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British Columbia Federationist Aug 1, 1924

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Array INDUSTRIAL UNITY: STRENGTH
OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE FEDERATED LABOR PARTY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
■     PUBLISHED IN INTERESTS OF ALL WORKERS
POLITICAL UNITT: VICTOBY
SIXTEENTH YEAR.  No. 31      %/OUR..PAGES
V.
VANCOUVER, B/C.,. FRIDAY CORNING, AUGUST 1,1924
5c A COPY
Canada Practically Committed to
Principle—Now Arises Question of Jurisdiction
Appointment of New
Police Commissioner
T LAST our now commissioner has"feel,. many of the. workers have been
THE TAKING OF EVIDENOE
Before Select Standing Committee
on Industrial and International
Relations
[By J. S. Woodsworth, M.P.] "
UNDER tho Lausanne treaty and
Washington convention, Canada
Is practically committed to the principle of the oight-hour day. As,
howevor, Canada has a federal government there has ai'taen the question of jurisdiction, the law offices
of the crown declaring that elght-
houi-day legislation Is a provincial
matter. In some of the provinces an
effort has beon made to' shoulder the
responsibility on to the dominion.
In order to help clear up this matter
a reference was made to the select
standing committee on industrial
and international relations.
The evidence would show that* the
decision of the law officers is not
final and that means may be found
by the federal government to overcome the question of jurisdiction.
Where there is a will there Is "a way,
and it might be added where there
Is no will there Is no way. The following excerpts from .the official report of the proceedings and evidence
of the committee would seem to show
one way out:
I By Mr. Woodsworth: Question, I
would like to :isk Mr. Edwards, cov
ering some of the ground we did the
other day with rer.ard to works directly undertaken by the dominion
government. All that would be necessary to secure an eight-hour day
under those circumstai_.es* would be
to have such a clause inserted In the
contraot. Further, with regard to
any subsidized undertakings, railways,
Bteamshlps or anything of that kind,
I presume that, too, oould be arrang?
ed directly In tho agreement?
Answer. I think it could be made
a condition ot the subsidy.
Q. ln a case where tlie government Ib under contract for the delivery of any goods from any firm, I
presume the government might Insist that these goods should be produced under fair conditions, Including the eight-hour day?
.A. I think that again Is a provision which. If properly drawn, could
bo mnde a part of the contract.
' Q. Thon coming to this question,
which wo hnvo been discussing, dominion works and undertakings: As ('alas you know, are there any actual
cases which have eome before the
courts, other than the one you mentioned, which would seem to indi**
cate any limitations ot tho powers
of Canada to declare any work of
general advantage Jo Canada?
. A. My attention has not been directed to anything specific on that
subjoct.
Q.   Wilh regnrd to a   number   of
matters which  have been suggested,
such as largo manufacturing works,
thc question has not  been  raised?
A.    Not that  I  am aware of.
Q.   In the case ■ ot# water powers,
L jlhat question came up directly and it
was considered by   parliament   that
wnter-powers migbt be declared to be
ot genernl advantage to Canada?
A.   Yes.
Q. And I understand that even
railroads oporating within particular provinces might bo so declared?
A. Ves, I think so.
Q. Tho fishing Industry, 1 presume, might be so declared, since
fishing Is the production of grent
food supplies and the territorial
watera directly belong'to fhe government of the country. I was thinking of the operations In cpnnectii.i:
with the big canneries and things of
thnt kind, which really focus the industry at the present'time?
A. if that Is an industry within
the moaning of tho reference, I think
It would belong to the same category
as the Ford plant
Q. Wltli regard to Buch an Industry as logging, In many cases the
lands are crown lands,. In their case
certain leases have been secured by
the company trem the crowii. That
1 would come within our reference and
such Industries might be declared "to
be to the general advantage?
A.   You mean the cutting of logs
on limits, not the floating of them
in streams?
Q.   Yes.
A. We are Btlll talking about de*
daring the works to be for the general advantage of Canada. Do you
mean the area of any particular tlm*
her limits to be declared work for
the general advantage of Canada?
Q. Yes. The general working of
the log industry In any province, al
though limited to one province,
might be declared to be of general
advantage?
'A. Well, I think the expression
"work" there means a physical thing.
Q. Then any particular limit
might be so declared?
A. That again would fall" within
the general principles we have been
discussing.
Q. With regard to coal mines,
are physical properties, or metalliferous mines, oould they be declared
to be of general advantage?
A.   Y%«. " Aubject to what we said
with regard to the other matters.
Q.   Taking one matter   that   has
t come definitely before us ln this committee, auch large works   as   steel
i Works, where prevails   a long   day,
might they be declared to be to the
' general advantage?
A.   That again Is In the same cat
■Ngonr,. -..-■  . ' *.••■■'  ft.■•'*■' '■   •
Q.   With regard ta    other    large
manufacturing  Industries—I  do  not
(Continued M pago i)
been appointed, nalmely, Mr.
Robert Macpherson, former M. L. A.
He ought to be one of the best available for the position, for the government considered the matter long
enough before making the appointment. Wo sincerely hope that he
may live up to our expectations for,
It would appear to ub, we are sorely
In need of a good, strong, honest and
energetic mnn for that position. Wo
are awnre, of course, that he does
not share the whole responsibility
alone, for there are two others on
the board with him. Being a new
man, however, we will naturally look
to him to do something worth while.
He is now afforded what would
appear to us to be an excellent opportunity to redeem, what, in our
humble opinion, is not a very worthy
record of our police commissioners.
There has been a great deal of dissatisfaction with the activities of
the police eommission of this city
for some time past, and we feel that
it has not been without just, cause
The Federationist has been pointing out for some time—and will
continue to point out until lt
fs remedied—the" fact, that the
"Veteran's Weekly scandal" has been
allowed to apparently He dormant.
It certainly has not been cleared up
to the satisfaction of the decent-
thinking citizens of this city. We
have little use for gambling in any
form, and we feel that those who
Indulged In these contests were very
foolish indeed. When we realize
what a struggle the average man
and woman has to face day after
day in this world of ours, as it is
constituted foday, we do not wonder
at them not using the best judgment
that they might.    Unfortunately, we
TIT-BITS FBI ABROAD
Wheatley's   Housing   Scheme-
Poisoning the Public Mind—
. The Greatest Steal
Wheatley's Housing scheme has
been coming; In for a considerable
amount of comment of late. It has
been 'most amusing! to study the attitude assumed by the opposition
parties in the Hritish house of commons. Now lhat they are in the opposition camp, they feel that it is
their solemn duty to oppose everything thut tho labor government
might see fit to bring up. To play
nt the game seems to be their only
ambition in life.
• *      *
Mr. Whcatley, in his scheme for the
extensive building of homes has gotten matters so arranged that the
workers, the employers, and the
building material manufacturers have
agreed to suspend the operation of
the infernal law of "supply and demand." Wheatley has given all of
them a square deal, a fair price, and
in return they have said: "We will not
ask for increased terms when the
national demand reaches up to the
limit of supply. We will not ex-
acf scarcity prices. We will not hold
the nation to ransom. The government has done the square thing by
us. To blazes with the liberal graft
ubout exacting our pound .of flesh and
suckinj. "the last ounce of blood from
iho nrMon In its hour of necessity."
■»"*'■'*•
The Glasgow Forward, in commenting; on the. above has this to say:
"T'.iat the curbing of the law o'f supply and demand, and the substitution therefor of the law of co-operation, bn'ay be directly at varianco with
the accepted tenets of that palsiod
imposture known as the liberal party,
we do not deny; we glory in It; we
shall watch with interest and the
working class shall watch with interest how far the liberal party sabotages can Induce oither building
trade workers, employers, or building material manufacturers to break
away from stabilized prices and demand a reversion to the wild scramble for extra profits out of the
other people's necessities, with, of
course, the Inevitable. corollary of
house-building ceasing altogether."
• *      *
Even Jn "Old England" the reactionary press forget* Itself, lt seems.
When no such rumor was current ln
political circles, or any other circles,
for that matter, there appeared In
the Sunday Mail the following: "A
persistent rumor ls current in political circles that the socialists have
been guaranteed half-a-million by
certain capitalist's and others not altogether British towards their expenses at the next election."
'•      •      •
Everybody In politics knows that
the labor party and the labor party
alone of all parties, publishes an au
dlted staUtoient. But this He is only
slung ahout ln the hope that It will
poison the mind of some reader Innocent of any knowledge of the facts.
It Is capitalist propaganda at Hs dirtiest.
• «     «
Mr. Arthur Kltson, writing in the
Nineteenth Century Magazine about
the "True Cause of Trade Depress
lon", drops some high explosive economlo arguments. '■ He showed "how
the national wealth of England at
the beginning of 1920 wm estlmat-
the victims in this scandal and that
perhaps accounts for some of the
Indifference displayed in the matter.
On the other hand, it is more
than possible thut there are some
"higher-ups" mixed up in the uffair;
in ,fact, we feel quite certain that
must (be so, or lt would have all
been fought out long ago. It is the
old way of dealing with such affairs
—just letting them die out.
If CoirtmiBBioner Macpherson allows such a glanlng Injustice to go
by unquestioned, he will have lost
the confidence of our respectable
citizons, ore he has really begun his
task. Our public men must learn
that they cannot* compromise on
matters of principle and survive for
long. Many a good man has gone
down In the fight for so doing. The
time has come when men, who have
assumed a* public trust, must acquit
themselves honorably in the sight
of their fellows. The public has been
fooled long enough and they are
commencing to resent it. The old-
line, hoodwinking type of politician
has about reached the end of his
tether.
The case af the "Veterans Weekly
Scandal" has aroused no small
amount of resentment and suspicion.
It is obvious to every thinking man
or woman that there is something
"rotten in the state of Denmark."
If some unfortunate workman had
been mixed up in thfs affair he would
have been summarily dealt with long
ere this. It would appear that it
depends how much money and Influenco the guilty -parties have as
to whether they are brought to jus
tice or not.
It has been alleged in connection
with the police commission affairs,
that when our present attorney-gen
eral was in Vancouver some time
ago, he was going to ask for Mr.
Harnett's resignation; but was confronted with the threatened resignation of Mr. Farris and Mr. McKenzie. If this has'anything to do with
the Veterans Weekly affair we would
like to know.
Now, Mr. Macpherson, if you are
sincere, which we believe you are,
and really mean to clean things up,
do it right—you must act. If you
allow this mutter to go unchulleng-
ed, you will be viewed with suspicion
and you will have, In our opinion,
compromised with u principle, in a
manner ill-becoming a public man.
OF
Do Socialists Want Socialism?—
Factional Strifes Often Drive
4way Adherents
MUST   LIVE THB EXAMPLE
Bricklayers  Picnic
Bricklayers, Masons nnd Tile Setters Internationul union. No. 1, will
hold their nnnual picnic at Bowen
Island to-morrow (Saturday), where
a splendid programme of sports will
be carried out. Boats leave the
Union Steamship company's wharf
at 9 a.m. "      ,
POINT GREY REVENUES
Eighty-three per  Cent,  of 1924
Taxes Paid—Two Overdrafts
Liquidated
Eighty-three per cent of the 1024
taxes, or a total of $768,559 has bcen
collected so far this year, according
to* municipal treasurer, W. A. Shep
pard's financinl statement to the
council on Monday night. The estimated revenue for 1«24 is $910,868.
The percentage of collection ls above
that of last year. Of the estimated
total revenuo of {1,288,782 the sum
of $978,888 has beep collected. This
does not include any1 liquor profits'
or parl-mutual recoipts. Two ovor
drafts,' one for $400,000 and one of
last year for $156,000, have been
paid oft.
Cannot Have Socialism Till People
Want It—All Brands Aro
Theoretical
[By T. A. Barnard, Nanaimo]
TV/E mean by socialism as follows:
The socialist commonwealth is
that state of society in which land
and capital are communally owned,
and the processes of production, distribution and exchange are social
functions. This may not be a correct definition of socialism, but is
culled from a number recently contributed by qualified persons in the
Glasgow Forward. We also presume
"Socialist to be. an adherent—an advocate  of socialism.
Probably one of the most effective
ways to advance socialism is, as far
as Is possible, to live it. We do not
assume it possible to fully practice
socialism under capitalism, any more
than lt would be possible1 to live capitalism under socialism, One Is mutually "social," the other is antagonistically competitive.
One removes classes, the other
produces thelm, and so- on ad infinitum. To be a socialist then meanB
a social mental attitude towards each
olher, when and where possible.
This attitude appears to be generally
lacking, and often a spirit of almost
hatred and vindictiveness exists,
carried in some instances to fanatical
extremes, individuals and groups assuming a dog-matte attitude towards
each other on things that would appear of minor Importance, while In
general agreement as to the ultimate
goal.
These factional strifes are often
so pronounced, that the effects are
not confined to the active participants, but driving many would-be
adherents away. We often hear the
question asked: "What would happen
if these socialists were, in power, seeing that they are perpetually quarrelling   between   themselves   now?"
In so far as we conscientiously
contribute to this unnecessary strife,
our desire for socialism can be questioned. There are at present two
ways generally advanced to bring
nbout socialism. Onc by force, a
dictatorship; the other, by converting sufficient numbers to socialism
to bring lt about democratically. In
any case we cannot have socialism
till the people want It. In a word,
if socialists want socialism it behoves
them to live It. So far, all brands
of soclnlism are theeomticnl, and no
hard and fast rule can be laid down
to deal with the same or similar
thing at different times, or different
places. The common use of parrotlike repeated and selected phrases,
frclm the theoreticnl writings of Karl
Marx and others, are less effective in
winning adherents to socialism than
is the livmg example of a practical
demonstration that socialism ls
a higher cultural plane than soulless
capitalism.
As We See It-Labor
in the Political Field
[By Angus Maclnnis]
ARTICLE II
T AST week  the article  under
this
od £30,000,000,000. At that, tinie
thcir national debt whs estimated at
£7,500,000,000, or one quarter of the
national wealth. "Nevor In tho history of nations, he says, "has such
a robbery of the taxpayers been so
planned and put into execution by
men whose duty lt was to protect the
public interests. Those who pur
chased war bonds with what were
known as eight-shilling and ten
shilling pounds are to be repaid both
Interest and principle in money of
twice the value of what they loaned."
• •      *
In simpler terms it means that the
financier who lent the government
money during the war lent that mon
ey when the £1 could buy, say, one
bag of potatoes or one sack of corn,
or one pair of boots. But now that
prices have collapsed the £1 Is wojrth
double what It was, and now it buys
two bags of potatoes,' or two Backs of
corn or two pairs of boots. In other
words, while the nation borrowed
£7,600,000,000, lt has to pay back
£15,000,000,000. It Is the biggest
steal in history sans doubt.
• •      •
The Spanish    conqulsodors    raped
South .America and cleaned out the
Inca temples; the John company-and
our aristocracy did some skilful and
extensive looting In India; the sack
of the Byzantine empire must have
redistributed a large proportion of
the wealth of Europe; but where In
recorded history is there anything to
equal this polite top-hatted flnanclal
steal of £7,500,000,000.
\_i heading was Inclined to be critical. It is quite oasy to criticize, but
it Is another mutter to formulate and
bring forward a programme and platform which the rank and file of the
working class could, or would, subscribe to and work and sacrifice for.
This, of course, assumes thut the
working class are dissatisfied with
their social status, and are, not only
willing, but anxious to make sacrifices, if necessary, in order to bring
about a change in their position,
which, it is not clear that they are.
Their social status, be it understood, ln this case means their status
as an inferior class in the social fabric. A class that is denied access to
the means ef life except on conditions
laid down by another class, .an owning class, and because of that ownership a master class, a superior class.
To feel dissatisfaction at this class
inferiority is quite a different thing
from being dissatisfied with the
wages, the working conditions or
because of unemployment or uny of
the other inconveniences which make
up the daily life of the average
worker, and which are Inseperable
from capitalism.
The latter chafes at the effects of
slavery on his material condition.
His discontent may be removed by
an increase In wages, an improvement
*in his or her working conditions,
etc. We meet these people by the
hundred, every dny and they always
have a petty grievance, but they
never seem to feel the degrading effect of slavery itself; an effect which
is always present regardless of conditions.
On the other hand, the dissatis-*
faction of the being conscious of his
slavery takes a different trend. He
recognizes his cramped surroundings
as being due to his enslavement. <He
has been deprived of his freedom
and nothing can compensate him for
that wrong.
He. is- ln constant rebellion against
his Blavery, and he wtll never be
content with anything less than free<
dom. A feeling that he is the equal
of every other being of his kind, not
because of intellectual or physical
attainments, but because of his economic position, equal nnd undisputed
ownership in the fruits of social endeavor and accomplishments. Of
these are real labor parties built up,
without regnrd to what they cull
themselves, be it socialist party, labor party or what it may. These
may be found in every community.
But for every one who is ..willing to
work and to sacrifice, if necessary,
for an ultimate objective, a final
emancipation, there are ten who
only feel the offect of material conditions.
It is not the wish to convey the
Impression that the revolutionary
socialist is the only one that Is anxious or a betterment in social conditions; but the revolutionary socialist alone points out 'the need of not
only the reform of certain abuses,
but the complete change of the economic system, Conceding the correctness of this attitude, it seems a mistake was made in this part of Canada
by not studying local conditions
closely enough, and particularly, the
mental outloolt of the people, and by
adhering rigidly to the theory that
when the system collapsed and conditions became hard enough, intelligent revolt would take place. We
believe it an error to hold that the
social revolution can take place only
in a certain way. We further believe
it an eror to expect the complete
collapse of capitalism, that Is the sudden breakdown of capitalism. That
It is slowly disintergrating is everywhere apparent, but how long It
will take before It fails to fulfil the
needs of society in any manner is
a question for speculation. Granting
its partial and accumulative failure
what is to be done In the mean'
time?
We remember a few years ago,
when parliamentary action was at
so great a discount, if any one suggested to any working class audience
that something might be accomplish
ed by ;parliaimentary methods, you
wero at once met with the query:
"Is that tho way they did it in Russia?" .
Certain things happened In Russia
in certain ways. Their methods of
getting rid of their ruling class was
very effective. But If conditions determine the action of people, then
all the factors must be taken Into
(Continued on page 3)
Prospects Bright for Members of
Grain Exchanges at Winnipeg and Chicago
WHAT SHALL HARVEST BE?
Patronize  Union  Bakers
Working folks are asked to support
the Bakery Drivers' union by patron-
lzlng union drivers. This modest request should  be complied with,
Musicians Arrange Outing;
Vancouver musicians aro busy
making preparations for thetr annunl
picnic, which takes place at Belcarra
park, n. lovely spot on the North Arm
of the Inlet, on Sunday, August 17.
A very fine sports programme ls being arranged and there will be plenty
of fun and amusement for nil who
attend It Is expectod • that, given
favorable weather conditions, there
will be a large attendance and that
tho picnic will easily eclipse all previous outings of the musical fraternity.
MINIMUM WAGE OFFICER
Bliss Violet Smart, the New Appointee, Vice Mrs. Winifred
Mahon, Deceased
A recent Victoria press despatch
states that Hon. A, M. Manson, min
ister of labor, announces the appointment of Miss Violet Smart, of the
staff of the department of finance, as
inspector under the Minimum Wage
act for the province. The inspectorate became vacant by the recent
(death'of Mrs, Winifred Mahon, of
whose work In that capacity Mr.
Manson expressed high appreciation,
Miss Smart, who Ib a native of
London, England, came to Canada
with her parents when very young
and since 1909 has resided In this
province. The duties of the position
are under the supervision of the
minimum wage board and while Miss
Smart's headquarter* will be ln the
court house ot Vancouver, she will
be required to visit any part of the
province to see that the provisions
of (he Minimum Wage act are fully
observed.
"■El
"No More War" Demonstration
To Be Held in Stanley Park
on Sunday
The third "N'o More War" demonstration, scheduled for last Sunday,
at Stanley pnrk, after the band concert, on account of rain was postponed till next Sunday, August 3rd,
at  13.30  |»ji11.
The speakers will be Rev. George
Hamilton, Miss Eva Macnaghten, of
London, Eng., and Frank Browne,
M. L. A.
Those demonstrations began in Eur
ope in 1920 when the bitter disll
luslon of war had seized upon her
peoples, and imade millions resolve
"Never Again!" The demonstrations
were an outlet for these people for
their pent-up desire to abolish war
and reconstruct socioty upon a bnsis
other than force.
The chairman of the "No Moro
War" committee in Vnncouver this
year is Rev. Georgo Hamilton, who
Is a returned soldier, and has studied
war at flrst hand to good purpose.
Each year a resolution has been
submitted to the audiences at the
demonstrations all over tho world.
This yenr the resolution reads: "This
mass meeting of citizens sends fraternal greetings to similar gatherings
now being held throughout the world,
to express aborrence of war and
militarism, joins with them in declaring it to be tho duty of all peoples and governments to strive for
universal disarmament, and calls upon Its own government to pursue a
policy of international co-operation to
a strengthened and enlarged League
of Nations, the settlement of disputes
by conciliation and judicial arbitration and the convocation of an international conference to achieve these
purposes."
As announced In The Federatlonist
last week, the mover of this resolu
tlon wjll be Miss Eva Macnaughton, of
London, Eng., who Is a member of
the executive of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom of Great Britain, and recontly
attended the W. I. L congress at
Washington, D, C. Miss Macnaghten Is also a member of the British
Labor party.
The resolution will be seconded by
Mr. Frank Browne, recently elected
Labor member for Burnaby.
Tabloid Issued by United States
Department of Labor, at
Washington, D. C.
Australia
Money Shortage Retards Industry.
—Recontly the president of the
Adelaide chamber of commerce said
that tho high rate of interest being
paid by tho state und commonwealth
governments for borrowed money wns
preventing investments In business
nnd industrial enterprises, "thereby
returding the normal, healthful development of all lines of private industry,  generally."
Wnge Increase.—Aftor an exhaustive investigation of all the elements
that enter Into the cost of living and
wage conditions, the board of Industry, appointed under the South Australian industrinl code, has officially
increased the minimum basic wnge
for adult employees In all industries
within the metropolitan area of Ade
lalde from 13 shillings and 1 penny
to 13 shillings and 8 pence.
Englnnd
Bradford Unemployment.—Unemployment figures for Bradford, June
30, show that an additional fifiO persons were registered ns totally unemployed, compared with the previous
week, but there was a reduction of
132 In tho number of persons working  on  short time.
Decline in Agricultural Employment.—The final report of thc Agricultural tribunal of investigation respecting the condition of British agriculture asserts that there has been
n gcneinl declino in agricultural employment throughout Europe, and that
In Great Britain thc absolute decline
has been grenter than thut of most
European   countries.
Form Wages Bill,—A bill was Introduced in Iho house of commons recently, providing for the regulation
of wages In agricultural employment,
through the establishment of nn agricultural wages committee for each
county In England and Wales, and nn
agricultural wages board with joint
Jurisdiction over both countries.
New Factories Bill.—It ia said that
the new factories bill, of 1924, abolishes the distinction between factories
nnd workshops, and between textile
nnd non-textile factories, and employes only the one term "factories,"
to each type of which the provisions
of the bill npply indifferently.
Propose Farm Youth Migration.—
It hae bcen suggested that public-
school boys of a suitable typei who
are prepared to take up farming over-
sens, should be granted assisted passages to the dominions of tho British
empire, where they Bhould be placed
In agricultural colleges or on training farms.
Portugal
Series of Strikes,—After a calm of
some six months the labor situation
of Portugal has been somewhat disturbed by a series of strikes by the
bakers, flour mill employees, chauffeurs, teamsters and others.
Switzerland
Unemployment—Unemployment is
reported to have continued to decrease
in almost every canton of Switzerland. . The number of totally unemployed persons, which was 16,710 at
thc close of April, 1924, representing
10.8 per cent of the maximum figure
reached fn February, 1922, was dl-
(Contlnued on page 4)
Long Periods of Drought—Outlook for Beal Farmers
Most Discouraging
[By John  Plckenshovel]
'PHE question now being asked on
tho  prairies  by  those  who  are
alleged to be accumulating large fortunes  harvesting    the    world-famed
Canadian wheat, is:  "What will the
harvest be?"   Thc long    period    of   '
drought that has prevailed on a large
portion of the prairie has made that
question a pertinent one.   Last year's
crop amounted to about 452,000,000
bushels, .while the    estimated    crop
for   this >ear  l»  around   205,000,000
buBhels, '(ind that With an increased
area    under    cultivation.   The poor
mortgaged farmer , in    those    parts
will soon be asking himself whether
he really does reap any harvest. If
press reports are anything to Judge
from, the real harvesting, in so far
as the  profits are concerned,  is already done, and about all the farmer can do now Ib to pocket the/, loss
and call that his harvest.   The hoi -
towness of the notion that he is rewarded by anything else but the work
Involved ln the wheat-raising business must be apparent to the farmer
at all  events.   After    working    for
years, dreaming of the fortunes that
would  reward his efforts,  he wakes
up to flnd that the money   for   his
grain is ln somebody else's hand and
beforc it Is oven taken off the ground.
The report of the long period  of
drought and its effect on  the crop,
has apparently reached  the    ars of
the real harvesters, the members of
the grain  exchanges    in    Winnipeg
and  Chicago.   The  result  is 'that a
headline appears on    the    financial
page  of the dally    press    such    as
"Wheat market goes higher." Later
it   wab-iT^.ttri-that nahv.eame  to
help the grain, and with It, aVnaTtg*.
in the headline to read "Wheat declines   on   better   crop   news."   And
later   still,   ".Black   rust   affects   the
wheat,"  with  the result    that    tho
price on tlie exchange again goes sky
hit_h,  and at Jhe time  of  writing it
is still on tho upward climb.    On the
othor hand, H. W. Woods, an official
of   the   United   Farmers   of   Alberta,
says  that  tbe  prospects    from    the
farmer's   standpoint   looks   bad.    All
of which means, that it looks bad for
the fanmer who does tbe work,  but
good for those who "toil not, neither
do  they spin,"  yet  live   on   the   fat
of  the   land  nt   the  grain   exchange.
Those who still  believe in  the  "dignity of labor,"  nay  Imngfne  that it
pays     to     "work,"     but   apparently
those who loaf around the grain exchange can make a fairly decent living without it,
Leaving the prairie for awhile, it
might be well to ask what the harvest will bc like in Vancouver next
winter, hy thnt wo mean, thc crop
of unemployed lhat will be seen in
this city. The prospect looks bright
for a larger number of hungry men
than ever. There arc more unemployed men in Vancouver nt the
present time than bus ever been in
the history ol the city. And this
is summer time, when times are
usually considered good, and when
men mnko lho winter "stakes,'.1
From present Indications the "stake"
that some will make this summer will
be in tlio nature of a "mistake." Must
of the camps arc closed down; too
many logs In tbe water and no snle
for thom. There has been a "boom"
in the lumber business, but the word
that describes tho condition at present spells "butn," There l« at pre-
bciu more const ruction work than
has been for sometime, but when
thnt Is done, it will bc. in military
parlance, "as you were" so far as tbo
workers are concerned. And despite
the apparent boom. Curralf street
still hns the winter-time appearance
of idle men The contractors around
town aro now reaping their harvest,
but considerably different from whnt
their preBcnt employers will get this
coming winter.
From present indications, the
"bum" that followed the "boom" in
Los AngclcB, will repeat itself in
Vancouver. Thc workers who went
south to thc land of promise nre
gradually retracing their steps; owing partly to the glowing reports of
the good times prevailing here. By
the time they nil get back from the
south, and thc harvesters so-called
get back from Ihe prairies to the const
ond a few more leave the old land,
hypnotized by politicians, press re-
Porters and railroad propagandists
through their pictures of the green
fields of Western Canada, and accumulate around these parts, we will
again hear the question asked "What
will be done for the unemployed?"
It might he pertinent to ask also,
"What will the unemployed themselves do?"
Pftlnlnw PfciUe
Members of the Painters, Becon-*-
tors and Paperhangers union, No.
188, and their friends will plcnlo at
Bowen Island to-morrow (Saturday). •
Boat leaves at 9 a.m. from the
Union S. & company's warf. PAGE TWO
sixteenth tbab.  no. ti BRITISH COLUMBIA FEDERATIONIST Vancouver b.c.
Bridsh Cdnbb FederalkMust
Published every Friday by
The  Brltlih  Columbia Federationlit
Biihwu aad Ultortol QMw, tlM Howe Bt.
Tb* policy of Tha B. 0. Pedentioniit li
controlled by tbe editorisl board of the Fad-
ersted Labor Party of British Oohurtto.
BBbicription BaU: United Stltei and For
elm, $8.00 per yeu; Canada, $2.50 per
year, $1.50 for six months; to Unioni inb-
■eriblni in a body, lflo per member per
month.
FBIDAY v....August 1,
1024
THE LAND OF PROMISE
UNDER the above title a letter ap
pears In our correspondence col
umn from the pen of Mr. J. Saunders. The writer depicts in no uncertain terms, the hardships that the
average immigrant must face when
reaching Canada. He has the added
advantage of being able to speak of
these matters with authority since he
has experienced all that he has described. We hope that our readers
will do all that they can to bring
these mattors to the attention of
their friends in England, so that
they will not be envlegled Into com
Ing to this land that promises si
much and glveB so little to these un
fortunates at  the  present  time.
PRICE  OF  BREAD  RISING
THIS is one bit of news that will
certainly not be received with
any degree of satisfaction by the
great masses of our people this
week. The average worker Is wondering where it is all going to end,
In fact, more than the average
worker is beginning to wonder that.
The first impulse is to lay the blame
upon our local bakeries. We feel
that we must blame some one, so we
choose them, owing to thoir connection with the manufacture of that
very necessary  commodity.
In some instances we might be
quite right. In this instance, we
feel that we will have to go a little
further to find the real cause. (We
might add parenthetically that it is
about time that we commenced to
look for the real cause of many
things. We are too inclined to follow  the  road  of  least  resistance).
Now that there is threatened shortage of wheat for this year, the parasites, ever lying in wait for their
prey, have gotten busy on the wheat
exchanges and, as a result, the price
of our wheat is commencing to sore
to a dizzy height. Were the farmers to gain any real advantage from
this rise, we might be willing to let
It pass. But no, theiiQ.-ft.o*;!;b*t's -o+vo'
very..-little to look forward to as a
reward for the endless amount of
energy that they have had to expend
during their long days of ceaseless
toil.
How long, oh how long, are the
people going to stand for such highway robbery? The few odd hold-ups
that we have seen staged about our
city of late fade into utter insignificance in comparison with the huge
steal that these parasitical stock manipulators are pulling off day after
day. They are certainly much less
far-reaching In their effect upon humanity as a whole, lt must be agreed.
Are we going to allow them to escape
unscathed? Are we going to allow
Innocent men and women to be tortured and starved by such treachery
as they have exhibited?
How members of our government
can justify their existence as such,
while at the same time they ignore
these glaring evils, Is beyond our
comprehension. Are they never going to fulfil their duties as protectors of the citizens thoy serve? If
some men and women some day
should feel compelled to take some
direct action in such matters as these,
will they nil be to blame in the eyes
of the law? Should not those who
have failed In thoir duty as representatives of the poope be held to
account for such a state of affairs?
We feel that they should. Once again
we are brought face to face with the
necessity of huving representatives
in our houses of parliament who have
the necessary intelligence and Insight
Into tho Inner workings of this atrocious system.
COMPETITION IS FAILING
THE average man on the street
recognizes that thero Is something
radically wrong with onr condition of
society as It exists today. He sees
that the rains fall ns abundantly oa
they ever did; that the sun shines as
in days of yore; that" mother earth
brings forth fruit when the necessary
labor Is performed upon her; and yot
men and women who are anxious to
do what might be required of them
provided they are assured of a livelihood, find themselves In a mostNun-
envinble position, and all through no
fault of their own, necessarily.
A worker the other day had his
wages reduced by 15 por cent., while
at the same time he was notified that
his rent was going to he raised, He
decided to look about and see what
he might be able to get that would
be cheaper than the house he was already living In. He found that he
could not better himself and decided
to stay. His family has to Buffer as
a consequence.
Who are we to'blame? Not necessarily the company that reduced his
wages. It may havo been forcod to
make tho reduction if It was to survive.   Thousands of other companies
have gone under. It would be quite
conceivable that lt might go the same
road unleu it took these precautions.
The man or woman, as the caso may
be, who raised the rent may be in
such a position that when they paid
their taxes, water rates, and made the
necessary repairs to their property,
they had nothing left. Then the
landlord may not be necessarily to
blame.
Who, then, are we to blame? Cer-
tainly not special individuals. It is
this system under which we are living which forces men and women to
compete with each other for the necessities of life. No more heathenish
system could be devised than the one
under which we find ourselves living
today, when, in order to gain our livelihood, we are forced to go out into
the world and take the necessities
from others who are as much, if not
more, in need than ourselves.
To go out and take from your fel-
lowimen, in a perfectly legitimate and
business-like manner, seems quite in
order; but, after all, It is not a far
cry from the so-called respectable
business methods adopted by some of
our business concerns, banks, etc., to
the methods adopted by some of the
more refined in 'the "hold-up" game'.*
Necessity knows no law, therefore
we cannot expect to ever be able to
keep our society, as it is constituted
today, free from "hold-ups," Not un-*
til every man, woman and child have
had the necessary requirements of
their natures fulfilled ln an honest
legitimate manner, can we ever hope
for peace and tranquility. When our
society permits, as it does, a few individuals to control the wealth, which
in turn gives them control over the
necessities of life, and they see fit to
utilize that power for their own selfish
aggrandisement, then we have only
our social system to blame for the ills
that we are suffering today.. We not
only permit such a condition to exis:t,
but we give it our blessing, while *at
the same time, we complain about
our hard lot In life, which it produces.
Who are we to blame? The answer ls, ourselves. We all, individually nn collectively, are in the game.
So absorbed are we in gathering in
the crumbs from the tables of the
rich, or otherwise, as the case may
be, that we never stop to realiae just
what our responsibility is in this
connection. During the last elections
literally thousands of the workers
voted for the old-line parties. It was
these parties that got them Into the
position that fb.ey are in today, and
yet they go on supporting them
blindly. We must take stock of ourselves. We must give the social problems the serin'ii ccnaideratlon that
V.iey "■'rightly deserve. These .problems will not solve themselves. They
are vital, and it is essential that we
each and every one, give of our time,
energy and ability ln an endeavor to
find the proper solution. Unless we
do, no matter what our lot may be
in life, we have no just reason to complain.
FRIDAT Auguat L t__U
life    and     happiness amount       to
naught.
Such a state of. affairs cannot go
on forever. Conditions under which
the average man and woman has to
live today, are becoming almost
unbearable. These folk, If conditions
continue as they are, are going to
lose not only respect for others' property, but all other kinds of respect,
self-respect  Included.
Society haB reached the unhappy
state that It has today, owing to the
predominating Influence that property and wealth has been wielding upon
It. It is cold, callous, and Indifferent to our human needs, and today
we are paying the price of such in
difference. Property and monetary
wealth has been the god that our
society Haa been .worshipping. This
must change. In the future we must
give heed to the needs and require
ments of human life. No individual,
or society of individuals can be truly
happy who live in, and form a part
of, any society that disregards these
essentials,
Eight-hour Day
(Continued from page 1)
g LETTERS TOR
* ^|F**=MJ
[The opinions and Ideas expressed
by correspondent! are not necessarily
endorsed by The Federatlonist, and
no responsibility for the views expressed ls accepted by the management]
ATTEMPTS MURDER:   COMMITS
SUICIDE!
SUCH events seem to cause but a
temporary- sensation—then aU Ib
forgotten. Mr. E. G. Cordlngley Is
dead, Mr, Robert Wilson, comptroller
of the Pacific Great Eastern railway,
had a narrow escape from a sudden
death as the result of this escapade.
In this Instance we are rather Interested In the motive that drove Mr.
Cordlngley to commit this unfortunate act.
In too many cases we fear, workmen are discharged by some officious
officer who may happen to have a
particular grudge againBt such employee, or who may want to give a
friend a position and chooses a rather
underhanded method of accomplishing his objective. We doubt very
much if this man was guilty of the alleged Irregularity. A man who was
actually guilty of such an act would
not commit auch an unwise act. Guilt
has Its deterrent effect. We can quite
imagine that this man was the victim of somo gravo injustice at the
hand of some one tn connection with
the P. G. E. Who, we are not prepared to say, but many have their
opinions.
To accuse a man of grave Irregularities and dismiss him without a. Just
hearing should be a grave offence.
Such an offence may, or may not have
been committed In this instance.
When It is committed, the overage
worker Is the victim; and the course
that iB open to him to gain redress is
a very meagre one Indeed. The cost
of justice In this country, in our
opinion, is such as to put It quite
out of touch of tho average man and
woman today, lf our courts ami the
legal profession ever hope to retain—
perhaps wo Bhould Bay regain—tho
confidence of the public they will have
to bring about some very radical
changes. If they do not do ao themselves there Is little doubt that ere
long the public will force such
changes upon them, probably much
against their will.
s
RESPECT OTHERS' PROPERTY
INCE the Vancouver Dally Star
passed into new hands, wc have
been constantly walling for some
startling transformation to occur.
But, it hasn't!
There appeared an editorial tho
other day in that paper entitled:
"To be happy, respect others' property." Ab wo soe things to-day, thero
seems littlo elso to respect. It is tho
only thing that is held In respect,
lt, would seem, ln these days.    Human
"The Land of Promise."
Editor B. C. Federationist: I have
rend with interest the article in last
week's Issue by Tom Richardson, on
"The Position of the Emigrant in
Canada." Surely It is time that the
federal arid provincial governments
took some steps to put before the
people the true facts of emigration.
Our public men whom we send to
parliament to represent us should at
least have the courage to get up and
discuss the situation. But, perhaps they have never been up against
it looking for a Job when there are
no jobs to he had. It is all very well
sitting In an easy chair around thc
flre (like tho picture of "our Mary
Ellen" which was shown in a local
paper during the late election) and
having every comfort to tell the poor
English emigrant that Canada Is a
land where everyone is happy. Yes,
they are when one gets everything
one wants without having to, walk the
streets all day in search of a job."
If one could live on scenery, one
would- indeed look prosporous, but
that is not so. Unfortunately, I was'
enticed over here, partly hy the selfsame beautiful scenery and also, by
the glib tongue of one of the many
lecturers that are at, the present time
going from town to town in the Industrial centres of England looking
for emigrants to come lo Canada,
where "men are needed." Fancy being in a crowded hall, listening to a
locture on Canada—the land of opportunities. The lecturer (who has
the gift of oratory down pat) tells
the audience of the wonderful land,
part of our great dominion, that ie
seeking settlers and speaks in glowing
terms of the opportunities that is
waiting there for them. Plenty of
excellent scenes of this land of promise are shown on the screen, all_the
way from Quebec to Vancouver. Is
It any wonder then that In a country
where thousands are practically
starving, and conditions in the large
centres are not flt for human beings
to dwell In, that the chances are taken and emigrants are grasping at
the opportunity to better their cop-
dition. I remember when Mrs. M.
E. Smith was In England, touring
the country In a large motorcar, with
a big banner on the back with the
slogan: "You need Canada, Canada
needs you." ts lt any wonder then
that many like myself are here? But
the land of opportunity seems as far
off as ever. I arrived here on May
16, and havo regretted It very much.
Every day I have walked the streets
looking for the same thing as thousands are looking for In England—
work. But I am not the only one
that Is doing the same. There are
hundreds of men who have been in
this country for years, yes, even born
here, who cannot get what we are
told in England fs waiting for us.
I left a good job in Manchester,
where I had been for twenty-flve
years nnd earning £4 10s. a week, to
come here. Why? Because I thought
thero was a good future for my
family of four who are growing up.
Now I am practically penniless with
a wifo and family in England waiting to come out to Canada.
Every day tho thanacontlnental
trains arriving here and every boat
thnt lands In Vancouver and the
Eastern ports the some tale is waiting
to be told to the hundreds of emigrants lhat aro entering Canada. In
the samo rooming-house that I am
slaying in nre a family of six people
that sold up everything they had In
Englnnd to come out her. They are
stranded and practically starving not
being able to get sufficient to feed
the poor children. The husband is
willing to work but cannot get It.
I meet dozens of cases everyday who
are in the same fix as myself. 'And
not from England only are the emigrants flocking to this land of promise, but from nil partB of the world.
Vancouver, at the present time Is
being spoken of ns a coming city
and opportunities galore for all kinds
of people. In my journey from England I met people from all parts and
they told me the same tale, while in
crossing Canada, Vancouver seemed
to bo tho mecca for nl] kinds, In
an office the other day In which I
was looking for work, I meet two
flne looking young fellows who had
read of the golden opportunities in
Vancouver in nn East Indian paper.
They are stranded also,
The situation is bnd enough now,
as we all know, but what Is going to
hnppen If thla keeps on? Man must
live and when the father and mother
sees thoir children crying for food
nnd thoy unable to get it for them
they .becomo desperate. Put yourself in their places, reader, and then
ask yourself If something should not
bo dono to stop this emigration.
Now, Mr. Editor, I have seen
copies of The Federatlonist In England and If you would print this letter
I know lt would he rend by many of
the folks back homo and might stop
want to go into detail—take, for in
stance Implement manufacturers; we
aro told in a general way that our
own national policy has been worked
out on the principle that In the protection of industries we consider it
national. I presume it would not be
very difficult to secure a ruling that
that great industry would be to the
general advantage of Canada,
A. I do not think it extends to industry. I think it extends to work.
You have to declare which particular
work, to be a work for the general
advantage of Canada. I do not think
you could single out one particular
industry and say that that Industry is
for the general advantage of Can
ado.
Q. Yet we have singled out an Industry and the whole coufitry Ib taxed to support the manufacturing Industries on the principle that their
protection is for the general ud vantage.
A. But the question depends on
the meaning of the word "works."
W© ar© discussing the power which
we get to declare "works."
Q. Parliament might then, If it
wished, pass legislation declaring a
number of these works of general
advantage to Canada and thus overcome the difficulty with which we
flnd ourselves confronted.
A, As Intimated previously, what
I am afraid of Is, that, if parliament
undertook to declare every work ln
Canada to be a work for the general advantage of Canada, the courts
would he driven to hold, for instance,
some kind of work which is outside
the power—
Q. I am suggesting it might specify, this and that and the other and
adopt that method, enumerating the
great public works, I mean, as far as
Canada Is concerned?
A. It must be realized that if we
declare the works to be for the general advantage of Canada it becomes
a subject for dominion jurisdiction
for all purposes as well as labor.
Sidelights on a Great
Industry
Caledonian Sports Saturday.
A record field of competitors will
take part in the annual Caledonian
games, to be held at Brockton point
to-morrow by the St. Andrews and
Caledonian society. Over *\Q_ entries
are already in, so keen competition
is assured. In addition to a long
programme -of field and' track events,
there will be piping and dancing,
quolting, bicycle races, and junior
nthletic events. This is the thirty-
eight year these popular games
have been held in Vancouver.
,in this new atmosphere of Europe,
in the return to normality of the
nations in Europe, and in the new
mind we see reflected all round,
ther© is a tribute to the foreign policy of this country during th© last
few  months.—Mr.   Mosley,   M.P.
The doors of the peace conference
wer© barred to Persia when she pleaded for the abolition of treaties which
aimed at destroying her Independence.
some coming to this country and save
lots of misery from them in the future. J. SAUNDERS.
Vancouver, B.C., July 26, 1924.
I IW
PROGRESS     OF    PROVINOE
DUE TO MAINTENANCE
OF HUGE PURCHASING POWER
Vast Developments by Land and
Sea Dne to the Initiative
of Lumbermen        *
TiHERE   are   three   great spending
forces In the British Columbia forest   industries   with   its   purchasing
power of $100,000,000 per annum,
1. The   Thnberholder—tho pioneer
Investor In the raw material.
2. The   Logger—the   harvester   of
th© timber crop.
3. The   Manufacturer—the   builder
up of markets.
Upon the unimpeded functioning of
these branches depends the fair progress of British Columbians vital Industry. A set-back to one spells disaster to all three.
Th© timberholders of the province,
faced with flre and storm risks
against which there is no Insurance,
have contributed over $45,000,000 to
the provincial treasury during the
last fifteen years. A world's record
in similar taxation.
The loggers spend annually very
large sums on new and costly equipment to " keep pace with modern
science and overcome the ever varying obstacles that nature puts in their
paths. Eight hundred miles of private railroads, now in actual operation, Is one memorial of thiB energy.
The manufacturers of lumber,
shingles, pulp nnd paiper, boxes and
other forest products are also forced
to expend millions every year on new
machinery to maintain the efficiency
of their plants. In that way alone
can they meet the keen world competition and justify their product.
The British Columbia lumber manufacturers, by dint of strenuous market extension work, have increased
their export shipments twelvefold in
ten years.. Their efforts have indisputably been the main factor in
building up the sea ports of British
Columbia.
This -scries  of articles communicated   by   tho  Timber  Industries
Council of British Columbia.
The Federatlonist believes In a
"cultural revolution," not a "bloody
revolution."
Anti-War Day, 1924
THIRD SUNDAY IK
SEPTEMBER
Give Bread First
Place in Your
Diet &
j&
EATERY task you undertake—mental or manual—
every "lick of work" you do "eato up" energy.
Keep your furnace fires fcoinfc with plenty of &ood
fuel-food-BREAD.
BREAD IS YOUR BEST FOOD
EAT MORE OF IT
I HAT hurried mid-day meal—make it a luncheon of delicious
golden-crusted Bread with a bowl of creamy rich milk—perfect
fuel-food for the human dynamo.
ALL THE GOODNESS
of the golden grain
brewed into a sparkling
tonic drink at B.C.'s
model brewery.
Insist on "Caoeadtf* at tha
Covernmtnt Liquor- Stora and
gat satisfaction.
VANCOUVER BREWERS
LIMITED
This advertisement is not published or dis
played by the Liquor Control Board or by th
Government of British Colombia.
Store Opens at > *.m. and
Closes at 0 p.m.
Skirts Will Create the Effect
of Several Costumes
WORN with different blouses and sweaters, these skirts create the effect of
several different costumes, and thus add
versatility to any outfit. You may have
them pleated on tHe sides, with panel front
and back, pleated all the way afround, wraparounds or low-on-the-Hip models. Of light
weight woolens, crepes, flannel, and many
other materials, in high colors, as well as
black and white.
575 OranviUe Street
Phone Seymour 8540
Orpheum Vaudeville Starts Shortly
Fresh from the hands af nn army
of painters, carpet-layers and decorators, the Orpheum theatre is again
open for another season of very excellent attractions presaging a busy
theatrical season. Next week, "The
Ten Commandmants," the great Cecil
DeMille biblical drama is being shown
as an opening feature. Orpheum
vaudeville, that institution in almost
every community of any size in western North America, makes its new
season's debut on Thursday, August
14, at the matinee performance. The
legion of Vancouver's Orpheum patrons will wonder why the opening
occurs on Thursday matinee instead
of Wednesday night as heretofore,
which leads Manager R. J. Lydiatt
to announce a change in policy for
the 1924-25 season. This year Or-j
pheum vaudeville will be presented in Vancouver the last three days
of each week, with matinees oach
day. This will moan six vaudeville
shows instead of seven. The Ilrst
three days each week will be devoted to travelling road attractions, and
Manager Lydiatt announce**, that the
advance bookings include a rapid
succession of the most excellent
road shows obtainable ln America. Incidentally also, the bookings include
the appoarance of many famous artists nnd local presentations, the policy of the Orpheum being to firmly
continue the popular Granville street
playhouse as a community amusement centre, providing facilities for
all nature of entertainment. The
samo high standards in presentation
and service will bo maintained as
in the past at the Orpheum, states
Manager Lydiatt, and the theatre,
during the brief "closed" period has
been thoroughly brightened and refurnished, newly-carpeted and brightened ln every respect.
_^****-=S___S_________-________m*__*_.
Force vs. Reason
A conservative always thinks that
there is only one solution for an industrial dispute, and that is a display of force. Since labor came in,
we have found another solution a
display of reason.—Oswald Mosley,
M.P.
Phone Seymonr 2354
DR. W. J. CURRY
DENTIST
SUITE 301, DOMINION BUILD-NO
 VANCOUVEB. B. 0.
Parliament Meets October 37th
The B. C. legislature will convene
(or the despatch of business on Monday, October 27th, thus salth the
governor's proclamation.
"FAMOUS" SUMMER
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PAGE THREE
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As We See It
(Continued from page 1)
consideration. Thus considered, we
wiU inevitably come to the conclusion that what occurred in Russia
could not have happened in another
country in the same way and by the
same methods as were adopted in
that country, because- of differing
conditions. And the identical conditions can not be produced, regard-
lesB of tactics, because of prior development.
It would sedm, therefore, futile for
any group to expect, or even hope
for, a revolutionary change by sudden or violent methods, Another
reason why a sudden change in the
system of production and exchange
la not to be expected, Is because of
the delicate and complex mechanism
of present-day production.
Modern production is a social
process considered not only from n
. cdmmunlty point of view but from a
national and ialao an international
View point. The majority of the peo-
jple live In the cities where nothing
in the line of foodstuffs is produced;
It Is therefore, Imperative that there
should be no interference with the
flow of food products from the country to the cities, otherwise much
suffering would take place.
We can, therefore, see nothing in
whieh any group can pin their faith
for a sudden change, and as capitalism develops the chances grow less.
We shall have more to say next
week.
Affecting   Electrical  Workers
The newly-incorporated society]
mentioned in our last issue, namely,
the Inside Electrical Workera Association of British Columbia, should
not be confused with the Electrical
Workers unton. The new society,
we are Informed, ts not in any way
afflliated with the regular organized
labor movement.
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ARTICLE XI. *"
[py Charles Hill-Tout, F. R. 8. C„
F. R. A. I., Etc.]
(Alt Rights Reserved)
Oaving ln the last article learned
something of the meaning and
purpose of bisexual differentiation;
and the fundamental relation of reproduction to regeneration and rejuvenation; and having Been that they1
are only so many different phases of
the evolutionary process; we can now
with a clearer understanding of this
'process take up the consideration of
that large group of lowly organisms
known collectively as the Algee, and
learn what evidence they have to offer
us in support of the doctrine of organic evolution.
In this group of life-forms we shall
come upon stronger evidence of on
evolutionary process in the organic
world than any we have yet
met with. For these organisms can
show more clearly than either
the bacteria or the fungi the
actual steps by which unicellular forms have passed into, and become multicellular forms. Among
them we may also perceive very clearly how division of labor flrst takes
place; how sex dimorphism comes
about; and Anally how the early vegetable forms gave riBe to forms intermediate between them and the animals; and how these again pass by Insensible gradations into the animals.
They bridge the gap between tho animal and the vegetable worlds for us.
Under the term Alga <plural Algte),
which in its original Latin signification means "sea-weed," but which now
has a much wider meaning, is included
a vast array of differential life-forms
divided into several sub-classes, many'
families, still more genera, and a multitude of species that run Into the tens
of thousands. As to races and
varieties they are beyond computation. The law of variation has clearly been very active
among them all down the ages, giving rise on the one hand to the specialized bacteria and fungi forms, and on
the other to the mosses and higher
vascular plants along one line of descent, and to the Flagellata or Intermediate—half-animal, half-plant—
forms along another.
They are commonly divided into
four sub-classes according to the coloring matter whtch characterizes
them, namely, Blue-green Algee;
Green Algee; Brown Algee; and Red
Algae. Of these the flrst or Blue-
green algee are the simplest and most
primitive forms. They undoubtedly
represent to-day the earliest types of
the algte, and of them all have the
widest distribution. They are found
not only In the sea but also in brackish and fresh water lakes, and pools;
and some specimens of them are
found growing on moist earth,
damp rocks and wood and upon trees. These latter are the
greyish or gteenlsh deposits one
sees ln these places. They are
not only the lowliest of the algal forms
but are at the same time the lowest
and most primitive of all vegetable
organisms known to us. In some respects they are even more primitive
than the bacteria, to which they are
most closely allied and with which
they have many morphological features in common; for they have no
outer membrane or containing wall as
have the  bacteria.
Concerning the cell contents
of these lowly alflee there Is
much difference of opinion; some
authorities holding that the chromatin
has been segregated Into a nucleus
and others that lt ls scattered
throughout the whole cytoplasm. The
probability is that both conditions are
found among them seeing that they
are admittedly related to the bacteria,
whose cells normally show no nuclear
differentiation. In the more advanced
algae, the nuclear condition ls a common feature. We have already seen
that the nucleated cell ls later In time
than the unnuoleated cell and must,
therefore, be a product of the evolutionary process. We would expect,
therefore, to flnd the nucleus absent
in the earliest algal forms as these
share with the bacteria the distinction of being the most primitive Hfe-
forms we know,
Between the lowliest and the highest
algal forms there ls a wide degree of
differentiation reaching from the microscopic specks of living matter represented by the lowly Chromaceeo—
those greenish-grey unicellular
growths we Just now mentioned—to
those compound forms of the larger
life-world which have a stem-like and
leaf-like structure as complicated as
the mosses; and also a well-defined
system of tissues and vessels.
It is impossible to trace this wide
differentiation within a single group
of organisms such as the Algee, and
give a satisfactory and reasonable explanation of It without postulating an
evolutionary process; and It is not too
much to say that the evidence from
this group of organisms alone would
make the doctrine of organic evolution a reasonable hypothesis, even if
there were no other evidence at hand,
so strong and clear ls lt. Let us here
briefly give our attention to some of
the more obvious 'phases of lt.
In structure the Blue-green Algee
are both unicellular and multicellular.
The simplest plants consist of a single
cell which carries on all the functions
of life as an Isolated and Independent
organism.   In another group we find
these single cells have reached the
cluster stage and are held together In
a loose kind of communal life by an
enclosing jelly-like substance derived
from the cells themselves.
The simplest of the true multicellular forms consist of filaments which
arise by repeated division of the individual cells in parallel planes. It
thus becomes clear that these simple
multicellular forms are directly derived from the single cells by a succession
of fissions In which the daughter-cells
do not separate from the parent, but
by adhering together in this longitudinal manner form thread-like bodies.
Reproduction among this Kind of
alga. Is, as might be expected, of a
simple, primitive kind. It Ib generally
by means of endospores formed by the
contents of certain of the cells breaking up into spore-like bodies which
are distributed in the form of fine
dust.
Relatively simple in structure as
these Blue-green alga, plants are, the
group has within lt eight distinct families, some 90 genera and about 1000
species. The varieties are too many
to enumerate.
The Green Algee. are distinguished
from the other three groups chiefly
by the absence of any secondary coloring matter, and even among themselves they differ so widely in habits
and character that they seem to have
little else but their greenish color or
chlorophyll in common.
They also include within their group
both marine and fresh-water plants.
In this group of alga? the 'thallus-
dlsplays greater variation in form than
In any oi the others. It may consist,
as lti the Blue-green group, of a single
cell which remains free for the greater part of its existence. During some
part of its life however It enters upon
the cluster or colonial state, In which
condition it resembles the "resting"
phase seen among the bacteria, These
clusters form a kind of loose colony
either by the adhesion of their cell-
walls one to the other or in a common
mucilage-like matrix.
This colonizing habit among the
Green ali(i» has interesting features
about it for the evolutionist, They
show progressive advance towards the
multicellular structure, , Indeed algo-
loglsts tell us that lt is extremely difficult to draw any distinction between a
colony of unicellular organisms and a
definite multicellular form, so Insensibly does tho former pass into the
latter. In a Vol vox sphere, for example, there Is a marked protoplasmic
continuity between all the cells of the
colony, jUBt as is found in the simplest
of the multicellular organisms, and
when we reach the Ulvacese the transition has actually taken place. No
one can follow this colonizing habit
of the algee from its earliest and simplest to the latest and most complex
stages and have any doubt that we
are watching the very steps by which
the single-celled organisms passed Into and became the many-celled organisms In the dawn of life-history.
In the Ulvacese group "division of
labor" has taken place. We flnd localization of growth with distinction
of parts; the colonial cluster of individual cells has given place to a differentiated, compound thallus or body
formed of inter-related cellB, If this
is not evolution what then shall we
call It? '
In another division of this group of
algee we flnd still greater evolutionary advance. Among the Characex
we may 'perceive the highest degree of
differentiation. The thallus here
grows upwards by means of an apical
cell such as is found ln the higher
plant forms, which stem-like growth
gives off whorled appendages at regular Intervals from which arise branches; thus foreshadowing the external morphology or structural form of
the highest plants.
In the matter or reproduction we
flnd both asexual and sexual methods
are followed In this group of algee;
and from a comparison of the different families within it,, there remains
no doubt at all In the minds of our
highest authorities on these plants,
that sexual, reproductive cells have
arisen ln the course of evolution as
the result of a division of labor or
specialization among the earlier asexual cells; one becoming female and
the other male; the former being distinguished by Its greater size and passivity and the latter by its smaller size
and activity; features as we saw in the
last article, which normally characterise sex-cells.
The Green algee have during their
life-history been subjected to even
greater variation than the Blue-green
kind. There are 27 families found
among them; upwards of 230 genera;
more than 3000 species, and races and
varieties without number.
The Brown algee, unlike the other
two sub-classes we have been considering are almost exclusively marine
plants. In this group are found the
well-known forms of sea-weed common to our sea-shores.
Taking the group as a whole they
show an evolutionary advance upon,
both of the other two; and they include among them, many very interesting forms. They, too, bridge the
gap between the microscopic world
and the world of larger life. Some
specimens of them are very minute,
filamentous plants requiring a microscope to detect them. Others are of
considerable size and some are of
enormous length, extending to many
yards. ,
It is among these algte that we see
the earliest differentiation ot the
thallus into shoots and incipient
roots, the latter appearing in the
form of the so-called "hold-fasts,"
the means by which the sea-weed
attaches Itself to stones and rocks.
Among one of the sub-groups of
these algse called the Sargassacex
we find a very high degree of external differentiation has taken place,
rivalling in its variety the differences
of form among the higher leafy
plants. One striking feature of the
more massive species of them ls the
development of air-vesicles ln their
tissues. These air-chambers serve
to buoy up the plant when attached
to the sea bottom. When such
plants become detached from thetr
mooring ground, as they frequently
do in stormy weather, they float off
and are carried to great distances
by the *wihds and tides.
The Sargassa Bea characterized by
its prodigious growth of sea-weed,
probably derives some of its material
from this source.
Both asexual and sexual methods
of reproduction are also found in this
third group; the former being characteristic of the lower plants and the
latter methods of the higher plants,
Among these we flnd not only differentiated sex-cells but also differentiated sex-organs such as we saw arising among the Fungi—oogonla.-and
antheridla. In the way in which these
appear we may again perceive the
foreshadow ings of the stamens and
carpels of the higher flowering plants.
Sometimes these sex-organs are seen
to occur together in the same cavity
ln the thallus which is known as
a conceptacle. At others we
find each confined to> its own
special conceptacle. This1 may be
ln the .same thallus or ln a
separate plant; thus again foreshadowing the later separation of
sex-organs and sex-forms.
To this group of alga, belong those
interesting shell-forming plants known
as diatoms. The Diatom acese are
wholly unicellular in structure and of
microscopic size. They are chiefly distinguished from the other divisions of
the alga; by their habit of clothing
themselves in exquisite jackets of
silica. Because of this and other animal-like habits they were at one time
regarded as animals; but now they
are definitely classed among the algee
as plants. They, too, have been deeply Influenced by the law of variation;
for they exhibit a bewildering variety
of forms, most of which are most
delicately and exquisitely sculptured,
There are no more beautiful objects
in the world than many of these tiny
diatoms. They excel in beauty of de
sign and form even those exquisite
traceries and 'patterns assumed by
frost crystals; and they are certainly
among the most delicately beautiful
things in our world. Some of these
wonderful shelled-plants are exceedingly minute in size testing the highest powers of our microscopes to discover them. They play also an important part in the support of marine
animal life; and in their habit of
floating in the water display many
striking instances of adaptation to
their environment, all of which features are eloquent of the evolutionary
process, The Brown Algee have been
subjected even more severely than
the other sub-classes to the influence
to the law of variation. This Is easily
Been by their classification which gives
us 34 families, about 400 genera, and
over 7,000 species. We do not attempt the enumeration of the variant
forms.   Their number ls legion.
The Red Alga are so named because of the red coloring matter they
contain in addition to their chlorophyll, They, too, link up the two
worlds of life—the micro-organic and
the macro-organic—Into a single
whole, though the majority of their
forms fall below normal vision.
They differ chiefly from the other
three groups ln the fact that there'
are among them no unicellular forms.
They are altogether multicellular In
structure though normally so tiny.
The thallus with them mainly takes
the form of branched filaments, and
their growth Is by means of aiplcal
celts, They are interesting, too, from
the evolutionary point of view, be'
cause they exhibit rudimentary loaves.
In some species we find mid-ribs and
veins which Bimulate closely the appearance of a leaf ln the higher
plants. In still another more advanced species we may see the lateral
branches of the thallus actually assuming the form of leaves; and we
are told by algologists that lt is
quite easy In these more compact
plants to discern the differentiation
in the cells comprising them. The
whole process of metabolism may be
observed taking place under our eyes.
To the superficial colls belong the
function of assimilation. The cells
next below these are seen to be
chargod with reeerve material; and
the cells of the core of tissue aro
playing the part of carriers and conveying the materials of growth,
which have been elaborated within
the  organism,   from   part  to   part.
Reproduction among the Red Alga)
Ib carried on, as tn the other groups,
both asexually and sexually. It ls
noteworthy, however, that although
all the members of this group are
aquatic in habits, no zoospores, that is
no motile or animal-like spores, are
ever produced among them; a characteristic thoy share with thp Blue-
green Algee.
Thc classification of the Red Algee
shows us that the law of variation
has bcen equally active tn this division as among the other three
sub-classes. There are among
them not less than fifteen families divided into about 200 genera and at   least    1400 speeds.    The
number of the varieties are proportionately great.
Taking the four sub-classes together
we flnd their claslflctyton gives the
following figures: 84 famlllee; over
900 genera; -and; upwards of 12,000
species. The variant forms among
these latter are beyond computation.
To the evolutionist It does not seem
possible to explain this wide differentiation both In- form and function
within one related group of organisms in any other way than by regarding it as the result of an active
evolutionary process.
We remarked earlier in this article
that the Algee alone were competent
to uphold the doctrine of organic evolution, so full was this group of plants
of the evidence of an evolutionary
process, It will be easy to ahow by
a brief recapitulation of our evidence
that this statement has been sustained.
Wtthin this group of organisms we
not only find unicellular and multicellular, simple and compound, life-
forms, but we actually see the steps
and stages by which the tatter are
derived from the former; and so
gradually does this transition take
place that our best authorities are
often at a loss to tell us when the organism has ceased to be a unicellular
one, and has become multicellular in
structure.
First there are the simple one-celled
plants which lead individual and independent lives, each carrying on
alone all the functions necessary to
growth and reproduction, v We observe these, multiplying and reproducing themselves asexually by fission,
or by budding, or by endospores.
Among them there is no sex differentiation, no sex (*tem$hts and no Bex
organs. These distinctions are wholly
absent;   they have not yet appeared.
Next we observe some of these unicellular bodies forming temporary
clusters. At flrst these cell-clusters
are loosely held together by a kind
of mucilage derived from their cell
walls. After an interval, more or less
brief, the mass breaks up and the
component cells resume their individual and separate existence as before.
Though It is not clear to us what
purpose Is served by these temporary
clusterings, we are bound to assume
that some mutual beneflt results from
the (process or it would not take place.
The activities of nature are never
meaningless.
Later we observe that these cell-
aggregations remain together for
longer periods, and the unton ls seen
to be of a closer kind. A difference
ln form, too, arises. Some take the
shape of filaments which may be
either single or branched, suggestive
of the later stems and branches of the
higher plants. Others are net-like or
take the form of rings. Some are
plate-like, and still others assume the
form of solid or hollow spheres.
Whatever the form, the union Is
growing closer and closer. They
have entered upon the colonial stage.
At flrst the colonies break up for reproductive purposes and each cell
becomes the source of a new
colony. Many of these colonies are formed of a definite and
constant number of individual
cells. Thus in the genus Pandorina,
the colony consists of 16 cells crowded
together and surrounded by a thin
gelatinous envelope. When the cells
are mature and ready for reproduction these colonies break up and each
of the 16 cells gives rise to 1$ smaller
cells each of which becomes invested
with a gelatinous envelope and grows
to the size of the original parent
colony.
The bond of union in the simpler
colonies Is the jelly-like substance
that holds them together. An advance upon this loose union is made
when the cells come together and adhere to each other by their cell walls.
A still closer union ls formed when
the cells become united by protoplasmic threads, as in the Volvox
group of organisms. Hero the cells,
which vary ln number according to
the species, running from 500 to as
many as 15,000, are arranged In the
form of a hollow sphere, and throughout the gelatinous substance, which
holds the cells together, fino protoplasmic threads are seen to pass. The
union herd has become more intimate
and Interdependent. It has also entered upon the permanent stage. The
Inst definite step towards multicellular structure has been taken. These
groups do not break up.
In the next higher group, the Ul-
vacens, wo perceive our colonies of
single cells have coused to exist. The
true multicellular stage, has been
reached; division or labor with distinction of parts haB been definitely
established.
It is Impossible for the open-minded
student of organic forms to take tlio
four groups of organisms, represented
by Gonium, Budorlna, Volvox and,
Ulva, and observe the gradually In- j
creasing complexity and closer integration of their cells and remain unconvinced that wo are watching tho
very eteps taken by the primitive organisms in their passage from thc
unicellular to the multicellular condition.
Gonium is a plate-like colony of
cell units, each of which lives and
feeds as a free and distinct Individual
ln spite of their colonial form of existence. The cells pass most of their
life ln this colonial stnte, separating
only when mature for the purpose of
reproduction, when each cell by repeated division gives rise to a new
colony.
Now mark what tnkeB place In the
Eudorlna group. Budorlna is a
spherical colony made up of either 16
or 32 cells, each of which may give
rise to new colonies by repeated dl-
-OUR AUGUST-
Furniture and
Homefumishing
SALE
Started on Friday, the 1st inst,
—with every piece of furniture in the store selling
at a 10 to 35 per cent, saving.
- -Whether you need a single niece, suite, or furniture for home complete,
PURCHASE IT ON OUR
AUGUST CLUB PUN
10 PER CENT. CASH, AND BALANCE
IN 9 EQUAL MONTHLY PAYMENTS
ft Hudso^l^ffonnjaMB. ft
VAHOOUVEB, B. 0.
vision of itself au ln the Gonium group.
Thb method of reproduction may
occur several times but does not go
on indefinitely as with Gonium.
Sooner or later conjugation of certain
cells takes place. These conjugating
cells have become differentiated from
the rest. Certain of them are seen
to increase In size. Others break up
into 16 smaller elongated bodies. The
larger ones are female cells, the
smaller ones are male cells. Sexual
differentiation has now taken place;
division of labor has begun. The
smaller cells colliding or coming into
contact wtth the larger, conjugation
by pairs takes place; and the zygote
or impregnated body, resulting from
this union of sex-cells, develops a cellulose cyst or case from which, after
it has passed for awhile Into a rest-
Ing-state, there later emerges a new
colony.
Mere we see a decided and definite
advance upon Gonium. The flrst step
ln differentiation has been taken and
division of labor has come about. Now
see what takes place tn Volvox. Here
the colony is a large one made up of
hundreds or even thousands of cells.
These cells are not only held together
in a gelatinous matrix as in the two
former groups, but each cell is now
connected with the others by threadlike filaments of protoplasm, Integration is taking place; the first stage
of multicellular structure has been
reached.
In Volvox we perceive that cellular
differentiation has proceeded farther
than ln Eudorlna. There are now
three distinct kind of cells, First
there arc the large female cells;
second the smaller male cells, slender
rod-like bodies, which have arisen
from the subdivision of other specialized cells, in fct-oups of 64 or 128; and
third the remaining somatig or body
colls, which mnke up the rest ot th*
colony, and carry on Its metabolic
processes. These gradually and finally
die and pass away. The male and
female cells sooner or later conjugate,
preferably with cells from another
colony, after which the resultant
zygote passes Into the resting state,
and lator develops Into a new colony.
In this group differentiation hat
gone further than in Eudorlna. Here
the colonies are approaching the condition of true multicellular organlsma,
In Ulva we flnd thia la definitely
reached. In this group we flnd division of labor has wrought other
changes. Here we have localization
Of growth with distinction of -parts aa
well as the differentiation of the cells
into mole und female and somatic
kinds. The aggregation of cells hai
ceased to be a mere loose colony; lt
Is now a compact and differentiated
thallus or body, made up of Interrelated and closely integrated cells.
To the evolutionist these steps and
stages; these graduated advances in
complexity of structure; these increasing differentiations in cellular activity, have no meaning unless regarded as the outcome and working of the
evolutionary process. And even when
considered by themselves alone constitute no Blight evidence ln support
of the doctrine we are examining.
But when they are taken In conJune*
tion with the many other lines of evidence, which all point In the same
direction, they leave no room for
doubt that In them we are watching
the actual transformations by which
unicellular organism P»iw into and become multicellular bodies. In these
processes, taking place under our
very eyes today, nature reveals to na
the progressive phases by which In
the distant past she brought her higher and more complex life forms into
boing. And, as if to leave no room
for doubt in our minds on thfs head,
she recapitulates ln the early embryo-
loglcal development of each of these
higher forms, these very same steps
and stages we have observed taking
place in the algee, as we shall later
lee.
[ Note.—Prof. Hill-Tout left on'
Wednesday to attend the annual convontion of tho British Association
for the Advance of Science, which
meots this month nl Toronto, In
view of this, continuation of his
very able article** us above will not
be resumed till he returns to Vancouver early iti September.—Ed.]
(To be contlned).
Fresh Got Flowers, Funeral Designs, Wedding Bouquets. Pot Plants,
Ornamental and Shade Trees, Seeds, Bulbs, FlorlHts' Sundries
Brown Brothers & Co. Ltd.
FLORISTS AND NURSERYMEN
.8 Ha-tlnm Street Eaat 2—STORES— 2 BBS Granville Street
Ser. B8H-B:_ "SAY IT WITH FLOWERS" Key. (IMS-ISO I
FOR SALE
Lot'33 x 120 feet, on 13th Avenue West, Kitsilano.
Price $500
Terms—$50.00 down, $10.00 per month.
APPLY BOX "C," FEDERATIONIST OFFICE,
1129 HOWE STREET, VANCOUVER» B. C. :. -I"
PAGE FOUR
sixteenth year. . no. si BRITISH COLUMBIA FEDERATIONIST vANconvro, a a
FRIDAY .' AugUBt 1. 192*
ancouver b. c. fair
August 9th tb 16th
Entries Close AUGUST 2nd, at 9 pan.
Send Ior large Prize List
OAN ADA'S PAIR OP THE WEST—Agriculture, .Live Stock, Industrial, Horse Show. Horse Races, Auto Races	
440 PENDER STREET WEST
VANOOUVER, B. 0.
'ysr'T.'-f'
'l^vr-«" ;',.'-V,'
TiMELY TOPICS
T  is  frequently reported  that  the4 >on the part of the local authorities.
Taxpayers of the City
of Vancouver
WILL PLEASE NOTE THAT THE TEN PER
CENT. REBATE ON CURRENT YEARS TAXES
WILL EXPIRE ON THE
4th Day of August
D. H. ROBINSON, Collector.
Vancouver, B. C, 30th July, 1924.
I
International Labor
(Continued from page'l)
minisheil    by    4,6.50    during   April,
[1924/ '
Brazil
Seek European Imigrants.—It is
said that the Brazilian ministry of
figriculture is making every effort to
attract European immigrants, especially Germans and Italians, who are
experienced in agricultural    pursuits
Phonolas
Largo consignment of genuine
Console Models
Specially ordered (or display at Vancouver Exhibition. Artistically finished in Oak, Walnut and Mahogany,
Complete with 12 New Selections, and
Free Dllv^ry.
$100.00
Oa Bur Terms, Without Interut
Secure Tour Phonola Now!
JtHty meant disappointment,
Lewis Leads!   Follow Who Can!
LEWIS PIANO HOUSE
LTD.
104*1 GRANVILLE STREET
VANCOUVER, B. O.
DR. W. F. E. DURRART
CHIROPRACTOR
Palmer Graduate
Backache,   Sprains,   Rheuma-
.   tism, Stomach and  all Internal Troubles,
SIXTH FLOOR (615)
DOMINION BANK BUILDING
207 HASTINGS ST. W.
Phone, Seymour 1906
and  who  will   purchase  and  develop
the  Brazilian  interior.
China
Bookbinders' Strike.—Following
the refusal of their recent demand for
a. 40 per cent wage increase, 2,000
bookbinders of Shanghai went
strike which, was finaly terminated
by a 20 per cent increase compromise.
Cuba
Strike of Bailroad Employees-
Demanding an eight-hour day, the
maintenance-of-way workmen of two
of Cuba's princip^ railways recently
declared & strike, which spread rapidly to other rail lines on the island,
halting service and delaying the
movement of mails.
Gormany
General Labor Conditions.—At the
beginning of last month, labor reports indicated a notable Walling oft
in the demand for workers, and an
increase in the number of industrial
concerns which were obliged to restrict production. In some cases,
plants were closed beoause of lack
of working capital. Slight decreases
were reported in the number of persons seeking employment and in the
total of unemployment doles disbursed during the previous month. The
most serious strike was that of the
25,000 Badische Anilin-und Sodafa-
brik workmen, who had demanded a
wage increase.
Will Celebrate Labor Day
The  Calgary  Trades    and    Labor
council will hold a grand Labor day
celebration  on  September  1st at St.
George's island.
MISSING    COPIES   OP   THE
FEDERATIONIST WANTED
FOLLOWING   lost   copies    of
The B. C. Federationist are
missing from the files:
March 30, 1923.
October 12 to Decembor128,
1923, inclusive.
We will be very much obliged
to subscribers having any of
these papers at their disposal if
tbey would kindly send same to
this offlce.
FOR SALE
Quarter-Acre Lot on Dow Road, between Victory
and Trafalgar, Burnaby.
Price $400
Terms—$50.00 down, $10.00 per month. ^
t*-si* lot. wh??h ha? been cleared for tniildine. has a
"magnificent view overlooking the North "Arm.
APPLY BOX "A," FEDERATIONIST OFFICE,
1129 HOWE STREET, VANCOUVER, B. C.
Summer Excursions
Low Fares
-TO-
Prairie Points
Eastern Canada
Central and Eastern,States
Optional Routes—Stopovers—Side Trips
ENQUIRE ABOUT THE
TRIANGLE TOUR
Vancouver—Prince Rupert—Jasper Park
A delightful rail Md water trip
Tourtrt.&nd Travel Bureau, 527 OranviUe Street
Canadian National Railways
T
1 radical wing of the labor party
in the .British house of commons is
becoming restless and dissatisfied
with their labor government. No
doubt, they are dissatisfied with the
results obtained thus far; but we can
rest assured *that their dissatisfaction' is not so 'much with their government as with the ridiculous anl de-
ernment as with the ridiculous and
deplorable tactics adopted by the op-
* •      •
The  opposition    forces    will find,
when they' appeal to the electorate
In. "England at their next election,
that they "Will have a 4ot of things
to answer for. They will find that
an unwarranted opposition to measures brought forward by the labor
government wljl not be viewed lightly on election day.
* «      *
._ The following appeared in the Ilkeston   CEng.)  Pioneer of July  4th:
Tuesday was Dom Inion day—a
term which conveys very little to us,
who? are practically the only race
in the world who do not possess a
national holiday, but which is a festival of great slgniflcehije In "the land
of- the maple leaf," whether it be
British Halifax, French Montreal,
or Chineso Vancouver. My diary informs me that to-day (Thursday)
"dog:days begin." I have long known
that "every dog has its day"—inci
dentally It may be added that "puppies" generally prefer "nights"—so
I sincerely "hope it'll keep fine for
them! ..."
Before the days of Vancouver, ar
rivals in British Columbia from East-
em Canada were dubbed "North
American Chinamen," because they
were supposed to work for less wages.
It is a sort of reviver of old times
to learn that our fair city Is now
known abroad as "Chinese Vancouver." Despite the fact that we have
an Oriental colony of about 26,000,
do we really deserve the appellation
"Chinese Vancouver?"
* * •
In the new South African parliament, the balance of the parties will
be held by labor. While normally
in coalition with the nationalists, a
transference of their 18 votes to the
opposition, would mean the end of
the Hertzog government: Colonel
Fred H. P. Cresswel] Is the leader of
the labor party In South Africa. He
Is looked upon as an adroit politician, quick to seize upon the weakness of all parties, and will exact a
fairly heavy toll in the way of advanced labor legislation for his support of the nationalists.
* •     *
Those "absentee" votes are going
to mean the death of the liberal
governent if they are not handled
carefully. The thinking portion of
the public fs looking upon them with
a sfent deaf* of suspicion. If al] they
say about them in North Vancouver
is true, they require very eluse scrutiny.
* *     *
■ Vancouver is enjoying the questionable privilege of having an epidemic of "hold-ups." Apparently
our commissioners are going to
spend a few extra dollars to clean up
our city. No doubt, something must
be done; but we would like to hear
of them making an earnest and h inert enquiry into the cause of crime
When a man sees his wife nnd kiddies in want, and he cannot obtain
work, we wonder if he is tb blame
if he does commit some unfortunate
act.
* *     *
The shameful indifference exhibited
by some of our local and visiting
motorists, towards the safety of the
public, calls for Bome drastic action
OITY OP VANCOUVER
NOTIOE TO CONTRACTORS
ASPHALT OB CONCRETE
PAVEMENTS
(A) mENDERS will be' meivod by the «„..
l*nu ?■•»■•'«' S»vfog the following Btreots
with nsphttlt or concrete: "ireeis
7th Ave., Trafaljtar to Mnchmald.
14th A?" i?i7*Vi9l  t0  B».»<.lava.
lfith il • %_w to Cypress,
16 h Ave., Cedar to Cypres*,
»tk Ave.,   Victoria  to  Lakewwl
PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE
PAVEMENTS
(B) LENDERS will bo received by the un-
1  derstRned up to Tuesday, August S,
Wl ii pm" AWy^ ,ho 'ollowlng streets
and lane with Portland Cement and concrete-
10th Ave., Clark to Woodland.
4th  Ave,,  Nanalmo  to Renfrew.
Pender Lane,  100 feet E. of Dunlevy to
When workmen cannot carry on their
work on our streets without being
continually at the mercy of some
reckless; motorists, it Is about time
something1 worth while was done to
protect their lives.
<■■'*'-■•
Coffee is due for an ^advance In
price, owing to a shortage of crop
a'nd a revolution in Brazil. We wonder what they are trying to slip over
on the coffee fiends! It is wonderful what excuses they find, to raise
the prices of our food commodities,
and how difficult it is for them to
see a Reason for lowering prices on
the same commodities at other times.
* *     *
Tooth   paste   made   to   beat  liquor
laws! That is what they say, but wo
feel that we know better. It was
made to put profits into the pock
ets of the manufacturers. No human being, ordinarily will cater lo thi
depraved tastes of thc public unless
it is1 profitable so to do. When we
learn to manufacture for use rather
than for profit, many of our glarln
social evils will fade into insignificance.
* *      *
Anti-war demonstration in Vienna
It was reported that nearly all the
citizens ventured out to march in,
or witness, an anti-war demonstration. Over 30,000 were in line. Apparently our one time enemies have
an abhorrence for war as well as
ourselves. If our statesmen, the
world over were as opposed to war,
as are the general public In the various countries of the world, war would'
soon be a relic of the past.
•       *       *
We are glad that Henry Ford has
changed his mind about war. Whereas one time he preached peace by
morality alone, he now preaches that
it is only possible by armed force.
He is right. As long as capitalism
lasts there must be wars. Wars to
grab territory and influence and raw-
materials and markets.
* *     *
In the recent inquiry into the cadet
case at Kingston, it was decided that
the practice of leaving discipline to
seniors was the cause of the brutality and injustice. We beg leave to
differ. There is nothing like leaving discipline to the boys themselves.
Brutality .and injustice and Indignity
are inevitable while boys are being
trained in the horrible business of
war which in itself is brutality and
injustice.
ned, for if he can,-afford to sell once
at a less profit, he can afford to do
it always*.-*t*.Only his \ excess profits
might suffer.'a bit
One can see a good deal of human
nature at these sales'. The mothers
usually set out early taking their
families with them and arrive in good
time at the stores. They remind one
of the war-time queues, in Britain.
They get themselves into a thoroughly bad temper by the time the sales
start; there is usually a huge crowd,
and the pugnacious instinct asserts
itself. There ls pushing and scrambling and almost fighting. The whole
business is degrading. The mothers
return home often physically and
mentally exhausted unless buoyed up
by their good bargains; but often both
father and the kiddles feel that
rnother Is more than usually cranky
or crabby after these important sale
days.
Who is to blame after all? Not
tbe business man who is driven to
meet his competitors or else go under, and who must • live up to his
lights (or profits). Not the mothers,
who find it hard to make both ends
meet, It ls the system that is
wrong'.     , •
But taking a bird's eye view there
Is every sign that the present system
cannot last very much longer. Discontent is world-wide, and consciously or otherwise, the workers are
awakening to certain facts. They
know what they want (at least some
of them do), and they are beginning .to realize their power. When they
do realize to the full that .they, the
producers of all our human needs,
arc really the only ones that count,
then perhnps the chdnge in our system will be hastened.
EPIDEMIC OF SALES
Buyers and Sellers Find It Hard
to Make Ends Meet Through
Keen Competition
CAPITALIST SYSTEM WRONG
To whom you would like us to send a sample oopy of
the British Columbia Federationist .■•..•.._
SEND US HIS NAME AND ADDRESS
We want NEW READERS—Help us to get them;
yjgj&tti A'*-*-' —USB THIS, COUPON— VI .T !
1 have a friend whom I think could be induced to subscribe
to the British Columbia Federationist. Please send him a
sample copy to the address below:
NAME	
ADDRESS
CITY	
PROVINCE..
FOR SALE
Lot 66 x 120 feet, corner McDonald and 13 th Avenue,
Kitsilano.
Price $1,000
Terms—$50 down, $10.00 per month.
APPLY BOX "D," FEDERATIONIST OFFICE,
1129 HOWE STREET, VANCOUVER, B. C.
DeMille   Conquers  Stupendous  Tasks
In   llihU*   Filming;
To put on the screen the grandiose
early events, of Bible history would
seem a task beyond human power
did not one have the record of what
wag done in California recently and
now presented to Vancouver audiences in "The Ten Commandments"
showing twice daily. Here is what
Cecil DeMille essayed:—- Tho exodus of Israel from Egypt, the land
of bondage. The parting of the Red
sea. The destruction of Pharaoh's
chariots when the waters closed.
The giving of tho commandments
from Mount Sinia. The bacchanalian worship of the golden calf by the
erring people. Heaven's terrible vengeance on the three thousand Idola-
tors. Fir^t he built an Egyptian
city In the deserts of central California, then the court of Pharaoh
where Moses announced the ten
plagues and won his plea: "Let my
people go!" Twenty-five hundred
actors took part in these scenes, including two hundred and fifty Yemenite Jews from Palestine. Among
the eminent players who worked in
one or other of the sequences were
Theodore Roberts, Charles De Roche,
Leatrice Joy, Rod La Rocque, Richard Dfx, NIta Naldl, Agnes Ayres
Robert Edeson and Estelle Taylor
Patronize Federatloniat advertisers.
THE CHOICE OF THE UNIONS
CATTO'S
VERY OLD HIGHLAND WHISKY
THOROUGHLY    MATURED—ONE    OF   THE    MOST   POPULAR
BRANDS  AT   THE   GOVERNMENT   STORES
GOLD LABEL
15-YEAR-OLD
Ask for OAIWS.    For sale at all Government Liquor Stores
Thii ndwttMment la not published or displayed by th* __qoor Control Botrd or
hy tbo Oovcrnm.nt of BritUh Oolnmblft
CTOVES AND RANGES, both malleable and steel,
^ McClary's, Fawcett's, Canada's Pride, installed
free by experts; satisfaction guaranteed. Cash or
$2.00 per week.
Canada Pride Range Company Ltd.
346 Hastings Street East
Sey. 2399
Form, of Tender, Spoelfloitloni, and othor
particular, may be obtained at the City En*
--- /_?_?■ .0I" H_"' °" .WM*** °t Ten
which will be refunded on return of Specification., etc., in nood condition.
A deposit by marked cheque, payable to
the Olty Treasurer, ot an amount equal to
five (6) per cent, of the total (mount of the
old.    submitted,    must    accompany     each
The lowest or any tender not necessarily
nccepted.
WILLIAM  McQUEEN
.,,.'   « ..  ,. °*ty Clerk.
City Hall, Vancouver, B.C., July 29, 1924.
VANOOUVBB HABBOUB
OOMMISSIONEBS
NOTICE TO CONTRACTORS
Saparitructura and Equipment, He. 1
Grain Jetty
SEALEP TENDERS, marked "Superstruc-
ture and Equipment for No. 1 Grain
Jetty/ covering conn tract ion of superstructure and conveying equipment, addreueed to
the undenlgned, will be received at the ofllcei
v rf, v*n«»'ver Harbour Commissioners,
Yorkshire Building, until 13 noon of Monday,
August IB, 1024.
Plans, specifications, contract end form of
tender mar be obtained at'the '©flee of the
Ohlef Engineer. Yorkshire Building, on the
deposit of one hundred dollars ($100), which
will be refunded on return of plane, sped-
fl rations, ete. The tenders ahall be accompanied by an accepted cheque equal to ten
(10) per cent- of the amount of the tender.
The accepted cheque of the successful tenderer will be releaied on the substitution of
a bond satisfactory tq tha - oommlss loners,
for twenty-flve (2ft) per cent, of the amount
of the contract. A fair wage clause will be
Inserted in the contract;
Lowest or any tender not necessarily accepted.
(Signed) W. D. HARVIE,
Vaneonver, B.C., Seeretary.
July 3ft, 1124.
Vain  Effort to   Keep Worn-out
Business Methods Going—
Discontent World-wide
[By a Worker]
'THERE ia an epidemic of "sales,*;
and Vancouver has it badly.
There are all kinds of sales, morning: sales, afternoon sales, one-hour
sales, sales at the beginning of the
month, and sales at the end of the
month; sales because the storekeeper
Is "flitting" (to use a Lancashire
phrase), and sales because he was
nearly burnt out. And a*l kinds of
things are sold at these Bales—frying pans, umbrellas clothes-lines,
Jap. silk and jnzz music. They are
wonderful. But ihe most wonderful
thing is the cheerful manner in which
these business men make their startling sacrifices.
As far as the ordinary worker,
whose business acumen Is a minus
quantity, can see there .are several
reasons for these so frequent sales.
Familarlty with them has bred contempt; and he no longer looks and
Wottdeft and madly plunges. He's
more oijnny now. There seem to be
too many things poured into the markets, and the workers seem to have
too few dollars to be able to buy
them. And so the world is In a hopeless muddle which they call capitalism, and sales and a large proportion
of advertisements are merely an attempt to continue to muddle. The
business men themselves will talk
fluently of the better days ahead
when there is free trade or higher
tariffs (according to their politics)
or when the shipping improves. But
they can go on waiting for ever.
Permanent prosperity ls a myth under capitalism. Conditions have
reached boiling point In many parts
of the world; yet the capitalists persist In sitting tight, hoping for the
good old days, when they held undisputed sway, to return. Meanwhile they do all in their power;
they use all the tricks known to every
trade; they cheat, He and haggle in
their attempt to pile up the dollars.
Tt was very well said: 4,A store-keeper never goes to heaven," There
seems to be some foundation for the
Implication.
But to leave the storekeeper to hiB
fate, and return to his latest knavery. What are sales after all. The
general principle seems.^o. be that
of an old man who once said: "Put
on 10 cents and knock off 5 cents."
And so the workers are cheated after
all. But where ignorance is bliss,
etc. .   ,
awietlmes, however, the storekeeper dbe3*-f eally and truly knock off as
much as two cents, or even three.
Maybe he makes np for it on something else though. But even without
this base insinuation, he is condem-
Here it is
oArd STAFF
THE MASTERPIECE OF BEERMAKING
The New _   •
BREWED AND BOTIMBD  BX
Rainier Brewing Co. of Canada Limited
A Corporation, owned, controlled ud operated oehulvelr try reeldenta of.
BRITISH COLUMBIA wtth BRITISH COLOMBIA opltal.
This advertisement Ss not published or displayed by the Liquor Control Board
or by the Government of British Columbia

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