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British Columbia Federationist Mar 13, 1925

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y*;     Vfe
'Mankind at the Crossroads/' by
Prof. EasWFacts Begarding
Population Question.
Struggle  Between Ever-Increas-
ing Population and Its Means
of Support.
[By Frances Wills]
pUOFUSSOK 13AST, in his book
"Mankind ut tlio Crossroads,"
gives some'rather startling facts in
regard to the population question; and
they are tlie more startling because
Lho catastiophe which he predicts
seems in a fair way towards fulfil
After giving a great deal of vory
readable and evidently carefully
thought out evidence, ho thus summarises tho situation:
The biggest part of tho world is already ovorpopulated and dependent
on the rest for its food. "North
America (one of tho so-called granaries of the world) is entering on the
stage when exportation of food is no
longor possible; Australia will reach
the same stage within a few decades,
and temperate South America will follow Australia before the present generation passes. Thus within half 3
contury presumably, within a century
certainly, each country must prepare
to live upon the fruits of its own
The struggle then, is between the
ever-increasing population and its
means of support. "The current rate
of growth of population doubles every
60 years;" and as far ag Europe is
concerned, "lhe population has more
than trebled in numbers iu a little
over a contury." Moreover, everything that modern science and economic conditions can do, is being done
to prolong life. Sanitation is better,
epidemics aro rarer, and through the
discovery of scrums, and the efficacy
of vaccination and innoculation, the
averago life has a longer expectancy.
Moreover, the expansionist stand taken by certain political parties, who
dread tho extermination of tlie white
race, or fear the decrease of their own
particular race, does muclv together
With the teachings of certain sects of
the church to keep up the rate of increase.      .. -
Agriculture doos not keep pace with
tho growth in population. As pointed
out before, those countries on whom
thc world depends for its wheat supply will soon cease to export their
produco. For it is not thinkable that
they will ho content with the lot that
has fallen to India where tlio majority
of the population lives and tolls chiefly to koep another race alive, whilo of
themselves, probably "nine-tenths
never had enough to eat in their
lives; their margin of safety from
# starvation is practically zero; and still
they export food."
As for tho uncultivated Arctic and
Antarctic regions, from which much
Is hoped in some quarter, they can
never be wheat-growing districts, "for
the northward limit of wheat, or of
uny other cereal, is determined not hy
early autumn frosts, but by the spor
adlc midsummer frosts. Until some
frost-resisting plant is developed, the
northern limit of profitable wheat will
remain about where it is now, and Is
more likely to move South than
Professor East voices some fears as
to the way in which the soil is ex
(Continued on page 2)
Collingwood Branch Elects Officers—Whist Drive and Dance
March 24th.
The Collingwood Branch of the
Federated Labor Party are continuing to make steady headway. Several
new members were taken in to the
party at thoir last meeting. The following offlcors were elected to serve
for the coming year, at their last annual meeting: President, Comrade
Richmond; vice-president, Comrade
D. McGougan; secretary, E. Crosby;
treasurer, F. Hall. The executive
committee Is to Vqnsist of the following comrades: D. McGougan. W. Wilson, C. Cropley, J. Wilson, Mrs. Neville, and Mrs. McGougan. Comrades
J, W. Wilson and McGougan were
elected auditors.
This branch is going to hold their
first whist drive and-'dance on Tuesday, March 24th.
Over Six Million Women Working for Less Than a
living Wage,
Nation Needs a Thorough Overhauling; a Kindly But
Critical Survey,
Makes Annual Appeal for Con-
tributions Maroh 16th
This Tear.
Commencing Monday, March 16th,
the local branch Victorian Order of
Nurses, will make Its annual appeal
for contributions to continuo the
work of ministering to the sick poor
of the community. It is conserva
tlvely estimated that $20,000 must he
raised if the order ls to render adequate nursing service. During the
year 1924 nurses of the local branch
made 19,990 visits, of which 9,570
were entirely free, while many others
were only partially paid for. One
ohild in eight born In Greater Van
couver is a V.O.N, baby. Many of
the mothers receive pre-natal as
well as post-natal instruction and
care, such service being a great factor in the low infantile death rate
of this district.
Over fifty per cent, of the nursing
service rendered by the order ls
given gratuitously, inose receiving
care and attention being financially
unable to pay for the same. Everyone is eligible to the benefits of this
service, irrespective of nationality or
creed, tho 'poor always receiving first
The order originated 27 years ago,
is functioning 'from the Atlantic to
the Pacific, and has been continU7
ously in operation locally since its
Additional information regarding
the aims and. objects of the V.O.N,
will be promptly supplied by campaign office, phone Sey. 3986, upon
Exploitation of Labor and Sex
Slavery of Body and
[By Hose Henderson]
]\|AltY L. DOWNES, high chief ranger of the Women's Order of Foresters, stated recently that 6,000,000
American women are working for less
than a living wage—less than $15.30
a week—in "Gods Country," one of
tho richest in thc world, where peoplo are extorted to be 100 per cent.
American" and to be prepared to defend "America's "balance of trade."
These wages, we are told, are earned many times not in eight hours
but In nino, ten, and twelve hour
lt needs no stretch of the imagination
to realize the conditions under which
millions of the futuro Inothers of
young America are condemned to live,
condemned to slum life, undernourished, and that vilest of all social
horrors, prostitution. Condemned so
to live, 'because of the ignorance of
the many, which permits the few to
possess, and to plunder, the heritage
of tho many. Low wages and prosti-
tii tion go hand in hand. Investigators
into social conditions have asserted
this fact again and again. Ministers
of the Gospel have prayed; mission
angels have wept and admonished,
and the courts of justice have fined
and Imprisoned; but the social evil
grows apace under capitalism, and, in
spite of our boasted wealth, culture,
and Christian civilization.
Society dare not lift the curtain
full heighth on this side of woman's
slavery. Women, and women only,
will some day have courage to do this,
when they do, they will abolish the
cause, instead of punishing the victims, already condemned and crucified by our social system.
A glimpse into this horror was given through the police inquiry forced
in the city of Montreal, as well as
the report of Mr. Owen Dawson, secretary of the Committee of Sixteen.
These inquiries brought out the fact,
that the organized traffic in human
bodios is one of the most profitable
and flourishing, and that the forces
of "Justice" through Us system of
fines share In the trade and its spoils.
That there exist at least three hundred houses of prostitution in this
city's red light district, with about
three thousand Inmates, many girls
under 16 years of age, was part of
the startling evidence given by Owen
Dawson of the Committee of Sixteen
at the inquiry. This district spends
a minimum of six million dollars on
vleo and liquor every year, BesI
grown mon little boys are employed
to bring customers to theso houses.
From the landlords down a gang of
bloodsucpers get their commission
and profits.
Like CuPtle Denier or Hog Trader
"I had a long talk with one of the
notorious housekeepers," said Mr.
Dawson. "She said that she usually
paid a procurer from $200 to $500 dol
lars for each of the girls. To hold
her customers, she had to chango her
"stock" every six months, because
they become tired out, diseased, lost
their snap. Her description of the
transaction was more like listening to
a cattle dealer or hog trader.
These are the daughters of the poor,
girls whose parents'cannot afford to
give them the protection of a proper
home, girls who, like their American
sisters, do not get a living wage, girls
who cannot find honest toil and who
are driven in the majority of cases
through thoir parents, and their own
poverty, into the most loathsome of
all trades, prostitution. How glibly
we sing of the sacredness of womanhood, and the sanctity of tho home,
vet how indifferent are the majority
to this slavery and crime against womanhood and the race.
Labor Party's Important Work
Is to Demand an Investigation of Pacts.
[By J. C. Harris]
T*HE object of the series of articles
■^ that I have written has been to
bring home to my readers the real
sickness with which Canada is
troubled, namely, that a very large
part of our population ls successfully
dodging their fair share of the necessary work, and also that we are very
badly organized, so that we waste a
great deal of our labor and also produce many commodities which are'of
little or no value when produced or
even extremely harmful.
I have suggested ln the previous
article that what the nation needs is
a thorough overhauling; a kindly but
critical survey, of the same sort as a
business man would require of any
business that he was placed in charge
I furthermore suggested that the
most Important work that the Labor
pai'ty can undertake at present is to
demand such an investigation, and I
assert confidently that no other line
of action will have any permanent
We must get at the facts for "the
truth will make us free". Let us now
assume that such an inquiry has
been made and a comprehensive report issued. I should expect it to
show that. There were certain numbers of the population engaged in
basic Industries, farming, fishing,
mining,1 lumbering etc. That In those
industries there was periodic paralysis
caused by unregulated production,
which caused immense suffering to
those who were engaged in such essential work. That under capitalism
no proper regulation could be arranged, unless we handed over each
ontire industry to a trust.
It would also show a big portion of
the nation's energies going to transportation, and that our transportation
problems were intensified by the way
(Continued on page 4)
The FederationiBt Is out to hel\
lie workers. There is no nohlet
work. Join us In the flght. Gel
your friends to subscribe.
THOSE Individuals, or groups,
wishing tu get pamphlets
which have fust recently been
printed aro urged to send in
their ordors ttt once. Thero are
only a limited number printed.
They are tlio following:
By Mrs. ,J*ose Henderson
If.   cents.
By George F. Stirling
6 cents.
These pamphlets are well written. " They contain a wealth of
information; and are, to say
the very least, thought-provoking
Sond iu Your Order:,  nt Onco
You Cannot Afford To Ho
Wltfium Tliem
Miss Reynolds Spoke on
Phages of Modem
Discussion on a "Definite Mjtter
of Urgent Public Im- <
School Tax Increased—Teachers
Distribute Cards for
Road Show,
[By Our Own Correspondent]
Vernon, B. C, March 11.—Apparently the adherents and exponents of
Lhe present industrial and social system see no reason why they should
not utilise the public schools for their
own personal aggrandisement. Every
teacher In the schools here were given
a number of cards advertising a road
ahow, "Uncle Tom's Cabin"—not a
bad play ln itself—and they were to
give these to the children and have
them ask their parents for twenty-
five cents, the price of admission.
Now, many parents In this part of the
country, and we are not alone in that
regard, would love to have twenty-
five cents to give to their children for
them to buy bread with rather than to
go to a picture show, road show, or
any other kind of a show. Of course,
we do not think that we are giving
away any secret when we say that wo
are sure that the promoters of shows,
no matter what kind Ihey may be. are
more Interested in their profits, than
they are in the feeding of hungry
Our school tax is being increased
one mill this year. May be it is due
to the fact that they intend to make
the school a sort of advertising medium for shows. We wonder what
lhe trustees of these Institutions
would say, if some adherents of tho
labor movement would approach them
for the purpose of having the children
deliver to their homes some good
sound essays on economics, pointing
out the tragedies of the present order of things nnd showing a way towards improvement. They are willing to allow the public to be gulled to
make profits for a few, but they are
not willing to allow the public to be
educated along lines that are not In
conformity with their preconcieved
Ideas, though it is obvious to any
thinking person that there Is needed
badly some radical change in our
social and economic system.
Certainly tiie citizens of Vernon
should not be called upon to support
schools for the purpose of spreading
advertising matter for some travelling
show. It has other functions—those
of education—that ft is much more
important to fulfil. And again It
might not he out of place to
remind the trustees that If un-
vnccinnted children should not ho al-
'owed to go to school it does seem
as though they should not go to a
honlre of any kind.
Musical Features Especially Good
Under Direction of Madame
Stuart, A.R.A.M.
MEMBERS and visitors were present in such numbers at the regular meeting of the Modern Arts and
Letters Club that the executive are
considering larger quarters for the
club. The idea of "art for life's sake"
seems to flnd a response where the
usual literary society appeals only to
the few.
At the meeting, In the Woman's
building, Thurlow street, on the evening of Friday, March 6th., the lecturer
was Miss Marjorle Reynolds, who
spoke upon "Some Phases of Modern
Drama". Miss Reynold's connection
with the Little Theatre work, the fact
that she has had actual experience
In the direction and in the staging of
plays, besides having written dramas
of high merit, combined to make her
presentation of the subject extremely
worth while. Her paper was brilliantly written and productive of thought.
She emphasized the fact that the artificiality of the Victorian drama was
being replaced by a realism, which
was true to life, while the drama, like
all arts in this transitional age, is
going through a period of change and
uncertainty, there were signs that real
progress was being made. The demand
of the public for more artistic productions and less of thc spectacular
and costly, signified by Little Theatre
movements, showed that there was a
reaching out for beauty.
An animated discussion followed
the address. The musical features of
the evening were especially good under the direction of Madame ISdith
Stuart A. R. M. A' trio, with Madame
Stuart, A. R. M_. A trio, with Madame
violinist, and Miss Jessie Belden, 'eel
list, presented brilliant interpretations
of modern composers. Mr. S. A. McPherson, baritone, sang several selections and captured his audience by
his voice and method. An interesting
number given by Mr. McPherson was
a song, "When You Come Back to
Me," the music by Madame Stuart and
words by A. M. Stephen. Miss Mildred Teeple and Mrs. Wood contributed to the "Round Tablo".
Mrs. Scott Drummond was appointed convenor of the refreshment and
ontortainment committee, so that the
usual feature of a social cup of tea
will be restored at the next meeting
of the club, Friday, March 20th.
The speaker at the meeting, .March
20th., will be Mr. Jatrlnda Goho of
Calcutta. India.
Mr. J, C. Goho's subject will be,
"Tagore's Contribrtion to India's Art
and Literature." A most interesting
and instructive evening Is assured all
Who come. It will be a rnre opportunity to become acquainted with India's nrt and literature. Everyone invited.
If you are really in sympathy
nth. lahor, be a booster.    Thf
"ederationist is out to do its bit
Help it.
Distress Among Ooal Miners and
Steel Workers of Nova
[By Lloyd RobertB.]
T HAVE just been listening to a dis-
* cussion in the House of Common?
on a "definite matter of urgent public
Importance," namely, the "acute distress existing among the coal miners
and steel workers of Nova Scotia."
The effect was similar,, although on
a smaller scale, to that experienced
on reading the i eport of the Inter'
Church Federation on the condition
of the steel workers of the United
States Steel Corporation; that is, surprise that the great onward sweep
of civilization has left behind such
sink-pots of injustice. As the case
for the miners unfolded—lack of employment and insufficient wages—resulting in low standards of living, if
not actual starvation and nakedness
—my mind would instinctively stray
toward radio, League of Nations,
Einstein's theory, etc. What was all
ouf boasted progress if we had not
been able to put an end to such simple and primitive enemies as cold,
hunger, want! Labor—that is, the
man who actually puts his hand to
the plough, to the hammer, to the
stone—received the short end of the
stick ten thousand years before
Christ, according to hieroglyphics and
papyrus, and he receives the short
end now. Of course his condition
has advanced, but measureably. A
slip of a cog, a wink of sleep, a momentary relaxing of the guard, and
—cold, hunger, want.
As the members talked on I realized that labor had been caught napping somewhere, and was everlastingly paying the piper. "We are
consulted only in regard to the wage
cost, and our stand in regard to lt is
that it is already too low to give our
men a decent standard of Jiving. It
is now proposed to lower it further.
. . . Many children cannot attend
school owing to lack of food and
clothing,   and   whole   families   face
(Continued on Page 4)
Programme of Party for Coming
Ble ction Is To Be Considered..
The executivo of the B. C. section
of the Canadian Labor party has Instructed its secretary to Issue a call
for the annual convention of the
party. The convention will convene
on Saturday. May 2nd, in the Traded
Council hall, Holden building, 16
Hastings street east. In case the
business cannot be finished on Saturday, further sessions will be held
on Sunday, May 3rd.
The programme of the party for
the coming federal elections will be
Wages are no index of well-being
to the working man; without proper
wages there can be no well-being;
but with them also there may be
THIS (Fridny) evening, the popular
member for South Vancouver will
address a mass meeting to be held In
the Municipal hall. He will give an
account of his Stewardship and the
doings of the Inst session of thc pro*
vlncial   parliament.    All   welcome.
S. P, of O. Dnnee
The Socialist Party of Canada
(Vnncouver branch) in observance of
tho anniversary of the Paris Commune of March 18th. will hold a
lance in Belvedere Court, corner of
Main street and Tenth ave, on Thurs-
lay evening March 19th. Ladies !>0
■cnts; gents 7f» conts.   All Invited.
Your friends might be glad to sub-
orlbe for The Federatlonist lf you
asked them.   Try,
Tabloid Issued by United States
Department of Lahor, at
Washington, D. C.
Unemployment—Wlith approximately 200,000 persons entirely out of
work and tens of thousands of "short
shift" workers, In Austria, it is stated
that unemployment has become a real
menace to the country.
Cotton Workers Cut Scale—The
Federation of Master Cotton Spinners
lias announced that the necessary majority has been obtained for the proposal lo reduce lhe working hours iu
the mills spinning American col ton
from. 3D % to 35. This affects two-
thirds of the federation mills and
H-o,('00 operatives.
Unemployment Insurance—Aipong
the 11,500,000 workers Insured against
unemployment under the Unemployment Insurance acts In Oreat Britain
and Northern Ireland, the percentage
unemployed on December 22, 192-I,
was 10.9, ns compared with 10.7 on
Docemher 21, 1923.
Wages Advance in Coalfields—During 1924, wage advances were granted
in nearly all the coalfields, as the result of the adoption of fl revised national agreement which came into operation last May.
Wage Increase—Ordinary day labor In Marseilles Is receiving 25 francs
per day, with skilled lnbor running up
to 35 and 45 francs. This represents
approximately a fifteen per cent wago
increase over the previous year. Farm
wages are 20 and  22  francs per day,
Building Industry—Lnbor Shortage
—It ls prophesied that ft continuing
revival of the building Industry in
Stuttgart may be hampered on account of labor shortage,
Glass Industry—Nearly tbe entire
glass industry of Germnny Is at u
standstill, affecting the employment
of 3,000 workors, becnuse of the disagreement between the wholesale dealers and the glass blowers' associations
regarding the fixing of 1925 prices
for Christmas tree ornaments.
Woodworking industry—At the be-
binning of this year about forty per
cent of the members of the Wood-
Workers' Union in the Frankfort-on-
-Main district were- olthor without employment or on part time.
Post-War Growth—Tho sudden
post-war growth In Seville, Spain, ts
said not to bo without Its hardships.
Unemployment prevails, with neither
Jobs nor homes for migrant newcomers; while living costs continuo to ndvance nnd overcrowding has brought
about a wretched condition nmong Hit!
poor of the city.
Paris  Commune  of  Maroh  18,
1871, Established by the
About Two Hundred Cubic Feat
Fer Man Allowed for Breathing Space.
Regulations Have Little Weight
in Oovernment Operated
Socialists  Hold  Paris   Commu
nards in Affectionate Remembrance.
For I say unto you that heaven
and earth are not two, but one."
"Many a day have ye been fools,
robbers of neighbors, despiteful haters,
talebearers, or fawners on rich men
for the hurt of the poor (and that is
worst of all). But hearken unto me
and I shall make you wise above the
wisdom of the earth; and if ye die in
your wisdom, aB God wot ye well may,
since the fields ye wend to bear
swords for daisies, and spears fov
bents, then shall ye be, though men
cnll you dead, a part and parcel of
the living wisdom os all things, vory
rtones of the pillars that uphold the
joyful earth." John Ball in Morris"
"Dream of John Ball."
■T»HE ISth of March is the anniversary of the Paris Commune of
1871, established by the working men
of Paris at the cIobo of the Franco
Prussian war. The Commune failed.
To ua, looking back with that dispassionateness lent by tho passage
of time, and viewing the social situation in France in 1871 in conjunction with thc revolutionary character
of the social ideals the Commune
proclaimed as its mission to put into
practice, wo are compelled to charge
the enterprise mainly to tho account
of a wave of passionate anger and
disgust surging against French officialdom, civil, political and military,
whose utter corruption, cowardice
and treachery had heen revealed hy
the war and the mock defense of
Paris. Popular rage continued to
mount when It was realized that the
same elements, under cover of the
newly declared republic, were again
reasserting their rule and maintaining intact the old system of privileges, exactions and graft. Faithless
acts of the new government finally
gnnded the populace Into open defiance of Its authority.
That the revolt took thc direction
it did. to tho establishment of a revolutionary commune seems due to the
faot that it was principally a rovolt
of the working masses of Paris, who
had behind thom tho traditions of
many revolutionary struggles, the
grey heads of '48 being still among
them. Frnnce, It Is said, is tho home
of Ideas, and Pnrls certainly was at
the period a hotbed of revolutionary
thought and ideals. Already at the
approach of war in 1870 the revolutionary workmen of Paris and Berlin
had exchanged fraternal messages
over and nbove thc heads of the
great bourgeoisie hnd tho chancellories of France and Germany. Said
they of Paris: "Brothers of Gormany, we protost against the war,
wo who wish for peace, labor and
liberty. Brothers, do not listen to
the hirelings who seek to deceive
you as to the real wishes of France."
From Berlin came tne answering
cry: "We, too, wish for peaco, labor
and liberty. We know thnt on both
sides of the Rhine there aro brothers
with whom we are rendy to die for
the Universal Bepublic,"
How noble the Ideal, all Inclusive,
wide as humanity —■ "Heaven nnd
earth are not two, but one ,,..,"
said John Ball to the men of Kent.
"Forsooth, brothors, fellowship Is
heaven, and lack of fellowship Is
hell; fellowship is life, and lack of
fellowship Is death"—but considor
the social situation of Europe in
1871, how alien It was to tho communard's purposo of organising social
life upon tho ideal, They could have
had little knowledge of the forces
thon In existence ond In the malting
agninst which they wero throwing
themselves, Passionate impulse is
not enough, high Idealism ls not
enoughl The 1870's were at the
flowing tide of that industrial devel
opmont of tho 19th century which
gavo a tremendous urge to the consolidation of nntion-slates nnd the
expansion of empires. Tho propa
gut lon of national patriotism, undor
(Continued on  page  2)
[By John Plckenshovel.]
DECENTLY th6 Hon. B.JX Barrow,
minister of agriculture, has been
addressing the farmers ln the Fraser
valley on the question of bovine tuberculosis. We have not been hearing so muoh from htm on the subjeot
of tho spread of T.B. among the human cattle. At all events, it has not
been recorded that he has raised any
question in the cabinet meeting!
about the unhealthy conditions ln the.
road camps that the government opened up for the unemployed last
The writer has recently been working at one of these road camps, and
can, for that reason, give authentic
Information on that subject. At a
government road camp situated about
two miles this side of Hobe, there
are two bunkhouses, each of which
had a capacity for 48 men. The
bunks were constructed in double-
deck style, and more resembled a
cattle stall than anything one ever
seen, Tho men brought their own
blankets, the government supplying
the mattresses. The mattresses sup*
plied in this case were the same kind
of bedding that John Oliver provided
for his cattle when he was farming
in the Delta—Just plain hay. Ths
bunkhouses were 40 feet long and
feet broad, and had an average
height of 12 feet, which gives a cubic
capacity of 11,520 cubic feet, or an
average breathing space for each of
the 48 men of 240 cubic feet. When
allowance Is made for a stove, a pile
of wood, and the spaces occupied by
benches, tables, bunks and hay for
mattresses, the approximate (conservative) breathing space is about .'OO
cubic feet.
Formerly the camp health reguuU
tions established by the provincial
board of health provided for a mini*
mum breathing space of 400 cuMt
feet per man. But the regulation
have been changed since to demand
"a reasonable amount of breathlnf
space." That was intended, of course
to apply to camps operated b.v private concerns. But such regulations
havo little weight so far os government operated camps ar0 concerned.
Tho regulations far camps in Ontario'
are said to be 600 cubic feet per
man, or twice lhe amount provided
in the camp abovo described. :
The minimum breathing space allowed in hospitals is 800 cubic feet
per patient, which might tend to
show that the men might be Just na
well off in that kind of an institution as in a government road camp.
With that number of men breathing
each other's exhalations, it Is natural to expect that the air would be
stuffy and they would arlso in the
morning complaining of headaches,
etc. If the present provincial government would be as much concerned for the health or the unemployed
sent to Its road camps as it apparently fs for tho cattle in the Fraser
valley, it would bo revealing a little
more consistency and would be more
for the health of the province.
If it is in tho beat Intorests of the
workers, The Fedorationist Is for it
If not, it Is against it.
Successful Concert and Dance—
This Evening Is "Hat
Tho J. I,. I,, hold n very successful
concur! and danoe al tho Bin hall,
Smith mu, Saturday evening, Thero
was a (food attendance and everybody
enjoyed themselves. Those tuking part
In the program wero: Kenneth
StrlOkland, piano nolo; Clifford Mc*
Snvancy, vocal mln; Miss Olive Robinson, highland dances; Miss Doris Neelands, Miss Hazel Neelands, and Mr.
R. H. Neelands, M.1..A., gavo an instrumental selection. Miss Rlman's
orchestra provided excellent musk* for
the dance.
This (Fridny) evening the leaguo
moots nt 6202 Chester atroot, South
Vancouvor, fnr their educational
mooting. This will lie another "Hnt
Night." Questions of intorest to tho
movoment will bo diaeussod.
Dr.  Curry's  Isi-turos
Dr. Curry haa concluded hla aerle_
nf   lectures   on   "Science,   and    tho
Changing   Ordor,"   but  the   mootings
will continue as usual nt 8 p.m.
Friday will begin (he rending nnd
discussions of Jack London's famous
revolutionary story. "The Iron Heel."
Jack London aooais to havo foreseen the eountor-rovoliltionnry and
fascisti movement eow operating In
Kurope and beginning Its Initial ac-
tlvllles on this continent ln tho form
of the K.K.K.   Community singing.
Cot your workmate to subscribe for
The Federatlonist. PAGE TWO
FRIDAY MARCH  13,  1925
British Columbia Federationist
Published every Friday by
The  British  Columbia  Federationist
Business nnd Editorial Office, 1129 Howe St.
The policy of The B. C. FederationiBt in
controlled hy the editorial board of the
Federated Labor Party of British Columbia.
Subscription Rate: United States and Foreign, 13.00 per year; Canada, $2.50 per
year, $1.50 for six months; to Unions
subscribing in a body, 16c per member
per  month.
Tho  Federationist Ib  on  sale at the following news stands!
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FRIDAY MARCH  13,  1926
WE noted a ahort time ago that labor anfl the medical profession
were getting together to disucas the
matter of health insurance. We sincerely hope that something worth
while will result therefrom. It is
high time that some different arrangement was brought into force for
the treatment of the sick, as economic
conditiona are today. The average
worker today finds It hard enough,
yes, almost impossiblo, to earn sufficient to provide himself and his dependents with the necessary food,
shelter and clothing, let alone providing medical and hoapltal attention.
Something muat he done.
There was left an Impression, as
the result of thc reports published,
that the medical profession placed a
definite plan before labor for their
adoption. That Is not ao. The meeting was simply an effort to find out
tf some plan could not he evolved that
might be satisfactory to all concerned,
Suggestions were offered on both
sides. It ls to be hoped that the committees will continue to function as
they ought, and that ultimately, and
In the not too distant future, some
definite plan might be evolved that
Mill be a God-send to suffering humanity in thla province. Information !
regarding the schemes now In vogue
In the various countrios in Kurope
and elsewhere are available here now,
and there is no jUMt reason for further delny. If labor is really and
truly anxious to better their own con-
ditiorta, here in an opportunity for
them to ahow a little enthusiasm and
practical conaideratlon for tbelr suffering comrades. We hopo that they
Will not allow thla matter to drag
as it existed in these mining districts
sometime ago. They urged that the
government look into the situation,
and give lt the serious attention it
deserved. They heeded not! Now,
when men, women, and children are
in need of food, they are to be shown
Some shinning bayonets.
Even our daily press is prostituting ita news columns here again; of
course, we never expected otherwise.
They would have the public believe
that a great number of "returned"
men are anxious to offer their ser-
rices in the intereat of "law and
order." No doubt the Besco outfit will stoop to every means at
their disposal to drive their workera
to do something drastic, in .desperation. Then they will through the medium of thetr paid henchmen in the
service of the government, have the
troops sent to protect "their" property,
No attempt will be made by the company, or the government (they are
more or less the one and same Inatl
tution, ln our opinion) to see that
these men, their wives, or their innocent children are fed.
A few years ogo, It has been told,
a Chinaman, having heard of the
wonderfully humane and Christian
people in Canada, decided to come
to this country. He came. He remained five years. He returned to China
a more confirmed Confuscianiat than
Were he to go to Nova Scotia today,
and see the appaling conditions under
which the miners work there, and
see how they are being treated, he
doubtless, would feel that he was on
the very abyss of Hell.
How long, oh. how long, is such a
state of affairs going to be allowed
to go on, in what has been termed
by aome, a Chriatian country? Such
ERE Is our old friend "Boom"!
Once arid a while he fades away
for a time, but usually he manages to
make himself felt somewhere on the
continent. He Is, apparently, being
bribed to come to B. C. to take a
hand in the development of our mining industry. Doubtless, he may come
for a time. While he is here he will
make things worth while for a few
fortunates who are more or less responsible for his coming. A few firms
will make some large donations; at
least, that Is what they call them;
but, In reality, they are very profitable
investments for the donors. The daily
press Is trying to throw all its in
fluence toward bringing, what they
choose to call, prosperity.
Mining, like every other industry
has its ups and downs, under the pre
Bent syatem. At present there Is a
demand for certain products of our
mines. It looks as though mining wtll
be profitable for a lime. Now, everybody will be wanting to get into the
game, and soon there will be over
production in these commodities, aa
with all others. It ia all a "hit and
miss" affair. Nothing more; nothing
less. Again some more of the peoples'
natural reaources will be passed over
Into the hands of the private investor. Instead of their being utilized,
as they ought to be utilized, for the
good of the people as a whole, they
are being more or leas frittered away
to the private investor who will reap
the profits, while the taxpayer has to
foot the bill. We would advise our
readers to watch the little game. It
will be interesting while lt lasts.
Note—Kindly correct the following
In article "Pacts and Figures" in laat
iasue. It should read aa follows: "Out
of plicae 77.569 scholars examined,
there were found approximately 83,-
000 defective or a percentage of defects of 107." The error read: 8300
defects and 10.7% de/ccte.—Nemesis.
AGAIN a crisis has arisen in the
mining situation ln Nova Scotia.
The British Empire Steel Corporation
are, In our opinion, running true to
color. Human life means nothing to
them. They must have their profits
regardless of anything else.
Thousands of miners have been out
of work for months. They and their
dependents, have been experiencing
unspeakable privations aa tlie re
suit of the mines being closed by the
Besco people. The little credit
which they hnd been given ut the
company's Stores haa been discontinued and now, these men, and their
dependents, must face starvation. And
all thla. in Canada, this wonderful
Hungry men nre dntigei-ous and
whon, added to this, thoy see their
own dependents in want, we might
well be prepared to face a difficult
and trying situation.
Mr. .t, S, Woodsworth. M. P. and
others have repeatedly brought to the
attention of the government at Ottawn, tho seriousness of the situation,
(Note—As many enquiries reach
this offlce from time to time, the editor will reserve space to deal with
such matters, under the above head'
ing. Communications addressed to
"Notes,and Queries Editor" will be
handled as quickly aa space permits.
C. S.—Socialist lc propaganda aud
facts being published as to the serious
Indebtedness of Canada, are making
many wake up to the true state of
affairs here. Thanks for expressions
of appreciation; send us in your copy,
especially dealing wilh the subject
matter of your query.
ST. ROCH.—- In May, 191.1, Lloyd
George estimated the amount of Bri
tiah investments overseas aa four
thousand million' pounds,
.1. K.. Vernon.—Enquiries among
the brokers confirm the statement In
the Vancouver papers of sale nf lnrge
(pinntltlea of flour to the soviet government of Russia.
G. SNOWDEN—Levy on capital Is
nOW In force ln at least six oountiio.
of Kurope, namely, Italy, Austria,
Germany,, O/echo-Slovakla, Poland,
and Greece. Mnny more countries
will have to follow suit.
[By Our Peripatetic Pagan]
SPHERE will be a fine to-do In Brit-
■*■ ain over the placing of that big
shipping contract to Germany. The
British shipyard workers are starv
tng, yet this happens; result that the
shipping men blame labor, and labor
blames the high profits, rents and
interest demanded by the shipping
men. We await fuller details from
the British papers. The whole situation is a serious Involvement.
• *    *
A correspondent to the Vancouver
Daily Star a few days since makes
a serious allegation suggesting a system of espionage at the public library
of the class of literature attractive
fo some of Its readers. He relates
his experience, how one evening in
the reading room he noticed a plain
clothes officer with an individual he
regarded as a stool-pigeon; he heard
someone remark as he passed, "Sei
that man," evidently calling atten
tlon to himself. Shortly afterwards
a' man who had taken a seat beside
him touched him on the arm, remarking "Read that," and he noted
the particular paragraph in the book
opened, which read, briefly, something to the effect that "the poor
will never be happy until they have
torn the possessions from the rich."
When the man left, the writer of
the letter followed him down the
staircase and saw him conversing
with the party who had called attention to him.
• *    *
Another experience Ib given, and
he feels there is some subtle overlooking of what readers are Interested in; his particular political opinions, as the writer says, may be responsible for this attention, but he,
and we, fail to see the right of the
library authorities—if it be they responsible—to discriminate. We hope
there la not so much of this as appears on the surface, but as the
writer is one of the unfortunately
many unemployed he may be a
marked man.   If so, why?
• •    •
Here are a few terse sentences of
what Socialism is, and what Socialism ls not, well worth getting into
your systems, to duty amplify and
pass on for the benefit of those who
don't know or don't want to know:
It is not the kind of state ownership whtch places the control of industry in the hands of bureaucratic
state officials.
It is not a big centralized machine
bound by red tape, Inefficient, and
destructive of personal initiative.
It is the ownership of the means
of life by the people and for the
people (instead of by the profiteers
for the profiteers) through public
bodies—local as well as national.
It Is the control of industry by the
workers (instead of the shirkers)—
by those who know moat about it
(Instead of those who know little
about It).
(Note—By. "workers" we mean all
who contribute some useful service—
not only the manual and Brain workers, but the technical and administrative staffs.)
It Is the reorganization of industry
for use (instead of for profit), by
co-operation between representatives
of the producers ln each public service and representatives of the consumers.
It means that the land, the mines,
the railways, and industry generally,
shall become the property of the
people, and that the wealth produced
shall be used to give comfort to all
■Instead of luxury to the few, whilst
the many are poor).
It means that the workers shall
have a real share in the control of
their industry, and thatt he consumers shall be able effectively to voice
their  needs.
This ls Socialism, so work for reconstruction on these lines!*
• *   *
The coal probe at Winnipeg seems
to be stirring up some very dirty
Premier Baldwin appeara to be trying a species of hypnotism with some
of the labor men in the British parliament. Well, we'll back Wheatley.
Cook and a few more "extremists"
to recall them from Iheir hypnotic
dreams at the psychological moment,
for trouble ls a-brawlng fast.
• •    *
Another Friday, tho 13th! Unlucky combination! Be on your guard,
buy two "Feds" todny, read and pass
them on, then all will be well!
54th Anniversary
(Continued from page 1)
which the ambitions of power are
veiled, became a political necessity
and was intensely pursued. All this
movement was resulting in an intensification of the nationalistic spirit.
The industrial development and the
revival of nationalism was a cultural
movement which continually got
more politically embittered, and
which through imperialistic outgrowths in England, Oermany,
France and Russia has been a main
factor In the recent war. The tides
were running against the Commune
and peace, labor and liberty and
their ideal Universal Republic, the
very antithesis of the nation-state,
in the direction of vast accumulations of mobile oapital, economic
Imperialisms, exploitation of all un
derlying peoples, and world-wide
wars. The world rejected the working class communards' Universal Re
-public, turned away from John
Ball's city of Ood on earth, once
again crucified the Christ. The
learned intellectuals and the moral*
lsts of the pulpit, degrading their
function, pursuadlng themselves that
lt is glorious to die intellectually and
morally for the nation-state, beat Its
drums and rallied the peoples to the
race of Industrial and commercial
rivalries, exploitations of weak peoples and Imperialistic wars. Is the
outcome such that we can say they
possess that wisdom that upholds a
joyful earth?
Let us see In what manner the
world treated with the Commune. A
German army was still on the outskirts of Paris as an army of occupation, but tt was supposed to be
neutral in respect of the struggle between the Commune and the French
national government Bismarck, however, had already declared, "When
all the revolutionists of Europe shall
be gathered, the tra'p will be shut
and he will be fortunate who escapes
from it-" Oreat, far-seeing statesman! Where Is now his Hohenzol-
lerns in whose interest he plotted
and schemed and used men and nations as pawns? Who thought he
could stamp out an "idea"! The
communards are dead, but it llveth!
Perhaps In England distance and
democracy and the sea between will
ensure detachment from the passionate bias—" . . . with thetr creed
of rapine and murder. , , . For the
survivors of the Commune, if there
are any, we desire no mercy. . . .
We know not how to frame a plea
for the abominable and unsexed women who have been as savage as
the men and perhaps more treacherous. . . . Leave no undying hates
to smolder. ..." (Expression taken
from as many editorials In the "Illustrated London News," published
during course of siege and subsequent massacres and executions.) A
million times they killed the communards, yet the "idea," it fructifies-
Turn we now to France to see
how bourgeois France has dealt with
working class Paris of the beleaguered and finally defeated Commune.
Here Is the balance sheet: Twenty-
five thousand men, women and children killed during the battle or after; three thousand at least died in
the prfsons, the pontoons, the forts,
or in consequence of maladies contracted during their captivity; thirteen thousand seven hundred condemned, most of them for life: seventy thousand women, children and
old men deprived of their natural
supporters or thrown out of France;
one hundred and eleven thousand
victims at least—that Is tne balancw
sheet of bourgeois vengeance for the
solitary Insurrection of the 18th of
March in Paris. Neither years nor
victims appeased It, says Lissagaray
In his "History of the Commune,"
they made of it an administrative
function methodical and continuous.
Oh, worldly-wise bourgeoisie! Tet the
"idea," It liveth!
Let us see what kind of people
were those communai*ds, quoting only
the testimony of journals violently
hostile: "The majority have met
death like the Arabs after battle,
with indifference, with contempt,
without hatred, without anger, without Insult to their executioners."
"All the soldiers who took part in
these executions and whom I have
questioned have been unanimous tn
thcir accounts.
"One of them said to me: 'We shot
about forty of these cannailles at Pas-
and  cried  to  us 'Fire!   we are  not
afraid of death!'"
Another journalist reports on the
conduct of young women: "Come,"
said one, "save me the trouble of the
journey!" and placing herself against
a wall, her arms spread open, her
breast bare, she seemed to solicit—
to provoke death. All those who
have been executed thus summarily
by furious soldiers have died with a
laugh of contempt, like martyrs,
who ln sacrificing themselves accomplished a great duty.
"Happy the dead! They had not
to mount the Calvary of the prisoners," So Lissagaray comments.
Acknowledging the prisoners had set
up a government, the Judges yet tried
them as common criminals—Ferre
addressing the court said: "A member of the Commune, I am ln the
hands of its victors. They want my
head; they may take it, I wtll never
save my life by cowardice. Free I
have lived, so I will die- I add but
one word. Fortune ls capricious; I
confide to the future the care of my
memory and  my revenge."
His judge replied: "The memory
of an asaassin."
Six months after his condemnation
Gaston Cremieux was led to the
Prado at Bordeaux, He said to his
guardians: "I wilf show how a re-
publican should die." He wished to
have his eyes unbandaged and to
command the flre. They consented.
Then, addressing himself to the soldiers: "Aim at the chest; do not
touch my head- Fire! Vive la Re-
<pub ..." The lost word was cut
short by death. Upright at the stakes
In Paris, Herpin-Lecrolx, Lagrange,
and Verdagner cried In unison "Vive
la Commune," and died, their faces
radiant. Oenton at the stake throws
away his crutches and falls under
Ire crying "Vive la Commune." An
other group of communards said to
the soldiers of the platoon: "We are
children of the people, and you are,
too. We ahall show you that the
children of Paris know how to die."
And they also fell, crying "Vive la
Commune." One day the court-martial heard a woman's voice: "I will
not defend myself; I will not be defended," cried Louise Michel. "I belong entirely to the social revolution, and I declare that I accept responsibility for all my acts. ... I
must be cut off from society; you
have been told to do so. Well, the
commissary of the republic is right.
Since it seems that every heart which
beats for liberty has only right to a
little lead, 'I, too, demand my Dart.
If you let me live, I shall not cease
to cry vengeance. ..."
Tears afterwards a communard
writes from the penal settlement at
the Antipodes: ". . . Berezowski, this
unfortunate man, who has suffered
so much for eight years, is almost
demented, and it is painful to look
upon him. It is terrible, and I dare
not think of thia. How many months,
years, are we still to pass in this
bagnio? I tremble at the thought.
Despite all, believe that I shall not
allow myself to be crushed; my conscience is tranquil, and I am strong.
My health alone could betray me and
be vanquished, but of myself I am
sure, and shall never swerve."
If those communards were criminals—"Brothers, we wish for peace,
labor and liberty, and the Universal
Republic"—then so were Bruno and
Galileo, as indeed their day and generation held them to be so, But as
the years unfold, other generations
come to reverse that verdict and holt.
them in high honor. So we social*
ists of today celebrate the Commune
of '71 and hold the communards in
affectionate remembrance, who, while
they attempted too much, yet suffered and died attempting to make
present activity significant of the
ideal society. "Though men call
tliem dend, they are a part and parcel of the living wisdom of all
thiiuTs. very stones and pillars that
uphold the Joyful earth."
"Ho! Bring me my bow of burnished gold;
Bring me my arrow of desire;
And I will build Jerusalem,
In England'a green and pleasant
Startling Truths]
(Continued from Page 1)
Erery reader of The Federatlonist
can render valuable assistance by re*
newlng their subscriptions aa soon as
they are due, and by Inducing another
worker to subscribe. It does not tata
much effort to do this.   Try lt.
Under the aky Is no uglier spee
tnclo than two men with clenched
teeth and hell-fire eyes hacking one
another's flesh, converting precious
living bodies and priceless souls Into
nameless musses of putrescence useful
only for turnip manure.—Carlyle.
It la n great Indication of progress
in virtue to transfer our Judgment to
action, and not let our words remain
merely words, but to make deeds
I Written for the B. C. Federatlonist]
If how a man would flght,
Then liBt the way he sings
While battling for the right.
(The world for freedom rings.)
Observe the stroke he strikes.
(Heed what to you is told.)
A brave for freedom hikes
As In the dnys of old.
Say not the language we speak i
different. Acts, tears, and martyrdom
are a language common to all men,
and which all understand.—Mazzini.
Truat that man in nothing who has
not   n    conaclence    in    everything.
ay. They all died like sldiers. Somo' Success Is a bad word; its false re-
crossed their arms and stood head I semblance to merit deceives mankind,
erect.     Others   opened   their   tunics —Victor Hugo.
The Grand hotel, 24 Water street,
has lately been renovated and painted up, and now presents a very neat
and attractive appearance. This hotel
has always been popular ns the home
of the logger and lumber worker In
tho old days under tho late Tommy
Roberts. The new proprietors of
this hotel, Messrs. Clarko & Kane,
are striving to make it a "home hotel
for the boys" when they drop In
from the camps. Wo wish thc new
owners all success in their efforts
to make this a working man's hotel-
A Local Company Hade Up of Local People
DID YOU ever stop to consider that the AMUSEMENT INDUSTRY takes fifth rank, in point of
capital invested, cash turnover and profits?
Do you realize that this company will have no coinpc-
tit Ion in its riplil?
That it Is bound to pay a dividend from the start!
A sound INVESTMENT that is bound to grow
Under the direction of capable m**n of undoubted
National Securities, Limited
100,000 Common Shares at Par
$1.00 Per Share
■ '111 mi:  111 a 11 It mid
will   sond   y.n   full   in
plotted; many methods in use are ex
tremely wasteful and careless, and
there Is no provision for natural depreciation.
The remedy advocated is birth-
control, that is purely voluntary parenthood, rather than hapazard parenthood, and the author replies to the
really few and feeble objections, even
the moral and theological ones,
If voluntary parentage were the
rule aud not the exception, not only
would the population and food-supply
questions be answered, but ther
would be decided racial, international
and individual benefits. Several of
the nations are already on the down
ward grade as intelligence tests show,
and this is due to the fact, that the
best families, I.e., physically and men
tally, do not reproduce themselves as
do those who are physically and mentally unfit.
Much international hostility ls caused through the population and im
migration problems, and in countries
liko Japan, where some outlet is ab
solutely necessary, the only practical
solution is birth-control. "Mrs. Sanger's recent trip to Japan was as important in its way as was that of
Commodore Perry, but government
officials turned their deaf ear." says
Professor East.
As for as the individual family Is
concerned, it is easy for anyone to
realise the advantages which would
follow if every country did as Holland
has done (without terrible consequences) namely, to establish clinics for
the spread of knowledge. As it is,
most so-called advanced countries
really perpetuate squalid poverty and
fearful ignorance, while the lot of
thousands of individual women is a
history of despair and drained vitality.
And this,'chiefly through the hypocrisy of a law "that will one day take
precedence over all barbarismn committed by supposedly civilized people,"
a law which is "broken by the hypocrites who defend it, the law-makers
who refuse to repeal it, and the justices   who  are appointed   to   uphold
t Contributed]
Little Jabie Silksocks
Used to go to school
Little Jnble Silksocks
Never was a fool.
He could smell a dollar
Even in his sleep.
He, and all his pockets,
They were very deep.
One day little Jabie
Got a call tc preach.
One to put some dollars,
Just within his reach.
Little Jabie Silksocks
Never let the truth
Interfere with dollars
In his after youth.
When Professor Hearing
Opened peoples' eyes;
Little Jabie told them
He was telling lies.
Little Jabie Silksocks
Never was a fool;
Little Jabie Silksocks
Loved tho GOLDEN rule.
In bourgeois society living labor is
but a means of increasing accumulated labor .capital). In Communist
society accumulated labor is but a
means of enlarging, enriching, and
promoting the existence of the laborer,—Marx.
A Hat to Match Your Dress
DO YOU realize the convenience of
choosing a hat «o harmonise, in the
sanifi store, at the same time as you
buy your spring costutnol "Famous"
gives you that sorvice now, in the up*
to-date Millinery Department above the
main floor, And "Famous" "quick
turnover" policy guarantees biggest possible value,
SUIT Oo. Ltd.
619-623 Hastings Stmt West
Vancouver Torkish Baths
Will Our. Tour Bh.um.tlBm. Lumbigo,
Neurttli ot Bid Oold
Huugi . Specialty
744 HmMiiu St. W.   non. Sty. 1070
Bird, Macdonald & Co.
BABtirau, souonou, if o.
MI-MI Hltnpolltsa B-lMlmf
117 Suites, St. W. VABOOUVBB, B. 0.
TM.phu»: 0e*meet UM eaa HOT
Btore Open, at 0 a.m. and
Closes at 6 p.m.
CLOTH and six napkins
with hemstitched colored borders; rose, gold
or blue.   45-inch $7.50
54-inch at $8.50.
H e mstitehed   damask
cloths   and   napkins,   of
pure Irish Linen-
Cloths, 36-inch $2.95
Cloths, 45-inch $4.50
Cloths, 54-inch $5.95
Napkins, $6.75 doz,
Drysdalo'a Lipen Shop,
Fonrth Floor.
575 Granville Street
Phone Seymour 3540
We had a "breezy" time at our
weekly meeting at the Municipal hall
on Tuesday, Two councillors present
were Invited to speak, and some interesting questions were discussed,
It was stated that work was to be
found for some unemployed at $2.00
per day, and tho eecretary was instructed to write the Trades and Labor council on this matter.
Cedar Cottage sewers and the
sewer board's job was fully diBCUsfl-
ed, but nothing definite was known,
and the work may be delayed for
months- Meanwhile the problem, of
"eats" has to be considered, so delegates were appointed to wait on the
reeve and engineer as regards work
immediately or full maintenance.
There ls still great distress In many
homes through lack ot employment
in this district, and all unemployed
should attend these meetings and
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TN our survey thus rar of the evolutionary course taken by the life
forms on our globe, we have had
occasion at times to speak of this or
that geological period or life-era,
taking it rather for granted that all
our readers were familiar with these
terms, Before going further it may
not be amlsB if we devote a portion
of this article to a brief consideration of these time divisions and familiarize our minds with their sequences. By so doing we shall get
a better and clearer view of tho
general onward march of life; and
shall be able to perceive,how insensibly one life order has, on tho
whole, merged into and been succeeded by another; and how continuous and unbroken has been tfie
stream of life from the beginning
down to our own day.
The geological record is usually
divided into five great "eraB" or
primary Hfe-diviBlonB. TheBe are
subdivided into "periods," and some
of these again into "epochs." Tho
flrst and remotest of these eras ls
called the Archaaozoic or earliest life
era (from the Greek arche beginning, and zoe, life.) The second
is called the Proterozolc or early life
era (from the Greek proteroB, early,
and zoe, life.) These two together
constitute what^a known as the Pre-
Cambrlan age. We can gather very
little knowledge of the lire-forms
that existed ln those far-off times on
account of the wide-spread alteration
and deformation of the rocks of this
age. Pre-Cambrlan fossils are exceedingly scanty. Heat, pressure and
other crustal disturbances have obliterated or destroyed most of them.
It is thought that the time occupied
by these two Pre-Cambrian eras waB
longer than all the succeeding ones
put together. It can only be very
vaguely estimated by tens, or more
probably by hundreds, of millions
of years.
The next,- or third division, is
known as the Palaeozoic or ancient
life era (from the Greek palalos,
ancient; and zoe, life.) This era is
usually divided Into six "periods"
called respectively: Cambrian, Ordo-
vlclan, .Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous and Permian. The last named
is regarded by some geologists aa
one of the subdivisions of the Carboniferous, and not treated as a separate period. But we need not con-
alder such nice distinctions as these
in this inquiry.
The characteristic life-forms of the
flrat three of theae Palreozoic periods
—tho Cambrian, Ordovician and Silurian—are the animals without backbones. It Is the age, par excellence,
of the Invertebrates. In the threo
later periods—the Devonian, Carboniferous and Permian—the early vertebrates—the Fish, tho Amphibians
and the primitive Reptiles—aro the
characteristic life-forms; the Devonian
being particularly distinguished as
the "Ages of Fishes," so predominant were theae forms during that
period. The Palceozolc rocks reached
a grout thickness, estimated to be not
less than 100,000 feet. One system
alone — the Cambrian — attained a
maximum depth in the Canadian
Rockies of 40,000 feet, or between
seven und eight miles. The duration
of the Pulmozolc era was thus very
considerable, second only to that of
Pre-Cambrian time. It far exceeded
the two subsequent eras put together; and would appear to have not
been less than fifty millions of years
ln all.
The Mesozolc or middle-life era
(from the Greek mesos, middle; and
zoe, life) la usually divided into three
separate perioda, namely: the Trlaaalc,
Jurassic and Cretaceous. The duration of the Mesozoic la estimated at
from ten to twelve millions of years.
Throughout thia era the Reptiles are
the dominant life-forms. The Mesozolc is pre-eminently the "Age
of Reptiles.*' We dealt with them
In the last article.
The fifth and latest life-era Is thc
Calnozolc or recent-life era (from tho
Greek latinos, recent; and zoe, life).
The dominant life-forms of this era
are the mammals. The Calnozolc la
pre-eminently the "Age of Mammals." Us duration is variously estimated at from threo to five millions
of years. This Ih the era In which
we ourselvea are living, It Is commonly divided into two periods known
as the Tertiary and the Quaternary;
the former occupying from three to
four millions uf yeara and the latter
from 500,000 to one million of years.
These periods are again subdivided
into "epochs," the Tertiary having
four and the Quaternary two, of
these. The terms by which these
epocha are known indicate the greater or less number of the present-day
life-forms found In each of them.
Theae terms In the Tertiary (reading
upwards) are;
(1) The Eocene, the epoch of the
dawn of the present-day or recent
life-forms (from the Greek eos,
dawn; and kainos, recent.)
(2) The Ollgocene, the epoch when
only a. few' of the present-day or recent life-forms had appeared (from
the Greek ollgos, few or little; and
latinos, recent.)
(3.) The Miocene, the epoch when
less of the recent life-forms appear
than In tho epoch following (from
the Greek melon, less; and kainos,
(4) Tho Pliocene, the epoch when
more of the recent life-forms are
found (from the Greek plefon, more;
and  latinos,  recent).
In Uie Quaternary they are:
(l)'The Pleistocene, tho epoch In
which most of the recent life-forms
'appear, (from the Greek pleistos,
most; and kainos, recent.)
This epoch takes In, and is generally regarded as synchronous with,
the Glacial Age.
(2) Holocene, the epoch when all
the recent life-forms appear (from
the Greek olos, all, the whole; and
kainoHj recent).
These useful, connotive terms were
given to the divisions of the Tertiary
and Quarternary periods by Lyelll,
the moat distinguished of the British
geologists of the laBt century. They
mark, as has. been said, th^e gradual
evolution and appearance of the modern forms as represented by that
common geological time-standard—
the Molluscs,   ,
With these time divisions and life-
eras more clearly before us we may
now enter upon our consideration of
the evolutionary history of the lateBt'
and most highly-organized of all the
life-forms—ihe Mammals.
As far as we can gather from the
palmontological evidence the reptilian age came to a relatively abrupt
termination. There ia a great biological break between the closing phase
of the Meaozoic era and the opening
'phase of the succeeding Cainozoic.
Whole chapters in the ure-niatory of
the Cretaceous reptiles and Eocene
mammals are misaing; and what
they contained we have to diacover
as best we may by inference. Geologists tell us this period was one of
wide-spread crustal movement and
disturbance, of mountain-form Ing on
a large a'cfcle, with consequent alteration In climatic and other environmental conditions. By the time the
Eocene epoch was well advanced,
thirteen of the known eighteen orders
of the Mesozoic reptiles had entirely
disappeared from the face of the
earth and their place had been taken
by the Eocene mammals. The toothed
birds, characteristic of the Cretaceous,
had also disappeared along with the
fierce and bulky dinosaurs, and we
find in their place new forms more
nearly akin to those of the present
day. A mighty transformation is everywhere apparent; a new world, peopled with new forms of life, bursts as
it were suddenly upon our view.
This biological break, with Its
many misaing linka, makes it very
difficult for us to follow the earliest
phases of mammalian evolution; for
while palaeontologists do not for a
moment doubt the reptilian descent
of the mammals, the tracing of the
direct lines of this descent presents
many difficulties. Theoretically
speaking the reptilian affinities of
the mammals are established beyond
question by the present existence In
Australia and New Guinea of intermediate, connecting forms. We find
there a line of primitively-formed
egg-laying mammals, of which the
strange duck-mole or Platypus Is the
best known type. This anomalous
creature links up tho two life-orders
in a truly remarkable and highly
suggestive way. Darwin called It "a
living fossil," and ao it would appear
to be. It ia as much a reptile as a
mammal. It lays real eggs like the
Mesozoic and most of the modern
reptiles. It has also a common,
aingle outlet for Ita excreta, and likewise possesses other characteristic,
reptilian features; but unlike the
reptiles it suckles its young like a
mammal, except that it has no
"mammte" or milk organs proper.
In place of these it has a number of
punctures on Its breast from which
a fatty liquid oozes, to te licked off
by the newly-hatched young.
It Is thus seen to be neither truly
reptile nor truly mammal, but plainly
an intermediate or transitional form
standing fairly midway between the
two life-orders. We could hardly ask
for better evidence of the genetic
relationship of the two classes than
Is furnished by these anomalous,
stereotyped forms that have come
down to us little chnnged in character from  Mesozoic times.
We know, too, that numbers of
such ambiguous, transitional forms,
as the Australian duck-mole and the
spiny ant-eater, must have existed in
thoae days, for many of their fossils
have been recovered. There is one
well-known form ln particular—Tri-
tylodon—which has been made a kind
of shuttlecock by zoologists who have
studied it, so indeterminate are Its
characters and so difficult la it to decide whether It should be classed as
a reptile or a mammal. And we cannot doubt that If all theae ambiguous,
indetermlnato forms were known to
us it would often be impossible to aay
definitely to which group many of
them belonged.
With theae fncta in our mind and
with theae intermediate connecting
fossil and living forma beforc us, it
is not possible to doubt the genetic
descent, by modification, of the mammals from the earlier reptiles.
Accepting, then, as biologists everywhere do, this descent aa an incontrovertible and well-ascertained fact,
what may we gather concerning the
course mammalian evolution has
taken? Can we learn anything of
the stages through which it has passed since tho period of Tritylodon of
Triassic times?   Let ua see.
In our survey of the rise and adaptive radiation of the Reptiles, we saw
thnt some of the early Permian forms
were characterized by mammalian
features, It wns stated, too, that
theso Theromopha were generally regarded by pnhnontoInglstH na the original source or ancestral stock from
which the mammals nre descended.
What beenme of tliono Permian pro-
mammals? Whnt do we know of thoii*
subsequent history?
Wo know they diverged into
various groups more or loss distinct from one another, some
being herbivorous and others carpi?
vorous In habit and that they spread
over three continents.    If we are to
judge by the evidence of fossils alono
they would seem to have become extinct before the Mesozoic was well
advanced, for no fossilized forms are
found after the advent of the Jurassic. To what cause can we attribute
this seeming extinction? We know
they' survived the severe changes
which brought the Palaeozoic to a
close and ushered in the Mesozoic,
It is possible that rapid development
resulted in such high specialization
as to unfit them for the new condition
of things and competition '. with the
better-adapted reptiles of the Jurassic, and so brought about their end
in this way. This is the common
view taken regarding their disappearance. But it by no means necessarily
follows that because they seem to
disappear in the Jurassic they became extinct and left no progeny to
succeed them.
Practically all our knowledge of
the life-forms of the Mesozoic era is
drawn from fossils obtained from
swamp, marsh, delta and lagoon de
poBits. We know little or nothing of
the life-forms that may have oc
cupled the uplands of that era. It
is quite possible that mammalian life-
forms may have spread to, and ex
isted in such regions throughout the
whole Mesozoic, Indeed, we are al
most driven to postulate some such
condition of thingB when all the facts
are taken into consideration; for In
the very earliest of the Tertiary upland deposits there is revealed to ub
a'wonderfully rich and highly-varied
mammalian fauna.
Whence came these? It does not
seem possible to derive them from the
tiny very generalized mammals
known from fossil evidence to have
been contemporaneous with the Jur
assic and Cretaceous Reptiles. It is
far more reasonable to regard these
numerous and highly differentiated
forms as the direct descendents of a
Mesozoic fauna that had persisted
from Permaln times, the period of
the advent of the Theromorpha or
pro-mammals. The fact that w<
know of no upland fossil-bearing de
posits belonging to the Mesozoic is no
argument against their existence. Such
deposits may yet be dlacovered If they
have not been, as is very possible,
wholly wiped out by erosion, or by
those crustal dlaturbances we know to
have occurred at the close of the
Mesozoic and the beginning of the
Cainozoic, when the Rockies and the
Alps came into existence.
Another view has been put forward,
and is now held by aome of our palaeontologists, to account for the seem
ingly audden appearance of these
early Tertiary mammals. This sup
poses the existence, In some portion
of the globe, which had been cut off
and isolated from the rest, early in
Mesozoic times by impassible barriers,
of a mammalian fauna which flourished there throughout the whole
Mesozolb era. These barriers, it is
thought, were, broken down by the
secular changes which ushered In the
Calnozolc era; and the new conditions
of life being favorable to this libera
tod fauna, It rapidly spread over the
world and took the place of tho now
extinct reptiles.
Both of these views are quite reasonable and the second receives atrong
support from the analogy of the condition and long isolation of the fauna
of Australasia. Here both the fauna
and flora, by the isolation of this region from the 'eat of the world since
Mesozoic tlmea down to our own day,
and by the absence of competition
with other life-forms, have retained
in large measure their primitive characters, while at the same time evolving and becoming specialized along
their own peculiar lines.
In their general physical character
the early Eocene mammals were In
many ways very similar to the pres
ent-day mammals of Australia and
New Zealand. They pointed most
clearly to a Mesozoic ancestry; and
tia a class they became extinct by the
beginning of the Ollgocene epoch,
Some of them were pouch-bearing
animals similar to those of Austral
asla. Others of them were true placental mammals though of a priml
tive and lowly-organized type. We
learn from their teeth that some of
them wore rodents, while others were
fruit-eaters and still others insecti-
The most conspicuous of these Eocene mammals were those known as
the Amblypoda (Greek amblus, blunt;
and pous, foot). Some of theso, notably Eobaslleus, were of immense
proportions and highly suggestive ot
the bulky rhinoceros and hippopotamus which were later to appear. Their
heads were the most peculiar feature
about them. Upon thoae they carried
three pairs of knob-like horns; one
pair over the noatrlls, a second and
larger pnir over the eyes, and the
third and largest pair bohind the ears.
They also possessed a pair of dependent ennine teeth closely resembling
those of the sabre-tooth tiger also to
appear later. The brain of these
bulky, slow-moving animals was very
small in proportion to their size; not
bigger thun that of a dog, though
some of thom must have weighed as
much as two tons. Tho structure of
the brain, too, waa of a low order,
resembling that oT the reptiles. Thla
small size and poor development of
the brain may have contributed largely to bring about their extinction; for
by the close of the Eocene they had
all disappeared. They, would seem
to have lacked the ability to successfully compote with their more highly-
endowed rivals in tho life-struggle,
Of theae early Cainozoic mammals
it would seem that only one clnss
could have been tho ancestors of the
present-day mammals, This was
probably ono of thc smnll insectlvors,
Aa enrly ns Huxley's time It was
pointed out that we must look for the
ancestry of tho modern man-minis In
some animal nf the insect-cat Ing typo,
Such n lino of ancestors is strongly
suggested by what wo know of the
teeth of the mammals. Modern research points In the snmo direction,
to some such Insootivor as the present-
day, tittle tree-shrew. Not only our
own remote ancestors, but also those
of the other mammals would seem
to have been tree^climbers. Arboreal
habits are plainly indicated- in the
limb-grasping adaptions of many of
the present-day mammals. Our highest authorities on these matter! are
now largely a unit In tracing the descent of the modern mammals from
some Insectivorous ancestor, -which
passed much of its existence in trees.
If, therefore, any of the early Eocene
mammals are to be regarded as the
ancestral forms from which the modern mammals have sprung, it must
be one of the little, tree-loving insec-
From such an ancestor, Osborn,
with his wide knowledge of Paleontology and Morphology finds no difficulty in deriving the whole ten major groups Into whtch he divides the
modern mammals, namely:
(1) Whales, (2) Seals (marine carnivores), (8) Carnivores, (terrestrial),
(4) Insectivores, (5) Bats, (6) Hoofed animals, (7) Manatees (Slrenia
or Sea-Cows), (8) Rodents, (9) Eden-
ates (toothless animals such as the
Ant-eater), (10) Primates, including1
Lemurs, Monkeys, Apes and Man.
From the highly-specialized and
widely-differentiated mammals of today to a little tree-climbing Insectivor
like the shrew, will seem to the average lay mind, unlnstructed In the principles of morphology, a far cry indeed.
The gap will appear to him too great
to be bridged, Yet each year, with!
Its fresh acceslons of palteontologtcal j
evidence, brings confirmation of this
genetic relationship, and the gap is
steadily growing narrower with every
new discovery. And investigators, like
Sir Ray Lankester in England, and
Professor Fairfield Osborn in America
who have given a life-time of study
to the tracing out of these relationships and who hove seen link aftar
link in ihe chain of evidence come to
light, are very sanguine that science
will be aUo, in tht near future, lo
demonstrate, by the help of discoveries yet to be made, this descent and
common origin, 'o the satisfaction of
any Intelligent poison who will view
the evidence witli open mind.
Already the ancestral history of
muny of the prtsent-day mammal.,
has been fairly-well worked out. Notably that of the horse, the camel, and
the elephant. We are able to trace
back the lineage of these anlmats ny
means of intermediate forms to early
Tertiary times. The ancestral history
of the liorsc has, perhaps been retraced with the most detail, and a
brief review of the palteontological evidence, by which the evolutionary
transformations of this well-known
animal have been followed step by step
wtll be very enlightening. It will
also, incidentally, help us to' understand how the modern mammals
could have been derived from earlier
and less-spectalized forms, and thess
again from some common ancestor of
more generalized character.
This review we will take up in
the   next article.
(To be Continued)
The best work nover waa nor ever
will be done for money nt nil.—John
Walk not with the world whero It
la walking wrong.—Carlyle.
What  about your  neighbor's subscription?
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At the Orplicuni Theatre
On March 19, 20 and 21, the Orpheum theatre will celebrate its
twelfth annlveraury by presenting a
great birthday bill of unusually brilliant vaudeville. .Jack Norworth,
vaudeville'a popular comedian and legitimate stage star, assisted by Miss
Dorothy Adelphi, (s offering his latest
songs and stories. He Is sharing a
headline position with Qeorge Jcssell,
musical comedy star, who Is making
his last appearance in vaudeville before being starred In a new musical
play. He is accompanied by two
winsome lusates Mary Lucaa and Lillian Price, who are as clever as they
are pretty, which is laying a great
Dick Lucke and hia "Arend'ana,1
are syncopalors supreme. They have
with them Miss Jane Smith, nnd a
dancing ensemble of eight dashing
damsels who are real mistresses of
terpsichore. Paul Morton and Naomi
Glass have a comedy skit called "April"—In two showers.
"Broken Toys" unfolds what is perhaps the loveliest novelty of color,
spectacle and entertainment seen here
in aome time. The individual artists
are as varied in character aa they are
numerous, Harry King and Oeorge
Brown,  present a startling acrobatic
and comedy bit In this extraordinary
act. Marie Veateh'a "dainty dancing
debutantea," an ensemble of nine
spritely girls, provides a background
of beauty, each of the girls Is a specialty artist, while their group dancing is of remarkable precision and
skill. A Toy Band that plays jazz
In a gorgeous setting. There ave
twenty three performers in this act
Harris and Holley are colored corn-
medians who present a laughable skit
called "Push 'em and Pull 'em", it
contains some songs ahd a bundle of
mirth. Blcknell, "The Model Baker,"
is a lucky chap, he has a bevy of
pretty girls who help him bake the
dough in a very pretty musical revue. The AesopN. Fablo ts called
"Black Magic". Then there are
Toplca of the Day, and the Orpheum
concert orchestra, under the leadership of William Pilling, hns a new
program of selections. Ita a great
Praise, nnd not fault-finding, is the
teacher's best weapon.—Bishop of
The Federationist
'cultural revolution,"
believes    In  a
not a  "bloody
Official Organ of the
Published in the Interests of All Workers
■THE party is desirous of making what contribution it can to the betterment of society. It realises that the most effective method to accomplish this end is by educating the masses through the medium of its press,
and likewise the best literature procurable regarding the Labor movement. There is no other means available to the workers to voice their
opinions. Work with us to make The Federationist a mighty power for
good in Vancouver and throughout British Qolumbia. Principles, not
personalities, are alone desirable.
Contributions for The Federationist are always welcome. Be brief
and write on one side of the copy paper. Matter for publication should
reach this office by Tuesday. Advertisements received up to Wednesday
You must have The Federationist in the home each week to keep in touch
with the Oity, Provincial and Federal and International Labor Movement.
Subscription Rate: United States and foreign, $3.00 per year; Canada,
$2.60 per year, $1.50 for six months.
Estimates will be furnished on all kinds of work,
gladly offer his services to those desiring them.
Our solicitor will
FRIDAY ..MARCH  13,  ll|
—for the "Edison" has stood the test of perfect reproduction and comparison reveals no
difference between the reproduction and the
original artiste. No needles to change—plays
all rceoi-ds—positively unequalled is <fc| OC
this "LONDON MODEL" at only *
443 Hastings Street West
Phone Sey. 2444 Comer Richards
House of Commons
(Continued   from   page   1)
A Necessary Work
(Continued from Page 1)
in which our small population had
been scattered about by speculators
who frequently withheld choice lands
or mines, close to railroads, and thus
drove settlers to the back blocks. *
That a large part of- the population
were engaged in manufacturing, and
that aome of the manufactures produced goods of undoubted value,
whilst others were of little use to
the community, although they employed many hands. For Instance a
great tobacco Industry had been built
up and was being extended by extensive advertising and modern methods,
of pushing business, so that most boys
and girls in Canada were encouraged
to smoke. That the use of tobacco
does not need to be encouraged and
although the buainess has made some
millionaires it has not bcen a blessing
to the nation.
That the manufacture and sale of
alcohol as a beverage has also been,
encouraged, although it is known to |
be harmful, even in small quantities,
and its uso should be reduced to the
minimum, but many individuals and
some governments' liavo been making
"oasy money" out of it, so tho public
welfare haa not been conaidored.
Thnt tho manufacture and snle or
many other articles is being pushed
by lying advertiaements so that
''soothing syrups" and  harmful pre
TENDERS wun tod for building addition to
tko   Cfenarul   Gordun   School,   Oth   Ave.
ond Dayawator Stroot, Vancouver, B. 0.
Plans mid specifications to bo obtained
from the Architect, School Board Oftlce,
corner Hamilton and Dunamulr utroets, after 9 a.m. March 16, 1925, on deposit of
Tenders in duplicate enclosed with
marked chequo for $£,000.00 in sealed envelope addressed to Chairman and Socrotary Vancouver School Board, and endorsed
"Tondor fnr Oeneral Gordon School Addition," must bo handed to tho Secretary between ll a.m. and 1 p.m., Friday, Maroh
27. 1025.
Tenders wilt bo opened at a speeial meet-
inn of tho  board at   8   p.m.  same   day,  at
which tenderer can be present-
Lowest or any tender not necessarily accepted.
Secretnry Vancourer School Board.
paratipns are being palmed off on the
That untruthfulness in the nation is
promoted by thc habitual use of lies
and exaggeration in advertisements,
and that lying and fraud and sharp
practises characterise modern business.
That the machinery of distribution
ta inefficient and tho public not well
served thereby; Inspite of the hard
work and obvious ability of very many
of those engaged in It.
Tbat there are at lea^t ten times
too many lawyers, and far too many
agents, and that the support of such
people ia a great tax on industry.
That ownership constitutes in Itaelf
no service to humanity; therefore,
rents and interest are unnecessary.
That good management' Is essential,
and that society should be willing to
give good value for it.
But you will aay, "We knew all thla
before." I certainly make no pretense
of exposing any fresh secrets, but it
is those simple sort of facts, that we
must use, driving them Into the thick
and unwilling and indifferent heads
of the common people. We must
make them "class conscious," as I
claim to be; only the two classes'that
I divide mankind Into, are the useful and the useless classes.
There Is already a fairly healthy1
sentiment on thlri continent against
idleness, I glance at the paper and
aee that, the richest heiress in Amer
I en Is too marry a poor man, and that
they arc to live simply, nnd she will
do at least part of the housework, etc.,
that she has only had a few cents of
pocket money per woek hitherto and
has played nt being poor and honest
quite succeasfully, Nearly all the sons
of rich men nre taught some business
or profession nnd many tnko their
Work seriously. Whnt we have to insist on Is: that work to be really useful must be regulated; that production
without system nnd co-ordination
with other production, Is like running
nn engine without n flywheel and governors.
How we mny sot about regaining
control of our wild productive forces,
and become their masters Instead of
their victims we must leave to anothor
Dr. Gallant, Chiropractor, 712 Robson
starvation at the present time." Thus
spoke workmen of the Conciliation
Board, grown hopeless of ever find1
ing a basis for conciliation. "How
enn we conduct that fight in the face
of the opposition of the press, the
provincial and Dominion governments
and the public at large, all of whom
are forced to misjudge us by the false
propaganda of the corporation?" The
odds sound heavy indeed.
But are they? I glanced over the
floor of the House and felt reassured,
Was not Labor itself championing Its
own cause, and through one of the
ablest fighters in public life.? Beside
him sat another brilliant and fearless
speaker. To their right and behind
them sat other men and one woman,
who, if not specifically committed to
Labor, yet could be depended upon
to rally to the defence of practically
every plank in the Labor platform.
Glancing further afield, I caught expressions of understanding and synv
pathy in unexpected places. In the
press gallery was more than one free
lance pencil, whose stories, unedited
by party cenaora, would find small
but eager audiences throughout this
broad land. No, the coal miners and
steel workers of Nova Scotia might
be further removed from the court
of justice than they are. Tardy justice will come to them—in so far as
the present system of trade and
economics permits.
And there is the real rub. Any
corporation, through public pressure
persistently applied, can be induced
to toe the legal line, obey the existing laws governing capital and labor.
But this does not bring in Utopia, or
even a just distribution of the desirable things of this world. The brotherhood of man, in n more practical
form than the world has ever practiced, alone can do this. . . .
In the meantime, what of the
"acute distress" among these workers? As one member questioned:
"What is going to happen to the
Canadian women and children who
are there, to those people who have
nothing whatever to do with this industrial strife, but who must suffer
because of it?" Blaming the tariff,
or the lack of it, competition of nonunion miners, delinquencies of the
British Empire Steel Corporation, Is
cold comfort to these. Can tho government longer evade coming to the
rescuo with the only substance that
talks under such circumstances? Of
course it Is an expensive and wasteful method of meeting social obligations, but we should huve thought of
that before. After all, a blow to our
pocketbooks might prove the most
effective method of effecting a cure,
just as it was to the burgomasters of
Flanders and the merchants of the
Thirteen Colonies. We are inclined
to wax sentimental over cold, hunger, want; but increased taxation
brings immediate action. "If a!
brother or slater be naked and desti
tute of daily food, and one of you
say unto thefii, 'Depart in pence, be
ye warmed and filled,' notwithstand
Ing ye give them not those things
which are needful to the body, what
doth it profit?"
Press Gallery, Ottawa.
J. S. WOS'
Member for Centre Winnipeg De*
livers Important Speech in
Power, like a desolating pestilence,
pollutes whate'er it touches; and obedience, bane of all genius, virtue, freedom, truth, makes slaves of men, and
of the humnn frnme a mechanised
Help the press that's helping
you. The daily, capitalist press
is no friend of yours, comrade!
Why help it?
Workers! Support Your Own Press!
Ct O FREQUENTLY we hear workers complaining about the injustice of
" the "daily" or "capitalist" press, and about how unfair it is toward the
cause of labor—and yet they continue to give their hard-earned money to
perpetuate that institution.
The capitalist press today is thriving on the one and five-cent pieces of
thoughtless—or ignorant—workers, while their own press has to straggle
against long odds in its efforts to serve them. Why be your own oppressors?
Why serve in the ranks of the enemy?
If you are desirous of improving your own condition, and that of your fellowmen, then support the press that is honestly endeavoring to fight your
battle for you. That is the very least you can do for your own cause.
Show your own sincerity of purpose and willingness to serve by subscribing for The Federationist—the workers' friend. Pass your copy on to
some fellow-worker after you have read it.  Urge him to subscribe.
Help The Federationist in its fight for the emancipation of mankind.
The greater our circulation, the more effectual will our efforts be. Apathy
and indifference on the part of the workers is more to be feared than the antagonism of the forces of reaction.
Be true to your cause!  Help boost your own press.
Official Organ of the Federated Labor Party
■——--■"■ "   "" ""—"«"»— "   '   '   ••***■*****-'■ «"■"!.11"»n»■«„,.«,..■♦„■■„„„„„ „ ,|„„„„„„.„„„„.,„„»..»■.„, „   „„   , „   , „
Decidedly Not One Representative of the Great Masses of
the People.
(From Hansard of February 10)
(Continued from last week.)
T SHOULD like to aak, ln passing,
one other question: How was thia
debt created? I think attention has
been drawn within the last two or
three years to u little pamphlet Issued by lbe Liberal party, back in
May, 191*3, with regard to war contract scandals—horses, boots, drugs,
binoculars, motors trucks, and so on.
This same matter is alluded to in
motion already on the order paper of
the present session. It was stated at
thnt time:
One outstanding fact In connection
with the Investigation should be kept
in mind. The total amount of money
involved in tho purchases investigated
was no more than $3,000,000. This
included Iho price of tho submarines.
In other words, thc Public Accounts
committee's investigation touched less
Lhnn one-sixteenth of the $50,000,000
voted by parliament in August for
war purposes.
What ubout the other two billions
thnt wero spent on war? Whnt are
we going to do nbout it? Simply
forget all the past nnd burden ourselves, und our children, and our chl-
dren's children with these enormous
londs? Have those who looted tho
public treasury been prosecuted? This
is the question thnt many aro asking
todny, though it may not often bo
naked In this House. Has the government sought to recover the loot? No.
On thb other band we continue to
pay Intereat on the graft. It mny very
well be said that mnny of the present
bondholders are Innocent. That may
be true, but I submit that in ordinary
legal practice the receivers of stolen
goods, although they mny suffer hardships, are not protected in this wny.
I should like to pnuse for juBt a
few minutes to consider nnother development that has tnken plnco in
Canadn that will bring ua under bondage not merely to n portion ol! our
own people, but ultimately to nn outside nntion. In a review of the United States investments in Canada, issued by tlie United States Department
of Commerce under the direction of
Herbert Hoover, thc following statement is made:
-Economically and socially Canada
may be considered ns a northern extension of lhe United Stntes, and our
trade wilh Canada is In many respects
more like domestic trado than our
foreign trade with other countries.
The United Stntes capital invested
In Canada, the department shows, hns
increased from $420,000,000 in 1915
to at least $2,42(5,000,000 in 1922, or
nearly six-fold. In the same period
British capital in Canada haa remained very nearly stationary, amounting
to $1,800,000,000 In 1915, and to $1,-
980,000,000 in 1922. Further thnn
thnt, the United Statos In recent years
has largely replnced Great Britain na
Canada's Banker. In the eight years
just preceding the wnr 73.5 per cent
of all of Canada's borrowings wore
from Great Britain and 9 per cent
from the United Statea. In tho eight
years ending with 1922 only 2 per
cent of Canada's borrowing came
from Great Britain nnd 33 per cent
from the United States. I might add,
the authority of Sir Frederick
Williams-Taylor that In 1924 Canada's
borrowings in the New York market
amounted to two hundrod millions
which, as he quite correctly points
out in a passage already quoted,
means n definite ndded interest charges on the people of thla country. It
would seem that if these conditions
continue very much longer Canadians
may be reduced lo the position of being literally hewers of wood and
drawers of water for the capitalists
of the United Stntes. Then too, it
should be noted, these onormous incomes that are being enjoyed by the
people of the United States are not
taxed ua the Canadian incomes are
taxed. According to tho Commissioner of Taxation "under the provisions of the Income War Tax Act,
1917 a non-reaident la not liable to
incomo tax in respect of dividends or
interest paid to him by the Canadian
company." So there we have the situation, tltat although enormous wealth
is boing produced in this country a
very considerable proportion of lt is
being drafned away to others who do
not assume their fair share of the
load. I have nothing whatever
against the capital being American In
ownership; but this condition enables
us to see very clearly the character
of the great economic movements of
the present day. There are aome fn i
tho woat who will tell us that thej
solution Is to break up confederation.
There are some from the east who nrej
inclined to echo the same doctrine.
I do not wonder very mueh that this
position Is being taken hy those who
are carrying an undue proportion of
this load. But I ahquld like to urge
that economic questions are deeper
political questions, and that
economic questions cannot be solved
mere political methods; they ro-
ocnnomlc solutions.
I should like now, for a few moments, to come particularly to the
Speech as It refers to the labor peoplo
of Canada. I do not know that it was
any great stirpriso but certainly it |fl
mattor of keen regret to the labor
mon across Cannda that the Speech
contnins no Intimation what ever tbnt
tho government  la proposing at the
preaent aesslpn to carry out Its pledges made to labor. I hold in my hnnd
n copy of n pamphlet entitled "Liberal and Labor". A pre-election appeal
to labor issued by the Liberal committee in October, 1921, at the very forefront of which atands the name of Hon.
W. L. Mackenzie King, Liberal leader.
Thfs document begins by critizing the
Conservatives for their action, or
rather Inaction, with regard to labor
The Conservative government failed
Lo act. It was all a case of promise
and pretense used only to fool the
labor vote on the eve of election.
I wonder whether this document
can be aaid to differ very largely
from those issued by the Conservatives, and I consider that it ought to
he known to tho labor people acrose
Canada from coast to coast that the
actual record of the Liberal government during the pnst t'hree years
has heen almost barren of any enactment that Is in the interest of the
group commonly known na labor. Tho
Liberals advocated at that time, the
placing of the implements of production and food on the free list. I
walled for threo years for something
along lhat line, and then laat year
introduced an nnimendment to the
budget—but without any very noticeable results. In addition to the tariff
policy referred to this document goes
Resolved that tho committee recom
mends that the National Liberal Convention accept in their entirety, as a
part of the Liberal platform In the
spirit they have been framed, nnd
in so fnr as the special circumstances
of the country will permit, the terms
of the Lnbor Convention and genernl
principles associated with the League
of Nations and incorporated in the
.onditloris of peace.
Now, let hie remind the Houae thnt
these general principles incorporated
into tlie treaty at the Pence Conference of Versailles are just aa vitally
a part of that treaty as were any of
the international boundaries drawn
it that time, and labor had a
right to expect their fulfilment. And
further, we have here the promise
that the Liberal party would carry
out these provisions to the utmost of
their ability. I propose to read those
clauses with very brief comments,
asking whnt the government haa done
with regard to theso reforms to which
it is solemnly committed.
These methods and principles for
regulating labor conditions ho . set
forth in the treaty nre as follows:
First.     Tho  guiding  principle  that
labor should not lie regarded  merely
commodity  or  article  of  com-'
I should like to nsk, the government to point out any specific cases
in which they hnve regarded labor
or enacted legislation providing that
labor should not he regarded, ns anything else than a commodity. I fail
to seo any application of that principle in the immigration policy or In thc
provision for unemployment for
ample lo which we have already referred.
would the hon. gentleman say with
regard to the appointment ,of the
President of tho Trndes and Labor
Congress to (he Board of the Canadian National Railways?
Mr. WOODSWORTH: I quite intended to recognize that the government had carried out that provision^
but I fall to see how he connects thc
appointment of the Presidont of the
Trndes and Labor Congress to the
Board of tho Canadian Nntionnl Rail-!
ways with this principle thnt lnbor is
not to be regarded as a commodity.
I nm quite open to nny suggestion
nlong that line, but I ennnot quite
see how this action is an application
of the principle.
Second. The right of association
for all lawful purposes by the employed as well as by the employers.
The only opportunity that wo have
had of testing the government on thnt
waa a resolution I brought forward
two yeara ago, asking thnt bnnk clerks
be givon a right to organize, which
resolution wns votod down by the
Third. The pnyment to the employed of n wage adequate to main-
lain n rensonable standard of life as
this is understood in their time and
It Is pointed out here repeatedly
thnt the nvernge wngo paid to the employees In this country is fnr below
the average minimum set by the official government standard. Furthermore, many of the government employees are receiving far less than
the standard which the government
Itself sets up as being the minimum
for a decent stnndard of living. Ab
I think I pointed out when tho estimates were beforo the Houso dealing
with civil sorvico employees, there
wore postal workers, in the city of
Winnipeg, employees of this government, receiving a smaller amount
than wns being paid In doles to those
In receipt of charity from the city.
Fourth. The adoption of an eight-
hour day or a forty-eight hour week
ns the standard to be aimed at whore
it has not already been attained.
The government has sought to escape responsibility for this by saying
that this was not within the province
of the Dominion government; but last
year when they were pressed on this
matter by an amendment whioh I introduced, the Minister of Labor said
that Jt would not be possible to put
practice   this   principlo   of   an
Timely Topics
eight-hour day on the govornment
owned publio works, because that
might involve unfair competition with
the  private  employers.
Mr. MURDOCK: I am sure tho
hon. gentleman doea not desire to
mnke a statement that la not correct,
but he docs mako a statement whtch
Is not correct when he says the Ministor of Labor said it would not be
possible, If tho hon. gentleman would
stick to tho record It would be better
I think for him and alt concerned.
(To be continued)
OhlrnprBfltof, 7<t.) Dnnnmiilr Rt,; 10 till fl.
Ser. 8709. RvgB. by ippt.; flumUm a till 4.
Tlio Dawes Plan
'THE DAWES PLAN has produced
some $144,977,705 we aro told.
Perhaps it has. Yes, undoubtedly lt
has—for some fortunate financiers.
But what of the poor workers in Germany? What of the workers in
France and England? And we might
ask further, what about the workers
in Canada and the United States? The
Dawes plan may have produced some
money for a few fortunates;. but it
has brought, and is going to be the
means of bringing more untold misery
to the great masses of the workers,
the world over. The German workers havo been driven to accept the
lowest possible standards of living,
and now the workers elsewhere are
going to be forced to eome down to
lhat aame level.
Soviet Cuts Taxes
It sounds odd to hear nbout taxes
being cut, when all the while we are
experiencing nn Increase in taxation.
To think that the soviet government
has granted a 40 percent reduction in
next year's agricultural taxes seems
rathor odd to us when we hnve been
rending what n failure the soviet form
of government hns boen. Our dally
press has never censed lo toll ua that
It has beon a failure. Wo wonder
what our fnrmers would think if they
wero to experience such n reduction
in their tnxntlon. We frankly admit
thnt-we cnn see but little chance of
their ever experiencing auch a treat
under our present form of govon
ment—and it is not the soviot form
Ottawa Government Faces Crisis
Every government Is facing a real
crisis these days. Conditions are such
the world over, na to make ua feel
that a'aocial crisis is impending. It
ia inevitable to every thinking mind
They would hnve us believe that Premier King ia facing n criais on nc-
count of tho Petersen affair. That Is
mere camouflage. It may be used for
purposes of vote catching at an election, but it is not the cause of the
real crisis. A hundred thousand men
are out of work In Canada today
Thousands of men und women nre living on the verge of destitution. The
industrial life of our country la crumbling, whether we like to hear it or
not. Taxation ia auch tbnt it ia putting farmers nnd manufacturers alike
out of business. Thosuanda of our
good Cnnadinna nre leaving thla country nnd going to the United Stntes
A wonderful country nnd yet our people cnn not earn n livelihood in it
Ottawn, Indeed, faces n crisis
Hritish Domestics Arrive
Salvation army brings out more
girls! Ono would think that our own
girls hnd to work over time, so groat
wa^ the demnnd i'or their services,
and Hint tho Salvation army was taking pity on them, and giving them
relief. Nothing is further from the
truth, Hundrods of our own girls
hnvo been forced on to thc streets to
earn their livelihood—and now more
will have to go that way. What a
tragedy! How long aro such institutions going to continuo. or bo allowed
to continue, such insane tactics? We
wonder. We are not unmindful of the
unfortunate girls who have been
brought here, either. They are human beluga, ns wc are, and we shudder to think of their lot in this country In the years to eome.
Supervising School Libraries
We note with interest the suggestion of the Library Board to take
over the supervision or management
of the achool libraries. We were delighted to see the principals t'urii
down the suggestion. Our own library
If all reports are true, nnd wc huve
no reason to doubt them, is rather
antiquated. Tho supervision is rather
reactionary, to sny the very lenst.
Nothing very stimulating, or radically
Inclined, will be allowed to adorn
tbeir shelves. Not sntlafied with that,
they want to got hold of the school
libraries and render them abaolutely
harmless, Some principals may not
be very far advanced along lines we
might like to see them know n little1
We  Are Now  Selling the]
From the old WAKESIAHl
SEAM. This eoal is far|
superior to any mined oil
Vancouver Island t o d a yj
having More Heat, Lessfe
Ash, and contains No Rock;]
No Shale and No Clinkers.)
If this eoal is not satisfac-i
tory in every respect yourl
money will be cheerfully re-"
A Trial Will Convince
Every Consumer
Leslie Coal
Co. Ltd.
Phone Sey. 7137
more nbout; but, nevertheless! thl
know a littlo more about developlj
mind of the child than the nverij
librarian we meet.
The Protocol
When Prof. Nearing was in our cf
a few weeks ago, some one asked hi
if he thought that the adoption of t]
protocol would provent war.    He i
swercd that the protocol would notl
tidopted  until It wus rendered hnrl
Iosb, so far as the preventing of w|
was concerned.    We cannot help
feel that he was right.   The way th|
nre juggling with the protocol in ]
rope today, we feel quite certain tii
the nrms nnd munition manufacturtf
need   hnve  no   fear.     Their   businj
will bc safe for a time nt lenst.
GlftMKPn nat prescribed milea*
absolutely aeccannrj, l___aiul-
un tin hm ni title br «riiilti«ie
i-jesitfht MpecUlUt,
SiitlNlnt-IIuu guaranteed.
We Bri ml our own Icumcm and
do reimiriuir, Lvuae* dnpll-
outed  br mulL
Former!)   llrown   Optical
Be  sure  nf   the   nddreui
Above    Woulworth'*    Store*
near  Granville
Halts   3ft,   UuvIh   Chamber*
(116   Hum tin* a   St. W.
Phune  Se/.  1071
:AlSAnA  and U.S.A.
|Union Musicians Employed Exclusiv.
~ ~__-—-%_-__?__%
Ask for CATTO'S.    For eale at all Government Liquor Stores
Tkli idfirtiumint It not pnbUibid or dliplirod _j tbl Llqnor control Board or I
by tbi OoTitnmmt of Brttlib OolnmbU
Fresh Cut Flowers,' Funeral Designs, Wedding Bouquets, Pol PlantJ
Ornamental and Shade Trees, Seeds, Bulbs, Florists' Sundries
Brown Brothers & Co. Ltd.!
IS Hutlngi Stroot But Sir* 988471    665 OlUTllll Strut Sir.  9513-131:1
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OTOVES AND RANGES, both malleable and steel,!
" McClary's, Fawcett's, Canada's Pride, installed!
free by experts; satisfaction guaranteed. Cash or|
$2.00 per week.
Canada Pride Range Company Ltd.]
346 Hastings Street East
Sey. 2399,


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