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British Columbia Federationist Dec 26, 1924

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 BRIM! COLUMBIA FEDERATIONS
INDUSTRIAL UNITY: STRENGTH
OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE FEDERATED LABOR PARTY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
PUBLISHED IN INTERESTS OF ALL WORKERS
.4 POLITICAL UNITY: VICTORY
SIXTEENTH YEAR.   No. 52
FOUR PAGES
VANCOUVER, B. C, FRIDAY MORNING, DECEMBER 26,1924
5c A COPY
POVERTY IS RESULT
Pea Pictures of Life Under Capitalism—Material Destitution
and Poverty
PEOPLE LIKE WILD BEA?r
Interesting Sidelights on
the Week at Victoria
'THE PINAL "WEEK might easily be^dccument  for hia candidate, without
.selected as an example of paiiia-j consent   or   knowledge,   there   would
mentary inefficiency.    Three sessions! have   been   a   crisis   In   somebody's
a  day,  making a  fourtecn-hour  day  career.
for members inclined to work at their
Job, hut! exhausted the mental energies  of  all.    The  various   bills   sent
Stimulated to activity by the success of the fruit growers' act, the
minister of agriculture dived further
John  and  Mrs.  Bull  Vote
System to Perpetuate
Unemployment
[Rose Hondorson.]
ly/IATEHIAL destitution ami poverty
us we understand it today should
and would be non-existent if governments administered the nation's possessions in a Jnst and scientific manner. Poverty is the result of a policy—a system. It Is not ordained in
the form of an immutable decree
that 5 per cent, of the people should
own and control as they deem fit
what should be the birthright! of the
other 9B per cont. A day is coming
when tho conscience and the mentality of tho majority will be so awakened and so organized as to prevent
this injustice. Just as It was once
awakened to the injustice of a father
holding the power of life and death
over his children and having the right
to beat his wife, according to law,
with a slick no bigger than his thumb,
but not after 9 p.m., so as not to incapacitate her for her labors the following day. Many laws of like nature
have beon abolished aa human wisdom developed, and so surely as these
laws were abolished, so will a system
which creates and perpetuates poverty, crime and disease, Immersing
millions in an ocean of impoverish^
ment and human debauchery out of
which It is well-nigh impossible for
them to escape.
Tragedy follows tragedy hourly in
quick succession. The amazing thing
is the patience of these unfortunates
condemned to a living death from
the moment they take their first
breath in the warrens of poverty.
People Liko Wlhl  Beasts
"The people aro living like wild
beasts because they can get
houses." This was the statement mnde
at an Inquest at Ashington, Northumberland. The dead man was a la
borer, 60 years of age, who had
dwelt ln a cave on Nowbiggin Moor
When found he #£qJb.il_*K-on'_» bed
of bracken and covered with two old
coats. Broken on the wheel of cap
itallsm.
Dogs ln Luxurious Kennels
While In London I saw dogs in lux-
urious cages with silk hangings and
soft cushions at the winter show at
the Pekingese Club at Tattersall's,
London,  S.W.
There were two gilded kennels
"perfect dreams." One dog was in
a cage with Bilk lining and had ji
gold-embroidered cloth at the back
There was another closo by with
Ivory and gold fittings, silk curtains,
seal and silk coats, and an attendant
in livery to cater to "my lady's pet.
Many of the animals were in glass
cages to protect them from any risk
of catching distemper from the other
dogs.
Pekingese puppies, I was informed,
fetch as high as £1000, over $4000.
A stall where Lady Gertrude Decles
sold "dog Jumpers" to keep them
warm when motoring or out for their
"canter," was a new novelty. This
lady is the wife of Lord Decies, secretary of the Income Taxpayers'
League, who In season and out bewails In letters to the press about the
Injustice of the state to the super
taxpayers. Surely, now that his good
woman has taken up the industry of
"dog sweaters," she will be able to
supplement the family income and
relieve her lord's burden.
I'm not worried, however, about
thc burdens of the rich. The ques.
tion In my mind is, how much longor
are the poor, patient wage-earners
going to carry the burden of parasitic
lords, ladles and pampered poodles
on their shoulders? How much
longer are they going to make slavos
and paupors out of thoir wives and
children to keep this circus going
Driven to Despair
"A mother of seven children, sick
In body and mind, walked Into the
sea at Southscu. When taken to the
hospital it was afterwards ascertain
ed that she, her husband and seven
children lived ln one room. , The
father had been out of work for t
year and she hnd been driven to des
peration listening to her children
dally crying for bread."
Tower Bridge Plunge
"At 10:45 p.m., November 12,
Thomas Clark mounted the Tower
bridge and Jumped headlong Into the
water. A rivor patrol launch happened to be near and picked him up
His father-in-law said they had all
been out of work for a long time and
consequently there hnd been a shortage of food at home. He had complained of being 'fed up.' It was
stated Clark was a hard-working man
of excellent character, dogged continually with unemployment."
And yet. Johnny and Mrs, Bull
continue to voto for a system destined as long as It remains to perpetuate unemployment, tho parent of
povorty, ignorance, disease and all
other human degradation. How long,
oh, John, how long, will you and
yours continue to uphold and slave
for It?
foV%
from committees came back be- into "co-operation." The unhappy
back-to-tho-lander who signs up with
his "local" will In futuro bo managed
by headquarters. Anyono who enquires after the health of an agriculturist In future is liable to be accused of trying to purchase bis prod
slack assembly not wishing to
X'     '*,    by Chrislnias,  but  desiring to
',■.*£'.-for certain  whether their ser-
vi<\ 'Id be required after the fes
tival.,        "it.    Fresh government bills
were       •&  added   to  the   mass,  and
v\
union and  lumber roy-j'uee from him to the detriment of his
beer,
allies
dish to set before a house deprived
of the right to jasas or attend the
movies. The P. G. E. matter, which
both parties by opposing resolutions
had decided to discuss in committee,
was conveniently stalled and nobody
was one cent the worse.
Mothers' pensions occasioned a long
discussion ns to the possibility of a
deserted mother requiring two years
of starvation before she could demand
a pension. The merry gentlemen decided that she did—God rest them.
Labor declared that such legislation
was staged to win elections, and that
Immediately the expense was realized
similar regulations were Introduced to
curtail the Imaginary benefit. Merry
Ellen, who claims that this measure
Is the Magna Charta of womenkind
($42.50 per month for mother and
child) raised no protests. Speaking
of angels, this good lady staged another political exhibit during the
week. It appears that the fraternity
who celebrate a good day by going
out and killing something, circularized candidates at election time. They
asked that the whole proceeds of
game, hunting and trapping licenses
be devoted to the upkeep of game,
and that a special body of men be
appointed to secure the preservation.
Many candidates signed their assent,
and the name of the lady member
appeared as giving her approval—but
she had not signed, said she. Much
charge and counter-charges In the
house, and finally, some days' later,
the explanation. A secretary of a
liberal association had signed her
name without her knowledge. If a
labor   party  secretary  had   signed   a
avty-.Ve'd   settlement.    A   pretty i marketing organization and may suffer the penalties provided in thc act.
The barbers' bill finally survived
the roughest treatment given any
measure this session. A curious combination of farmers and lawyers
worked night and day to destroy it
—finally a friendly legal light suggested that the basis of their opposition was snobbery, and the shot
went home, two  birds rising to fall.
The beer discussion produced the
curious spectacle of the premier voting for beer, stating that It was the
most reluctant vote ho had ever given,
and finishing in tears. Tho gentle
reader may surmise at will, and then
"some.'.' R. H. Neelands stated labor's principle as being public control from first to last. A careful
analysis of the vote will show that
members were swayed by the wishes
of their own supporters and not by
the plebiscite. The liberal party
failed to support their attorney-general, who had practically pleaded for
a dry caucus vote on the ground that
the brewers were lawbreaking twenty-four hours a day. He had urged
government manufacture as the only
solution. A temperate Roland for a
wet Oliver.
The Victoria unemployed made a
further demonstration during tho
week and presented a petition by the
medium of the mayor, who is also
In the legislature. It may be mentioned that Victoria pays more income
tax than Vancouver, has golf courses
galore, and begs pennies from American tourists to feed its babies. Follow the hawks to Victoria. Labor
members seized upon the occasion to
press , the unemployment situation
throughout the province, stating that
the house had avoided the discussion
of causes and that now relief must
"We'given. The premier siied no tears
and managed to sidetrack the debate
by means of the rules.
The church union bill was duly
passed and the house has joined to
gether those whom the Almighty had
failed to unite. And yet critics say
that revolutions are not won by the
ballot box.
Resolutions which hud been put
aside for pressing if not impressive
government business were finally dis
posed of. R, H. Neelands had urged
the abolition of the senate. It was
decided to reform it.
For twenty-flve years the oriental
question has been debated, some
twelve acts have been passed and
declared Illegal. Once more our yellow brethren were told that we did
not like them well, the reason why
We could not tell, but this we knew,
and know full well, 'twas wicked here
to undersell. The extremest left in
quired what all the worry was about
and Indicated that the worker was
through with the yellow worry having passed the buck to George. What,
by the way, is the curious affinity between the oriental and Shaughnessy
that makes thom housemates? Is It
the ways that are dark and the tricks
thnt are vain?
R. W. Browne's resolution fixing
unemployment as permanent, tho r
sponsibllity upon profit, and the immediate palliative as maintenance at
the cont of Industry, had been termed
academic. Strangely enough, the. gov
ornment sought lo nvold a division
upon the question. Possibly they
thought, as labor did, that It would
throw the liberals and conservatives
together against labor. Thoy both
looked very sheepish when this happened once or twice. The division,
howevor, showed some five liberals
and  one conservative supporting  It.
JUNIOR LABOR LEAGUE
New   Organization   Gets   Good
Start—New Year Will
See Activity
Organization work was completed
at the last meeting of the Junior
Labor League, held on Friday evening. The New Year will see considerable activity among the young people.
There ure great possibilities ahead
of uny young peoples' labor movement. In these days, when boys and
girls just out of school start In looking for work, In many cases competing with their elders, fow of them
have any idea of the Industrial conditions they are up against. Their
motto immediately becomos, "beat the
other fellow to thc job"—and the boy
with tho fastest bicycle wins. A large
number will have just gone through
the annual rush for the Christmas
job. How many stopped to think or
ask themselves WHY they were un
successful? Only a knowledge of the
existing economic system would help
them answer such a question.
A woman recently said: "I know
why my husband Is always out of
work. It's because wben his boss hns
no work for him he gets laid off."
Is It any wonder labor makes poor
progress In the faee of such "enlightenment."
Much time nnd energy would be
saved by giving future citizens a
knowledge of the sociul system, the
mind of a youth being more receptive to new Ideas than that of his
elders.
The Junior Labor League will give
an opportunity to young people for
study while offering recreation they
can now only got in institutions directly opposed to their interests as
young members of the working class.
All conscientious workingmen and
women should give as much support
as they can to the work of the J.
L. L. Tho secrotary, Mr. Georgo Mitchell, will give information desired
to anyono interested. Phone Fair,
3320X, or Ml'. W. Roes, Fraser 551L,
There will be no general meoting
of the league until after the holidays,
when it will be announced In the
Foderntionist.
Slavery
The fact is that civilization requires
slaves. The Greeks were quite right
there. Unless there are slaves to do
the ugly, horrible, uninteresting work,
culture and contemplation become almost impossible. Human slavory is
wrong, insecure and demoralizing. On
mechanical slavery of the machine
the future of tho world depends.—
Oscar Wilde.
Monopoly Depress Wages
All monopoly makes It possible to
heighten prices and depress wages,
whilst restricting .utput, to the augmentation of private profit, but to
tho  detriment  of  tho consumer and
MUk Men Hold Christmas Part:
Percy Bongough, secretary of the
Trades and Labor Council, acted as
Santa Claus on Monday night to 200
children of the members of the milk
drivers and dairy employees. A
Christinas treo and entertainment was
given in O'Brien Hall and each child
was presented with a gift.
A musical programme was provided by the young poople and refreshments were supplied to everyone
presont. President E. "Woods was In
charge of the general arrangements
nnd James Mitrhell had charge of
the refreshments. Fraser Vallev Milk
Producers' Association provided Ice
cream,  milk and creamo. free.
ferttnij
To those who toil,} and those who
suffer—
All Hall! All Hall! this coming
Now Yoar, to the rising, nwakening
proletariat of the World, Irrespective
of color or creed.
Fast thou art forging toward the
light of freodom, a nobler, safer
world.
The path that thou hast trod is
strewn with tho bones of thy forebears. Great has boen their martyrdom for your sake.
The scarlet popples are dyed in
their bloom; the lily Is bleached with
their tears; every sign and throb of
the wind registers their gladness and
again their anguish.
With thy genius, Oh, Man, thou
hast conquered land and sea and air,
the desert smiles at thy approval.
Thou hast tilled and sowed and
garnered the fruits of the soil whereby all men live. Mother Earth has
never betrayed thee—she yields abundantly to the magic of thy touch.
In moments of leisure thou hast
filled the earth with music, beauty,
love and song. And yet! And yet!
Oh, Brother Man! thou haBt never
dreamed of conquering thine own
self. Thou hast not conquered greed,
ignorance, poverty and war, thy baser
passions when aroused put to shame
the fiercest beasts of the jungle.
Where thou hast given life thou
hast taken it abundantly, strewing
the world with human wreckage,
turning vast areas of the earth's surface into a graveyard and a hell.
"Where thou hast brought Joy thou
hast also brought unutterable woe.
Thou hast filled the granaries of
the earth to overflowing, yet do the
children cry aloud, and oft in vain,
for food.
The fields and prairies call—and
await thy coming; the flowers nod
and beckon tn glad array; the birds
fill the air with their music—yet do
the little children, the flowers and
blossoms of humankind, rot and
starve.and die In the crowded war
rens of poverty. '
In infinite patience and in infinite
pain hast thou wrought the marvels
of industry, science and warfare.
Mightier than thou, t oh, man, are
thy creations, free—yet as bonded
slaves dost thou bend before those
soulless, speechless, moving monsters.
Helpless and pitifully weak dost
thou fall before them.
When wilt thou, oh, son of man,
destined to have mastery over the
universe, learn the supreme lesson,
to master thyself. A few have learned this lesson; the many must follow
—ere thy freedom is won.
All Hall! All Hall! thts coming
New Year; to all who toil, to all who
hope for a new world. To the heroic
comrades rotting in their thousand:
in the jails of every land—a thousand
times All Hail! May the strength of
'the mighty be theirs. They shall not
suffer in vain. Their example will
inspire the multitudes. They lift tho
world movement toward Justice and
Liberty onto the hfghest plane.
Comrades, a yoar of greater struggle and greater effort lies ahjead
Whero dost thou stand?
—Rose Henderson.
Their will l>e no meeting of the
Federated Labor Party .Sunday evening.
An Army «r Principles
An army of principles will peno
trate where an army of soldforg cannot; it will succeed where diplomatic
management would fail; It Is neither
thc Rhine, tho Channel, nor tho
ocean that can arrest its progress
it will march on the horizon of the
world, and it will conquer.—Thomas
Paine,
The socialist movement moans not
only a transformation In industry,
hut a transformation ns well In nil
things having their roots In economic
conditions—art. education, ethics and
politics.—May "Wood  Simons.
Labor Set. ITpnn
No sooner In the exploitation of
tbe laborer by the manufacturer so
fnr nt an end that he receives his
wages in ensh than ho Is set upon
by othor portion?* nf tho bourgeois!.
more especially of the worker.—Will  tho landlord,   the   shopkeeper,    the
Roason.
pawnbroker,  etc.—Karl  Mnrx.
JOIN THE
Federated
Labor Party
TF YOU subscribe to the
•*• principles for which the
F. L, P. stands, write your
name and address plainly
below, and send to Secre*
tary Federated Labor Party,
Room 111, 319 Pender West.
Character Sketch of
The Life of E. D. Morel
tRoso Henderson.] ♦deluged,  but  I  am able to state to-
THERE HAS passed from our mldBt! nl«bt, I have just got it over the tele-
„    -,  ,    | phone  from  London,  that the whole
ono of "God's noblemen,"    Phys-   ' . .     .   .     . ,
■■   ■ j story Is an absolute invention,    and
ically he Is removed; spiritually ho Is  C(jncludea hlH 8l,ce(:h with a prophetic
more alive than ever.
When ministers of church and
crown have been forgotten, B. D.
Morel will live moro truly than evor
In the hearts and minds of unborn
generations. His greatness waB not
the greatness of the war lord, lho
diplomat nor the merchant king. His
was fcorn of the "eternal law of
change," truth, justice and lovo. His
was the greatness which perlsheth
not.
We,hear his voice no longer, yet
It echoes and re-echoes above the
babble of politicians, the crash of
falling empires, the moans and sighs
of dying multitudes, and comes stealing softly in the midnight silences to
inspire the brave and the faint-hearted, struggling to follow after him.
A man amongst men consecrated to
the task of turning the warring world,
perishing of hate, crushed under the
heel of militarism, torn by natural
conflicts, into a world of peace, love
and brotherhood.
He heard the cry of his dark-skinned brothers for liberty, for justice,
alike with his white-skinned brother;
to him the struggle was equally noble,
equally Important. The tears of the
dark-skinned woman and child did
not fall In vain. Ho felt alike with
her the anguish born of commercial
barbarism and sought to dethrone it.
The tears of suffering humanity
were as drops of lead, so heavily did
they He on hfs heart and conscience,
and it was because he so loved humanity, was so sure of their innate
nobility, and the oneness of all people, that he ever championed the
cause of all nations, a cause for which
he finally gave life itself. Greater
love, greater nobility, greater service,
could no man give.
He never sought to UBe the tools
of reaction that progress might pro
ceed. He did not believe in using the
devil's instruments to do the Lord's
work. He sought truth, and with
the sword of truth he fought the
enemies of mankind. Por this he
was stigmatized as a "dangerous
man." For this he suffered and had
ranged against him the hideous forces
of speculative wealthy On all sides
'he'hdid to'meet the Infamous calum
nies of reaction, and to fight them
almost single-handed; but he never
flinched. Yesterday he was jailed
and numbered and sent amongst
England's lowest criminals. Today ho
Is mourned as ono of her noblest sous.
Tomorrow, a generation. Inspired
by his example, will rear monuments
to his memory, not alone In marble
or bronze, butt In the sanctity of their
hearts and homes—as an apostle of
Peace, Love and Brotherhood.
Labor has lost a worker, a leader,
a comrado of rare intellect, rare spiritual gifts and personal charm.
His was tho voice, all down through
the ages, that kindled the sacred
fires and stirred the dormant conscience of mankind to nobler deers
and higher visions of life.
It is the voice that never dies, but
grows stronger as humanity grows
more mature.
His Is theivoice that Is now swell-,
ing Into a mighty international chorus; Fruse
demanding a "new heaven and a new
earth."    He was the symbol of a new
nge.
"He  shall   be   speaking   forever;
They shall be listening forever."   '
Shortly after I arrived in England
a friend asked: "Have you met
Morel?" I replied I had not that
pleasure, but was well acquainted
with him through his fight for peace
and liberty. "Oh, but that is not
enough. You must meet him and
know him, for I know you will lovo
him as Wo do." Soon afterwards fl
meeting was arranged—a meoting
which I shall count amongst my most
treasured memories. We talked of
many things. Of politics, diplomacy
and International finance, Ho was
particularly interested In Ihe story
of the absorption of Canada by "Wall
Street," and painfully alive to my Impressions of England's decaying population, a decay, as be remarked,
"criminal on tho part of tho government and bound to sound tho death-
knoll of hor greatness." Hi; believed
the Leaguo of Nations could bo reformed nnd made to function In the
Interests of the peoples of all nations.
I did not. He believed that "if America came to tho assistance of (lot*
many with her wealth, tho wounds
from which she was suffering would
hi timo be healed." I did not, but.
as he smilingly remarked, "on tills
last question I am open to chango
my views the momont I have evidence otherwise."
Judging from the last speech lie
mndo In the House of Commons al
the close of the sossion last August,
ho wns well aware that the "Dawes
plan" would bring only further exploitation and misery, not only to
the Gei'man people, but tho British
also, and was not slow in stating the
case against this iniquitous Bankers'
Bnrter In human flesh and bono,
when he was convinced of its nature.
Speaking In Laird Hall, Dundee,
Octobor   24,   Just   before   bis   election
In that constituency on the "Tory
Red Lettor Plot," he said: "I can
well believo that, it may have been
roncocted nl Riga, the great manufacturing centre for the 'White Russian forgeries' with which Europe Is
IB CREATE A RACE
Birth Control League of America
-Its Principles and
; Aims
warning: "Thoy want a definite rupture In Anglo-Russian relations, that
rupture to bo tho prelude lo anothor
attempt with our money and mon,
If they can get it, to re-establish
czardom, Make no mistake; my
friends. The master mind behind all
this will not ropt content until the)
present govornmont of Russia, good
or bad, is drowned in lho blood or
another terrible civil war."
This speech ended with a tribute
which should servo as tho Xcw Year
battle cry of labor: "Labor has led
the nations along thc path to peace,
and labor'* work must not, daro not,
be disturbed, for behind the Labor
party Is the great labor movement.
My friends, it is a great movement,
this labor movement of ours. It is
greater thnn any of us who are in it;
we come and go as tho days pass.
It is greater than our leaders; they,
too, play their parts, they come, they
go, they pass as dust before the wind.
Death ? Death is nothing. Death
cannot stop us. It is the cause, the
cause which is immortal."
And so It seemed as If it had been
decreed that his spirit should pass
as It had lived, out in tho great open
spaces.
On November 12, having spent the
morning writing to many of his
friends, he and his sister-in-law went
for a walk on the Dartmouth moors.
They walked as the full moon was
rising, up through the woods to the
heights above the valley, Morel exulting as he drew In the moorland
air, "this gives one new life." The
next moment: "I feel queer, don't be
alarmed," and, lying down to rest,
he fainted and did not again regain
consciousness.
The coffin, covered with his great
African cloak, and without ceremony
ot any kind his ashes were laid to rest
in the cemetery of "Garen Suburb'
in "Golder's Green," and thus was
ended on this planet a noble life—
a painless, peaceful death, out on the
great open spaces. Death ? For such
rs he there is no death.
WASTE WOMEN'S HEALTH
CANADIAN LABOR PARTY
Will Commence Its Campaign in
Municipal Elections on
January 5th
The South Vuneouver group will
commence their campaign in municipal elections on January 5, con
eluding with the ovening of thu 16th,
winding up with a social and dance
in the I. O. O. F. hall, 30th avenuo
and Main street, on Saturday, ,Iunu
ary 17th.
A special meeting of the groups
will be held In the Horticultural hall,
buck of municipal hull, 43rd and
Fraser avenue, on Sunday, January
■I, at :. o'clock. All Interested work
ers are needed and should be on hand
at this moeting. We need you
Campaign Meetings
Jan.   fi—Municipal   hall.   43rd   and
street.
.Jan. 6—Carlton school, .Joyce road
and Kingsway.
.Ian.    7—Selkirk    school.   Twenty
second and Commercial.
Jan.   8—Tecumseh   school,
third and Victoria road.
Jan.   S—McBride   school,   Twenty-
ninth and Cullodon street
Jan.    12—Secord    sohoi
and Victoria road.
Jan.   13--I. O.  O.   F,  ha
avenue and Main street.
Jan. 14—Wolff school, Twenty-seventh and Ontario street
.fan. 16—Fraser school, Murine and
Fraser,
.fan.    Ifl—-Municipal    hall,    Forty*
(hird and   Fraser.
.Jan.   IT—Social and dance,  I. O. O
l-'.  ball.  Thirtieth avonue and   Main
Forty-
Sixtieth
Thirl lelb
Tumult and  Push
Every day furnishes fresh proof of
the rapid growth and the spread of
tho ideas that wo represent. In all
fields there is tumult and push. The
dawn of a fair day is approaching
witb mighty strides. Lot us thon ev
battle and strive forward, unenneor
ed as "whero" and "when" the boundary-posts of the now and better day
for mankind will be raised. And If
In the course of this great battle for
tlw emancipation or the human race,
wc should fall, those now in tho roa
will stop forward; and we shall fall
with the consciousness of having dom
our duly as human beings, and wit!
the conviction that the goal will b«
reached, howover the powers hostile
to humanity may strugglo or strain
in resistance. Ours is tho world, d
spite all; that Is, for the workers and
the womon.—August Bebel,
Everywhere Is Seen Poverty and
Large Families Oo Hand
in Hand
SO MUCH misunderstanding exists
In regard lo the aims and objects
of tho Birth Control League of America (Including Canada), that we ,
have thought lt necessary to devote
ono article of our series to disabusing the public mind of some of Its
preconceived Ideas in this respect.
Unfortunately, thero are many in our
own community still so unenlightened
as to imagine that the Birth Control
League Is a body of people who pes- .
scss special knowledge of methods of
contraception and that their work
consists of giving this knowledge,
either through their literature or personally. Nothing can bo further from
the truth. There is nothing In the
programme of the league which in
any way conflicts with the law of
the land. Enlightenment and education of the public upon the vital importance of birth control Is the aim
of their local and world programmes
without exception.
Some two years ago Margaret
Sanger delivered a lecture ln this city
of Vancouver, and Immediately following there waa formed a branch ot
the Parent American League, to be
known ln future as the Canadian
Birth Control League. This branch
organization had the honor to be the
first of its kind In our Dominion. It
has met at regular Intervals ever
since its Inception and has more or
less effectively Inaugurated the birth
control movement in Canada.
The principles underlying the work
of the Canadian Birth Control League
arc fundamental to society.
Everywhere we see poverty and
large families going hand in hand.
Those least fit to carry on the race
are Increasing most rapidly. People
who cannot support their own offspring are encouraged by church and
state to produce large families. Many
of the children thud begotten are diseased or feeble-minded; many become criminals. The burden of supporting these undesirable types has
to bo borno by tho healthy elements
of the nation.
In addition to this great evil, we
witness the appalling waste of women'/) health and womon's lives by
too frequent pregnancies. These unwanted pregnancies often provoke the
crime of abortion or alternatively
multiply the numhor of child-workers
and lower the standard of living.
To create a race of well-born children it is essentia) thut the function
of mothorhood should be elevated to
a position of dignity, and this ls impossible as long oh conception remains
a matter of chance.
Wo hold that every woman Is entitled to receive practical scientific
education lit the means of birth control In order thai she may possess
power and freedom to control the
numbor and quality of her offspring.
Tho Canadian Birth Control League
alms to enlighten and educate all sections of the Canadian public In the
various aspects of the dangers of uncontrolled procreation. In particular
Its work Is divided Into tho following
departments;
I. To collect the findings of Helen -
listH concerning the relation or reek-
loss breeding to delinquency, defect
and dependence,
_!. To establish, under law, clinics
in charge of competent medical advisors, wherein mothers and potential mothers may receive Instruction
In harmless and roliablo methods of
birth control.
3. To advocate Blorlllzatlon of the
Insane, and feeble-minded and thoso
inflicted with inherited or transmla-
sable diseases.
4. To enlist the support and cooperation or legal advisors, statesmen
and legislators iu effecting the removal of statutes which encourage
dysgenlc breeding, Increase the sum
total of disease, misery nnd povorty,
and provent the establishment of a
policy of national health and strength,
6. Tho leaguo proposes to hold
annual conferences, to bring together
from all parts of the country thoso
Inlerested In lbe various phnses of
the subject, thus promoting the organization fn overy province of
brnnchos of the league whicb shall
carry on the work of educating the
public und pushing such legislation
nH Is necessary to permit proper medical Instruction In birth control.
biuluring Forms of Woalth
All iho labor used In the construction of battleships, which moans e:
ployment In mines, chemical services,
steel and iron works, the engineering
joinery,   carpentry,    plumbing,    and
painting trneds can bo trnnsforrod t
tho  building,  say.   of  housos,  and
great vnrfety of work  which  repre
sent?   enduring    forms    of    national
wealth.—J.   It.   Clynes.
Bused on  Moral Principles
Until our economic policy is bused
on moral principles It cannot succeed.
It Is an unusual note to strike, but
I most fervently hellove we can never
savo civilisation until all the nets of
govornmonts, all political policies, and
all International relations are based
on the .imple hut eternal principles
of lhe   moral  code.—Philip Snowden.
Tho only way to Kave onr empires
from tho encroachment of ihei peoplo
Is to engage In wnr, ami thus substitute national passions for social as-
Piraf Ions. — Empress Cathorlno of
Russia. MGE TWO
SIXTEENTH YEAR.    No. 52 BRITISH   COLUMBIA   FEDERATIONIST VANCOUVER. B. c.
FRIDAY rfacemlier At,  Vft*
British Columbia Federationist
Published every Friday by
The   British   Columbia   Federationist
Bnsfneo »nd Edltgrjaj Offlco, 1129 Hnwt. St.
The policy of Tbe B* C. Federatloniat la
eomrollHi by the editorial board of the Federated Latmr Party _t British Columbia.
aubhcnphuii Kate: United Statea and
elgn. $3.00 per year; Canada, 92.50
year, tl.50 (or aix montha; to Uniona
scribing in a body, lCc per member
month. 	
For-
per J
aub-
per
Tbe   Federatloniat la on iale kt the following newa stands:
VANOOUVER
B. J. GALLOWAY 840 OnutTlUa Stmt
NELSON'S NEWS STAND	
  1071 QruTlUl SttMt
F. 0. NEWS STAND 326 OruTlU* StXMt
JOHN OBEEN  SOS OarraU Stmt
WTEBNATZONAL BOOS STOBB
 Oor. Haitingi aad ColtmbU Atmh
B.O.E.E. TBAM NEWS
Cor. OarraU ind Hatting! SttMta
LOVE'S NEWS STAND  	
 134 Haitian Straet Eait
WALTEB GALLOWAY	
 136 Haatinga Stntt Eait
FLAOK BLOCK NEWS STAND 	
 183 Haatinga Street Wert
NEWS  STAND    „	
 Oor. Hastingi and Abbott
W. H. ARMSTRONG 2402 Main Street
BEN TOON'S BOOK SHOP 421 QriMille
BOULT'S BOOK STORE....313'/j Gambia St.
GEORGIA CONFECTIONERY	
 909 Georgia Stmt W**t
STRAND CONFECTIONERY 	
 048 Georgia Street
FROOHNAU tt GATES....169 Broadway Eait,
V, TURNER 815 Main Street
B. A. WEBSTEB 6993 Fraier Street
NORTH VANCOUVEB
SHOEMAKER & McLEAN....5 Lonsdale ATe,
NEW WESTMINSTEB
A. MUNGEAM 754 Columbia Street
DEPOT NEW STAND.... Interurban Depot
DAN MACKENZIE  Oelumbla Street
VICTORIA
GREENHAUGH NEWS AGENCY...
 Oor. Yatei and Government
HORSE SHOE STAND..1223 Government St,
W. LEVY 644 Yatei Street
NANAIMO
T. A. BARNARD 63 Commercial Street
PORT ALBERNI
W. H.  DENHAM ~ .News Stand
PRINOE GEORGE
KARL ANDERSON JJewi Stand
VERNON
EUGENE BELLEVUE .Box 922
ALBERTA
VALLEY   CONFECTIONERY Drumheller
ALEXANDER NEWS STAND	
 ---ji Eigntb Ave. W.„ Oalgary
BOSTON HAT WORKS	
  109 Eighth Ave., W., Calgary
LABOB NEWS .
.808 Centre Street, Oalgary
NATIONAL NEWS
.304 First Straet W., Oalgary
STAB SMOKE SHOP .
UNION CIGAR STAND .
126a Eighth Ave, E., Oalgary!
...»fo Second Street E., Oalgary
SASKATCHEWAN
LAYCOCK STORES LTD ..Swift Current
SEATTLE. WASH.
ECKHABT NEWS STORE .Seattle
FRIDAY .December 26, 1924
THE CHRISTMAS AITKAJjS
IT MUST SEEM rather odd to tfyo
average reader, oi the daily press
to read, for instance, that "the prospects for the future of Vancouver
were never brighter," and then, in
the same paper and oh the same
page, read such headlines as the following: "Many Parents Make Hjfebys
Appeals for Th,elr jChlldren.'.'
We have little doubt that the IJ. C.
E. R. Is prospering. We would have
believed it, even though our Information came from somo loss authentic
source than from the president, It.
M. Home "'ayne, himself. Mr. Homo-
Payne considers that tho prosperity
of a country consists in tho dividends
received by the shareholders of his
company. The number of men and
women who may. be -searching our
city in vain for work means nothing
to him. Suffering and privation has
never been his lot, perhaps. The piteous cries of starving and ill-clad
children has never disturbed his
peace of mind—or conscience.
No city, no province, or country,
should ever he considered prosperous
that has blazoned forth on the front
page of its dally press such piteous
appeals as we have seen of late. If
another war should be declared, in
which Canada might becomo embroiled, we have little doubt that Mr.
Horne-Payne would be one of tho
first to nine upon tin. children, who
bave heen having made on their he-
bulf siuh piteous appeals, to "Join
the colors" In the "honor of king
and country," that he, and his kind,
might live In pettco and security und
enjoy tho Increased dividends that
war so often brings, Tho workers, In
fact, all voters, should remember
these reports *it prosperity when the
13, C. E. It. appeal.1* fijr some xpecliil
privileges froffl thalr hands,
do? They loaned to, or invested in
Germany, somethink like £160,000,
000. What did they loan this for?
For profit? Was it a patriotic act?
Did It serve to develop the industries
in England or her colonies? Not at
all. It is all right for Mr. Stevens
to give us such a nice line of chatter, but, fortunately or unfortunately,
the scales are dropping from our oyes
and we are gradually coming to see
and understand the great propelling
force at work behind all businesses,
big and little alike. So long as it
Is profitable to trade within the em
pire, they will. When it is more
profitable—to themsolvos—to trade
elsewhere, they will do that, too.
If these people were really sincere
in thoir concern for their empire, thoy
would endeavor to develop a system
or co-operutlon, u systom concerned
only with the rights of tho individuals, and not with the profits of a
fe.w financiers, as it is today.
Replies to "Spud Tamson"
rpHERE
Statesman   cf   Dec.
[By J. Lyle Telford.]
appeared    In    the    Labor
_______________________ 19th a HM8
article by "Spud Tamson," otherwise
known, I believe, as Mr. Skinner, in
which he was apparently much an
noyed over the editorial policy of The
Federationist insofar as the Cana
dian Labor Party was concerned.
There was a reference which reflected upon my own personal and
professional integrity with which
am not going to deul ether than to
say that I am quite willing to allow
that matter to rest with those who
know mc best. I am willing to accept
their Judgment, Mr. Skinner's not
withstanding.
So far as the Canadian Labor Party
is concerned, I am certain that there
Is a mission for It to fill, provided
It rises to the occasion. If, on the
othor hand, it is to become the play
thing of a few who, though willing
to live on the backs of the workers,
are not willing to make the necessar
sacrifice for their cause, and who, if
they really stand for the principles
of socialism, are most adapt at cam
ouflaging that stand—so far as the
average voter is concerned, but not
the class-conscious voter—then it
doomed, regardless of any stand that
this paper might tako. It will die a
natural death.
The men und women in the old
land who are today coming to the
forefront of the battle are those who
have stcod the test of time, and who
have never, at any time, forgot the
ideals and aspirations of the movement with which they were identified.
They were defeated! Yes, many,
many times. They were 1XM to their
.convictions. They did not go out *lnt*
Preach catch phrases simply to tickle
the ears of their audiences and
gain a seat of authority. They were
.socialists, and they adhered to the
principles of socialism. Many of tbem
not only went to Jail for a few hours,
but many of them spont days, months,
yes, and even years—and when they
came out they did not recant. With
such men any movement would be
assured of success. Let us try and
emulate them—Just a  little.
0909
[Note—As many enquiries reach
this office from time to time, the editor will reserve space to deal with
such matters, under the above heading. Communications addressed to
Notes and Queries Editor" will be
handled as quickly as space permits.
Ed.] 	
A. TAYLOR—Furthor to yours: the
following table gives London's figures
In the last election, which are much
more favorably than you arc inclined
to think. They are, in fact, highly
satisfactory;
Labor voles
Tory   	
Liberal 	
428,806
■120,187
.137.706
11124.
87S,R98
106,884
School and Democracy
[W. D. Bayley, M.L.A., Manitoba.]
A   TRIP across Canada has brought1
me .directly in touch with groupa
OfZHEN   King   Richard   the   First,'of   the   most   progress'vely    minded
"Richard Coeur de Lion," aa heiteachers of the Dominion. From Hal
The Origin of the
Magna Charta
was commonly called, died in 1199
A.D., he designated Prince Arthur,
thc son of his brother Geoffrey, as
ifax and Charlottetown to Victoria, I
have found a most hearty and cordial
response to my suggestions regarding
his rightful heir to "the throne ofi the opportunity and responsibility of
England, Prince Arthur was then a the public school ln the matter of
very  young   fellow  of .some  ten   orjbetter citizenship and solving "of our
pressing  social   and   economic  problems.
twelve years, and, being the oldest
son of Richard's oldest brother, he
was naturally the rightful heir to the
throne. But, as was the custom in
those days of might being right, this
was disputed by John, surnnmed
"Lackland," another bro their of Rich-,
ard and the uncle of Prince Arthur.'Canada's western cities school teach
ers now function on civic bodies, the
This encouraging attitude has been
proven genuine and practical by the
acceptance of public office by teachers In varolus centres.   In several of
EMPIRE tkaiu:
WE SEE by the daily press that
Mr. 11. II. Stevens, who has just
returned from Kurope, predlots an
ora of Internal trade rivalry. It) the
Interests or empire preservation* ho
suggests the mother country and her
varloua dominions endeavor lo develop an Inter-emplre trade.
Mr. Sevens overtopkfl n very Important factor In this whole Situation, The big business intorests will
trade only where and when they find
It profitable for them lo trade, regardless of the good and welfare or
their own or any othor empire. Wo,'
very frankly, must conTess that all
this tnlk about developing inter-ern-
plre, or any other variety of trade,
sounds to us like utter nonsense. Wo
have only to recall that, a short time
ago, tho conservative arid liberal parities In Oreat Britain were telling us
-what the flnanol ors should do with
their unearned woalth, Either develop our own Industries or help develop our dominions, they advised.
What did these financiers actually
Total Anil-Labor    766,888    870,421
Labor nn Increase of 40.87 per cent.
Anti-Labor an Increase* of 13.5 per
ont.
('. .IONKH—John Scurr, M.P., prefaces  un   article   on   "Labor  anil   lhe
Rmplre" by saying, "Imperialism Is
a dovelopment or capitalism, and the
workors may rest assured Unit any
proposals made In the name of imperial unity of an economic character arc In lhe Interests of cupltul-
luio." lie advocates the control of
all exports and imports between the
various parts of the empire, that the
only purchaser should be an imperial
■economic committee, or a purchasing
board representative of the whole empire, which shall fix lhe price of sale,
suggesting lhal wheat aud meat be
chosen for a commencement.
One sentence of his Is worth rocordlng and worth getting well into
our systems: "The Interests of the
workers nre the same the world over.
Wo can not put n ring fence round
ourselves."
A, HENDERSON, Point (irey—Wo
•ire hoping to get figures that will
enable us to reply to your query on
municipal Indebtedness In an oarly
issue.
Industrial  Shivery
The one reality nf modern society-
Is Industrial slnvory, far-reaching
and Intimate, supreme over evory
man's life, dominating every action
of It from the greatest to tbe leust.
No man nud no set of mon can do
aiiylhlng that does not tend towards
the support of this slavery unless the;
net as conscious rebels against it.—
Motrin and Max, In "Socialism, It
Growth and  outcome."
John was regent of England during the absence of King Richard, who
spent the moat of his time in the Holy
Lund in a vain attempt, nlong with
many other kings and nobles of his
time, to retake or gain possession ol
the Holy Sepulchre, then in posses
sion of the Infidels under the leadership of one Siiladln, and In bis attempt he was completely defeated
and after a time returned home to
his native land, and died there. Not
having any children of his own, this
Prince Arthur was the next in line.
John, having' been regent all these
years, imagined that he was entitled
to the throne, and of course with
two people eluimlng ownership the
rosult wus internal strife and civil
war.
Tho barons and nobles of England
banded themselves together to support Prince Arthur, as also did King
Philip of France, who of course could
see an opportunity of getting some!
now possessions as a result of his
aid. John ulso had a lot of support
ers, and in the war in Normandy he
defeated Prince Arthur and Philip of
France, and Prince Arthur was taken
prisoner, and John, after vain at
tempts to force him to abdicate tn
his fnvor, was responsible for his
death, and, being dead, there was
then no one to dispute John's right
to the throne ahd he therefore de
clared himself king and reigned as
such until his death, after deposition
by the nobles in 1216 A.D.
His reign, however, was a very
troubled one. His title, indeed, after
Arthur's death, was no longer disputed, but he was greatly abhorred
and hated for his cruelties and crime?
and at length nearly all the barons
of his realm banded themselves together against him, with the view cf
reducing his power as king within
more reasonable bounds.
Thc king fought these "rebels," as
he called them, for somo time, but
he was continually beaten, and finally compelled to yield to them. They
wrot * out .their demands In a full and
formal manner upon parchment, and
compelled the king to sign It. This
document was called Magna Charta,
which means the Great Charter. The
slgn.ng and delivering this deed is
considered one of the most important
events in English history. It was the
first great covenant that was made
between the kings and people of England, and the stipulations of it hav?
been considered binding to this day,
so that it Is, in some sense, the original l.aale and foundation of the civil
rights which the British people now
enjoy.
Rs main provisions were that no
free man should be imprisoned or
proceeded ngainst except by, the jud*?-
men* of his peers ln accordance with
the law of the land; and that there
should bc one system of weights and
meusui es throughout the kingdom;
that foreign merchants should have
freedom of commerce; that no scu-
tugo oi' aid should be imposed except
hy consent of tho council, and that
ancient liberties generally should Le
preserved. The original chapter is
lost, but u manuscript copy exists at
Lincoln.
The place of assembly wh?re King
John came out to sign thlj covenant
was i'. broad and beaut il'ni meadow
on thc bunks of the Thames, not far
from Windsor Castle. The name cf
the field is Runnymede. The word
mead is a contraction for meadow.
The act of oncu signing such a
compact as tbis wns, however, not
sufficient, It seems, to bind the English kings. There wero a great many
disputes and contests about It afterward betweon the kings and the
barons, as the kings, one after another, refused to adhere to the agreement made by John In their name,
on the ground, perhaps, of thc deed
not being u voluntary onc ou his part.
Ho was forced to sign lt, they said,
because the barons were stronger
thnn he was. Of course, when the
kings thought that they, in their turn,'
were stronger thnn tho barons, they
were very apt to violate thc agreement. Ono of the kings on one occasion obtained a dispensation from
the Pope absolving him from all obligation to  fulfill this compaot.
In consequence of this want of good
faith on the part of the kings, there
arose continually new quarrels, and
sometimes new civil wars, between
the kings and the barons. In these
contests the barons were usually successful in the end, and then they al
ways Insisted nn the vanquished mon-
arch ratifying or signing the Mngna
Charta anew. It is said that in this
way It was confirmed and re-established not less than thirty times In
tbe course of four or five reigns, und
thus It becamo at last the settled
und unquestioned law of the Innd.
Tho powor Of the, kings of England
hns been restricted und controlled by
its provisions ever sinco.
electors evidently approving of this
by casting their votes for teacher
candidates,
* •    *
Along side of this I note the appearance in many places of labor's
representatives on school boards.
Whether these trustees havo ability
or not to enunciate or Initiate forward looking policies, they will at
least do one thing—namely, see that
progressive teachers are encouraged
—not molested—In tbelr work.
* *    ♦
We have come some distance in ten
years in this regard, ln 1915 i was
informed by the educational authorities In Winnipeg that If I accepted a
nomination for the Provincial Legislature I would probably have to resign, nnd if I wus elected I would
assuredly have to retire from the
stafr, There were no labor members
on the school board in 1915!
* *    *
Today there  are  six labor trustees
in Winnipeg. One Winnipeg principal
Is an elected member of the municipal council. Besides myself there
are three other teachers In the legislature, including the premier and
one of his colleagues In the cabinet!
Thus bas the principle been accepted
of the full citizenship status of teachers and their suitability for public
office endorsed by the electorate,
t    *    *
And what of it? Perhaps economic
determlnists may see nothing in It.
But those who place thinking first
and believe man determines his environment by purposeful deliberation,
see some significance in the emancipation of the mind, not only of the
teachers themselves, but of the public from the bogey of strict neutrality for teachers in public affairs,
* *    *
Consider this! In Canada we have
today the greatest and most thorough
paid tyranny ever known. The law
takes one million of our citizens, too
weak physically and too immature
mentally to resist, and sentences tbem
annually to 1,000 hours of confinement under the autocratic rule of
an army of professional supervisors
called  "teachers."
* •    •
During every one of those 1,000
hours more Influence ls registered
for weal or woe on the coming society of Canada' thah Is wielded by
the entire organized socialist movement of the Dominion during the
entire year. Is that vast domination
of the child mind, organized and paid
for by and on behalf of the mass of
the citizens, to be the agent of reaction or of progress?
* *    »
Arithmetic!    Look   at   the   school
texts. Filled from cover to cover with
profiteering competitive problems and
none on co-operative service activities.
* *    *
History!      Wonderfully    improved,
but still largely dominated by the
strut of kings, the glory of war and
an unsatisfactory outlook on the future.
Geography!    Maps that do not convey   Ideas   and   names   that   denote
specs on a chart, not actual centres
busy, toiling humanity.
* •    *
Literature! Strangely under-em-
phaslzlng the social relationships, bolstering up unthinking reverence for
the status quo while the propnetlc
flre of the seers Is missing.
* •    *
But the eastern educational horizon
Is already rosy with the approaching
dawn, A new consciousness ln teachers relative to social matters la
emerging and labor is doing something nt least to encourage them to
become a real factor in social regeneration.
Samples of Imperialistic Justice
—Published Obpectionabte
Articles
IN OAUSE OF LIBERTY
Salvation of Humanity Lies With
the Overthrow of
Oapitalism
[By R. N. Chaudhary.]
'THE EDITOR of one of the non-
co-operative weeklies was sentenced to one year's hard labor recently because in December, 1923, he
published two "objectionable" articles. (Justice Is sometimes delayed,
even in India,)
One was a leader In which the
Indian National Congress was urged
to give up its policy of non-intervon-
tlon in the Internal affairs of the
Indian Slates under the British Protection. This advice was based on
these grounds: That, being under the
iron heel of an unbridled, autocratic
and despotic rule of Indian Princes,
the people of the Indian States were
lifeless and inarticulate. The British
Imperialists exploited the helpless
state by providing security for the
Indian Prince against internal and
external enemies, thus giving him the
blank cheque to ride roughshod over
his "subjects' " lives and liberties, on
the one hand, and by using the man
power of the Indian States for imperial expansion abroad, or against
the movement of Indian liberty.
The article sounded a note of warning against permitting the capitalistic
imperialists and bureaucrats to further their nefarious designs freely,
The second article was a communication from tho great Indian patriot,
Rajah Mahendra Pratap, once a
wealthy landlord, who gave away
his millions and founded an industrial school for poor boys. He Is
now an exile In the Afghan capital.
It was an open letter to the Indian
Princes, who were asked therein to
side with the Indian National Congross rather than rely on the protection afforded by British arms. This
was all that constituted the editor's
offence. However, it was styled sedition. The law of sedition, be It noted,
has been specially designed to suit
the wishes of the bureaucratic government. It is not necessary, in order
to prosecute, to prove that the accused supported violence, or that the
publication of un article produced the
slightest disturbance. It is enough
If the writer attempts to create contempt or hatred towards the form of
government established by law in
British India.
Our province, Rajputana, is a non-
regulated province, which means that
it has no representative assembly or
council administration. It Is purely
a one-man rule. The judiciary of
Rajputana is, therefore, most servile,
and the police constitute tho most
powerful body.
Conditions may be bad enough in
Europe and America, but it is very
difficult for you people* to realize
just what conditions are prevailing ln
India as a result of the policy of Imperialism, and for those who raise
the ire of the rulers very Uttle mercy
ls shown. Imprisonment without trial,
no communication at all with the
outer world, and constant abuse, full
to the lot of many, However, with
leaders like Gandhi, much ls being
accomplished, and no sacrifice is
deemed too great for the motherland,
India. Please remember that Indian
patriotism has not the narrow and
aggressive meaning of the West. With
us, it Is purely a sentiment of self-
defence and service.
The salvation cf humanity lies with
the complete overthrow of capitalism
and imperialism, for imperialism allows not only the exploitation of a
man's labor, but of his mind, of his
home and whole life.
Phone Soymour 2361
DR. W. J. CURRY
DENTIST
SUITE 301. DOMINION BUILDINQ
 VANCOUVEB. B. 0.
il is difficult to free fools from the
lhal no thoy revere—Voltaire.
T hold that truth cannot grow
among men who do not learn how to
unlearn, and honestly put opinion bo-
nealh them.—Isaac Newton Vail.
Do You Know?
THAT if you neglect the minor signs
of i Loumuli dlmress sucb us gas
pains, torn-'burning stomuch, bloating, belching, and after-eating misery, you Are condemning your body
to years of chronic stomach trouble
Jo-To i_old by druggists everywhero
will quickly relieve all stomach
nil--ery.
Must Enforce Justice
[By J. C. Harris.]
WHAT is the remedy for a sick
civilization? How can the remedy, if found, be applied? We have
doctors In plenty and all sorts of
prescriptions and advice, but the state
of our country grows more alarming
and whilst the doctors squabble the
patient is likely to die.
Some of our doctors would restrict
the hours of labor; others would Increase the hours of labor (especially
■for other people). Same adv .«cate
thrift and economy, others, who produce luxuries, pin their faith on advertising so as to increase the consumption of luxuries and thereby "Increase work." Some wan a big nrmy
and navy, other would abolish both.
Then thore are wise men who believe in abundant Immigration and
equally profound phlllsophers wbo
denounce Immigration and would
drive out tho Orientals, etc.
What a Bedlam of absurd and
contradictory advice whilst the ship
of state rolls over nearer to the
breakers and Its gallant crew'squabble and carouse nnd do anything but
navigate her inelllgently.
Useless Work
Yet our problems in essence are
extremely simple, and may be simply
stated. Civilization Is sick because
very many of Its members are most
luccessfully dodging their fair amount
if work and ulso because a vast portion of the work we do Ib wasted, or
so badly designed as to be useless or
even  harmful.
Probably in no other period ot history aiid on no other continent wus
there ever raised such a brood of
shams nnd frauds und misfits us we
are raising In America today, because
labor has been made so efficient, that
one productive workman can carry
more parasites than ever before. And
because he cun carry parasites he
bas to carry parasites. For the Iron
law of the parasite is: We will Increase to the utmost capacity ot our'
hosts to sustain us.
It is a tremendous udvantage to
have grasped clearly what the sickness of society Is due to, for a correct diagnosis is all important, and
In itself generally indicates the proper line of treatment. If we aro
sick because so many members of
society are dodging their fair shore
of the work and grabbing by shady
means an unfair portion of tbe produco of industry, the remedy Is to
stop such rascality.
People Work at Useless Trudes
If we are sick becnuse a great
many people are working hard at
useless or even harmful trndes and
occupations, the remedy is to find
out all about such occupations, to expose the loss and mischief, and to
divert these ill-employed people, who
may be most conscientious workmen.
Into work that Is of benefit to society.
What we are proposing is to treat
society exactly like a business and
In the snme manner that a first-
rate business man would treat any
business that he was put in chnrge
of, Such a pian would thoroughly
overhaul his business, he would insist on a strict accounting with every
department and each member of the
force employed, nor would he cease
until each department showed a
profit.
We farmers are taught that we
ought to keep accounts with our livestock and our crops, and up-to date
poultrymen keep careful track of the
egg record of each hen. Why should
society not keep tract of its members
so as to be able to tell which were
layers nnd which merely cacklers.
Surely if it Is possible to devise trap-
nests   for   chickens,   modern   book-
Store Opens at 9 a.m. and
Closes at 6 p.m.
The Entire Stoct\
-of-
Trimmed
Wint
er
nery
(Second Floor.)
On Sale Saturday.
At Half-Price
575 Granville Street
Phone Seymour 3540
■fti,tHi,|ii«iHi,lni,tiitiHiHii*>„*>„*tinii>i,1.,
keeping could keep track of the doings of our lawyers, our real estate
men, our commorcial travellers, our
storekeepers and our miners, farmers, lumbermen, etc.
Must Enforco Justico
Justice deands that each individual makes a return to society of
goods and services equal to the goods
and services that he or she consumes. The possession of money, or
the acquisition of money offers no
excuse and society will bo sick until
it  enforces  justice.
An Intelligent lubor movement
should therefore have one supreme
objective, which is to distinguish between the useful and the unless
members of society and to steadily
eliminate tbe useless by converting
them into  useful citizens.
Our legislatures are full of well-
intentioned men of fair ubllity, but
who do not know whnt to do, or
how to do it, and are nuisances to
themselves and a hindrance to government. If half of the members of
euch legislature were to be formed
into a committee of investigation
under an active chnirmnn, to find
out what the different persons ln
each province were engnged in they
could soon present a report on society
that would enable a well-intentioned
government to take intelligent action.
St. Paul wrote: "He that will not
work neither Bhould he eat," and
St. Paul understood—JUSTICE.
Month-end and Year-end
Clearance at "Famous"
A GRAND clearing of all ends of linos,
odd gnrnicnts, etc, at prices thnt will
mako you opon your eycul If you are
looking for tt cout, suit, dross, skirt, or
sweater at n ser_.ii: inn a Iy low prico. come
tn tho "Finn* us" for it during this sale.
Famous K..&.
616-623 Halting!  Stnet Wert
Vancouver Turkish Baths
IU cure your Rheumatism, Lumbago,
Neuritis or Bad Cold
Massage » Specialty
PACIFIC  BUILDING
744 Hastings St. W. Phone Sey. 3076
WIU <
Weary tbe path tbat does not challenge renson. Doubt Is an Incentive
to truth, and patient Inquiry leadeth
tbe way.—H. Ballon.
Give me tho liberty to know,
think, to believe, nnd to utter freely,
according to conscience, abovo all
other   liberties.—Milton.
New Year Term Opens January 5, 1925
In AU Branches of
PROTT
LS
SPROT
HAW
CHOO
111:
COMMERCE AND TELEGRAPHY
We Are Gliul lo lie Known by Our Fruits:
'ivll Servico I'.xnms.:    First Four I'Iihth.
1 (>*____—I'auii-lluii TyiU'ttiil Ini*. t'liumplonsllip Content; First. Second
mill Thirtl   I'lnces III nearly every  class.
1021—Civil Servico Exams..    First six Places.
"By Tlieir Fruits lo Shall Know Them."
H.  J.  SPTIOTT,  B.A.,   Msr.
Phones: Seymour 1810, 7125, 7451 and Fairmont 41
Phon, 8,7. 11S8. S12 OABHALL SI.
G. S. MASON & CO.
Established 1B88
A  FACTORY   FOB  REPAIRING  HIOB-
ORADE WATCHES, CLOCKS,
CHRONOMETERS AND JEWELRY
Eyes Tested and Glasses Fitted hy regis*
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BARRISTERS,  SOLICITORS, BIO.
401-408 Metropolitan BlUllSf
BS7 Hastings St. W. VAHOOUVEB. B. 0.
Telephones: Seymoar 8688 end 8687
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WISHES AT
CHRISTMAS
Use Long-Distance
B. 0. TELEPHONE COMPANY.
TJAVE you ever had a real drink
H<,r |*uiv Apple Cider during tlie
last few .veins'.1
To meet the dBsires of many clients.,
we hive Introduced recently a pure clear
-sparkling apple elder In pint bottlea,
either pure sweet or government rem la*
tion M% hard apple elder, Th.se drinks
are absolutely pure and free from atl
euphonic acid gss or preservatives of
any nature. Write or phone your order
today, Highland 90.
VAN BROS. LTD.
Older Manufacturers
196S Commercial Drift, Vaneouvar, B. 0.
FIRST CHURCH  OF
CHRIST SCIENTIST
lltto Oeoriia Street
Bunday services, 11 a.m. and 7:80 p.m.
Sunday school nnmed lately following
morning service. W.'dnusdny testimonial
meeting, 8 p.m. Free reading room,
wot-on?  dirks Blrttr
WHEN IN TOWN STOP AT
The Oliver Rooms
48 H   CORDOVA STBEET EAST
Everything Modern
<    Rates Reasonable
BANKING SERVICE
THE UNION BANK OP CANADA, with its chain     .
of branches across Canada, and its foreign connections, offers complete facilities for taking care
of the banking requirements of its customers, both
at home and abroad.
ura»*HK
Established 6n Yi'iirs FRIDAY..
..December 26, 1924
sixteenth TEAR. no. s2 BRITISH COLUMBIA FEDERATIONIST Vancouver. b.c.
PAGE THREE
W7E take this opportunity
"  to wish our friends tbe
COMPLIMENTS OF
THE SEASON
And  to  Announce  a  Paw   Speciala:
Men's Carpot Slippers, special fl.75
Women's  Carpet   Slippers,   special,   a
pair .,.......:....    11.95
Men's Lace Boots, tan or black, $3.50
Men'i Christmas Ties, In fancy boxes,
(rom   600 to $2.00
Boya' Tweed Knickers  86c
Boys'  Serge Knickers   $1-25
Children's   Knee   Gum    Boots,    first
quality,  5 to  10 ft    $1.06
Arthur Frith & Co.
Men's and Boya' Furnishing!
Hats, Boots and Shoes
2313 MAIN STREET
Between 7th and 8th avenues
Pbone, Fairmont 1*1
Organic Evolution
Brandon Opera Company at Orpheum
Just how many songs cf genuine
merit are kept fresh in the public
mind because they are presented by
organization:, of talented singers, it
would bc difficult or impossible to
slate, for so-called songs are as numerous as "sands of the sea," and
every citizen of mature years can recall that the songs that were the rage
_!0 or even 10 years ago are now absolutely forgotten, save as incidents
in the transient music of the people.
But ln the standard light operas,
which in its broadest sense is high-
class musical comedy, some old, eome
comparatively new, tho output of
worth-while composers are to be
found scores oC songs that are entitled to live, both by reason of their
musical construction and their human appeal.
The Brandon Opera Company, the
only organization of its kind in the
West, and one of thc few like it in
the United States, will during its tour
contribute in no small degree to the
educational and cultural assets of the
community through which it travels.
It is announced that the Brandon
Opera Cbmpany is to appear at the
Orpheum theatre next Tuesday and
Wednesday, December 30 and 31, in
three of tho very best of the old favorites: "The Bohemian Girl," "The
Mikado," and "The Spring Maid."
Famous Buch Motet To Be Sung by
the St. Oluf Choir
While visiting the St. Thomas
school in Lelpslc in 1789 (almost
forty years after the death of Bach)
Mozart listened with surprised amaze*
ment to a rendition of that wonderful composition ol! Bachs, "Sing Ye
to the Lord," a motet for double
chorus. At the conclusion he sprang
to his feet and exclaimed with de
light: "That Is indeed something to
take a le=son from." He had at once
recognized the musical genius of the
immortal Bach.
"Sing Ye-to the-Lord" Is especially
beautiful. Zelter wrote to Goethe
(hat If he could be fortunate enough
to hear this Bach motet he "would
be in the center of the world," and
truly, when this nluslc rings out, one
loses sight for the moment of the
world with all of its unrest. That
wonderful flow of melody soothes the
soul, makes It forget the sorrows and
troubles of everyday life and pours
abroad a wonderful peace and joy.
And when tho sounds have died away
and there remains only the sweet
memory of beautiful tones, one still
wishes to sit with folded hands In
deep meditation to thank God for
that master musician Bach and for
the wonderful legacy of music that
has come through him to mankind.
"Sing Ye to the Lord" Is one of
the offerings of the St. Olaf Lutheran choir, which will be heard on
the west coast for the first time this
season. It will sing in the Orpheum
on Monday, December 29, and reservations must be sent in early, as a
heavy early sale of seats is anticipated.
Story Wrong   ■
Believo not each accusing tongue,
As most weak persons do;
But still believe that story wrong
Which ought not to be true.
—Sheridan.
Vancouver Unions
ALIJRD   PRINTINO  TKADE8 COUNCIL—■
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nlil-'TK.  .).  R.  White: secretary,  R. H. Neet-
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FK.n.RW.D LABOR PARTY. Room 111—
;|I9 Pi-ruler St. West—Buslnesa meptinfts
evtrs Wednesday evening. A. Maclnnla,
chairman; K. H. Morrison, seo-trean.; Oeo.
D. Harrison. 1182 Parker Street, Vancouver,
II. C,  cor res pond loft secretary.
Any district In British GoliirnhU deslrln*
In fu nn mi no re securing speakers or the foi-
iiiiitiun of I I'jtl tirsnchee, kindly co mm uni rate
wiiii prnvincla) Secretary J. Lyle Telford,
624 Birks Rldg., Vancouver, B. 0. Telephone Ritymmir 13*2. or Fairmont W.l
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Buildln% President, J. Brirhtwellj financtal
secretnry, TJ. A. Bowron, 020—llth Avenue
Fast
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Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuilders and Helpers of America. Local 194—Meetings first
and third Mondays In each month In Holden
Building. President, P, Wills; seoretary, A.
Fraaer. Offlce hours, 0 to 11 a.m. and 8 to 6
p.m.	
CIVIC EMPLOYEES UNTON—Meets flrst
and third Fridays In each month, at 445
Richards Street. President, David Cuthlll,
2852 Albert Street; secretary-treasurer, Oeo.
Harrison.  1182 Parker Street.	
ENGINEERS — INTERNATIONAL UNION
of Steam and Operating, Local 882—
Meets every Wednesday at 8 p.m., Room
806 Holden Bldg. President, Charles Price;
business agent and financial eecretary, F. L.
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UNTON, Local 145, A. F. of M.—Meeta la
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second Sunday at 10 a.m. President, E. C.
Miller, S91 Nelson Stroet; 'secretary, E. A.
, Jamieson, 991 Nelson Street; financial seeretary, W. E, Williams, 901 Nelson Street;
organiser,  F. Fletcher, 991 Nelson Street.
THE VANCOUVER THEATRICAL FEDERATION—Moots at U91 NelMJn Htreet, at 11
a.m, on the Tuesday preceding the Iat Sun-
I day of the month.   Prosldent, Harry Pearson,
991 Nelson Streot; Socretary, E. A. Jamie-
I non,   9D1  Nelson  Stroet; Business Agent, F.
Fletcher. 981   Nelson Si,
TYPOORAPHIOAL UNION, No. 33*9—Preil-
,     dent,  R. P.  Pettlplece'   vice-president   J.
I M.  Bryan;   secretary-treasurer,  R.  11.   Neelands,  IV-O.  Bt'X 60.    Meets last Sunday of
each umn th at 2 p.m. In Holden Building, 10
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PRINCE RUPERT TYPOGRAPHICAL
. UNTON, Nt... 418—President, 8. D. Mao-
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P. O. Box 689.   Meets last Thursday of eaeh
month
ARTICLE XV
[By Charles Hill-Tout, F. R. fi. C,
P. R. A. I„ etc.]
(All Rights Reserved)
TN the last article we traced the
*■ progressive evolution of the colonizing one-celled Protozoa Into the
lower divisions of the' many-celled
Metazoa. Up to this point the evolutionary codrse has been clear 'ahd
direct. Tlj6 existence at the present
day of the lowly organisms we have
Kad under consideration enables' us
to more than surmise as to the methods nature has employed to bring
about her ends. We get actual
glimpses of the way in which her
transformations, have been effected.
The Units are obvious and close. But
from this point onwards the course
of the main line of advance Is not
always as clear as we might desire.
Links are missing here and there;
and, although there are hints and
suggestions without number, and the
cumulative force of the evidence
taken as a whole, of progressive evolution, allows no doubt to remain in
our minds that this principle has
been actively at work in the life-
realm all down the ages, the actual
steps and stages followed ure sometimes a little obscure.
We should not be surprised at this
when we consider the enormous periods of time that have elapsed since
the dawn of life on our globe, and
the multitudinous changes and modifications that have obviously taken
place here in the past. The marvel
really is that wo Bhould be able to
trace back with any degree of certainty at all the main course of life,
amid so much diversity of form and
structure as we find in the organic
world  today.
But the labors of our zoologists
during the past half-century or so
have succeeded in bringing a remarkable amount of order and sequence
into this bewildering diversity; and
the genetic relationships they havo
already established between the different groups of life-forms give us
warrant for thinking, that as our
knowledge of the fossil forms and
of the life-cycles of the lower living
forms increases, few bf nature's secrets or her transformations In the
past will be wholly hidden from us.
From this time onward in our sur-
voy of the Metazoan forms we shall
be able to make more rapid progress, (
It will not be necessary to give them
the same amount of detailed treatment as we bestowed upon the earlier
forms. Our specific conslderarUm of
these has made it perfectly clear that
the changes and modifications
have seen going on among them can
only be adequately and rationalty
explained by postulating the presence
and activity of an evolutionary process in nature.
We shall assume, therefore, that
this process has been amply and convincingly demonstrated; and such
further evidence as we shall gather
on thlH head, as we proceed in our
inquiry, will be only so much more
additional proof of the existence and
operation of a principle already well
attested and established.
Zoologists have divided the Metazoa Into a number of distinct phyla
or sub-kingdoms. These fall naturally into two divisions distinguished
from each other by the terms Pdra-
zoa and Enterozon. The first is a
small unproductive division comprising the single phylum of the Porifera
or Sponges, which we have already
had under consideration and which
appears to constitute an independent
order of life of its own. The other
and larger division Is made up of all
the remaining phyla.
Because of the deep-seated differences in the structural characters
of this division it has been found
convenient to separate them into two
groups, a highor and a lower, termed
respectively Coelomocoela or Coelomata* and Entorocoela or Coelenterata
or (more briefly) Coelentera. (Unfortunately for the biological student no
genernl usage in zoological terminology hns yet beon established. Hence
be will find his authorities, as in
this instance, employing different
terms to express or designate the
same Idea or tiling.)
Tho Hydozoa, which wo considered
In tho last article, ure typical examples of the lower group, the Co-
elentora. Theso, It will bo recalled,
aro characterized by their two-layered organization wh^ch, comprises
an ectoderm and an ondoderm and
a single gastro-vascular cavity or
coelenteron.
Tho higher group, the Coelomnln,
are differentiated from tiie lower by
tho poEtrossion of a third cellular
layer, known as the middle layer or
mesoderm, nnd by a coeloma or
secondary body-cavity distinct and
apart from the coelenteron or intestinal cavity of the lower Metazoan
forms; which, as we saw, served the
various purposes of digestion, excretion, circulation and often reproduction.
Thero is thus between the higher
and lower groups, the Coelomata and
the Coelentera, a considerable structural gap; and It is interesting to u«.
from tho evolutionary point of view,
to note that one of the lowliest phyla
of the higher group—the Echino-
derma—Is able to offer us somo
strong) suggestive evidence of how
the progressive differentiation which
separates the two groups came nbout.
For while the Echinodorma bolong
structurally to tho Coelomata, thoy
have at the same timo so many features In common with thc Coelonter-
ates thnt some of our systematise
have classed thom with the latter.
They are now, howevor, generally
regarded by zoologists as belonging
lo the less differentiated of the Coelomata group.
Under tho term  Eehlnoderma arc
t Included such marine forms as the
crlnoids, sea-urchins, star-fishes, sea-
cucumbers, etc. In their characteristic forms they represent one of the
most distinct types In tho animal
kingdom; and yet they also show at
the same time, in diverse ways, their
affinities to, and their direet descent
from the earlier and simpler Coelen
tera. Thus they begin life as free-
swimming, ciliated embryos; tlie
adult form arising from the larval
condition by a secondary development,
such as we Bald characterized the
Hydromedusae; ami the study of their
life-cycle makes it reasonably certain that the phylum has been derived by modification from Coelen-
ternte ancestors. Indeed their relatively advanced organization Is actually foreshadowed for ub in some of
i the Coelentera. Among some of
these the enteron, or single body-
cavity, takes on an elliptical form,
and we may see taking place at the
end of this, the development of a
ciliated channel, along which the
creature's food Ib swept. We have
only to suppose the approximation
of the two sides of this narrow elliptical aperture and their ultimate
fusion—and we have seen far greater
modifications than this—to perceive
how the typical radially-symmetrical
coelenterate was transformed Into the
typical bilaterally-symmetrical coelo-
mate, with mouth and gullet at one
end of the lon., axis and the anal
opening at the other.
That they are thus derived from
more primitive forms is clearly
shown by their embryological and
larval conditions. As free-swimming
ciliated larvae they point strongly to
a ciliate ancestry. Historically considered, they appear in successively
higher forms; the two fossil orders
known (o jis being of much more
primitive type and structure than
the present living forms. Taking into
account the rays of the star-fish and
of sea-urchins, they would seem to
suggest descent from some of the
primitive flower-like, stalked forms
which we considered in previous
articles. Tho Eehlnoderma may thus
bo regarded as linking up and bridging over the gap between the Coelan-
tern and thc Coelomata. But because of thp 6 istlnctlve characters
thot mark them off from the other
animals It Is clear wo cannot regard
them as (.landing in the direct lire
of descent of the higher  forms.
Like some of the other distinctive
phyla, they form a group apart,
their evolution having followed lines
peculiar to themselves. One of thc
most' interesting of these other phyla
just referred to, the structural char-
, acters of whose members show quite
plainly their departure from the main
evolutionary line at an early period,
Is that which some systematlsts havo
called the Appendlculata and others
Arthropoda, meaning thereby animals
of the invertebrate class possessing
Jointed or articulated limbs,
This phylum is a very extensive
one, comprising as it does about
four-fifths of the whole animal
kingdom. It includes within it tho
three great groups or sub-phyla of
the Insecta—the number of whose
species Is believed to exceed that of
all other animals taken together—
the Crustacea (crabs, lobsters,
shrimps, etc.) and the Aruchnida
(spiders, scorpions ,etc.)
The ancestral form from which
this comprehensive phylum is descended was certainly some annulate
or worm-like animal. This we may
gather from the study of the embryos
and larvae of the various members
of this group; and also from our observation of some of the simpler,
more primitive forms among them,
such as the Chnetopods, worm-Ilko
annlllds which have not yet reached
the distinctly segmented stage of
tho characteristic forms of this
phylum.
It would seem at first sight a far
cry from somo simple worm-like creature to such dissimilar animals as
bees, ants, crabs, lobsters and spiders; and if the links connecting
litem up were wholly absent or lost,
to us it would be a hopeless task to
endeavor to trace out tho genetic
relationships of such divergent
forms. But happily for the evolti-
lutionist .these connecting links are
not wanting. Enough of thom are
known to us today to remove ail
doubt about Iho ancestral history of
these  widely-differential ed   animals.
The discovery nnd tracing out of
the relationships of the various
classes and orders of tho Appondl-
i'iilatn to oach other, and lliese again
lo some common, worm-like ancestor, Is one of the mnjor triumphs of
modern zoological science.
Another or the distinctive Metazoan phyla, which llo outside the
direct line of ancestry of the higher
forms, is that comprising the Molluscs. These include all the shellfish (other than the Crustacean
forms belonging to the Appendlculata) together with thc slugs, snails,
etc.
Tho origin of this group is similar
to that of the Appendlculata. They
also have been shown to spring from
seme worm-like ancestor.
In tracing back, therefore, lhe line
of descent of the highor vertebrates
we have to sot aside and exclude
from our survey such distinctive
phyla or sub-kingdoms as the Eehlnoderma, the Appendlculata nnd the
Mollusca, They do not llo in the.
direct line of descent of the higher;
Hfe-forms. They arc side products
of the evolutionary process; collateral
branches in the great treo of life.
Wo have to go boyond them to some
earlier, less differentiated form. But
when we do this We discover that thc
mal.fr line Itself has also had its
sourco in a worm-like progenitor;
and in this fundamental fact wo are
able to perceive Ihe underlying bond
which links and, unites the several
phyla or life-divisions into one genetically-related whole.
From the higher worm-like forms
to the simplest fish-like forms ls no
great step; and although the transformation took place too early in the
pre-Cambrlan seas for us to be able'
io trace the various successive phases
hy which it came about, we can have
np doubt that thia was the mode of
origin of the earliest marine verte-
orates. We find the two great divisions of the animal kingdom, tho
invertebrate and the vei-teorate, ao
cioaely linked together by intermediate, overlapping torma, which par-
uike of the character of botn groups,
that it la impossiole to doubt iheir
fundamental, genetic unity. We Und
suggestions and even tracea of ihe
earnest kind of a backbone ln aome
of the higher kinds ot worms themselves. Thus In the acorn-worms a
kind of notochord Ib seen to occur
and hence they have been termed
Hemlchorda. We can entertain no
doubt, therefore, that some early
worm-like animal gave rise to the
lowest division of the vertebrates, the
Tunlcata. These Intermediate torms
possess a "urochord,' that Ib a caudal or tall chord, which represents,
we believe, the primordial stage in
the evolution of the spinal column of
the vertebrates.
The best known of these Tunicates
Is the ascldlan, more familiarly known
as the sea-squirt; a soft-bodied animal of sac-like form. Its chief interest for the evolutionist lies in the
fact that it begins Its life as a. free-
swimming, tadjpole-Hke creature;
and while in this larval stage of its
existence shows direct affinities to the
vertebrates by the presence of a
"urochord" or Incipient spinal column; and although by a process of
degeneration, having abandoned an
active life for a sessile one, it loses
this vertebrate character as it matures, the biogenetic law—which
teaches us that the larval forms of
animals indicate their lines of descent more clearly than do the adult
forms—makes it quite certain that
the sea-squirt ls one of the connecting links between the soft-bodied Invertebrates and the animals with a
backbone.
There can be no doubt about this
because other members of the Tunlcata, which lack the degenerate tendencies of the sea-squirt, retain
throughout their lives this characteristic,   urocordal  structure.
In the Tunlcata, then, we see the
earliest types of the chordate animals,
thc intermediate or transitional forms
which unite the invertebrates to the
vertebrates.
Between the tunicates and thc
lancelet, the lowest of the true vertebrates, the gap Is slight. This flsh
like marine form ls a skull-less, thin,
almost transparent, splndle-Uke creature, two to three inches long. Its
chief characteristic ls Its soft, rod-
like notochord or primitive backbone. It differs chiefly In this respect from the tunicates in the fact
that this spinal-chord runs through
the whole length of the body and is
not, as In tbem, confined to the
caudal  portion only,
From the lancelet to the earliest
true fishes the step is even thorter
thun that between it and the tunicates. Of how this step was taken we
may gather some indications from
the structural characters of one of
the earliest of the fossil fish known
to us today. This flsh, to which the
name Palaeospondylus has been given,
belonged to the Palaeozoic age and was
found in certain Scotch sandstones
laid down In those far-off times. It
Is a small animal, possessing tho
simplest and most primitive type of
a cartilaginous backbone known to
us today. It Is wholly without ribs
or other extensions of any kind, and
In character appears to stand just
about midway between the backbones
of the later fishes and that of the
lancejet.
Should, however, the evidence of
the descent of thc vertebrates from
some earlier, worm-like ancestor, afforded by this and othor fossil flsh,
by the lancelets and the tunl-
catos, still leave somo uncertainty ltt
our minds on this score, we have
only to consider the supplementary
evidence offered by the embryological development of the living vertebrates themselves to fool reasonably
sure that this was tho manner of
their evolution, For In the early
embryological life of the young of
thc present-day vertebrates we may
observe thc recapitulation of many
of those evolutionary phases taking
place Under our eyes. We may see
tho embryo passing from the. chord-
less state to thc notochord condition;
from this to the cartllagfnoUH, flsh-
llko stage, and from this again to
the characteristic, bony, spinal column of the highor mammals,
When we considor all theso converging lines of evidence, nnd soo how
they confirm and strengthen ono another, very little room for doubt
can be loft In our minds concerning
the origin find mndo of descent of tho
vertobrates.
In the noxt article we will continue
our consideration of the aquatic vertobrates and seek to loarn how theso
gave rise to the Amphibia.
(To bo continued)
How Much Did Banks and Big
Financial Concerns Give
to Needy?
THE AW OF SOCIALISTS
CUNDAY NIOHT!
aore, wondering
Undisciplined
whatever ends
Goethe.
activity   in   any  line
nt   last   in   failure.—
Premier Wellington
COAL
1.-.00   lbs. lump,  $0,50
1500  lbs.  egg S0.25
j. d. McNeill coal co. ltd
224   ABBOTT  ST.
Spy.   I2KH
Would
got a
t.wo mlntito*
-tenths of tho grouchy
people in tho world aro
Tavern? if thoso peoplo
o their Drug Store and
uaa   of   .lo-To   tho   world
brighter, happier place.
i   all   Htomftch   misery   in
i.    All Drug Stores.
There Should Be No Want or
Suffering So Prevalent
Everywhere
[By Yorke.]
Saddened heart-
  The horrors of
it—the want, suffering and misery ln
this Vancouver, with Christmaa at
hand to accentuate the refinement of
the cruel horror of it all.
Once more I take up the ever lovely lesson of the season and read for
the Lord knows how many times
Charles Dickens' "Christmas Carol"
till my eyes blind, and wtth a sigh
seek bed and oblivion—and dream.
It seemed morning came very
quickly and I was up, keen on doing
something to help in some way to
alleviate the suffering I had seen
only too much of. Rushing in hot
haste to one and the other of our
comrades, to Mr. Mayor, to Mr.
Mayor-elect, and so we got together
a small but goodly crew In Comrade
Jacobus* office and outlined a programme of action. We scanned lists
of subscribers to the Santa Claus
funds. We noted the donations, Individual and small groups, employees
of this and that concern, pondered!
over the sacrifices so many of these
under-paid and poorly-off ones must
have made to send their mites. We
decided that lots more was wanted
and were quickly off In taxis to
banka, offices of big financial concerns, heads of big stores. So, so
many.
Our first effort was to the manager of the largest banks: "Sir," said
our spokesman, "there is terrible
want and suffering, the offerings
hitherto are but drops In a bucket to
what Is wanted and must be had.
Help us In the name of that great
Socialist, the lowly Nazerene Carpenter." Thts approach was wonderfully
well received. "You soe, gentlemen,
I cannot act in this on my own Initiative, but I will cable head office
at once.    Pray wait."
It seemed but the twinkling of an
eye when the reply was back. I am
happy to tell you that I am Instructed to hand you $2,600 for your fund."
Hurrah!
So on to another, and still others,
and In less than time for a thought
we had a bagful of big bills. Then
back to Comrade Jacobus again and
a count-up. "Twenty thousand dol
lars, my friends," said the treasurer,
"and thanks be, we can now do
something worth while to alleviate
needs and have no one wanting this
Christmas,
* *    *
Then   I  woke.
* •    «
And now I wonder how much thos?
banks, big financial institutions and
other rich concerns did give towards
funds for the needy.    I wonder!
Even had the course of my dream's
fancies crystalliwjd, what then? The
immediate aid would have been good,
of course, but the vital ques.Ions
remain. The Socialists aim that
there should bo no need for such
help, and we claim that it would
not be required under proper Socialistic handling of the economic situation.
If all will only get the realisation
of this fact and steadily and determinedly work towards that goal,
we shall need no Santa Claus or relief funds, for there will be no want
or suffering such as wc find only too
prevalent everywhere at this Christmas Day,  1924.
$37.50 Cash
Gives You Possession of This
BUNGALOW STYLE PIANO
—and $14.50 per Month Quickly Pays the Balance
Manufactured by the Weber Piano Co., in bungalow style,
with the-case beautifully finished in mahogany, walnut or
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with pure copper-wound bass strings, full metal plate,
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It has a charming touch and delightful tone, and at our
selling price is easily $50.00 less than the same quality
piano can be purchased elsewhere.
CASH PRICE
$375.00
L_  $395.00
COLONIAL DESIGN—
Price	
CLASSIC DESIGN—
Price	
$415.00
(Further particulars gladly furnished if desired.)
6 wwo«mMMTtD.w *n A** >n\y u>ro       f **v
VANCOUVER, B. 0.
Big New Year's Bill ut the Orpheum
Two notable stars share headline
honors on a wonderful bill of vaudeville which opens ot the Orpheum
theatre for three days, starting with
a matinee on New Year's day. Mme.
Bernlce de Pasquall, famous diva
who sang leading roles at the Metropolitan opera house for several years
with the immortal Caruso, and "Snub"
Pollard, the funny man from the
movleB, top the bill. "Snub" will reveal new lights on his entertaining
abilities In the uproarious sketch, "Oh
Uncle," which was written especially
for his personal appearance.
Jessie Maker and William J. Red
ford will present "Rolling Stones," _
sketch that is one of the season's
biggest novelties. Dave Apollon will
presont a new edition of "Bl-Ba-Bo,"
supported by a talented company.
Margie Clifton and partner ln classical poses and balancing present ah
act that ls difficult but gracefully
done. Something new and different
In vaudeville offerings is Bostock's
Riding School, with Lillian St. Leon
In "How Circus Riders Are Made/'
a mammoth comedy act with five circus riders and horses. Neal Abel,
the man with the mobile face, has
a wonderful line of comedy, Aesop's
Fables, Topics of the Day and the
Orpheum Concert Orchestra complete
the big bill.
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Fresh   Cut  Flowers, Funeral  Designs, Wedding  Bouquets, Pot Plants,
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FLORISTS AND NURSERYMEN
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"SAT IT WITH FLOWESS"
Nanaimo and District
Wide interest is being manifested in tha splendid Educational Articles now
appearing as regular features in
THE BRITISH COLUMBIA FEDERATIONIST
Official Organ of the
FEDERATED LABOR PARTY OF   BRITISH COLUMBIA
These Articles of Advanced Thought are highly appreciated and extensively
md by many labor men and women who think as well as work.
Subscription Price: Year, $2.50; Six Months, $1.50; 5 Cents per Copy.
The Federationist will be pleased to receive News Items, as well as Manuscripts bearing upon the Labor Question in Its Widest Application
to Society Today.
Sample Copies may be obtained from the representative of the B. C. Federationist, who will also be pleased to receive copy and subscriptions for the
paper, namely:
THOS. A. BARNARD
Book Seller and Stationer
63 COMMERCIAL STREET, NANAIMO, B. C. PAGE FOUR
SIXTEENTH TEAR.    No. 62 BRITISH   COLUMBIA   FEDERATIONIST VANnorVFK. B r
FRIDAY December 26, 1924
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Timely Topics
Oliver Sheds Tears!
UTTONEST JOHN," the man made
famous, not alone by his honesty, but also by that lone sweet kiss]
he so tenderly Implanted upon the
tender lips of our fair lady representative at Victoria, has at last succumbed, we fear, lo the Influence of
beer. We always felt our "rugged
John" would never "yield to temptation," but, alas, we fear the worse.
Hfs struggle with the timber bosses,
In which he fought a losing fight, no
doubt weakened him, and when it
came to "beer," well, what could the
poor man do? But still, we would
respectfully invite his attention to a
hymn that he, no doubt, once sang
with vigor. It read something like
this: "Yield not to temptation, for
yielding is ain," etc.
• ■  *    *
Robbing lhe Hanks!
Sounds rather unusual! Tlie average individual has been inclined to
think that the bunks have been robbing him. If he wants lhe loan of
a few dollars he has to put up as security all that he possesses, pay 8
per cent., interest on the little he
managed to persuade the managing
clerk to give him, und until it is all
paid back, his head lies restless upon
his pillow, for fear the little he may
have in this world might be gone In
90 days or less. Unless our financiers, and controllers of our governments, see to It that some change ls
made ln our present recognized
means of wealth distribution, and of
production, they can rest assured that
men and women, who are daily being
forced to adopt more unfortunate
means of gaining a livelihood, are going to rob their banks and any other
of their institutions that look inviting    ■
• •    *
Recently one page of the Sun contained an editorial headed, "Wanted
—More Babies." Another page was
eloquent with an appeal for homes
for the babies we have already. What
ls wanted is not increased population,
but more knowledge, and such conditions as will produce normal human
beings.
• *    *
Labor Is a most respectable concern. Its departed leaders are accorded military honors, and It is
characterized as something that
makes good terms between the exploited and those who exploit them.
But Indeed the world has need of
men like Gompers—until such time
as the parasite class are ready to give
up their property, which they never
will, or until the workers perceive
their rights, which might happen.
t    *    *
Professor Oswald Flamm, designer
of the giant submarine cruisers, de
scribes Britain's effort to limit the
size of submarines, or even to abolish
them, as "Anglo-American cant." So
It Is. There's no such thing as civilized war. If there must be war—
and under capitalism war is inevitable—the quicker and more thorough
the method, the better. What matters a few million lives of the people?
There*s nothing so cheap as human
life.
• *    •
The British Liberals are condemning their Conservative brethren for
the dishonesty of the Colonial Preference Btunt. When thieves get quarrelling, one usualy hears some rare
truths.
• *    •
The Glasgow Herald urges the people, I.e., the working classes, "to live
and let live," and not to think of
seizing the mastery, but rather to
have faith in co-operation. It appears to be most objectionable that,
the hands and brains of the community should also be masters. Nothing
very objectionable exlBts In the fact
that a class of parasites already has
the mastery.
a     *    a
Someone tells us that "the profession of journalism is a profession
of protest." Protest against anything that has to do with freedom
and progress, yes. But protest against
social evils, when it might be most
effective, no. Journalism Is the most
effective tool of the mnster class. It
keeps the workers quiet by doling
out lies, or half-truths that are worse
thnn lies. For even today peoplo
have a superstitious reverence for
anything thnt appears In print
Working Class Education
****** ****** ****** ******
The  Business of Making  Slaves
Money Wasted
Three-fourths of the money which
hns been mado In the Southern Call
fornla of] region hns been wasted be
cause of too close drilling; you put
down half a dozon wells In a single
city block, because lf you don't get
your well down first the owner of
the next lot will drain away all your
oil, So three-fourths of the benefit
which mankind might get from oil
goes Into useless holes In tho ground
and useless timbers built up Into tho
air,—Upton Sinclair.
Dr. Gallant, Chiropractor, 712 Robson
[Rose Henderson.] '
W7HBN will tho Industrial and the
" political organizations, both arms
of the one body, of the labor movement, unite for the one and only purpose   worth   while—that   of   formu
capitalism will have to relinquish Its
grip of slavery on the necks of the
masses.
Educate—Agitate—Organize—Is a
cry of dynamic power which can
never  become a platitude.    There  is
lating a policy of education for the- far more to be feared from tho half-
working class really worth while? j educated, half^cultured slaves who
Recent elections everywhere havej try to educate the uneducated skives,
proven that something is wrong on j tha« from th°ae_ who have a funda-
the side of labor, and that something
is right on the side of the present
system—right insofar as maintaining
capitalists In power and conserving
traditions Insuring the continuance of
unthinking slaves.
tho  grim
the Flowers of
stormlly tossed,
of the imltlc!
sundered
Columbia
NEXT WEEK
SPECIAL BILL
for Holiday Week
I'l.l'.NTV  OP  PUN  AND
AMUSEMENT
Admission Only
15c and 25c
Big   Amateur  Contest Friday
"Lo,  we are horn
the groy!
Lo,   we must fade
the May,
Leaving a heritage
Of the battles we won,
we  loBt,
On the great fields thai
nnd  torn, •
Leaving our pennons of Night ov of
Morn!"
All history, as well as present experience, teaches, If it teaches anything, that all changes in tho social
structure and ln the institutions
through which lhe body politic moves
have bcen the result of man's discontent, needs and thought. "As a man
thinketh, so ho Is" should he blazoned
across the banner of the labor movement—for upon the enlightened intelligence and the co-operative will
of the people labor must base all its
hopes. The mind of man Is the only
foundation upon which the socialist
commonwealth can be built. It,
therefore, depends upon how that
mind is directed whether the next
form of society will be a co-operative
commonwealth, In which all the material resources will be used for the
sustenance of Ufe, or whether it shall
be an industrial surfdom, the many
dependent on an oligarchy owning
internationally the resources of the
world and maintaining power, prof-
Its and privileges hitherto undreamed
of.
For to usher ln this latter state of
existence those in power control and
dirept every avenue of education.
Night and day their cohorts of reaction, themselves the victims of a
reactionary and a vicious system of
education, fly to their defense. Men
who should know better, and often
do, stand In the pulpits and He, sit
in the editor's chair and garble the
truth, or, as professors in school and
college, mould the pliable clay of
youth—Into herds of unthinking
slaves who, when their masters and
their hirelings blow their trumpets,
and beat their drums of reaction, can
be depended upon to fall, not upon
thoir real enemies, but upon one another, commit tho most diabolical
crimes, and slaughter one another by
the millions. The sons of working
class parents were transported from
America, Australia, Japan, China,
India, South Africa, to Europe, and
pitted with or against the sons of
working class parents of Russia, Germany, Austria, Italy, France and
Britain, whom they never saw, with
whom they had no quarrel, ond whose
language they could not even understand, In one of tho most unnecessary
and ungodly slaughters known to
mankind, the curse and the cause of
which must be laid at the door of
schools, colleges, press and pulpit, all
of which are primarily maintained for
the glory of the ruling order and not
for the glory of God or mankind.
That working class men and women
could bc led Into such crimes against
their class—be made to believe that
such actions were patriotic and according to "God's will," proves beyond argument how deeply the educational poison has seeped Into the
very fibre of their being and what a
difficult task, yea, what a sacred task
lies before those who would aspire
to lead Labor out of the slough of
civilized thuggery and barbarism.
Thc working class hns more than
an economic struggle. We are the
victims of an Immoral morality. We
have capitalistic minds, provincial in
our outlook, and hemmed in by a certain psychology born of heredity, and
stamped into our souls through our
environment. Early in life the struggle for bread Is laid on our shoulders, our bodios nre stunted, our minds
nre warped, our vision is killed, in
school, factory and sweatshops. A
restraint Is put upon working class
children utterly unlike tho freedom
and self-reliance of the children of
othor classes. From an early age
we nre taught the sacredness of prl
vate property, the greatness of tho
Croat Flnnncial Bugs and the duty of
submitting to their authority born of
their "greater intelligence." To question their authority is almost equivalent to questioning the authority of
God.
Such thoughts and teachings cannot free tho working class or build
the tomple of the future. At last
Labor is awakening to this fact.
Dr, L. P, Jacks, principal of Manchester College, Oxford, believes that
"unless new man are born and new
mothods nre found civilization will be
overtaken by disaster. Don't sup
pose," says Dr. Jacks, "that thc sort
of education which hns prevailed up
to now is going to prevail ln the future. Tho uneducated classes are by
no means willing to bo educated on
the understanding that they do not
know whnt is good for them, and
that 'we do.' They will never accept
from 'us' a type of culture which they
do not vnluo and have no opportunity
of applying," und quotes the words
of a Yorkshire operative to him on
learning thnt he came from Oxford
"Make no mistake about ono thing
we working men mean to have edu
cation, but we aro not going to tnko
it from you."
Whon more working men nnd women  renllzo this truth and this need,
mental grasp of the forces In the
past making for change and thc
forces now at work changing the
whole face cf the earth.
Education of the proper kind and
the principles of justice and truth
applied to all nations, are thc only
principles and lho only basis upon
wliich Labor can build the commonwealth of the future.
CLASS WAR
T\1D   the   (then)
■^Thomas,   M.   P.,
Rt. Hon. J. H.
uso tho words
quoted by the capitalist press ns
emenatlng from his lips, or not?
"Don't lot us keep up this damnable
talk  of class  warfare,"
If he did we only hope It forms a
part of a sentence, and that further
quotation might modify its apparent
disloyalty to his party—for disloyalty
It fs! Tho class struggle is more
bitter today than ever and will increase in its intenseness till Socialism
becomes dominant. How can it be
otherwise? We see on evory hand
movements .and.amalgamations with
trusts becoming stronger In their
manipulations, the press moro powerful for their masters; everywhere
combinations against labor and the
socialistic Ideal. In every direction
markets are tricked in order to Increase the cost of necessities, and the
question of wage reduction is always
to the fore—these matters are called
regrettable necessities — no matter
what it costs to live, prices muot be
considered tn connection with big
profits nnd dllvdends.
Think of the large number of actual
unemployed here in B. C; then consider the very large number of men
in professional callings—workers all—
who for the lust many nionthB cannot
make ends meet, and are slowly but
surely getting to the end of reserves
—getting shabbier, with the canker,
worry, eating their hearts out, fearful
of that awful future when their all is
gone and little or no work to expect.
So the capitalistic system Is Indicted
and self-condemned and the fight to
crush the system is by necessity moving forward; for Comrade Thomas or
any one else to cry stop the class warfare talk is Insulting to that manhood
that is quickly becoming enlightened
to the real reason of the conditions
wo are crushed under.
The whole sltuattion here, there and
the world over Is past the kid-glove
stage. It is "hard pounding, gentlemen," as the hero of Waterloo said,
and we Socialists must keep on pounding, keep on learning our lesson how
to combat the dominance of capitalism over the worker. Let us thoroughly well realize this—tho system
is the damned thing, The capitalist
fights to hold on to what ho has and
uses every means, fair or foul, his
great resources give him. Labor has
to struggle, still at terrible disadvantage, tcj wrest this power from him.
The difference is that the capitalist
Is fighting a selfish fight for himself
and his class, whereas Socialism Is
struggling for the goad of all.
Idleness is the worst expression of
waste, whether the Idle people aro
rich or poor.—J. R. Clynes.
DR.   F0R8YTHE,   PALMER   GRADUATE
Chiropractor, 709 Dunsmuir St.; 10 till 6.
Sey. 679H. EvgB, by sppt.; Sundays, 8 till 4.
ROYAL
NEXT WEEK
HOLIDAY BILL
COME AND ENdOY THE
WONDERFUL SHOW
Country Store Monday mid
Friday
100 Tlokets Given Free Each Country
Store Night on $1,000 Oar, to bf
given away absolutely free. January 5,
□ar ou exhibition In front of theatre.
THE CHOICE OF THE UNIONS
CATTO'S
VERY OLD HIGHLAND WHISKY
THOROUGHLY    MATURED—ONE    OF    THB    MOST    POPITLAR
BRANDS   AT   THE   GOVERNMENT   STORES
GOLD LABEL
15-YEAR-OLD
Ask for CATTO'S.    Pop aile at all Government Liquor Stores
This advertisement ls not published or displayed by the Liquor Control Board or
by the Giivernment ol British Columbia
Manifesto and Platform
—OP THE—
Federated Labor Party of B.C.
TO OUR MANY
CUSTOMERS AND
FRIENDS
WE WISH
(Eampl.mrnta
nftljr
ffowum
LEWIS PIANO HOUSE
LTD.
1011 GRANVILLE! STREET
VANOOUVER, IS. 0.
T_I1_ FEDERATED LABOR PARTY is organized for tho purpose of securing industrial legislation, aud the collective ownership nnd democratic control of the mcuns   of   wealth   production.
Private ownership of the means of wealth production (lands,
forests, mines, fisheries, mills and factories), is the basis of tho present
system of society. The ownership of these natural resources and thc
machinery of production is vested in a small minority of tho people,
who, beeause of this ownership, constitute the real rulers of the
country—the ruling class.
This elass ownership of the means of life, with the restrictions and
appropriation of thc fruits of labor necessarily following it, is the root
cause of thc present insecurity and privation suffered bj the working class.
The large majority of thc people—the working class—being proporty less, must obtain the necessities of life through the only channel
open to 'them, i.e., by selling their labor power. The only condition
upon which Ihey can do so is that a profit must accrue to the owning
class from the process. Profits for the few and not the needs of the
many is the motive underlying produetion.
The farmer, despite the semblance of ownership which appears
from the occupancy of the land and the machinery with which he
works it, is in approximately the same position as the propertyiess
wage-worker. Thc wage-worker sells his labor power direct to the
capitalist class for a price (wages), and that which he produces belongs to the party employing him or her. The farmer converts his
labor power into other commodities, (wheat, oats, etc.), which he
must dispose of in the open market, having little or no control over the
disposal of his product. The result of his toil passes into the hands of
tho capitalist class in rent, interest and profit just as surely and completely as doeB the product of the labor of the wage-worker, which he
(the wage-worker) leaves in the mill or factory when the whistle blbws
at the end of the day.
The production and distribution of the things essential to our
needs has reached a stage of dovelopment in which it requires the
active cooperation of practically all the productive forces in society;
social production has superseded individual production. Our ultimate
objective is, therefore, the collective ownership of things collectively
produced and collectively used. The need and well-being of society
must be thc regulator of production.
The present ruling class maintains its ownership in thc means of
life and consequent exploitation of the workers through its control of
the powers of the state. This present system of government is controlled by the same class wliich controls the industries and hence
is used in 'their interests. Under these conditions the welfare of the
masses is a subordinate consideration.
Realizing this, it logically follows that thc working class can not
improve their condition in any permanent way until they assume the
powers and functions of the state. This oan bc accomplished in this
country by taking advantage, of our political privileges and electing
working-class representatives to all legislative and administrative
bodies.  The working class itself must be its own emancipator.
Taking into consideration the international aspect of tho development of capitalism and the interdependence of each country upon all
other countries for even the partial functioning of the productive
forces that obtain to-day, we realize .he impossibility of the working
class of any one country—even if the entire government was within
its control—formulating and carrying out, unaided, a complete programme of socialisation. We thereforo pledge our support and cooperation to all groups, of whatever nationality, having similar aims.
Thc Federated Labor Party will support all legislative measures
having for their purpose the betterment of the condition of the working class, but wc maintain, that so long as the workers are content to
sell their life's energy in thc market they must accept the conditions
whicli the fluctuation of that market entails.
The present productive forces of society are quite sufficient to supply our every need and comfort j but the present system of production
and appropriation denies to the great mass of the people the bare
necessities of life. While the few revel in wealth and luxury, millions aro dono to death by slow starvation. Knowledge of the oause
of this phenomenon is absolutely essential to intelligent aetion.
Class ownership of the means of production; class appropriation of
the social product of labor, is the cause of this denial to the workers
of an opportunity to participate in the fruits of their labor.
Collective ownership of the means of production; social appropriation of that which is socially produced, Is the only means to end exploitation.
In the foregoing wc have given an outline as brief and concise as
possible of the basis of present-day society.
The Federated Labor party as a socialist party holds that the difficulties which the working class is laboring under ean only be removed
by a change in our economic system. For this reason we do not put
forward any lengthy list of immediate aims.
By working class we mean all of the people who must labor by
hand or by brain and have no other means of support.
The function of the party is to organize and educate thc workers
along political lines as the surest and safest way to get control of the
powers of government. Once having secured that power it will be
used to liberate where it is now used to oppress. I
Changes come slowly as thc people learn slowly and to try and
force changes before the mass of thc peoplo arc ready for them will
ony defeat thc end wc have in view.
Beforc thc workers can advance to power they must gain confidence in their own ability as organizers, legislators and administrators;
and tho best way to creato that confidence is by contesting the election to every elective ofllce.
On the platform, around the council tabic or in the legislature we
shall put forward and work for the passing of such reforms as the
workers think necessary for thc strengthening of their position, but.
our ultimate goal is the socialist state.
jr*i_*rat?& ffiabar party nf S.ffi.
APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP
/, the undersigned, endorse and subscribe to the furtherance of the
declared objects of the Pott's ond agree to be governed fcji fhe
Constitution thereof.
Name |
Address  _	
Phone No Occupation „ _	
Proposed fcji _...,
Dafe . ! '
'

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