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BC Historical Newspapers

British Columbia Federationist Jul 18, 1924

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Summer School of Social Science
Under Auspices Federated
Labor Party
AUGUST   24th  TO   Slat, .1924
Mm. Bon Henderson, Montreal,
Director—Programme and
fHE "Summer School ot Social
Science," under the auspices of
Summerland local, 8. C. Federated
Labor party, will hold daily sessions,
commencing August 24, and ending
August 81. The place of meeting is at
the "Log Cabin," on the Okanagan
lake, at Summerland, B.C.
The object la to bring together,
students ot all shades of progressive
thought for mutual Instruction, and to
train speakers and teachers for the
"New Era."
Programme: Mrs. Rose Henderson,
of Montreal, will be director, and experts will be In charge of every department. Mrs. Henderson has just
returned from campaigning in England, and has spent three months Jn
Russia, so accurate information will
be available as to the European situation, both political and economic.
Katherlne and Carroll Aikins will
outline the latest tendencies in Canadian drama; George W. "Weaver will
speak on music"; George, F. Stirling is
expected to deal with the economic
problems of the farmer, and there
will be speakers from different parts
of Canada.
Full particulars of the curriculum
1 will be announced later, but the sub-
! jeets dealt with will be (1) Industrial
history, (2) Marxian and Fabian
socialism, (3) communism, (4) social
reform, (5) social welfare, <6) arts
and crafts, (7) drama and literature,
etc.,  etc.
Accomodation: Tents will be provided for sleeping purposes; guests
bringing their own blankets, nnd
' meals will be served In a common
dining room—expenses being shared
on a communal basis. For those who
prefer, rooms may be secured at tho
Summerland hotel, or Premier hotel,
West Summerland,
Attractions: Boating, bathing, dominion experimental farm, a real holiday among beautiful and congenial
Write for reservations at once, so
that amplo time will be given the
management to make full preparations, Address all communications
tot—The Manager, Jack Logic, West
Summerland, B.C.
Semi-annual Election of Offlcen
—H. Neelands, M.L.A., Re-
Elected President
[By a Prairie Chicken] *
rVO WRITE anything of interest to
industrialists from tho farming
community, is rather a difficult task,
yet, interest between the two must
be established and maintained. Although widely separated at the present time, It- is imperative that we
bridge the space, as we cannot possibly do without each other. We farmers are often prone to forget, that
wheat is a social product and would
bo useless to us, If the means of transport, a nd many other necessary
stages wero not applied to It by labor
so called (as if we were not just a
fraction of that unit). We find
difficulty even amongst ourselves to
develop class-consciousness, and this
does not often widen out to a working class consciousness.   The idea of
Building  Permits
Building permits issued in Vancouver for the first half of July for
new construction work amounts to
Civic Employoes* Outing To-Day
The Civic    Employees'    union    of
South  Vancouver  are  holding their
annual picnic to-day   at   Bowen 2s-
; land.      Leaving    Vancouver    at    9
, o'clock, the municipal employees and
• their   friends  will   on   this   favorite
'-picnic  ground    hold    their    annual
sports.   A   big  crowd   of  employees
F and their friends is expected at the
[ outing.
Shoot Metal Workers
Sheet Metal WorkerB union, No.
80, of Vancouver, will be represented
' by A. J. Crawford at the annual con-
■ vention of the Sheet Metal WorkerB
(International Alliance, which convenes
'at Montreal, commencing Monday,
July 21. This Is tho flrst time for
this body to assemble in Canada. A
t record attendance Is anticipated. Mr.
..Crawford on his way eastward will
visit Edmonton and Winnipeg in the
Interests  of his  organization.
Tailors Elect Ollicers
The Vancouver Journeymen Tailors
,union, No. 178, recently elocted officers for ensuing term as follows: President, A. R. Gatonbyj vice-president,
[A, Stringer; recording secrotary, C.
,McDonald; financial secretary, H,
Nordlund; Inside guard, B. Brand;
., sergeant-at-arms, F. Franco; executive committee—Mrs, Dolk, Mrs.
Franco, T. Templeton, A. Beamish;
delegates to Trades and Labor council—C. McDonald, A, R. Gatenby, R.
A. Lawson, Mrs. Polk,. A. Stringer;
! delegates to Canadian Labor party—
j Mrs. Dolk, A. R. Gatenby, C. Mc-
\ Donald.
Delegute to British  Congrtws
.John    McClelland,    of    Montreal,
[will be tho  fraternal delegate from
[-Canada      to    represent      Canadian
labor  at  the   British  Trades  Union
congress to be held at Hull in September.    He will also attend the International Federation of Trade unions, which Is to be held at Ruskin
college,  London,  on August  174
Acting President
J. T. Foster, of Montreal, vice-
president of the Trades and Labor
'congress of Canada, is acting president of the organization during the
absence of President Tom Moore, who
Is attending the convention of the International Federation of Trades unions In Vienna, with which body the
Canadian Trades congress is afflliated.
Birth Control—What It Will Do
for the Down-Trodden
Human Race
It will give every mother the right
to have children only when she feels
that her health and strength will allow her. to give them the care and
attention they need.
It will give her the possibility of
recovering her Btrength in case she
Is worn out physically or nervously,
or has any disease aggravated by
It will enable her to gain strength
if she has worked hard and long
hours before her marriage. No woman should 'become pregnant until she
ls well  rested from fatiguing labor,
It will give her time to know her
children, and to devote herself to
bringing them up.
It Will give her a chance to develop
mother-love, instead of becoming a
slave, a worn-out, broken, spiritless
drudge. v
It will keep her husband's love and
cournge. Fathers will no longer be
Intolerably harrassed and driven to
desperation by the claims of a family
too large for their wages or salary
to support.
It will prevent tho practice of taking
drugs and poisonous nostrums to
avoid Undesired pregnancy.
It will prevent abortion. Mothers
will not resort to lhe murder of unborn children, when they can control conception.
It will prevent tbe death of mothers
whoso physical, strength cannot stand
tho strain   of  pregnancy,
It will prevent thc death of thou-
'sands of babies whoso* passing out is
caused by poverty, ignorance, neglect
and Insufficient vitality Inherited from
exhausted mothers.
It will provent child labor. Child
laborers come from over-crowded
homes with moro children than tbe
parents can afford to feed and clothe.
It will prevent prostitution:—because (a) young people will be able
to marry early and wait until their
incomes aro sufficient before having
children, (b) Wives will be freed
from the haunting fear of pregnancy
which hovers over a woman from
month to month, and frequently
drives husbands to prostitutes.
It will prevent the birth of diseased children, especially such as Inherit weakness or actual disease from
unhealthy parents.
It will set the woman freo to show
her affection and express her love
/or her husband, an expression which
will hold husband and wife together.
It will make of the home a placo
of peace, harmony and love. The
man will want to come to it; 'the
woman will find In It her happiness
and developmeat; the children, well
nutured and carefully educated, will
grow up in it to be the greatest assets
of the nation.
private ownership is strong, many
thinking the land is theirs after tho
pioneering they have dono, although
few indeed held their patents or
title to land many days, before turning it over to a mortgage company,
so probably, with the .big increase of
tenant farmers and the amount- of
land held under mortgage, our problem In the near future will be trustification or nationalinat."r However,
dealing with the present, considering
our population is scattered over a
vast area, comprising peoplo from
every part of Europe, etc., speaking
many languages, yet, we havo succeeded in the short space of one and
a half years, in inducing half of these
people to enter into a five year contract to deliver all thoir wheat to be
pooled; this to be sold and all receiving the same price per grade, this
is a great achievement. It is the
first timo we bave really discovered,
where our economic strength lay and
endeavored to apply it. The great
thing Is not thc pool (beneficial as
we expect It to be) but the working
together of practically half of our
farmers. It ls, we are aware, directed at only one of the many enemy
forts, but if we can prove to ourselves by organized effort that we can
silence one, we will take each in
turn, and even if as a last resort we
have to use labor's most powerful
weapon and strike on the job, inflicting, as it would, hardships, along
with tho rest on many branches of
labor. Could we depend on their
staunch support? On the other hand
If our mutual relationship were
strengthened could we flnd a common
basis and supply through the unions,
giving the necessary food supplies in
your struggles? Ab a Winnipeg
friend would say, lt depends on the
kind  of union.
We have now two farmer organ!
zatlonB—the Saskatchewan Gmln
Growers' association allied with the
United Farmers of Alberta and Man
itoba established many years, taking
part in many activities, social and
political, and the more recently
launched Farmers Union of Canada,
out of politics (if this ls possible).
Whother both organizations will
continue, amalgamate, or with the
progress of the wheat pool, be superseded, the future will decide; most
probably we will have to go through
the samo tedious, time wasting, heartbreaking processes as labor organizations, until .wo see clearly nothing
but socialism has anything permanent,
to offer, this apparently having been
recognized by a small group of progressives who havo broken away and
working with tho small labor group
at Ottawa.
These few lines are written With no
othor object than to try and develop
a better feeling betwoen farmer and
labor and In reply to a kind message
from the writer of your labor and
poet's column, whom, it Is our privilege to know.
Of the many cases of hardship and
distress on the prairie, it is no use
to enter into now, these being the
common lot of the people through
the ages, .lust try to understand the
reason why, then kick and organize
Ib all we ask; then our day will como.
I would like to olose with a good
story told by a harvester down from
the coast last year, only, don't apply
it to all farmers please. This one,
howover, having brought homo n
man ono night to help to stack up
some oats, went to call him about
four a.m., swinging the lantern before his oyes. The man rubbing his
eyes and yawning asked the farmer
a question thus; "Say, old timer, what
kind of oats have ye to stack, wild
or tame ones?" "Oh, just oats,1
replied the farmer. "Oh, all right,"
says the man, settling down on the
hay. "I never yet seed the tame oats
I couldn't sneak up ta In day-light,
■so buz* off."
Delegates to Attend Meeting to
Start Organisation for Next
Civic Election
AT the regular twlce-a-month meeting of the Vancouver Trades and
Labor council held on Tuesday night,
the semi-annual elections took place.
There was a good attendance of delegates.
Following officers were re-elected:
President, Harry Neelands, M.L.A.;
vice-president, J. Dunn; secretary,
P, Bengough; treasurer, F. E. Griffin; sergeant-at-arms, Mrs. F. A.
C. McDonald, of the Tailors'
union, was elected statistician, and
F. A. Hoover, E. A. Jamieson, W.
H. Cottrell; J. R. Flynn elected
Six delegates were appointed to
the general meeting of the Canadian
Labor party on August 1 to start organization for the forthcoming civic
elections; they wero Harry Neelands,
Percy Bengough, Birt Showier, W.
H, Cottrell, E. A. Jamieson and J.
R. Flynn.
Notice of motion was given looking to a reduction of the per capita
tax for the Trades and Labor coun
cil from 5 cents to 2 Ms cents por
Complaint from a delegate that
boys of fourteen were being employed
In a box factory on Cambie street,
that they were worked ten hours a I
day, that one boy had lost a hand1
in the factory and; another lost a
finger, both without any chance of
compensation, was referred to the
executive for Investigation and nelion.
Reports from unions consisted
mostly of notices of picnics to be
held within the next two or three
§J»T I DONT   .
*2*kb Kiosi/y
7 O %
That thei*k ai<e apartments and housb-
What Is the Na tare of the Human
Soul?—Ii It Separate from
the Body?
Many Oldest Pbilotophiei Held
Han's Conscious Edite&oe
Ended wtth Death
tBy Frances Wills)
'pHB average person who has grown
up with certain fixed beliefs and
who has been taught and trained to
accept many things on faith will Immediately answer that the human soul
is part' of some mysterious externa!
force, or, In fact, part of Qod; that tt
1b an entity entirely seperate from the
body and whieh may or may not have
existed previous to Birth, but which
certainly goes on living after the death
of the body. The flippant or the unthinking sceptical will reply that there
is no such thing as the human soul.
But the broad-minded .person who ls
used to consider all sides of a question
and who has learned to think for himself and apply his reason to what moat
people take for granted, will regard
the question aa very debateable, and
will not dismiss It without due consideration.
To many people who have made up
their minds on the subject, or who
huve accepted the, workings of other
people's minds, and to those who never
consider such problems, the question
[By Mrs. C. Lorrimer]
■ Wi
Factory Inspector for B. 0. Wage
Board and Well-Known
Mrs. Winnifrcd Mahon, factory inspector lor the Minimum Wage Board
passed away at tho St. Paul's hospital at 7.30 a.m., Wednesday, following a brief illness.
Mrs. Mahon was appointed to this
position in February, 1923, and her
duties consisted of the inspection of
factories where women are employed
and examination of the payrolls of all
establishments covered by the Minimum Wage act, Sho had been t
resident of Vancouver fpr over fifteen years.
Mra. Mahon had for three years
been president of the Garment Workers' union, and was also delegate
from the union to the Trades and
Labor council.
During the sixteen months that she
was inspector, she made many friends
among those under her supervision,
and the women garment workers in
tho city especially spoke very highly
of her and the interest she took ln
their welfare. She was a very active
worker, and performed her duties in
a capable manner. Mrs. Mahon is
survived by her husband in Van
couver, hor parents, threo sisters and
two brothers in England.
Tho funeral will take place on Fri
day afternoon to tho family plot ii
Ocean Viow Burial Park, after a service at 3.30 In the Nunn & Thomson
Tailors' I'iriiii'
The Journeymen Tailor's union of
Vancouver and  district, will hold  its
annual   picnic   Wednesday,   July
They, will   leave  by  hoat  from  Gore
avonuo   wharf  for  Wigwam- Inn  at
0 a.m.   Bports will bo held for both
adults  and   childron    und    valuable
prizes given the winners,    Tho com
mittee  In   chargo  promise  plenty of
fun and ico cream and give you t
hearty  Invitation  to join  them,  Ro
turning boat will leave Wigwam Inn
at S p.m.
forced to hold over several good
articles owing to luck of space However, iu tlm next Issuo wo hope to bo
able to include them In these columns,
An article H|H*clnlly written for the
Foderntionist by Tom Richardson, ex-
M.P,, nnd who Is m well-known In
this province, on "The Position of
the Emigrant In Canada," will wc
know bo received with lntereat. Angus MiiclnnlN also writes an article
on the lnbor question, "As Wo Bee
It." These aud other articles by
writers well-known to thc renders of
this paper will make next week's
Issue well worth reading. Mention
this to your friends and boost thc
circulation. *
Tlie resume of tho ooal situation
In District IH which we expected to
havo In this week's Issue is also held
TOURING the recent election some
excitement was caused by the
passing uf a resolution by the Canadian Labor party to the effect that
Orientals ought to havo the franchise.
Great indignation was shown In Some
circles and it was tho opinion of
many that tho resolution was detrimental to the labor vote. The first
expression of- feeling was out of
place and the second went to prove
that some workers do not as yet
know how to use their vote.
The objection to the franchise for
Orientals is, no doubt, owing to their
supposed inferiority. Now let us examine ourselves. Quoting Lewis H.
Morgan, L.L.D,, from his book,
"Ancient Society:" "Mankind lived
first In savagery, then barbarism,
then civilisation. The history of thc
human raco Is ono in sourco, one in
experience, and one In progress.
Since mankind is one In origin, they
are essentially one, running in different but uniform channels upon all
continents. The whole experience of
mankind from savagery to civilisation was worked out upon tho Asiatic continent. There the period of
human occupation has been the longest." In fact over 500 years ago,
China had a) land policy which has
not" been reached elsewhere. Each
family owned some land, and there
was common land as well, on which
all worked and the proceeds of
which went to the payment of some
of the community expenses. A. rather
good policy, one might say, for British Columbia to adopt, and which
would go a long way to eliminate
our bread-tine!
Morgan further tells ub of the rise
of property. It Is impossible, he
says, to overestimate the Influence of
property In the civilisation of mankind.' The growth of the idea of
property In the human mind com
menced in feebleness and ended by
becoming Its master passion. It Introduced human slavery as an instrument in Its production. The cruelty
inherent In the heart of man which
civilisation and religion have softened without eradicating, still betrays
the savage origin of mankind and in
no way moro markedly than through
the  centuries   of   recorded   history.
Now, the point I wish to make
clear is that all races have the same
origin, and that all workers, irrespective of color, are living under n
system of human slavory, I.e., wage-
slavery. Tho fact of thc workers «f
B C. gotting excited about tho Orientals franchise does not settle tho question. They should make an effort to
understand the systom under which
they live and try to discover why the
Oriental Is here.
Tn tho first place the Oriental
comes lo Canada hoping to escape
tho awful condition's of hin own eountry, and if we will have the courage
to admit It, thnt is what brought
all of us here, (oo. The employing
class brought Orientals here to ubtain
cheap labor. Thoy are bringing Europeans hero for tho same purpose,
because in some of the older capitalist countries, the workers have a
lower standard of living. Cheap lahor means big profits, and that is
the religion and patriotism of the
employing class. If the workers wish
to exclude the Orientals from British Columbia they will havo to take
rather more Interest in their own
affairs. It is time that thoy' wore
doing a Uttle thinking for themselves
Instead of* being spoon-fed. A short
time ago, ten million dollars were
sent from Ottawa to China for Investment In Industry; the Chinamen
In China Is being paid 20 cents "por
day. A roport given for tho International La'bor Review hy acting-president J. B. Taylor, of Pekin university says: "Cotton spinning has assumed tho load tn the Industrial development of China. It has grown from
ono million spindles In  1916 to two
fniillii.il in 1922 and since then another
two million havo been added." Taylor says that children from the age
of eight work twelve and moro hourB
per day in factories for 50 cents, per
month and board. Some plants keep
their workors seventeen hours per
day, every day, without holidays. The
maximum wages In twenty-nine of
the chief industries in China range
from 20 to 53 conts per day. There
are 221,000 women in the same industries whoso wages average 4 cents
per day. The present writer has
worked at tho rate of 4 cents per
day in Britain and she does not feel
at all superior to her colored Bisters.
To talk about this country being a
great investing nation means pimply
that capitalists are building factories
(Continued on page 4)
Old Country Family of Four Enticed to Vancouver Under
False Rumors
Following is a copy of an article
which appeared In a local paper nt
Rawtenstall, England, us a result of
which a family came to Vancouver
with a letter of Introduction to "Schofield" who Is unknown at the city
hall, and Is apparently fictitious.
The family of four arrived at Vancouver wilh only $23.00 between
them and starvation. The article
"Mr. Robert Schofleld, a Rawten-
stalllan, who went out to Vancouver,
British Columbia, some ten years ago
has forwarded a letter of appreciation
to Mrs. Fairbourne, shipping agent
of   Rawtenstall.
Writing from the City Hall, Mr
Schofield recalls the fact of booking
his passage with Mrs. Falrbourn and
expresses thankfulness that he did
so. He hns, he says, done exceeding well, He owns his own*$M00,0ti
house, and a $4,000,Off automobile.
Tbere are a lot of Rawtenstall people
in Vancouver, and they have a Lancashire  society  with   1,500   members.
Ho says there fs plenty of work
for both men and women in Vancouvor, nnd if he "could Induce a few
hundred more from Rawst enst all lo
go out there they would never regret
ii." Tbr eity, he concludes, is shunless and prosperous.
Coloni7lug Canada at $6;tl4 a Settler
III answer lo a question Mr. J. A.
Robb stitted that' the government
had paid the Canadian Colonization
Association — a private company—
$100,000 dining the year, lhat the
transcontinental railways had Jointly
paid another $100,000, and that the
Association had brought into Canada
during tho period 1323-24, exactly
thtrty-flve settlers. Ho could not b«.v
how many families these thirty-five
settlers Included. The cost per settler
was thus $5,714.29,
• Militarism breaks tip tho homo, destroys the family, mocks at morality,
violates conscience, breeds hate, disunites mankind, stifles the spirit of
youth, and exposes the whole world
to lhe lusts of reaction,—Common
Cause,   Sydney.
India Is the happy hunting-ground
of foreign exploiters, and everything
Is done to maintain this stato of affairs. Newspapers are prohibited If
they becomee tainted with radicalism,
and deportation without any trial Is
a favorite wetipon.
The powers who shouted about
Belgium, Hecrotly cut up Albania for
Serbia, Greece and Italy In the secret
treaty of London, 1915.
Tho wago rale of $1.12j£ an hour
la paid to Hamilton, Ont., bricklayers.
will no doubt; appear an idle one an»
not worth- the time spent on It. But,
in reality, it is one bf a aeries pf such
questions which have an enormously
Important bearing on life, both the Ufa
of thc individual and tho lifo of society as a whole, as will be shown later-
Those-who claim that man has a
soul, distinct from his'body, also claim
-that man alone'of all animal life, la
thus privileged, but" a'study of the
mind proceBBes of man and the lower
animals shows thnt there Is no sharp.
dividing line. . Moreover, It has been
proved that the laws which control the
body also control tho soul or mind, und
psychic organ in animal life, from the,
lowest fishes to man,, makes its appearance ^during formation before
birth, as a simple cylindrical tubo
which Is later known as the spinal cord
and a club shaped organ whtch ts Inter
the brain. Thus the soul or mind of
man starts' Its existence at precisely
tho snmo time as the one celled creature  starts Its pre-natal growth.
A further proof that body nJid
soul are one is shown by the fact that
when certain parts of the brain aro
destroyed, a part of the soul Is destroyed, Also in tracing the development of a child, we notice the
growth of consciousness, Intelligence
In proportion as the brain matures.
Thus, to quote Huekel, the soul,is
not a Bpecial Immaterial entity but
the sum-total of a number of connected functions of the brain.
In contradiction of these facts,
many people will assert that brain
and mind and soul are distinct. But
a careful Introspection of one's own
personality and the study of that of
another person will reveal a combination of faults, virtues, Impulses, in-
instincts and peeularltios. All these
are the result of heredity and the Influence of circumstanced and the
quality of brain and nervous matter;
there Is nothing supernatural about
the personality, there Is nothing lhat
cannot be attributed to the result of
heredity, environment and brain-
Tbe question of the Immortality
of the soul or personality in bound Up
with our Ideas about the soul. The
belief in immortality is comparatively a recent one, for as has been
shewn before, mnny of the oldest
religions and philosophies had no
doubt that man's entire conscious
existence ended with death. Ami
there is no question of this fact If
the brain (which is part of the mortal
body) and the soul are really interdependent. When the brain dies the
soul also dies.
The question now naturally arises,
"What effoct will such beliefs havo
on the Individual and un society, and
why should they Interest people who
are ostensibly seeking the betterment of the conditions of humanity?"
There aro those who say that the
belief in a conscious existence hereafter serves as nn inducement to
good and as a deterrent of evil; tho
old idea of reward and punishment
still play a Ifygo part in the lives of
Anyone who believes that tho soul
of man perishes when the body, of
which it is merely part, dies, cannot help but deplore the results of
belief In man's immortality. There
Is no defubt that, tol an Individual who
regards this earthly life as a mero
fragment of eternity, or as a necessary evil to be endured beforo participating In another and better life,
social problems and Indeed all questions bearing ou. life, will assume
pitifully small proportions. Thus
since the Inception of idcaS of immortality, man has been more or Jess
content to endure the Ills nnd miseries of NO believing that he will
be compensated In a heaven above.
Millions of souls have cherished this
belief and in consequence have cared
very little about Improving the earth-
life. Once let people realize that our
few yearB of existence on earth Is
(Continued on page 3) PAGE TWO
FRIDAY July 18,  192
Published every Friday by
The   BrltlBh  Columbia   Federatlonist
Business snd Editorial Office, 1129 Howe St.
The policy of Tho B. 0. Federationist is
controlled by the editorial hoard of tho Federated Labor Party of British Columbia.
Subscription Rate: United States and Foreign, $8.00 per year; Canada, $2.50 per
year, $1.50 for six months; to Unions subscribing in a body, 16c per member per
FRIDAY July 18,  1924
WHATEVER Individual opinion may
be about the labor government
In Britain, thero Is no doubt that the
premier's policy in regard to Fiance
Ib reciving approval. He evidently
believes that overy move iu tho game
of foreign politics should be open and
above board. Ho Is desirous of viewing the question from all aides beforo
arriving at any decision. He is certainly not putting British interests
first; rather he Is making equal allowance for French fooling and intorest; in a word, he is giving the international conscience a chanco. And
he Is being frank about his actions
and ideas. In giving his views lo tho
newspapers, he Is enlightening the
masses to same extent; perhaps as far
as Ib possible in dealing with such
complex problems and technical
points, and he is thus allowing them
to form their own opinions rather
than accept readymade ideas.
All this is in contrast to the stand
hitherto taken by statesmen in regard
to foreign policy. The people have
been kept in the dark as to motives
and events, while the politicians and
big-business cliques pursued their
policy of double-dealing, secret agreements and wholesale robbery. For Instance, many treaties have come to
light about the laat war. Peace negotiations were deferred until the enemy
was no longer in a position to argue
when the secret agreements respec-
ing the disposal of various exploitable
parts of the world could be put into
operation, when the smaller and.der
fenceless nations could be divided up
among the "great powers,"
It is doubtful if the masses of the
people, educated in foreign and domestic affairs, and whose social conscience is not altogether ruined by
the greed of gold and the thirst for
power, would have tolerated the
treatment of subject peoples whose
state of slavery Is worse than our
own. Possibly then there would have
been no "crime of the Congo," no
Amrltsar massacre, and none of the
terrible happenings in Egypt and the
Sudan when the people became class-
conscious. And with greater frankness on the part of those In power,
lt Is possiblo that the so-called superior white race would have recognized the claims to national privileges
and self-determination, of other races.
Instead of this, however, the flame of I
race-hatred and prejudice has been
fanned In the interest of capitalism.
Macdonald's call for candor and his
own attitude towards other countries
are really only the iprelude to what
we might expect under a socialist
regime. When we realize that the
prosperity of one country means the
prosperity of the rest; when we are
ready to acknowledge the rights of
other nations; when we become
broadly international in our views,
then the world can hope for better
times and tho abolition of wholesale
A SHORT TIME ago one or our
local business men was discussing
with a group, the problems that he
was having to face in the particular
line of business In which he was engaged. Up until a few years ago the
wage worker was the only one who
was having roal problems to face In
this countrly; hut now, It would seem
that the wheols of fortune have moved
on a pace. The average small business man today Is struggling for his
very exfsteneo—and incidentally for
the existence of his wife and kiddles.
Tho larger departmental stores are
daily commanding more and mare of
the trado which has previously been
going to the smaller concerns. Being
able to buy ln larger (]iiantlties and
In job lots, and at tho same Mme
pay cash for wh:;.t thoy purchase, they
aro able to purchaso thoir goods at
rock bottom .prices. On top of all
this they have the advantage of a
definite reduction in their overhead
costs, which the smaller business man
can never hope to eradicate. So, with
a smaller cost, a greater turnover and
at the same time a lessenod overhead
cost, it would appear that thc small
buslneas man is doomed to face a
businoss condition, in the not distant
futuro, thnt will givo him real cause
for worry.
Aside from lhe above, another factor comes into play In our modern
business world, that of the honesty of
competitors. Wo are prone to think
only of the public, when discussing
such matters, but here too, our small
business man Ib facing what appears
to us to bo an almost Insurmountable
difficulty, so long as our present economic system romains. So long as
our system makes It more or less
profitable for a man to be dishonest,
there aro going to bo ever in our
midst, men and women who will succumb to the lure that monetary gain
seems to have for so many of us In
spite of our religious training and upbringing.
One business man may try, and we
believe that many do try, to give to
the buying public tho best value for
their money that they can give under
existing conditions. On the other
hand another business man;'following
In tho same line, advertises and rep- j
resents to his own and prospective
customers, goods which he claims are
of equal value, tf not superior, for a
considerable less amount of money.
The unsuspecting public, slow to leani
its lesson, and ever on tho lookout for
something for nothing, but usually
succeeds in getting nothing for something, Is, in the language of the street,
"stune again."
Not only ls the public affected in
such a deal, but tho honest businesB
man is placed in a most unfortunate
and unenviable position, He Is deprived of a legitimate profit on an
honest deal, whilo at tho same time
he Is represented as being an extortionist. One might say, "let us prevont ' dishonest advertising." That
sounds woll but, like many other features at present existing in our oconomic order, It Is found lo be profitable for some few, and so long as It
Is so found, it will bo ever ln our
Sooner or later we wilt come to
realize that this world has nothing
belter to offer any of us than a decent,
honest livelihood, and that when we
have gotten that, we will realize that
theroin lies the road to happiness and
contentment on this terrestial sphere.
True happiness surely cannot bo found
by any of us, if in our endeavor to
get it we have to do so at the expense
and comfort of our fellowmen, JThe
right to live—and to live decently—
providing we are willing to do our
duty to societyr is a fundamental that
can never be Ignored by any social
order If it would hope to survive for
We all must come to realize sooner
or later—we hope sooner—that we
can never hope to be truly happy
while others about us are struggling
against tremendous odds, odds that
should never be and, what Is more,
need.not be .
duty to society, there it lies, while
many starve.
* In other words, if we cannot obtain
the-right to do something that is going
to be profitable to some one else, we
are, under tho present system of society, deprived of our right to live.
The needs of our "human nature"
mean nothing. Not until we have
■production for use in this world rather
than production for proflt, will "human nature" ever be seen in its true
light, something to be proud of rather
than something to scorn and deride.
Labor and the Poets
OW OSTTEN we have heard those
words!    If a considerable num-
ber of us have chosen to do something
that we know that we ought not to
have done, we immediately endeavor
to find some siltable excuse, and one,
that we feel will enable us to retain
our self-respect aa well as the respect
of our fellows, who by the way, are
as guilty as ourselves.
A father, the other day, was giving
his views regarding the rising generation and, after pointing out their
many faults and shortcomings, he
said, "Well, after all, it's only human
nature.'" Perhaps he was altogether
wrong. It may have been only a
father's nature, who knows? Nevertheless, frailties which human nature
may be subject to, have been blamed
for many, many sins, most of which,
we fear, are not due to human nature
per se, but rather to the unfortunate
system under which we. find ourselves
forced to live and have our being.
The average man and woman today
the world over, could they but gain
their livelihood in an honest legitimate manner would nover raise their
little finger to harm even the most
helpless among us, provided of course,
thoy were not of unsound mind. We
might state here, by the way, that in
our judgment many of the conditions
of unsound mind that we seo from
day to day are due, In many Instances,
to the offectB of this system of competition under which wo are endeavoring
to gain our means of life. So strenuous Is the struggle becoming to many
of us that it is little to be wondered
at lhat some break down under the
strain. As time goes on, and as the
struggle becomes still harder, many
will fall by the wayside, human
IT IS littlo wonder that the old
political machines are slowly, but
surely, losing what little respect the
general public may have had for
thom. Their absolute indifference to
public opinion ln so many cases—especially is this so immediately after
the elections—has beon Buch as to
turn against them the more thoughtful minds among us.
Tho activities of the liberal machine
of late, in connection with the appointment of a police commissioner
to take the place of Mr. Harnett, has
beon such as to arouse thc suspicions
of even tho most innocent and unsuspecting in our midst. It would appear
Mr. Woodward has chosen one, who in
the eyes of the machine, might be
little too exacting, and who might bo
rather too conscientious in the carrying out of his duties. He might, for
Instance, want to learn something
more about the Veterans Weekly
scandal, and who the "higher ups*
are. He might be inclined to investigate the past as well as endeavor to
keep the future records clean from
We have no personal knowledge of
Mr. Woodward's choice, we admit,
but when we see such delay and sidestepping of the main Issue, we are In
clined, judging from our many experiences in the past, to think that the
choice, who ever he may be, is a
good one.
If the liberals would Ingratiate themselves into the goodwill of the public,
then the sooner they "cut out" their'
(political nonsense and settle down to
business the better. Politics has been
a game long enough now. It is getting beyond a joke. What we want
today is a good honest administration
by earnest, thoughtful and intelligent
men and women.
As a matter of fact, Labor has little
faith in the ability of any of them to
govern our city, province or dominion
under the present system. In fact, we
are certain that lt cannot be done
satisfactorily. A system whereby we
produce only for proflt and disregard
human needs ls such as to contaminate the very elect, It haa done so,
it would appear, in the past, and we
fear that it will continue to do so in
the future.. Be that as lt may, however, we feel that we would like to
see the best and most capable men
and women that we have, take in hand
all matters of government, not that
we want to see them besmirched with
the political corruption that we see
everywhere about us, but rather to
have demonstrated the absolute futility of the competitive system under
which we are living today, regardless
of who may have it in control.
wrecks.     .^
Tho great question that should confront our minds, therefore, Is: How
is all this great Injustice to the great
mass of mankind going to be remedied? This has bcen a quostion that
has heen occupying the minds of tho
moro thoughtful among us for some
years past, but now, even the most
thoughtless among us are beginning
to soe that somothing will soon havo
to be done. We hope that the masses
have become too enlightened to Ho
down and die without a strugglo aB
they havo boon known to do In the
past, believing It to be, perhaps, God's
No, we cannot blame human nature
any longer. All that nature asks for,
whether lt be human nature, or any
other nature, is sufficient to gratify its
natural desires. Anything that tends,*
in any way, to prevent the fulfilment
of those natural desires should be the
factor towardB which we should direct
our attention lf we would alleviate
the Ills to which we are subjected so
needlessly today. The sun shines as
brightly as It has ever done before
the rainfall, lt will be agreed, is on the
whole quite sufflclent to provide our
soil with the necessary moisture, and
the soil, thore It lies bidding us come
and partake of all the good thingB
that It has to offer, But no, Mr.
Smith, or Brown, or Jones or the C.
P.rT., or some other source of power
and authority owns and controla the
means whereby wo live, and unless it
Is profitable for thorn to allow us to
perform, what should be tho absolute
right of every ono of ub, our normal
rWAS reported recently that a
large number of young, people from
Great Britain were likely to come to
British Columbia, provided our government, or groups of our people,
would exercise more responsibility
for those who come and give them
an assurance that they would be received and given a chance. The Y,
M.C.A, it would appear, Is more or
less behind the scheme.
This sounds interesting. We would
surely like to see our government attempt to take on such a responsibility
for aome one. It shows., no inclination to do anything like that for the
young folk here in Canada or British
Columbia, who are directly under Us
jurisdiction, but it might be enticed
to do something for some peoples,
other than their own.
So far as any group of our people assuming any responsibility
for immigrants, that Is quite out of
tho question unless that group bo the
C.P.R, or some other profit-making institution undertakes lt. But of that
we have had all the experience we
cure for. To make a proflt is such an
incentive to the average individual, or
group of Individuals, that no Intelligent person would think of allowing
them tosupervlse the welfare of their
fellowmen at the same time.
Some day our government must become sufficiently advanced, enlightened and humane to warrant their undertaking such a task. It Is the obvious responsibility of all governments
today the world over. But lt must be
remembered, however, that the duty
of each and every government is to
discharge that responsibility towards
those at home flrat before assuming
such a responsibility for others.
The house was onragjed because
dumb animals had suffered in tho
Rodeo. I agree with that attitude,
but It Is a strange thing that men
can be easily roused when they see
animals Jlltreated, while they remain
quiet when human life Is suffering.
—Rhys Davles, M. P.
[By Frances Wills!
lyro study of popular poets would be
complete without some mention
of Shakespeare who was one of the
world's greatest writers.
The poet was born In the "heart
of England," and his environment
must have played a great part in
shaping hla genius. His home was
surrounded by field and forest and
river In which he delighted, and h,ls
imagination was fed by the history
and legend with which Warwickshire
Is associated, And history and legend
were living to him. There was the
castle of Warwick the kingmaker,
there was Kenilworth where Leicester entertained tho queen with magnificent pageants, and there was tho
scene of Mary Stuart's imprisonment
all near by. Much more interesting
to the impressionable boy were these
haunts and more educative, too, than
the tedious work of the grammar
school which he attended and where
he learnt little save arithmetic and
At fourteen, he left school and
followed various occupations; accord
Ing to some traditions he was i
country school-teacher and then was
employed in a law-office. After his
marriage, he went to London to seek
his fortune, possibly because he had
some ambition and probably to escape
the wrath of a certain magistrate on
whose preserves he had been poaching. To solve the bread and butter
question Shakespeare commenced as
a horse-boy outside the theatres; later he had some experience on the
stago, but he was more successful In
retouching old plays, incidentally,
he was, as it were, serving his apprenticeship, gaining wide experience
and mastering tenchnique.
Many events conspired to make the
Ellzabethlan age a period of great
dramatic genius. The Renaissance,
or revival of learning, was only just
being felt in England; and its Influence was mingling with that of the
German reformation. And Shakespeare's age saw the coming of the
Armada and much daring exploration
and exploitation beyond the seas.
So it was natural that his mind
moved Jn a large, free, genial world,
and that nothing human therein was
alien to him. He possessed a remark
able knowledge of human nature, and
his works include studies of almost
every Imaginable type. If for
other reason, therefore, Shakespeare
is worth studying. Through his plays
and poems our ideas grow broader
and more tolerant, and we turn away
frbm each finished picture of a hu
man being either with an Indulgent
smile at the weakness of our natures,
or with the pity that can imagine
and understand the lowest depths, or
with the delighted admiration and
something of pride for the noble
strains that are in our kind. And,
perhaps, unconsciously, our Judgment
changes—for judgment is after all
only a question of outlook.
Shakespeare not only portrayeoTthe
the Individual truly; but he gave ub
living pictures of the Ufe and times
of men as backgrounds; indeed he
has done more to diffuse the know
ledge of history than many historians.
Of all the historical plays, perhaps
"Julius Caesar" fs the most interesting, and certainly it makes a strong
appeal  to  those just commencing
study of Shakespeare,
The plot ls laid during one of those
periods in the world's history when
the. "science of thwarting the common man" was at Its highest; when
Rome was flonirlshing ln all her worldwide power; when the Roman empire
with its veneer of barbaric splendor
and rough justice, preyed on the then
known world. It was an age of political corruption, self-seeking, and
Jerrymandering It was an age when
there existed a deep gulf betwoen patrician and pleblan; in other words,
between the leisured class and the
slaves, between the parasites and the
producers. But lt was also an age
of dawning consciousness on the part
of the massess who were learning to
question their masters' actions and
express,    although in   a crude   way,
their, discontent. Long ago, they had
overthrown a king and set up a republic, and since then there had been
frequent revolts against the bitter injustice,' harsh tyranny and Insatiable
greed of the governing group. Not
entirely free from the people were
these efforts, but with the aid and
guidance of men with ideals for the
common good. The story of Julius
Caesar Is the histoid of another such
effort, but in this case the popular
cry for liberty drowned the ugly
voices of the self-seekers; popular
•freedom was made the excuse to vent
private envy.
Julius Caesar is not the hero, nor
yet the central figure of the play.
But he Is the embodiment of a great
power, nevertheless, and his Influence
lives on and, as it were, moulds circumstances after his death, Shakespeare must have thought well of
Caesar; he Is "the noblest man that
ever lived in the tide of times," yet
In the play we are presented with a
man who is both weak and vain. Ojie
is fofl'ced to conclude, therofore, that
the poet sought to contrast him with
Brutus, or to show him as the conspirators thought thev saw him; and
to do this, he shows us the fast-ageing, declining dictator suffering from
"the last infirmity of noble minds,"
as Milton has it. Thoro are various
opinions about tho character of Julius
Caesar, but the prevailing one seems
to be that he was a man of exceptional genius, one of the most magnanimous and large-hearted of men;
one who loved Rome wisely and well,
and who, single-handed, grappled
with the proudest and most powerful oligarchy that the world has ever
been afflcted wtth. Such apparantly
was the Julius Caesar of Shakespeare.
But Caesar had one fault; he was
ambitious, and his enemies feared
ambition In Caesar. Hitherto he had
been an uncrowned king; now they
fear lest he accept the crown. There
fore, they plot to murder him; and
Brutus, his personal friend, heads the
conspiracy, not because he hates
Caesar but because he hates Caesar-
Ism; because by a strange feat of
reasoning he thinks the dastardly
crime justifiable on the grounds that
Caesar might be transformed by the
crown. "Think of him as tho serpent's egg and kill him in the shell.'
>Brutus Is a bookish Idealist as far as
politics are concerned, but in every
other respect his character is admirable—Just enough mixed with
fault to make It human, for Shakespeare never paints the perfect man.
Brutus Is above "graft," for he quarrels with his best friend months after
the death of Caesar on the score of
corruption. He is kind and considerate to those under him; he is noble
and philosophical. And altogether he
is quite above the mean motives of
his fellow-conspirators whose actions
are dictated by* "personal envy of
great Caesar." •
The meeting of the senate is fixed
for the ides of March; the conspirators are all armed, their plans are
faithfully followed and the great
leader Is murdered.
Mark Anthony, who ls also a close
friend of Caesar, Is an Interesting
flgure in the Shakespearian plays. In
Julius Caesar we see him at his best
—or, in spite of his frivolous superficial nature, he Is sincerely shocked
and grieved at Caesar's death. He
could hardly believe that the "conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils of his
friend, should be shrunk to this little
measure." The conspirators are going to show htm the reason for
Caesar's death, and meanwhile he
must appear friendly to them lest he
share a' like fate. But this sorely
tries him;
That I did love thee, Caesar, O 'tis
If then thy spirit look upon ua now,
Shall it not grieve thee dearer than
thy death
To see thy Anthony making his peace,
Shaking  the   bloody   fingers   of thy
foes, "
Most  noble,  In the presence of thy
corse ?
He is given permission by the un
practical Brutus to speak at the
fuuf ral oration; Brutus first addresses the mob who demand enlighten
ment on this latest crime, and he
easily convinces them that Caesar
merited death because of his ambition. Quite aa easily, Antony assures  them  of Caesar's worth  In a
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passionate and clever speech. He
sets alight the popular passions and
stirs discontent to frenzy until the
mob is reaidy for anything. Civil war
breaks out. The conspirators lose
all and the power is seized by another
ruler bearing a different name. Nothing is altered appreciably, and thus
the little effort of the aristocratic
republicans sinks to the ground.
The people present a most interesting study in this play. They are undermined by the economic and moral
evils of the huge, brutal slave system. They are Ignorant, appallingly
ignorant and vicious; those who are
conscious of their human possibilities
live their lives ln helpless misery,
brightened only by feverish hopes of
and futile attempts at liberty; those
who form the vast unthinking masses, drag out their wretched existence
like brutes. They are all more or
less at the mercy of their masters
physically and mentally. They are
easily corrupted and bought; they are
led away by any popular orator who
chooses to address them. Marullus
the senator, by his eloquence, causes
them to slink away tongue-tied in
their guiltiness and perhaps puzzled,
becauae they have sought to rejoice
in the triumph of Caesar their benefactor, Both Brutus and Antony
easily sway them; their easy credulity believes that the death of one
man can give them liberty such as
they dream of; they cannot perceive
that the power will merely be shifted.
In short, a study of Julius Caesar
leaves us with many thoughts. And
the outstanding Ideas seem to be that
the self-seeking or unpractical politician never did aught for the common good, for the wellbeing of the
people can only be attained by wisdom and uprightness on the part of
those who have to govern. Most
people feel something: like satisfaction when they compare the people
of the Roman empire with the people
of to-day. Indeed, it Is remarkabb
that the inarticulate, Ignorant, vicious
fickle mob of comparatively a shor
time agio, has been gradually
transformed into the present-da:
working classes with their ever
increasing knowledge, toleranci
and power, and that In tw<
centuries at least, the workers havt
been found fit to govern, flt to con
trol the lives of millions.
Dr. Hastings, speaking at a League
of Nations conference, said that h<
had never seen a painter over a certain age who did not show signs ot
lead. poisoning.—Mr. Raynes,  M.P.
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HAVE yoa ever had a real drink
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1956 Commercial Drift, Vancouver, B. 0. |
A SIGNAL shows on the switchboard,
a telephone number Is asked for, and
a wire highway is created over which two
persons may send their words and
thoughts, one to the other. Thousands
of these messages pass orer the wires of
the lt, 0. Telephone Company In a day.
The telephone operator cannot follow
ber work to Its results, but she can ap*
f.reclate its Importance. In her keeping
s part of a great mechanism of inter*
communication, but those whom she
serves and the benefits of her serrloe re*
main unknown. Each summons for her
co-operation Is of equal urgency, for each
helps to further the progress of the community and the provinee.
1160 thorite Street
Sanday services, 11 a.m. and TiBO p.m.
Snnday sohool immediately following
morning serrloe. Wednesday testimonial
meeting, 8 p.m. Tree reading room.
901-908 Birks Bldg.
The,Oliver Rooms
Everything Modern
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Af ter-Eating Distress
And all forms of stomach trouble, sueh as
gas pains, acid, sour, burning stomaoh are
all relieved In two in lnu toa by taking
Jo-To sold by all Druggists.
Insist on
The better bear-
high    in    food
I v.-
At all Gov't Liquor Store*
Thts sdTsrtlsemsnt la not publlihed or displayed by ths Llaoor Odatn!
Botrd or ty ths Government of British Columbia.
•THE UNION BANK OP CANADA, with its chain
.**■ of branches across Canada, and its foreign connections, offers completo facilities for taking care
of the banking requirements of its customers, both
at home and abroad.     /
Established M Yeara
To Secretaries and
Union Officials
When Wanting Printing of any kind
We have specialized in Union Work for
the last sixteen years. We guarantee satisfaction. Prompt service. Reasonable
Cowan Brookhouse, Ltd.
Phones:  Sey. 7421 and Sey. 4490
1129 HOWE ST.        VANCOUVER, B. C. SIDAT July 18. Wt
'In the Flavor Sealing Tin"
J Why Is Lancashire doing    imdly?
|ecause  it  la paying  17d.  a pound
■> Its cotton, whereas it only paid
, before the war, while the people
whom   It  sells,  liko the   Indians
Ind the Chinese, are the poorest peo-
|le  In the world,  and  they cannot
[uy the Bame quantity at the necoss*
■rily high price.—Mr. "Webb, M.P.
For Real Shoe Values
Men's Tan Willow Calf Lace
Boots; all leather; made .in
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Men's Black Glace Kid lace
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special aaM
Men's Tan Canvas Boots;
leather sole, heel and toe
cap.   Special   $2.50
Boys' Wool Bathing Suits, 28
to 32   $2.50
Boys' Cotton Bathing Suits, 24
• to 32.   Saturday   75c
Boys' Cotton Jerseys  65o
Engineer Caps  ...25c,  35c, 500
Arthur Frith & Co.
Men's and Boys' Furnishings
Hats, Boots and Shoes
BstWMS 7th ud SU ansae.
Phone. Fairmont 14
Organic Evolution
h BALED TENDERS marked '' Storage
b House, Dryor and Conveyor Gallery, Van-
paver Harbour Commissioners' No. 8 Elo-
Jitor," covering construction of concrete
Borage tanks, having a capacity of approximately 500,000 bushels, a 500-bushel dryer,
I convoyor gallery on the outer section of
Mn jetty, together with connecting gallery
■ tween the present workhouse and propoaed
Joragc, addressed to tho undersigned, will be
pjolyed at the offices of the Vancouver Har-
JSur Commissioners, Yorkshire Building, unit 12 o'clock noon of Wednesday, SOth of
lily,   1924.
Plans, specifications, contraot and form of
Jnder may be obtained at the office of the
liief Engineer, Yorkshire Building, on tbe
Bposlt of Ono Hundred ($100.00) Dollars,
Ihlch will be refunded on roturn of plans,
keolflcations, eto. The tenders shall be ac-
Kmpanlod by an Accepted cheque equal to
ftn (10) per cent, of the amount of the
■nder. The accepted cheque of the success-
lil tenderer will be released on the substi-
lition of a bond, satisfactory to the Com-
lissloners, for Twenty-flve (25) per oent. of
le amount ot the contract-
1A Fair Wage Clause will be inserted in
le  contract.
■Lowest or any tender not necessarily ac-
j                               W. D. HARVIE,
| July  14th,   1924       Seoretary.
Vancouver Unions
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[By  Charles  Hill-Tout,  F.  R.  S,  C,
p. R. A. I., etc]
(All Rights Reserved)
IN the last article we devoted our
attention to that Interesting group
of primitive organisms, the bacteria.
We found that IE they did not- actually represent the lowliest and
earliest organic forms, they must be
closely and genetically related to those
that did; because in their simplest
and lowest divisions no differentiation
into diBtinct plant and animal forms
had yet taken place; their chromatin
had not been, segregated into a nucleus aB in typical cells; and also because their structure was wholly of
the simple one-celled kind,
"We saw, too, that their life-history
was full of the clearest kind of evidence of the evolutionary process;
and that their wide .differences In
form and function and modes of life
could only be satisfactorily explained
in terms of organic evolution.
In this article we are to take-up
some of the other lowly forms of Ufe,
which are more or less closely related to the bacteria, and see what
evidence they have to offer along the
same lines.
We will first seek to discover what
may be of interest in the Hfe-hlstory
of that extensive and widely-differentiated class of organism known col
lectlvely as the Fungi. In this class
are included the moulds and yeast
plants, both of whtch play Important
parts ln several of our domestic industries.
The Fungi are a very large group
and are divided into many families,
genera, species and varieties; which
fact alone proclaims here at the start
that the law of variation has been
exceedingly active among them. Our
knowledge of them is not yet comprehensive enough to estimate with
any exactitude the number of species
that have arisen among them. These
have been variously reckoned as running from 30,000 to 150,000, and lt
Is pretty certain that there are at
least 50,000 distinct species.
This discrepancy In numbering tha
species arises from the fact that in
the higher estimates certain distinctive races and varieties have obviously
been classed as species. The criteria
employed for distinguishing between
the one and the other are not always
the same. Hence differences may
easily arise. Some naturalists regard
a specimen from the purely morphological or "form" point of view, others
rather from a physiological or "functional" viewpoint. Even at best when
the same standards of comparison
are used It Is oftimes difficult to establish definite lines of demarcation
between the three divisions of varieties, races and species; which incidentally shows us how insensibly a
variety or a race may- sometimes
merge into a true species.
Later, when we come to the classification of life-forms we shall have
to take up this question of what constitutes a true species, and we shall
then see how difficult it la to reach
a definition which is at once satisfactory to zoologists and botanists alike,:
and which covers all the requirements
of classification.
In the meantime we may note that
naturalists are constantly at odds in
attempting to classify particular
specimens of any group of organisms
with which they may be dealing;
which fact in Itself offers strong presumptive proof that species may and
do arise from races or varieties by
continued modifications and changes
under the law of variation and in
response, to environmental Influences;
and that ls all we need consider at
this point.
That the Fungi belong to the primitive organisms ts clearly shown by
their relatively simple structure as
well as by their known antiquity and
world-wide distribution.
Like the bacteria, to which some
of their divisions would seem to be
allied, their life-history extends far
back Into the distant past. We find
their a'ncieHit forms In fossilized
woods and in amber, and we can
trace them back to the Carboniferous
Period. Their relatively advanced
organization ln these early forms suggests, however, that they were In existence at a much earlier period than
The whole group of the Fungi with
Its many thousands of different
species Is now very generally regarded
by naturalists as having been derived
originally from the alga.. Indeed, the
similarity ln the morphological characters of one sub-group of them has
caused lt to be named the alga-fungi.
Notwithstanding the fact that they
are probably derivative forms, we will
here consider their life-history ln advance of the algee because, Uke the
bacteria, they are not typical plants.
They have become highly modified
and differentiated, and now constitute a distinct and separate group of
organisms, They have left the line
of direct evolution and have strayed
into by-paths of their own and have
thus acquired characters and modes
of living and reproduction quite distinct from that of typical plants; and
they also offer us ovidence upon the
evolution of characters and organs
not so clearly found elsewhere. They
also in many ways form a natural
link between the bacteria find the
al gas.
Thus, they resemble the higher bac-
fterla in their inability to obtain
their food directly from inorganic substances as do the typical .plants.
They appear to have lost their
chlorophyll—that green coloring matter which is the essential agent in
the process of assimilation ln plants^,
and which enables them to decompose carbonic acjd gas and water
under the action of the sunlight, anu
convert them Into starch and other
carbon compounds.
They are now colorless or else possess only such pigments as are unable to utilize the sunlight, and, as a
consequence, they have become wholly
dependent for their food supply upon
materials built up by other plants.
They are now either parasitic or
saprophytic in thetr habits; that Is,
they either live upon other living
plants (or animals), or else upon the
remains of dead ones.
Another Interesting fact about the
Fungi ls that they bridge the gap between the microscopic world and the
world of larger Ufe and link them together by natural gradations. They
are members of both worlds.
The common mushroom, toadstool,
puff-balls, and that delicacy so dear
to the hearts of gourmets, known as
"truffles," and a host of other well-
known forms, are all members of this
group; and some of them at times
attain considerable dimensions. On
the other hand some of the yeast and
mould plants fall below the range of
normal vision and belong to the microscopic world.
This is a point of Interest for the
evolutionist because It .demonstrates
the oneness of life, and shows how
the two life-worlds merge Insensibly
into one another.
The Fungi, too, are purely vegetable
forms of life. There is not the same
difficulty In classifying them as we
saw existed in the case of the bacteria and which exists also in the case
of the algee, because of their mixed
animal and plant characters. They
may seem less Interesting on that account, but they make up for lt ln a
variety of other ways.
Within their grouD, are Included
both unicellular and multicellular
forms of life. The passage or transition from the* single simple-celled
forms to the compound many-celled
forms such as we saw foreshadowed
ln the zooglceae or gelatinous masses
of the bacteria, has here definitely
taken place. For the simple fungi are
all unicellular organisms, while the
higher • compound forms are all
equally multicellular and are either
composed of more or less complex
wefted sheets of cells or else of
tissue-like masses formed by the union
of a number of these. That these
latter are true multicellular compound
bodies is shown by the fact that they
attain considerable dimensions as ln
the mushrooms, and even undergo
cell-division in their interiors, such
as ls characteristic of the higher organisms, which results in the development of true tissues. Their spores,
too, may be either unicellular or multicellular, so that there can be no
doubt on this head.
The importance of this fact cannot
be overestimated ln our consideration
of the evidence this group of primitive plants offers of the truth of the
principle of organic evolution.
It shows us again from another
viewpoint the oneness of life; that
life is, as we have remarked before,
an unbroken and continuous chain
which links up simple and compound,
earliervand later, life-forms into a
single and united whole. *
In both the Fungi and the Algee
groups of organisms we find numerous
examples of this truth. Taken together, the two groups show us how
this is brought about and by what
gradual and trnnsitlonary steps It
comes to pass.
Let us flrst observe some of these
as they are presentotd to us among
the Fungi. Later we shall como upon
other examples among tho algre. For
In theso processes wo aro actually
viewing some of .the mechanisms or
means by which the dlrectlvo principle, that seems to He behind the
evolutionary process, has attained
some of Us ends.
In the vegetable kingdom wo flnd
much the same distinctions of form
and structure as in tho animal kingdom. In the former the lowost forms
of plant-life are known as "Thallo-
Both Fungi and Alga belong to
this class. A thaJlophyte is a plant
which has no separate and distinct
root or stem or leaves ln the ordinary
sense of those terms. It consists normally of a wholly undifferentiated
"thatlus" or organless body. It represents, therefore, the earliest and
simplest plant-forms we know.
They are Interesting to the evolutionist chiefly In the fact that they
are able to show the first differentiation of separate parts or organs In
the primitive thatlus, and the origin
and earliest expression of sex differences and sex organs. It ts from the
study of those lowly life-forms that
we draw some of tho ctearost and
strongest evidonco nf tho truth of organic evolution.
Thus we may, for example, observe
among theso thallophytos tho flrst np-
pearanco of distinct external organs
In the root-tike processes known as
"hold-fasts." Tlie bost instances of
theso ore porhaps seen among tho
algm or sca-woeds; where the "weed"
Is ofton found clinging to a rock or
stone by its root-like "hold-fasts."
But they may be seen also at the
base of a mushroom or toad-stool or
other fungus.
To the casual observer they may
seem to be real roots, but they are
only the foreshadowings of the true
root; they are merely modified extensions or processes of the thallus
itself, not a real root. These do not
appear till much later In the evolutionary history of plant-life.
We also flnd the widest differences
in individual form among the fungi. They start from the very simplest unicellular bodies, in which
thero exists no apparent distinction
of parts, and ascend by numberless
transitions or stages to more and
more complex "multicellular forms ln
which true tissues appear; and continue to advance from this point till
we find them acquiring and exhibiting some of the features of the higher
plants; to wit, true vessels and compact tissue-bodies, such as characterize the jhlgher of the present-day
plant forms.
When we come to consider tho
primitive forms of animal-life we
Bhall flnd that this progression or
ascent of life is exactly paralleled
among; them.
Speaking generally, the fungi
show a decided advance in complexity of structure upon the bacteria.
Besides their compound forms and
their development of cellulose, tissues and vessels, their cell contents
appear to resemble those of other
vegetable forms with the, exception
of chlorophyll, and what Is more important, all seem .to possess nuclei.
Even the Isolated cells of the simpler
yeast plants have each a nucleus.
In all these characters they show a
definite, measurable, evolutionary advance upon the more simple and
primitive bacteria. They stand higher ln the scale of life, and in the
multiplicity of their forms exhibit an
adaptability as wide as the world itself, as might be expected of such
primitive organisms. Probably nowhere in nature, does the law of
variation manifest Itself so plainly
and actively as among them.
During their long life-history many*
species of them have become highly
specialized both in form and function.
In one species alone there are
known to be six races each of which
has acquired a special habitat or
mode of living, apart from which it
can now no longer thrive or even
This habitat is formeji by a very
narrow range of grasses. One of
these specialized fungi Will grow and
thrive on barley and rye only, and
not on wheat or oats or other grasses.
Another will grow only on wheat,
barley, rye and oats, but on none of
the other grasses. Another will
grow on oats and somo other grasses
only but not on any of the other
cereals; and still another will thrive
upon any of the grasses except the
four cereals.
There are many other instances of
this high specialization among the
fungi. Perhaps one of the most lrif
teresting Is that of the fungus which
long ago entered into a close and intimate partnership with one of the
simpler algae. The two together now
conjointly constitute that simple organism known as the lichert.
Thfs Is a case of what biologists
call "symbiosis" or life-union, where
the two plants have become so closely and intimately integrated as to form
a single organism. This kind of union
Is for mutual beneflt; one partner supplying tho Inorganic materials of
their food and the other the organic
elements. The organic world presents us with many instances of this
kind of life-union. There aro many
interesting cases among the bacteria.
One Is here reminded of the observation made by Father Wosmann
on his parasitic beetles. We cannot
supply a scientific explanation of the
mode of life of organisms such us
these we have just referred to, by
merely declaring they wore created
expressly for this or tlmt variety of
Tho prlnolple of evolution Is tho
only one which gives us a natural
and reasonable explanation of these
phenomena. Why, therefore, should
we not frankly accept It?
But It Is in their methods of reproduction lhat the fungi furnish us
with tho best and most decisive proofs
of the evolutionary process, Here
they are particularly instructive nnd
Illuminating; for thoy exhibit a sur-
prlsing number of methods by which
life Is passed on from one generation
to another. They begin with the very
simplest and earliest known methods
and continuo through a scries of advancing stages until they reach and
oxhlblt some of tho relatively complex modes of fertilization found
among the lower flowering plants.
As the simple single-celled bacteria
foreshadowed In theh- temporary
colonial groupings the compound
many-colled forms that were to succeed them, so among the vnrious
species of fungi do wo find foro-shnd-
owlngs of tho processes and functions
of reproduction that woro lator to
characterize tho highor organisms.
Tho yoasts and moulds exhibit the
simplest methods or reproduction.
Almost all of them reproduce themsolves nsexually ns It is tormed, lhat
Is without fusion or admlxturo of
differentiated sox dements, such ns
characterize reproduction among the
higher organisms.
It Booms difficult to determine
which method preceded tho others,
whother budding, sporatlon or fission.
All threo methods ure clearly primitive processes and all three are found
among the yeasts, The bacteria exhibited two only it may be recalled—
that by fission and by spores.
Some yeast plants follow the budding method of propagation. Budding consists in the formation of a
new individual by the protrusion or
swelling up of a part of the parent-
body. The bud or new form may remain indefinitely attached to the parent by a narrow nock-like connection
or it may quickly detach itself and
become a separate and independent
Other yeast plants have chosen to
reproduce- themselves by means of
Fission is the automatic division
of a cell or an independent organism
into new cells or new organsms.
Each cell or body, usually after elongation, divides itself Into two segments each of which increases to the
usual size and in its turn again divides into two partB. And thus the
division goes on by a process of geometrical progression or multiplication
until conditions hinder" further reproduction, or the activity of the organisms has exhausted Itself for the
time being.
Yet other of the yeast plants carry
on reproduction by means of spore
formation. This is also the method
of many of the other species of fungi; and not the least of the interesting features about this method of
propagation are the diverse ways by
which It is brought about.
Physiologically speaking, any cell
or group of celts, separated off from
the rest of the organism and capable
of growing Into a new fungus, is a
spore. Considered from the morphological or point of view of 'form,"
spores exhibit a wide difference ln
size and color; also in their metbod
of originating and ln many otber
ways; all of which show the influence
of the evolutionary process. The
only feature they share ln common
Is their power of germination.
"They may arise asexually as the
-■dospores among the bacteria. This
seems to be the earliest and simplest
method. In this instance the cell-
protoplasm merely breaks up into a
larger or smaller number of tiny
bodies.   These are the spores.
The stage next beyond this is
where the spores arise from the hy-
phee or thread-like filaments that
together make up the mass or body of
the fungus, either along their course
(the earlier, more primitive way) or
from their points or apices (a later,
and more advanced method).
These may be either quiescent, veg
etable bodies called conldia, or mottle
animal-like  bodies  called  zoospores,
because they move about by means
of cilia like some of the minute prim
itlve   animal-forms   of   life.   In the
dual,  undifferentiated characters    of
these    zoospores, we may see a reversion  to an ancestral  type,  a re
turn to an earlier and more primi
tive  condition;  to a  time when the
earliest life-forms had not yet been
differentiated  into distinct vegetable
and animal forms.
This Is interesting in itself as an
illustration of the biogenetic law
which teaches us that embryos (and
a spore or seed is a plant in the embryo form) always manifest In their
earlier phases of development ancestral characters, It also makeB it
perfectly clear that the mature
forms of fungi are evolutionary nd
vances upon simpler ancestral forms.
Spores may arise from the union
or fusion of two cells. These, in the
earliest unions of this kind have not
yet undergone differentatlon into distinct male and female cells.
These cells exhibit the earliest
stages of sextuul differentation.
Thoy huve taken the first step in this
direction; for while they huve not
yot acquired true sexual chnracters
thoy fore-shadow them In the fact
thnt they differ In their nature. In
other species of fungi we flnd lho
next step bus been reached and
though distinct sexual organs havo
not yet boon evolved tho fusing or
conjugating cells hnvo reached th<
sexuul stage; ono is mulo and thl
other is female. The latter Is dls-
distinguished from tho former by i
greater luxuiinnce of growth; it is
much larger. Among theso primitive
organisms the earliest external differ
onlitttion of sex is seen iu a difference In size Tlie femulo cell h
usually much larger than the mult
cell. In the highor organisms this
difference in sizo Is still more pronounced. Tho female gorm-cell
ovum is sometimes many thousands
timeH bigger than the mule germ-
cell or spermatozoon.
One of the noxt definite stops is the
nppearance of sex organs. Here
again we find gradations in the evol
utlonary process. The simplest organisms of this kind nro 'those in
which only n female organ nppears,
namely the oogonium or spore-boar.
Ing receptacle; or If thc male organ
Is present it is only Imperfectly developed nnd doos not function.
In those organisms the -nuclei, or
what scorns to bo nuclei, In tho fomale
cells fust? In pairs and this fusion
gives rise to new snores.
In othor more advanced species
both sex organs are fully developed
and both function—tho oogonium of
tho femnle nnd the an ther Id lum of
the mnlc. Tho latter organ Is the
forerunner of the nnlhor, an essential portion of tho male orgnn or
stamen of the highor flowering
With tho evolution or thoso organs
reproduction has becomo truly sexual And tho resulting spores arise
from tho fusion of tho sexual elements.     Truo   sexunl   differentiation
Buy Now and Save
A Hudson*lajtfbmpattg.
with distinct sex organs has now taken
But mark how gradual and how
transitional has been the evolution.
It does not seem possible to observe
these steps and stages and satisfactorily explain them apart from the
principle of organic evolution.
Among these fungi we actually see
the evolutionary process at work
going forward step by step from simple reproduction by budding or by
fusion to spore-formation, that ls,
to propagation by means of seed-like
elements of the parent-body.
First the spores or seeds are produced asexually, arising from a parent-form, which within Itself possesses, more or less potentially, the characteristics of both sexes.
These ln certain of the compound
fungi arise from a stem-like portion
or outgrowth of the organism, thus
foreshadowing the stemmed flower
and seed pods of the higher plants-
Next we see the earliest signs of
sexual differentiation appearing. The
nuclei of two different colls fuse together to form new spores. Later
on theso fusing colls havo acquired
distinct sexual characters of a female type. Two femnle cells now
fuse together and new spores aro produced. Still later we find a male
cell arising and the two sexes tire
now fully differentiated and stand
apart. Reproduction is now by means
of tho union or conjugation of male
and fomalo cells or elements.
Thus wo aro uble t<^ see the very
stages and mark tho evolutionary
stops by whieh tho early vegetable
organisms reached the sexuul reproductive methods which lu a still
more perfect manner, aro exhibited
by the flowering plants  of to-day.
If those trnnsitlonary phases are
not evidences of organic evolution
then thoy appear meaningless and
without natural explanation. Hut if
they uro regarded in tho light of tho*
doctrine of organic evolution, as we
think thoy should bo, then thoy have
a perfectly reasonable explanation unci
may bc looked upon ns not the least
cogent part of thnt large body of
cumulutlvo evidence upon which science tins established' tbis Illuminating doctrine.
The evolution of sex hus such a
tremendous Importance In Its bearing upon organic ovolutlon, and Is so
full of doep interest und moaning,
that We think it desirable to dovole
the ne_:t article to u consideration
of some of Its most significant features and Its apparent purpose In lho
lifo-rcnlui. It will make clcurer
many of the arguments to follow lator.
(To  be continued)
Man's Immortality
(Continued from pag» 1)
About all the world hus accomplished so far Is to bring disorder
out of chaos.—Columbia Record.
ThoJinrd pnrt is to love your neighbor ns your self.—Muskogee Phrenlx.
our only conscious life, and they will
pay i^ore heed to thtope systems which
mar their happiness. They will
jealously guard what happiness and
privileges they possess and will do
all in their power to better their
Perhaps to the most scientific
soul among us there comes an occasional longing that the doctrine of
immortality wore true, and the wish
that death did not after all end all
consciousness. This wish, however,
only raises an inward determination
that death shull only have Its way
when knowledge fails to combat it;
In other words that tho harbingers
of death, disease of mind and body,
want and war shall not stalk the enrth
as now.
And to the person with these Ideas,
immortality becomes nothing moro
than a beautiful myth, n theme for
tho imagination, un Inspiration for
art,  literature, music and  painting.
But evon supposing that the question of man's Immortality wore on
opon one (so far there is no proof
that can satisfy keen reuson), surely
it is infinitely better to give one's nt-
tentlon to matters thut nffoct us hero
and now than lo trust all to something
which Is at best a theory.
Intimately hound up with tho question of tha, soul uud immortality aio
the theories of a personnl God and
Individual free-will, but ns theso
would tnko up too muoh space here,
they must be dealt with in furthor
1 ill nary Low Inquiry
[British Labor Press Service!
London.—Kour labor representatives aro Included In tho list of
names of the royal commission appointed to Investigate tho . existing
taw and administration in connection
with the certification, detention, and
care of persons who are or arc alleged to bo of unsound mind. Tho
four labor poople are Horry Snell,
M.l\, Miss Mnilellne Symons, Mrs.
C.   .1.   Matthew,  und   Earl   Russell.
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Eight-hour Day lit Prance
The French Minister pf Labor declared In an interview at Geneva that
he would strongly support the strict
observance of the eight-hour day.
He pointed out that Fra'nce had
succeeded in reconstruction work
without deviation from this principlo.
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press report. That sounds astonishing:, for we have been led to believe
that America was the land of the
free. If such a condition 4s present
in the capital, then we shudder to
think what conditions must be like
elsewhere. It might be, however,
that the worst element have been
gathered together In Washington.
After the many scandalB we have
been reading: about across the line
we should be quite prepared to believe that such was the case.
* •     •
Some one was protesting, through
the daily press the other day against
the dismissal of female help, to make
way for male competitors. Were it
not such a serious matter It would
be most amusing to see to what extent, those who hold the reins of
power ln their hands, will go, In an
endeavor to make this out worn system carry on. They seem to think
that woman is some sort of an odd
species of the animal kingdom that
should live on love alone. Surely
because a human being belongs o
the female sex that should not render
them any more immune from starvation and privation than the rest.
Even the churches are loath to
grant woman her natural rights at
thfs stage ln our enlightened civilization.
* •     •
We see by the Vancouver Daily
Sun that It Ib rather opposed to government by commissions, ' We think
very little of government In any form
such as we have had exhibited for
some years past in Canada. It has
been, In our opinion, purely a matter
of manipulation by high finance, disguised under tho name of "representative government" Its policy has
been so definite that a man, though
a fool, need not mistake it. When
it comes to commissions, however,
they are but a side issue of our present form of government. However,
there is littlo doubt that the editor
of the Sun 'was thinking of the P.
G. E. In our hurpble opinion, if we
had the right sort of commission
with an absolute free hand, we have
little doubt that we could make a
lot of people feel rather uncomfortable in and about Vancouver, even
to the publisher of the Sun.
.'*     -*      *
Learned men become wild; need
oxygen! If learned men become
wild on account of the lack of oxy-
pon when it is about the only thing
that we can get free In this world
we have little wonder that so many
people are becoming wild because
they need food for themselves and
their dependents and, try as they may
they cannot get It. Though they
might be willing to do anything and
everything yet they are deprived of
the necessities in this life. These
learned men might better occupy
themselves with, devising ways and
means to provide the masses with
the necessities of life rather than
wasting" their time experimenting
with oxygen. Let us settle the more
important probloms flrst,
* *      *
Some of our citizens have become so
hard-hearted as to criticize our council for Ub inactivity. So many people
are   always   ready   to'  criticize,   but
Give Bread First
Place in Your
Diet &  -^
JtiVERY task you undertaku—mental or manual-*-
every "lick of work " you do "eats up" enerfey.
Keep your furnace fires feoin& with plenty of feood
1 HAT Hurried mid-day meui---make it a luncheon of delicious
golden-crusted Bread with a bowl of creamy rich milk—perfect
fuel-food for the human dynamo,
Summer Excursions
Low Fares
Prairie Points
Eastern Canada
Central and Eastern States
Optional Routes—-Stopovers—Side Trips
Vancouver—Prince Rupert—Jasper Park
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Tourist and Travel Bureau, 527 OranviUe Street
Canadian National Railways
constructive. The councillors have
only a very limited sphere In which
they can operate. The financial interests'dictate just how far they can
go. Were they to really attempt to
do anything worth while for the
masses the "big interests" would
soon call a halt. They are allowed
to arrange for the cleaning of the
streets and the hauling away of the
garbage, but when it comes to baking bread, something in which they
might make a little money the'employing bakers would soon be there
in all their glory.
* •      *
Christian missionaries In Korea
find that .they must discover fresh
occupations for their women converts
who happen to be engaged in the
manufacture of wine, for instance.
Whatever one's views on prohibition
or otherwise, one cannot help thinking that It ls remarkable how easily
the older Christian countries manage
to reconcile the exploitation of women
In a thousand other ways with their
most Christian  consciences,
* •      •
The president of the C.P.R. has
departed dn a pilgrimage to entice
more unfortunate workers to leave
their home and kindred and come
out to Gtfd's country. Evidently the
British are waking up to the truth
about immigration, for the president
is turning his energies upon Scandinavia.
* *      •
Three instances have been mentioned, but oh, so briefly, m the press,
during the last few months, which
prove that judicial murder, otherwise
hanging, Is not an Instantaneous
affair in many cases.
* *      •
We are supposed to be living in an
age. of reason, but even that cannot
convince our learned governments
that criminals, i.e., persons whose
brains are permanently or temporarily
affected (often by reason of the economic situation) should be treated and
not punished. Two' wrongs never
yet made a right.
* *      *
While wo have every sympathy for
the U.S. president in the loss of his
son, we could not help being Impressed by our varying standards of human values, due, no doubt, to the vast
differences in the quality of human
clay. Millions of the world's workers are passing away unnoticed every
day as a: result of conditions which
need not exist.
* *     *
The memory of the "glorious
twelfth", must be kept up by all
means. How blind the workers are
thus to commemorate their past
masters' deeds instead of uniting
against their present ones, and how
the master-class must welcome such
ordors and commemorations which
so satisfactorily divert the attention
ot the slaves from iheir miseries.
* •     •
It was reported that the "bond of
humor was strained when the fleet
visited San Francisco." Although
we doubt the authenticity of many
of our daily press reports, we would
not be surprised if this one were
true. When you run about the world
with an instrument of war, and more
or less flaunt it in the face of those,
who must some day be your enemy
■If a war must be—some are surely
going to resent it, and they cannot
be blamed. If the fleet ls for self-
defense then let It stay at home where
it belongs.
* •        » ' ■'■!"*
The navy spirit is still alive in
Germany, they say. It annoys some
of ub when we hear such news. We
still think we are a specially privileged race, It would seem, and have
a right to boast about "our navy."
Why should this special virtue of ours
be such a hideous crime on the part
of others? When will we learn to
be fair?
* *     *
Our tourist trade, it would appear
has reached a new high record. And
yet, prosperity is not with us! Prosperity does seem to be such an elusive treasure. "Honest John" was
£ning to get it for us, via the freight
rates route, when suddenly his foot
slipped. Mr. Woodward, no doubt,
will tn'; but we doubt his ability to
fight the "liberal machine." He
made a wonderful start, but soon, it
would appear, undue pressure was
brought to bear. Henco tho present
The "democrats" have at last selected their candidate for the presidency. We sincerely hope that Mr.
John W. Davis will be able to show
that he was worth all the troublo
they went to. They surely took long
enough, and made noise enough to
select lhe vory best the country
could hope for. But, after all is
over, no matter who is elected the
Morgan or the Rockerfelier interests
will have the final "say,"
Wc understand that the premier
of Egypt, • Zahglul Pasha, was shot
by the assassin because he is pro-
British. We would guess that the
reverse was the caso, for he is insisting that Britain give Egypt and
the Sudan their rights, promised when
Egypt entered the world war on behalf of Britain. And all he asks is
that Egypt should be free from tho
shackles and exploitation of another
FOUXWING lost copies, of
*' The B. C. Federatlonist are
missing from the flies:
March 30, 1023.
Ootober 12 to December 28,
1993, inclusive.
We will be very much obliged
to subscribers having any of
these papers at their disposal if
they would kindly send same to
this office.
Oriental Question from
Woman's Point of View
(Continued from page 1)
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where labor can be more cheaply exploited than at home. In the mines
of B.C. there are Orientals employed
who are a menance to the white
workers because of their Inability to
understand the English language.
There have *bcen protests from labor
in all parts of the province but with
no results, because the coal barons
require cheap labor. But the biggest
menance of all to the white workers
ia tihelr own ignorance. Just as long
as the workers are content to be led
away by the cry against the Oriental
franchise, and the demands for Oriental exclusion, just so long will conditions remain as they are.-- The informed worker knows that the Oriental will get the franchise if the employing class has anything to gain
thereby. For this reason they have
been given the franchise before.
We ought to remember that it is
only a matter of a few short years
ago since the women of the province
were given the franchise. It was not
given as a result of outside pressure
but because the old-line parties
thought that by women's ballot they
would be able to offset the growing
Intelligence of the men. Let the
workers of the province take stock
of the awful conditions that prevail
in Great Britain. There is no Oriental question thore, yet the conditions
are appalling. What fs the matter
With the world is not the Oriental
question but capitalism, or ownership of'the menns of life by the 1'e'w,
which means, as Morgan says, the
enslavement of the many.
The workers themselves can only
produce a white British Columbia
when they develop the Intelligence to
abolish capitalism. They will, also
discover that the Orientals prefer to
live in their own country, and that
they are in much the same position
as the white workers. They are
struggling for emancipation as we
are. At Canton, 160 labor unions,
wilh a membership of 170,000 paraded
recently, demanding the eight-hour
day and the abolition of child lnbor.
What the workers need is knowledge
and what we should refrain from nt
all times is the fostering of racehatred. That in itself binders progress and spells the workers' downfall.
Some timo ago I heard a university
professor state that it was quite
unique to think, and that thinkers
know no country or race. He meant
that the enlightened mind only thinks
in terms of the human race.
It will be conceded that the cheaper workers are most valuable in the
eyes of the master class, for the flrst
chance of sales depends on the low
rates possible through cheap labor.
When we take the trouble "to study
the question deeply enough we discover that the workers are but
pawns In the game. To-day they
are being driven from pillar to post.
Millions 'of all races and color are
wandering the earth in a vain search
for the means of life. Millions of
workers, too, are forced to remain
in the one place because they are
unable to strike out for better conditions elsewhere through their terrible poverty. I have made mention
of the sending of capital to China.
The same applies to India. Cotton
products from raw material to {he
finished goods are produced through
British capitalists in India while the
Lancashire cotton operatives starve.
It is plain that where cheap labor
cannot come to capitalists, the capitalists go where there Is cheap labor.
The next best thing that could
happen nfter the workers of B, C.
have learned to use their vote and
through this have taken control of
their own lives and-working condit
Ions, Is not to decry colored workers
having the same privileges, because
therein lies the welfare of the world
workors. The carrying on of the
present systom depends on tho lowering of the standard of living of the
white workers, Thoy are being driven to the lowest possible standard
of existence at the present day. To
quote Robert Blatchford, "When the
white workers are driven to accept
a rice diet,,the Orientals will havo to
eat grass."
Let the workers think the matter
over. For when we are foolish
enough to talk of raco inferiority,
we show our own ignoranco and prove
our low standard  of valuos.
Enlightened mothers of the working class understand that a colored
mother has the samo aspirations
about her child as the white mother.
She looks forward to the day when
her child shall take its place in the
right rejatlonshlp to Its fellow-men.
But disillusionment comes to both
mothers. When they discover that
there is no place for either child as
they have dreamed there would be;
when the colored mother sees her child
used as cheap labor and the growing
conviction of the white mother is
that she Is producing sons for tho
bread line and the battle field.
Whon we turn our eyes from the
worship of warlords and parasites in
general and give respect to the wealth
producors and all useful members of
society irrespective of color, we will
be well on our way to a higher and
nobler plane of existence.
[The opinions and Ideas expressed
by correspondents are not-necessarily
endorsed by The Federationist, and
ho responsibility for the views expressed is accepted by the- management.]
X + Y = 0
Editor Federatlonist: I have about
as much affinity for mathematics as
a Hottentot has for Sheliy's poems.
I can remember only one street number besides my own, and that Is because it ls two hands with four between them—545. When people
talk motor mileage and taxes to me
I listen as to a humming of Insects;
it means no more to me. When -I
want to know how much I have ln the
savings bank I always have to look.
With mental soil of this type stern
fate has forced on me, a person nearing forty, the necessity of passing the
"junior matric, algebra exam." Last
year, to better qualify for my daily
employment I took the matric. exam,
and by studying at night after work,
I made a total of 75% without the
algebra paper which X did not feel
capable of even trying to write. Ab
I was far beyond the minimum
pass marks In the total I had a vain
hope that they might let me through
without algebra. "No," said the authorities. "If you had 100% in everything else you cannot pass without
algebra." So during the past _ year
I have sternly driven myself to the
detested tasK, and last Friday wrote
off my "supp." I had intended having a celebration and burning in the
kitchen stove that vilest of books—
"Hall and Knight's Algebra" with
as much venom (or holy delight) as
Luther burnt the papal bull. However, In second thoughts, I have postponed the ceremony till the results
come out; for a new copy costs $1.75.
I have now, at any rate, come within sight of passing; but to do this,
I have wasted more valuable time
than on all the other subjects put
together. When I say "wasted" I
want to justify the expression because
I would show that thousands of
young people—many with no moro
tas*te for mathematics than I have,
are wasting much time, not to speak
of eyesight, on litis comparatively
useless (to the majority of people)
subject, without which the doors ol
the University are ruthlessly barred
to them.
I have been at some trouble to
find out whether I urn prejudiced, I
have asked University professors
whother algebra Is required throughout the University course in the study
of other subjects stich ns chemistry
or physics and ihey have regretfully
had to own that except to high school
leathers who have to teacb It an"
a few men doing special work, algebra is of no value except as a
discipline: it makes one more correct. I have* never required It in
my own lifo: 1 have only known personally two persons other than high
school teachers, to whom it was of
any value in their daily work". People say "but you can solve arithmetical problems bottor by algebra, can't
you?" I do not suppose one out of a
thousand men will ever come up
against a, problem in every day life
that cannot be solved by the ordinary
practical arithmetic and mensuration
that is taught In the public schools.
Two girls were going out to the examination room ahead of me. "Did
you do the problems?" said one.
"Yes, did 'em by arijhmetlc; then
juggled them." Comment is superfluous!
This matter of problems needs explanation. In school parlance a problem means the solving of practical
matters such as dollars, pigs, fence
wire and acres by means of arithmetical or algebraical processes.
Your child does not sigh and erase
and sometimes weep over long division just so as to become expert in
getting correct remainders. The object striven for in this as in other
"ruleB" is to be able to figure..out all
the practical affairs of everyday life
from selling eggs to buying stocks.
What would you say if when he left
public school, having passed the entrance, he had not the faintest idea
as to what subtraction or division
were for; if for instance he could do
a long division with a three flgure
division but had not the faintest idea
how to divide twelve candies'among
thope boys or measure up the length
of fence wire needed for the garden.
Nevertheless, It.is possible and indeed quite .usual for a high school pupil to pass in his algebra paper with
75% and yet be exactly in the same
position as that mythical boy In
stanced above. I, i'or instance, can
do any quadratic. I have memorized tho formula and have learnt
how to juggle tho thing Into shape,
but I have not tho ghost of an idea
what a quadratic means practically.
I nm In the same class as the entrance
child who Is asked lo make up..a
little addition problem about pigs and
has not the slightest idea how to do
it. It is truo that 23 pages out of
293 in my algebra book are given up
to probloms; but one docs not have
to do them. In fact, the bulk of
school algebra Is merely a clever
juggling with symbols or letters tbai
mean nothing to - the pupil. Tbe
primary school child gets his problem flrst and his symbols noxt. Ho
Is not taught tho symbol 2 until he
knows whnt two apples or two hands
mean. The high school pupil who
bas little taste for mathematics will
pass In his 2+2 and 2 = 1, but never
all his life will he know what It all
means unless he goes into advanced
mathematics in the University, when
of course, he must begin to put the
processes Into actual thinking and
reasoning along mathematical lines.
In the great majority of cases,
however, the school symbol juggling-
is absolutely forgotten within
couple of years after leaving high
school. I recently asked a young
first class public school teacher who
was head of her class at high school
two yeears ago, if she could do a factor for me. "Good gracious, no," she
said, "I just retained Hall artd Knight
till I had poured It out on the exam,
paper and never thought of It since."
It Is difficult to get the average
pedagogue or education department
person to look at algebra from the
point of view of the average common
practical person like myself. He
cannot see the wood for the trees.
The idea of making algebra an optional subject in high school savors
of educational    bolshevism.     "It    Is
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Invaluable training in correctness,"
he says. He has been saying this
since the time when it became necessary to flnd reasons for studies.
But while be has been reiterating his
reason for the last hundred years it
has not dawned upon him that the
younger generation of, studies—the
natural sciences, practical chemistry,
electricity, drawing, manual training
have all come along and, nowadays, it
Ib not necessary for all of us to walk
the mental treadmill of algebra which
may be good for discipline, but barren In interest or practical or cultural
value. We can get all the training
we require in correctness from arithmetical problems about papering
walls and computing interest; from
the .work in the chemistry laboratory;
from careful drawing of plans and
nice fitting of joints in the manual
training room, and the covering of
a hat brim or fitting of a collar in
"the   home   economics   department.
A school survey Ib coming aio:
It would lead to Interesting reau
if the question were put to every pi
son who has been through hi
school: "Have you found algebra
have been of any practical or cultu
use to you ln your everyday life
The concensus of opinion would
the solution of the problem "Wh
x=o and Y=o. What does X-
equal? b. J.
Duncan,  B.C.,  July   12,   1924.
The New Brunswick branch of t
National Council of Women has ac
ed the provincial government to a
point a woman factory inspector,
Sir Edward Grey aB foreign minis!
is impossible . . . because the key
his policy Is the fatal antagonism
Germany. Similarly, he defend
Russia's action in seizing North Pe
sia's Independence.—Daily News, 191
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