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BC Historical Newspapers

British Columbia Federationist Dec 5, 1924

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Seriousness and Fundamental Nature of Question Discussed
at F. I. P. Meeting.
Oause, Effect and Cure—Production for Use and Not for
r\N SUNDAY evening last the sub
^ ject for discussion at the rcgu
lar meeting of the Federated Ijabor
party was "Unemployment, ItB
Cause, Its Effe6t, Its Cure.
Mrs. Rose Henderson occupied the
chair. In her opening remarks, she
pointed out the seriousness of, and
the fundamental nature of the Question of unemployment. She pointed
out how, during the war, with some
45,000,000 men occupied In destructive enterprises rather than con
structlve work, those who remained
at home'were able to not only pro
vide themselves and their depend
entB with necessities of life but also
to provide those who were actively
engaged in the war and their de
pendents with the essentials ln life
Nothing to Do
Now that the great majority of
these able-bodied men have returned j
to again become engaged In some
useful occupation, they find tha
their presence Is not required. Since
It was possible for the owners and
controllers of industry to carry on
without them, It could hardly be expected that they would hire then
unnecessarily. Production, it was,
pointed out, was being carried on for
the profit of the few and not for the
purpose of supplying the needs
Cause, Effoct aud Cure
Dr. Lyle Telford was the speaker
of the evening. He pointed out that
the fundamental cause of unemployment was the nature ot our present
social system which concerned itself
only with the profits of those who
were ln control. The effect of the
Introduction' of machinery, and highly orgnnized systems of production,
% .vhlch wo have today, were referred
to and how, since these were owned
by but a few, tho great masses derived no bonefit from the savings, In
time and money, which this machinery, and these organizations . brought
Employment, the doctor said,
should be dependent upon tho need,
first of 'tlio Individual; second of
society, and should not be dependent
upon whether such employment was
going to be profitable to some employer or not.
The effects of unemployment in
rendering individuals unable to provide themselves and their dependents
with necessities of life In the form of
food and shelter was stated. Ill-
health, it was pointed out, resulted
from this unfortunate state of affairs.
Crl. a In alt Its various aspects waa
due in no small degree to individuals
being out of employment and in need,
he Bald.
Production for Use
The cure for unemployment was
dependent upon the inauguration of a
new social systom where we would
have "production for use and not for
profit," a system In which the needs
of humanity would be paramount to
profits of a few capitalists.
The great need for knowledge on
the part of the workers regarding
the great social and economic questions with which wo were confronted,
|'t was pointed out. It was further stat
ed that there was required, on the
part of the majority of the workers
a willingness to apply such knowledge intelligently to the problems
we were now facing. All this entailed,
to no small extent, a spirit of self-
sacrifice on tho part of tho workors.
Without that, nothing of real service
to themsolves need be oxpected. Until
they were willing lo make such essen-
tinl sacrifices, little advancement or
betterment of tho lot of the workers
noc.d be expected.
"Our Difficulties At Victoria"
A r*,
^/.omrades NEELANDS and BROWNE will be
'*%x the speakers at the regular Sunday evening
%.-        meeting of the F. L P., at the
Sunday, Dec. 7th, 8 p.m.
This should be a most interesting and instructive meeting. Many questions will, undoubtedly, be asked of the
Labor representatives.
Come and show your interest in the work of YOUR
own men.
Canadian Labor Party Endorses
Nominations   for   Sonth
;iCTORIA, B. C—The various com-fconditions.    Meanwhile in an assem
Funeral  of  John   Crosby
Attondcd by members of tho Loco-
I motivo   Engineer   Brotherhood   and
[ amid a profusion of beautiful floral
tributes tho funeral of John Crosby
I of Penticton, who was killed in au
t accident near Bcuvcrdnle,  was held
i at 3 p.m. Saturday from the Nunn &
Thomson Chapel.   Rev. J. S. Henderson, D.D., read the services.    Interment was in the family plot. Mountain   View  cemetery.    Although   he
resided   in   Penticton,   he   was   well
' known  in  Vancouver,   having   lived
there for some years.    He had boen
resident  of  the   provinco   for   33
I years.    He lg survived   by his wife
[and four sons.
All of us are weak in the period of
■growth, ond are of small worth be-
Tfore the hour of trial.—Meredith.
A series of articles on above
subject will ofapear In' The
Federatlonist commencing next
week and every two weeks
mlttees of the house got to work
laBt week and the grip of property
Interests was clearly shown. The so-
called Union Church movement has
resulted in the churches concerned
abandoning all pretence of religious
motive and settling down to a paltry
scramble for the real estate of the
consenting and non-consenting bodicB
Reports from the similar contest at
Ottawa state that the shepherds having exhausted their wordy warfare
and finished up with umbrella fighting.
The Greater Vancouver water bill
revealed similar motives. Vancouver wielding the big stick, repudiated
all idea of democratic administration,
and insisted ou tht city having a
majority of representatives on the
new board, thus immediately killing
the metropolitan spirit. The only
Idea visible In the city representations wns the sale of obsolete waterworks to the outside municipalities at
cost price.
Again a bill produced by the Asso
elated   Growers,   a  concern  working
under the  Companies Act, although
plentifully  labelled  under the  term
co-operative, had nbout as much relation to that movement as would bo
a bill  incorporating the stoel trust.
In fact, tho latter would bo the more
progressive, as its members could resign, whereas the signatories of the
fruit trust would presumably be tied
forever.    In   the   house   oceans    of|
words were poured on the P. G. E.
Government and opposition had two
practically  identical  resolutions that
a committee of the whole should discuss the possibility of a sale.    Finally, the first division was taken, the
the Conservatives being opposed  by
tha  remaining  three   parties.    The
Provincials being arrayed tn the garments of virtue as regards this matte.  Labor  may  possibly, be excused
for voting with them.   From a local
point of view the event of the week
was the  demonstration  of Wednes-
torla  has  appeared  to   take  advan
day afternoon.      The mayor of Vic-
tage of the fact that parliament sits
in this city to place the city's financial   responsibilities on  the  province without regard to the fact that
other  localities  have   unemployed.
A parade of genuine unemployed
took place with a plentiful supply of
colonels nnd majors at their head—;
these latter also may have bcen real
out-of-works. A much greater crowd
of spectators assembled nnd swamped
the marchers. Conservative and Lahor membera had been invited to
address the gathering. The burden
of the tale told by the former wns
to put Oliver out and everything
would be fine. '
Harry Neelands stated that unemployment was not a political football
and pointed to the fact that the
gathering was calling for help and
had elected four Conservatives at the
olection, Including two lawyers und
a  bond  dealer.
Tom Uphill referred to his own
constituency, where the mines had
closod down, putting 750 men, with
thetr wives and children, on the
bread line, and threatening the whole
community with an economic col
lapse. Many of the men in front of
him wero veterans who now had to
fight at home.
Frank Browne said that the Conservatives, who had suggested that|
they would cure unemployment, were
speaking without knowledge, and
that society, as now constituted, depended upon the presence of an unemployed margin of workers fighting
for jobs.
The three Labor members unltod
in stating that they had from the
commencement of the session been
constant in their privato and public
demand from the cabinet that pro-
vision Should be made for the setting
up of* public work this winter to|
alleviate the distress. In reply to a
resolution hurriedly read nt the closo
of the meeting to the effect that the
Lobor partly in the house tdioitfd
bring in a motion of no confidence
in the government, they intimated
that the change from king stork to
king log promised no' betterment for
bly almost emptied of members and
visitors, the returning Conservative
introduced a motion tbat tbe house
should adjourn to meet the crow(
which was opposed by the govern
ment. Labor members stayed outside
with the unemployed and sough
genuine Information.
Workers and spectators entered the
house, filled the galleries; the division
was taken. Labor and Conservatives
voting for the adjournment. Major
Burde, independent, voted with the
government on the ground that the
meeting had dispersed. .
As a matter of Information, it may
he mentioned that the unhstppy
death of the member for Grand Forks
leaves the Conservative party wit!
17 members, assuming that labor and
provincials join them in a critical
division, the total opposition would
number 23, exactly equal to the Liberals, plus the two independents.
The speaker, a government supporter,
would, therefore, have the final decision. Furthermore, as only the government can Introduce any resolution
suggesting the expenditure of public
money, Labo/* cannot "move for a
vote to aid unemployment. The rules
of order forbid even an expression of
an express or abstract opinion of the
house in .this connection, unless
recommended by the crown, and such
motion cannot be put from the chair.
In a tight place, this regulation can
b0 used to stifle almost any progres
sive measure on the grounds of administration expense, even if funds
nre raised from outside sources.
To meet the situation, Labor has
tabled a resolution stating that unemployment is a constant factor and
that industry must bo called *upon
to provide for the workers not needed.
Conservatives have developed a
tremendous Interest ln mothers' pensions, and it ls to' be hoped it may
'— instructive. Instead of tabling
amendments to strengthen the measure, they moved one in connection!
with the budget. This, if passed
would have forced the government to
resign, left the province withou
funds to pay anything until another
election ln four months time. The
amendment regretted the adoption of
regulations inserted to govern the act,
which by means of order-in-council
can be done. It did not refer to the
objections most held by Labor, and
of course, did not propose to abolish
ordors-ln-councll, now too commonly
used to counteract democracy. Labor
ignored the trap and deprecated the
use of the widow's misery to make a
Conservative holiday.
Medical Inspection of School Ohildren—Nominations for
rpHE regular meeting of the Greater
Vancouver Central Council of the
Canadian Labor Party was held on
Sunday evening, Nov. 10, in the
Labor Temple, 11 Hastings Btreet
east. Credentials were received from
the Electrical Workers, No. 213
Bending for delegates.
The resignation of Miss France
Moren, a member of the executive
waa tendered and accepted with re
gret. Delegate Rankin, South Vancouver Labor party, Was elected to
fill the vacancy. The financial secretary read a report of donations received to the campaign fund.
Pr. Nowell spoke on the medical
inspection of children in the public
schools. He advocated the closing
up of the school health department
as regards both doctors and nurses
The meeting did hot feel inclined to
discuss this question and no action
was taken in the matter.
On the recommendation of the
South Vancouver Labor party the
Council refused to endorse a candi
date for the reeveshlp of South Vancouver.
The following names were placed
before the meeting for endorsatlon
as candidates for the South Vancouver .Council, and voted on the
candidates  and  votes  received.
J. G. Smith, 30; A. Macdonald, 25;
George Hardy, 21; Edge, 28; O. Men-
got, 22; J. Auton, 21; Bender, 20; J.
Armstrong, 10; E. S. Hougham, 12;
the first seven elected. R. E. Rigby
and A. Claridge were nominated for
the school board and W. Ford for
police commissioner.
A letter was read: from the Labor
members in the legislature at Victoria in regard to the unemployed
demonstration which was staged
there last week. The M.L.A.'s were
of the opinion that, although thero
was an acute unemployment problem
in Victoria, that th'e demonstration
last week was staged by the Conservative party.
A vote of confidence in endorsation of the actions of the labor members was passed.
Nominations for the Burnaby municipal election will be received at
the next meeting, which will be held
on   Dec.   29th.
ONCE again*the workers are going to be given an opportunity of voting for their own candidates to represent
them on the various civic bodies. We hope that the workert
will avail themselves of this opportunity and see to it that
. their candidates are elected. We are not blind to the fact,
however, that perhaps some of the candidates chosen have
a record in the Labor movement. Some, it would seem, have
but a faint idea of what the Labor political movement really
stands for. Socialism, the ideal—and the only one worth
while—has been rather neglected by some of tie Labor
aspirants at election time. Such an attitude we deplore.
Drawing "red herrings" across the track of Socialism is
quite uncalled for.
However, we uk of all workers that they oast their votes
ft* Labor. If, aftor being elected, th«ir representatives do
not stand true to the principles of Labor "The Pedera-
tipnist" wiU not fail to tell them so.
Hospital Tax—Health Insurance
tNote—There was delivered beforetthrow up their hands.   Hospitals
e   RotftPV   nliih   In   IfftfnlfUMta  a   mhnrt I _______       ».. -
the Rotary club in Kamloops a short
time ago, an address on "Hospital
Tax" (health insurance),* by Mr,
Burton of that city. We have been
pressed by several of our readers for
an article on this important subject.
We therefore submit the following
report of the addreu* since we feel
lt is a very good statement of the
case and one well worthy of our
earnest   consideration—Ed.]
Why are you killing me? What!
Do you not live on the other side of
the river? My friend, if you lived on
this side I should be an assassin, and
It would be unjust to kill you in this
manner; but since you live on the
other side, I am a brave man, and
my deed Is Just.—Pascal.
Canadian Labor Party Meetings
Following meetings will 'bo held
In the interests nf the labor candidates in ftpprnarhlng civic elections
 Friday evening,  Decern-
Ash hall,
ber  fi,
Avenue   Thoatre,
Docombor 8,
■A.   O.   F.   hall,    Tuead
December 9.
Grandview      Dancing      academy,
Tuesday  ovoning,  December  n.
Monday evening,
Soutli Vancouver Group
Social and dance will be held In
I.O.O.F. hall, Thfrtleth avenue and
Main street, tomorrow night (Saturday), December 6th. Concert from
8 to 9 o'clock. Dancing until 12,
Ladies, please bring cake or sand-
wlches.' Three-piece "volunteer orchestra" in attendance. Admittance
Collection to defray expenses.
Saviors Crucified
"The world has crucified its saviors
and crowned its oppressors." Think
ers who wer& in advance of their
time, who "shed more light than
blood," men like Oatiieo, Socrates,
Bruno and Christ were tortured, imprisoned and crucified by holy humbugs who havo exerted overy effort
in all ages of the world to trample
freedom from the human heart,
A society cannot be founded only
on the pursuit of pleasure and power;
a society can only be founded on re-
spent for liberty and Justice,—Paine.
Tabloid Issued by United States
Department of Labor, at
Washington, D. 0.
Railway Employees' Colony.—Em
ployees of the Belgrade division of
the state railways contemplate the
construction of a modern colony to
consists of 200 houses, at a total cost
of 1150,000.
Labor Excess.—The supply of C"-
ban labor continues to exceed the demand, and n large surplus will continue lo exist until the sugar-harvesting season begins.
Fiirm Labor Insuranco,—Tho Indemnification law of .September 1 fi,
1022, under whieh farm workers will
be Indemnified for accidents resulting
from their lahor, In the samo mnnner
as Individuals engaged In commercial
and Industrial occupations, bocame
fully effective on September t, 1924.
Immigrant Farm Labor. — It appears that French farms, particularly
thoso of Southwestern France, aro Increasing empnlymont opportunities for
Immigrant farm labor; and that '.he!
services of Immigrant fnrm laborers |
from Italy and Switzerland have been
found most satisfactory.
Irish Freo Stato
Unemployment. — Following the
harvesting of earl> crops this year,
released farm laborers have mado a
considerable swell in the ranks of the
Barbers and Waiters Strike—Barbers and waiters of Lisbon recently
declared a strike, the latter asking for
a fixed daily wage plus 20 per cent, of
tho gross Income, in which cnso they
are witling to forego the acceptance of
tips from patrons.
Unemployment.—Depression in tho
Iron and steel industries ls cited as
the principal cause of the last quarterly Increase of from 82,600 to 68,698
unemployed persons In the Glasgow
A SHORT time ago, the president
asked me to prepare a paper on
the subject of a "Hospital Tax." The
question of financing hospitals fe one
that I have devoted considerable
thought to during the last few years,
and I am glad of an opportunity of
submitting to Rotariana .some of the
conclusions I have come to. It Is a
brave man these days who are suggest another tax on an already over
taxed public; and, for that reason
I approach tho matter with a certain
amount of trepidation. It will be
my endeavour to prove to you that
the proposal will mean money in
pocket for the great majority, and it
will only add to the financial burden
of those who are fortunate enough
never to be sick.
Personally, I prefer to call it
health tax rather than a hospital
tax, because, in addition to placing
hospitals on a sound financial basis,
It will provide proper medical attention for those requiring it.
A connection of over twenty years
with the directorate of the Royal Inland hospital and a close association
with the financial end of the institution has impressed upon me the ne
cesslty   of   some   more   dependable
method than the present haphazard
system of financing hospitals and insuring the public against sickness.
Hospital Finance
In   British  Columbia,   public   hospitals are financed by;  (a) Patients'
fees;  (b) government grant; (c) municipal   grant;   (d)   share of liquor
profits, and   (e)  subscriptions.
You all realize that in every business, there is a definite overhead
charge, notwithstanding that the vol
ume of business varies considerably
and the same principle' applies to
hospitals. Take our own hospital as
an example. One week it may hnve
forty patients, the next week ninety
It Is, therefore, evident that it must
maintain a permanent staff capable
of caring for the greater number, so
there Is no variation in the salary
list each month. The same applies
to the cost of heating, also tho eost
of operating thc laundry. It will
thereforo be Heen that an Increase
In the number of patients sSmply
adds to the cost of administration b|*j
proportionate additional cost for
provisions  an   supplies,
Tho hospital cnn he conducted
profitably with n daily average of
sixty-five patients, Immediately the
average falls below that figure, a less
is incurred, becnuse there Is a corresponding decreaso In the receipts from
patients' fees. The govornment grantj
also decreases because ft Is based on
the number of patients dnys.
Thero Is a further point which
seriously affects hospitals financially
and thnt Is that nbout thirty-five poi
cent of tho public ward pat lon ts df)
not pay for their treatment.
Progress Adds Expense
Wonderful progress has been made
In the treatment of disease In recent
years, but this progress has meant
added departments, expensive appliances, and higher salaries of experts to look after Hnme, Every hospital which keeps abreast of the
limes must Instal these recent dovel
opmentn, but It all means Increased
expenditure. Then atfnln, since 1914
salaries of the staff have doubled
and provisions, drugs and fuel hnve
greatly Increased in cost, and yet
there has been no Increase In tho
government grant or munlcipnl
slstance. It Is true that hospitals are
receiving a small share of the liquor
profits, but that is completely lost in
thy tremendous increase In costs of
operation I havo outlined above.
Today, tho experience nf tho how
pltalH throughout the Provinco Is
similar, nnd deficits nt the ond of
each year are the rule. Unless,
therefore, Rome better system Is devised   the   hospitals   will   have   to,
being financed to a great extent by
the merchants who supply them, and
this is very unfair to our bueineee
men, especially In times of stringency
such as the present. I am going to
state frankly that in many hospitals
the patient does not receive the
treatment he should because finances
will not permit the directors to provide the essentials necessary.
That Is the hospital side of the
question. Now let us examine the;
Position of The Individual
Did you ever stop to think what
serious illness means ln a poor family? If It Is the hmd of the house
who is sick the income immediately
ceases or Is seriously iurtnile1, while
medical and hospital bills begin to
pile up. Even If it Is only ons of
the children, a few weeks illness or
an operation may cripple the finances of the family for a year or
more, i know families in this town,
wh-t-h, wuh their limited Income,
con not expect to liquidate their hospital and doctor's bills In ten years.
Where art' many who refuse to call
ford to pay his fee, when perhaps a
ln a doctor because they cannot af-
Httle medical advice ' might save
weeks of suffering. Whnt a rellei it
would he to the head of a family, if,
when   -'"'
Student'* Attitude Towardi Eoonomlo Problenu-7-Aikinj
fa-dene? to Bttinuliio-1» PWh.
lem SojTedJ-Stnpkl to
Soppreu Troth
[By B. J. Knapton]
ANS of the moit disappointing ant,
v In a mine, one of tho moot trafio
UMrioMM ttt early childhood la to
flnd, on emerging from tho nursery,
that the world of picture hooka and
of Imaginings la not true — that
"Humpty Dumpty" la a myth, and
that the exploits of "Jack tho Giant
Killer" are, to say the leaat, problematic. And it Is In no captious sense
true that one's further progreaa In
learning la a course of profound revelation, discovery and disillusionment.
Thla Is Inevitably so. In a very real
way the student muat be an Iconoclast,
aa much of hia own preconceived notions aa of those commonly submitted
to him.
Tendency tol 	
A atatement made by Professor J.
H. Robinson In hla book, "The Mind In
the Making," provoked the writer to a
very searching process of thought Hla
claim la (hat people have a fatal tendency to "rationalise." Uaed In thla
special sense, the word simply meana
process of Justifying things aa we
find them simply because they'happen
to exist or "he." We assume the virtue of the present social order by saying that it "worka" and that no small
measure of satisfaction Is derived from
It We forget that by a similar process of reasoning we could Justify the
tortures of the Inquisition, the sun
worship of the Incas or the lethargic
attitude of the Chinese world. We
forget, too, that the most primitive
savage Is pleased to think that his
social order "works" and that it ts
thereby Justified.
Many Problems to Face
It would seem very necessary, then,
that every' social institution be subject
to analysis and criticism, and that our
attitude to our problem be not warped
by a comfortable doctrine of preset*
There are many problems which i
student is* bound to face, and tlie*
soetns to bo a tendency to leave thea_
under a  l^The-LT"  "* * !_* "^'"""^ o^«3I^S
sjatem  nf health insurance proceed on the principle that the ost
^e^!^.Wer6>ntItlQdiripH is the mother of wisdom.    One
he and hi:
to the best our hospitals and ph..ni
clans could provide,
All children should be entitled to
rt _ni»ie benefits physically as they
mentally. In othor words,
provide a good education for our
children and it Is also our duty to
give them proper medical attention
from the day they are born. Wrt are
taxing ourselves to the extent of several million dollars annually for education of the rising generation that
is ono third physically defective. If
we are to have the best results from
eur educational system wo must produce a race that Ih physically fit to
absorb  that  education,
Physically Unfit
During the war one third of oUr
men  were  physically unfit to flt'bt.
Med.cnl   authorities  are   responsible
for   the  statement   that   eighty   per
cent of the men who were rejected
ns  unfit  to   fight  could   have   been
cured   of  their   defects   if  they   hnd
been   looked   n fter   when  they  were
children,    Those   of  you   who   are
fnmlliar   with   the   hospitals   know
there are bed cases whieh would never   be   there   If   they   had   received
proper medical nttentjon at Ihe right
time.    All of you  have visited Tran-,
quillo and know that there nre man;
patients   there   who   cannot    regain
their health.    Tuberculosis Is a cur
able disease if laken  in  lis Incipient
Hinge  and   It  Is  regrettable  to think
that If we had hail a system of health
supervision those patients would have
hnd   their   trouble   diagnosed   In   Us
early stago and they would have hnd
every   hope   of   being  cured  nnd   reluming lo civil  life nnd  be an nsHCt
tn the community fcr many years.
(To be continued)
An extensive survey of the unemployment situation by tho "Russell
Hnge Foundation" shows that between
1(1 anil 12 per cent, of all wngo-earn
ers In the United States and Cnnnda
nro nlwnys out o fwork.
cannot rend books today without feeling that the thinking man, if he exists,
is probing at, and questioning almost
all of our accepted notions. What
Is the type of question which arises?
One could name a dozen men who
today are asking questions, and
unfortunately giving no sufficient
Asking Questions
We could commence with Leacock's
"Unsolved Riddle of Social Justice,"
mention Upton Sinclair's obviously
partisan, yet provoking booka; wonder
at the questions which G. B. Shaw or
Galsworthy raises in his plays, read
of the Utopias which Wells describes
—Utopias sadly different from our
world—or finally listen to the vociferous warnings of Lothrop Stoddard.
In his books on "Guild Socialism,"
G, D. H. Cole raises a typical question:
Are wo democratic? Can we unctuously pride ourselves that we live In
a democratic age when, after begrudging tho working mun the franchise we
permit him to remain, as far us his
tenure of employment, his wage scale,
his working conditions and his home
life are concerned, In a state of dependence on his employers?
Is tho Problem Solved?
Of course, wo havo our unions, but
with a membership in the American
Foderation of Labor of two millions
out of a population of 110 millions, is
tho problom solved? Of course, we
have our factory acts, our minimum
Wago bills, uur clght-hour-days legislation and suforth. But With Indian
childron working, ns the
seen  (hem,
"In  the nrmy  he  who carries on
without arms, without supplies, without   any   foresight    whatsoever,    Is
eourt-murtfnlled; In civil lifo we cull
optimist   and    elect    him
Prof.  Enst.
him    t
Modern institutions plant their mots
In the period of barbarism, Into which
their germs wore transmitted from (he
previous poriod of savagery. The'l\
havo hnd a lineal descent through th*
ages.—Lewis IT. Morgan.
writer has
tanneries from oarly
morning until midnight, with office
manngers curtly requesting employees
to roturn in tho evening for a few
hours' extra work—With tho rush and
bustle, the "hire and flre" system of
our department stores—with the well-
known shifting of labor in large planta
—may wo not again ask, Is tho prob*.
loin solved?
ruiairric-s and Equality
Can a toucher or clergyman, walk-
of a real
has "put through a
' help wondering
the services the agent has
dono society are sueh as to put his
reward so far above that of tho other?
A burning feeling of unfairness nnd
inequality—a sense that In somo way
things are "wrong" Is bound to arise.
Tho writer is iiwiue that ho is stat-
(Contlnued on Page -I)
Ing past the luxurious horn,
estate affent, who
few   good   deals,
.Socialism represent a roturn to the
primitivo Christian evangel freed
from Its limitations and Illusions.—
Rev. R. J. Campbell,
We have taught democracy to read,
but not to think.—Sporow.
will be the speaker on Friday evening, Decembor 6th, nt
* o'clock; 319 Pender street
west. Subjoct, "Art and Edu-
ration  in  Soviet  Russia," PAGE TWO
tear. no. 49 BRITISH COLUMBIA FEDERATIONIST vancodybr. b.c.
FRIDAY December 5, 1924
Published every Friday by
Tbe British Columbia Federatlonist
B_il__u md Editor..! Otto, 11-9 How*, at,
Tb. iKilicjr of The B. C. FederationiBt ib
•ontrolled by tbe editorial hoard of tbe Federated LeborJ?ariyj£fJirWal^olumbia.	
Bubseriytioa Rate: United States and Foreign, ,H,QQ per year; Canada, 12.50 per
year, 91*50 for Bix months; to Uniona Bub*
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month;  , .     	
the foi.
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lowing flews stands:
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 Oor. Hastings and Abbott Streets
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FaiDAY .Beoember 6. lait.
NE of our correspondents from
up country suggested to ua thai
Labor endeavor to bring aa strong,
a pressure aa possible.tolwar in *op-i
posing the propo&fl po.1 tax ot $W
per man that Mr. WbodWarfl brought'
up ln the house.
"Does Mr. WooHward, the irresponsible member ior Vancouver, who I
Is responsible (or the proposed tax, I
Imagine that the men of this province have nothing else to do with
what little money they have been
able to earn, than to hand it over to
a spendthrift government? How
much of a surplus does he think a
man has, whose entire eranirtea for
a year very often do not exceed f 000?
With that he has to try and support
a wife, and in many instances as
many as eight children. Does Mr.
Woodward think that he could manage on $600 a year? I'll guarantee
that he wouldn't even try!*' So writes
our correspondent.    ■ <
We are ln hearty accord with him.
To BUggest that a poll tax of ten)
dollars be put upon the workers of
this province with conditions as thoy
are at this time, in (.nothing Short
of an Insult. Onco again, th'e need
for lalior representation is most apparent. The representatives of the
big Interests see to it that they protect those they represent, the workors
must see to lt that thoy do likewise.
The trouble with lho workers in thc
past has been, however, thnt they are
so unmindful of their own intorests
that they have persisted' in electing
representatives to our various legist
tures who aro not at nil Interested in
the workers but are, on the ether
hand, tools lu the liandn of tho big
interests. The need for labor representatives Is not only apparent, it is
exceedingly urgent. We hope that
the labor forces wilt arino and do
their duty.
fore a change In the system rather
than to a change in the government
that we must look. Por the unemployed to cheer the suggestion of
putting out the "Oliver bunch" and
putting in "Pooloy'a gang" as a cure
of the ills from which they are suffering, does not reflect any credit on
their Intelligence, regarding the economic situation, at least.
We would advise them, most sincerely, to see to it that they use their
votes and their Influnce more intelligently, upon the occasion of the next
election, and so put out both old
parties, and thus give the reins of
power to labor—themselves.
ELSEWHERE in this issuo there
will bo found a copy of a lettor
recoived by Major Burde, M.L.A. It
was signed "K.K.K." Wc do not believe for one moment that the K.K.K
knows a thing about it. We believe
ft to be the ravings of some mind
gone mud, perhaps from the effects
of slarvutlon und want. If not, It Is
perhaps the work of .someone trying
*,lo stampede tho labor representatives.
■In all probability thc individual who
wrolo it voted for some other representative than that chosen by labor
and now, growing dissatisfied with
his own conduct in the matter, he is
frying to lay the blame for his own
misdoings upon someone else. Our
■labor representatives are following
the only sane courso open to them
for the present. If wc had 30 or. 40
toore there just like them, the workers would be a little better off. There
will be many pitfalls, however, placed
along Hho path thoy will have to
tread, and they will have to watch
their every step. They can rest assured of that.
I -
THE unemployed demonstration at
Victoria recently, we feel, merits
more than passing notice.
In Victoria, as elsewhere ovor the
length and breadth of this Dominion
of Canada, thero are hundreds of
men and women In need; yes, and
almost lf not absolutely, destitute,
at this moment, No more serious
question Is there than the one of
unemployment to occupy the attention of the members of our leglsln
ture. If they do not soon face the
matter, honestly and frankly, it will
be forced upon them in no uncertain
—and perhaps not pleasant—manner.
If they choose to Ignore and neglect
such a vital issue, they are not fit to
represent thc masses as they do.
We would point out to our unemployed comrades at Victoria, however, that thoy need look Tor no
solution to their problem under the
present capitalist system. Unemployment Is our Integral and essential
feature in Buch a system.   It Is there
' the Vancouver Province recently,
,tells us just, what capitalism is and
what It stands for, and as he was a
socialist in the days of his youth, he
ought to know.
Capitalism stands for individual
freedom. Does it? How many of
the world's millions are leading natural lives? only a few savages perhaps. Por it Ib impossible for anyone to talk of freedom in the world
Where body and mind are enslaved
by machinery, where, in order to
exist, thousands toll in factory and
mine, in sweatshops and mill. It Is
impossible to talk of freedom while
[the masses of the people have to
endure monotony and misery and
want, to say nothing of the humiliation and degradation that have become their lot, even In this "prosperous" land of ours. And freedom is
but a mockery when thousands of
men nre forced to murder one another at the bidding of their capitalist owners.
"Capitalism stands for the right of
thc individual to possess such things
as he may secure in life." That ls
true enough. Capitalism is the law
of "grab," but the riches of the
earth, the necessaries of life, the
means of produotlon, have been so
effectively grabbed by the few, that
there is no chance for the many-
even In our highly-evolved Jungle
days—to grab anything save a bare
existence, and judging by the unemployment, not always that.
"Capitalism does not seek to standardize. Socialism does." This according to the correspondent. It
would be interesting to know what
modern education ls If It Is not standardization. The same syllabus, the
same work, the same books, the same
cut-and-drled facts for every individual child. That Is modern education, An.d In the world of high finance, in the realm of dividends,
standardization of workmen, of machinery and of products is the aim
and object. Because it makes for
greater efficiency, and, Incidentally
—only inci.dontally, for groator profits, It is a great pity tho workers
bave not the opportunity to learn
something or this efficiency for their
own profit.
And lastly, the writer blames God.
Who created all things "unequal."
Who evidently created the parasite
and tho slave, Dives and Lazarus, in
their relative positions. But this is
only another way of excusing cruelty
and injustice. The writer is confua-
Ing Inequality with variety for, of
course, we all know all species must
bc varied, even tbo human species.
Socialism seeks to foster variety by
allowing the individual to develop
tilling his own lines. Socialism does
not seek equality if equality means
standardization. What socialism does
sock Is equality of opportunity so
that all the differences ln human
nature may be free to make up the
pattern thnt is Life.
friends and glose over difficulties and
situations, he was constrained to admit that although the whole Dominion is groaning under the expenses of
carrying on, we still have an appalling national debt choking ub, of
which not one cent has been paid.
, Those figures so glibly shot off to
his admirers, staggering as they are
in all conscienco, do not tell the whole
tale—:add to these the provincial
debts (B. C. alone being some $42,-
000,000. nett) and .debts owing by
municipalities and other liabilities.
See what the small population of
Canada has to carry on its back.
Reckon out this debt per capita and
then think a bit.
Henry Bell, the genoral manager of
Lloyd's Bank, London, England, said
a few weeks since: "The great debts
of wm- remain. Nothing but work
will remove thom. No ingenius solution .will provido a substitute." Nothing-but work! Read, note nnd digest
that—always the worker to pay. Tbe
workor wbo does not make the wars,
has to do the fighting, his people do
the suffering aiid lie pays all the
time; lbe broad back of lubor has
to shoulder the dobt, not only in his
time, but tbe future worker has to
continue to work to pay these
inlputtoua debts. It is estimated
that a billion dollars of war debt
represents work of over C00,000
workors lor a year at ?5 apiece for
every working day.
Now, when and bow in th<^ name
of reason can our Canadian debt evor
bo liquidated? We doubt if any of
our financiers care to grapple seriously with the consideration,. let alone
put into practical aetion any scheme
to attempt it. No, It Is an utter impossibility.
There is only one thing to do to
save the dominion—fpr don't- make
any mistake, .we are in a-pretty bad
way—and drastic measures must be
taken 'and quickly, tooj. The one
solution Is a capital levy. This should
be collectable on a graded scale,
making It comprehensive enough
that war profiteers particifl-arly
should be made to disgorge good
and hard; further, bunches of victory bonds should be cancelled,
■ma.kljng' proper .provision for protecting small holders ln  every way.
Utterly dishonest! Wild! Revolutionary! Disgraceful and such like
comments will doubtless greet this
from those that hath, but mark this:
Nothing can save Canada from defaulting ut some time, and if only
for the sake of posterity, to whom at
least we should be honest,, let it be
done now and clear the cursed burden created in our time, and not let
future generations be enslaved by the
Colossus of debt.
Let our dominion have a chance to
get ahead; let our peoples, our workers, have the chance they deserve.
They have put the beBt of their lives
in making Canada, and It la time
that exploitation of their efforts
should be dono away with as well aa
the crushing debts they are not responsible for.
TNDIA, the cradle of civilisation and
culture, for ages, the solitary
source of light and of wisdom,
whence issued the undying message
of Buddhist  missionaries, where em-
[Note—As many enquiries reach
this ofllce from time to time, the editor will reserve space to deal with
auch matters, under the above heading. Communications addressed to
"Notes and Queries Editor"  will be
ilreaTouched" un^ as V**1* aa Bpace permit8,
■■—--■ '—Ed.l  . /i ,*■-
FACING the truth and looking- at
hard facts is, howover unpleasant,
very necessary at limes. In fact, ln
most Important matters the time
comes when the truth must bo faced
and ronl action taken to set right
wrongs and errors we have too long
allowed to>un on.
A few weeks since, we wcro treuted
tp a very enlightening speech hero
In Vancouver by Premier King, and
It may be recalled that although he
did his best to hoodwink his arena
ANY people think that we have
become so enlightened in this
day and age that we would never
dream of one man having more than
one vote. If one delves into the
voters' list for the coming civic elec-
tlons one cannot help hut be astounded to learn that one man has the
privilege to vote somewhere in the
neighborhood of 21 times.
It ls alleged that Mr. H. W. Dyson,
agent for the Yorkshire and Canada
Trust Co. has the privilege of voting
in ward one for that company. In
ward two he apparently had no less
than five votes. In ward three, three
votes. In the remaining Ave wards
he has somewhere In the neighborhood of ten votes. He apparently represents The Vancouver Estates Co., Ltd., The York Building
fitd., Columbia Estates, National
Finance Co.
Is it any wonder that the workers
find it hard to gain representation
when such methods and tactics are
allowed. Certainly somethfng must
be done to curb such practices. The
labor representatives at Victoria
would he well advised to see that
something Is done during the present
session to have such practices discontinued on the part of the propertied
class. Surely human beings should
count ahead of mere houses and lots,
Is it to be wondered at that men and
women aro becoming disheartened
and discouraged in the struggle for
life when they see juBt how much
thoy are valued at in this world?
To-day Is the thirty-fifth anniversary of the Vancouver Trades and
Labor council, for It was on Friday, December 5, 1889, that lt was
duly organized, It ls safe to say
that. no other organization in Vancouvor during that time has held
Its regular meetings without missing one as Is the case with the Vancouver  Trades   und   Labor   council.
guidance of distinguished statesmen,;
the land of Asoka nnd Akbar, lies to-!
day at the tender mercies of a
haughty conqueror, intoxicated and
maddened by the conquest of a helpless people. Her arts degenerated,
her literature dead, hor beautiful industries perished, hor valor done,
she presents but a pitiful outlook to
the onlooklng world.
. Gandhi's argument about how best
to obtain political freedom runs
somewhat is follows: "No people, no
nation has ever won or cun ever win
roal freedom through violence. Those
who fiyht and win with force, ultimately find it both (convenient and
expedient to follow the line of least
resistance, and they continue to rely
upou force in timo of peace as well,
ostensibly to maintain luw and order,
but practically to suppress and stifle
every rising spirit." Says Gandhi:
"The people of India may forget,
non-co-operation, but they 'ftare not
forget non-violence. Indued non-co-
operution Is non-violence. Wo nre
all violent men when we support a
government whose creed is violence.
It bases itsolf finally not on right but
on might. Its last appeal is not to
reason, nor to the heart, but to the
sword. We are tired of tbis creed
and \\'e have risen against it" . . . .
As for Gandhi himself, the limit of
his tolerance has not yet been
reached. And a word from him has
beon sufficient, time and again, to
induce the suffering millions of
struggling India to sacrifice their
lives without regret or reproach.
Through successive stages, he is
gradually preparing his countrymen
for the final step, civil disobedience.
Once the* country has reached that
stage and his programme is carried
through, the revolution will have
been accomplished without bloodshed. Thoreau wrote: "When the
officer has resigned his office, and
the subject has refused allegiance,
the revolution is completed." And
that Is what is happening In India
today. Of course, the political nonviolence of the non-co-operator does
not stand the test in the vast majority of cases. Hence the prolongation of the struggle. Let no one blame
the unbending English nature. But
lf non-violence Is to remain the policy of any nation, It must be carried
out to the letter.
In conclusion, It Is rather interesting to give an account of Oandhl from
the pen of his admirer, Mr. Holland:
"Gandhi lives on rice and fruit, and
drinks only water. He sleeps on the
floor—sleeps very little, and he works
Incessantly. His body doesn't Seem
to count at all. There is an almost
childlike simplicity about him. Hia
manner is gentle and courteous, even
with dealing with adversaries, and
he is of immaculate sincerity. He is
modest and unassuming—yet you
feel his Indomitable spirit. He makes
no compromises and never tries to
hide a mistake. Nor is he afraid to
admit having been in the wrong.
Diplomacy Is unknown to him; he
shuns oratorical effect, or rather
never thinks about it, and he shrinks
from the great popular demonstrations organized In his honor. He distrusts and fears "mobocracy," and
feels at ease only lh a minority.
$19.24—The Climax of Value
—at "fanlduB"
16th Anniversary dale
ALMOST   unbelievable!     Coits,    Suits
and   Dresses   in   the   highest   priced
models offered now $19,24
for      "
—tn celebrate our sixteenth birthday.
Famous s\mca*lui
619-823 Hastiafl Stmt Weit
, RETURNED ; SOLDIER, Vancouver—There Is no doubt whatever in
the truth of your statement. Socialists have known it Bince early in the
war—note from the Socialist Review
for November: "They created a
shortage of shells and allowed their
sons to face overwhelming munition
odds \athcr than save them by pooling of manufacturing resources."
Eloquent, is It not?
J. R. S., North Vancouver—Don't
wabble or be fearful—ln a nutshell,
the secret of the conquering power
of socialism Is just thut natural,
healthy, normal life which lt promises to the individual and to the race.
REFORMER—Clerkenwell Green,
In tho northorn district of London, is
a hallowed spot to nil of an evolutionary ,;or revolutionary tendency.
Many the meeting in the stormy old
days hns' tho editor of this column
attended there. It was terribly dts-
respeetable to do so, but from those
meetings, very much hns resulted.
TH El ST—Charles Brudlaugh was
a splendid ngitator and worker for
the rights of men and women. He
was a strong individualist, but had
he lived, would almost surely have
been  a strong  worker  for  socialism.
MRS. FOX; J. R. S.—Will reply
next week.
owned in common by all the people.
It is hard for me to express my Ideas
In writing, But I will try to tell how
the people'should work and manage
all Industry: The whole profit from
all industry owned by the people
should be given to all who want to
work for it, and should have nothing
to do with any other outlay—the
same as If it were owned by some
company or firm. The profit from
the British Columbia liquor • stores
last year was three million dollara:
A million could have been used for
more investment and two million for
relief work. Were this done there
would have been work for over 4000
men from the first of November to
the first of May, earning $75 a month.
This Is my whole socialist programme; and If the people will do
what I now have suggested in my
lettor, all the Industry and the whole
of Canada will in timo be owned in
common by all the people. By that
time tho peoplo will know how everything should be done for the bost of
all the people. p. A,
Kamloops,  B.  C,  Doc.  5,   1924.
SHOW, DEC.   11,   12,  18.—
[The opinions and Ideas expressed
by correspondents are not necessarily
endorsed by The Federatlonist, and
no responsibility for the views expressed ls accepted by the management.]
As to Socialism
Editor B. C. Federatlonist: I nm
now reading The Federatloniat every
week, for I am much interested in
socialism, but I haye never seen or
read of any one person that understands what the people are going to
do when once Canada, or any country, Is owned in common by all tho
people; or what the people should do
so that they will be the owners of
all Industry. My belief Is for all the
people to do the same as the capitalists are doing: Organize capital and
invest in Industry that will pay the
beBt profit. The people bave already
started; they own the government
liquor store, but they should not stop
at that. With all the millions of
profit they should Invest ln more and
more  industry  until  all  Industry  Ib
An Example of
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We have watches for everyone,
and Invite your inspection.
Henry Birks & Sons
Workmen's Compensation Board
Tho Editor B. C. Fedenillonlst: It
seems probable that thore will be
formod in the near futuro a commit'
toe of investigation Into the working
of tho ^JVorkmcn's Compensation
Board. All who consider,they have
boon treated with insolence or In any
wny unjustly should at once send
in their names to Mr. Uphill or Mr.
H. Neelands with the statement that
they wish to testify at the said Investigation. It lies with all such,
now, to come forward and help to
right the alleged wrong.
Vancouver, B. C, Dec. 2, 1924.
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Closes at 6 p.m.
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white, sand, powder blue,
mauve or peach; all sizes.
Special  $3.95
—Drystlnlc's  Blouse  Shop,
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Sidelights oh a-Great
Is the Trade
Barometer at
"Set Fair"
1VFOT ONLY the lumber industry of
British Columbia, but the wholo
buainess community of the Province,
foresee In a satisfactory settlement of
the timber royalties question an indispensable factor for a renewal of
confidence in our general trade progress.
The manufacture and marketing of
British Columbia's forest products, her
principal natural resource and her
main source of revenue, cannot possibly proceed successfully as long as
her lumber industry remains the subject of unfair and unworkable legislation.
The outlook for a revival in the
Pacific- Coast Lumber trade is quite'
promising, but if British Columbia Is
to benefit accordingly and continue to
enter with her lumber products Into
the world's markets, she must not be
handicapped out of the competition.
Bualneaa men realizo that manufacture of lumber Is the industrial mainstay of the Province, and its distribution by rail and water the principal
source of their commercial advancement.
The trade barometer of British Columbia will never remain at "Set Pair"
until the conditions ln her main basic
industry are such aa will permit the
carrying on of business on a fair competitive basis and will assure the tlm-
■ber operator that the good-will and
confidence of the public Is behind his
efforts for their industrial progress.
This series  of articles communicated   by   tho   Timber   Industries
Council of British Columbia.
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Bird, Macdonald & Co.
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Telephones: Seymonr «««« and 6607
Uie Long-Distanee
HAVE yon ever hod a real drink
of Pure Apple Older during tb*
but few years?
To meat 'ths dttlrei of many cllenti,
we htve Introduced reeently • puro eloftr
•parltllng apple elder In pint bottlei,
either puro tweet or government regulation -% hard apple elder. Tkeae drioki
ara absolutely purs and free from all
cartonlo acid gai or preservative! of
any nature. Writo or phone your order
today, Highland 90.
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Bunday aervleei, 11 a.m. and 7iS0 p.a.
Sanday nehool immediately following
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Hops and Malt-
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WlNit  Ih Genius?
Men give me credit for aome gen-
lua. All the genius I have lies in
thtn: \ When T have a subject In
hand, I study it profoundly. Day and
night lt ia before me. I explore it
In all its hearings. My mind becomes
pervaded with it. Then tho effort
which I have made Is what people
call the fruit of genius. It Is the
fruit of labor and thought.—Alexan
der Hamilton.
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of branches across Canada, and its foreign connections, offers complete facilities for taking care
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This advertisement is not published or displayed by the Liquor
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Lectures on Our Modern Drama
IT will be recognized by many students of social progress today that there has been unfortunately a failure, on the
part of our leaders and teachers, to utilize the wonderful
lessons that have been given to human kind by our modern
writers of drama and poetry as they ought.
Mrs. Rose Henderson, a speaker of international repute,
and a keen student of our modern poetry and drama, is
giving a scries of at least three lectures on "The Social Interpretation of the Modern Drama." The particulars are
aB follows:
Nov. 28th—Ibsen's Drama: "Little Eyols, or the Right
of the Ohild To Be W«U Born."
Deo. 10th—An Irish Drama: "Kathleen Ni-Houlihan, or
an Appeal to Reason."	
The above lectures will be delivered in the Theosophical
hall, 337 Hastings Street West. Music will be provided.
Proceeds tor educational purposes. Tickets, three.for $1,
or 35 cents each. JWtlDAY ...December 6, 1924
Do Your Christmas
Shopping at the Store
With the Small Expense
Christmaa Ties, In  boxes,  50c
to .i »a.eo
Men's Slllt Braces, fl.00 to J1.50
Men's Wool Muffler ..:.'. 95c
Men's Knitted Scarfs, 95c to $2
Men's Wool-lined Gloves, $2.0(1
and  $2.50 ,
Men's  All-Wool  Knitted  Vests,
sleeveless  ......  $2.75
Men's   Mackinaw   Coats,   $6.50,
$7.25, $7.50 and.:  $8.50
Men's Elastic-Side Romeo Slippers, tan or black  $2.25
Arthur Frith & Co.
Men's unci Hoys' Furnishings
lints, Boots nnd Shoes
Bntweim 7th aad 8th aveiiuea
Plume, Fairmont 14
_J j You Know?
'mAlMC you neglect tho minor sign's
*u' stomach distress such as -gas
lining, four- burning stomach, bloating, belching, and after-eating mis-
iiy, you uro condemning your body
in yoars 61' chronic stomach troublo.
Jo-To sold by druggists cverywhore
will quickly relievo all stomach
SEALED TENDERS addressed to tho undor-
slKued will .bo received by tho Council ufi
to 8 o'clock p.m. of Monday, Decembor 8,
1924, for clunrinn nnd grading two <_!) acrw,
more ur loss, of Block 80,  D.I,. 2027.
Forms of tender, specifications and full
information may be obtained on application
to tbo Municipal Engineer on payment of the
sum of $_>, which will bo returned on receipt
of a bona fido tonder.
A deposit by certified cheque of ten (10)
por cent, of thc amount tendered will bo
required with each tender ns security that
tho tendorer will, If called upon, enter into
a eon tract, nnd provido tho required bond
for tho performance of tho work.
Canvassing mombors of the Council for this
business will bo held to bo a disqualification.
Tho lowest or any tender not necessarily
Municipal Hall, 5851 West Boulevard, Vancouver, B. C, Novembor 27, 1924.
Municipal Voters' List
L\ Court of Revision of tbe Municipal Voters' List will sit on the 10th day of Decembor next at 10 o'clock ln the forenoon for
tho purpose of correcting and revising the
said Voters' List.
The List closes on the 30th day of November, 1924, and copies of same will bo posted
on the door of tho Council Chambers, Municipal Hall, on the 5th itty of December, 1924.
Municipal Clerk.
Companies' Act
IK New Century Produce Company Limited
wtll apply to the Presiding Judge ln Chambers of the Supreme Court of British Columbia, at the Court House, Vancouver, B.O,
■jn Wednesday, tbe 17th day of December,
1924, at 10:30 a.m., for an Order restoring
It to the Register of Companies.
Vancouver,   B.   C,   December  4,   1924.
[By Charles Hill-Tout, P.  R. 8. C.j
F„ R. A. I., etc.]  v
(All rights reserved),
TN the last article we traced briefly
r the progressive differentiations
found among the Protozoa and saw
that we were Irresistibly led to the
conclusion, that despite the wide differences in form and structure, ' exhibited by the several classes into
which naturalists have divided these
lowly organisms, they were undoubt
edly all genetically related, and must
have sprung either directly or indirectly from a common ancestor;
and that that ancestor must have
-been an exceedingly simple form,
probably of the amceboid typo.
We saw, too, that this progressive
differentiation, this growing complexity in structure, could only be satisfactorily accounted for. by regarding
it as the outcome of an evolutionary
process In nature. Tho limitations
of space causod us to restrict our ob- ■
servatlons, and they were confined |
almost entirely to the organs of lo
comotlon and food-capture. Had we
tnken any other phase of their or
ganlzatlon the same conclusion would
have been forced upon us.
The same progressive advance. In
structure and function, for example,
would ha.ve been seen had wo given
our attention to the evolution of their
ingestive apparatus, that Is to their
primitive mouths and gullets. Nothing illustrates better the presence of
an evolutionary process in nature
than the successive, graduated stages
hy which the definitely-formed and
locally-placed cell-mouth, with its inward-leading tube, seen in the higher
forms, is evolved from the indefinite j
and tin localized, random openings,
characteristic of such forms as
Amceba proteus.
In the corticate Protozoa, that is in
those provided with a distinct cuticle
or outer covering, a special aperture
for food ingestion becomes necess
ary. This, in the most primitive
forms, is supplied by a tiny hole or
pore In the cell wall. In the more
advanced forms this orifice is pro
longed Inwards becoming a' kind of
permanent duct, which in the higher
animals develops into a true gullet,
or esophagus.
To observe, as one may among;
the Protozoa, the many transltlonary
steps and stages by which the random
oral openings ln the most primitive
forms become the highly-specialized Ingestive organs of the more
advanced types, ls almost to compel one to believe In an evolutionary process. Few things are
more convincing. Nor is tho evidence of progressive modification
confined- to the organs mentioned.
It applies equally to all the specialized parts of the cell-body, such for
example as the eye; and the processes we may perceive beginning
In the Protozoan continue without
break into the Metazoan forms.
have the power of wandering about
from place to place in the sponge
wall. Some of these apparently convey food material to the different
parts of the sponge; others of them
appear to give rise to germ-cells
both ova and spermatazoa. Now, all
these cell differentiations and func-
fgia    and    Hlppospongla..   Here  we ■-—
have  the   actual   transformation  of| u<™«  are   Practically  identical  with,
one order of life into another taking} those we    saw*, taking place in thc
place under our very eyes; and this
life-history of    the    common  bath-
sponge  carries with It a very convincing suggestion of how the early un-
cellular forms   became , multicellular
forms, and how the Protozoan passed
into and became the Metazoan.
■ Concerning the  lineage and exact
position of the Sponges in the life-
realm,   naturalists    hold - somewhat
different opinions.   By some they are
Regarded as examples of   Protozoan
colonies in which integration of  the
indhidw.l cells has proceedei so far
•iiul become to   doa-a* as to disguise
{heir   Protozoan  characteristics;   but
which   nevertheless   still remain essentially     Protozoan.       By     others
they are regarded as truo Metazoan
forms  derived  by modification  from
Protozoan ancestors  of  tho choano-
Hagellate  or collared    Monad    type;
and as forming ti line of their own
(julte   distinct   from    other   Metazoan
groups.    By    others again they are
looked upon, by reaaon of their porous nature, as forming a sub-division
of   the    Coelentorata—that is    those
simplo  animals  with  a  distinct  en
toric    or    Internal   cavity,   of  which
the   Hydrozoa,   to   be  presently
sidered, are typical examples,
These somewhat differing views of
the zoologists need cause us no em.
barrassment.    They  do  not  weaken
the    evolutionary    argument in   the
slightest  degree.  For under thc  first
view' It has to be admitted that   the
process of differentiation and integration, seen to   be   going   on in the
colonial  Protozoa,   differs  in  no  dls-
cernable way from the same process
that goes on in the Metazoan forms.
The final result in both cases is  the
same,   the   formation   of   tissue';   and
this we saw constituted the essential
difference   between   thc   Protozoa ond|
the   Metazoa.     With  the  appearance
of tissue-forming cells the individual
cells of the   Protozoan   colony have
lost their typical characters and in
dependence;  they have now* become
Integrated  members of a compound
organism, in other words of a Metazoan.   The only difference, therefore,
between these two views is that the
first regards them as highly modified
groups of Protozoans, and the second
as    having   definitely passed beyond
this stage and become true Metazoans.
That they are thus derived   from
Choa no flagellate  ancestors  seems to
be borne out by the signlflcant fact
that   the   characteristic cells, which
enter so largely into the structure of
all the Sponges, are of the collared
arid  flagellate type.    This  points  directly and  most  emphatically  to  a
Choanoilagellate     ancestry.     This,
moreover,    is   tho   prevailing    view
among   zoologists   and   fits   ln  best
wilh   the   evidence  at  our   disposal.
And even those who hold tho third
view   do    not   doubt   the   Protozoan
origin  of  the  Porifera.  They merely
Phone for Sample
Fair. 1250
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regard  them    as    possibly    derived
I through a different line of ancestry.
And it may be observed here thot in,
,_ .nn.   .__,_._..— —   regarding   the    Metazoan    life-firms
as genetically related to the earlier
and simpler Protozoan forms no com
pulsion Is laid upon us to derive
them all through one line of ancestors. There may have been several
lines of descent. The Metazoa may
have had a polyphyletlc origin. Indeed, the state of our knowledge at
the present time points strongly to
at least a diphyletic or two-fold origin for them; one, by way of the
Sponges which form a line of their
own, and the other and more fruitful line, through the Enterzoa
hollow-celled organisms, which lead
on to the Coelenterata and these
again to the Coelomata—those anl
mals having a body-cavity of a still
higher order than the Coelenterata—
and so onwards to the highest dl
visions of the animal world.
But what ever view one may hold
concerning the descent of the higher
Metazoan    forms,    whether   through
the seemingly    barren    Sponges,    or
through the Enterozoa, or some other
unknown   form,   nobody   can   study
Uie Porifera phylum and doubt that
it leads back directly to the Protozoa. \
The very fact that all the sponges
are of   colonial   formation,, products
of    the    budding    process,  differing
only from the colonial forms of thp
protozoa  by tlie greator differentia
tion nnd Integration of their Individual cells, leaves little room for doubt
aa to their origin or the evolullo tary
course   they    have    followed.    And
when wo examine such simple, minute forms as Olynthus and mark the
simplicity of structure we (Ind among
them, we fool certain we are looking
nt one, at least, of the links   which
unite the Metazoa to the Protozoa.
Olynthus is the simplest member
of the Sponge group known to us today. It differs but little in structural
formation from the colonial groups
of the VpJvoXj family; the.individual
cells composing .it being slightly
more closely integiMed than In those
It Is a minute thln-walled sac attached at the tawej; end to some rock
or sea-weed'{tod enploslpg a relative
ly spaelQjiij internal, cavity. This Is
tho gastml or digestive cavity, and
It opens Jtoj.t-be outside by a vent or
little mduth at the upper extremity
of the sponge. Its thin wall ht also
pierced by numerous '.mall pores.
Lining the gastral cavity, the mouth
and the pores, are a number of distinct collared and flagull.iled calls
similar to the ChoanoHagellnted cells
found among tho Protozoii. Indeed
they appear to be absoulely identical
with theso, Thoy are set close together, and by the mot'on of their,
whip-like flagella a continuous!
stream    of     water   Is     kept   flow!
this fact, because in the early phases
of tho embryological development of
the mammals we may perceive exactly the same progressive modification and evolution of definite organs taking place, step by step and
phase by phase; the early life of
the embryo thus recapitulating the
evolutionary course of Its remote an
cestors before it begins to take on the
special characters of Its more
cent ancestors and parents.
This progressive modification and
advance is admirably illustrated in
the Intermediate or inter-Unking
forms that unite the two groups together.
Between the colonizing Protozoans,
which, exhibit the same associative
and Integrative relations as we saw
arising among the plant-forms—and,
Indeed, Volvox and its kindred genera
are claimed by the zoologists
Protozoans—and the simplest of the
Metazoan forms, such for example
as Hydra, the step ia exceedingly
short, the difference between the
two forms is seen to be merely one of
degree of differentia tion and integration. These processes have been
carried a step farther ln Hydra than
ln the colonizing Protozoa, the differentiation of the constituent cells has
reached the tissue-forming stage, and|
the animal has now become a Met
azoan. We may gather a protty
good Idea of how this first came
about from a study of the organization of the simplest forms of tho
Hydrozoa and the Sponges of today.
Let us take the latter first. The
Sponges form a very large and varied
group or phylum of their own, commonly known as the Porifera on account of their porous structure. At
one time they were regarded as plants
and classed with the Alga.. To-day,
the zoologist claims them and they
are now classed as Metazoan anl
mals. They are all water organises and for the most part belong to the sea. They vary in size
from minute, solitary individuals,
barely visible to the naked eyo up to
large compound masses several feet
In circumference. This large size is
due to their powers of budding, each
new cell remaining attached to the
parent body. This aggregation of Individual cells Is one of the most Interesting phases In the life-history
of these lower organisms; for by a
process of differentiation nnd integrative union, a union which becomes
so close as to make it Impossible to
distinguish one coll from nnother,
we are able to observe the actual
passage of a lower into a higher
form of life. Prom this new or-1
ganfsm, thus formed by Integration]
of Individual cells, arises nnother
those we    saw .
Protozoan colonies of Volvox, Eudorlna and Ulva; and these . simple
Metazoan forms differ in no way we
can discern from them save in a
slightly closer Integration of the In
dividual cells; and this difference
seems less hore than that between tiie
colonies of Gonium and Ulva.
Whatever doubt, therefore, • there
may be concerning the genealogy of
those lowly Metazoans, the Coelen-
herata, there appears to be little
room for doubt about that of the
Sponges. They most certainly seem
to be directly derived from some of
the colonial groups of the Protozoa,
thus plainly showing that the .colonizing habit as we have repeatedly
pointed out was the way by which
the unicellular organisms passed into  the  multicellular  condition.
And now having established the
genetic relations between the Pro
tozoa and the Metazoa by means of
the Sponges let us pass on from them
to the Hydrozoa and see what relations we may discover there. Outside of the Sponges thoy are the
lowliest of the present-day Metazoans and in their simplest forms
show but little advance upon the Protozoans.
They   occupy   a   position   In   the
animal'world very similar to that of
the Aigie in the plant world.    They
form one of the most widely-spread
and  prolific  groups  of aquatic animals.    They  are   mostly  marine in
habitat, but one of tho best known
of   them   Is   the   little   fresh-water
creature  common  to  our  ponds and
ditches,  Hydra vlridls,  so  called on
account of its vivid green color, due
to the presence within it of a large
number of chloroplastic    corpuscles,
which are looked upon by some nat
urallsts as parasitic or   minute   symbiotic Algffi.    This little fresh-water
animal is the simplest of the Hydoz-
oaonjforms.   It  ls  wholly lacking in
any  well-defined   organs.    Its  bodyj
Is a simple hollow sac with   a   disklike foot at one end.   Its star-shaped
mouth is situated  on  the top of
conical  elevation  at  the  other  end.
It feeds by means of tentacles which
arise at the point where the mouth-
cone joins the    body    of    the   sac.
These  tentacles  convey the food to<
the mouth, the undigested parts be
ing later ejected  through the same,
It is a two-layered animal
essing a typical ectoderm or outer!
layer which protects, the animal and
also serves as a generalized sense-
organ; and an Inner layer or endo-
In these simple Metazoan forms
we find that a definite differentiation
of the organism has taken place.
There fs now a distinctive outer part
and an equally distinctive inner,
Jpart. This two-fold .differentiation
and division of the cells into distinct
layers is a feature which characterizes all the Metazoa;   only in the
the evolution of the free-swimming
medusa-form came about to enable
the sessile or fixed, polyp to spread
itself more widely and thus enlarge
its habitat. Under this view of
course the polyp Is considered „
the ancestral form, the medusa aa
the derived and specialized form, so
specialized primarily for reproductive purposes.
That this probably.represents the
true state of things seems borne out
by the faet that the simplest polyp
forms, suoh as Hydra vlridls and Its
kindred species, never develop into
medusa*. The same is true of all
the Anthozoar—the sea-anemones and
coral polyps. The method .of reproduction, too, among the Hydromed-
usffi ls commonly a more advanced
one than among the Hydroidea.
Among tha former wo find distinct
sex-forms. The medusas are either
males or females. This distinction
we have seen to be a sign of advanced organization, a product of
the evolutionary process. This would
indicate, therefore, that the medusa-
phase Is an advanced and derived
one; for among Hydra, on the contrary, tho individual an a rule ls bisexual, or hermaphrodite, that is
each possesses within Itself both
sperms nnd eggs; a feature characteristic, as wo have seen, of the lower
organisms only.
Moreover, the fact that although
the Medusa usually reproduces Itself by sexual methods it can and
does under certain circumstances re-1
produce Itself asexually as well, by
fission or sporogony, thus plainly
showing that notwithstanding its
advanced organization, it has not yet
entirely lost the habits of Its simpler
ancestors and may revert to them.
And that tho organization of the
Medusa Is an advance upon that of
the Polyp is clearly shown again by
the thickening of the mesogloea, ths
jelly-like substance between the ectoderm and the endoderm. In the
Medusa_ thfs dividing matter approaches more clearly to the true
Mesoderm layer of the higher life-
forms. It may contain cells which
have migrated into it from the ectoderm or endoderm or It may be
traversed by processes connecting
these two layers.
Perhaps the strongest evidence of
all" of this "progressive- differentiation
ls seen ln the Ingestive and sense organs. These exhibit an enormous advance upon those of the simpler
polyp forms. Thus the oral opening
or mouth leads directly Into a true
digestive cavity which Ib divided into
distinct esophagus and stomach,
from whloh a series of canals radiate
outwards; the whole, mouth, stomach
land canals forming a gastro-vascular
lystem much In advance of that of
Hydra vlridls, and clearly foreshadowing the still greater advances of
the next higher class of animals.
A corresponding advance Is seen in
the sense-organs. These ln the
Medusas are of two kinds: (1) pigment spots called ocelli or little eyes,
which are sensitive to light rays and
which In the highest forms are seen
to develop into eye-like structures,
with a primitive lens and retina and
a vitreus body as ln true eyes; and
(2) organs of balance or orientation
called statocysts,
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A LL in readiness with dolls, trains, games and
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Many of the most fascinating and attractive toys fpr
Christmas are limited in quantity and cannot be replaced.
By selecting them now, you choose from a large and interesting assortment. Best of all, at prices remarkably UW'*
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ganlsm able to reproduce Itself directly by budding. The fact that it is
able to do this marks its separateness
and relative Independence; just as
its giving rise to polyp forms by sexual
methods of reproduction, shows its
line of descent from, and relationship
to, these simpler and eattlter cr
" •    (To be continued).
Big Musical Show for the Orpheum
Kolb and Dill, actors and pro
ducers, whose success ls well known
from the boundary line of old Mexico to the boundary line of Canada
and from the Pacific to the Atlantic
coasts, are this season to be seen in
a new play from the pen of the late
Aaron Hoffman, titled "Politics." The.   -     *    w<uo »«>   ua, poor
comedy deviates from the success of sympathetic   Neelands   and    Browne
higher  forms  a  further  dlfferentia-j
d,",  '"*" "  ""*"'  * in the life-hlatory of the Hydrome-
•    Another feature of like significance
tlon  into a third  layer takes placel*-   *•■    	
t\z Tyz.:»- -f"4he jaS S
got as   the   final result tho familiar Utile™ which nre freo. like the whlZ
bath-sponge*, of   commerce, Bu^on-I 00>i)U9(!lei! ln thth^lm^l
which ls known as the middle layer
or mesoderm; and not the least Interesting feature about these simple
Hydrolds is the fact that we may
see a dim foreshadowing of this
third layer In the jelly-like, non-
cellular substance, which separates
the outer from the Inner layer.
When seen in microscopic section,
It appears as a thin line between the
ectoderm and the endoderm. Though
islng no specialized organs beyond the mouth, tentacles and crude
foot, Hydra vlridls, shows signs of
the beginning of a nervous system
Within It. Some of the cells of the
ectoderm have become slightly specialized; for the animal shows a kind
of response to different degrees of;
light and to touch. It also manifests
a low order of motor activity moving
In a crutch-like way with its tentacles and foot.
And just as we are able to detect
a differentiation of function in some
of the cells of the octoderm so wo
may see the same taking place ln
tho endoderm, Thc cells hore show
differentiation Into what, in the
more advance forma, we should call
glandular and digestive cells. From
the former flows a kind of secretion
that acts upon the food taken Into
the gastral-cavity much as the dls
solving ferments break down the protein ln the higher anlmala, But the
primltivcness of these glandular cells
is seen in tho absence of thoso enzymes which are needed in the higher
animals to dissolve the carbohydrate
elements, since starch granules when
takon in nro ejected with the other
excreta unchanged in character.
Regarding the Hydrozoa (is a
whole we find the snme evldonce of
progressive differentiation among
them as among the Sponges. Be
tween the simple polyp forms and
the most complicated of tho Hydro-
medusas there Is a world of differ
ence. If we exclude the sub-division Anthozoa—which Includes the
sea-anemones and corals—till but
tho simplest forms, such as Hydi
undergo a curious transformation nt
one period of the Ilfo-cycle, almost
as radical as that of the caterpillar
and tho butterfly. They manifest
what is caled "alternation of generation"; at one time being a simple
polyp or colony of polyps and at
another something quito different, a
medusa, of which the umbrella-like
felly-fish, in Us various forms, Is a
typical example,
Theso transformations reveal a
phase and a condition of things In
the phylogeny of theso organisms
concerning wliich wc have as yet
but liiili* certain knowledge; and
there exists some difference r,r opinion nmong naturalists regarding
these transformations. The pre-;
prevailing  opinion  howover,   ls  that
dusre Js the fact that in reproduction
by budding, the medusa? always arise
from the polyp or from other medusas, but never the polyp from tho
medusa. When the polyp arises by
alternation of generation from the
medusa, it is always by means of
eggs. We can entertain no doubt,
therefore, that the transformation of
the simple polyp into the relatively
complex medusa fs the result of the
presence and working of an evolutionary law. It is a progressive advance, whether it be regarded as
merely a means or device of nature to
bring about a wider dissemination of
polyps; or whether we regard the
medusa as a new and separate  or-j
their past few years and dwells upon
one of the most up-to-date political
situations, that ls ssreamingly funny,
blended together with music, songs,
girls and danses. The apehial attraction, aside from the charming and
talented girls, is America's most talented composer and singer, Ernest H
Ball, who has composed over two
hundred songs, heard in every English-speaking country. After writing
his first success, "Love Me and the
World-Is Mine," hie numbers have
all made a remarkable hit with all
music lovers. "Politics" will be at
the Orpheum theatre for three performances, Tuesday and Wednesday,
Dec. ft and 10, with a special matinee
K.K.K. Heard From
The following Is a copy bf a letter
received by Major Burde, M.L.A.:
To Richard Burde, Independent member  for Alberni,   Legislature   Jester;
de Luxe, and his three Labor associates:
Like all labor representatives, you
have sold us out again tof $2000 per
year and the crumbs which VHonest"
John may drop to you,;' When labor
voted you In, we did not expect to
find out we had .elected four (4)
political pimps to represent us, and
we thought ftt least your oath of
office wdUld- life able to control your
elastic conscience; but we now know ,
different, and that It is now four
years of cushioned seats for you all,
and four years of hell for us. Tom
Uphill's    heart    bleeds for us, poor
blame it all on the  "system." Why
In h do you not all go to Russia,
where  you   have your  own  system?
You all four are b—  labor men
and  we  of the   labor  party  dhjown
you  all,      . K.K.K.
Socialism will  rescue  the workers
from   Involuntary   poverty,   and   the
Limit, d
I-orgest Exclusive FDR HOUSE In
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552-4 and* 721 Georgia Street West
S.-nnour 9-7I-S.29
All Suppltw K»pt In Stock ror All tho Poll
lasting Christmas Presents
rich *_rom ldlenes_.-Wll.temM: Fell B-*t^i_._%ltAJn^.-^Pi"'
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Nanaimo and District
Wide interest is being manifested in the splendid Educational Articles now
appearing as regular features in
Official Organ of the
These Articles of Advanced Thought are highly appreciated and extensively
raad by many labor men and women who think as well as work.
Subscription Price: Year, $2.50; Six Months, $1.50; 5 Cents per Copy.
The Federationist will be pleased to receive News Items, as well as Manuscripts bearing upon the Labor Question in Its Widest Application
to Society Today.
Sample Copies may be obtained from the representative of the B. C. Federationist, who will also be pleased to receive copy and subscriptions for the
paper, naniely:
Book Seller and Stationer
FRIDAY December 5,  1924
Buy This Reg. $135
Improved "COLUMBIA" for only
Complete with 12 Selection.
6 double aided 75c Records of your own
choice. The Columbia ls the supreme
phonograph of today, equipped as lt Is
with its automatic non-set stop and Its
motor that will play 6 records with but
one winding. This is the outstanding
offer of the Christmaa Season, and merits
your prompt Inspection. You may purchase, If you desire, on
Townley & Ward
443 Hastings Street West
Near Richards Phone Sey. 2444
(Continued from page 1)
Patronize Federatlonist advertisers.
Most of our so-called reasoning consists in finding arguments for going
on believing 'as we already do. Thinking ls hard work. It Is much easier
to "believe" and then bolster up our
beliefs with a lot of threadbare arguments.—James Harvey Robinson, In
"Mind in the Making."
ON Wednesday next you will
go to the polls to elect a
mayor—a man to administer
your seven-million-dollar business for 1925.
During the last ten days you
have listened to the pleas of a
man who claims to be a particular friend of the worker.
Mayor Owen in seeking your
support at the polls has not
stooped to vote-catching tactics
by playing on your sympathies,
but Mayor Owen is just as much
a champion ot the worklngman's
interests as his opponent, for
Mayor Owen has been a working man himself.
Mayor Owen knows what lt Is
to earn his bread and butter hy
tlie sweat of Ws brow—for
years he supported his family on
blacksmith's wages—he knows
your problems from actual experience.
But nlthough Mayor Owen has
accumulated sufficient of the
world's goods to leave him fairly comfortably situated—he did
not f?ain that position through
political trickery—he earned lt
,.y hard work and careful attention to his business—first as a
blacksmith and then as a hardware merchant.
The lessons Mayor Owen
learned In those days and tlte
business principles that he
adopted nre good principles to
have at tlie city haU.
Vancouver has progressed under Mayor Owen's regime of
1924;   it will continue to do so
in inn.
Mayor Owen's record Is alono
sufficient to warrant his election
for a second term.
Let Owen Carry On!
447 Pender West.  Sey. 3281
The work of a state In the long run
is the work of the individuals composing it.—'Mill.
Chiropractor, 100 Dsmmslr St.; 10 till «.
Say. 8798. Evp. by »ppt; Sunday!, 8 till I.
Elector! of Ward 3
Re-elect as Alderman
18 years yonr fellow-resident;
4 years your representative.
Your Vote and Influence
Solicited for
F.l. Fellowes
Candidate for
I stand for a Progressive
Administration and a
They are made of
first quality leathers on comfortable
good  fitting lasts.
Ing the veriest platitudes. He is also
well aware that for himself he has
no remedy to offer. But the .point Is,
are we to acquiesce in things as they
are? Are we to rejoice in the sundry
blessings which heaven has chosen to
bestow upon us, and are we to steel
ourselves against the other side of
things—against, say, the authority of
the gross and the incompetent,
against the presence of so much
"hopeless misery," for which the writer has heard even a Fabianlst admit
there seems to be no remedy?
When an engineer or a chemist finds
thato a hitch has arisen In the smooth
working of a process he* Investigates,
He draws as largely as he can upon
his previous knowledge and on his
ability to analyze the present situation.
Having done so, he experiments. He
proceeds with what, to him, appear
the most logical steps under the circumstances. He may achieve his purpose or get Into worse difficulties. But
he is compelled to do something. He
cannot afford to sit still and wait. If
there Is danger In experiment, there is
equal or greater danger in delay.
Let us come back to the question
which Cole has raised—one out of
many that might be asked. The answer he gives, or rather the remedy
he proposes, ls embodied In his theory
of "Guild Socialism"—the social control of Industry.
Removed From Villeinage
Bottom tells the actors In "A Midsummer Night's Dream" that "a lion
among ladles is a most dreadful
thing," and similarly the mention of
this "Hon" of social control in Industry
Is capable of arousing the liveliest apprehensions and the most vigorous
condemnation among those who dread
its coming. But we must drop this
bias. The Industry of the future may
be as far removed from that of today
as we are politically removed from
the villeinage and serfdom of King
John. It ls somewhat disturbing for
the one who doubts labor's ability to
govern, to think that many people ln
the past doubted the peasant's ability
F. I Woodside
My experience and record on
the City Council, covering many
years, is your assurance that
labor will be protected. Your
vote and influence is respectfully solicited.
to fulfil his civic duties or even to
live a respectable life.
,    Waiting for MlUenlal Dawn
There are those people who will
concede the inevitability of change,
will speak vaguely of "Evolution,"
and expect some almost unnottceable
change to come about In the manner
of a pantomime transformation. Evolution they will consider to be e
slowly-rising tide, Imperceptible to
the naked eye. Having decided this,
they are content to sit back with folded arms and wait for the miUental
The argument from biology thus
crudely stated is very misleading. Following the Investigations made by
Mendel, modern scientists are more
apt to' say that the process of variation
goes on in a series of "jumps." A
plant does not consciously adapt itself
to Its environment, but reproduces
Itself regularly until, quite by
accident, there appears what Ib
technically known as a "sport'
or an unexpected variation. This
may be accepted or rejected by
its environment. In the former case
we have a new variety. But it will
be seen that the change ls more "revolutionary" than evolutionary.
Best Fitted to Survive
Thus Qeorge Bernard Shaw's interesting Lamarcklan speculations ln the
preface of "Back to Methuselah," with
reference to the giraffe which grew
a long neck through the simple pro
cess of willing itself to have one—
these speculations may safely be said
to be more fanciful and quixotic than
scientific. Selective evolution really
means the acceptance, out of a number of forms presented, of the one
best fitted to survive.
To the writer tt does not appear
fanciful to apply the Bame anology to
our political and social life. Corresponding to the accidental variations
of nature we must have those "radical" plans and schemes emanating
from the fertile brain of the enthusiast. And enthusiasm in the shape of
vigorous or almost violent protagon-
Ism ls very necessary.
Stupid to Suppress Truth
The comfortable world may be
shocked, but not more so than when
Charles Darwin propounded his theories to horrified Victorian drawing-
rooms. John Stuart Mills' "Essay on
Liberty" is as timely now as when It
was written. If a man's theory contains the truth then lt Is stupid to
suppress it. If he Is ln error then
discussion will show It more effectively than anything else. The homely
definition of truth as "anything that
works" is worth considering.
What to the wrjlter seems to be very
necessary is a Willingness to experiment. It may bo said that human
lives are too precious and human in-
At tlte Orpheum
Although Bessie Barriscale, who
will appear at the Orpheum theatre
this week as headline act, has won
International fame for artistic work
upon the screen as well as the dramatic stage, she is regarded as one
of the regulars of vaudeville. She is
now presenting a new comedy called
"Scrubby," which gives her every op
portunlty to portray a quaint and
laughable character in the little scrub
girl. Her supporting cast is excellent.
To present something that is entirely different in vaudeville, it has
taxed the minds of some of the foremost writers to the limit. Tet the
limit was not reached until "Like
Father—Like Son," which is being
presented by the Four Camerons at
the Orpheum, was conceived. This
most entertaining act ls due to the
fact that tt embraces beauty, youth
and humorous and thrilling situations. Ruth Budd, the girl with the
smile, has only just accomplished an
exended engagement with the Zleg-
field Midnight Frolic in New Tork.
Her act Is entirely new. Harry Hlnes
Is called "The Bltfi-'varifty," which
means that he Is 68 varieties of funster ln one. LeRoy Talma and Boscp
present an act that keeps the audi
ence guessing all the time. Ab magi'
clans they are post masters. Charles
Sargent and John Marvin hav*
sort of vaudeville mosaic. They are
the writers of "Peter the Greek," "Go
Along Mule," and many other popti'
lar songs. The Dancing Sweethearts
of Vaudeville is the way the Lorner
Girls are billed, with Mr. Bert fihep-
pard at the piano. The usual attractive pictures and Orpheum Con
cert Orchestra complete a very snappy-sounding bill.
The world is out of plumb; the
social balance ls unbalanced. When
Socialism Is placed upon the scales the
balance will be restored and nobody
will "rock the boat" any more.
Liberty ls a slow fruit. It Is never
cheap; it is made difficult becauae
freedom Is the accomplishment and
perfectness of man.—Emerson,
Laws grind the poor and the rich
men rule the law.—Oliver Goldsmith.
For Work or dfess
At all leading Shoe Stores.
■"THE best I'litmiw***!*** In the
world would be heard to disadvantage with poor records.
12.Inch Double-Sided Becords
at $1.65
are so wonderfully recorded snd carry
such *a rich, fill tone that they make
a poor phonograph sound good. The
finest orchestras In the world play for
the Odeon Records, -
Odson Album Sets Make Ideal Gifts
Let as demonstrate Odeon Records for
you and via yonr appreciation.
Lewis Leads!   Follow Who Can!
F. J. Nicholson
•" d
____•_>* .'■
"Equal Educational Opportunities for
AU Children."
A  true  friend  of  labor,  who  Insists
that our working classes must  be
educated and skilled.
Expand Technical Education for boys
and girls.
Boost the one-mill rate.
Re-elect Dr. Nicholson for thc
School Bonrd—a trained, tried
and experienced trustee.
Fresh   Cut   Flowers, Funeral   Designs, Wedding   Bouquets, Pot Plants,
Ornamental nnd Shade Trees, Seeds,' Bulbs, Florists' Sundries
Brown Brothers & Co. Ltd.
I— 8T0RE&— i
ts Hastlnis Streot But Sey. 988*872     086 Granville  Strut Sey.  951S-_39_
161 Hillings Street Weet Onr. 1370    10*17 Georgia Stmt Weit Ser* 741«
STOVES AND RANGES, both malleable and steel,
McClary's, Fawcett's, Canada's Pride, installed
free by experts; satisfaction guaranteed. Cash or
$2.00 per week.
Canada Pride Range Company Ltd.
346 Hastings Street East
Sey. 2399
Palmer Graduate
Backache,   Sprains,    Rheumatism, Stomach  and  all Internal Troubles.
Phone, Seymour 19(16
Your  Vote  and  Influence
Solicited for Re-Election of
As Parks
A member of the Board of
Park Commissioners for sixteen
years, acting as chairman for
eight yoars.
Two years on the city council.
stltutions too sacred to be subjected to
any such process.
Done Their Work
Ono has only to look at the amount
fo suffering, the Inefficiency and the
waste of 'today to realize the falsity
r.f such an argument. Certain minds
uf the past—the stormy petrels of revolt—have led the way. Their reward
may have been anything from public
Indifference to public martyrdom. But
they at least have done their work.
Wo need a larger Infusion of their
spirit today. We need more of the
attitude of Hoxle, who writes In the
appendix to his work on "Trade Unionism": "Think out the meaning of
things.   Never mind the outcome."
Do You Know?
ES °n_tw«! If those neoplo
wouhl go to tlieir Drug Store and
iot a package of Jo-To the world
-would be a brighter, happier •place.
Jo-To stops all stomach misery In
two minutes.   All Drug Stores.
The World-Famous
Matinees 15c and 25c
Evenings 25c and 35c
Children, lOo
Your Mayor-1925
TNTENDS to give you a
progressive civic government along the line of the
Greatest Oood to the Greatest Number.
He la opposed to the suggestion
that tenants register for voting
saeh year and to charge a fee
for the privilege of being a
civic voter.
He ls opposed to a poll tax,
whether provincial or civic
He will Accept full responsibility
for the enforcement of law. and
as the elected head of the police
force, will direct Its activities
without fear or favor.
Oorner Richards and Fender
Street.   Phone Sey. 7980
Knowledge ts both a weapon and an
armor, and lt Ib the fear of this fact
that has held tyrants of all ages to
Long Live the
Also Scnsatiomil Episode of
Admission Only 15c and 25c
Big Amateur Contest Friday
Your choice of any style Eyeglass tmuuurfi
Frame, complete with Reading i^____H*
*MI $4,85 IS
REGULAR VALUE:                      l
Eyes Examined   82.00 ml.       i _   i _.    l ]
Heading Lenses ... 4.00 The above style may be had
S2„10 eai : . -. :  S:L° with or without the popular
The Workingaian's Friend
615 Hastings Street West Phone Sey. 1071
Over Wooluordi'M, Next, to Famous.
Tour Vote and Influence
Respectfully Solicited
Charles Boardman
Candidate for
Parks Commissicner
foster Ignorance among thetr peoples.
—Alfred B. Hunt.
Dr. Gallant, Chiropractor, 712 Bobson
Tom Sykes
Candidate for
School Trustee
Resident of Vancouver'for
32 Tears
Alderman for
Ward 2
If Tou Wish a Business Administration and a Progressive Oity.
Candidate for
Parks Commissioner
Benefits Grandview
Re-elect Him
December 10th
I/"EEP a voice in the Council
'■•■that is free, independent and
mswerable to no other intereat
'lifin that of the people.
More money spent on improvements in Grandview in 1924
than in almost the two previous
He stood for honest, clean government and efficient law enforcement.
He represented all Grandview,
not one faction or party, political or otherwise.
East end assessment revision.
Better street car service.
A square deal from  the B. C.
Electric Railway, wben the new
agreement is negotiated.
Aak for CATTO'S.    For salo at aU Government Liquor Stores
TOs advertisement U not published or displayed by tht Liquor Control Botrd or
by tbe Government of British Columbia
Canadian Pacific Railway
Lmvm Dally it 8.45 a.m.
Tram Canadian Peolflo Station
•tapping al all principal pointi an routo
Carrloo oUndor* eaaeh, tourist ear, standard
altsptrs, dinar and eempsrtmant
observation car.
Up-to-Date Servlc*        A
Loavoa Dally al t p.m.
A Through Train lo Montreal
Maklnc all Important stops, and cantos
A Through Slopping Car to Chicago
via Minneapolis Is »t. Paul
In addition ta llrat.eloeo coach, tourist car,
standard sleeper*, diner and compartment
obeervatlon car.
Hr MisfonasHososdroeonotloat ap*. otTKaino. FICII*
nttemer Basel, How Voonorir cr 414 MsUs-p W.


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