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British Columbia Federationist Sep 21, 1923

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Array BRITISH COLUMBIA FEDERATIONIST
INDUSTRIAL UNITY: STRENGTH
Official Organ Vancouver Trades and Labor Council (International)
.4 POLITICAL UNITY*: VICTORY
FIFTEENTH YEAR.   No. 38
FOUR PAGES
VANCOUVER, B. C, FRIDAYJVIORNING, SEPTEMBER 21,1923
$2.50 PER YEAR
Livings Wage and Better
F. A. Hoover Vivers Strong Address Before Conciliation Board
Sitting on Ne Wages Schedule for British Columbia Electric
Railway Emplo ^s—Responsibility Regarding Important Issue
JT1HE Conciliation Board completed
A the hearing; of evidence on Uon-'
i day, when F. A, Hoover presented his
statement on behalf of the B. C. Electrio railway employees. He spoke as
follows:
Mr.   Chairman  and  Gentlemen  of
| the BoardT I want to state frankly
i and honestly at the outset, that, while
! I have on several occasions been as-
I sociated in wage disputes and Conciti-
[ ation board proceedings, never have
I I felt more than at the present time,
• the responsibility, or partial respon-
. stbllity for such an important issue
in involved here—a matter af-
I fecting   so   many   people,     When   I
think that the welfare, in part at least,
[ of probably more than 6000 human
1 beings may possibly be affected  by
what is said or done here, I repeat,
| that the  responsibility  is  great   on
those whose task It is to lay their
I claims before this board, but we are
, convinced  that the justice  of those
claims has not only been established,
but has not in the main been directly attacked.
I shall  not attempt  to make   an
adequate  and   thorough  analysis  of
I the evidence that has previously been
f dealt with,  but will  only  touch  on
■ those matters which I feel should be
I more fully analyzed from our viewpoint. The men here a.\*e not asking
for anything new. They are not asking for a wage rate which has never
before  prevailed  between  this  com-
Ipany and Its employees. They are not
asking for anything new or startling.
They are simply asking for that something which was taken away from
them over a year and a half ago, and
which they say and feel waB taken
away from them wrongfully.
Request  Should Be  Granted
They are simply asking that that be
restored, and that Ib what this controversy is about.    Wo feel that we
have maintalnel the Issue and have
shown  adequate  ample  reason  why
their request should be granted.    I
cannot go Into every reason and, aB I
said,  I  Bhall  touch  only the  things
which seem Important to me.   At flrst
•I shall touch upon the nature of the
•work that these men on the caTs perform.    We have shown here by the
testimony of several  motormen  and
conductors  (which in many respects
Is corroborated by Mr. Murrin), tbat
these men are a body of picked men.
iThey aro not common, unskilled labor.
They are a body of picked men, carefully selected, and sorted out.    They
have   to    make   application,   which
shows practically their history from
the date of birth and, if satisfactory,
before he ls called to work, he is put
through    a    physical    examination.
They test out his eye Bight, his hearing, and whether or not he can distinguish between colors.   Then, if he
survives all the tests, he is made a
Istudent and for at least two weeks,
|he  Ib  under  instruction  and   works
without pay.   The physical qualifications are not all the qualifications de-
pnanded.   The conductor has to be a
nan  of judgment,  of tact,  courtesy
tnd diplomacy; has to be able to read
ind write; has to be conversant with
lII of the 200 or more rulea that gov-
irn his duties in the occupation, and
ie has to watch dally for all new bul-
etlna that may be posted by the traffic
uperlntendent and be familiar with
hem.   Ignorance of these rules and
mlletlns is never accepted as an excise for not complying with them.
Makes Good to the Penny
!' The conductor fs the collector or
reasurei1, if you please, of the company's funds. He has got to give ac-
urate account of them, and has to
pake good to the penny any losses
,e may have, no matter what the
ause, and it Is right that he Bhould.
te ls the man who stands between the
impany and the public.    The'man
hose personality has a great deal to
lo with the successful handling of the
raffle of the company. During the
finter montha the -conductor has to
and freezing on the back platform of
he car, often eight hours at a time,
Without any heat and with the vesti-
|ule side entirely open, exposing; him
> drafts and the cold.   That, as the
Vfdence of one conductor put lt, la a
Irlme to compel human being to en*
pure.   Th* motorman has to be alert;
; man who can think quickly In an
tmergency; he has to have skill in
peratlng his car, otherwise he will
ause accidents. He is constantly encountering emergencies; his one trip
larles entirely from the next trip; he
Boes not do his work automatically
Lnd simply; because he has made one
urlp safely does not mean that he will
hake the next one in the same way.
She responsibility of these men can-
lot be magnified. The motorman In
■ne moment of abstraction might
liuso a disaster that would not only
|c.st this company enormous money
jamageB, but that would land him In
(ll to face a charge of manslaughter.
Houra of Work Uncertain
}. He has to have his mind and eye on
Sis work every instant, and, like the
inductor, haB to be conversant with
ver 200 operating rules. These men
p i entering the service, are put on an
Ktra list; it usually takes several
[ears before they get a regular run,
nd while on the extra list the houra
|f work are entirely uncertain.   They
1 ay be called to work a couple off the thousands of wage increases that
I* »rs in the morning and, perhaps, in
the evening to finish out their run.
They may finish at 12 o'clock mid*
night, and be called to report at 6
o'clock the next morning. The evidence of Mr. Turner shows that,
though he has been in the service
over three years, yet he is still working these hours and under these conditions. The evidence of Mr. Smith
shows that he haB to put in over 12
hours to get a day's work of eight
hours, though he has been in the service over 11 yeara Now, so much for
the work done hy theae men. We
have also shown you that the wage
trends all over the contfnent are on
the increase. Now, in addition to that,'
we have shown you that the Vancouver street railway employees have not
received increases on their wage rates
since 1919 anything nearly so much
as have street rallwaymen In many
other places.' That Mr, Chairman, fs
shown In our "exhibit 4." In Vancouver, in several trades and callings,
wages have also been increased this
year, and we have shown that the
wages paid ln the city for a similar
class of work to ours ls on an overage from $20 to ¥30 per month higher
than is paid the street railway employees in this city, and we have
Bhown you all of these facts by our
exhibits 8, 10 and 11," which nobody has attempted to deny.
Significant Feature
The significant feature, with all of
Representatives of Labor Taken
on a Cruise Around Burrard
Inlet and English Bay        {
Vancouver's harbour has been given wide -publicity during the past few
months, and it received a little more
on Saturday last whet about fifty representatives of organized labor were
taken by the Harbor board's yatoh,
Pispa, Captain. Hamersly, up Burrard inlet and around the various
docks, Including the Baliantyne pier
now in course of construction. The
delegates who were' invited wero duly
Impressed with the extent of Vancouver's waterfront, and its possibilities as a port for the shipping of
the produce of the farmers of the
prarie country. On arrival at the
Baliantyne pier, the delegates were
conducted by Lieutenant C. O. Julian,
R.N.C.V.R., in charge of the signal
station at Prospect point, and Sergeant Major Jimmie Bobinson, D.C.O.
who pointed out the features of this
pier and its docking facilities, and
labor-saving devices. Leaving the
Baliantyne pier, the Fispa conveyed
the delegates further up the Inlet,
past the Dollar mills and other Industrial plants. English bay with all its
beauties was also visited and the delegates shown the bathing facilities
and the efforts made by the city authorities to attract visitors to thla
city. In addition to the efforts made
to entertain the representatives of organized labor by showing them the
Various features of Vancouver's waterfront and beaches, every attention was
given to their creature comforts, Delegate W. Colmar, president of the
local Hotel.and Restaurant Employees unton being ln charge of this
feature of the entertainment. His
efforts were more than appreciated,
nothing being left out of the program,
and the general expression of opinion
was that the delegates, from the time
of their arrival, had never been better treated and cared for than they
were in Vancouver, and the Harbor
board's courtesy and invitation was
heartily appreciated by those who
were Invited,
The Invited guests were as follows:
Tom Moore, president of the Tradea
and Labor congress of Canada; First
Vice-President Foster, Second-Vice
president Aid. R. P. Pettipiece, Third
Vice-president A. J. Crawford, and
the following representatives of international unions: W. N. Reddlck, representing the American Federation of
Labor; Arthur Martel, Harry Kirk-
win, J, A. Mclennan, Robert Hewitt,
Frank Grlfford, W. G. Powlesland, E.
Ingles, J. Noble, C. Harding, J. McDonald, F. Griffard, F. Bush, J. A. Bel-
land, M. Bruce, J. Hey, Jos. Pellitler,
Walter Owen, A. Farmlllo, E. O'Dell,
E. D. Gulnn, Thos. Izzard, Tim Buck,
Maurice Davis, Wm. Dunn, F. W.
Welsh, S. G. Smylie, A. S. Wells, Fred
A. Hoover, Omer Fleury, J. Hale, J.
Simpson, J. A. Sullivan, Birt Showier, B. Worthall. Secretary Bengough of the Vancouver Trades and
Labor council, who was chairman of
the local entertainment committee,
was present, nnd aided in the work of
the committee In providing for the
comfort of the delegates. R. H.
Neelands, M. L. A., for South Vnncouver, while not a delegate to" the
congress, was -present and was able
through the information he had gained as a* legislator, to give the delo-
gatets considerable information about
the resourses of the province, and
the necessity of the development of
the harbor facilities at the last great
west terminal.
have been so general throughout the
continent within the last year, is that
they have been established, despite
employers' contentions that the cost
of living has materially decreased,
"Exhibit IS," for example, shows that
though the street railwaymen in Chicago recently received an increase In
wages of from 3 cents to 5 cents per
hour, yet the company's charts showed
a decrease in the cost of living In
Chicago of 21.7 per cent, since 1920.
In other words, all of these wage increases have not been established on
the cost of living basis (otherwise the
general trend In wages would have
been downward instead of upward).
Rather they have been established on
the increased standard of living, which
the workers everywhere are insistently demanding in view of the fast-
changing conditions through science
and invention in Industry that makes
for greater efficiency. As workers we
feel that we are jUBtly entitled to a
more (equitable share of the good
things of life as the productivity of
the worker increases—to something
more than Just a mere existing wage.
Oh, yes, Mr. Murrin would have wages
adjusted on the cost of living basis;
that Is, for the organized branch of
his employees only, when he knows
that by thiB method he could for ever
keep them on a bare subsistence level
as at present. The average earnings
of even the higher paid men, as
shown by the company's pay rolls, is
approximately |1450 per year, or
nearly $350 less than the amount required to purchase in Vancouver thoae
necessities whioh our "exhibit 3"
shows are essential for any family of
average size to have.
Yearly Cost of Budget
The yearly cost of this budget of
household expenses we have shown to
be a little under $1800, and in that
budget we challenge anyone to point
to any Item that is estimated too high,
or is unreasonable, or that Is not an
absolute necessity. It ls not an artificial standard, as referred tb by Mr.
Murrin, but it is a minimum standard, belcw whloh no family in this
city should go. Yet the great bulk of
the company's employees are nearly
20 per cent, below that standard. The
inconsistency and insincerity of Mr,
Murrin's argument on the cost of
living theory is quite obvious when
he applies it to only one portion of
his employeea—the organized, but
none to the dther. What is the company's defense here? As I see it, it
la the same as used before the last
Conciliation Board in November,
1921. The findings of that board were
largely based on: (1) The law of
supply and demand; (2) Comparison
with wage rates paid In the city, and
elsewhere for similar class of work;
(3) That the cost of living had gone
down. Again the company's whole
defence seems to be directed and
based upon these three points, everyone of which we seriously contend is
a challenge to the principles of either
c.pnciliatfon or arbitration.
Cannot Reduce Wages
Gentlemen, your own ordinary common sense, your human feelings tell
you that you cannot control, you can*
not reduce wagea at all times by the
cost of living only, and you cannot
fix them, using as a standard your
oost of living figures. In other words,
you cannot say that because you had
such a standard of living In 1915,
therefore, we will never pay you a
wage that will give you a higher
standard of living. We are going to
keep you at that level as long as you
are with this company. I say that is
contrary to all reason, and progress
would be Impossible. What would be
the point to conciliation, if the men
knew that they were going to be held
to a cost of living basis? We will get
the government index flgure and we
will fix your wages. Why the need
of a board? We contend that lt
would be contrary to the trend of the
times to keep men on the same level
year in and year out regardless of
changing conditions. Now, in regard
to the law of aupply and demand, and
the comparison of wage rates; no
union with any sanity at all could go
before any board whon lt would know
that by comparison with the more unfortunate workera and the lower degrading wage, that lt would have its
wages reduced! Nothing could more
surely destroy the principle of arbitration- or conciliation than to establish wages by the law of comparison,
We have our protective tariff lawa
and our Immigration laws to protect
labor from the lower standards of the
old world. Now, what we do oi
government for i>ur people, we must
do for them In our organizations. We
cajnnot violate the law of reason.
Comparisons, if you please,- would
carry un, if we followed them far
enough to the standard of charity and
to Industrial strife. They would re
duce and destroy; justice and reason
are utterly excluded and the Incen
tive is encouraged to use force aginst
force to decide the issue.
Arbitrary Wage Rates
Gentlemen, I would ask you to look
at this question in the light that labor
views it .and in the light that our men
(Continued on page 4)
Congress   Delegates   Beport  at
Length—Amalgamation and
National Autonomy
STATE OF TRADE IMPROVED
International   Officers   Address
Meeting—Immigration Question—Spirit of Optimism
WHEN President Neelands called
the regular meeting of the Trades
and Labor council to order at 8:16
Tuesday night, there were fifty
delegates present, besides visitors.
Secretary Percy Bengough read the
minutes and reported for the executive committee.
A letter from Hamilton Carhart regarding union label overalls, was referred to the Label committee,
The British Progressive League
wrote suggesting that an investigation
be made regarding: low wages and
the further fact that thousands of
our people have left for the United
States..   Acknowledged.
The committee of Building Trades
delegates will meet Thursday evening, 20th inst.
Delegate Flynn, council's representative at the Trades and Labor congress, reported at length. The resolutions on amalgamation ' and national autonomy smothered by a resolution of non-concurrence. The congress went In favor o/ the Canadian
Labor party. Frank liodgea, the British labor delegate, -did not deliver a
strong statement It waa British and
imperialistic In tone and spirit,
Hodges believed that the working-
class of Great Britain would lead the
world in the labor movement, notwithstanding the Russian, Italian and
German movements. The remarks of
Reddick, the A. F. of L. representative, were of a common place order.
However, it was the best congress
held since 1915. He urged the delegates to get the official report of the
congress, and have a full delegation
from the west at next year's convention, which will be held at London,
Ont. Delegates Cottrell, Bengough
(Vancouver), Smith (Victoria), and
Sorly (New. Westminster), were elected the executive for ti, C. Delegates
Crawford and Pettipjece were two
successful1 dark hbrsetrin the contest
for the vice-presidencies,
Delegate Bengough said that the
reception committee worked wi'llngly
ail down the line. An agreeable surprise to the members of the committee were the presents they received
from the visitors for courtesies
shown,
On motion the delegates to the
Trades and Labor congress were
thanked for their services.
Delegate Pettipiece said that the
discussions at the Trades and Labor
congress never peached a higher level.
They were frequent clashes between
the "left" and "right" wings. The
"left" were clean in their remarks.
Delegate Hurry said that out of the
80 resolutions, there was only one on
education, and that came from Quebec. The resolutions " all asked the
governments to do"—only one "demanded." This was for reconstruction from present policy of congress,
He suggested that a committee be appointed to establish a college for
study of the labor movement.
State of Trade
Delegate Macdonald reported that
the tailors' strike had been settled.
All the bosses signed up for a ten per
cent. Increase In wages.
Painters reported trade was again
picking up, Maybe this was the laBt
spurt for this year.
Plasterers were all working. The
Essondale job was unfair. The day
wage was $8.
On motion,'the Educational League
(Continued on page 4)
Dr. Fetcrtdcy on Birth Control
"The Aims and Principles of the
Canadian Birth Control League," will
be the subject of an address to bc
delivered Friday night September 21,
by Dr. 8. Petersky, in the Board of
Trade rooms, Everybody is invited
to attend.
Mayoralty Candidates
- In these days of conventions, there
are a lot of whisperings going the
rounds about mayoralty candidates,
Among the talked-about are: Aid.
Owen, Aid. Pettlplece, ex-Aid. Kirk,
former Aid. McRae, Aid. Crowo, ex-
Mayor Gale and former Mayor Taylor.
C. L. Balne, general secretary-
treasurer of the Boot and Shoe Workers' union, Boston, Mass., will be in
the city on Monday, Sept. 24, to meet
the membership here, and he will also
attend the annual convention of the
A. F. of L. to be held in Portland,
Ore., commencing Oct. 1.
Ma«i Meeting
The milk salesmen and dairy em
ployees In conjunction with tho bak
ery    salesmen   are     holding a  mass
meeting on Wednesday, September 26,
to meet international organizer J. M,
Gillespie, who is paying a visit to this
locality.    All members are urged to
attend.    The place of meeting will bo
on  notice board at  labor headquart
ers, as at the timo of going to press
the joint council has been unablo to
get a hall.
Labor Problems Discussed
Important Addresses Delivered by Prominent Leaders Before
Thirty-ninth Convention of Trades and Labor Congress—Frank
Hodges—W. N. Reddick—Hon. Mr. Manson, Minister of Labor
0N
N    THURSDAY afternoon    (13thfnow four and a half millions strong, t
inst) Frank Hodges, the British
delegate, addressed the SOth annual
convention of the Trades and Labor
congress. The general public admitted, consequently the big hall in the
Hotel Vancouver was crowded to the
doors. He ls 38 years old, of medium height and dark,- with a clear-
cut face. His voice is clear, with
the perfection of an orator. He occupied one hour to deliver his very
able address,  which follows:
Mr. Hodges' Speech
"I assure you that this ls a memorable moment fn my life to be present
to bring to you—the newest lahor
movement—greetings from the oldest
labor movement in the world," began Mr. Hodges. He expressed his
gratitude for the kind receptions that
he and hiB wife had received since
placing their feet on Canadian soil.
At Montreal his meeting the representatives of labor was so hospitable,
to be unequalled In the old country.
Over there they may be remiss in
showing the warmth to visitors so
manifestly expressed in this country;
but he assured his hearers this welcome will be reciprocated in a like
manner in the future. The greetings he carried were from the great
labor movement in Great Britain.
The time was not, far distant when
delegates from the Irish free state
would attend gatherings of this kind.
[Applause].
1,250,000 Trade Unionists
Ireland has been accepted as a sovereign state in the League of Nations.
In Great Britain there were 4,250,000
trade unionists. For so many to send
fraternal delegates it may seem superficial. As an educative force ln the
complex problems of the labor movement the exchange of fraternal delegates became necessary. He confessed that when he came to Canada
he understood very little about this
great country, with its almost unlimited resources. Also he had learned
that labor In Canada has given sprout
to its wings, "You have a 'right
wing' and a 'left wing'," he said
amidst laughter. Wings wore . essen-
tial to birds—except ponguins. In
the trades union movement you must
have thom. But thc bird will make
little progress If one of its wings were
too one-sided/ Its plumage, too,
would bo disarranged.
About Great Britain
He believed that the delegates to
their congress were anxious to learn
how things stand in Great Britain.
No doubt, they preferred to hear that
the other fellows must be civilized.
It would bo easy for him to confine
his remarks to what he considered
ethical, but sterner facts must be
dealt with. The labor movement has
made the proud boast that lt can direct the destinies of Great Britain, If
not Europe. "We are most likely to
retain that authority," he said amidst
applause. British trades unionists
have a very severe time of it. They
were in the throes of a world struggle,
and suffered more than ever before,
The population of these small Isles
was 47,500,000. The prosperity of
Great Britain depended upon the
good-will of the outside world. This
was but natural
Industry and Agriculture
They were over-apeclallzed ln Industry, and under specialized ln agriculture—which In any other country
was the most Important industry of
alt—and they, therefore felt depression before countries not so situated.
and had to bear the brunt of the contest for existence. For success and
stability Great Britain must keep out
of war nnd court the good-will of ,pa-
tlons. If her people were to flourish she must at all times ask for
peace, Now the diffident politicians
see this. They realize that tho financial conditions of the nation will not
improve by war. They also pee that
thero must be peace, and at last, seeing the light of day, appreciate the
fact, that they are not so much dictated to by the labor movement.
The suffering Imposed upon the
vast aggregation and mass of people
in the old country, caused by the late
war, is deplorable. The problems to
be met to remove these disabilities
overwhelming. "Your problems
are infinitesimal when compared to
those of Great Britain. But they
must be watched, and by wise counsel
you must guard against pitfalls," ho
said.
Decreased Wages
The trials at home are not so much
of Internal troublo, as of sheer dependence, The population needs to
l>e looked after and Improved.
Wages, the criterion of life, havo gone
down. Tho average wage does not
exceed £2, or just over $9. The
general condition of help declines
under our very eyes. In spito of this
general gloom there wero bright spots
In thc sky. Take our people atl in
all tbey see the light. The spirit of
optimism of labor had not beeu crushed out. If the opportunity were given to straighten out tho complexes
of Europe they were not far from a
period of general prosperity.
We have lost in membership In tho
I trados unionB, at compared to 1919—
I the war peak year   Though wo uro
tho membership is gaining In numbers every day. Things are taking
a turn for the better. We are not
far from the time when economic conditions will flourish again in the land.
Labor's Demands
The demands of trade unionism today were not limited to better wages,
hygiene and compensation laws; they
also demanded an improvement ln
the standards of life as reflected ln
the political, ethical and moral fields,
"The labor party alma to assume
definite control over our political In'
stitutions, In which our very lives are
bound up. A complex situation is involved. No statesman has the ability
to straighten out the situation. He
cii,nnot straighten out his own affairs. It ls expected that Lloyd George
will explain all this shortly." (Laugh
ter.)
. He had tried to think out the problems of Canada. The people were
getting along phenomlnally well. The
British mentality seemed to.have been
here hundreds of years. If progress
can be made during the next ten
years as in the past twenty, the world
would be a better place.
Without Education Dictatorship1
Even If it took labor 50 years to
obtain political dominance in Britain,
history would record it as a triumph
when It was considered that elementary education was only 100 years old.
Without education there was dictatorship—the very negation of freedom.
rioanniB givei
If progress is to tM made, lt must
be dona on a sound basis of education in democracy," he said. "If
power were obtained through dictation over an uneducated democracy,
it would not endure. Under the power
of an educated democracy we will be
able to meet the mass, and then we
shall be there for good."
Even now, were ..the labor party In
power, many thoughtful men did not
believe that tt could deliver the goods.
The labor movement was marked In
its advances by the meaaure of education. No government of demagogues
and propagandists could stand. To
get progress through education required patience. To cut down education, and, much more than anything
else, the political power in the cause
of labor would be destroyed.
H. M.'s Opposition
The labor party had to go through
the painful evolution of progress before It became his majesty's official
opposition In parliament The trades
unionists who are the backbone and
strength of the party, fought out its
battles for twenty-five yoafrs. The
political ahd industrial activities of
the movement In Canada'are followed
along lines not precisely the same as
in the old country. The labor movement In Great Britain is not any longer despised. Th'e people have become differential to tho labor party.
Legislation in International affairs has
been largely moulded by the workers.
They have forgotten in a great measure the glorious phraseology of the
orange box.
A Voice—We say "soap box" in this
country.
Mr. Hodges—Where you did your
washing? (Laughter.) They were no
less vigorous, however, in their attacks on the old system than that
pioneer had been. The nearer you
get to power you feel the responsibility and thus you become more con-
By Visitors to Reception  Committee for Courtesies Shown
Them While in City
Following the conclusion of one of
tho best conventions ever held by the | servative In your views, which is not
Trades and Labor congress of Canada, the appreciation of the vieltlng
delegates for the efforts put forward
for their entertainment as representatives of* organised labor itt their
stay in Vancouver, was expressed on
Saturday morning, when Chairman
of the Committee P. R. Bengough,
Secretary J. Brooks, and Mrs. Dolk,
president of local 178, Journeyman
Tailors, whose chief care was the
visiting ladies, were presented with
tokens of appreciation. Chairman
Bengough was presented with a set
of platinum cuff links, Secretary
Brooks with a case of pipes, and .Mrs.
Dolk with a diamond and emerald
ring. The presentation took piacfc
at the Hotel Vancouver, the recipients
being taken by surprise when they
were summoned to the committee
room, and wore received by Mrs. I-'-ed
Bush, the wife of Fred Bush, international representative of the United
Garment Workers, who made the presentations and expressed, on behalf
of the visiting ladies and delegates,
their appreciation of the efforts made
to entertain them nnd to make their
say In the city the success It was.
Suitable replies were made by the recipients, who stated that they hud expected no reward, but had done what
they could to make the visit to Vancouver aB pleasant as poSBibio, as simitar courtesies had been extended tr,
Vancouver delegates when visiting
the East.
The following card was handed to
Mrs. Dolk, together with the ring:
"Vancouver, Sept. 17, 1723.—Just
a small token of appreciation from
the ladles visiting the congress for
the kindness shown us while here.
(Signed), Mrs. Hodges, England; Mrs.
Hahndorf, Toronto; Mrs. Marsh, Toronto; Mrs. Scott, Toronto; Mrs. Brunei, Montreal; Mrs. Forstcr, Montreal;
Mrs. Colbeck, London; Mrs. Hou oh,
Los Angeles; Mrs, Owens, Winnipeg;
Mrs. Howard, Winnipeg Mrs. Trotter, Indlunapolls; Mrs. McCormnck,
Edmonton; Mrs. Inglis, London: Mrs.
Moore, Ottawa; Mrs. Draper, Ottawa;
Miss Mahoney, Ottawa; Mrs. Crawford, Vancouver; Mrs. Welsh, Vancouver; Miss Foxcroft, Vancouver;
Mrs. Altcheson, Hamilton; Mrs. l»ow-
eBland, Toronto; Mrs. Noble, Toronto;
Mrs. Osborne,- Vnncouver; Mrs. Milne,
Vancouvor; Mrs. McAndrews; Mra.
Bush, Toronto; and a fow of the men
who also appreciated your goolnees."
Edmonton; Mrs. Ingles, London; Mrs.
Tho Australian federal government
aro to finance a wheat pool for the
coming harvest In Australia, The
government will guarantee a minimum of 3s. por bushel for nl] Wheat
delivered for sale.
General Laborers Meet
Thc regular meeting of the General
Laborers union was held In room 30EJ,
Labor hail, on Monday, Sopt. 17.
Quite a lot of business was dealt with,
thu financial report being read by the
secretary. Jt wuh deiided that the
next meeting bo a apodal one, called
to hear tho report of the delegnte to
lho Trades congress, All mombors
will ho notified to this effect by mull
Tho next meeting will be held In
room 305, Labor hall, 319 Pend<
street west. All members should
mnko It their businoss to attend—
Monday, October 1st, at 8 p.m.
possible with the propagandist. Labor
today as lt nearcd power demanded
a mentality not to be found in the
soap box orator. The Britiah. people
would not like a govornment that was
not respectable,- -Britishers"are- the
most respectable people on earth.
(Applause.)
As to Communism
At this stage they bad met with
another phenomenal light. It was
the new institution of communism
spreading from Moscow westward.
Tho British ideals of democratic government are not liked by the communists. Thoy want to see the labor
party display Its utter Incomptence by
assuming power before it Is qualified
and ready to do so. Thc speaker admitted that communism to some extent had become a-factor in politics.
Organized labor had not condemned
it unheard, but had met its exponents
in conference. It took up the matter of the soviet form of government
and Invited its leaders to show what
bolshevlum had to offer. Their case
had only to be stated to become plain
that Russia had nothing to offer the
western world. I don't say that Russia has not a culture of art and literature which are Invaluable contributions to the world's advancement;
but ln modern politics she hns nothing to offer that Ib better than democratic parliamentary constitutionalism. British workers arc so constituted that they cannot and will not
accept a dictatorship.
As Living Units
It was not in keeping with great
historical traditions. Men and women
did not wish to be huts and bolts
in n grent overmastering machine,
but living units exercising nn Influence on their environment, They
cannot hardly hear their own men
speak their opinions without opposition. They have always fought for
tho rights of a freo people. Ko Bflt-
Ishcr will be quiescent under a master
machine. He must oxerclse the moving features of a labor movement.
The speaker followed the discussion
on nationalism versus Internationalism
that had tuken place In the congress,
It seemed strange to him to hear some
of those arguments. You can road in
tho newspapers similar arguments as
put forth by capitalists. In Great
Birtaln labor wanted Internationalism
In everything that went .to make up
progress. They wished that they wore
closely knit up with France in economy, industry and all those things on
which life depended, but In political
life they demanded complete sovereignity for the development of national institutions and national culture.
National  and   International
He especially wishod that for many
purposes there wore only an Imuglnery
lino Instead of a channel between
England and Franco; but when personality, culture nnd national institutions wero at stake, thoro must be no
compromise with strict, nationalism,
ho said.
"In Canada you havo-seen that nature is absolutely prodigal with its
resources. Hero you can quarry your
own conl, while we in-Groat Britain
must go 1000 yards bolow tho earth's
surface to got It, The climate is good.
Wo cannot conceive this in tho old
country. Tho Canadian people should
1 (Continued on page 2) PAGE TWO
FIFTEENTH YEAR.
no. 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA FEDERATIONIST Vancouver, b.c.
FRIDAY .September   21,  1828
British Columbia Federationist
Published  every  Friday morning by
The   British   Colum-bia   Federationist
Business Office:  1129 Howo Streot
Editorial Office: Boom 306—319 Ponder W.
Editorial Board: P. R. BengouEh, R. H. Wool*
-,-idB, Qeorge Bartloy. _
Subscription Rato: United States and Foroign, $8.00 per yoar; Canada, $2.50 per
year, $1.50 for six months; to UnionB subscribing in a body, 16c per membor per
month. * 	
Unity of Labor:   The Hope of the World
FBIDAY September   21,  1923
FAKMBIt-I.AUOK   SCOBKS   BANKS
23
42
176
FOR THOSE who doubt tho wisdom
or question the noed for labor
banks, the Upholsterer reprints tho
following advcrtisoment which was
paid for and Inserted by the Harrl
man National bank in a New York
newspapor ought to be an eye-opener:
Mr. Farmer Head This: The farmer
wants to know why his dollar does
not go as far as the laborer's dollars,
and he ls accusing the laborer of taking more and giving less than ever
before. Nobody can accuse the farmer of loafing. Ho hasn't the time.
The farmer works for himself. Some
one has to pay for lhe laborer's days
of loafing. . Who is it? Mr. Farmer,
do you know? J. S, Wanamaker, president of the American Cotton association, offers the following suggestive
data:
63% dozens, or 762 eggs, pay a plasterer for one day's work of eight
houra.
17 */_ bushels of corn, or a year's receipts from half an acre pay a
bricklayer.
chickens, weighing 3 lbs, each,
pay a -painter in New York,
lbs, of butter, or the output from
14 cows, fed and milked 24 hours
pay a plumber f 14 a day.
lbs. of hog, eight month's feeding and care, pay a carpenter.
What an anomaly Is a farmer-labor
alliance, in the light of these figures,
which are facts. How is It possible,
under such conditions, that the farmer can hold a sympathetic feeling toward the labor unions, which are responsible for such disparity of reward
for a day's labor? Labor, refusing to
work and expecting to (be paid just
the same, and moreover, evon during
the time it is willing to work, producing but a small -percentage of what it
could, is certainly not a flt companion
for the farmer, whose labor is real,
who really produces to his capacity
and even then is not sure of his pay.
They say politics makes strange bedfellows,   We agree.
The gentleman who wrote the above
"ad" Is certainly a past master in the
careless handling of truth. In comparison with him Annanias must have
been a model of truthlfulness. A careful analysis will show a vicious use of
hnlf truths to arouse antagonism between the farmers and the industrial
workers,
Let us examine the "suggestive
data" of ttir. Wanamaker. The item
of the 42 lbs. of butter and The
plumbers $14 a day for instance. The
plumber's wife has to pay fifty-five
cents a pound for butter. Forty-two
pounds at that rale costs $23.10. Instead of $14 per day, the plumber
gets only $10, and for It he can buy
only 18 pounds of buttor. The difference between IB pounds and 42 pounds
Ib 24, and sinco the farmer gives 42
pounds for $10 and the plumber gets
but 18 pounds for that aum, who gots
the difference?
It grieves ua but we must say that
thc difference goes in the form of
proflt to the useless middlemen, the
railroad sharks and tho business mon
engaged in thc dairy business,
W eare rude enough to suggest further that a portion of the 24 pounds
goes to certain flnanclal institutions,
such as the Harriman National bank
for instance that finances the food
speculators by thc extension of credit
and the granting of loans for which
thoy collect Interest, from 6 per cent,
upwards, and mostly upwards.
Too long has the "money power"
fooled the workon. and th(f farmers.
By Insidious and lying propaganda
It hns tried to koep them apart. But
despite their utmost efforts tho truth
lias slowly but surely become apparent. The farmor is beginning to understand that the real "loafers" are
tho fraternity who neither till tho
soil or do any useful work In Indus
try. He grasps thc fact that it Is the
levy of billions of dollars ot profit by
the big Interests that keeps both the
farmor and the workor poor.
Tho development of labor banks
conducted not for privato greed out
for tho advancement of public good
Is ono of the hopeful signs of the
times. It Is and will continue in increasing proportion lo be a boon to
both the farmers and tho workers.
Labor Problems Discussed
(Continued from Page 1)
never allow those natural assets to bo
wasted by the controlling systems. I
can't believe that you are in the hands
of a great machine. I can't believe
that you aro helpless. You can exercise a hand to protect all these
things. Britain is over-specialized in
Industry and under-sized in agriculture. When there was no balance
between these two industries, suffering
must follow,"
Agriculture  thc  Bed-rock
Canada's great problem was to
maintain a true balance between Industry and agriculture—the bed-rock
of all industry. Without this balanco,
In time the -man that produces foodstuffs becamo no better than the sod
ho trod.. The markets of tho world
wero growing smaller and would continue to do so until a true balance was
struck. This coming winter Great
Brftaln would havo nearly 2,000,000
unemployed—equal to one-fourth the
population of Canada. "We havo no
land to put them on," he continued.
"What would bo the use of cotton-
workers trying to grow parsnips? Of
what utility would it be to put
miner on land? He would become a
burden on the country. There are
numbers in the old country who wish
that the government would take the
whole bunch of out-of-works and put
them on the land in Canada or somewhere else.
Surplus Population
The government seems to have no
regard about the unscrupulon way
immigration agents pass them on to
tho land, leaving them unfitted ttir
the rigors of winter. That kind of
thing is called In Oreat Britain get*
ting rid of the surplus population. If
there Is going to be any relief for
thiB excess swarm of humans, if our
people must come to Canada, they
must be substantially assisted. That
is a Vital question for Canada to
grapple. If the workers of Canada
are going to get on the right side of
the balance in industry, the great vacant lands must be filled. It ls no
solution to the question of unemployment to bring people to this country
unprovided for."
Unemployment Doles
The government of Great Britain,
he said, had already spent over £400,*
000,000 ($2,000,000,000) in unemployment doles. He believed that—Canada as well aB the other dominions-
could very well have used that money
to botter advantage to all concerned.
Hore you have the way made ready
for completion by the homo government to send to Canada a couple of
hundred thousand unemployed. But
the British government does not spend
money ln that fashion. Its theory of
government is that of old Manchester
—which Is to wash their hands of industry—preferring a system of doles.
Thnt's the theory of government_over
there. Something at least should be
put at tho disposal of both countries
for lnsting relief from unemployment.
He doubted that Canada would be able
to buy goods from Great Britain for
a long time. If the countries of
Europe do not recover very soon, they
will look more and more to the British for a readjustment. Great Britain's great task now ls to straighten
out the tangle in Europe. If she can't
do this, she will not sink back Into
oblivion, as some say. This is the object of the government.
^    Pioneer Movement
The British labor movement shall
bo tolerant, and, he' believed, proceed
on Its way as a pioneer movement to
lead the world toward democraoy.
You may shore it in a Canadian way
■you may be cynical in that respect,
he said.
"I know you have a special problem to deal with in Canada. On my
right I observe your French co-
leagues, and on my left the British.
These mon may represent more bloodshed through religious divergencies
than anything else. Despite the cultural and religious differences ln
Canada, the labor movement ls the
only one that can heal these divergencies. Tho ideals of the east must
lio reconciled to those of the west.
Tbls Is the destiny of the labor movement. All inspiring to bring happiness and peooe. Whon that has been
nchlovod, an historical roll shall have
boen fulfilled, to bring brotheiilness
where there has beon discord," he
concluded, amidst an ovation,
w.
Warden W. A. Patcholl, of the New
Westminster penitentiary, says there
Ib no reason for any young man to
leave jail Illiterate or unable to earn
a living at a trade.—News Item. Boya
desiring an apprenticeship to a trade
should koep clear of this non-union
concern.
Minimum Wages and Maximum Taxes
The average citizen fools that tho
average pay of a mill hand or a
miner Is none of his business, An
underfed boy will land either in a
hospital or in a penitentiary, and
somebody—not his father and not his
father's employor—will pay for koep
Ing him there. An underfed girl will
land on tho street, and somobody*
not hor father and not hor father'a
employer—will pay for the mischief
she does thoro. Conscienco may not
mako cowards of us all, but taxes
may make thinkers of us alt beforo
wo're done with them.—Colliers.
ALTER N. REDDICK, represent
Ing the Amorican Foderation of
Labor, Washington, D. C, delivered
the following address beforo the 39th
convontion of the Trades nnd Labor
congress of Canada, on Thursday,
13th Inst.:
Mr. Reddick's Speech
I deem lt an extreme privilege and
pleasure to represent at this convention tho four mitlion organized work'
era of the United Statea, afflliated with
tho American Federation of Lubor,
and I ulso want to convey to you their
fraternal greetings nnd well-wishes
for a continuous friendly relation fn
thc Interests of the workors of this
continent. There is vory little differ
once between the interest of the workors of Canada with that of United
States, our alms and aspirations are
based upon the same economical sys-
tem, and It bohooves us to flght our
battlos unitedly to tbe ond, that a
common advancement and a common
good may be achloved. In surveying
Industry and commorco as recognized
both in United States and Canada, we
find thnt thore Is no dlviBion of opinion or action on thoir part, be they in
the United States, or be they In this
wonderful dominion of yours, and it
may bc well that we at loast maintain
tho same closo relations and that the
same Identity of interests which rules
ln tho opposing classes. Ono of the
greatest questions which the workers
In the Unltod States have had to face,
and are now facing, Is the recent pro
nouncement of the United States supreme court ln declaring unconstitutional a Child Labor law, which would
have protected that vast helpless heap
of humanity from greed and exploitation at the hands of unscrupulous employers, and would have added life,
joy and happiness to the coming citizens of the United States.
Child Labor Law
The American Federation of Labor
is now taking necessary and vigorous
steps to see that a law within tho
moaning of a constitution of United.
Statos is enacted, which will protect
the children of our people. I am glad
from what I have learned on the floor
of this conventlpn, that you ln the
dominion of Canada, have laws which
aro full proof and will not permit
children under 14 years of age entering your mills and factories. Among
other struggles which the workers of
the United States have faced is the
abolition of the 12-hour day hi
number of industries, especially tho
textile mills and the steel industries,
which have mado conditions more
miserable than ever. Wo have ap"
proximately 300,000 workers in the
United States, who are still working
upon a 12-hour basis. Their families
amount to a million people, and cover
in all some 40 different industries.
Many of you who have followed tho
newspapers and other agencies of information, unquestionably have learned that a committee of the Federated
American Engineering societies made
a two years' investigation of thiB problem, and worked in conjunction with
the Amorican Federation for the
bringing about of the abolition of the
slave life-destroying long-work day.
Needless to say, that tn its findings, lt
shows that the employers concerned
were inspired by greed and blindly
destroying the "goose that laid the
golden eggs."
Open-shop Campaign
I feel that I would not be doing my
full duty were I not to refer to the
serious open-shop campaign still carried on by the big interests of the
United States, and you of this dominion are not Immune from lt, unless I
brought to your notice that we, the
"trade unionists of the United States,"
have fought back Just as vigorously
against that Inhuman drive as the opposing interests were fighting for lt.
In this big drive for the "open shop,"
we found that "the land of the free"
was about to become the "home of
the slave" instead of the brave. When
the president of the National Founders assocaltlon, In a recent pro"
nouncement. described the progress
of the open shop as a "stlmulent to
the patriotism of everyone," he was
hypocritically hiding behind the cloak
of cowardice when honesty and frankness were essential, because he was
dealing in economical matters of vital
importance to the nation. We in the
labor movoment have stripped these
hypocrites from that mask of patriotism, and have frankly placed all fact?
before the people, laying bare the
true conditions as existing. In this
flght it has cost the workers millions
of dollars, but we have the satisfaction of having prevented a greater
encroachment upon the rfghts and
aspirations of our working people.
The flght carried on by us, like the
flght which you have carried on
againBt similar attempts on the part
of your employers, was one of principle, something which the organized
employer and advocate of the "open-
shop" are not concorned at all with,
though clamorously they profess to
Employers of U. S. and Canada
In this "open shop" you have noticed that the employers of the United
States and the employers of Canada
were fighting as one for what they
thought waa ln their Interests. We
have seen *ho division ln their ranks,
and I hope that the workers of Canada and that of the United States will
continue their harmonious relations,
considering that their aches and pains,
their joys and aspirations are identical. We may differ politically, we
may differ religiously! but we cannot afford to differ in our economical
relations, ln as much ns we are struggling against a common adversary for
a common good. It may be well to
call the attention of this convention
to the fact, that the associated employera, as represented by the president of the National Founders' association, are demanding the complete
elimination of the labor clauses from
the-covenant of the* League of Nations.
As it happened, however," these clauses
were not part of the covenant, but
part of the Treaty of Poace, and thoy
represent the moat enllghtenod
thought with regards to the International relations of labor, While the
legislative activities of the American
Federation of Labor have had some
offect upon the political situation, of
course, they cannot be compared with
the activities of the workers of the
old world, but more favorably along
parallel lines with that of the Canadian movement. Those who are ln a
position to know, give the American
labor movement as exemplified
through the American Federation of
Labor, the credit of having brought
about political relief, to a considerable
degree, as the results of our last election Indicate.
Watchful and Vigilant
They did not go after false gods,
but attempted to select men most
favorablo to the Ideals of the American labor movement and most sympathetic towarda the cause of labor.
True, it did not obtain the results
wished for, but lack of greater results were due mostly to the Indifference and apatehtio state of mind, on
the part of our working people. The
American Federation of Labor also la
over watchful and vigilant ln seeing
that the interests of the workers are
protected in the halls of congress. So
fur, there has not beon any bill enacted Into law, hostile to the Interests
and rlghta of labor, but many have
beon presented and defeated and
many aro still on the calendar. The
workora   of   the   United   States   can
thank their "lucky stars" that the
former congress, which maintained a
spirit of status quo, died on March last.
Speaking of the political aspect ln
the United States, one of the most
laudable victories was the election of
a governor ln the state of Kansas,
bitterly opposed to the enforcement of
the Kansas Industrial Court law, as
sponsored by former Governor Allen
■—the nature of this law, most of you
are familiar with. It was a law which
enslaved the workers by denying them
the right to quit their job if so desired, unless conditions were established to meet with their wants. In
watching over your proceedings, I
was greatly Impressed with the ring
of sincerity and earnestness which actuated every delegate; though conflicting arguments have been advanced, I
am satisfied that no animosity or Ill-
will interferes with the personal relations of those who have taken part
In the debates. I have listened/to your
deliberations with more than ordinary
interest, because of the important
questions with which you have dealt;
and, may I say, in the best interests
of all 'concerned. While there has
boon much clash of minds and controversy thoughts have sprung therefrom
most beneficial to the workers of the
dominion of Canada.
International Organizations
While you aro not as numerically
strong as the American Federation of
Labor, your needs, aspirations and
requirements are aa important as ours,
and you have our hearty co-operation
and support. The international travelling card, as recognized by the
units ot fhe American Federation of
Labor, ls a passport not only throughout the dominion, but also throughout
the United States. The relations and
close proximity of over three thousand miles of boundaries make for
unity of thought and action between
the workers of the United States and
Canada. We must have no division
unless we wish to play into the hands
of the employers. Locals have local
autonomies, as much as the international organizations have local autonomy, though affiliated in one central
paternal body known as the American Federation of Labor. I trust that
the deliberations of this congress will
be accepted by the federal and various
provincial governments, to the end
that the workera of thia dominion
will be benefited therefrom.
I wish you god-speed in your work,
your desires, your wanta and your
needa. The future belonga to labor,
and that future can be ours through
united efforts. I hope that our relations will ever remain as they are at
present—in harmony, peace and goodwill. If we have any difference, "let
us reason together," salth the Lord.
By so doing, we can best senve those
whom we are privileged tb represent,
and help to make this world belter
and brighter for the tollers of both
countries.
Mr. Reddick resumed his seat
amidst hearty applauae.
A LARGE audience greeted Hon.
Alex. M. Manson, minister of labor
and attorney-general for British Columbia, when'he addressed the Trades
and   Labor   congress  convention   on
Wednesday morning as follows:
Hon. Mr. Manson's Speech
Mr. President and Gentlemen:
British Columbia cordially welcomes
you upon the occasion of your assembling In thiB province for the purpose
of holding your annual convention.
Parliaments are of more than one
kind. The ones at Ottawa, and at the
varloua provincial capltala elected by
the people as a wholo for the purpose
of legislating for the political welfare
of the people, and for the purpose of
choosing the ministerial heads of the
political administrative organizations,
are the ones we ordinarily think of;
but other bodies in church and stnte
constitute almost as important parliaments as do those bodies to which I
have referred. Mr. President, assembled today ls the parliament of labor,
The delegates here convened have
been chosen by the suffrage of the
laboring classes as distinguished from
the business and professional classes
of Canada. Your mission, I take it,
is to consider those measures calculated to improve tho lot of the laboring class of Canada, and in that respect your mission is just as important as that of any other parliament
that can be convened, because the
very purpose of parliaments is to devise and put Into legislative and administrative action such measures as
will tend to the betterment and Improvement of the social conditions of
the Canadian people.
Welcome Fellow Canadians
BritiBh Columbia, therefore, welcomes you; first, as fellow Canadians;
and, secondly, because of your mission; but there are other reasons,
too, that make us glad that you are
here. Canada is a big country In the
making. She has a tremendous wealth
of natural resources scattered in the
long reaches that separate her eastern and her western coast lines, Within ,her boundaries there are great
complexities of social conditions, and
great differences of social problems. If
our country 1b to succeed in its fullest
sense, it can only do so by the education of our individual citizens to an
understanding of the problema of
their fellow citizens, whether those
fellow citizens be in the eaat or west,
or in the centre. One of the penalties that, as Canadians we pay for
the vastness of our country is the fact,
that wo know so little of each other,
and so little of each other's problems.
There Is not that thorough-going intermingling of our citizens which
alone will ensure a proper understanding by all Canadians of the problems of Canadians, more particularly in the remoter parts. The fact
that wo have assembled here today
delegates all the way from tho Atlantic coast means that thore will be a
better understanding, at least on the
(Continued on  page  3)
STOMACH SUFFERING
Disappear*  >s  11  by  moglc vhen
JO-TO
is used. Gas pains, aold stomach, sour
stomach, burning and all after*oating distress relieved in two minutes. All Dreg
Stores,
-VANCOUVER-
Night Schools
Most thorough courses bffered in Technical and
Commercial Subjects, Art, Music, Advanced and
Cost Accounting, Domestic Science, Mathematics,
etc.
Classes Re-open Oct. 3
Registrations now being received by the director,
W. K. Beech, M. A., at the School Board. Offices,
cor. Hamilton and Dunsmuir Streets, Saturdays
10 to 12 a.m., other week days, 5 to 6 p.m.
Phone, Sey. 4763-K
W. K. BEECH, M. A.,
Director of Night Schools.
INSIST on
JbkvWitkvtokvj
at the Government
Vendor's
You get the Perfection
of Satiifaction in every
bottle of "Cascade."
Brewed in onr MilUorfdollar
Plant.
Store Opena at 9 a.m. and
,   Closes at .6 p.m.
New Winter Woollens for
Little Tots
Our Usual Dependable Qualities and Our
Usual Well Selected Styles
Hand knit or crochet white wool bonnets or caps, in
many attractive styles for girls or boys—$1 to $2.
Hand-knit or crochet bootees, in all white or trimmed with touches of pink or blue—50^ to $1.25.
Hand-knit white wool pullover pants at $1.50.
Hand-crochet matinee jackets, in all white or with
pink or blue trim at $1.95, $2.25 and $3.95.
White Wool Sweater Coats at $1.95, $2.95 and
$3.95.
Ribbed Wool Capes in white with turn-down collar
and cord tie—$3.95.
White Wool Gaiters at 75^ to $1.95.
Gifts for Baby
Include rattles, brushes, combs, powder boxes,
dainty embroidered bibs, embroidered pillow covers,
comforter*", baby Dlankets and. many other appropriate articles, at moderate priees.
—Drysdale's Baby Shop, Seeond Floor
675 OranviUe Street Phone Seymour 8640
Sixty Billion Cigarettes
In 1895 the United States produced
4,000,000,000 machine-made cigarettes. Last year the production exceeded 60,000,000,000, or approximately 600 for every man, woman and
child within her borders. -Fortunately, as some may think, a considerable
proportion of them were exported
chiefly to the Orient. Today more
than 450,000 farmers, ln 42 states, are
growing tobacco on 2,000,000 acres,
and more than 60,000 plants, employing 183,000 Individuals are engaged
ln tho manufacture. The leaf tobacco
Industry alone aggregates more than
$500,000,000 a year and the nation's
Internal revenue from this source is
ln excess of $300,000,000 annually.
Thousands of farm houses along the
stnte roads are offering "Fresh Bggs"
to the tourist customer.
All Ready for Fall
Wonderful Display of New ModcH
WE havo now completed our wondorful
Btock of now fall ready-to-wear
garments, and increased factory apace
finds us fully proparod to deal with an
ever-increasing business-, Como and viow
this finn showing whethor you desire to
purchaso or not.
J7/f fts/iif o    CLOAK a11*
I illtlUllO    sun- CO. Ltd. '
623 HASTINGS STEEET WEST
Bird, Macdonald & Co.
BABBI0TBB8, SOLKJITOBB. ETC.
401-401 Metropolitan BaUdtag
087 Hasttaf i St. W. VAKOOTTVEB. B. 0.
Telephones: Seymou 0000 and 1617
Drugless Healing
TP you are SICK, see US,
1 WE CAN GIVE YOU
'HEALTH.
WE have
hundreds.
done this for
WE can do it for yon.
Downie Sanitarium
814 Standard Bank Bldf.
toy. 608, High. 21841.
We rtprnut thi Am.ri___U_lT._Mr
of S__lpr«tlc, Seattle, Wub.
Bloc np Pbone Seymonr MM
tor appointment
Dr. W. J. Curry
DENTIST
Snlt_>   801   Dominion
VANCOUVER, B. C.
FIRST CHURCH OF
.   CHRIST SCIENTIST
1160 Oeorgia Stroot ■
Sunday services, 11 a.m. and 7l80 p.m.
Sunday achool Immediately following
morning aervice. Wedneaday testimonial
meeting, 6 p.m. Free reading room,
901-908 Blrka Iild*.
B. F. Harrison 8. A. Pony
MOUNT PLEASANT
UNDERTAKING CO., LTD. '
AMBULANCE BERVIOB
232 KIMOSWAY       VAMOOUVEE, B. 0.
Phono Fairmont 68
tTAVE you over luid a real drink
11 of Pure Apple cider during; Uie
last fow yoars?
To moot thc dosirea of many clients,
wo havo introduced roeontly a pure clear
sparkling apple elder ln pint buttles,
either puro sweet or governmont reflation 2% hard apple older. Theae drlnka
are abaolutely puro and froo from all
carbonic acid gas or preservatives of
any nature. Write or phone your order
today, Highland 90.
VAN BROS. LTD.
Oldar Manufactnrers
1985 Commorcial Drln, Vancouver. B. C.
Mainland
Cigar Store
tlO OAKHAM. STltEET
THE PLAOE FOB PIPES
WHEN IN TOWN STOP AT
The Oliver Rooms
-8 Hi   COIWOVA STREET  EAST
Everything Modern
Kales IleniMjiinble
EMPIRE CAFE
AND GRILL
"A Good Plaoo to Eat"
HASTINGS   AND   COLUMBIA    SU
" 'Tii the heart'■ voice alono HB
reach the heart."—De Muaiett.
•T-HE Invention of the tolephono result*
J. od, not from an effort to flnd a meana
of communication, but from the deep pity
In the heart of the Inventor for thoie
without the ability to hear tho human
voice.
The range of the unaided voice lo only
a few feet; but the same voice speaking
Into tho telephone may be heard a mile
or three thousand mileo away. The Inflections, the accents, the Individuality
are all transmitted faithfully.
Tho telephone stands ready dar or
night to transmit your voice to relative,
friend, or anyone with whom yoa havo
need of apeech. The telephono li f
universal Instrument.
B.  0.  TBX-BPHOM.  COMPAIIT
VANCOUVER BREWERIES
LIMITED
This advertisement is not published or displayed by the
Liquor Control Board or by the Government of British
Columbia. .. .    -.   «
—"LAID OFF"	
Two Short Worda, Bridflni the Golf Betweon
COMFORT and POVKRTT
ttae mjnMI wll ul ,..r family Hiiul •___ u Muit****-*.
wlU • UtikSb lOOoOKT-ik. mo_l talaalsla —eat ____.au lenln
tkt "RAIMT DAT/'
W. tlMHOLT BHOMUMD yn to lint net u nml AT OMOl,
■I .» et oer Oity BruthM*
BAimai ui iBTMOum aet. ■* buium, _b__i__
Otrim u« A.M* ■___ u< ua Am lull tol BnaAwey
ttnaaa rov wn__ nam now* __n> oopbtioui _.tt_d_t_oi
Union Bank of Canada
P.8.—If you aro llrlng Is * community not pre-rldad with Banking faellltlea, ad*
dreoi u by mall, and we will bo glad to glide yon In respect to "Baaklag by Ull." felDAT..., September  21, 1923
FIFTEENTH TEAK.   No.
is BRITISH COLUMBIA' FEDERATIONIST Vancouver, b.o.
PAGE THREE
Extraction
of Teeth
FREE
r> all patients taking
treatment tor Expression Plates, Crowns and
Bridgework.
All work done is of the
highest character, backed
by my usual
15-YEAR
GUARANTEE
IN WRITING
In addition to this, I am now offering
ALL DENTAL WORK AT
^ Usual Dental Charges
Have no fear of pain. I am fully conversant with all approved
PAINLESS DENTISTRY., methods, and do everything possible for
your physical comfort.
Get my estimate—It entails no obligation.
Dr. Brett Anderson
Formerly   member   of the   Faculty of the   College of   Dentistry,   University of
Southern California;   lecturer on Crown and Bridgework;   demonstrator In Plate-
work  and Oporativo  Dentistry, local and goneral Anaesthesia.
602 Hastings St. West    Corner Seymour
Plume Sey. 3331 Qpen Tuesday and Friday evenings
Vancouver Unions
NCOUVER TRADES AND LABOB
I Council —President, B.H. Neelands, H.
I A-; general aeeretary, Percy B. Bengough.
Kee: 808, 819 Pender St. West. Phon* Bey.
|S5. Meets In Labor Hall at 8 p.m. on
i flrst and third Tuesdays In month.
__*IED PBINTINO TBADES COUNCIL—
(Meeta second Monday ta the month. Pre*
Went, J. B. White; secretary, B. H. Neet-
fids. P. 0. Box 66.	
feDERATED LABOB PABTT, 146 COB-
Idova Street West—Buiintaa meetings
Tery   Wednesday   •▼•nlng*     A.   Haclnnis,
(airman; E. H. Morriion, sec-treas.; Oeo.
L Harrison, 1188 Parkor Street, Vancouver,
L 0,, corresponding secretary.
Any diatrlet In Britlah Columbi* desiring
lonaatlon ra securing speakers or tha for*
►tion of loeal branches, kindly communleat*
Ith provincial SecreUry J. Lyla Telford,
■4  Birks   Bldg,,   Vancouyer,  B.   0.    Tel**-
pna Seymour 1882, or Fairmont 4988.
JIKERT SALESMEN, LOOAL 871—lleeta
seeond Thursday every month, 319 Pender
reet West. Prosldent, J. Bright well;
anelal seoretary, H. A. Bowron, 929—llth
East_ 	
AUBNEYMBN BARBERS' INTERNATIONAL Union of America—Local ViO, Van-
■iver, B. C, meets aecond and fourth Tues-
|ys In each month In Room 818—319 Pen-
^r Street West.    President, 0. E. Herrett,
.  Hastings   Street  East;   secretary,  A.  R.
nl, 820 Cambie Street.    Shop phone, Sey.
■08.    Residence phone, Doug. 2171R.
(■TEBNATIONAL     BROTHERHOOD     OF
Bollormakers, Iron Shlpbulldera and Help-
of  America,   Loeal   104—Meetings   first
third  Mondays in each mouth.    Presi*
t, P. Willis; secretary, A. Fraser.   Ofllce:
,-m 808—319 Pender Street West.    Offlce
Mrs. 9 to 11 a.m. and 8 to 5 p.m,
klCKLAYERS AND MASONS—Ir you need
lbricklaycrs or masons for boiler works,
J.,   or  marble  setters,  phone  Bricklayers'
lion, Labor Temple.   	
KITED BROTHERHOOD OF CARPEN-
"TERS and Joiners, Local 462—President,
IW. Hatley; recording secretary, W. Page;
lulnesH agent, Win. Dunn. Offlee: Room
1*1—310 Pender Street Wost. Moots second
__ fourth Mondays, 8 p.m., Room 6, 810
|iidt>r Street West.
/IO EMPLOYEES UNION—Meets first
.1 third Fridays in each month, at 148 Cor-
ka Streot West.    President, David Cuthill,
Jfi2 Albort Street; secretary-treasurer, Geo.
jfrrlson, 1182 Parker Btreet,
LoiiJEERS — INTERNATIONAL UNION
JSteain .and Operating, Looal 841—Meots
■ery Thursday at 8 p.m., Room 807 Labor
ItmpU. President, J. Flynn; business agent
|d flnanclal secretary, F. S. Hunt; recording
are.ary, D. Hodges.	
ITY   FIREFIGHTERS   UNION   NO.   18—
-president, Neil MacDonald, No. 1 Fireball;
iretary, 0. A. Watson, No. 8 Firehall.
NERAL    LABORERS    UNION—MEETS
I [every flrst and third Monday In room 812—
19 Pender Streot West. President, J. B.
hwthorne; financial secretary, A. Padghein,
yce Hoad Post Office, Vancouver, B. 0.;
cording secretary, O. Tether, 2249—45th
; East, Vanconver, B. 0.
PTEL    AND    RESTAURANT    Employees
(Union,   Local   28—441   Seymour   Btreet.
M-ta first and third Wednesdays at 2:80
Becond   and   fourth  Wednesdays   at
tp.m. Executive board meets every
lay at 8 p.m. President, W. A, Colmar-
eaa agent, A. Oraham.   Phone Beymour
ImBER WORKERS INDUSTRIAL ONION
13F CANADA—An industrial union of all
rkers In logging and construction camps.
lit District aftd General Headquarters, 61
jdova   Street   West,   Vancouver,   B.   0.
Ine Seymour 7868. J. M. Clarke, general
[rotary-treasurer;   legal   advisors,   Messrs.
Id,   Macdonald  ft  Oo.,  Vancouver,  B.  0.;
liters, Messrs. Buttar ft Chiene,' Vancou-
, B. 0^	
ICHINISTS LOCAL 182—President, Lee
lleorge; secretary, J. G. Keefe; business
■nt, P. R. Bongough. Offlce: 809, 319
fider Btreet West. Meets in Room 813—
Pendor Strent West, on first and third
prsilays In month,
ICHINISTS LOOAL 892—PreaidentT~Ed
l-awBon; secretary, R. Hirst; buslnesi
P. R. Bengough. Offlce: 809—811
pder Street West. Moots In Room 8—
J Pender Street West, on second and 4th
fcsdays in montb,
ISIOIANS       MUTUAL       PMtEOTIVB
1NION, Local 145, A. F. of M.—-Moots at
Ise Hall, Homor Stroet, second Sunday,
Be a" President, Ernest 0. Miller, 991
ion Stroet;  secretary,  Edward Jwnieson,
J Nelson Street: financial secretary, W. E.
■llams,  991  Nelson  Street;   organiser,  F.
Ichor, 891 Nelson Street,
-AtHERHOOD OF PAINTERS, DECORA:
fORH and Paporhangors of America, Local
, Vancouver—Meets 2nd and 4th Thurs-
4 at  148 Coidova  Street West.    Phone,
. 8610.    Business Agent, H. D. Collard.
.-   DRIVERS,   BRIDGE,   WHARF  AND
Jick Builders, Local No. 2404—Meeta at
§ Hastingi Street West every Friday, at 6
|.    Jas. Thompaon, flnanclal secretary.
|l0B8' UNION OF THE PACIFIC,  185
prdova Bt. West, P. 0. Box 671.   Phone
, 8708.   Meetinga every Monday at 7:80
J. Pearson, business agent.
SERATED SEAFARERS'  UNION OF B.
B.—Meeting nights, flrst Tuesday and Srd
Hay of each month at headquarters, 818
Idova Btreet West.    President, D. Oilles-
Jf vlce-prealdent, John Johnson; secretary
fc>urer, Wm. Donaldson, address 818 Cor
■a Street West.   Branch agent's address:
~ Worrall,  576 Johnson Btreet, Viotorla,
SltEET AND ELECTRIO BAILWAY EM*
iloyees, Pioneer Division, No. 101—Meets
P. Hall, Eighth and Kingsway, 1st and
Mondays at 10:IS a.m. and 7 p.m. Pre*
int, F. A. Hoover, 2409 Clarke Drive;
irdlng aecreury, P. E. Grlffln, 447—6th
. East-; treuurer, A F, Andrew; flnan-
secretary and business agent, W. H. Cot*
I, 168—17th Ave. W, Office, oorner Prior
I Main Streets. Phone Fairmont 4504Y
RNKYMEN TAILORS' UNION OF
meriea, Local No. 178—Meetings bald
1 Monday in each month, 8 p.m. Presi-
A, B. Gatenby; vice-president, Mrs.
__; reeordlng aeoretary, 0. McDonald, P.
Box 508; flnanelal aeoretary, P. McNeish,
, Box 606
FlETY FOR TECHNICAL AID TO SO-
let Russia—Vaneonver branch meets flrst
I third Sundays eaoh month, 3 p.m., at 61
Move Btreet Weat. For Information write
pranch secretary, B. T. A. 8. R„ 61 Cor*
. Btreet West, Vancouver, B. C.
(^GRAPHICAL UNION, No. 226—Presl-
ent, R. P. Pettlplece: vice-president. J.
Bryan; so cretary-treasurer, R. H. Noels, P. 0. Box 66. MeetB last Sunday of
i month at 2 p.m. In Labor Hall, 819
der Street West.	
__,_ VANCOUVER THEATRICAL FEDER-
|TION—MeoU at 091 NeUon Street, at 11
on the Tuesday preceding the 1st Bun-
President. E, A._Jamle-
of the month.
, «9l Nelson St.
President. E.
Seeretary, 0.
h. wa-
COFFEE
"In the Flavor Settling Tia"
-L.
Pressmen to Build Memorial
TfiVj International Printing Pressmen's and Assistants' union Is about to
begin construction of a $50,000 memorial chapel at Pressmen's Home,
Tennessee, to be dedicated4 to the
memory, of the world war veterans
who were members of the union.
Ranchers complain that the price
of cereals is less than what it costs to
grow them. This Is not the only
"kick" coming. The fruit-growers
are in a similar plight. What are we
going to do about it? The out-ln-the-
country tollor wants higher prices for
the stuff he raises, and the city Wage-
earner wantB to buy It at cheaper
rates. But then where will the middle man—the distributor—get off.
"There's the rub."
An automobile In Japan is a luxury. A license on a car of the ordinary American type Is $300, and
gasoline, with taxes added, 'represents
about $1 a gallon,
At the Orpheum
Orpheum patrons are being delighted this week by Bessie Barrlacale,
"screen favorite," who appears- personally in a protean playlet "Picking
Peaches," supported hy a very capable
company. Principal among the head-
liners with her ls also Jack Rose,' chief
of the "nut" variety of entertainers,
who destroys several straw hats at
each performance. Flo. Lewis, back
after a two-year absence, has a greatly,
improved turn, which is strong ln
nevelty impersonations and original
songs, Polly and Oz, delight with
their syncopated comedy; Maurice
Diamond and Co. have a surprise turn
ln "Snapshots of 1923;" the Dixie
Pour comprises a quartette of versatile boys; McGood, Lenzen and Co.
have an unusual turn entitled "An
'J| Evening in a Billiard Parlor." The
picture programme embraces a special
reel showing the arrival of the.Prince
of Wales in Canada last week, and the
concert orchestra renders an attractive
special programme.
THIS WEEK
| AN ALL-STAB BILL OP 1JXOEL-
.   LENT VAUDEVILLE
NEW SHOW
STARTING  WEDNESDAY,   SEPT.  861
•NONETTE"
Billy ARLINGTON
Al. HEBMAN
THOMAS B. SHEA
WILLIE  SCHENK 00.
BUSSELL  OABB  *   'OBAOE
HABBT MOORE
Concert Orchestri
Matinees:   THUBS., FBI., SAT.
—Book Seats Early—
POPULAR   PBIOES..
Hams.  991  Nelson  St ;
Fletcher, 991 Nelson
Businsss Agent,   F.
WORKERS' PARTY OF CANADA—303%
Pender Street West. Buslnrss meetings
every 1st and Srd Wednesday every month.
M. OarpendaJe, corresponding secretary: 0,
Tether, flnanclal secretary; J. Halliday,
brunch organiser.
PRINOE BUPERT TYPOORAPHIOAL
UNION, No. 418—President, S. D. Mac*
doaald, eec retary* treasurer, J. M. Campbell,
P. 0. Box 689. Meeta last Thursday of each
■oath.
Labor Problems Discussed
(Continued from page S)
part of labor in eastern Canada, of
the problems of jabor jn western
Canada.
Knowledge  Begets  Sympathy
It means that, at least, but I am
satisfied that it means more, namely,
that something will have been done
to educate eastern Canadians to the
problems and possibilities of western
Canadians. I* think you will agree,
Mr, President, that that will not be
the least of the accomplishments of
your parliament. Knowledge begets
sympathy, and without this sympathy there cannot be the highest form
of legislative and administrative action. We ln thte province have problems that you from other provinces
have not. Doubtless, you will hear
of these ln the course of your deliberations. May I, Mr, President, mention jUBt a few of thom? Nature
seems to have implanted an instinct
ln the human race to travel with the
sun, ever west. British Columbia has
an exceptionally salubrious climate,
charming scenery, features that have
induced the nomadic part of our population to drift this way. We have
been glad to welcome these nomads,
but we regret, frankly, that many of
them have come under-provided with
substance to maintain them untiljhey
can obtain a toe-hold In their new
home. I simply draw attention to
the fact, that British Columbia has
afforded an exceptional attraction to
the drifting population, particularly
of the west, and, as a result, we have
had in this province an unemployment situation that has been very
acute.
Unemployment
The winter before last we had in
our midst, particularly in the coast
cities of British Columbia, very many
thousands who underwent severe suffering as a result of unemployment.
Last winter this situation showed a
marked improvement and this summer there has been practically no excuse for idleness. As a result of the
natural characteristics I have mentioned, I may tell you that despite
British Columbia's proportionately
very high contribution ln men to the
war, British Columbia aftev the war,
had many thousands more returned
men within its boundaries than ever
enlisted from this province. AU the
casualties were offset and there has
been a steady flow of returned men
to this province ever since the end of
the war; many of them handicapped
men who are a difficult problem of
absorption, Thts latter problem ls
one this province willingly faced, as
there is not part of our clttzenhood to
which we owe more than to our war
veterans. We do not say It boastlng-
ly, but we do say with some confidence that on the whole this province
has done better by its veterans than
any other port of Canada, or of any
dominion of the empire. But, if we
have not absorbed all the handicapped men, it Is to be borne in mind,
that we have had more than our
share \\8 compared with the rest of
Canada. I, personally, made an appeal, individually, to each of the employers of the province, to rally to the
solution of 'the problem of re-establishing the war handicapped and unemployed. Industry has made a
pretty fair response.
No Dole Systom >
Some industries have' done better
than others; and, unfortunately, some
industries have washed their hands of
their responsibility And shown an unpatriotic and mercenary heart. These,
however, on the whole, are few.
In any event we steered clear of the
dole system. We received no flnanclal
help from the federal government, and
we handled the situation on a basis
that proved not too unsatisfactory.
While on the subject of unemployment, I may say to you that I am one
of those who Is resolutely opposed to any system of dole relief. I
believe that it- begets unemployable,
and that it has nothing to commend
it. Last winter, at the risk of considerable criticism which I received
(na men in public life always do),
when relief funds of the province
were limited. I distributed thoso relief
funds to the unemployed who had dependents, upon a work basis. Not on
a day-a-week basis, but on a slx-day-
a-week basis, at a wage somewhat less
than I wanted to pay but at a wage
that enabled me, with"the funds available, to carry the relief work on until
industry had opened up' in the spring,
and which discouraged labor moving
from satisfactory paid employment to
seek government relief employment,
and, perhaps, whon one remembers
that the unemployed as a whole were
not by training fitted for the work we
had in hand, we paid them, as Inexperienced workmen, a wage commensurate with what they earned. In
any event, we steered clear of the
dole system.
No Fedoral Help
We received no flnanclal help from
the federal government, and we handled the situation on a basis that
proved not too unsatisfactory lf one
pays not too great heed to fault-finding politicians and unreasoning claptrap specimens who Impose themselves on the ranks of labor. If. one
does the best one can, one can lay
down one's tools at the end of the day
without a troubled conscience. With
out prolonging unduly my address to
you, may I bo permittod to refer to
another problem which confronts this
province, one of an extremely serious
kind. I refer to the Oriental menace.
Let me premise what I have to say by
an expression of the deepest sympathy with the kingdom of Japan In
the grievous calamity that has recently overtaken It. Wo would be less
than human If our hearts did not go
out to Japan in the awful human Iobb
that she haB sustained; and. let me
add that In discussing what we ln the
west   call   the   Oriental   menace,   we
people. We hold no grudge against
the Oriental' as a fellow human being. There are many things in him
to be admired. His Industry and his
thrift, his painstaking care and his
thoroughness are greatly to be commended.
Ethnological Difference
Tjie foundation of our objection to
him as a citizen of British Columbia
is the ethnological difference between the Caucasian and the yellow
races. We that live here know, oi
think we know, that it was never Intended that there should be a mixture
of the bloods, and we will not submit
to a British province being Orientalized. If British Columbia must be
Orientalized, then we had better give
lt to Japan and China and vacate.
Economically, we have no objection.
The Oriental has not progressed ln
the matter of social progress to the
point that wo have, His, standard of
living Ib far below ours. His com<
petition is unfair, and surely we have
a right, within our own boundaries,
to object to unfair competition. I
admit that the Oriental will, doubt'
less, progress In the social scale, and
that his standard of living will im
prove; that some day lt will equal
ours; but meantime it does not, and
it Is facts, not possibilities, that we
ae cronfronted with. But even if the
possibility of his standards being
raised materializes, the fundamental
objection to him as a citizen of our
province will still remain. I do not
think that it Is unchristian to say that
it was not Intended that 'the Caucasian and yellow blood should Intermingle.
Early  Labor and Politicians
A bit of history on the subjeot:
For years this problem ln British
Columbia was one for the laboring
class, and a football for the politicians, The merchants and the farmer
washed their hands of the problem,
and labor fought the inroad all alone.
But a few things whloh have happened since have rather tightened up
our ranks. When the Oriental became a farmer, hts children went to
the farmer sohool; and when the
Oriental became a merchant, his children went to the merbhant's school,
Let me Bay that perhaps it was fortunate that it was so, because today
the farmer and the merchant have
taken up the flght, and we are a united
people In opposing the Inroad of the
Oriental. The solution, exclusion, ls
not enough. Let me quote you a few
figures which will Illuminate to you the
situation:
Births in British Columbia. Ust five decades: Chineso Jayn
1871*80     9 0
1881*90   95 2
1891*00    465 fl
1901-10    765 125
1911*20     1602 2852
1921*22  (two yrars)     418 1210
1023  (six months)   81 295
Births, 1922
British     8819
Chineso   217
Japs    (104
Other nations   1075
6*0
81.43
-2.12
io! n
«o
21.1
■ 7.C
38.8
14.1
Rest of
Canada
16,054
602
Pop. 1922 B.C.
Chinese      23.533
Japs       15,006
Do you get the point 7 The rapid
increase of Oriental births and the
high Oriental birth rate, and It is only
a matter of time when the white man
would have to give way unless something more than exclusion is done.
What can be done? Wu can exclude,
and we should exclude. We can carry
on a campaign of attrition and I can
tell you quite frankly that I am carrying on that campaign as minister of
labor today.
Campaign Today
I am bringing pressure to bear upon
Industry to employ whites Instead of
Orientals; and, lf I had time to give
you the figures, It might surprise you
to know the progress that has been
made. To give you an illustration of
the direction In which we work: Two
plants in the same line of Industry ln
this province, each with a payroll of
$1500 to 12500. Plant No. 1 has, I
think, three Oriental chefs. Plant
No. 2 has oveii 700 Oriental employees. Plant No. 1 Is succeeding ln
a business- way, as far as I can see,
just as well as plant No. 2. What Is
the excuse for plant No. 2 employing
700 or 800 Orientals? Pressure is
boing brought to bear on plant No. 2
to replaco the Orientals with white
men, and I have the promise of the
president of that concern that he will
accede to my request, lie Is not making the change Instanter, but I am
assured that ho Is mnking the change.
That ls an Illustration of what can bo
dono by what a call "attrition." Another step can be taken. We can In-
duco capital and a white population
to come in from elsewhere to develop
the province and make It preponderantly white. Another solution, but,
alas, I am afraid only a theoretical
one. We can urge our white people
to beget children—in other words, to
buck up the birth rale—but I nm
afraid that ln that we shall fall.
Political Football
I said a moment ago, that thts question had been a political football but
I am glad that I was able to say "had
been," Insofar as the public men of
this province are concerned. Today
our public men, realizing the acute-
ness of the menace, have quit playing
politics and have presented a unitod
front, on the Oriental problem. Our
trouble now is In the east, and I am
glad that you people are here that
you may see with your own eyeB, the
flght we have ln British Columbia.
As the fedoral member for the Fraser
valley during the last session put it:
"Orientals landing in British Columbia Bhould be shipped In bond to the
province of Ontario and thero unloaded." The point of his motion was
that Ontario should be brought to
lellzaatlon of thc menace confronting
this province. I know I need not appeal to this body for sympathy In this
flght, but-perhaps, with a keener appreciation as a result of your visit, you
. will be able to co-operate In a more
bear no ftl-will towards the Oriental' aggressive     and     more     Intelligent
fashion. We have gone far, in this
province, in the matter of social and
labor legislation.
Social and Labor Legislation
I cannot cover the field in detail ln
the course of this address, but I can
point with pride to the fact, that our
Workmen's Compensation aot, passed
flrst In this province in 1917, has been
amended in the last few years until today it is probably the moBt liberal
Workmen's Compensation act ln Canada taking it all in all, and Its administration, I think, is easily the best
in Canada by a commission composed
of a brilliant lawyer, a mechanical
engineer and a leader of labor. A
Mother's Pensions act that ls the most
liberal in Canada. Ours is the only
province in Canada carrying the
whole burden of mothers' pensions.
Elsewhere the province shares the
burden wtth the municipalities.
Facte and Figures
As a province we pay' $935 per
thousand of our population. Manitoba comes next with only $574 per
thousand of population. Ontario has
six times the population of British
Columbia. It granted aid to 266p
families In the year, while we granted
aid to 850. Ontario granted an overage amount of $29.10, compared with
onr $46.83 per family. Our Minimum
Wage act for girls has been a satisfactory step In the right direction. It
has been passed within the last few
years and Is working well. In the
matter of eight-hour legislation, we
have been making a very distinct pro
gress. The metal miners got a statutory eight-hour law in 1899. In 1918
we amended that law to make It eight-
hours from "bank to bank." In 1914
the underground coal miners were
given an eight-hour law. In the last
few years we have amended this
measure to make lt apply to aU surface workers as well as underground
workers. In 1917 the Labor Regulation act was passed, providing an 8-
hour day for smelter employees only.
In 1918 we amended the act to extend
it to those who formerly worked 12
hours a day. Now, out of 76,801* men
ln Industry, 47,000 worked eight hours
per day or less; 15,000 worked nine
hours; 11,500 worked ten hours, and
2000 more than ten hours.
East Has Not Kept Pace
In the provinces to the east pace
has not been kept with us in this
respect. We would like to see eaBtern
Canada move more rapidly because it
Is to be borne In mind that Industry
wants and is entitled to have similar
conditions prevailing in the whole of
Canada. I am not afraid of this province being behind. There are countless pieces of legislation that I can
mention to show that we are well in
advance. I would say to eastern
Canada, "Catch us If you can," but I
also say, "Wo must not lead too fast
comparatively, or we may kill the Industrial goose that lays our golden
labor egg." Mr. President, may I
say to you In conclusion that I trust
that your deliberations may be highly profitable. Do not forgot that the
wage rate Is but ono factor ln determining the laborers' social condition.
What good ts a high wage if your
merchant charges unfairly for the
merchandise you must buy?
Wages and Living
The wage rate and cost of living
must be considered together. Tou
must educate the business man to be
fair. You must be unselfish and eliminate unselfishness. You muBt enlist wide sympathy for your cause.
"Man's inhumanity to man makes
coutleso thousands mourn." Greed
begets war,-in Industry, as between
classes, nationally and internationally, greed ls the problem you have to
wrestle with. Cultivation of the policy of "Livo and let live," should be
your aim. The Inculcation of the
principles of Christianity as laid down
by the Carpenter of Nazareth will
bring about that time when "man to
man the world o'er will brtthers be
and a' that," Mr. President, may
sanity and reaaon and consideration
of every class of your leffow men
dominate your deliberations, and proflt and pleasure In tho more ample
sense bo your reward.
Hon. Mr. Manson was warmly applauded for his able apeoch.
EMPHASIZING OUR UNMATCHED VALUES IN
Women's Coats
and Dresses
Garments of the season's latest mode, fashioned of
fabrics that take their place in the front rank of the
season's most desired novelties, and well finished.
For style, appearance, nowhere else can you find
value to equal these.
WOMEN'S COATS, $29.50
Made of velour with fuMrimmed eollar and lined throughout,
showing the popular side fastening, in sizes An<\ CA
to fit women and misses WmS/iOU
WOMEN'S ANDN MISSES' COATS, at $39.50
A collection that offers almost unlimited choice for selection.
Made of good quality velour with fur collar and cuffs, and
attractively embroidered.
Extra value..
$39.50
CANTON CREPE AFTERNOON DRESSES,
 at $25.00
A dress that will add greatly to the completeness of the winter
wardrobe. A wide variety of becoming styles to choose from,
fashioned on long straight lines, and showing pleated panels,
and embroidered.   Colors of navy (OC AO
and black. Price..... «P_£0*UU
TRICOTESfE DRESSES for $29.50
Many smart models to choose from. The material is of a very
fine quality trimmed with military braid or embroidery; colors
of brown, navy, putty, rust  s tOO CH
and grey. op_etftO\J
Hudson's Bay Company
VAHOOUVEB, B. 0.
Typos at Banquet
One of the most enjoyable events
which took place during the week of
the TradeB and Labor Congress of
Canada convention, which was hold In
Vancouver, Sept. 10 to 15 Inclusive,
was a banquet given in honor of the
printer delegates in attendance, The
affair was arranged by the Typographical unioiy delegates to the convention
from Vancouver union No. 228, and
New Westminster union No. 632.
Delegates to the convention laid aside
the cares of their position, and spent
a very pleasant evening at the Savoy
hotel, New Westminster as guests of
the Vancouver and New Westminster
Typographical unions. Among those
present were: Gus. Frunq, Montreal;
Fred. White, M, L. A., Calgary; P. M.
"Paddy" Draper, sec.-tneas. of the
congress, Ottawa; Geo. W. Howard, I.
T. U. representative, Winnipeg; W. R.
Trotter, 2nd vice-president of the I.
T. Ui, Indianapolis; It. H. Neelands,
M. L. A., sec.treas, Vancouver Typographical union, Vancouver; Martin
Rowan, Ottawa; J. K. Pefters, sec-
treas. Ottawa Typographical union,
Ottawa; J. A. P. Hayden, associate
secretary of the congress convention,
Ottawa; Jack Wright, foreman the
Daily Province, Vancouver; Bob. Mc-
Creath, Edmonton; C. I. Aitchlson,
Federation of Labor, Washington, D.
C; Senator J. D. Taylor, New Westminster, B, C; H. S. Walsh (who
acted as chairman), New Westmlnater; J. T. Burnett, president of New
Westminster Typograhplcal union No.
632; Thps, Costello,. vice-president of
No. 632; O. C. Borjeson, Thos. Bowman and W. H. Futton, of No. 632.
Delegates H. L. Corey and Aid. R. P.
Pettipiece, representing Vancouver
Typographical union No. 226, and
Delegate R. A. Stoney, representing
New Westminster Typographical union
No. 632, were In chargo of the arrangements. Brief speeches by the
visitors brought a very pleasant evening to a close.
Dr. J. I. Gorosh
DRUGLESS   PHYSICIAN
CHIROPRACTOR
Chronic and nervous  diseases treated
hy drugless methods  only.
902-03  DOMINION  BUILDING
207 Hastings Street Weit
For froo examination, Call Sty. 4371
Luxury for Workers
Peter Shaughnessy, president of
the Bricklayers union of Chicago,
sailed for Burope on the Mauretania
the other day, occupying one of the
finest suites on the ship, costing about
$1000. The news Is so startling that
at least one newspaper printed It in a
conspicuous box. It Isn't big news
when some Idler, some waster, somo
nobody whose task In life fs to kill
time as luxuriously as possible, crosses
the ocean in suites that cost up to
|4000 for the week. But It is startling when someone who does useful
work, who serves his fellows, who Is
worth while, gets a crumb of comfort
or luxury for a lifetime of work. It
was Lassalle, the great leader of the
German workers, who said to hfs fellows, "Workers, Increase your wants."
When the workers realize what they
have created and what is usually denied to them, then they will be less
likely to endure the system that
creates ■ involuntary poverty on the
one hand and unspeakable luxury ln
return for idleness on the other—N.
Y. Call.
The United States now has 13,048,-
128 automobiles and trucks.
BURNING STOMACH
Relieved  In two mlnntea with •
JO-TO
Arnold In Ills Poetry
Splendour, music, passion, breadth
of movement and rhythm, we find tn
him in no great abundance; what we do
lind Is high distinction uf feeling (to
uso his own wnrd), a temperance, a
kind of modesty of expression, which '
Is at the same tlmn an artistic resource—the complexion «f his work;
and a remarkable faculty for touching the chords which connect our
feelings with tho things that othors
have done nnd spoken.—Henry James.
Jo*To relieves gu pains, acid stomach, heart*
burn, after-eating distress  and all forms oi
Indigestion quick)]', without harm.
All Drug Stores.
Trado with hogs Is good, why not
be a hog?
T
A
I
L
O
R
S
- TO PARTICULAR MEN
STORRY & McPHERSON
Upstairs at 6S3 GRANVILLE STREET
T
A
I
L
O
R
S
FACTS About
BEER
1. Capital Invested 100% Canadian
2. Labor Employed 100% Canadian
3. Raw Material 100% Canadian
Order BRITANNIA BEER from the Government Vendor PAGE FOUR
fifteenth year. No. 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA FEDERATIONIST Vancouver, b. c.
FRIDAY September  21, _.|
Oil and Rubber
Clothing Season
-IS NOW 0N-
OUR STOCK IS FULL IN ALL LINES
Mackinaws Blankets
Heavy Carss Pants
Raintest Clothing
Tin Clothing
Rubber Boots
Cravenette Coats
Headlight Overalls
W.B.Brummitt
18 and 20 CORDOVA STBEET WEST VANCOUVER, B. 0.
Whist Drive and Dance '
The Young Communist League
(Vancouver branch), will hold a whist
drivo and danco at the Clinton hall,
corner of Clinton and Pender street
west, Saturday, Sept. 22, starting at 8
p.m. Admission price, fathers and
brothers, 50 cents; mothers and sisters,
25 cents; children free. All interested in lho organization of the young
workers In this country are asked to
come along and help to make this
dance a success.    At the same time
helping to build up the only working
class youth organization in this city,
which is affiliated to the young communist International. Come and see
how the young workers do things—
Com.
Most hat slides under seats in
theatres need fixing. After trying to
put your chapeau under your chair,
you generally wind up by holding it on
the lap. The Hatters' union might
investigate thia public nuisance.
Canadian National Railways
TRAVEL TO THE EAST ON
The Continental Limited
9.50 P. M.-FROM VANCOUVER-9.50 P. M.
THE SCENIC ROUTE THROUGH THE ROOKIES
COURTEOUS ATTENDANTS   -      -      PAST SERVICE
Boat Schedule
MONDAY—WEDNESDAY-SATURDAY
12.00 MIDNIGHT
TO PRINCE RUPERT—Connecting with trains for the East.
For Information and Reservations, Apply
TOURIST AND TRAVEL BUREAU—527 GRANVILLE STREET
To Secretaries and
Union Officials
When Wanting Printing of any kind
SEE US
We have specialized in Union Work for
the last fifteen years. We guarantee sat*
isfaction. Prompt service. Reasonable
prices.
Cowan Brookhouse/ Ltd.
PRINTERS, PUBLISHERS, STEREOTYPERS
AND BOOKBINDERS
Phones:   Sey. 7421 and Sey. 4490
1129 HOWE ST. VANCOUVER, B. C.
INDUSTRIAL COURT
Denmark Decides Over Agreements—
lis Judgment Is Final
In All  Cases
At Copenhagen, Denmark, when a
legal case arises between employer
and employees from a breach of
agreement, it is not taken into the
civil courts, but is adjudicated in a
special permanent court of arbitration
established by law. The act creating
the court stipulates that all cases
arising from violation of recognized
rules, whether the fault lies with individual members or with the general
administration of any particular organization, and whether the injustice
Inflicted Is to indiviudal members or
to an organization as a whole, may
be referred to the court for decision.
The permanent court of arbitration Is
composed of representatives both of
the employers and the workers sitting
under a neutral chairman. It is composed of six ordinary judges and sixteen deputies, one-chairman and one
secretary.
Trades and Labor
{Continued from Page I)
In convention at Edmonton, September
20 and 21, were sent greetings, also
regrets at the council's inability to
send delegates.
A resolution was carried to the effect that the fair wages schedule be
posted in the government employment
bureaus.
Instructions were given Delegate
Pettipiece to support "amalgamation"
at the Portland A. F, of L. convention.
Delegate Pipes said that the Parks
board were again commencing work
on the sea wall at Stanley park. Last
year the wages paid were $5.60r instead of ¥8.50, the union rate.
A delegate asked if the council were
making any attempt to be prepared
for the approaching municipal elections. The president replied that no
attempt had been made so far,
J. A, McClelland, international vice-
president of the I. A. of Machinists,
being present, was asked to address
the meeting. He said he had attended all the trades congresses since
1907. He had followed their proceedings closely and had travelled
around the country a great deal. The
actions of the conventions in the past
may not have come up to expectations, but this year's was a credit to
all. The spirit of tolerance permeated
the whole convention. The labor
movement was passing through great
changes, wrought by the war. A common working ground must be struck.
The reactionaries as the more conservative element in the organizations
are called, but represented the great
mass of union workers. They will not
follow leaders who go so far ahead
of them. The taljis at the congress
were of a higher standard, which
marked one decided step forward. The
idea of taking political action was
not anything new, which some inexperienced organizations seemed to
think. He never attended a meeting
of congress but when the political resolution did not form one of the prin-
ciptal topics of discussion.
W. Powlesland, Canadian vice-president I. B. of Blacksmiths and Helpers, spoke briefly. He said a great
deal had been done to clear the way
for future advancement of the movement. He never expected men to
agree. It will be always west versus
east. On his way overland, he found
things very encouraging nil along the
line. The wild-cat organizations had
given way to the old internationals,
which were the only ones that could
survive. With all their faults, the
international movement was coming
back as the distinctive class organization among the workers. There
was always a real necessity for solidarity.
A. J. Crawford, general organizer
of the Sheet Metal Workers, and the
new vice-president of the Trades and
Labor Congress of Canada, said that
he had 'been doing a lot of receiving
lately, having been added to the local
reception committee to receive congress. (Laughter.) He had covered
between 7000 and 8000 miles of road
work in Canada. He had not been
anywhere where there was more real
progress than here in Vancouver. A
lot hnd been said about the proceedings of the Trades and Labor congress. The immigration questioners
a big problem. If we build up conditions to such an extent, we could bring
back those who had formerly made
Canada their home and had been
forced to leave for the United States
and elsewhere to make a livelihood,
Fifty per cent, of the members of the
building trades alone had left the
country, and lots of them would
glad to get back tf there was work to
be had. He was here to assist local
workers to better conditions. They
would return to the $1 an hour rato
for sheet metal workers. The different building trades enjoy about similar rates; all should draw fl an hour
or better. In 1910 and 1911 there
was a strong movement in the city.
We can have it again. He had been
informed by a number of the dele
gates attending the congress that
they wanted only to do one more
thing, and that was tb spend their
last days in British Columbia. He
thanked the delegates who supported
his election as vice-president of thc
congress.
Adjournment.
RESOLUTIONS PASSED
Convention Denounces Immigration Policy—Favors Better
Fay for Letter Carriers
League of Natlona *_
Tbo League of Nations waa endorsed by
the congresH, in which the aims, objects and
accomplishments of tho loagnt-B wore dis-
onBsed at length. The recommendations to
continue affiliation with tne League of
Nations society curried by a large majority,
tho left wing alone voting against it.
President Tom Moore left tho chair to speak
during the debate, paying tribute to the
efforts of the leuguo to bring about lasting
peace among nations, and affirming hia belief that workers should do everything possible to assist In the abolition ot war.
Subsidies to Cease
Reeolved—That this convention go on
record as being opposed to the granting of
subsidies and fixed assessments to manufacturers by the various municipalities;
and, be lt further resolved, that tbe Municipal act be so amended that this practice
of competition between tbo varloua towns
and cities for the locating of industries by
tho granting of fixed assessments and subsidies be done away with as an industry
whieh cannot afford to pay its Just ratea and
taxes cannot bo of any use to the workers
In the locality In wliich they settle.
Fair Wages
Resolved—That wo petition tho government of the provincu of Ontario to pass
login lation on the Bame lines as the federal
government on the question of fair wages
and In tho meantiino that the Fair Wages
resolution of the legislature passed in the
year 1000, be put into effect.
Factory Inspection
Resolved—That   the    government of   the
province   of   Ontario   be   asked   to appoint
onough inspectors  so that   the Factory act
can   be. properly   enforced in the planing
mills,  woodworking plants  and the various
factories in the province.
Oo-oiieratlve Societies
Whereas—This congress has. previously
gone on record as seeking legislation for a
simplified and reasonably priced form of
incorporation of co-operative societies
throughout the dominion; and, whereas, the
real value of wages is determined by thoir
purchasing power, and as tho widespread
und successful development of the co-operative movement in Canada would materially
assist trade unions in maintaining and Increasing this purchasing power; therefore,
be it
Resolved—Thnt this congress reiterate its
previous request lor legislation of this naturo
aud furthor adopt the recommendation of
tho Co-operativt! Union of Canada, as incorporated in their resolution of friendly greeting to thlB congress, recommending to our
affiliated units tho propriety of appointing
a committeo on co-operation to study its
philosophy, principles and business practice
ind In the event ot any of thom becoming
interested in to-operative organization, to
have regard to tho past experiences of the
Canadian co-operative movement by availing themselves of the advantage of tho organizational, advisory and supervisory service provided for their protection by the
co-operative union as isolated attempts at
organization are almost in every case doomed
to failure.
Fay of Letter Carriers
Whereas—Tho present classification of
letter carriers as framed without adequato
consideration, and haB rosultetd in rates of
remuneration incommensurate with the valuo
of services rendered to the publio;   and.
WhereaB—This classification has proven
to be entirely unsatisfactory in its application;   therefore, be It
Resolved—That this congress urge upon
the government tho necessity of immediate
consideration and adjustment of pay of let-
tor carriers on a scalo in keeping with thoir
increased  responsibilities.
Migration
Whereas—Thc federal and provincial governments have by their advertisements in-
ducod many immigrants to como to Canada,
mnny coming on harvest oxcurslonB, who,
when thc harvest Ih over, will find their
way-, into Ihe cities and towns and become
a charge nj.on tho municipalities during the
coming winter;   therefore, be it
Resolved—That tho federal and provincial
governments make provision for the care
of those unemployed, as thu municipalities
should not bo expected to maintain persons
who have been induced to como to Canada
by alluring advertisements of tho government.
Employment Bureaus
Whereas—Construction in Canada is at a
standstill at the present timo and privato
employment bureaus and genoral contractors
are urging immigration of mechanics to this
country and by so doing are swelling the
rankB of the unemployed;   therefore, be it
Resolved—That the Trades and Labor
congress in convention condemn the actions
of these unauthorised people from continuing their act of destruction in filling this
country with out-of-works and also to ask
the governments to put a stop to the actions
of these employment bureaus and general
contractors.
■ Under Quits of Farm Labi
Whereas—Thousands of immigrant mechanics in instruction trades are arriving
in Canada at tho present time; aud whereas,
hundreds of construction men are at this
time out of employment; therefore, bo it
Resolved—That the congross go on record
energetically protesting against any further
entry Into Canada of those people who come
In under the guise of farm laborers and take
the place of others wbo are endeavoring to
maintain good conditions and thereby increasing the number of unemployed in this
country.
Employment Buraaui
Resolved—That  the  incoming    provincial
executive, be instructed to ask the government of Quebec for the complete abolition
of all private employment agencies.
Vocational Officers.
Whereas—The overwhelming majority of
boys and girls leave school on or beforo
reaching, the eighth grade; and
Whereas—During this school term the degree of attention provided for the purpose of
assisting and directing such young persons
to industrial or commercial occupations for
which their natural abilities qualify them Is
quite negligible; and
Whereas—The result of such neglect ts
thst thousands of young persons upon leaving school drift Into "blind alley'1 occupations which afford no prospects for promotion or the acquiring of skill, thereby robbing su.li young persons of the opportunity
to secure a reasonable means of ilvlihood;
thereforo, be it
Resolved—That this convention of the
Trades and Labor congress of Canada hereby Instructs Its Incoming provincial executives to request the governments and school
authorities of (heir respective provinces to
provide for the appointment of vocational
officers whose duties shall be, in collaboration
with the junior division offices vt the employment service of Canada, to furnish the fullest I'osslble vocational guidance to children
when leaving school for the purpose of becoming wage-earners, and that the Provincial Federations of Labor be called upon to
take similar action In their respective provinces,
Militarism •nd War
By Edmonton Trades and Labor counoil:
_r"0.Lved_—Thlt wo bpIn* *° th« attention of
tho Trades snd Labor congress, the Imminent danger of war, and request that body to
Instruct the executive to stand ready to
take action by calling a special convention of
the congress to deal with the situation.
MILLION CHILDREN
Employed in Mills, Factories, Minos,
Tenements, Etc., in the
United States
More than a million children between 10 and 16 years of age are working in the United States. Nearly
400,000 are from 10 to 13 years of
age. The census does not report
those who are under ten. They are
employed in mills, factories, mines
and tenements, on the farms, in trade,
and as servants for adults. This denial of education and of leisure which
are the natural rights of children, Is
confined to no one section of the
country.
Tom Mann's Memoirs
We are informed that the volume
of memoirs which Tom Mann has been
writing wlU be published next month
in a 3s. edition and a library edition,
adorned with numerous photographs,
at 12s. 6d. The volume will be eagerly read by people in the labor movement.—Ex.
Living Wage and Better
(Continued from page 1)
That thore are men in all countries
who pot their living by war and by
keeping up the (|uarrolB of nations is
as shocking as it is true; but when
thone who are concernod in the government of a country mako it a study
to (tow discord nnd cultivate prejudices between natlona it becomes the
moro    npnrtlonnble.—Thomas Palite,
Tom Moore Re-elected
Friday closing day of the convention
Tom Moore of Ottawa was re-elected president of the Trades and Labor
congress of Canada at the close of its
30th convention. P. M. Draper of
Ottawa was re-elected secretary-treas
urer. Vico-presidents elected were.
John T. Poster, Montreal; R. P. Pettipiece, Vancouvor; A. J. Crawford
Vancouver.
The convention next year will bfc
held In London, Ont.
Pasg The  Federatlonist along and
help get new subscribers.
view lt. The wage rates In certain
other lines of industry in this
city, as submitted here by Mr.
Murrin for comparative purposes,
in nearly all cases, have been
dictated by employers operating
on the necessity of the unorganized
employee. They are arbitrary wage
rates, in the fixing of which the employee has no say whatever. They
aro unfair wages arbitrarily fixed-by
the empl'oyer. We cannot have such
a standard established. Wo are not
here hunting the lowest line of living
that men can exist upon, and we say
that the standard of living should be
brought to where we can not only
participate in the pleasures of life,
and know something of its enjoyments, but that will enable us to provide for the old man when he reaches
the winter of life, that we can provide for the man who Is disabled and
Injured in the occupation and can'
provide for him when he dies.
Provision for Old Age
There are some who say that the
state should provide for all when they
grow old,*• but I contend that the industry which a man served was what
owed him a living; the man who gives
his services—and I care not what the
capacity might be—that industry
owes that man a living, not only while
that man works, and not a living that
will just enable him to feed the machine, and keep the machine going
while he is In health, but that will
carry him on down through old age
and that occupation or industry owes
to that man a livijig. This was recognized by the late President Harding,
when he said in an address on May
24th, 1921:
"In our efforts at establishing industrial pence, we must see that the
wage-earner ls placed ln an economically sound position. His lowest wage
must be enough for comfort, enough
to make his house a home enough to
^nsure that the struggle for existence
shall not crowd out things truly worth
living for. There must be provisions
for education, for recreation and a
margin for savings. There must be
such freedom of action, as will ensure
full play to the individual's ability."
That, Mr. Chairman, is the standard we desire and which we feel we
are entitled to. It ls not an "artificial standard," as Mr. Murrin would
have you believe, but it is a necessary
standard—a standard below which we
cannot go without being deprived of
those necessities of Ufe which every
humane consideration demands.
Nova Scotia Strikes
The struggles of the miners In Nova
Scotia was vividly depicted by Comrade Jim McLachlan and Forman
Waye, M. P. P., in the Hamilton hall
on Thursday, Sept. 13. Men like Com.
McLachlan, who have been working
and fighting with and for the miners
of district 26, for the last twenty
years, ls the very embodiment of the
characteristics and viewpoint of the
miners ln Nova Scotia, Fighting Jim
McLachlan ls well named, open and
honest in his work, trusted by his fellow workers, and despised by milk
and water leaders who are not in sympathy with the struggles of the miners and do not put up a flght for the
miners,- but against them, thus
strengthening the oppressive hands of
the master class. The attitude of
these different leaders has been very
well brought to our notice during the
past week in the city of Vancouver,
and it Is up to the workers of Vancouver to show where they stand by
supporting the defense of the Nova
Scotia strikers. The local committee will meet on Friday, Sept. 21,
at 8 p.m., room 306, 819 Pender street
—Com.
According to estimates, automobiles
and motor trucks ln Pennsylvania
cover every day 10,000,000 miles and
80,000,000 passenger miles within the
boundaries of the state.
Patronize Federationist advertisers-
Indiana transported 36,876 children
to school dally by motor buses during 1922.
Best $2.50
GLASSES OH BABTH
COMPLETE WITB
OUB sonmirio
EXAMINATIOHS
Glan.es not prescribed unless absolutely necessary. Examinations
msde b, graduate Eyesight Special-
lsts. Rntlafacllon guaranteed.
Wa grind out own lenses. Louses
duplicated by mall.
Brown Optical
House
Bo  aura  of  the   addroas—Abovo
Woolworth's Store, near
Oranvlll..
•     Snlto S6, Dnrli Ohnmbars,
616 HASTINOS STBEBT WEST
rhona Say. 1071
Fall Overcoats
In all the newest shades and styles, check
backs and polo lined. Wonderful values at
a low price.
LOOK THEM OVER
$25
C. D. BRUCE
UMITED
Corner Homer and Hastings Streets
LETTERS TO
[The opinions and ideas expressed
by correspondents are not necessarily
endorsed by The Federationist, and
no responsibility for the views expressed ls accepted by the management.]
A Colossal Failure
Kdilor B. C. Federationist: Labor's
critics declare that socialism has
failed, and that, therefore, the labor
movement Is teaching false doctrines,
I hold socialism has not failed, because it, as a complete social order,
has never yet been established in any
country. Can the opponents of socialism demonstrate that capitalism is
an unqualified success? I think that
it can truthfully be asserted that capitalism, as a system of organized society, Is a colossal failure.
ALBERT HUGHES.
Vancouver, Sept. 20,  1923.
Eight-Hour Dny Effective In Italy
Editor B. C. Federationist:—I have
just received a copy of my home paper
containing a proclamation made by
the Mussolini government showing
how they do things In Italy under his
dictatorship. The proclamation which
I translate reads as follows:
"In industrial and commercial undertakings of all kinds, Including establishments for technical education
and those of a philanthropic character, and likewise in offices, on public
works, in hospitals, and In all places
where work ls performed for a salary
or wages on account of another or
under the direct control of another,
the normal maximum daily hours of.
actual work of wage-earning and salaried employees shall not exceed eight
hours a day or 48 hours a week."
This is a true step forward in Italy
as the example of that country is sure
to force itself on other European
countries. One of the difficulties in
the way of industrial development in
Canada is the necessity of competing
with European mechanics and others
who have* had to work long houra.
I am proud that my Own country has
been one of the flrst to make the eight-
hour day a legal obligation.
ITALIAN.
Thinks Union Lahor Hurts Non-
Union Mon
Editor B. C. Federatloniat: Today
the unionized workers are receiving
monopoly wages at the expense of the
non-unionized workers.
Should alt workers organize and
their wagea and salaries be increased,
then the monopoly wages of the present unionized workers would cease,
and one trade would not enjoy high
wages at the expense of their fellow-
workers as at present.
VICTIM.
Westwood.   By thie way I found pul
lie sentiment as I cannot reach y<I
all.   I thought to put these few Uni
in  The  Federationist paper,  as  tf
teachings suits the class workers.
have asked Dr. Slpperal to open til
Columbia college for the simple Gel
pel to be taught to preachers, but h;J
no  reply,  and - have  gone  to  thrf
other preachers.    They will listen
me when they have time, so I cail
do any more than to ask the clal
workers to open the door to the teac'J
ing of tho simple Gospel John ill:
means for everybody.   I want It to ll
understood it is no hypnotism, as Mil
Albert    Spear    went    under    Got'f
power the very first day she went J
the Arena.    This, my husband's sll
ter-ln-Iaw,    Dr. Price did not knol
she was ln the Arena, so you see, denj
class workers   it does   not   need
special man to pray for us, once vl
are taught to go about it.   She nevl
knew one church from another; all
she did  not have a bible or hynl
book ln the house, but today she Is f
good as any church member with h<
church members and a good Chrlstia
For myself, I had closed the Bible fi
21 years.   Now It Is up to us to g
busy to open a hall for ourselves, at
learn about the healing.   There Is It
more to say, but this is enough f
this time.    Yours very truly,
MRS. THOS. SPEAR,
A Class Worker's Wife,!
(B. C. Electric|
Vancouver, B. C, Sept. 18, 1923.
P. S.—As I've got my healing, I
want to do all I can for humanij
free. X got mine for 10c a collectioj
—T. S.
One of the queerest motor clubs I
the world It the Desert Touring Chi
of Alexandria, Egypt. This club hi
15 members—Including Albanian, Bril
Ish, French, Greek and Italians—at J
three cars. They tour thousands'
miles over the Sahara.
Healing
Editor B. C. Federationist: As I
have had a wonderful blessing by our
Heavenly Father at the Arena, by
opening out my ear after being deaf
for 42 years. Dr. Price was not in the
Arena when my healing came to me.
Now, I know that the Bible Is true
from cover to cover. It is called the
simple Gospel. I've been very busy
giving out leaflets on the street which
have  been  printed  by  the  Rev.   C.
WHAT AHOUT YOITII
FALL SUIT?
IF yon ut -muting t real good Suit ',
or Overcoat for Fall, como la and I
see us; -we are sgents for the Boyal
Tailors
Oome ln and inspect oor line of Am- •
horst Boots for men and boya at I
special prices.
Boys' School Boots, 1-5 $2.90
Men's AU Wool Heather Sox,
made fn England  45o j
Men's Bull Dog Brand Khaki
Coveralls   $2.95 j
Pigskin   Gloves,   with   wrist
fastener   $1.0*9'J
Muleskin Gloves  35c J
Boys' All Wool Jerseys, but-    _
ton on shoulder, special $1,501
Arthur Frith & Co.
Hen's and Boyi' Furnish-i
ings, Hats, Boots and ShoesJ
2313 MAIN STREET
(Batman 7th and 8th Avannal)
Phone Fairmont 4859
After-Eating  Distressl
And -all forma of stomaoh troublo, such)
gas, pains, aold, sour, burning stomaoh r
all relieved In two minutes ay taking
JO-TO
Jo-To aold by all Druggists.
Fresh Cut Flowen, Funeral Designs, Wedding Bouquets, Pot Plants,
Ornamental and Shade Trees, Seeds, Bulbs, Florins' Sundries
Brown Brothers & Co. Ltd.
FLORISTS AND NURSERYMEN
48 Hustings Street East   '   _—STOREK—2        0M Oranvllle Street '
Sey. »88*S.l "BAY IT WITH FLOWERS" Bey. S51S-1M1';
UNION STEAMSHIP COMPANY of B.C. Ltdj
Fourteen Passenger and Freight Steamers at your service.
Calling at all Northern B. C. Coast Points, Lumber and Mining Camps,]
Canneries and Pulp and Paper Mills,
PRINCE RUPERT, ANYOX and STEWART
For further particulars apply:
HEAD OFFICES:  UNION DOCK, Ft. OARRALL STBEET
Phone Sey. SOS '
CTOVES AND RANGES, both malleable and steel,]
McClary's, Pawcett's, Canada's Pride, installed]
free by experts; satisfaction guaranteed.   Cash or J
$2.00 per week.
Canada Pride Range Company Ltd.
346 Hastings Street East
Sey. 2399

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