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BC Historical Newspapers

British Columbia Federationist Apr 3, 1925

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Blind  Broom  Workers  Receive
Crude Treatment in local
Establishment  Receiving;  Public
Aid in Need of Thorough
| Investigation.
A'l." tho present time, in thla world
bf ours, there is very littlo that is
not being exploited by some Individual,
or group of individuals, for iheir own
v personal gain. Women aro forced to
' leave thoir homes, place their children In somo home or institution, and
go out into this so-called civilized
Hoeiety, in search for some sort of
|1 position that will give her some little
remuneration in roturn, with which
she hopes to provide herself and her
kiddies with tho necessities of life.
Children in tlieir teens, too, are forced
out into this cold, cold world, In spite
of our hpasted culture and civilization, it would appear as though we
have progressed but very little. The
brutes of the field, and of the forests
are, so far as gaining access to the
means of lifo are Concerned better
off by far.
Jt is tragic to think that wo stand
by ami watch conditions existing in
our midst, without putting a much
greater light than we are doing. Of
course, we realize full well, lhat the
average worker, whether in ovcmlls
or with-the "white-collar" on, is, at
the present time, mortally afraid of
losing the miserable position thai they
have. To them it is bettoj. than facing the othor alternative of starvation, for themselves and dependents.
What a state!
It would appear to us, according to
the information lhat we have at hand
—and it is from a source that we
havo not the sllghost reason to doubt,
in tho lefi.sl—that the blind workers
are boing exploited Ity the Canadian
Nntional institute for tbe Blind, in
the broom factory in our city. 11 Im
supposed to be a sort of charily institution, but it is alleged -that some
of tho "higher-ups" are finding It a
very lucrative business. Tiie salaries
received by some of these men nre
not such as to suggest that the blind
workers should contribute to their
upkeep to the extent thnt they nre
doing,   in  our opinion.
At the present time, and for some
time past, in the making of the
brooms, they have been covering parts
of them with velvet. The extra cost,
to the institute, for tho velvet, would
ho about 10 cents per dozen brooms.
Tho extra timo required for doing this
results in a loss lo the average workor there, of about $3 to $4 per week.
The Increase in value or price now
received by the institute, as the result of this extra work, is something
like $20. The net result is that, while
the institute ls the richer by several
dollars, the workers are actually the
losers to the extent, as we have said,
or from $3 to $4 per week. Their
wages run from $10 to $17 or $18 pet-
week, so one can readily see that
these men cannot live: the best that
ihey can hope for Is to merely exist,
nnd if on top of this Ihey are given
extra work without increased rcmu-
Hieratlon, their lot is, Indeed, a miserable one. In this institution, too, ap'
parently, some coercion is being used
upon the mon. They are given, what
appears to us to be nothing short of
grave warning, and that if they do
not make out that they arc satisfied
with their treatment, as it is now be
Ing meted out to them, their position
position is certainly in Jeopardy. AH
the while, it must be remembered that
this same institution Is receiving nr
hns recoived a considerable grant
from the dominion and provincial
governments. They cannot claim any
imtnunity on the score that they are
a private corporation.
A number of local and apparently
reputable citizens grace the hoard of
this Institution, we understand. It
would appear to be about time that
they made their influence felt in such
n manner as to warrant a little more
punllc respect, so far as their eon
neetion with this Institution is con
corned, or get off the board. If they
nre a party to this form of exploits.
tlon, knowingly, then they nre not
flt and proper persorts to hold such
positions—and we, frankly, cannot
feel that It is all unknown to them, |
owing to the publicity that hns been
given already in some of our local
papers to this matter. The. whole
affair, as it appears to us today, is
urgently In need of a very thorough
investigation—not nny camouflage!.
They are receiving government aid
and they have therefore, no right
to feci that they should nol, or could
not bo interfered with.
It Is alleged that some of these
blind men, if not all, hnve been handed agreement* to sign, without having been given proper time to understand or consider them, no copy
being given them; that the committee In charge of the factory makes
verbal promises on behalf of the factory whtch nro not kept; thnt time
workers are allowed only from $1_! to
$14 por week, although thoy earn
much more; thnt two men have been
left at tho sorting of corn for two
yerii's, nt whicli work they have earned, nt least from $1G lo $18 although
they have only been paid from $12 to
$13;   that the blind   men  havo been
Will Nominate a didates for the
Federal Ho\J:_sV May-
Elect Ofi'itiers.
The central council of the Canadian
Labor Purty held their monthly meeting on Tuesday, March 31. A committee was appointed to request the
city council to allow the central council permission to hold n lag day ln
aid of the miners of Nova Scotia;
and a committee was appointed lo organize the tag flay in case the request
was granted.
The penalty imposed on Delegate
CJ. H. Hardy nt the last meeting for
running for the reeveshlp in South
Vancouver against the wishes of the
council was rescinded, and a lighter
one   imposed,
Several alterations nnd additions
were made to the constitution of the
It was decided to have a nominating convention at the May meeting
to nominate candidates for the federal houso.
Delegate F. A. Hoover was reelected chairman; Mrs Dolk, vice-chairman; W. Dunn, secretary. E. Burns,
H. V. Rankin, W. Flynn and Angus
Maclnnis were elected to the executive.
Tho election of the standing committees was left over till the regular
Hard Times Dance Good Friday
Members of the Junior Labor League nre arranging another social and
danco in lbe Elks hall, forty-ninth
and Fraser avenue, on Good Friday.
Tliis will bo a "hard times" dance, so
hunt out those ragged clothes and
gingham dresses, and eome nlong and
enjoy tbo good timo.
If you missed the last J. L. L. dance
don't miss tills one. A good floor
and good music guaranteed. The
concert starts at 8 p. m., dancing at
i. m. Refreshments will be provided. Admission by collection at the
Winners nt Whist Drive In Royal City
Mrs. Porter and Mrs. H. D. Brown,
Wm. Sundry nnd \V. E. Brown,
wore the prize winners at a Whist
Drive of the Lnbor party, held In the
Labor Temple, New Westminster, on
Friday, March 27. Gladys Bassett,
526 Eighteenth stroet, wns the winner of the hnnd-made linen luncheon
set, donated by Mrs. David B. Mo-
Local Political Labor Situation
Reviewed—Principles of
F. L. P. Sound.
We patronize those who patronize
compelled to cement their lunch room
floor on their own time, either that,
or smoke in the back alloy, and all
this at their own expense, while at
the same 'time the sighted, and us-
uall.v well-paid officials can siiioke
ad lib., wherever they choose; that
the blind workers are not -paid enough, in auy instance, to support n
wife and child on. although, as alleged, a foreman earns such an
amount as to enable him to buy an
automobile or two In two years, although rarely If ever, he dons the
overalls, unless some boys are not
available to do some of his work for
him. One of these boys wns so unfortunate one day, ns to be pulled up
to the rafters of the building, having
been caught in a belt. He had his
wrist and fore-arm broken. It is alleged that all the bells, save one, are
unprotected, and also the emery
wheel, notwithstanding the notice
from the Compensation Board.
lt Is further alleged that the factory committee compelled the blind
workers to hand in their grievances
In writing, through their foreman,
although they never receive any answer In writing to show lhat their
grievances were ever brought to the
atlentlon of the committee. The answer that, usually comes back Is a
verbal no. As a rule the time workers have been nllowed about 10 minutes each morning and afternoon to
wash the dust from Iheir eyes and
faces on account of the dirty nature
of their work and it is now alleged
that thfs time has been disallowed on
account of the men hnving made
some complaints.
There are many other grievances
harbored by these men but, like all
other workers, they must live. It is
therefore, necessary for them to put
up with many Inconveniences to
which they are subjected—and all
this Is In Canada, the land of the
.free. We feel that we have brought
to tbe attention of tho officials on
tho board sufficient Information to
warrant their making a proper investigation, and one in which there
is no camouflage allowed, one In
which the men may speak out their
honest thoughts without fearing some
form of retaliation being practised
upon them by the foreman. They
can rest assured lhat we are not
going to allow this matter to drop
until something satisfactory has been
arranged and dismissals will certainly be Investigated, It is a governmont aided Institution and, as such,
it must bear the most searching crlll-
cism. If It is being used merely to
exploit the blind, it Is about timo
that the public knew It, and that
thoir money Is being used for that
It Is an Affiliation of Labor Organizations Already in
[By Angus Maclnnis]
TT Is well known among people who
take an active interest in the
labor movement in and around Vancouver that the editor of the Labor
Statesman and a few others around
the Labor hall harbor a certain
amount of animosity towards the
Federated Lnbor Party. If this arose
because these people differed with
the F. L. P. on principles or taotlcs,
no fault could be'found with them.
But when an underground campaign
is carried-on because the F. L, P.
refused to drop its official organ,
The Federationist, it is time that it
should be known.
Even that could be overlooked
when 'one understands the Issue at
stake. I fully understand the potent
effect of a meal ticket on the human
animal's activities. However, the
F. L. P. Is not out to got a place
at the pie counter for any one, either
ns an editor of a labor paper or on
a government commission,
The function of a labor paper
should be to make clear to its read
ers the why and tbe wherefore of
happenings that concern them, but
as the oditor of the Labor Statesman
will not do this, I take it upon myself to do so as far as concerns the
Canadian Labor  Party.
To get a clear understanding of the
political labor situation, as it was and
is, it will be necessary to go back
for a few years.
Until 1918, the only political labor
party in tills province was tho So-
cialist Party of Cftnada. However,
at nearly all elections the Vancouver
Trades and Labor council would
form a labor party to contest the
election, usually, wo are told, with
the financial backing of either the
liberals or conservatives, which ever
party needed their help the most.
Of course ns soon as the election was
over the parly died.
The advisability of forming a
labor party that would make a wider
appeal to the mass of the workers
than the S. P. of C. was discussed
at the convention of the British Columbia Federation of Labor at Its
1918 session, which was held in
Vancouver that year. While the
pnrty was not officially "brought into
being by the B. C. F. of L. the delegates favorable to the formation of
a labor party met after the convention and formed the Federated
Labor Party with a short and concise platform, which is now familiar
to nearly everybody in the province.
The new party met with a good response from the workers. It also
met with a fairly good reception
from the electors at election times.
However, the political situation was
not satisfactory. The S. P. of C.
refused to co-operate witli the F.L.P.
at elections, and tlie situation was
still further complicated by the split
in the S. P. of C. and the formation
of the Workers Party.
When the Trades and Labor Congress of Canada, met in Vancouver in
1023, a resolution was passed endorsing the Canadian Labor Party and
instructing the B. C. executive of the
congress to form a branch In this
province. For some reason the
Trades Congress central executive
was not keen on forming a branch
here. After considerable delay the
B, C. executive of the congress
waited upon the Federated Labor
Party and asked them to be the
B.C. Branch of the C. L. P. They
did this at the request of the central
executive of the Trades and Labor
Congress, I presume.
The proposition was flatly rejected
by the F, L. P. Rejected wilh hardly
a moment's consideration, because
tbey felt that such an orgnnization
was nol what the delegates to the
convention who voted for the resolu
Hon had in mind, Furthermore, it
was felt tbat it would be an under
hand way of getting control, or trying to get control of the political
labor movement. The B. C. executive was told to go ahead, calt a
formative convention of the (5. L. P.
and that the F. L. P. would affiliate.
The Canadian Labor Party (B, C.
branch) was organized In May, 1924.
The convention which gave It ita
constitution gave it no power to
form local branches, in fact such
function was refused it.
Tho purpose of the C, L, P. is to
co-ordinate the whole political effort,
industrially and politically, of tho
labor movement at election times.
It is not ;i distinct labor .Parly. It
is an affiliation ol! labor Virganlza-
tlons already in existonce, and has
no more right to form groups of
individuals for political purposes than
II has to form trade unions or groups
for Industrial purposes, it cannot nt
one and the samo lime be an organization of political -and industrial
units and also of Individual members.
The oditor of the Statesman writes
of the "8. V. Group of tho C. L, P,"
and other groups of tho C. L. P,
and then goes on to say that the
(Continued on Page 4)
and War
THOSE Individuals, or groups,
wishing to get pamphlets
which have just recently been
printed are urged ty send ln
thoir orders at onoe. iThore are
only a limited numbor printed.
They are tho following:
By Mrs. Rose Henderson
10 cents. ■
'   By George P. Stirling
6 cents.
These pamphlets are well written. They contain a; wealth of
information, and are, to say
the very least, thought-provok-
Send In V.mr Orders at Onco
Vou Cannot Afford To Oo
Without Thom
[By Our Peripatetic Pagan.]
to   reports,
government   had   been
The Bible of the Russian Revolution—New and True
"If the
:fair with
the people and had made an honest
statement of the actual state of Its
finances, it would have an actual de*
Heft around $105,000,000 Instead of a
surplus of $52,000,000." So the IU,
Honorable Arthur Meighan. He
charges tbe government of leaving out
important figures, so getting great
bead-lines in the Liberal pnpers ovi
Its successful budget, "No wonder
he says '•'the people of Canada are
greatly confused." Save the mark!
Confused! Be-fooled they are all the
time; but they don't seem tq care,
Thoy go on voting the same way, it
doesn't matter one jot or tittle Jf It
is for Conservative or Liberal lhe r
suit is just the same. The people
will be be-fooled. The remedy—vote
good Socialism, for a government by
tlie people for the peopl
* *    *
Thc United States of Kurope as an
ideal is growing stronger. It will
prolfubly get so strong its to crystallize before many decades—even our
evening thunderer hnd reference to
On Monday there was quite a bunch
of old country new comers wandering
around our city. Lord! But I felt
sorry for them and I wonder what
they are going to do; how soon will
their Utile reserve hold out before
they are up against It. At that time
there was some crowd of unfortunate
unemployed at the city hall asking
pertinent questions ot how and why.
What a crime to bring more and still
more to B. C. with the present serious situation showing little improvement.
What's wrong wilh Canada? Of
course that's silly question number
three all right, all right, because
many of us know and are doing our
best to tell others; .but as to this
particular query here's the idea. The
press is calling nllenllon to the fact
that wo are, at huge expense, educating our young men to the highest
level and they are fu large numbers
proceeding just south to seek their
fortunes In the States. We are flne
brains and manhood short, the States
benefit and we pay the piper and
loso our brains and brawn. Oh, my
aunt Maria! Wake up, Canucks, and
have the courage, now, lo probe deep
and do something besides talk of our
wonderful natural resources which
we seem to dismally full In utilizing
for the  public good,
Great bakery combination! Keep
your eyes open, for rumor hath it
away east that a gigantic combine
is under way, subsidiary to the American combine. Well, this Is still
nnother capitalist move on the grab
fnr control of the people's food. Unless some determine'! effort Is madt
hooii we shall surely become Robots.
* *    *
The most powerful weapon to light
these moves Is n strong press. Let
the objective be for a vigorous socialist dally; let's try ami do ll in It. C,
soon, think it oui today when you
your "Fed." and send us In some !
gcstlons. ll can lie done ami well
done, if till labor men will unilcdl:
Red   October   Created   a  New
World—Progress Still
[Russian Styry.]
Before tho Creation of the World
pHAOS and great darkness prevall-
^ ed over the whole Russian world.
The landowners sat on the necks
of the peasants, the workers had the
factory owners at their throats and
the soldiers and the generals, The
nobility did nothing and ate very
much, the land-workers worked very
much and ate very little.
The workers were hanged, the
peasants beaten, and the soldiers
mishandled, and over all the parson
held.sweet discouses upon the quality of meekness.
The bankers were fat. And the
ribs of the poor showed through their
sides. The gentlemen got drunk and
the toilers were driven to the slaughter.
The whips whistled through the
air, prisons sprang up like mushrooms, and the' bourgeoisie danced.
The Fjrst Year of Creation
Vladimir Ilyitch Lenin appeared
he raised the "red flag" and called
the workers, peasants and soldiers
to the strugglo. And they said: "Let
there be light," and there was light,
the light of the Soviets, as distinct
from the darkness, tho bourgeoisie,
and the parsons. The light penetrated into all the dark corners of the
earth, nnd a voico sounded: "Let w
electrify the villages."
Tho Second Year of Creation
Tho workers' and peasants' government created a fortress against which
the landowners, the capitalists and
the white guard generals smote their
heads in vain. This fortress was
called the rod army. The white
guardfst armies fled before this fortress like dogs before the whips. The
robbers became downhearted.
The Third Year of Creation
And the soviet government "divided" the water from the earth. Por
the water thoy began to create and
consolidate the red fleet. And for
the earth they built steam ploughs,
sowing machines and machines of all
kinds, And soviet institutions, hospitals, aud many more things of value
grew out of the earth.
Tlio Fourth Year of Creation
And the soviet governmont spoke:
And steel birds shall fly in the
heavens," and lo, It came to pass.
Soviet, aeroplanes skimmed through
the air and the red air fleet increased and multiplied. Workers and
peasants streamed Into the association of the friends of the air fleet
and gallant red flyers came forward.
And the bankers and Curzon pulled   long  faces,
The sixth Yetir of Creation
And the commissariat for finances
spoke: "Let there be a stable currency—the ahervonetzl" And lt created the golden chervonetz, and from
its side It created the silver rouble.
And It spoke to them fn llifs wise:
"Be fruitful and multiply and let
your descendants bo as numerous as
the stars of the sky and the sands
of the seashore, and displace nil oth
er currency,"
And thus it came to pass, and In
tills way the people's economy of the
soviet union was consolidated! And
lu this way also the speculators on
tho exchange received a black eye.
The Seventh Year of Creation
And on the seventh day the soviet
government did not rest, following
the example given It by "Ood," hut
it nrranged "communist Sundays."
And 11 began lo raise production and
to consolidate the gains of the revolution  for all eternity.
The Red October (the revolution)
created a new world, and Ils work
of creation continues and will eon
tlnue until the World commune has
been created,
And so let it  he!
What Has Been Accomplished at
Summerland for Art's
II'  IIiisIih*.*.* Mini
Mr. V.
A.  1
lolllns, the poiinlt
B. ('.
Mnnoger Un- Ti
tobaccos, reports business In his lint
ns very good for this time nf tlie year
Tucketts* goods are known from eoas
Id  eoasl   nnd  ns  "Vie"   Is   known  ns J
hustler, Tucketts' tobaccos are foiim
in every iip-to-dntQ place in Vancouve
and likewise In all places where lo
ba'ceo is sold in llrltlsh Columbia. lb
is also very fond of sports, .and i
credit lu the business fraternity 0
this city.
anger general
Hope nf the Labor Party, can
secured   by -ti   combination
practical logic and high moral
—Dr.   Hugh   Dalloti.    llrltlsh
M. P.
Mndein Arts anil Letters Club
The subject to be presonted at the
Modern Ails and Letters nub which
will meet in th- Woman's building,
752 Thurlow Btreet, on Friday evening, April :i. will be "Revolutionists
in   Amorican   Poetr;."     Mr,   A.   M
Stephen will lend lho discussion giving, ns a basis for debate, examples
from the work of contompornrj Am*
erican poets Who ar-   coking in flnd
new   forms   of   expression.     .Mem >
are reminded lhat contributions are
needed  for the "round table."    .Music
Population Doing ReaUy Useful
Work in Canada Should
Be Investigated.
[By J. C. Harris]
The series of articles that I have
contributed to The Federatlonist have
advocated a great change In the poli-
of the party, namely, that wc
concentrate our efforts on demanding a thorough investigation of the
population of Canada with the object
of finding out tvho is doing really
useful work, and who Is merely busy
but not helping the social organism,
who fs doing harmful work and who
are undisguised loafers.
The last article attempted to est!
mate the political consequences of
such a policy and we conclude that it
would bc good from the standpoint
of winning elections, and above all,
as a means of educating the great
mass of the electors. Politics need
simplifying. We must have tactics
that the ordinary elector can understand. Also both the policy and tho
tactics must appeal to the ordinary
ciflzen's sense of justice. Therefore
our aims must be comprehensive and
simple. Too often indignation at the
injustice and Inefficiency of the com
petitive system leads to vulgar abuse
of some class, landlords, or capitalists,
scabs, or politicians; whereas any
socialist ought to know that few are
responsible to any large extent for the
plight in which society finds itself.
Our parliamentary tactics become
clear enough. A concentration on the
quostion of "the employment" of the
nation. This should be made to take
tho place of that vonerable chestnut
"the tariff question" now holds and
six earnest members of parliament,
working steadily at their job could
soon put ft there.
This change of parliamentary tactics should be accompanied by a great
and equal change In trade union action and trade union sentiment. A
change thnt would tend to prepare
nnd fit the different unions for the
vastly more Important work that lies
before them.
Our trades unions must be developed into guilds. Responsible and
well orgnnized bodies to which .the.
nation can entrust the conduct of its
industries. It Is here that in all probability the most serious troublo will
occur, for lt is probable that the nation will be seeking new management
nnd hew leadership, before the unions
have learnt to organize themselves
sufficiently. Hitherto trades unionism has been fighting a kind of
guerilla warfare with the capitalists,
and such tactics may hnve been justified in the past, but they are utterly out of date In this century. By
these tactics the executive of oach
business has generally been thrown
Into violent antagonism with the union; from now on the good-will and
friendly co-operntfon of the management-should be deliberately sought by
the unions. This does not Imply lhal
the working man has to give way to
unjust demands and harsh treatment,
but It does Imply a deliberate policy
of courtesy and friendship, a sympathetic outlook on the very serious
difficulties tbat the managers of most
businesses find themselves in at present.
Am I too optimistic to believe thai
the best sort of employers will respond to sueh an attitude of friendship by showing themselves friendly,
even if they were aware that the
movement was designed, as the beginning of the end of themselves as
capitalists? Perhaps so. but it is
worth trying. At least we can say
that the opposite line of conduct has
not been very successful, for after
;i century of fighting, little advance
has been made.
HOW can we bliime a rich man for
objecting to turn over his business to
a bunch of mon, who. however, well
lntentloned and honest, he feels sure
will mak- one vast muddle of it. lie
may not be of a hoggish nature, but he
would object to seeing his life's work
ruined, nnd the resulting misery to
men who have worked With him and
for whom be mny have a sincere regnrd.
Xo. The unions must prepare
themselv-s for their task, the dimities will be BUfficlontly great in any
event, for we are not going to march
in triumph and ease into "tlie promised lund".
The Ideas brought forth in tbis
series of articles nre worth criticism
if Ihey have been worth publishing,
Thoy should be freely discussed, thoir
truth or fallacy eXpo-ed. nnd I in
vil- rriliclsin. In the eonehidlll
article 1 will mention some ut th
criticisms that tbey have called foil:
and refn
Ab.   I
i- olty
hp more
io   more
binenls   will   li.
i I..I
Hi   ]
eo it clearly before
of justice and   hnpl
idlers of nnv kind, n
landlords supported by i
or  fortune  kepi
fortune—In   Bhort,
rtl no more mIbo)
Production of Beautiful Things-
Creative Instinct Strong
in Most People.
[By Jack Logie]
T IKE the writer who began a book
on the "Snakes of Iceland" with
the statement that there weiJe no
snakes in Iceland, wc -might preface
this article by saying th;.vt here In
British Columbia "we have very little
art and not enough industry."
The only art which Is distinctively
Canadian is the Indian, and there
must be something wrong with our
industry when so many of our brightest young men are forced to leave
for the United States and so many
unemployed walk our streets. Tho
basic causes for this condition are
not far to seek, but are outside the
scope of our present article which
will attempt to deal only with that
phase of rural industry which hns to
do with the development of an art
which will be distinctly British Columbian. Art If international, but
displays its highest expression only
when, each country contributes Its
distinctive note to the whole.
Our forefathers, the sturdy pioneers
who hewed Iheir homes out of the
forests of Eastern Canada were self-
supporting. They grew tho wheat
In many cases ground it themselves
or carried it to the nearest mill and
returned with tho flour. They spun
their own wool, wove their rugs, made
their clothing.and shoes and, in the
long winter evenings, were busy manufacturing the wooden tools and furniture which they required. If the
harvest was bountiful they prospered
and tlieir economic problems were
sololy of production.
Now-avc have lhe steam plow, the
threshing machine, the tractor and
scores of other machines to lighten
the labor of the fnrmer, but is he
any better situated than his grandfather? Perhaps, ln some ways, he
is but where the old man had one
problem the present Inheritor of the
family acres has a ■ doaen/ In fact,
problems are something which the
farmer has "nothing else but," and, in
many cases, he is walkfng off his
prairie farm or British Colifhtbla
fruit ranch, and leaving the solution
to someone else.
Farming is the original cross word
puzzle. The poor farmer gots tho
cross words from his banker and the
merchnnts to whom he owes money,
and the puzzle Is to make the farm
He boasts of his independence, and
the price he pays for it is his dependence upon everyone. He relies on
the factory for all he uses, and when,
as often happons, his own products
fail to (Ind a market he is fn a difficult  position.
The problem of the fruit worker is
no less serious. The packing senson
is short, and for the winter months
there Is nothing to do. The married
men earn a precarious living cutting
each other's cord wood, and the single
ones go to California. There can be
no lasting prosperity until this condition Is remedied.
When you have no money you
either make the things you need for
your own use or you go without.
Through bitter experience the farmer
is again learning how to become more
self-supporting and sufficient unto
himself. He Is still dependent, so far
as niiii'liinery and heavy Industry are
concerned, but In the field of light
industry and handicraft he is beginning to see new possibilities. Some
lime In the near future we may flnd
him spending tin? long winter evenings mak I ng n it leles of beauty and
usefulness wltb his hands instead of
reading Eaton's catalogue which Is
his favorite indoor sport at present.
We need a revival of cottage Industry, pcupunt craft or handicraft, as
It Is variously called. This is no new
Idon, but js as old ;is the hills, and
furnishes the main source of income
for tb- mass of tin- country population of Europe. Conditions in British
Columbia are ideal for lbe successful working out of this form of Industry.    Each farm house or orchard
the i
from t
be nei
if   the
should be n potential factory,
wner growing hfs foodstuffs
he soil in summer, and in wln-
(h- things which
■vn use. and to sell
In  most  dls-
Women  Ulldor .Socialism
Socialism would, for the i'.r< lime
make home life possible for all II
would, fiir the first  iinn-.  make llu
mothers    »t    the     nation     fre-    .in-
healthy and honored and hat
nntion n ith respect for worn
and wilh knowledge nnd keen con-
Bolousnoss of the Importance «t
motherhood would penult any woman
lo liv- lbe life now lived by million,
of women.     It. !'.  Slithers,
'V.   No
s for bis o,vn
be   a   sirplui
■le-hiciiy     |h
i ui ihe dispos
red,     If.  ,-is  .
Industrial k-
!'  Ill-  1
lure  will   be   p
the fo
n lsts
l ruth en
new system.
So much for
t-rlnlistic side,
even more imp*
ttiral nr artistic
age. ami  much
.'•nl ma-
anl aspect, the eul-
This I** the machine
f the industrial un-
Some are bent with toll;
crooked trying lo avoid  ll.
rest arises from (be fact, lhat the
workers have very little chance to
express their Individuality, but become automatons, repeating over nnd
over again their monotonous motions
In  that   industry  without   art,  which,
llluskln •'■■uys. is akin to brutality.
j The creative Inst I net is strong In
others get most people, but will remain dormant
I (Continued on page  2) Page Two
British Columbia Federationist
Published every Friday by
The   British  Columbia  Federatlonist
BusinesB and Editorial Office,   1120 Howo  St.
Art and Industry
(Continued from Page 1)
j unless given a chanco  to express  itself   in   the   production   of   beautiful
The nollcy of Tlio B. C. FederationiBt Is'  , . m.    '   .        , ,   _    ,
controlled   by   the   editorial   Hoard   of   the. things.     That   is  Why  we   need  tcch-
Fedcrated Labor Purty of British Columbia,   nical and art schools in this country
[to place tuition in the fine arts and
Subscription Rate: United States and Foreign, $8.00 por year; Canada, $2.50 por
year, $1.50 for six months; to Unions
subscribing in a body, 16c per membor
per   month.
The  Federationist  is on solo at  tho  following news  stands:
-. J, GALLOWAY 040 OranvUle Streot
 _ 1071   Qranvllle  Street
P. O. NEWS STAND 326 Granville Street
JOHN GREEN 206 OarraU Street
 Oor. Hastings and Columbia Avenue
 Oor. CarraJl and Hastings Streets
 134 Hastings Street East
 136 Hastings Street East
 163 Hastings Street Weat
NEWS   STAND   _„._
 Cor. Hastings and Abbott Streets
W. H. ARMSTRONG 2402 Main Street
BEN TOON'S BOOK SHOF....421 OranviUe
BOULT'S BOOK STOBE....313>/3 Gamble St.
 909 Georgia Street West
 548 Georgia Street
prochnau ft GATES....169 Broadway East
P. TURNER. 916 Main Street
B. A. WEBSTER 6993 Fraaer Street
SHOEMAKER * MOEAN....6 Lonsdale Ave.
A. MUNOEAM 764 Columbia Street
DEPOT NEWS STAND .Interurban Depot
DAN MACKENZIE Columbia Street
 ~_—.Oor. Yates and Government
HORSE SHOE STAND, 1223 Government St.
W. LEVY  644 Yates Stnet
T. A. BABNABD. 63 Commercial Strwt
W. H. DENHAM. News Stand
KABL ANDBB80N...... News Btand
 204 Eighth Ave. W., Oalfary
-109 Eighth Ave. W.. Calgary
  808 Centre Street, Oalgary
 304 First Street W., Oalgary
 126a Eighth Ave, E., Oalgary
 310 Second Ato. E., Oalgary
FRIDAY April 3,  1926
rPHE daily press reports rumors to
the effect that there is a gigantic
merger ef baking companies through
out Cannda with which many of the
leading bakeries in Canada will link
up with the American bread trust.
As far as Montreal is concerned
there Is said to be involved the huge
sum of $10,000,000 and that repre<
scntatlves are now in New York
carrying on negotiations-
When workers talk of organizing
on such a huge scale as is here contemplated; then thero is a great uproar in our dally press, but when
such combines aB these are proposed,
they seem to take it as a matter of
course. Once again the strangle
hold will be put upon the people—
for they must eat if they would survive. Competition which In the yeara
gone by used to be called the life
of trade, will be throttled. Prices
will be raised on this essential commodity and the worker will again be
made to suffer. Hundreds and thousands of men will be thrown out of
work on account of such an amalgamation, together with the adopting
of the most modern and up to date
baking machinery, as has occurred
locally. More unemployment, Increased priees, greater profits for the
lucky few und all the while
stand idly by, wondering what is the
cause of all the human misery and
suffering that we seo everywhere
about «us from day to day.
Such huge combines arc, however,
to he expected, and are but the
product of the social evolutionary
processes which are ever at work
from day to day, However, it is
our earnest hope that the dny may
speedily como when wo will have
something like ono big combine
which will ho owned, controlled and
.operated by und In the Interests of
the people themselves. Thou bread
will be baked for use and uot for
profit. Thousands of louves will not
then grow stale in the bake shops
while men und women are dying for
the noed of it. Hugo mergers and
combines may yet save the day, but
It will only be when they are in the
hands of, and controlled by, the people themselves, and not before, The
sooner wo awaken to that fact, the
sooner we will get out of this state
of social chaos in which wo find ourselves today, where hundreds and
thousands the world over arc suffering and dying, because ft Is unprofitable for the few who control the
necessities of life, to produce and
sell such necessities, Not until vfo
consider the needs of all and not tho
profits of the few. ran we hopo to
make any progress.
 — -
Tho peoplo are pot
ir beet
iti'se they
are   robued,   and   be.
•ii use
Ihey   arc
robbed, nnd they arc
1   because
they  arc   poor.—.Jack
,    BrltlBh
lahor M.  P,
handicrafts at the disposal of ou
young people. Then "beauty," which
has fled from the factory in despair,
may Hud a home in the country, and
a new art spring up as a seasonal
occupation on the farm. Then we
will have a culture worth while, because it will be broadly based upon
the soil and the love of beauty in
the common people.
The   general   opinion   seems  to   be
that   artists   and   those   of   artistic
temperament,   are   usually   very   impractical and for that reason we always lay stress on the economic and
practical side of this movement. Idealistic In Its tendencies, it is yet sulli-
clcntly materialistic to answer those
critics  who  might  charge  the  originators   with   being   mere   theorists,
And, as an ounce of demonstration
is worth a pound of admonition, here
Is   the   story   of   how   it   began   and
how it is working out in Summ.erland:
In the winter of 1921-22 there were
many men unemployed and some of
them were in actual want.   The question  was discussed at every meeting
of the Labor party, and there seemed
nothing that could be done.   Finally,
It   was   suggested   that   these   men
manufacture  rag' rugs,  or engage in
some form of handicraft where material could be obtained cheaply, and
that  the  products  be  sold  for  their
benefit.     That   brought   up   several
questions:    First,   who  would  tench
them the rug making or other handicraft; second, who would determine
the necessary artistic standard which
each article must meet In order to be
saleable; and third, where would thy
goods be exhibited and sold?
These problems were discussed at
length, and it was discovered that the
B. C. Art League had ,1ust been foun-!
ded, and had for one of Its aims the
encouragement and development of
just such industry as we were trying
to foster. A meeting was called and
a branch of the Art League organized,
with Mr. A, Wfshart, now on the
staff of King Edward high school,
Vancouver, as president, and Mrs. ...
M. Sutherland ns secretary,
There  were  objections   of  course.
There always  are.     Many  could   not
see the need of an Art League when
there were no artists in the district,
and why try to manufacture handicraft when no one knew how to do
It?    Then the question of an exhibition and sales room arose, and there
seemed to be no suitable place available.   A log cabin was mentioned as
being  most  typical  of the  country,
and a good site was offered, but there
again the question of expense was insuperable.     Times   wore    hard   and
nothing could be done without money.
It looked as if an impasse had been
reached, but it is difficult to dampen
the   right   kind   of   enthusiasm,   and.
the originators of the idea went back
to   the   Labor   party   to   explain   the
difficulties, and ask what they intended to do about It.    It was the unanimous  opinion  of the   members  that,
with the proper amount of community
effort,  the  expense   would   be  small,
and  tbey volunteered  to Ho  most  of
the  work  in  building  the  cabin  and
clearing the grounds If thc  material
were supplied.   A gang was organized
and, with a few hours work, the logs
were   cut  and   skidded,   ready  to   be
hauled to the site chosen.    Everyone
helped   nnd   the   grounds   were   soon
cleared, stumps pulled, the soil leveled
and the cabin erected.
The owner of the ground on whicli
the log cabin was built paid for all
materials used, and the officers of
the Art League had the option of paying this amount and owning the log
cabin or paying a nominal rent. They
chose the latter, and we wish to make
this point clear, as there has been
some misunderstanding as to the exact
relation between the Art League and
the other organizations, which also
mako use of the cabin and grounds.
On June 1st the building was formally opened with an exhibition of
local handicraft. Mr. J. W. Jones, W\.
P.P., Mr. J. M, Robinson and other
prominent citizens delivering addresses of commendation for the new
A large crowd of visitors Inspected
thc splendid exhibition which was a
revelation Indeed. Only a few had
previously realized a fact, which was
then clearly visualized and later proven many times over, that In practically every household (here is always
someone who lin* the skill and ability
to produce articles of artistry and
beauty. Mbsl of the objections were
answered then and there, and tlie Art
League has made steady and sails-
factory progress ever since. As the
worlt has evolved we have discovered
workers who bave not only lalent but
positive genius, which might have remained dormant but for the Impetus
supplied  hy tbo organization.
.A tea room was opened in connection with the log cabin, but for the
first season the stock was small and
sales in corresponding ratio. Something else had to lie developed, and,
although our Ignorance of many of
lhe crafts was profound, we wero determined lo learn them one by onc qv
know tbe reason why,
Pottery making suggested Itself, as
wn know from experiments conducted
by Mi*. Fred Manchester several years
ago. tbat thc clay banks whieh tower
above Lake okanagan hud po:
ties In I bat direct Ion. No on
ever soon a pol mnde or had the loast
idea nt how to go ahout rnaklng one,
hni we decided lhat was a mere detail
land went cheerfully ahead. In March,
11)23, wc were fortunate enough to
ci'ure the services of Miss Alary Young
who was at that time managing ah
art pottery at Bpnff, and, under her
Instruction, two classes of twenty-four
work mixing and moulding clay and
learning the technie of hand modeling. We were called "mud stingers,"
but we smiled and carried on. The
local clay was found, to be quite suitable when mixed with a small amount
of a more plastic variety.
A class was also operated at Naramata, and the two districts have co
operated in us many phases of the
movement as possible. All our classes
have been conducted by the night
school, under direction of the school
board and with thc collaboration o;
the Art League and Women's Institutes.
Our first class in pottery-making
demonstrated that the manufacture of
art pottery was practicable, and quite
a number of interesting samples were
on hand when the log cabin was
igain opened. Under the capable
management of Mrs. Vlcury and Miss
Mary Vicary the tea room soon acquired a reputation and the number
of visitors Increased. More articles
Were being brought in ond sales grew
slowly but steadily.
All the experiments with pottery
hnd been carried on under difficulties,
only a sniall kiln ordinarily used for
chhm painting being available. When
fall came the need of a new kiln was
Imperative and one was bought, the
Art League paying half the cost and
the school board, in conjunction with
the educational department, paying
the balance. We are under deep obligation to Mr. John Kyle, superintendent of technical education, for his
assistance in getting the kiln and
for the deep interest he has taken in
our work from Its inception.
Miss Young, now Mrs. Stanley Hawkins, returned in November to complete her course of instruction, and
the pupils were soon busily engaged
throwing on the wheel, glazing and
firing. The talent which was discovered was really remarkable, and the
fact that one .of our workers, Miss
Doris Cordy, was engaged to teach
these phases of the craft at the sum
mer school for teachers In Victoria
this past year, Is sufficient indication of the high quality of the craft-
manship which is being displayed
with only a few month's experience.
Mr. Kyhs, while visiting Summer-
land, remarked that a pottery teacher
was being brought from Portland,
but, on seeing specimens of Miss
Cordy's work at the log cabin, decided at once that there was no need
to send out of the province for such
It is our aim to develop a new
handicraft every year, aud, in accordance with that Idea, our next class
was ln basketry, under the direction
of Mrs. Lloyd Armstrong of Keremeos.
The sessions were largely attended,
and here again a high order of talent
was in evidence, All sorts of baskets
and other articles were turned out,
nd pine needles
[By Lloyd' Roberts, Press Guild'y, Ottawa.]
["An oppressed people Is crying for a deliverer today. Never in the
whole course of our history has there been a more wonderful example
of patient heroism than is being manifested by the thousands of men,
women and children in Cape Breton at the present timo."—Ven. Archdeacon Scott.]
The buttle thickens, ihe foes ring round,
Closer and closer, death's in our face.
Steady there, steady, hold your ground,
Each in his place, lads, each in his place.
Who will say that we have not fought well,
Armed with pick and shovel and bar,
Blackened and burned in the fires of hell—
The rank and file of a Holy War?
Courago, then, comrades, lest wc forget
Tlie World's my country, my brother Man;
Though the foes increase we will see it yet—
The fields grow green where the red blood ran.
Thc little ones cry, tho mothers are still,
But their crying, thcir stillness, rings over the Bay;
I ean see the white banners like dawn on the hill—
The hosts of Humanity march our way.
Close, up your ranks there, steady your oyes,
It is better to struggle though the ground runs red
Than falter one step from the ultimate prize
In the Battle of Bread, lads, the Battle of Bread.
The women are weary, but steady, but steady,
The babies are dying, tho hot tears blind;
We perish, wc perish, but steady, but steady,
The battle is Man's and the peace Mankind's.
Tomorrow, perhaps, we will hear the sound
Of His great Voice ringing across thc land;
Today, the fierce foes ring us round-
Stand to your faith, lads, stand!
™DAY Aprn 3| 1925..,
Who oplnloni and Meu exprewtd
by correspondents aw not necMMrily
endorsed by Th* Federatloniat, and
no responsibility for the viewa axpraa-
■ed li accepted by the management.]
' had
reed, raffia, willow
being materials used.
iV loom has bcen purchnsed for us
by one of our patrons, and Is expected lo arrive shortly from England. Hand-weaving will soon be in
full swing, and classes in metal work,
copper and brass repousse, jewelry,
etc., are ln process of organization.
There will also be opportunities for
beginners to take up elementary pottery-making in Maroh under the tuition of Miss DorisNCordy and Miss
Marlon Cartwright.
The technical side is being mastered, and next we have to consider
the artistic problem nnd the rationale of design. Our experience has
shown us that, for the tourist trade,
need Indian designs, somewhat
modified and Improved, and that has
taken uh Into the study of Indian
art and culture with particular reference to the locnl tribes. We expect
to use the native basis for our entire
nrt motive, and our experimentation
will be along thnt line. AVc have
in connection with tho log cabin tlie
nucleus of a museum of native curios
and a large reference library of Indian  lore.
The executivo committee of the Art
League constitutes a board of censorship to keep the vnrious products up,
to a certain high standard. All worlt I
except firing is done In the home,
each pottery maker' having a wheel
of her own, and all articles are sold
on a commission basis, the lengue
talcing ten per cent of all sales to
cover running expense*.
The success of thc organization i.-
dtie lo no single individual, bul io
the unselfish devotion and wholehearted enthusiasm of the entire
group. While developing lho skill or
the Individual worker ihe organization is purely co-operative In Its scone
Our motto is "Nol Arl for Art's
sake, but Art for Life's sake"
The movement is still In ils Infancy
and we expect to face many difficulties and to be obliged to solve many
problems before our cottage industry
Is on a permanent basis. However,
the germ has sprouted, and We sec
already the growing blade and know
that It contains lhe promise of the
full stalk, ihe flower nnd then the
Use and Abuse of Books
Hooks are the best of things, well
used; abused, among the worst. What
la the right nse? What Is the ono
end wliich all means go to effoct?
They are for nothing but to inspire.
I hud bettor nevor see a book than
to be warped by Its attraction clean
out of my own orbit, and made
flatomtG """lead of a system. The
one thing in the world of value is
the activo soul. This every man is
entitled to; this overy man contains
within him, although, in almost all
men, obstructed and as yet unborn.
absolute truth,
The soul active
and utters truth,
Tho greatest nssistanco (hat tho
renders of The Federatlonist can render us nt this time, is by securing n
»'»■*   iiibscrlber,    By  doin?  sn  v*,,.
men  and   women  wo
.sprend tlio news of the working r_nn*
movement and assist us.
Editor Federationist: As a newspaper man of nearly 40 year's work
in daily and periodical Journalism, I
regret to say—and I say It klndly-
that there is not a single grain of
fact or truth in Mr. A. M. Stephen's
criticism of my "Highways of Canadian Literature." His review in
The Federationist is alone in being
contrary to any other review that
has appeared in the Canadian or
United States daily press or magazines. His review, in truth, leads me
to believe that I should have entitled my book, "The Frogponds ot
Canadian Literature." But let me
come to matters of' fact.
It is not true that I am a university professor.    All that I have done,
so far as Canadian literature Is concerned,   is   to   have  gone   to   Acadia
university   and   given   three   or   four
lectures annually  on certain  phases
or movements in our literary history,
all the while following my profession
as   a   newspaper   man.   What   Mr.
Stephens does not know, I Infer, are
these    two    indisputable    facts—that,
about  1010 I  began first, tho movement to change the method of literary criticism in Canada, and secondly,  the movement  to  get  our literature introduced into the curricula of
Canadian  colleges  and   universities—
and I did this in my function as a
newspaper  man.    Donald G.  French,
beginning with  my editorship of the
Toronto Sunday World, was associated with me In that movement, and
he   has   been   assocltated   with   me
ever since.    Donald came of a race
of farmers, and so did I.    I put myself through college at Dalhousie  (I
was a classmate of Hon. W. J. Bowser and other well-known citizens of
B. C.) and through Harvard, earning
money on   farms,  in lumber camps,
in  mines,  and  in  all  sorts of "hard
labor" ways; and as one critic puts
it, I write about "anything from the
fine to the fistic arts,"    Incidentally,
1 was an outstanding athlete in my
day, and am one of "tho best little
mixers" in Canada, went to the war
In   my   40th   year,   and   wrote   some
verse,   most  of it   respectable  magazine   or  newspaper  verse,   and  some
of It "rotten."    There isn't a corner
in Canada or the United Stntes that
hasn't heard  of  me,  and I am  generally  regarded   as  the  absolute antithesis  of a  college   professor.    But
Brother  Stephens   doesn't  know   me,
which Is his loss, not mine.
Again: Donald French, as my collaborator, did not write the three
ibapiers on Canadian Tlctloii nnd tlie
drama. I wrote them all, but since
thc publishers did not think my
chapters on fiction were adequate In
scope (that Is, inclusive enough), I
asked Mr. French lo revise and enlarge thom. He did this. The general editing of the book and mechanical make-up is also Mr. French's-
I wrote the chapter on the dranin.
But it must be remembered lhat the
manuscript of the book was in the
hands of the publishers more thau
two 'years before tho book itsolf appeared. Moreover, for reasons of
cost, all chapters were "cut" from
a half to two-thirds.
Further: ll Is not true that most
of what I say on the Canadian poets
was said before: If it was, I myself
said it, for the chapters on Roberts,
Lanipman, and the whole systematic!
school, save Duncan C. Scott, are
revisions and enlargements of my
essays on those poets, beginning with
the essay "The Literary Group of'01"
(Canadian Magazine, 1910, circa.)
The essay on Duncan Campbell Scott
is wholly new and the first of its
kind by a Canadian so-called critic,
while all the Introductory chapters
on the Social and Spiritual Bases of'
Work to Proceed on New Nata-
torium and Pleasure Resort
at English Bay,
At a director's meeting of the
Vancouver Swimming Pool & Pleasure Pier, limited, held last Monday,
it was definitely decided to. instruct
Architects Gardiner & Mercer to rush
Ifinal plans and specifications for the
'new natatorium and pleasure resort
at English bay, and to call tenders
immediately for the construction of
the flrst unit In the company's scheme
of development.
The structure planned by the company will bo carried out in units and
unit one, construction of which wll]
procoed at once calls for a 50-foot
extension of the present building, to
be supported on steel beams and reinforced concrete The foundations
will be Incorporated hi the concrete
walls of the swimming pool.
As the tearoom and refreshment
business will form a very important
part of this company's enterprise, ft
was essential that this extension be
carried out before the season opens.
This construction programme will allow the company's business to be cav- j
rfed on efficiently while pool and'
pier construction proceeds. The new
building will be nearly all glass on
three sides, allowing patrons a wonderful view of English bay and the
gulf. It will rest on steel beams to
overcome the effects of condensation
of steam In the hot water pool-
Messrs. Gardiner & Mercer state that
the plans have matured sufficiently
to enable them to call for tenders
before the end of the present week.
The board of directors are to be
congratulated on the rapid progress
made by the company.
[Note—Aa many enquiries reach
thla office from Ume to Ume, the editor will reserve ipace to deal with
such matters, under the above heading. Communications addressed to
"Notes and Queries Editor" will be
handled as quickly aa space permits.
SYDNEY L.: See issue of March
20, subject dealt with in editorial.
STEPHEN (Fernie): Thanks, will
use your copy in early issue.
SURPRISED: We are not surprised at your letter. We await British Socialist papers for explanation
on the reported meeting of labor
and capital representatives to consider the ship-building situation.
F. CLARK: The only means Is
by working for an independent press.
Pamphleteering fills a bit but a dally
Socialist press for every city of any
size Is the great need.
A. CLIFFORD: Birth control considerations are gaining ground in
every direction. Did you see the report of a meeting of Now York
clergy in support and the splendid
statement of Rabbi Wise.
JUSTICE: Mrs, Cooke; Alec replies next week.
THOMAS: The verses you ask
for are the words of the poem "A
Song of War," publishod originally
In the "Dally Herald" (London, Aug- j
ust 1, 1914). There is something
prophetic now, in these words, so we
have published It in full In this issue
The Banker sat in his parlor
And chuckled aloud with glee;
He raised his glass,
His wine he quaffed,
For war Is declared, said he.
The soldier shouldered his rifle,
And fared him forth to the fray;
His pulse beat high,
He smiled and sang,
For war is declared today.
The people awoke from slumber
To answer the clarion  call;
They flew to arms,
No cost too great,
For war is declared for all.
A woman sat and mourned alone,
A child cried out for bread,
A trader watched his ruined shop,
For customers were sped.
A workman wearily sought a job,
But factory wheels were still,
And men lay dead nnd dying
On dlslanl plain and hill.
The Banker sat in his parlor
And chuckled aloud with, glee;
He raised his glass,
His wine he quaffed.
Thank God for the war, said he.
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Onco moro: the chapter on the
Vaudeville School is reduced from
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Mr, Stephen's fancied nuanel between myself and "Bob" Stead Is a
mero Irrelevant fancy. I have no
personal quarrel with "Bob" Stead.
T shall change the word "Vaudeville" to "Picaresque." Tom Mac-
Junes got a notice in the "Picaresque" school, but I was asked by
dear Tom's dear friends to tako his
name out; I did so; and now they are
all "kicking" that his name doesn't appear In the book. Too many cooks
"monkeying" with the literary soup.
But all this will be remedied in the
socond edition. I shnll not further
weary you but let me say to Mr,
Stephens, "No hard feolln's, old boy,
I'm one of the best "sports" In Canada—and the hero of a hundred literary and other lights; but above nil
a newspaper man, and proud of it."
March   16,   1025.
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Page Three
They are made of
first quality leathers on comfortable
good fitting lasts.
For work or dress
At all leading Shoe Stores.
Adler, Weil and Herman are peripatetic comedians, known aB California's Sunklst Entertainers. They
were the hit of the "cocoanut grove"
ln Los Angeles' georgeous Ambassador hotel when it lirst opened. Their
offering April 9, 10 and 11 at the
Orpheum promises to be one of the
most enjoyable novelties of the season.
Gilbert's "Three Littlo Maids from
School" were not nearly as delightful as the Glersdor sisters, throe
little musical maids, whose art is
greatly enhanced by personal charm
and magnetism. They are accompanied by their own band of clever
Elsie Clark, thc popular phonograph artist, is known the world
over as ono of tho most popular
phonograph singers, her specialty
is the "Blue" type of songs. She ls
accompanied by Nelson Story, a clover pianist. York and Lord. "Two
Gentlemen Nevertheless," aro comedians wh present a travesty on gentility that is said to be ono lor)g
scream. Maud Powers and Vernon
Wallace present "Georgia," which is
described as a sequel to "Georgia on
Broadway," in which thoy appeared
last season. "Nonsensical Absurdities" is a funny conglomeration of
comedy high-spots presonted by
Branson and Edwards. They are
clover commedlans and their act is
described as a comedy sensation in
ono spasm. Jackie und Billle, tho
thinking and talking birds are returning again with a lot of clover
and brand new tricks. A funny
Aesop's Fables, Topics of lho Day
and the Orpheum Concert Orchestra
complete a very attractive  bill.
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Into false security while they shear
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[By  Charles  Hill-Tout, F.  R.   S.   C./
F. It. A. I. etc.]
(All Rights Reserved)
WE BROUGHT the last article to
a close with a sketch of the phy-
logenic hiBtory of the Primates, the
highest order of the mammals, and
saw that the fossil and morphological
idence at our disposal led to the
conclusion that the higher and later
members of this order arose about
the middle of the Miocene epoch,
probably among the foothills of the
Himalayas; and that among them
there muBt have existed some form
that could be regarded as the common ancestor of the present-day anthropoids and man.
When we consider man on his
physical side there is no escape from
the conclusion that he belongs to the
animal kingdom, is a mammal, a
member of tho Primate order, and
closely related to the higher apes,
sharing, indeed, a common descent
with them from the same ancestor.
We are driven to accept this view
of his origin, no matter how repugnant the idea may be to our self-
esteem, or how much it may conflict
with earlier theological teachings, unless we are prepared to deny the
validity of modern zoological research and the obvious facts of comparative anatomy.
To the open-minded person who is
desirous of reaching the truth above
all things, and ls willing to lay aside
his preconceptions concerning the
origin of man and follow the findings
of his reason, the factual proofs of
man's genetic relationship, to the
other members of the Primate order
are of so conclusive and convincing
a nature as to leave him no alternative but to accept them, if he is to
avoid stultifying his own intelligence.
It is admitted on all sides today
tbat no fundamental, anatomical differences can be Bhown to exist between man ahd the anthropoids; and
that when the latter and the more
primitive monkeys and lemurs are
compared one with another they present vastly greater structural differences, both internal and external,
than nre found between tho higher
apes and man. Dr. Bir Arthur Keith,
Conservator of the College of Surgeons In London, and one of the outstanding comparative anatomlBts of
our day, has given particular study
to the physical characters of man
and the apes, and he informs us that
many of these characters are not
only peculiar to theso two groups
themselves and found ln no other
mammals, but are of such a fundamental nature ub to make it impossible to doubt the close relationship
between the two, or the fact that
they represent today two divergent
lines of evolution sprung from a
common ancestor..
Man, he tells us, shares as many
as 396 common anatomical characters with the Chimpanzee; 385 with
the Gorilla, 272 with the Orang and
188 with the Gibbon.
These aro very significant facts,
and when taken in conjunction with
a number of others of equal cogency,
drawn from embryology, pal-teonto-
logy, blood tests and vestigial organs,
their cumulative forco becomes so
strong as to sweep aside all possible
objection that might bo urged against
them and leave those who would oppose them without any substantial
argument with which to meet tliem.
There is, indeed, nn reasonable explanation left to account for them if
wo reject a direet relationship and
a common descent for man and the
anthropoids. Let us here briefly con-
alder somo of these facts; we shall
find them very convincing. First,
those from embryology.
We saw in an earlier article that
every living form began its existence
In the same way, namely, as a tiny
cell or life-germ. We saw, too, that
some organisms never got beyond
this early Htago, but became more or
less stereotyped nnd fixed. These are
the Protozoans or single-celled forms.
Others by association and integration
became the compound, complex Metazoans or higher life-formB. Tho
truth of this statement is beyond
question. It is the most fundamental fact in the life-realm, and one
upon which all our biological authorities are absolutely agreed. Man
forms no exception to this goneral
rule of life. Ho begins bis corporeal
existence in identically tho samo way
as tho apes, and both they and ho
In the name way as the other creatures.
The human germ-coll differs In no
essential respect, as far as tho nature
of its physical elements Is concerned,
from thnt of the ope or any other
animal. Its earliest stages of development are the same us theirs; its
potentialities only nre different. Indeed, considerable timo must elapse
after the zygote, or impregnated
ovum, has begun Its individual
growth, before it Is possible to distinguish between thc embryo of a
dog, an ape and a man. And what
is more significant in tho case of tbe
human embryo, the earliest characters that manifest themselves In the
first weeks of its uterine life, suggest any othor form rather thnn a
human one. It Is not till the eighth
week of Us existence that tho earliest
Primate characters first appear; and
not' till nfter the sixth month that
all the distinctively human charac
ters manifest themselves.
Our embryologlflts of today are fa
miliar with every stage of development the human embryo passes
through. There Is no guesswork
about our knowledgo in this regard.
Let us, therefore, malic ourselves ac
qualntod with some of the least tech
nical parts of it.
At the period of impregnation tho
human ovum is a tiny speck of or
ganic mattor too small for the unald
ed human eye to detect, since it
ranges only from about l-120th to,
l-140th of an inch in diameter. Like
the embryo of other mammals, it
grows very slowly in the earlier
stages of its development, being at
the end of the first month only
about an inch in length. At the end
of two months it has more than
doubled Its length, being then about
two and a half inches. At three
months it Is about five Inches; at
the fifth month' about six or seven
Inches; at the seventh nearly a foot
long; at eight months about fourteen
Inches, nnd at nine months, or the
period of birth, normally from eighteen to twenty inches. In this gradual mode of development there Is no
essential difference between the
growth of the human embryo and
that of any other of the mammals.
After the seventh day of development the human ovum becomes visible to the naked eye- By the twelfth
day it is a vesicle-like body about
the size of a small pea. On the 13th
or 14th day the embryo is about the
size of a horse-fly and resembles one
of the early worm-like organisms
doubled up. If str&tghtened out it
is seen to be about half an inch in
length. Between the second and
third week It passes through several of the earlier life-stages, represented today by the colonizing protozoans and the lower metazoans. In
the fourth week, or about the 25th
day, it is seen to reach a definite
flah stage. At this time and stage
of its development tnere is very littlo difference between the mammal
embryo and the lowliest of the fish-
forms. By this time the gastrula
stage has well begun. This is the
two-layered stage we saw was characteristic of the lower metazoan
forms, such as Hydra, gastrula-
tion being the process by which the
"mprula," or mulberry-shaped aggregation of single cells, Is converted
into a two-layered organism with an
internal cavity or enteron. The "invagination" or Indenting of the morula, which Is to give rise to the future stomach and mouth, is very
clearly seen. Tho primitive streak
and groove earlier manifested Is now
turning into the three layers of the
ectoderm, the mesoderm and the endoderm, from which later are developed all the organs nnd specialized
parts of the higher creatures. As in
tho early and lowely organisms, the
human embryo at this stage has but
one orifice, the oral one. In Its
skeletal outlines it has, by this time,
left well behind tho invertebrate
forms. It Is seen to be passing
through the structural phases characteristic of the amphioxus or lancelet,
which we earlier saw represented the
lowest of tho vertebrate forms. What
is later to become the backbone of
the embryo Is now seen as a noto*
chord, such as tho most primitivt
fishes possess. The heart, too, of
tbe embryo at this stage is only
oue - chambered organ, tho same
as that in the lancelet; and tho pre
brain is similar to that In the lamp
rey, where the olfactory lobes form
the larger portion and are tho most
highly developed, as in the lower
mammalian forms. It is during this
fish-stage in tho life of the embryo
that the gill-silts and gill-arches
manifest themselves. By the fifth
week these fish-Uke piloses begin to
pass away and the characters of the
land animals make their first ap
pearanco in tiie form of the limb-
buds, which later devolop Into the
fully-formed limbs.
During those first fivo weeks in
the embryonic life of the mammals,
the life-germ passes through eight
distinct phases, every one of which
is represented today by somo lowly
organized living form which has become fixed and settled In its habits
nnd  organization.
During the sixth -week the gill
slits close up, the digits of the limbs
begin to make their appearance, and
tho tail, which has outgrown the
budding limbs in length, reaches its
maximum development, It is at thts
stage actually longer than tbe hind
limbs themselves. The segmentation
or Jointing of tho limbs also now
takes plt.ee, At this stage the digits
are webbed like those of the frog.
This, like lho excessive olfactory
lobes, wben there Is no need of
sense of smell, Is a very significant
feature and has absolutely no tunc
tional meaning or any reasonable ex
planation apart from tbe doctrine of
organic evolution and the biogenetic
law of recapitulation.
In tho seventh week the embryo
becomes what Is technically called a
foetus. By tbis time tho digits aro
clearly demarcated and the tail bo
gins lo shrink ami gradually disappear. Retrogression of Ibis useless
organ has set in. In tills connection
it is of Interost to point out that Instances are well known whoro the
humun infant has been born with a
short tall. Such a feature Is readily explained from the evolutionary
point of view by regarding It as an
instance of atavism, whero some remote ancestral phn./_ has persisted
throughout the wholo embryological
and foatttl life down to the birth period. Atavisms of this kind are not
at all Infrequent, but tbey nre distinctly puzzling anil without rational
explanation If man is regarded as
having no genetic relationship with
other and  lower life-forms,
About this time the heart undergoes modification and passes from a
one-chambered organ to a rlght-and
lort two-chambered one. In the
eighth week the foetus begins to exhibit its earliest Primate cbaracte-f
Prom this timo onwards ft develops
along Primate lines, gradually leav
Ing the lemurold and monkey stage;
and passing into those of thc anthro
pold, which aro cl&sely parallel to
those of man til] near tbo birth pe
riod, Another significant point to bo
observed    is    that    in    all    vertebrate
animals below the anthropoids the
spinal column forms a horizontal
axlB. In the anthropoids and man
it forms a vertical one. Keith has
no doubt that the orthograde or upright posture was evolved from the
earlier pronograde or inclined posture; and the close relationship of
the anthropoids to tlie lower pronograde Primates assuredly warrants
this conclusion.
The evolutionary principle iB also
well exemplified in the growth of the
brain. The Primate brain shows
great advance upon the brains of the
other, mammals, and haB moreover
characters peculiar to itself; and we
can watch the development of these,
step by step, from the lower Primates
right through to man. Between the
higher apes and man the brain differences are vastly less than those
between the anthropoids and the
more primitive monkeys. Keith,
Smith Woodward, Elliot Smith, and
other high authorities in these matters, tell us that no one can study
the brain of man without being convinced that it has passed through
those stages represented by the brain
of the anthropoids. The differences
between them are seen to be those
of degree only, and not of kind.
They affirm that the evolution of
the human skull during the pre-natal
period exhibits all the'phases through
which those of the earlier and more
primitive life-forms pass. The lines
of development of the skull, for example, have alwayy oeen closely related to the functions of respiration.
When the pulmonary (lung) method
replaces the earlier branchial (gill)
system, which we saw had a temporary existence in t?ie fourth week of
the .development of tne human embryo/1 the .nasal air-passages become
separated from the mouth by a
primitive palate, such as is characteristic of amphibians, reptiles and
birds. We can watch the development of this palate stage by stage in
the human embryo, Again in the
second month the skull of the human
embryo is purely cartilaginous in its
nature. This is the characteristic
condition of the skulls of all that
group of lower vertebrates represented today by such fiBhes as the dogfish, the rays and the sharks. The
divisions of the skull of the latter
are exactly paralleled In the foetal
skull of man in the eighth week of
Its development.
One is tempted to ask here: Why
does the human embryo assume or
pass through nil these non-human
phases? Why this recapitulation of
features characteristic or more lowly
forms than the human, if there be
no evolutionary process and no biogenetic law?
Truly it may be tatA of man that,
like the frog and other amphibians,
In his embryological life he literally
climbs up his own ancestral tree,
During the latter phases of their
uterine existence the embryos of man
nnd tho anthropoids resemble each
other so closely that it takes a trained observer to distinguish between
them. Sir Arthur Keith has stated
In one of his recent lectures that, In
the museum of tlte College of Surgeons, there is ou exhibition the pregnant uterus of a Chimpanzee, which
It dissected in such a manner as to
expose a fretus In the seventh month
of development. Ho points out how
closely the foetus resembles tbat of a
woman, and thnt It could easily be
mistaken for a human foetus by any
but an instructed observer. The skin
of the young body is nude, save for
tbo presence of the same fine lanugo
or downy hair seen on the body of
the human foetus in the same stage'
of development, and which usually
disappears beforo the birth period.:
Like the tail and webbed digits, this,
feature occasionally persists through
to the time of birth and the child is
born with a hairy body, ns fs normally the case with the young of
the anthropoids. The skin of this
young chimpanzee shows scarcely any
sign of pigmentation resembling In
this respect the foetus of the black
races, whose young Up in the time of
birth do not possess tbo dark skin
of tbeir parents. In appearance it is
of an nshen-groy color, and the scalp
is covered with brown hair, which is
distributed over tbe head ln a distinctly human manner, quite unlike
that of the mature chimpanzee,
whose hair, moreover. Is nover of
that color.
Keith, from his studies of this
chimpanzee foetus, has drawn tho
momentous conclusion—in which be
is supported by Piofessor Bolk of
Amsterdam, who possesses a similar
foetus, and who drew from Us study
a similar but Independent conclusion
to that of Keith—tbnt man eame by
his naked skin and tho blond race by
Its absence of pigmentation by Inheriting a foetal condition from some
anthropoid ancestor. What was clearly a passing phase lu the foetal life
of the anthropoids, ns exhibited by
those modern chimpanzees, had at
some time In the distant past persisted through to the birth period, and
the first blondish and hairless ape
was brought into being. From this
creature, by the fixation and inheritance of these hum*nnold characters,
man arose. It may bo added that
Keith holds thc view that the pigmented races—the black, yollow and
red races—are later iti time than, nnd
modified forms or, the moro primitive blond typo. ' This typo is certainly more hairy than any of tbe
othors, nnd in that respect, at lenst,
Js closer lo tbo npos.
Whether wo accept this weighty
deduction of Keith and Bolk, or not,
It must be admitted lhat it is nn
extremely plausible one and docs no
violenco to the facts from which lt
is drawn; aud also that tho characters displayed by man must have
nrlsen in lbe first place, If organic
evolution Is the fundamental principle wo believe it to bo, in some such
way as Is hern suggested. We know
that noW forms may suddenly arise
In this manner, It tf* quite possible
tbat man's first appearance was dun
to a "mutation" or 'sudden leap" of
the de Vrles kind, our recently-acquired   knowledge   of   the   important
part which the "hormones" or
"chemical messengers" aent out by
the ductless glands Into the blood
stream, play in tho upbuilding and
molding of our bodies and characters, especially in the uterine period
of our existence, fully warrants our
drawing such a conclusion and holding such a view.
Keith regards the long, developmental, pre-natal period of the higher animals aB an extremely favorable time for the activities of the
ductless or endocrine glands; and
thinks that it gives the hormone system the necessary shelter and opportunity for working out its effects and
for elaborating new experiments.
It Is under this system, he believes
that all new characters arise and are
developed during the early life of the
foetus. The uterine period he regards
bb the time of elaboration and experiment on the part of the growth
mechanism. All kinds of growths
and characters are apt to arise at
thiB time, he points out, but under
the influence of heredity these are
usually reabsorbed and entirely disappear before birth. At times, however, some of these new characters
thus elaborated and brought into existence by the activity of the hormone system, persist, become fixed,
and, therefore, hereditary; and thus
new forms and types arise. He believes that the "hormone system"—
that is, the secretions of the ductless gland*, which are poured directly into the blood-stream — ls the
agency by which both the racial differentiations of mankind and the distinctive characters, which mark off
the human division of the Primates
from the anthropoid one, were
brought about.
It must be conceded, at any rate,
whether we accept these conclusions
of Keith or not, that the embryological and foetal evidence we have just
considered points stitmgly to the descent of man from lower forms of
life and to a genetic relationship
with the other Primates, and especially to the anthropoid apes.
In the next article we will devote
our attention to the evidences of
man's presence on the earth in past
times, and see what we may learn
from them of his antiquity and of
his earlier physical characters and
affiliations, as these are revealed to
us by the palteontologlcal record.
(To be continued.)
Government Work at Fernie Is
Not Equally Divided Among
It was decided by the provincial
government, at the urgent demand
of labor members during thb *ast aef.-
sion, to do something to relieve unemployment during the winter, not
only at Fernie and the coast cities,
but throughout interior points as
' The minister of public works w
in Fernio about the middle of January, when the relief work was started
there.     He  picked   up  a   barber  wh
needed   fresh   air,   and   sent   hfm   t
Hope  to  work as i^ clerk.    Work  in
Fernle,   it   was  slated,  would   be  of
two weeks' duration—and then a new
gang would relieve the old.    This did
With An Initial Payment of
And the Balance in 12 Payments
For a limited period you will be able to
have delivered to your home the very
latest model Hoover, which possesses
the three features in one: it beats,
sweeps and cleans in one operation.
The initial cost to you will be a deposit of $4.50 and the balance may be
met in monthly payments of $6.26.
r        u iHCOftPOMwrco **_> a- may i«ro        |C *•   -WcW
apply in a few cases, but there were
those who starved on for nearly two
months while other unemployed
never got any work at all. it looked
very much as if it were simply a
matter of greasing the machine which
dominates this  particular riding.
One gets the feeling that in Fernie
there is an air of Intimidation—Intimidation as to whom one should
trade with, what doctor one should
have when any of the family is sick,
whom one should vote for, and what
one must think—or not think ot all.
Think of your schemes and think
of your deeds, you who have the
political creed to blacklist and bar
men from government work, iu which
they should share when out of a job.
To explain conditions In Fernle
district still further. A member nf
parliament, asked by a man, "Why
don't 1 gel on the government work?"
replied: "Your wife didn't vote for
us last election! she and her children
shall suffer. You will |,c offered
no work by (be government!"
The business man politician sits in
With the bunch who dishes out jobs
on government work.    "Give McNutt
here a Job." he says, "he trades at
my place." Poor McOle, who trades
at another store, shall work for the
government no more.
A man high in committee rank
might easily exclaim: "Give work to
my friend. We have a large vote; it
counts at the poll—so como through,
or next election you will look like a
fool I" The gang's political creed
seems to be to intimidate citizens and
cause the free to sell their franchise
for a mess of pottage—as he is blacklisted by traitors and hucksters.
Tbe youth who was born on Canadian soil, grown to manhood and
commenced (o toll has learned to Blng
thc grand old song "Oh Canada; my
home, my native land!" It' must be
wrong. "1 am refused a job on government work, sometimes run by a foreign snob. I must flnd me a homo
away down south, where they say lies
God's country, while my own nntive
land Is run by political skunks
whose names stink in men's nostrils
like   punk.
Try your neighbor for a subscription.
Official Organ of the
Published in thc Interests of All Workers N
rV—_ party is desirous of making what contribution it can to the betterment of society. It realizes that the most effective method to accomplish this end is by educating the masses through the medium of its press,
and likewise the best literature procurable regarding the Labor movement. There is no other means available to the workers to voice their
opinions. Work with us to make The Federationist a mighty power for
good in Vancouver and throughout British Columbia. Principles, not
personalities, are alone desirable.
Contributions for The Federationist are always welcome. Be brief
and write on one side of the copy paper. Matter for publication should
reach this offlce by Tuesday. Advertisements received up to Wednesday
You must have The Federationist in the home each week to keep in touch
with the City, Provincial and Federal and International Labor Movement.
Subscription Rate: United States and foreign, $3.00 per year; Canada,
$2.50 per year, $1.50 for six months.
Estimates will be furnished on all kinds pf work,
gladly offer his services to those desiring them.
Our solicitor will
Friday April ., 192s.
New Columbia
Complete With 12 New Selections
This is the improved Columbia, with the new
triple spring motor that plays six selections
at one winding, and is equipped with the non-
set automatic stop, a feature of decided importance and convenience. Your choice of
walnut or mahogany case, complete with six
double-sided 75c records of d» QQ ti__
your own choice, for yOtfiWv
Pay Only $2,00 Weekly
443 Hastings Street West
Phone Sey. 2444 Corner Richards
"Ont e in awhile between friends-
Long Distance"
A Bargain
In Speech
AUR new night rates for longdistance conversations between 8:30 p.m. and 7 a.m. are
specially low. Por fifty cents or
less you can talk for three minutes from Vancouver to Victoria, Nanaimo, Duncan, Chemainus, Port Alberni, Union
Bay and other Island points.
ANIZED religion in England ti
frank aa regards Us attitude
to tlie struggle between the people
and their owners. A leading ehurch
paper publishes periodically a library
of capitalism, in which are reviewed
Lhe latest publications on behalf of
those who control church policy, I.e.
* * *
The "socialistic menace," the dangers of collectivism, sympathetic understanding of the present disadvantages of our social system, and a constructive plan for their removal, are
dealt with. We should like to know
what plans the church has formulated
and why, after all these years. It has
not found the courage to protest at
least, against some of the horrors of
the system. Of course, they daren't
Naturally, the "bankruptcy of evolution" is dealt with, and in the same
paper Dean luge Is reported as saying that1 nowadays people are far
more superstitious than In former
year.1' But then the worths- dean was
thinking of "falth-henling, necromancy and spfrltlsm;" and not of any
other high cla.^s superstitions. However, he does tell us that "Darwin did
nn injury to Christianity." Does that
mean that Darwin was insignificant,
or that good Christians can read
Professor Hill-Tout's articles on "Organic Evolution" without any compunction?
* *    *
While thousands are going under
in the old country, or living on the
border line of starvation and misery,
the followers of the Christian Teacher
are disputing as to whether the
Church of England is to have the
ss or not; nnd even cabinet ministers are Involved In tho scrap, and
greatly concerned ovor the approach
of spiritual dangers. All very interesting and necessary perhaps.
* •    •
.Mcanu'hile. the workers are sidetracked and led to overlook their own
miseries fn contemplation of miseries
In the life hereafter; meanwhile ignorance and want and militancy stalk
the land.
Extracts   Prom  Hansard  Show
Way the Public Is Being
following extracts from Han-
i'd give some indication of the
way in which the public Is being exploited.
Mr. COOTE: According to the evidence submitted at that time thc
Ford compay of Canada was formed
in 1903 with a nominal capital of
$125,000, of which $112,000 was paid
up in cash. The balance of the stock
was Issued, I think, to Mr. Ford and
hfs associates for their patent rights
on the Ford car. At page 0!)7 the
statement was made b.v an offical of
the company that no fresh money
was subsequently taken in as capital,
that the increased capital all came
from earnings. The capital at that
time was $7,000,000; cash dividends
paid were $10,000,000; surplus and
prosent worth $12,500,000. That
means that $2!U>00.000 had grown up
from the original invest ment of
Mr. COOTE: When I think of how
we have bled ourselves for tho benefit of these _\jnerfoan millionaires,  I
Underhand Work
(Continued From Pago 1.)
FIOLESOME cows' milk is the best food you can give
your children.   Give them plenty of it and you'll have
For straight cows' iiiilli with  all  the  cream,  pasteurized by. the most modern method   tor  your  protection,
The Ayrshire Dairy
Call Seymour 6191 and   Have Our Delivery Call
Lnborltcs will he greatly helping
tlie Lalior Movement by pushing tlie
salo of Tlie B. 0' Federatlonist.
Can Be Relieved
Tlie new Continental Remedy called
"liARMALENE"  (Rcgfl.)
Ia i, simple, harmless liomo treatmont
which iilisulutt'ly relieves deafness,
noises In the head, etc. No expensive appliances needed for this**new
Ointment, instantly operates upon the
affected parts with complete and permanent success. Scores of wonderful cases reported.
Mrs. E. Crowo, of Whltehorse
Road, Croydon, writes: "I am pleased to tell you that the small tin of
ointment you Bent to me at Ventnor
has proved a complete success, my
hearing Is now quite normal and the
horrible head noises have ceased.
The action of this new remedy must
be very remarkable, for I have been
troubled with these complaints for
nearly 10 years and have had some
of the vory best medical advice, together with other expensive ear instruments, all to no purpose, I need
hardly say how rery grateful I am,
for my life has undergone an entire
Try one box today, which can bo
forwarded to any address on receipt
of money order for $1.00. Than is
nothing better at any price. Address
orders to Manager "LABMALENE"
Co., Deal, Eent, England.
Workers! Support Your Own Press!
00 FREQUENTLY we hear workers complaining about the injustice of
the "daily" or "capitalist" press, and about how unfair it is toward the
cause of labor—and yet they continue to give their hard-earned money to
perpetuate that institution.
The capitalist press today is thriving on the one and five-cent pieces of
thoughtless—or ignorant—workers, while their own press has to struggle
against long odds in its efforts to serve them. Why be your own oppressors?
Why serve in the ranks of the enemy?
Iii :    .. THE   REMEDY  IS  SIMPLE
If you are desirous of improving your own condition, and that of your fellowmen, then support the press that is honestly endeavoring to fight your
battle for you. That is the very least you can do for your own cause.
Show your own sincerity of purpose and willingness to serve by subscribing for The Federationist—the workers' friend. Pass your copy on to
some fellow-worker after you have read it.  Urge him to subscribe.
Help The Federationist in its fight for the emancipation of mankind.
The greater our circulation, the more effectual will our efforts be. Apathy
and indifference on the part of the workers is more to be feared than the antagonism of the forces of reaction.
Be true to your cause!  Help boost your own press.
Official Organ of the Federated Labor Party
i..»..».-<-t-^"f. ••■•*. t-i
tempted uv exclaim as did tho
hon. member Cor Hahts (Mr. Martcll)
year ago: "How long, oh, Lord
how long?" l hnve here, I think, It
fe an editorial originally printed in
the Vancouver Sun, hut :t is reprinted
In the Ford Times of Ford, Ontario,
presume when they reprint It in
their editorial column they must approve ft:
"Today, the purchasing power of
the American dollar Ls 100 cents.
Compared with file goods which thai
American dollar will buy ln United
States', our Canadian dollar spent in
Canada., will buy goods worth not
more than 70 cents, and it makes no
difference whether the purchase Ih an
automobile, a pound of sugar, or a
cotton dress."
Mr. COOTE: I lind In Hansard of
last year, March 17, at page 37!). these
remarks by the hon. member for
Springfield (Mr, Hoey)', who mentions the amount of ta,\es some of
these men pay:
"During the years 1915 to 191$ inclusive a certain factory in this country produced 113,642 automobiles, and
the excess price charged to Canadian
purchasers over the prevailing price
in the United Slates was $13,394,941.
The wages paid by that concern during that period on the cars actually
made and sold In Canada amounted to
$9,083,360, and their total wage $11,-
900.807. That is their total wngv bill
on cars made for sale in Canada and
for export. .Thuy paid in taxes during
that period $2,-JSS,145, leaving n surplus of $2,027,43.;. Whnt do these
figures mean? They mean that during thla period fhe people of Canada
would have paid all tho wages thfs
firm paid, all the taxes this firm paid,
and had a surplus in lite national
treasury of $2,027,430, or a sum suf
ficlent In Itself to pay more than half
the duty paid hy this firm on their
raw material entering into the manufacture of this article."
Mr. N. M. CAMPBELL: In 1920
the value of automobiles and automobile parts manufactured in Canada
wn» $137,420,000. The wages paid
amounted to $19,308,000. Autos and
auto parts to the value of $20,911,000
were exported, leaving the balance
sold at home nt $116,509,000. On the
basis of the wages involved in tlie
manufacture ,.f the total, the wages
chargeable to home production would
be $16,376,000. If we reduce (be purchase price of these to an import
basis, that fs, eliminating the amount
of duty, which, of course thc manufacturer had the advantage of, the
Import value would be $101,792,000.
Had these cars and parts been Imported instead of manufactured here,
thev would have turned into the
treasury of the Dominion in 1920 a
sum of $35,827,000. So tliaf we would
have been considerably better off If
we had not manufactured any automobiles, Tt will lie said we would
have thrown n great many men out
of employment, Taking the wages
involved, had we turned this fi_li,*
027,000 into tbe treasury, we could
have permitted nil theso men to go
Idle, pay them their full wage.", and
still have n balance of $19,251,000.
[By Francis Wills]
TT is now many years since Voltaire
wrote his book, "Toleration." He
wrote it because of the horrors committed in the name of the peaceable
Carpenter in Fiance nnd elsewhere,
and ironically points out that Chrls-
tlanism is more intolerant than other
great religions. It is not easy to
see however, that ibis is so, except in
the minds of the minority who regard
their own particular creed as infallible.
If the great religions of Greece
nnd Rome and Israel were more or
less tolerant, as Voltaire says they
were, lt is because we only have access to tbe ideas of the greater minds
among (bose nations. Tbe rabble was
not heard mueh in those days, whereas nowadays, what with the freedom
of the press, tbe absolute trustworthiness of even capitalistic newspapers,
tbe rules ot democracy, and the reign
of justice, the rabble does raise Its
voice very considerably,
Voltaire would flnd himself slightly
wrong in his calculations were he on
earth now. for. as he says, intolerance Is a disease of the very lowest
and Is not compatible with knowledge.
In other words, intolerance springs
from Ignorance and toleration from
knowledge. And tbis is an age of
knowledge, scientific and otherwise.
Everything possible is done to enlighten tbe masses, and It is to no
one's interest to keep them in the
dark. Overpopulation, slums, Unemployment, the unreasonable altitude
of labor toward capital, capitalistic
wars when workers murder each
other and call upon tbeir particular
tribal God for hell).. - ihey are merely
incidentals, and will be incidentals
for some  lime  to  come.
Those who eome hereafter will
commend the way in which our plastic human nature is moulded and
warped into nationalism, at the wisdom which teaches us to regard our
own few miles of earth as the centre
of thc universe, nnd one particular
period of civilization as all-important
compared with the ini measurable
life of our earth. They will study
fhe way we juggle with essentials
and non-essentials. Thoy will marvel somewhat, to be sure at the way
education turns out a queey type of
ignoramus, leaving so many to obtain or fail to obtain tbe education
that really matters long nfter they
have forgotten nearly all the tiling;
learned at school. In those days,
museums will treasure the history
books of Iho twentieth century, ns
marvels of universal truth, toleration,
anti-militarism and peace propaganda.
True, tbe progressive movement of
the people will be somewhat criticised for Intolerance. Students will
look bach on these days much as we
look back on the terrible days of intolerance In the first centuries of the
Christian era when, for instance,
Alexander and Arius plunged the
Christian world into terrible blood
stained disputes destined to Inst three
hundred years. . .about a word or so.
Our students will then sny of us, as
the Emperor snld of Alexander and
Arius, "You ure groat fools."
Both Alexander and Arius thought
to dominate fhe world by their own
particular Ideas. Consequently, they
failed to benefit the world very much
by their presence. Quarrelling about
a theory is not necessarily progress.
Theories are all right, even socialistic
theories, hut socialistic practice is
better. Capitalism is essentially practical.
constitution must be changed so that
branches may be organized. Why
change the constitution if branches
can be already formed? Or whv, if the
constitution must be changed before
branches are organised, call the
prosent organizations branches of the
C.   U  P.?
No one knows better than the editor of the Statesman that, at the
present time, there are neither groups
or branches of the C. L. P, Yet for
his own purpose he is continuously
giving publicity to suoh,
I can see what he is afraid of.
He states: "Between election times
all the propaganda, the socials, and
other activities of these branches will
be carried on and publicity given
under the name of the F. L. P." I
And to prevent the F. L. P. getting
the publicity he Is willing to disrupt
lho labor movement.
The workers of Great Britain have
progressed considerably, in a politicnl
way, and, I belfeve, that nearly all
the propaganda of the labor pnrty
there is carried on by the I. L. P.
Has it confused tho workers of Great
Britain at election times? The Labor
Statesman says no in its last issue.
Let us seo to it that the C. L. P.
continues to perform the function for
which it was organized and so solid-
iry the offorts of the political labor
movement. To do othewise will
throw the workers back to whei'e
they were before the formation of
the C. L. P.
We Are Now Selling the
Prom the old WAKESIAH
SEAM. This ooal is far
superior to any mined on
Vancouver Island today,
having More Heat, Less
Ash, and contains No Eock,
No Shale and No Clinkers.
If this coal is not satisfactory in every respect your
money will be cheerfully refunded.
A Trial Will Convince
Every Consumer
Leslie Coal
Co. Ltd.
Phono Sey. 7137
1 nited Action
The working men you represent
my brothers, are in an overwhelming
majority in every town, country, and
state of this nation. You declare you
are in favor of united action, but still
you do not unite. You unite under
certain conditions within your union,
you go together upon the economic
field to a limited extent, but you have
yot to lenrn that before you can really
accomplish anything you have got to
unite In fact as well an in name. The
time is coming when working men
will lie forced into one general organisation. The lime is coming when
working men will be compelled to
organise on tbe basis of industrial
unionism.—Eugene V. Debs.
Sir Robert Home says that work is
the justification of existence, tbe zest
of life, a solace in sorrow and the
glory of mankind. Perhaps that is
why so many employers think there's
no need to pay much for it.—London
Lnborllcs will be greatly helping
tlie Lnbor Movement by pushing the
sale of Tho ll, c. Federationist.
ls no
thing  I
oi* or.?
or iiu*
world   lo
use*   th.
or it in
c brutes, and mnke lliom
Bird, Bird & Lefeaux
401-408 Metropolitan Building
837 Hastings St. W*.   VANCOUVER  B.O.
Telephones: Seymour fiG-io and 6687
SUALED TENDERS nddrcssod to tho un-
dnrsfgiii'd will be received liy tiie Council up to 8 o'clock p.m. on Mondny, April
6,   192.1,   for .
OOO feot of 8-inuh Din. Corrugated Galvanized Iron Culverts;
250 feet of 10-lnoh Din. Corrugated Galvanized Iron Culverts;
200 feot of 12-fncli Ola. Corrugated Galvan-
izer Iron Culverts.
Specifications, condition* and forms of
tender may be obtained on application to
the Municipal Engineer on payment of Five
Dollars (f&.OO) which will bo returned ir
A bona fide tender is made.
A deposit by cash or certified cheque of
five per cont. (5%) of tho amount of the
tender must accompany each tender as security that, if called upon, the contractor
will enter into a contract.
Tenders must be marked on the outside,
"Tenders for Culverts."
The lowest or any tender not necessarily
Municipal    Hnll,    5851    West    Boulevard,
Vuneouver, fl. C., March 30, 1925.
When the worker refuses to tnke
up arms against the worker, the nations cnn no longer go to war.—
Tbey tlmt be rich full Into temptation and a snare, and Into many foolish and hurtful lusts, which drown
men in destruction and perdition.—
Timothy, vl..  fl.
Your friends might be triad to sub
scribe for The KoderntionlHt If you
asked them.   Try.
Chiropractor, 708 Diiiiaiimlr at.,* 1011116
Hey. 0708. hvK«. by appl, Courteous sorvico,'
FKOM March 23rd to April 4th, Inclusive,
a reasonable quantity of extra refuse,
if placed besldo thc Rarbago cans, will ho
removed by Scavenging* Poiiartmont free of
choree. Enquiries al Phone Soy. 8498.
120 Cnlon Street.
March 20th, 1026. City Clerk.
GlaaM- nol prescribed nnleM
abiolntelr aeceaaary. E*mnl-
untlons niede ir «r«du»c»
efthlssltt apeclAllat.
Hntlafuctlon guaranteed.
We crlnd onr own leaaea nnd
do repalrlM*. Lenaea duplicated br snail.
Form.rli   lirown optical
Bo   eore   al   taa  addreoai
Above   Wvolwortk'a   Mow.
■oar Granvillo
•■ltt   M.   OavU   C__ua_M>
(U  Haatlace   »t.w.
Pkoao ior. 1«W»
ALK1) TENDEBS addressed to tlio un-
undersigned wiU be received by tlio
Council up to S p.m. Tuesday. April 14,
1925, for brushing nnd burning sundry
properties to clear of caterpillars.
List of properties, specifications and full
informntion may be obtained on application
to the Municipal Engineer on payment of
sum of $5.00, wliich will bo roturned on
receipt of a bona flde tondor,
A deposit by certified cheque of ten (10)
per cent, of the amount tendered will bo
required with each tender as security that
tho tenderer will, if cnlled upon, enter into
a contract, and provido the required bond
fbr tho performance of tho work.
The lowest or any tender not necessarily
Municipal Hell, dB_l West Boulevard,
Vancouver, B, C, April !!, 1925.
THK UNDEHSIONED will receive tenders
up to 3 p.m. Tuesday, the Slut day of
April, 1925, for 85 2-way and 15 fl-way
hviirants. Particulars and specifications to
bi> obtained at tho office of the City Engineer. A marked choquo equal to 5% of
Mil to accompany tenders. Lowest or any
tender not  necessarily accepted.
Purchasing Agent.
Of Wutson and Taylor, proprietors of Stanley Hotel, 21
Cordova street, has had a lonj?
exporienco ns a hotel man, having owned tlie Bodega and Taylor hotels In this city. The beer
parlor of the Stanley hotel Is
the finest in B, C, Tt is well
supplied with plants and other
thlnffs In keeping with tho plnco.
Mr. Taylor Is one of fTio leading members of the Elks and an
alt-round pood follow nnd a
friend of (he laboring man. All
the 88 rooms are newly furnished. "Tom" will be pleased
lo aee all his old friends. Come
around and soe him, and he
will use you right and have a
good time.
Ask for CATTO'S.    For sale M all Government Liquor Storei
nil advortlaoinont li not pobllahod or diipl-Ttd br tbo I-lqnor Control Bawd or
by tbo OoT.rnm.nt of Brltlih Columbia
Fresh  Cut Flowers, Funeral Designs, Wedding Bouquets, Pot Plant*,
Ornamental and Shade Trees, Seeds, Bulbs, Fiorina' Sundries
Brown Brothers & Co. Ltd.
ts Haatinga Stioot Boat 807. 081*172    665 Oranvillo Stroot So;. 95131S01
161 Haatinga Stroat Woat. Say. 1S70    1017 Oeorgia Stroot Woat Soy. 741J
CTOVES AND RANGES, both malleable and steel,
**■ McClary's, Pawcett's, Canada's Pride, installed
free by experts; satisfaction guaranteed. Cash or
$2.00 per week.
Canada Pride Range Company Ltd.
346 Hastings Street East Sey. 2399


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