men who nre
not now producers, If they over were;
millions of women who never worked
in industry; millions of idlers, social
parasites; those who are In jails and
the penitentiaries, or those who should
be thore; even polltldlanB are "people"
and part of thc hundrod million, but
certainly they do not work with ma
chines; thoy uso the oldest of all
tools, their mouths, nnd their product
could scarcely be called production
In an industrial sense.
The production that years ago
would havo taken the labor of 426,
000,000 is now being done by that
part of the twenty-nine or thirty million workers in the United States, who
are not unemployed.
(To Be Continued)
Swimming Pool
Directorate Is
Highly Commended
TT is with great pleasure that we
* learn that the new company formed
to build the new Hot Water Swimming Pool and Pleasure Pier at English Bay, Is meeting with wide response and encouragement on evory
The Mayor and Council formally
approved of the Company's scheme
on the 2nd of March and great numbers of citizens are becoming shareholders in this very promising company. For years Vancouver has needed just such a place, but no one had
the courage nnd foresight to combine
tbe right site, the men and the Idea.
Now this haa been done and it only
goes to show that our Province and
City fairly bristle with opportunity.
Mayor Taylor says:
"The gentlemen wbo form the personnel of the Directorate nre to be
highly commended on their venture,
and I am sure will carry their plana
to a successful conclusion as they are
ull men of experience and ability."
One thing that commends Itself
very much to ua is that the real estate owned by tho company is a very
considerable portion of the company's
capital; in other worda for every dollar put In there ia a high percentage of
security In real cstnte at English Bay.
This cannot be said of most investments.
We are much impressed with this
opportunity fo small inveators. This
should prove to be a real investment
for those- fortunate enough to have
the means to put a little capital at
Thero is no queatlon .the men who
compose the Board of Directors are
all men of high standing and Integrity,
and there is no promotion stock.
To us it looks like a very clean investment that should earn good dividends, the more so as similar instl-
tutlona elsewhere are all making
Store Opens at 9 a.m. and
Closes at 6 p.m.
New Pullover
Plain knit, all wool, in
several different styles,
somo with the new T-
shirt collar, some with
scarf effect, and others in
V-neck styles. Newest
shades with contrasting
trim.   Speeial, $5.95.
—pleated and with ribbon-trimmed frills. Many
new colors at $3.95.
—DryBdalo's SportH and
Negligee Shops) Third
575 Granville Street
Phone Seymour 3540
It Is Not Growing
It ia not growing like a tree
In bulk doth make Man better be,
Or standing long an oak, three hundred year,
To fall a log at last, dry,  bald, and
A lily of a day
la fairer far in May.
—Ben Johnson.
Poverty, high prices, unemployment child slavery, widespread misery, and haggard want in a land bursting with abundance; prostitution and
insanity, suicide and crime, these in
solemn numbers tell the tragic story
of Capitalism's saturnalia of blood
and tears and shame as its end draws
Material advancement has its share
in moral and intellectual progress.
Becky Sharp's acute remark that it ia
not difficult to be virtuous on ten
thousand a year has Its application
to nations; nnd It ia futile to expect a
hungry and aqunlid population to be
anything but violent and gross.—
There Is no great difficulty in
changing human institutions. The
difficulty is in changing the thoughts
of those who alone can change the
THE3 Council Is prepared to receive ton-
dorB for leaning Blocks 10 and 11 In
D. I.. 320 for auto park purposes. Further
particulars may bo hnd on application. Ton-
dors to ho In by 8 p.m. of Monday, March
30.    No tender necessarily accepted.
0. M. 0.
Municipal Hall, 5851 West Boulevard, Vancouver, B. 0., March 10, 1925.
HiM hit;
WANTED for excnvnling at
ings School. Plans and npeciflca-
tlons can be obtained at Architect's Office.
Tenders to be in bands of tho R«cretnry
by 12 noon Monday, Mnrch 23, 1925. Secretary Vancouver School Board.
A Locnl Company Organized With Local Capital
THAT English  Hay,   In  ever-Increasing   measure,   is  becoming
Greater Vancouver's Seaside Resort?
THAT thia company controls tho moat valuable concession at
English liny?
THAT tho valuo of tho Hon! Estate Owned and Controlled by
the Compnny will grow enormously with the growth of
Greater Vancouver?
THAT you are only receiving 3% on your Savings Account, or
4 &%-()*.(. on your Honda?
THAT aome of your funds converted  into the Stock  of  this
Compnny will pny you far greater earnings?
THAT thia Company  la  under  thc Direction  of the  following
President; B. W. Dean, Importing Agont.
E, H._ Adams, Comptroller B. 0. E. By. Co.; J, J. Grn.il, Mine Operator
ml Contractor^
Mnnagor, Almondt
•Jfunt-N Patlorioni  Phyalolnnj
bid.|   b,  C,   Tlwinns,   Moi
P,   .Indium,
National Securities, Limited
302-1 Bench Avenuo, Vnncouver, B, 0. Telephono Dnit£la;i ISC
Who will gladly boiuI you full information
"T^AMOUS' " quick turnorcr policy
__ enables you to get a splendid Ensemble Costume for as little as $24,501
The styles aro right, of courso, and tho
quality and tnakoup will surprino you if
you aro not accustomed to ' 'Famous''
SUIT Go, Ltd.
619-623 Hutings Stmt West
Women and Men Raising
Mink with Profit
MINK PUB Bcarco, oxponshro;
splendid opportunity to mako
money. Great pets, easily raised;
backynril or (arm; running water
unnecessary, Cheap hoinc-mude pens,
fed two ounces ordinary food onco
dally. Families 2-8; figure profits
from ten females. Booklet for beginners on huylng stock, huildlng
pens, nentn, feeding, (ireedlng, caro
nml management, Prico 60c. A.
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[By  Charles Hill-Tout, F.  R,  S. C.fthe    evolutionary    modifications    of
F. R. A. I. etc.]
(All Rights Reserved)
■ON, No. 418—President, S. .1). M- -
I. secrotnry-trceitirpr, .1. M. Oampb.J,
P_ox 689.    Meots last Thursday of eaeh
TN the last article it was stated that
•^ modern research into the phylogeny or ancestral history of the present-day mammals pointed strongly to
some small, generalized tree-climbing
insoctivor, not greatly unlike, in general characters, tho modern, little
tree-shrew, as the probable ancestral
source from whlrh they might all, in
early Tertiary times have sprung.
Much of the morphological evidence
which has led to this conclusion Is of
too technical a character to be set
forth here. It must suffice for our
purpose to briefly point out a few
of the more striking and radical of
the many structural modifications,
which a study of fossils recovered from
Tertiary deposits, reveals to us was
taking place in mammalian life
throughout the whole of that changeful period. And as the phylogeny of
the Equidm or horse family, as it may
bo gathered from the geological record, lends itself most readily to this
purpose, we will take this to begin
Thero are two particular features
about the morphology of tlie horse
which enables us to follow up and
trace out fairly cloBely his evolutionary history. These are the characters
of his feet and of his teeth. Both
are highly specialized, particularly
the former. It was pointed out in an
earlier article that the characteristic
Amphibians possessed five digits on
each of their limbs. They passed this
anatomical feature on to the Reptiles;
the typical forms of which also possessed five digits. The early generalized mammals were likewise characterized by the same number; and
many modern mammals still retain
them, notably tainn and the other
Primates. The horse and his collateral relatives—the ass, the zebra, and
the quagga—have lost all their ancestral digits except the middle or third
one. They are one-toed animals, 'and
not the least interesting part of their
family history Is the gradual, sequential way in which this loss of the
other four digits came about.
There are good sound reasons for
believing that the earliest mammals
all walked upon the soles of their
feet as many of them to this day
still do, man being one of these. Today the horse walks upon the tip of
what was earlier his third or middle
digit, and his single hard, bony hooves
are the modified claws or nails of his
remote flve-toed ancestors. "We cannot entertain the sllghest doubt on
this head, for the present horse can
be traced back, stage by stage, to an
early Eocene ancestor, which possessed four serviceable toes, and an additional rudimentary one. In the form
of a side-splint, on his fore-feet and
three fully-developed toes and one
rudimentary one on his hind-feet. This
creature was about the size and build
of a fox and is known to science as
Eohlppus or the Dawn horse. We
cannot doubt that he was descended
from an earlier five-toed, plantigrade
ancestor, though thus far a flvo-tood
horse has not yet been discovered.
Lator on, in the same Eocene epoch,
we come upon Orohlppus, ln the foot
of which thc rudimentary splint-like
toe of Eohlppus has altogether disappeared. In the next epoch, the Ollgocene, Mesohlppus comes to light. This
creature Is about the size of a sheep
and possesses but three serviceable
toes on each of its feet, though a vestige of the fourth is seen ln the form of
a splint on the fore-foot. Later again
in the Miocene we come upon Mio-
hippus, In which the vestigial fourth
toe has# now entirely disappeared,
Later still In the Pliocene we find first
Protohippus and then Pllohlppus,
both bigger than the preceding forms.
They were about the sizo of a-^ses.
In the earlier of the two we perceive
that tho two outside toes are beginning to shrink and shorten; and that
the middlo ono Is getting stouter and
stronger, and doing most of tho work
of sustaining and carrying the body.
In tho later ono wo find that the two
side-toes havo become mere splints,
and that tho creature has now becomo
a one-toed animal; but carries still
tho ovidenco of Its descent from a
three-toed ancestor in the form of a
pair of sldo-spllnts,
With the Quaternary comes Equtis,
tho modern horse; and In tho small
side-splints whicb still linger wilh
him, and which occasionally give
him troublo In bis legs, ho boars tho
marks (if his descent from a three-
toed ancestor, as they In their turn
bear the marks of their descent from
earlier four-and flve-toed forms.
Paralleling tills gradual transformation of 0 flvo-dlgltod foot Into a
slngle-dlgltod one, Is tho transformation of the two leg-bonos, which have
becomo in the samo gradual way consolidated Into a single bone. A similar transformation is seen to have
taken place in lho characters of the
tooth, whicli have become progressively longer and moro complex In
their structure, and thus better adapted for tho comminution or grinding
of the siliceous grasses which hod
now begun to clothe tho Tertiary
plains and tako tho placo of tho
earlier  herbage.
Supplementing this ovidenco of tho
descent of tho horso lg that of the
evolution of tho camel and tho elephant. Wo can traco these back
through tho Tertiary from form to
form in much the samo way as wo can
tho homo. It doos not seem possiblo to
give an open-minded consideration tn
this evidence and doubt tho evolution
of tho modern horse, the camel nnd
tlio elephant from somo small flvo-
Ined Torlinry ancestor, And just as
wo may follow back, stage by stage,
these three families in particular, so,
in a somewhat less perfect degree.1
perhaps, has science been able to i
trace out the evolutionary history of
most of the other Quaternary mammals. Among these the aquatic
forms, and the membors of the Primate order, to which man belongs,
are the most interesting from our
point of view.
The adaptive radiation of the mammals followed lines very similar to
those of their predecessors the Reptiles, Air, land and sea furnished
habitat zones for them and their distribution seems to have been worldwide.
The marine mammals are Interesting from many points of view, but in,
this inquiry chiefly because they il-|
lust rate so clearly the principle of
"reversivo evolution." These warmblooded, air-breathing sea-animals—■
the whales, dolphins or porpoises, the
seals, walruses, manatees, and sea-
otters—all began life, or perhaps it
would be more correct to say, their
Tertiary ancestors all began their
lives as land animals; and then later
under the pressure of the atruggle for
existence, or because they found an
aquatic life more agreeable returned
to the sea and slowly, stage by stage,
became adapted for marine life.
As far as we can gather from the
evidence at our disposal the ancestors of the whales were the first to
adopt this mode of existence. A fossil
form found in late Eocene deposits
is known to us by the term Zeuglodon
(Greek Zeugle, yoke; and odont-
tooth). This creature shows a high
specialization for a marine habitat. It
exhibits a long eel-shaped body, recalling the form of many of the aquatic reptiles and amphibians and the
fusiform  fish.
In the opinion of Osborn, Zeuglodon originated from a purely terrestrial mammal related to the fossil,
wolf-like Hyeenodon of Eocene times,
which had itself earlier sprung from
an arboreal ancestor. It must thus
have passed through three different
life-zones and three distinct life-phases. The Archeeocetl or ancient cetaceans, formed a very specialized side-
branch of the early toothed whales
and seem to have died out before
the close of the Eocene, when the
ancestors of the modern whales first
appear. These latter were all toothed
animals, Somo of them, notably the
baleen whales have since, by adaptive
modification, lost their teeth and be
como toothless animals, That the
latter once possessed teeth Is perfectly clear from the biogenetic fact
that their offspring are born with
teeth and only lose them as they ma
ture and take on the specialized
characters of their Immediate, tooth
less ancestors.
Both whales and seals would ap
pear to have been originally carnivores, The manatees—which includo
the sea-cows or sea-horses, as they
are variously called, and the dugongs
—are herbaceous animals, living upon aquatic vegetation. They are descended, it is thought, from the same
original stock as the elephant, The
walrus has affinities with the sea)
and probably had a similar origin;
possibly from the same stock as the
bear. Its chief food is clams, whicli
It digs up with its long, pointed
The sea-otter is the least special-
i?.od of all the marine mammals, and
shows most pluinly that It is a modi
fled land animal. It is closely related
to the river-otter and more distantly
to tho marten, weasel, skunk, etc. It!
ancestors took to a marine existence
much later than did those of the
other sea-mammals. Ils body and
limbs are much less modified along
fish lines than theirs, but yet show
interesting adaptations, of a more or
less intermediate type, which fit it
for its present mode of life. The
hind limbs have become greatly enlarged and are fully wobbed, resembling in some respects the flippers of
the soal, thereby suggesting tho evo
lutlonary stages by which these or
gons may have reached their presont
form. They still carry a set of small
claws, The fore-feet, on tho other
band, have becomo smaller, but are
likewise webbed and claw-tipped. Its
body, like that of. tho hair-seal, still
retains its original hairy covering,
which makes its pelt so valuable to
The Interesting point about theso
sea-mammals Is that they one nnd all
exhibit, In a greater or less degree, a
remarkable adaptation to their present mode of existence. Some, like
tho whales and dolphins, havo entirely lost their hind-limbs, and their
bodios havo taken on the general
outlines of the fusiform fishes; while
their fore-limbs havo becomo highly
specialized into flippers or fin-like
organs. Others, while still retaining
their hind-limbs in modified form,
have them tucked away behind them,
like the feet of a bird In flying, so
that they may offer tho least possiblo resistance to rapid motion ln the
water. Both flippers and hind-limbs
slill retain, in somo form or othor,
tho original fino digits of their remote amphibian ancestors,
Fow things bring out more clearly
tlie adaptive power of animals, and
nature's ability to fit them for the
mode of life thoy have adopted, than
tho fundamental homologies, or
structural affinities, which underlie
thoir fore-limbs. Flippers, fore-logs,
wings, arms; all alike aro modifications of an earlier and loss specialized organ, whatever that may havo
been. No (WOrphotoglst entertains any
doubt on this head. Nothing Is moro
certain for him than that thoy all
had a common origin, whatever that
may bo proved to be, notwithstanding
tho radical differences tlicy show ln
form and function today. And Just
as It has boon shown that tho wings
of a bird aro tho modified fore-limbs
of its reptilian ancestor, so It may be
shown that the flippers of the seal
and other aquatic mammals are modifications of the fore-limbs of animals
that formerly lived and walked on
the land.
Just as the sea-mammals illustrate
for us the principle of reversive evolution, so the Primates best illustrate
the principle of progressive evolution. Let us now see what may bo
learned of their phylogenlc history.
No group of mammals can be as interesting to man as that which constitutes the Primate order; for to
this man himself is shown, by his
structural characters, closely to belong.
The earliest and least specialized
of the Primates are the lemurs or
pro-simlEe, as they are otherwise called. They first appear in the Early
Eocene, and their structural characters resemble so cloBely those of the
generalized insectivors of that period
that it Is sometimes difficult to distinguish the one from the other. No
doubt, therefore, can exist as to their
genetic relationship or the direct line
of their descent. They probably first
became differentiated from the primitive insectivore in late Cretaceous
times, for by the beginning of the
Tertiary period they had split into
two separate branches known as the
Leinuroidoa and the Tarsioldea. This
latter branch is the more important
one for us, because from some member of It sprang later the higher Primates—the monkeys, apes and man.
Their habit of living largely in the
trees led to an enhancement of their
sense of vision, which was accompa
nied by a corresponding impairment
or lessening of their sense ot smell,
the sense most highly developed in
the primitive mammals. This gave
rise to profound and far-reaching
modifications In the structure of
their brains, and started the Primates
along that line of evolution which
ultimately resulted in man.
The only uncertain thing about
their past is their place of origin,
Fossil evidence shows them to have
been widely distributed early ln Tertiary times. We know that both lemurs and monkeys lived on the
North American continent during the
Eocene; and some high authorities
claim the central portions of America as the place of origin of both
lemurs and monkeys. Others regard
India as the scene of their evolution,
since the region of the Slwallk Hills
Is found especially rich in fossil
remains of Tertiary lemurs, monkeys
and apes. The Eocene and Ollgocene
formations of Europe have also yield
ed remains of primitive lemurs. We
know, therefore, that their distribution was practically world-wide.
The Iemuroid branch of the Primates has persisted down to our own
times; and many different genera
and specieB of them are found today
In India and the islands farther eastward, and also ln Africa. In this
latter region they are especially
characteristic of the island of Madagascar, where they form about one-
half of the entire mammalian fauna.
Of the Tarsioldea, only one genus
exists today, the best known repre
sentatlve of which Is the Spectral
Tarsler, now found In Borneo, Java
and the Philippines. Bofore the close
of the Eoceno some member of this
branch must have acquired the power
of stereoscopic vision. This led to
his transformation into a primitive
monkey, with a considerable increase
In the size of his brain and a marked advance in his powers of skilled
movement and in general Intelligence.
From this primitive simian arose,
by progressive modification, all the
later monkeys and, through them,
the Apes and Man. Structurally
speaking, they show considerable advance upon the earlier and more
primitively - organized Lemuroids,
some of which to this day show
marsupial characters In the form of
a rudimentary pouch; and, though as
a rule they have but a single pair
of pectoral teats for suckling their
young, they sometimes show an additional abdominal or even inguinal
(groin)  pair of theso organs,
Their dentition, too, Is more primitive, both in the charactor and ln
the number of their teeth. They
possess on extra pre-molar on each
side of their Jaws. This gives them
a total of 36 teeth Instead of tho 32
characteristic of all the anthropoldea
or upper division of the Primates,
with tho exception of tho American
Cebldae, which also possess theso extra pre-molars, as well as many other  primitivo  characteristics,
The more primitive characters of
tho New World monkeys plainly
show us that a division of the monkeys must have taken place early In
Eocene times, and that the American
branch must have retained In a
larger measure tjio morphological
characters of the Lemurlods; for they
are much more primitivo and closer
to them in many ways than are the
membors of tho Old World branch.
According to those authorities, who,
like Elliot Smith, regard Central America as the scat of the evolution
and dispersion of the anthropoldea,
groups of Lemurs, Tarsolds and
primitive monkeys must have left this
region and wondered by some of the
early lund bridges which then connected lho Old and New Worlds, Into
Africa, Asia and Europe.
Later In tho Tertiary period, whon
these land bridges no longer existed,
the separation between thc Old and
New World monkeys becamo completo; and each dlvlsioN ovolvod along
linos of Its own which resulted in tbo
many deeply - seated morphological
differences we find in tho two
branches today. This separation and
Independent evolution would bo the
snmo, it may be pointed out, whether
India or any other portion of tho
Old World was the place of their
origination. Tt would merely moan
that tho .migratory bands bad gon*
westward rathor than eastward, The
differential results would ho thi
snmo when once the separation had
como about.
Tho question of the centre of the
evolution and  dispersion  of tho An
thropoldea, while of considerable Interest in itself, is not of .priniary im.*;
portance In this inquiry, so we need
not Involve ourselves in a discussion
of it here, beyond saying that it has
not been made easier of settlement
by the recent discovery of two fossil
anthropoid teeth In the Tertiary sediments of Nebraska. The creature to
whom these teeth belonged has been
named Hespero - pithecus, or the
Western Ape. The characters of the
teeth are said to show his close relationship to the Homlnidee or human family. He is of late Tertiary
This discovery has proved equally
disconcerting to both sides, for wherever the place of origin of, the early
monkeys might be thought to be, lt
was generally agreed that the Old
World was the scene of the evolution of the later nun-apes, and that
the separation of the two branches
of tne monkeys took place before
their evolution came about. No* if
this common view of the Old World
origination of the man-apes is t& be
still maintained, we must conclude
that the land connections between
the Old and New Worlds were not'
cut off until after the evolution of
the higher apes had taken place;
and that some of them must have
found their way from the Old to the
New World by those routes.
There are no insuperable difficulties In the way of taking this view
of the matter. We know that such
Old World animals as the great elephants, the sabre-toothed tiger,-and
others, found their way into America
in Tertiary times; as likewise did the
camels, now known to have originated in the New World, find their
way, on the other hand, into the Old
Until, therefore, other material
proofs of the presence of the higher
apes in the New World of earlier
date than Hespero-pithecus may be
brought to-light, we may still hold
the view that they first appeared ln
the Old Wordl, where most of tho
fossil remains of their collateral relative, man, are also found.
- The first record we have of the
Anthropoid, or Man-like Apes, comes
from North Africa. In the early
Ollgocene deposits of the Egyptian
Fayum the remains of three fossil
Primates have been discovered. One
of these was a small tailless ape with
primitive Gibbon-like characters, to
wliich the namo Proplloplthecus has
been given. From it, or some kindred form, the modern Gibbon and
Slamang, the smallest of the living
anthropoids, are believed to have
sprung. Another was a tailed monkey of the Old World Catarrhlne
We gather from these fossil forms
that the Old World or Catarrhlne
monkeys had undergone important
structural changes since their separation from the New World or Pla-
tyrrhlne branch. Just as some mem
ber of the Tarsloids had given rise
to a primitive monkey, so from some
member of the Catarrhlne stock
sprang tho primitive apes.
Between the period of Proplloplthecus and tho early part of the
Miocene, largo numbers of anthropoids
must have come into existence; for
their fossilized remains are found In
various parts of the world In the deposits of this period, In Africa, in
Asia and in Europe. In India, In
particular, many new forms appear,
some of which, it is held, gave rise
to the  other three members of  the
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' (t INCDNPOftATCD **-> I- WAV  l«rO W ^1  1
Slmildte, or anthropoid family—the
Orang, the Chimpanzee and the Gorilla—as well as to the earliest types
of the Homlnidee or human family.
Palaeontologists are now generally
agreed that by the middle of the
Miocene epoch the differentiation of
th0 SimlldEc and the Homlnidee had
already begun,
Of tho former, many characteristic types are known. One of the
more interesting of these ia Pllopith-
ecus, from Europe, a direct descendant seemingly of the more primitive
Ollgocene Proplloplthecus. Its Gibbon-like characters are so marked
that It might well represent the ancestral form of the modern Gibbons.
Another Is Dryopithecus, from the
Miocene deposits of France, looked
upon by somo authorities as distantly
related to the ITomlnldm. Still another Is Sivaplthecus, from India. Kr.
Pilgrim, the discoverer of tho remains, from which this new genus
has been created, has claimed for it
relationship with the human family;
but this view hns not been very generally accepted. Yet Sivaplthecus,
whether regarded ub within or with
out the Homlnidee, will always be of
deep Interest for us, Inasmuch as It
exhibits strong humanold characters
in its teeth, thus pointing directly
towards Man, We know, too, that in
the Miocene there roamed among the
foothills of the Himalayas large numbers of Apes, whose structural characters show them to be closely akin
to the modern Orange, Chimpanzees,
Gorillas and Primitive Man. We
can scarcely doubt, therefore, that
some of these Indian forms stand in
the direct line ef descent of the
modern anthropoids and man.
In the face of this evidence, it is
difficult to avoid the conclusion that
this region was the main centre of
their evolution and distribution. Here
most probably arose, not later than
thc middle of the Miocene, that fateful creature from whoso loins wore
to spring tho present-day anthropoid
Apes, on the ono hand, and Mankind
on the other.
(To be continued.)
To degrade science and intelligence Is nil that capitalism has done
for brain workers,—Paul Lafargue.
Official Organ of the
Published in the Interests of All Workers
ITHE party is desirous of making what contribution it can to the better-
* ment of society. It realizes that the most effective method to accomplish this end is by educating the masses through the medium of its press,
and likewise the best literature procurable regarding the Labor movement. There is no other means available to the workers to voice their
opinions. Work with us to make The Federationist a mighty power for
good in Vancouver and throughout British Columbia. Principles, not
personalities, are alone desirable.
Contributions for The Federationist are always welcome. Be brief
and write on one side of the copy paper. Matter for publication should
reach this offlce by Tuesday. Advertisements received up to Wednesday
You must have The Federationist in the home eaoh week to keep in touch
with the City, Provincial and Federal and International Labor Movement.
Subscription Rate: United States and foreign, $3.00 per year; Canada,
$2.50 per year, $1.50 for six months.
Estimates will be furnished on all lands of work,
gladly offer his services to those desiring them.
Our solicitor will
FRIDAY March 20,
That We Believe To Be Without Equal
High-Grade   Upright   Piano,    made   for   MASON   &
RISCH, selling very special at the
unpreccdentedly low  price of	
MOKltltt PIANO; looks like new. This has been in
the possession of one of Vancouver's foremost violinists, who la leaving for England, ^QOC
hence the low price
BELL   PIANO;   high-grade   walnut   upright,   with
patented steel  back and all improvements.    Regular $600.    Like new,
for only 	
Any One of the Above Hay Be Purchased on Exceptionally
Easy Terms
443 Hastings Street West
Phone Sey. 2444 Oorner Richards
Timely Topics
Tho Price of Wheat
■THE price ot wheat ia sllppine down
Now we won****" " list, —
flour will slip down too. Pricos seem
to go up so easily—they aro about
the only things that wo can think ot
at present that has that peculiar faculty. Perhaps, there are signs of a
bumper wheat crop already on the
prairies next fall! Doubtless they
will bo springing that as a reason for
the drop. They do many such ridiculous things, so far us wo are concerned
—and we let them get away with It.
.   Fuscl.sU and Lubor
We note with interest the report
of the strike in Italy. In spite of
Mussolini and his tribe, or perhaps
because of them, workers, of the fascisti faith, feel compelled to rebel
against the many wrongs they have
been suffering, The oconomic situation in Italy, undor the presont autocracy ls becoming grave—as lt will
under any form of government that
Insists upon our present capitalistic
form ot socioty remaining. The fascisti workers have joined forces with
the socialist workers In the recont
strike. When they learn that their
only hope for bettering their social
ami economic lot, is to Join with the
socialist workers, to form a sooialist
government, then they will be on their
Way to their real emancipation, and
not before. ,
Tlio Mining Boom
Already Vancouver's first efforts—
or rather the effort of hor dally press
—In bearing fruit. Somo poor dupes
die being misled—as lt was Intended
that they should be.   Of course since
WB WERE In favor of the
stores being kept open until 10 o'clock Saturday evenings
for the convenience of the
workers, but the 'Petition was
turned down.
Men's   Nifty   Onfords,   tan   or
black     »5.95
It will pay you  to investigate
the Greb Work Boot.
Special   M*»5
Men's Twoed Caps: to clear  60c
Men's   Military   Orey   Work   Shirts;
cut price  —.......  11.15
Men's  Blue   Chambray Work   Shirts
at   56c
Palmer's Bib Overalls  61*00
Atlantic    Cream    Knit    Combination
Underwear; por suit  1.05
Arthur Frith & Co.
Men'i and Boys' Furnishing!
Hats, Hoots uid Shoei
fittfHu 7th and 8th avouaaa
Phone, Fairmont 14
our (?) daily presa" does not care
to report the fact, that our logging
industry is vory quiet, they muBt report something—especially a scheme
that might put a little advertising
money in their cash registers. Since
they must tell falsehoods, or half
truths, they might as woll tell it about
mining as anything el.se. It is a habit
with them now.
In Memory of Heroes
The memory of "West Vancouver's
heroes will be forever preserved In an
arch of stone! That will be a wonderful comfort to the widows and orphans they have left. It will be a
comfort to the thousands of returned
men throughout the length and;
breadth of the Dominion who are
searching everywhere, and in vain,
for work. When will we ever develop a sense of proper proportions, we
• *    *
Berlin is considering the suicide
question, because there is an alarming increase In self-inflicted deaths.
Maybe there is some connection between these and the Dawes plan. Japan might insist on a similar Inquiry
concerning the number of child suicides due, no doubt, to an overflowing
population, too little subsistence and
no way out of the difficulty—except
immigration, trouble, and war—under capitalism.
• •    *
The French and German Nationalists are arguing on the momentous
question of whether France's "Unknown Soldier" Is really French or
not. Thus do people use their brainB
and energy. And thus are they exploited, sldo-tracked Into Issues that
matter nothing at all.
• *    *
Our paternal government virtually
admits Its helplessness when it acknowledges the terrible conditions prevailing among the miners of Nova
Scotia. Nevertheless it draws quite
substantial royalties.
• *    *   .
Drug addicts are to be treated in
Ontario, if It is found possible to
overcome the obstacles to progress In
the shape of the laws regarding these
unfortunate victims,
Man's knowledge of natural forces
and his power to control them, used
co-operatively, would ensure a plenitude of material comforts, and when
these needs are automatically satisfied who can define the limit of his
intellectual advancement? — J.
Dobson, ln London Justice.
"Learn what is true, in order to do
what is right," Is the summJng up of
the whole duty of man, for all who
are unable to satisfy ' their mental
hunger with the east wind of author
Woman and the
Game of War
J. S. Woodsworth
(Continued from page 1)
Ask for CATTO'S.    For salo at nil Government Liquor Store*
TUi tdnrtuunnt U nol p-biumd or Uaplartd bj tbt Liquor Control Iwd or
bf flu OonmiM-t or British Columbia .
Fresh  Cut  Flowen, Funeral Designs, Wedding  Bouquets, Pol Plants,
Ornamental and Shade Trees, Seeds, Bulbs, Florists' Sundries
Brown Brothers & Co. Ltd.
4— STORES—*1
ts HmHw Streot But Soy. B8I-S72    865 art-MUl Stroot--.Oe,. »»"•«"
161 Hutings Stmt W«it. Oe,. 1870    1647 OoorgU Stroot Woit Sir* 7*lia
STOVES AND RANGES, both malleable and steel,
McClary's, Fawcett's, Canada's Pride, installed
free by experts; satisfaction guaranteed. Cash or
$2.00 per week. -
Canada Pride Range Company Ltd.
346 Hastings Street East
Sey. 2399
The Betrayal
Women were asked, commanded in the name of democracy, God,
and home, to hand over their sons to the state. Almost without
questions they did so. In return they were promised that war would
be abolished, life made more secure, and their children rescued from
poverty, ignorance, and slum life.
What are the realities seven years after the "Peace that ended
The men responsible for the war of 1914 have not ceased their
diplomatic intrigues for one hour. Night nnd day they sit in every
chancellory of the world laying plans for the "next war" whicli
according to their own statements will be more terrible than the
world has yet experienced. These old men fossilized in hypocrisy,
corrupted to the core with their lust for power and greed. These
old men not a hair of whose head was injured through war, these
old men who waxed fat, achieved "glory," and "honor" for heroic
deeds, mostly performed on paper, at the end of telephones, or wireless, far away from the Hell of battle, are gathering up their sinews
of war, laying their plans arid setting their nets to again ensnare and
entrap the youthof all nations. These men no sooner "dispose," of
one war than they set to planning another.
These men are planning wholesale extermination and debasing
science for the purpose of war. Thc nations are groaning under a load
of debt, the legacy of the late wars. Standards of health, education,
and home life, are being reduced to alarmingly low levels in order to
obtain millions for the "next war." Every advance in knowledge
and science heralds new discoveries in the art of man killing.
If there is another war it will be terrible beyond thought, the
inventions of death during the war were becoming more terrible,
month by month, since then the ingenious mind of man has gone on
perfecting these hellish devices at a rate hitherto undreamed of, except in Germany where it is prohibited by the terms of the Peace
Treaty. Experiments in the use of chemicals as war weapons are
being, openly conducted by all nations, .and by the Signatory Powers
who are party to the Washington Treaty, to prevent the use in war
of noxious gasses and chemicals.
If the war had lasted a little longer, on the authority of our air
lords, "we should have bombed many more regardless of sex." All
governments are spending huge sums experimenting in laboratories
with a view to making poison gas, lethal acids, high explosives, more
deadly, to bc dropped on innocent defenseless women and children
from dragons of death, poluting the sky as their murderous bodies
glide through the air.
The exchequers issues as to war, given in the House of Commons
last March (in answer to Mr. T. Johnson, M.P.) showed that between
1st of April, 1914, and 31st of March, 1919, there were nine thousand,
five hundred and ninety million pounds sterling spent on war.
Sincfi that time another one thousand, two hundred and ninety million pounds sterling has been spent on militarism.
Francis Ahern, Australian correspondent reports the following
nterview with a highly placed military officer who was recently in
Australia on a secret mission:
"Behind closed doors of laboratories and in secluded workshops,
and in lonely bays or remote spaces of the world, has begun, with
government secret funds, the strangest and wierdest battle of wits
that has ever been embarked upon.
"Tanks that swim, great metal sea destroyers that fly, uncanny
air machines which dive silently beneath the waters to hide themselves, crews who must learn to live and fight in three different elements—land, sea, or air—it is with such marvels and closely guarded
schemes that the great push has begun for world power.
"Great Britain is carrying out tests secretly. A machine is being built for the air ministry by the Fairey Co., in which there are
four of the new Condor engines, built by the Rolls-Royce Co., cleaving the surface of the water prior to taking wing, and developing
nearly 3000 horse power.
"To keep abreast of the times, the British naval authorities
have entrusted to a well known supcrmarine company the construction of the largest flying boat ordered by them since the war. This
winged vessel is intended to go out with the fleet for almost any
length of time desired.
"Its hull when resting on the water will ride out rough seas.
It will taxi along the water like a surface ship, or speed off through
the air. It is to have anchors, foghorns, riding lights, and all the
equipment of tho ordinary vessel of tho sea while its crew within
the hull will eat and sleep on board just like the crew of an ordinary naval eraft. Designs also in hand for machines which will be
an amplification of such amphibians as the ' Vicker's Viking'.
"The new machine will fight like a tank on earth, be a super
destroyer on water, and climb to give combat in the air, and when
concealment is required, it will fold its wings, seal its hull and dive
like a submarine beneath the surface of the sea.
"These uncanny monsters are to be called Tessaurins, meaning
'machines which live in all elements.' Science is striving to make
these crafts both silent and invincible."
In the next War "the whole of the Manhood most of the Womanhood, and part of the Childhood of the Nation will be involved."—
Army and Navy Gazette, 11/12/20.
The British Air Ministry has given orders for the construction
of a three-ongined battleplane which will be the most powerful and
desti'uctivo weapon in the world. Tt will be run with three 1000 h.p.
Napier "Cub" engines, and it is expected to attain a speed of 140
miles an hour.
General Swinton says that progress is being made in tho development of rays for lethal purposes. "We have X-rays," he says.
"We have light rays. We have heat rays. ... We may not be so
very far from the development of some kind of lethal ray which
will shrivel up or paralyse or poison human beings."
General Swinton also prophesies the coming of germ warfare. "I
think it will come to that," ho says, "and so far as I can see there is
no reason why it should not. . . We must envisagejhesc new forms
of warfare and as far as possible expend energy, time, and money
in encouraging our inventors and scientists to study the waging of
war on a wholesale scale instead of. . . . thinking so much about
methods which will kill a few individuals only at »time."
Headlines in the London Daily News (18-12-23)
A Happy New Year I
Says Commander Burney:
"Gases now exist that are more than 1000 times as powerful as
anything used in the late war, and on a still day I venture to think
that containers carrying gas instead of explosives would kill more
people than the same weight of bombs. There is one gas so powerful that the person inhaling it would be killed instantaneously.
When the gas was tried upon a eat, the animal fell over dead
without even a tremor. Sueh a gas would not give peoplo time to
put on gas masks."
"With regard to germs and bacteria, I do not propose to
enlarge on this matter, but I am given to understand that flasks and
containers filled with those could bc popped into reservoirs and
would thus poison the water supply of all towns."
A Happy Now Year!
Thc ramifications of war nre international. War Lords and munition makers know no nation. Their patrioism is a cloak for profits.
In Bedford, England, they have a gun—"a trophy"—nnd in
front, on a brass plate, is engraved: "Captured by the jBedfords
at Gaza from the Turks." _\nd on Hie hack, on a bigger brass
plate, wo read: "Made by Sir George Armstrong, Whitworth &
Japan, wc arc informed, is turning out aeroplanes at the rate of
500 weekly. (To bo continued)
and olher disability which would include old age pensions, widows* pensions and maternity benefits should
be instituted by the federal government in conjunction with the governments of the several provinces; and
that on matters pertaining to industrial and social legislation an effort
ahould be made to overcome any question of jurisdiction between the Dominion and the provinces by effective
co-operation between the several governments.
Up to date there has been no provision whatever for unemployment insurance. Last year's committee of
this House prepared a report on old
age pensions. That report, however,
was only presented and was not recom-
monded to this House, and the Speech
from the Throne gives no indication
whatever that action along this line
is contemplated. As to maternity benefits and sickness benefits, these have
not even been mooted.
3. The representation of labor on
federal commissions pertaining to labor matterB.
We rpight as well havo representation, as has been asked for by the
Trades and Labor Congress of Canada,
on the Industrial Research Board and
other boards. That fceems a very
reasonable request
4. Effective legislation for the conservation of human life and health.
In the past year or so there has
been a distinct tendency to cut estimates along these lines rather than
to make more abundant provision for
the conservation of life and health.
6. The representation of labor on
the board of directors of the Canadian
National Railways.
I gladly admit that this has been
done, and we have the president of
the Trades and Labor Congress, one
member on the Board representing
6. That the system of re-training
soldiers, unfitted for their past work
because of physical injuries, be extended to disabled workers in industry.
I have been unable to learn that
any steps have been taken to make
good this pledge.
7. More effective restriction of
Chinese immigration.
In face of this, we had last year
the iniquitous regulation—I call lt no
other—of permitting Chinese in bond
to work on the boats of the British
Empire Steel Corporation.
8. The federal Incorporation of Co
operative associations.
This has been urged again and
again. What action the government
will take on a resolution in this regard before the House at this session
remains to be seen; but when two
years ago we in this corner of the
House pressed for legislation that
would permit of the organization of
co-operative banks, it was refused us.
9. The acceptance of the principle
of proportional representation.
The government may possibly say
that It agrees with the principle. Certainly, it has not put it into practice
because we havo had that proposed
from this side and It has not received
government support.
10. Immediate and drastic action
by the government with respecj to tlie
high cost of living and profiteering.
Perhaps we should hope along this
line, for at this fourth session of
parliament the Governor General's
Speech offers to us the prospect that
the govornment may still continue to
consider this matter.
11. Restoration of the control of
the executive by parliament and of
parliament by the people through a
discontinuance of government by or*
government by order ln council. I
think we have been a good deal freer
in that regard than w.e were during
war-time. But I would point out the
danger that we may substitute government by commission because in
recent years, not altogether by this
government, but by previous governments, there have been erected powerful commissions that are not very
directly responsible to this parliament.
Further, we have had one or two
examples of what might be termed
govornment by department. I think
of the case of a man refused entry to
this country not in accordance with
regulations passed by this parliament,
but because of certain regulations decided upon by the theu Minister of
Immigration. We have had placed
before us this, charter of Labors rights
by the Liberal Association, and no
doubt many labor men have'been Induced to support the Liberal government because they believed the gov*
ernment would carry out at least some
of the provisions contained in this
charter. Labor has been patient, perhaps too patient. At this fourth session of, parliament we might surely
have expected that something would
bo done. I do not intend horo to urge
in detail what could be done even
under exiting circumstances. I should
like to suggest to this House, as I
have dono before, that as we gather
together in the comfortablo surroundings of this Chamber and discuss general principles and statistics, wo are
very far removed indeed from the
great masses of the people of Canada.
During the past recess, I have had
an opportunity of going across Canada from coast to coast, and I do not
find that the people In the east, or
the west, or tho centre, are very happy. IJossibly the Prime Minister and
those who accompanied him may
have had opportunities of meeting
with the well-to-do and those who
are profiting by, and comfortable under, existing conditions. I have had
an opportunity of coming Into very
close contact with those who are^any-
thlng but comfortable or satisfied. I
would urge that we should not, for
tho sake of mere party advantage,
neglect the pressing problems of the
hour, nor fail to carry out the principle that underlies one of these clauses of the Liberal platform which I
have read—that human values are of
Inflnitoly more importance than mere
material considerations. We should
recognlzo cloarly that the Intorests of
labor and of tho common people of
tho country ought to receive the ilrst
consideration. There, it seems to me,
ls the fundamental question that confronts tHe i poople of this country.
Everywhere we are told that property
must be protected, that the bondholders must be made secure, and
on. The time is coming when the
people will rise in their might, not by
menns of armed strength, for they do
not noed that in this country, but in
the full force of their intelligence,
and demand that the governing bodies
of this country see to it that their
welfare shall receivo first attention.
Junior Labor League
At the oducational meeting of the
league several questions were discus
sed. These meetings give tho young
people every opportunity to air their
views on the various quostions. Most
of those attending the meetings lose
no time In taking advantage of this
and make things lively for those who
might differ with them.
The regular business meeting will
be held this Thursday. Members are
notified that flues for the second
quarter are payable now.
The   league   Is   arranging   another
dance at the Elks hall on Good Prl-
der ln council and a Just franchise Iday*   " >"-"- "Sateti the last one, don't
and its exercise under free conditions. m-Ha the next one.    A good time ls
I do not know that we have had I guaranteed.
We Are Now Selling: th
From the old WAKE. '
SEAM. This eoalK
superior to any n
Vancouver Island .,
having More Heat, ^
Ash, and contains No f
No Shale and No Clinl I
If this coal is not satisll
tory in every respect you
money will be cheerfully re
A Trial Will Convince
Every Consumer
Leslie Coal
Co. Ltd.
Phone Sey. 71ST
Laborltes will be greatly hell
tlio Labor Movement by pu_hlr*,g
sale of Tbe. B. C. Federationist,
Ohlropnetor, 709 P___m_lr St.; 10 tlj|
Pnnimulr St.; 1
Sey. 8798. Evga. by »ppt.; Suadtyi,
GUuea not prmcHbtd ul«M
■bioiuxlr aMMurr.   Bro!-
UttttatUma' #...»««*.
—t*im0*m'<m,'<i!** '••**" ***'
;!*9!*"."-'™ < T"...
::rwkii lm<.» oitbai
itn«  iff  . meat*
Bft*._0rst«f  <fc_   addreui
-aotrtmrtatamrta'.   wn
It. W.
_.„.„-u_..i... ...
CANAEk-V «nd
Workers! Support Your Own Press!
QrO FREQUENTLY we hear workers complaining about the injustice of
^ the "daily" or "capitalist" press, and about how unfair it is toward the
cause of labor—and yet they continue to give their hard-earned money to
perpetuate that institution.
The capitalist press today is thriving on the one and five-cent pieces of *
thoughtless—or ignorant—workers, while their own press has to struggle
against long odds in its efforts to serve them. Why be your own oppressors?
Why serve in the ranks of the enemy?
If you are desirous of improving your own condition, and that of your fellowmen, then support the press that is honestly endeavoring to fight your I
battle for you. That is the very least you can do for your own cause.
Show your own sincerity of purpose and willingness to serve by sub
scribing for The Federationist—the workers' friend.  Pass your copy on to'
some fellow-worker after you have read it.  Urge him to subscribe.
Help The Federationist in its fight for the emancipation of mankind.
The greater our circulation, the more effectual will our efforts be. Apathy ]
and indifference on the part of the workers is more to be feared than the antagonism of the forces of reaction.
Be true to your cause!  Help boost your own press.
Official Organ of the Federated Labor Party


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