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British Columbia Federationist Jul 25, 1924

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Industrial unity: strength
(Some' Evidence Disclosed in Recent Libel Case of McLennan
versus McTavish
[ Mode of Appointing Public Medical Officer Injustice to Workers
and Medical Profession
COME of us, who listened to the case
*** of McLennan versus McTavish
recently tried In the supreme court,
before a special jury, were surprised
at some of the things revealed therein. In the flrst place let us note the
following questions and answers when
the chairman of the Workmen's
Compensation Board was under examination
Q.   Then this Mr.  Miller,  how long
has he been with the board?
A.    Since 1920.
,Q   He ts a young man, Is he?
A.    He is a man about ,40.
Q.   A man about 40?     Who recommended  him?   Did  you?
A.    I selected him.      I recommended him to the board.
Q.   How long have you known him?
A.    I  had known    him    for    about
—oh, I had known him five or
six    years.    I      suppose—seven
Q. Did you get any recommendations
from the medical profession?
A. No. I submitted his name to a
number I knew and who knew
of him.
After reading the above, all. will
agree with me that to appoint a
public medical officer in such a
questionable manner does not reveal
that chairman ln a very ennobling
light. We must presume that the
persons responsible for the passing
of the Workmen's Compensation act
wished that act to work out in the
best interests of the Injured workmen of our province and looked to
Mr. Winn to appoint* the best men he
could possibly get to AU the posts.
1 am dealing with principles not persons, and the gentleman he appointed may be, for aught I know, a marvel of professional skill or otherwise.
I know nothing about his ability, but
that which I desire to emphasize Is
this: ThlB chairman, if he had had
a keen sense of his own personal duty
to his employers and a-desire to obtain the beat medical assistance obtainable, would have mado his ap<
pointment ln a somewhat different
spirit. His duty was clearly, either
by advertising or applying to the
medical association, to obtain a list
of names of doctors willing to undertake the duties required by the acl,
and to select the best out of that list;
and I should certainly have thought
that medical references were the flrst
essential ln making such a selection.
To appoint a personal friend, without medical references, was not merely nn injustice to the whole workers
of the province, but it was an injustice to the whole medical profession, among whom were probably many able men who would have
wished to make application.
How ls it that in making nearly
all government appointments wo find
mis ..nck-stairs method in operation? And how is it that our politicians and budding statesmen who
are so eloquently desirous for an
above-board and efficient administration of public affairs on the platform are so supinely silent on these
matters after they are elected?
The electors of Vanoouver Bhowed
at the recent election that they want
a cleaning up ln thia direction.
Certainly they missed the great
truth that the best morality left in
the world is to be found In the ranks
of the workers, and' they still believe
In the superiority of their mnsters in
this respect; but let me, tell' /Ur.
Woodward and Mr. Chris. McRae
that It Was this desire to obtain a
clean administration of public affairs
that gained for them their seats In
our parliament, and I for one am
(Continued on page 4)
Inside Electrical Workers Asso-
: ciation of B. 0. Incorporated
• The Inside Electrical Workers association bf British Columbia haB recently been Incorporated as a society
under the Societies act. Its operations will be carried on ln Vancouver
and bn lower mainland. The objects
of the new organization are as foil-
ows: (a) To unite the inside electrical workers, usually known es wire-
men, and their helpers, into a self-
governing body or union; (b) To elevate and improve conditions appertaining to work; (c) To foster and
enOourage diligence and Improved.
efficiency In the individual members
as electrical workmen; (d) To obtain a wage standard, and to stabilise wages paid to them as workmen;
<e) To promote harmony among
themselves as workmen and association members, and to ehTect and maintain cordial relations between the
members and their employers; (f)
To effect and enforce understandings
or agreements covering their services as workmen with their employera.
The Position of the
Emigrant in Canada
[By Tom I\ ^"Npn]
rpHE question of eK^.V -\n
•*■   Dominion of Canada
to the
!y„ ■; \J> elieve,
a subject of interest toV 'A:Srklet_s
men and women in this coUy'^b
ing spent five years in Cohy f 'iind
travelled extensively in the provinces
of Ontario, Alberta and British Columbia, I hope. I may, with due modesty and confidence, say that I write
with knowledge as to the following
I think It important to note at this
point that every branch of the labor
movement In Canada from east to
west, both industrial and political, Ib
very much perturbed about the emigration of so many of our people
from the British isles to Canada. Not
because of any hostility to people
from other lands,making their homes
In Canada, but because of the economic and social facts that now obtain in Canada. In every town and
city in Canada today there ls a large
number of.-unemployed, among whom
are large numbers of those who have
within recent months been Induced to
go to Canada in the hope that they
would flnd "useful and profitable employment."
Just before I left Canada a goodly
number of British emigrants who
went out last year to the harvest
fields of Canada "hiked" from Toronto
to Ottawa to seek an interview with
the prime minister (Mr. Mackenzie
King, M.P.). Comrade J. S. Woods-
worth, M.P., introduced the deputation to the prime minister, and the unemployed complained bitterly about
having been induced to go out to Canada under false pretences. The answer of the prime minister was that,
if that was so, they could invoke the
power of the law and claim redress,
and to refer them to the head of the
employment bureau, who, when appealed to, quite frankly stated his Inability to do anything for these unfortunate men. In conversation with
Mr. J. S. Woodsworth in Ottawa, on
May 1st, he told me that the chief
officer in the labor bureau referred to
told him that they had a large number
of resident unemployed ln Ottawa for
whom he could not flnd work of any
kind, or give any assistance,
Ah I passed through Ottawa on
April 29th I read in a Toronto dally
paper that a large deputation of unemployed had waited on the mayor
at the city hall, and the spokesman of
the unemployed stated that in less
than seven days he had registered the
names of over 3,000 unemployed in
the city of Toronto. A similar story
could be told of not only every town
and city, but also of many of the rural
municipalities. Obviously, therefore,
wo can understand that the resident
Canadian workmen, employed und unemployed alike, are vigorously protesting against the Canadian, British,
or any ether government inducing and
organizing to send emigrants.to Canada under present conditions. It is
said, and with truth, that Canada ls
a great territory, rich in mineral
wealth and natural resources, including millions of acres of agricultural
and fruit lands. Yes, but ln Bplte of
this, conditions in general are bad.
Some scores of millions of dollars
have been spent by the Canadian provincial and federal governments during the last 20 years to bring emigrants to Canada, and yet the total
population of Canada today is not
much, if any, more than the population of Greater London,
Tho secretary of the Canadian G.
W.V.A., in a speech delivered to the
Canadian club in Ottawa, about the
middle of April last, dealing with the
subject of Immigration, gave some
very interesting and instructive statistics. (The same figures, may I. add,
were quoted in debate in the federal
parliament at Ottawa some few days
later). The secretary of the G.W.V.A.
of Canada is a man of outstanding
ability and integrity. His disinterested and valuable services to the returned soldiers in Canada have won
for him an honored place in the
thought and life of Canada. The
statistics he quoted are given in the
following table of comparative statistics of Canadian emigration from all
countries and Canadian emigration to
United States during 1923:
feight per cent, of the pensions paid
by the Canadian government were
paidUo recipients residing in the U.
S.A., proving conclusively that Canada
not a land, at -present, fit tor heroes
to live in. But the major appeal to
the would-be immigrant "the land of
Camtfla," so wo are told, affords unlimited opportunities to the honest
workman. Now let us face realities
and ascertain some of the facts.
In the early summer of 1923 (last
year), the secretary of the Farmers
union of Canada issued a circular to
the trades unions, trades and labor
councils and political organizations in
Canada, inviting the co-operation of
labor in their (the farmers) efforts to
secure a wheat pool for the western
provinces, from which I quote the
following paragraphs:
"Just as the workers in the city are-
engaged in a struggle fop higher
wages, shorter hours, and better con-'
ditions, so the farmers of Canada are
engaged In a similar struggle. Today
the great mass of the farmers of western Canada are on the verge of utter
destruction. In the province of Saskatchewan alone the debts total over
400,000,000 dollars. In many districts
the schools are closing their doors
owing to the Inability of the farmers
to pay taxes. In tens of thousands
of farm homes there haunts the
spectre of hunger.
Do you know, brother, that the
average price paid to the farmer for
his wheat last year was 87 cents a
bushel, whilst lt is impossible to pay
the bare expenses of production at
less than a dollar.
"Do you know that In the municipality of Markinch last year 618 quarter sections of land were for sale for
arrears of taxes, and that out of the
600 farmers in this one municipality
no less than 73, or 12 per cent., had
(Continued on page 4)
Admissions to
Canadians ad
-    Cnnada   from
mitted to the
United States.
January  ..
19,167    '
August  ....
October   ..
6,589 '
we 'brought 137,320
people to Canada, but lost 182,369 to
the United States. Each month we
admitted nn average of 11,443 people
and chased out an average of 16,197
people to the United States. We presented to the United States with a
quota equivalent to our total immigration from all sources and 43,000 of
our own resident citizens. The expenditure on Immigration during 1923
approximated three-and-a-half (3H>
million dollara
He further stated that of the Canadian army, who took part In the war
1914-18, 100,000 of tham were to-day
residents In United States and that
McBrido, M.P. for Cariboo, Affirms There Is No Unemployment in Canada
Canada's Migration Exceeds Its
Immigration—Efforts to Keep
Population at Par
[Extract from Hansard]
AJR. IRVINE: For example we had
•* the hon. member for Cariboo
(Mr. McBride) claiming that there
was no doubt about the fact that
there was lots o. work in Canada for
every man.   What was his authority?
Mr. McBRIDE: EvetV man that
wanted   to  work.
Mr. IRVINE:' His authority was
thnt he had a team of horses and he
could not get anybody to drive that
team. After listening to my hon,
friend on labor matters I am not surprised to learn that he could not get
a labor man to drive his team. But
consider his own argument? In the
face of nil the statistics compiled by
our own bureau of statistics the hon-.
member for Cariboo affirms that
there- ls no unemployment in Canada,
because forsooth he could not get a
man to drive his team. Is that the
kjnd. of reasoning the government
is going to take. Or will they rather
take the fiery eloquencg of my hon,
friend from Bow River (Mr. Garland), or the cold calculated figures
of the hon. member for Centre Winnipeg (Mr, Woodsworth), or will they
take the figures from their own bureau of statistics? . . .My hon.
friend laughs at figures. If he will
read a certain book, he will flnd a ref**-
erence to certain individuals that
laugh, and their laughter Is said to
be like the "crackling of thorns under
a pot." That kind of thing does not
get one anywhere. The fact of the
matter is that the stern figures stand
before us and say that in Cannda a
workman gets only 20 per cent of
his total production, whereas In the
United States a worker gets 45 per
cent of his total production. Therefore, we have an emigration that exceeds our immigration, notwithstanding the fact that the government is
spending an enormous amount of
public money in order to keep our
population at par, so to speak. Does
the government want advice from this
side of the house what to do? I say:
Bore a hole in the bottom of this
vessel of watered stock and run out
the water; stop the charging of enormous amounts of interest and profits
on money that does not exist and allow the laboring classes and the business people of thts country to get
what Is going now to those people
who are claiming lt without putting
one ounce of energy into the pror
duetion and claiming lt on .stock that
does not exist. This may be regarded o_ a negative policy, nevertheless,
It ie a very essential one. If the government will take my advice in this
one particular, they will bring more
Immigrants to Canada than they will
as a result of their present policy; but
in addition, when these Immigrants
come to Canada, they will come into
better conditions than lf they were
brought over under the present method and In view of the preaent sltua
Government's Failure to Provide
Safe-guard WouldJlnvite Responsibility
Principle Contained in Amendment to Bank Act Safe and
tExcerpt from Hansard]
Mr. SHAW: If there Is any member of the house who, more than any
other, Is entitled t^*: credit for this
legislation, I consider it to be the
hon. member for Centre Winnipeg
(Mr. Woodsworth).. Because, last I
year, when the Bank-act was under
consideration, that hon. gentleman
Submitted to the committee on., banking and commerce an amendment
which, in substance, contains the very
principles, and Indeed much of the
language, of the present bill. At
that time the minister of finance argued that the government could not
undertake a system of bank inspection ^because in the event of a bank's
collapse the finance department
would be under a responsibility. In
reply we urged, or some of us at
least, that it would be the government's failure to provide the safeguard of an inspection that would
invite responsibility. I am very glad
that a year's experience, and the
further knowledge we have gleaned
in the interim, has resulted in establishing the principle that the government must use every safeguard to
protect the public, otherwise responsibility is at once Invited. May
I in this connection—to indicate the
transformation in regard to this
matter -vhich has taken place in one
short year—direct the attention of
hon. members to the following excerpt from an editorial on government inspection of banks which appeared In the Manitoba Free Press
of June  19, last:
The Faddists Were Right—Those
who advocated the change were
dreamers, theorists, visionaries, radicals, cranks, faddists: it is net probable that they escaped being called
bolshevists by the defenders of the
existing system. Yet the bankers and
the elder statesmen who took their
advice as the last word In practical
wisdom were wrong; .and the faddists
were right, as js how' admitted.
There can be no question at all
that the principle contained in this
bill is a sound and safe one, and now
we must only seek to ensure that the
legislation which we are enacting into law is adequate for the purpose.
"No More War" Demonstration
To Be Held in Stanley Park
pn Sunday
Next Sunday, Vancouver will participate in its third "No More War"
demonstration. It will be held as
In' previous years, immediately after
the band concert in Stanley park.
The speakers will be Rev. George
Hamilton, Miss Eva Macnaghten,. of
London, Eng., and Frank Browne,
M. ___». A.
These demonstrations began in Europe in 1920 when the bitter disillusion of -war had seized upon her
peoples, and .made millions resolve
"Never Again!" The demonstrations
were an outlet for these people for
their pent-up desire to abolish war
and reconstruct society upon a basis
other thnn force.
In the United States this year the
slogan will be "World Co-operation,"
expressing the desire of those progressive citizens who wish their
country to participate in, and help
with the reconstruction of Europe
and-civilization  generally.
The chairman of tho "No More
War" committee in Vancouver this
yeur is Rov. George Hamilton, who
ib a returned soldier, and has studied
war at first hand to good purpose.
Each year a resolution has been
submitted to, the audiences at the
demonstrations all over the world.
This yenr the resolution reads: "This
mass meeting of citizens sends fraternal greetings to similar gatherings
now being held throughout the world,
to express aborrence of war and
militarism, Joins with them in declaring it to be the duty of all peoples and governments to strive for
universal disarmament, and calls upon Its own government to pursue a
policy of international co-operation to
a strengthened and enlarged League
of Nations, thc settlement of disputes
by conciliation and judicial arbitration and the convocation of an international conference to achieve theso
The mover of this resolution will
be Miss Eva Macnaghton, of London, England, who Is a member of
the executive of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom of Great Britain, and recently
attended the W. I. L congress at
Washington, D. C. Miss Macnaghten is also a member of the British
Labor party.
The resolution will be seconded by
Mr. Frank Browne, recently elected
Labor member for Burnaby.
As We See It-Labor    I
in the Political Field
[By Angus Maclnnis]
TN working-class circles the provincial elections created a considerable
amount of Interest. It is a question
for speculation whether this Interest
arose from a conviction, it was essential for working-class advancement.
that It was time that they began to
think and act In a political way, or
was it that sort of a feeling that comes
over one when, say, watching a football game? Tou have no particular
interest in football, but some way you
get into the field. The game begins.
You hear the noise and the shouting.
At flrst It means nothing to you. You
find out from somebody what teams
are playing. Gradually you become
interested. The game ends in a draw
and you decide you will-go over to
the other city next Saturday to see
the game played out. You are Interested for the time being. You are a
partisan. You -may know nothing
about the game, but your sympathy ls
with one or the other of the teams.
But long before the week is out you
have forgotten about the game; that
Is, it ls no longer a matter of interest
to you, and not worth the time, trouble
and expense of seeing it played to a
finish. It seems that much of the election enthusiasm is of this kind. It is
not to the vast majority of workers,
workers who even vote the labor
ticket, a phase of the class struggle;
a fight which means a step nearer
freedom. To the great many it is a
contest, and they watch it with much
the same Interest as the average human being watches a contest of any
kind, whether it be a flght between
two ants or a political flght such as
we have just had.
Peoples of Europe Prepare for
Anothef World War on a
Grand Scale
Victory   Over   Ignorance.  Will
Never Be Gained by Wholesale Butchery
ACCORDING to E. D. Morel, the
Pacifist M.P., the peoples of
Europe (and wo might odd, of the
whole world more or less), are preparing for war on a grand scale, and
all that ls wanting to set alight the
world conflagration Is a greater exasperation on the part of the people or
some hypocritical appeal to their sentiments.
Tho world-tour of the fleet is only
one of the signs of the times calculated to throw dust In the eyes of the
gullible and prepare them for war.
Then no doubt the politicians and'
their faithful servants, the press and
the church and the schools, will blind
us by the dazzling prospects of
national glory and beg us to save the
little nations. For there will bo
another Belgium to defend, and when
it ls all over there will be another
Syria to divide up to reward the
righteous to whom .providence gives
the victory.   "For might is right."
Then once more, the betrayed workers of the world who have been murdering one nnother in the namo of
"liberty," "equality," "patriotism" and
"empiro"; who have endured all tho
unspeakable horrors of war and the
evils that follow war—misery, mourning, poverty and squalor—will look
around and ask themselves, "Why did
we flght after all; Ib the world really
better? Is It flt for democracy?" And
disillusionment will reveal conditions
similar' to, if not worse than now;
unemployment, evictions, the starvation of men, women and children, lho
mental and physical wrecks, the martyrdom of whole nations. And they
will realize that the victory was a
victory for tho capitalist and nnother
defoat for tho workers.
There is only one victory for tho
people and it will never bc gained by
wholosalo butchery. It is the victory
over ignorance, the victory whieh will
lead to understanding. To quote
Morel, "For none but the belligerent
governments (i.e., the capitalist class,
who rulo the earth), does that victory
Bpell defeat. But without that defeat,
utter and completo, understanding is
hidden from tho people." Without it
a worse slavery will be evolved.
Tho Workers must simply, refuse to
fight. For there Is no cause on earth
which can justify the blood and tears
of war.
Wages of Skilled Men
I have In my constituency (Mer-
thyr) men working at thc pithead
for 28s. and 30s. a week. I have
skilled men working underground
there and when they have put in
a whole week's work—laborious
tlroBome, dangerous work—their
earnings will come to about £2 fin.
—Mr.  Wallhead   M.P.
The Independence of small nations
ls only possible when the great powers
cannot agree as to who shall annex
Be that aB it may, the late elections
created, perhaps, fgore general Interest among the workers* than any elec-
ion held here for'some time. Maybe
the reason for this, was the fact that
greater 'enmity was shown on thiB occasion, and no time waa lost by one
working clasB party in criticizing and
knocking another working class party.
Much discussion has been indulged in
since as to what form of political or-
ganization wtll bring the best results j
for the efforts put forth, Or what
form of organization will appeal, if
not to the reason of the workers, to
their imagination. And this is a question that Is worthy of earnest and
careful consideration, because there
Is a danger that In our efforts to form
a party that will be acceptable to all
shades of thought, or lack of thought,
In the labor movement we shall bring
into being a party that will be useless
as an instrument for effecting the
emancipation of the working class.
In an article written by E. J. Kings-
ley, which flrst appeared in the Labor |^
Day edition of The Federatlonist,, in
1916, and afterwards in pamphlet
form* he states this: "In most countries the workers possess some semblance of a franchise, and to that extent at least they have the legal right
to conquer the state for their ewn,
purpose. In countries where the
wprkers do not possess the franchise,
or where there are such limitations
placed upon It as to nullify their
superiority of numbers, they are justified in exercising their political power
In any other manner they may choose
for the attainment of the end in
view. In Canada and the United
States there is nothing In the way
of a working class conquest of the
public powers at the polls at the present time, except that peculiar perspicacity of the slave that usually enables
him to readily discern his master's interest, while at the same time remaining blissfully blind to his own." This
is quoted because it shows what is
thought to be the working class viewpoint on political action through the
ballot box at that time.
What has happened in Russia in
1917 and since has had an influence
on the minds of many In the ranki of
the working class here as elsewhere.
At one time thiB belief in industrial
and moss action, as lt was termed, had
become as much of a fetish with some
members of the working class, that,
it-took conslderahlfe Courage to* assert
that anything could be accomplished
by the customary (political methods.
The contention was that what hnd
happened in Russia could be duplicated in any part of the world regardless of What particular conditions
in thnt country happened to be.
However, the pendulum Is now
sweeping back in thc opposite direction, influenced to a great extent, no
doubt, by whut has happened in Groat
Britain during the past year. The
r'.-ncOinu in this respect has been no
great that Labor parties which had
at one time thc proper shade of "red"
are now deemed so radical as lo be
impossible, and parties which were
recently held to bo of only "pale pink"
shade, *n<l 'floppy" in their economics, and were often referred to by
peoplo who never had the courage to
join a labor political party of any
kind as an "aggregation.uf vote catchers," are today held to be too socialistic, or so "red" as to have a tendency to frighten respectable people
away from a real working elass party.
Next weok we shall try and give
an outlino of our idea of a Labor
What Does tbe Word Mean?—
Can We Think of Him as
Being Personal
Tin' <irti.'M,s and Evolution
B, T. Kingrfley.
if Slavery, hy
Pressman   in   Hospital
Harry Carter, member of the Pressmen's union, who only recently arrived frotn-Wlnnipofe', met with a serious
accident Wednesday, when he had
bis hand crushed between two press
rollers at the Sun olllce. Late reports
from the General Hospital, we nre
glad to say, stale he Is resting easily
and is on a fair way to an early recovery.
I.alKir Make* History
The history of a nation is made
by ils laboring men; lis historians
and statesmen merely write about Jt
ami talk about ft. The laboring man
makes II; tho laboring man produces the wenlth of a nation. The
merchant princes, the captains of
finance and industry merely collect
that wealth, and the war rnakcrH
destroy it. Consequently, thero is
little left for tabor to enjoy out of
tbe wenlth that -It has produced.—
Senator Henrick Shipstend (Minnesota.)
Old-Ago Pensions
If the spirit behind Mr. Snowden's
old age pensions proposal had been
in operation some time ago, somebody I know very dearly might have
heen living to-day in some sort of
comfort and leisure. It sometimes
amuses mo to hear people who do
not know what hunger means, or the
real value of a 5s. piece, pleading as
If It did not matter.—Mr. Gibbins,
M. P.
Labor is prior to and Independent
of capital. Capital Is oaly the fruit
of labor and could never have existed if labor had not existed.—Abraham
There Is Much That Is Imperfect
in Nature According to
Onr Standards
[By Frances Wills]
J AST week it was mentioned that
closely connected with the idea of
a seperate and Immortal soul is tha
Idea of a personal Qod. And first,
it is necessary to be clear as to what
is meant by a personal God. God
is thought of as a person with human attributes. But these attributes axe always changing. For Jit-
stance, to take the Hebrew aad
Christian religions as a type: in the
days of the old Testament (and often
alas,  now)   God was thought  of as
strange mixture of savagery and
'divinity. He was' revengeful, jealous, conservative and, to some extent,
Incomprehensible, puzzling. But the
God of the new Testament was
different. 'He was still to some extent partial to the Jews whefen he
favored In very speeial ways. But
whereas, once he had demanded ae
payment for sin, animal and often,
human sacrifices, he no longer demanded these after one particular
sacrifice hnd been made. This waa
that He, a loving father, accepted
the death of--His son Jesus aa the
atonement for the sins of the whole.
world and. those who came hereafter.
To-day there are many varying
Ideas about God, There are people
who think him particularly anxious
for the supremacy of the British
race or .some other nation. There
are others who regard Him as a God
of stern justice meting out punishment and reward In some future etate.
And there are many who think of
God as a spirit possessing those attributes which they themselves admire In mankind. In a word, they
worship  the  good  in  themselvea.
It is possible to deal with only a
few of these aspects of God's nature. If he Is indeed the creator of
the universe; that Is, If he created
the universe at a given time once
for all, then It Is possible for hian,
his .creature, to criticise his works
and hla laws. . Thare is much that
Is imperfect In nature according to
our Htnndards.
Again, if Ho is all-powerful, how is
It that He is seemingly powerless to
perfect His works even here on
earth; to restore man to thnt estate
"from which he fell," by some such
miracle aB the Resurrection? If, as
is claimed, Clod Ib all-loving, how cnn
we believe thnt His justice would demand the sacrifice of His son, when
no earthly father would contemplate
sueh cruelty, and no self-respecting
man avail himself of such a price
for thy failings inherent in him or
brought about by his environment?
Ood is a King, we are told, and we
are bidden to worship Him and give
Him perpetual praise. Yet what mere
morlnl would not soon sicken of
this perpetual lip-service or even
whole-hearted und sincere tflorifi-
tlon unless he were Indeed mentally
deficient? And further,, how can It
be that a God who created nil nations upon earlh, should favor any
onc nation, cither by treating it as
the chosen race or by assisting
it In^wnrfare? For now, even the pacifists would excel such a God by their
hatred of organized murder and by
their capacity to see that neither
side Is in thc right in sueh a struggle.
The individual who concerns himself little with those matters, but
who, nevertheless, believes in a personal Ood, has other and equally
vital problems to race. He believes
he is dependent on this Ood, and this
Is no difficilH mntter for the average
person to accept. He has learnt the
lesson of mental dependence through
childhood ami adolescence, and there
(Continued on pane -II
It Will Operate at New Westminster—Funds to Benefit
The Royal City Mutual Benefit association, whose operations will be
chiefly earriod on at New Westminster,
lias recently bcen Incorporated. The
objects of the new society are : To
unite fraternally nil persons of sound
henltb. physically and mentally, of
nood morn) character, who are socially
acceptable, and who have reached
their sixteenth birthday at the time of
their admission to the association, and
to establish and maintain a benefit
fund for securing to the constitutionally designated payee or payees of
members, such Sum of money as has
been subscribed ty the mombers for
ench member, at the time of death oT
that purpose.
We do not own thc empire. The
world has been our empire. For instance, Lancashire ls dependent far
more upon Louisiana* upon the cotton
fields of tke United States, than upon Ontario or even Cheshire.—Mr.
Haycock, M.P. PAGE TWO
sixteenth YEAR.   No. 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA FEDERATIONIST Vancouver, b.c.
FRIDAY July 25, lit
British Columbia Federationist
Published every Friday by
The  British  Columbia  Federatlonist
Baainou snd Editorial Office, 1129 Howe St.
Tbo policy of Tlio B.  C. Federatlonist is
controlled by the editorial board of the Fed-
eratcd Labor Party of British Columbia.
BnbBcriptlon Rate:   United Stales and Foreign, J8.00 per year; Canada, »2.50 per
yoar, S1.50 for six months; to Unions subscribing in a body, 10c per member per
FRIDAY July 25,   1924
WE he
/E have been very much Interested
i this new "brand" of vote. Apparently it has been studied with interest by many others as welt. We
are wondering what those people who
opposed proportional representation
so strongly, on account of the delay
in getting out the results, together
With the extra expense It entailed, will
have to say. Perhaps they think that
this vote could be played with, while
p. R. offered no siich opportunity!
Furthermore P. R- would have -given
the workers a much greater representation than they got. That Is something that the old political heeler
would ndt have occur for the world,
regardless of time or expense.
Tho absentee voto may have been
quite "o.k.", but we do feel that there
has been^ aroused rather much suspicion regarding it for any government to try to carry it on any further.
For some of the government candidates to make the gains that they are
purported to have made is rather
questionable to say the very least.
The government would be well advised to reconsider thia question again
before another election comes around.
men, corner the markets In certain of
the people's food stuffs and make millions of dollars by so doing. Human
suffering means nothing to them. Yet,
no doubt, if Labor were to rise up
against such a procedure, thfs same
gentleman would be the first to call
them thc vilest sort of names and
urge upon the government the ne*6d
of calling out the militia to protect
tho "citizens' rights."
Some poople seem to have lost all
sense of proportion, all sense of justice or fair play. They commit the
worst of crimes against the great
masses of our people—and In the
case above referred to, it is the workers who feel the pinch—and yet they
think they aro worthy citizens of our
land. Such injustices cannot go on
indefinitely. Of that they can rest assured. Some day the workers will
awaken to the game that is being
played in whicli they are but the
WB WERE struck with an editorial
that appeared in the front page
of the Vancouver Morning Sun the
other day, under the above title. Especially were we interested in the
flrst statement, which was as follows:
"The best the reformer ever gets is
a good state funeral." Then there
appeared a few sarcastic remarks
about the Provincial party,
We hold no brief for the Provincial
party. Their policy would be as fatal
to the economic welfare of the masses
as have been the policies of the other
two old parties and. in our humble
judgment, were the editor of the Sun
to be In control the result would be
as equally disappointing, We fear that
he likes the tingle of the cash register
■ too well to ever have the time and
patience to llstetn to any reformers,
regardless of how able and sincere
they might be. Hia mind, like many
others in our midst, haa become so
twisted and warped, ln our opinion,
that lt can never hope to see any
good In anything that does not show
a profit In dollars and cents.
The reason why the best reformer
can never hope to get anything more
than a good state funeral is because
he will not belittle himself in the eyes
of his own conscience by stooping to
deprive his fellowmen of the opportunities that are rightly theirs, in
order that he might enjoy a little
more than just a. "good atate funeral."
Apparently the editor of the Sun has
no use whatever for "Ideals." To him
the rustle of a few crisp dollar bills
or the tingle of some coin is the only
music worth while in this old world
of ours, so lt would seem.
A FTER what, no doubt, have been
long and tedious days of waiting,
the liberal lady candidate is at last
assured of a seat in the house of
assembly at Victoria. At the outset,
we unhesitatingly say tha: wu hop"
that the close call she received will
have a very beneficial effect upon her
activities in the future. Perhaps she
will give more thoughtful and earnest
consideration to the needs of the
country and thc people that she
serves, rather than going off to England on a little "joytrip" as she did
in the past.
i We frankly admit that we feel cur-
selves very much annoyed whenever
we think of that little trip of hers.
We have had the opportunity of
meeting some of the immigrants from
the old land and have listened to the
stories that they say that they have
been told regarding the prospects in
British Columbia. When we compare
these stories with conditions as we
know them to exist right here In our
midst, we are justly annoyed, we feel,
to think that one of our number (especially when that one happens to be
a member of our legislature, with the
additional prestige which such
position gives her), would lend herself
to the performance of such a task as
has been alleged.
If Mrs. Mary Ellen Smith cares to
reply to justify, or rather ondeavor
to Justify, such activities on her part,
the columns of The Federationist are
open to her. In our opinion, if she
does not redeem herself during the
coming session, her political future
looks black indeed.
who suggest that It may be necessary
for industries to be run by and in the
interests of the masses rather tLian in
the interests of the few, if we wouid
make life worth while for the majority of people, Is nothing short oF despotism of the crudest sort.
Workers, you must not forget Mr.
Murdock's utterances upon this occasion, when tho dominion election
comes about. Not until you control
tlie reins of government will your
liberty, personal or otherwise, be ever,
within  reach.
AFTER the experiences that the
great masses of mankind hav*e
bad with the horrors of the war, one
would think that such demonstrations
would be quite unnecessary among an
•Heightened and civilized peoplo. It is
not so, however, and we must not leave
a single stone unturned that will In
any way help to rid this world of our*!
of Its greatest curse—war. We must
for years, continue our educational
propaganda. The economic causes of
war must be ever kept before the
minds of the .people until they grasp
their full significance and govern
themselves accordingly.
Surely the day Is not far distant
however, when humanity will learn
the absolute futility of war; surely it
is but common sense for us to assume
that, after all, force is not the only
means, but is, in fact, the poorest
means by which to accomplish that
which ls right and just. We have
ieen and are seeing today, the out-
tome of, what many of our so-called
patriots would have us believe, was a
"holy war!" A war In which we felt
the Lord waa on our side—although
he was claimed with equal vigor by
our enemies. How ridiculous, yes,
how sacriligious If you will!
War is Inhuman and lt ia futile.
War aggravates. War does not cure
nor yet does It alleviate. It has created as an aftermath In Europe such
a feeling among nations there that,
were they not so weak from sheer exhaustion, they would be at each other's
throats again, filled with the spirit of
We will do well to help make this
demonstration a great success and ao
help to bring home to the minds of
the many, the absolute futility of
habited island In the tropics. Here
Miranda grew up, knowing no companion save her father and an uncivilized native of the island and a-
supernatural spirit of the air and
flre, Ariel by name. But Prospero,
the rightful Duke, was a magician
as well as a philosopher, and, in
time, he was able to raise a tempest
by which his brother and his court,
on their way from North Africa to
Italy, fell under his power. The
rest of the story deals with the reconciliation of the brothers; and the
serious nature of the play is relieved by a comic strain introduced by
the antics of some of the sailors, who
loved wine not too wisely but too
well, Ariel is a unique character and
quite a masterpiece of Shakespeare's
art; he can "tread the ooze of the salt
deep, run upon the sharp wind of
the north, and work Prospero's business in the viens o' the earth when
it Ib baked with frost."
The play contains many gems of
beautiful language. For instance in
tho masque which preceeds the de-
noument,* Ceres says of Iris, the rainbow: "Hail, many colored messenger
who with thy saffron wings upon my
flowers, dlltusest honey-drops, refreshing showers; and with each end
of thy blue bow dost crown my bosky
acres and my unshrubbed down, rich
scarf to my proud earth."
And as the masque ends somewhat
abruptly, for Prospero remembera
that further treachery Is afoot, he
says to a spectator: "These our actors,
as I foretold you, were all spirits,
an dare melted into air, into thin air;
and, like the baseless fabric of this
vision, the cloud-capped towers, the
gorgeous palaces, the solemn temples,
the. great globe itaelf, yea, all which
it inherit, shall dissolve; and like this
insubstantial pageant faded, leave
not a rock behind. We are such stuff
as dreams are made on; and our
little life is rounded with a sleep."
One1 of the most famous speeches
is another of Prospero's In which he
renounces his magic forever:
A CONVENTION is being called for
the purposes of forming a local
council of the Canadian Labor party
in Vancouver.    We   note   with great
Interest the name of one of the delegates who    has   bcen chosen by the
Trades and Labor council, to sit at
this  convention,   to   represent  them,
We are not suggesting that We have
the slightest desire to, in any way,
dictate  who  that   body should elect
as their representative,  but when It
comes to selecting a man who only
recently   ran    in ' opposition t& the
Labor party, It looks a trifle suspicious
to say the very least.    Why a man,
who was a candidate for the Provincial party should  now be chosen to
sit upon the councils Of this C.L.P.,
la beyond  our comprehension.    Not
only are    we    surprised    that \ie Is
chosen, but we cannot hety but foel
that it is nothing short of a brazen
effrontery on his part to accept such
a position.    The workers have been
made fools of quito long enough, not
only by those outside of the movoment but   also   by    those inside the
movement.'   We hope that the workers will call a halt to such nonsense,
upon this occasion nt least.    If they
do not, then    the    Canadian    Labor
party  will  be  nothing more than a
joke in the mindH of tho on-looking
publie.   And the nubile could not be
THERE appeared In the dally pross
a few days ago a roport regarding
a man who made bver a million dollars through cornorlng certain of our
food stuffs on the markets. It was reported as though it were a vory natural occurrence or a rospoctable pastime. Many people believo It to bo
quite christian. We are of the opinion that tho country knows no enemy,
either within or without its borders,
more to be feared than those of Its
citizens who are so hardened in their
hearts and so callous in their souls
that they can, with absolute Indifference to the welfare of their fellow-
E SEE by the dally press reports
that there were some very interesting debates over these estimates.
During the course of the discussion,
however, the real attitude of several
members of the house of commons
waa brought to light. Minister of
Labor,, Hon. James Murdock suggested, according to the reports, that
one reason why Canada must maintain a military force was that there
were organizations composed of so-
called labor men, whose aim and object was to rise up and seize Canadian
Such remarks, as those attributed
to the minister of labor, are most^er-
tainly uncalled for, especially coming
from him. When we look'back and
see what a narrow escape he apparently had over the Home bank affair,
we should think that he would feel so
ashamed of himself that he could not
hold up his head among hts fellows,
and yet, on top of all that he has the
gall and impertinence to make such
remarks about "so-called labor men,1
It would appear to us that lt Is on
account of the activities of just such
men as the minister of labor that
there Is such a great need for labor
to organize as she ls doing. Unfortunately, however, she Is far from being
organized as perfectly as one would
conclude she was. Judging from the
remarks of Mr. Murdock.
Certainly if the militia is being
kept up for the purpose of having
men ready to suppross the activities
of the labor movement, the workera
have every reason to object and to
object most strenuously. It would
appear that they should go on strike
so far as the paying of taxes are concerned, If it Is true that their money
is being used for the purpose of holding them In subjection to the interests
of money and property,
Mr. Murdock knows very well that
aU the workers have been asking for,
is the right to live, nnd to live decently. Thnt right has been denied them
thus far, especially so during the past
few yenrs, and surely it Is not to be
wondered at that they are commencing to fool that something ls radically wrong somewhoro. When they
look about they soe that property
tights, under the present social sya
tern, menns more to tho government
than do human rights. They resent
it, and certainly they cannot be
blamed. No doubt Mr. Murdock parted
with the money that he returned to
tho Home bank lately, very reluctantly. The way that he "sneaked" away
with It (we believe that sneaked Is
lho proper term), would lead us to-
believe that he values a few dollars
very highly—almost moro than his
Holf-reapect. And after all that, to
think that ho would como out and
suggest, as it wun reported tbat he
did, that Canada needed a militia to
protect hor against "so-called labor
men," mon who are struggling to
muke life liveable for their fellows,
men who feel that human life is of
more Importance than property, men
II is doubtful if the general public
have had the unfortunate privilege
of reading about such an atrocious
crime as they have had in connection
with the Frank's murder case.
Every once and awhile some startling event occurs in our "upper
strata" of society that makes the average worker feel thankful that he does
not belong to such a class. He feels,
that at least he can retain his self-
respect. To think, that, from this
"elite class" in Chicago there should
come forth, what they have been reported to be, "sexual perverts," "cigarette fiends" and "drunkards," is one of
the most damning indictments of
"high society" we can ever hope to
It would appear quite evident from
this case that money, unlimited as it
was In this case apparently, opportunities of all sorts and kinds under this
debasing system under which we are
living tr> day, does not make the best
men am women. Living in untold
luxury, such as these boys must have
lived under, according to all reports,
which must of necessity have been
gained through depriving some workers of their legitimate reward for the
labor they had performed for society,
brings with it its own undoing. In
Chicago today many pay as high as
$12,000 a year for the rent of an
apartment, while others on the other
e of that great city live in filth and
degradation. Such conditions cannot
—they must not—be allowed to go unchallenged.
If such Individuals and such conditions in society are due to the manner in which the people, who enjoy the
privileges and power whtch their
wealth permits them to enjoy, fail to
properly fulfil their proper responsibilities to Bociety, then It is about
time that the common people become
a little more Intelligently Interested in
their own welfare and government.
Labor and the Poets
[By Frances Wills!
CtrpiiE Tempest," written    probably
■*■ about 1610 and towards the
close of Shakespeare's dramatic career, is generally regarded as one of
his best. It Ih n mixture of tragedy
and comedy, and has been classed
with the romances. Its chief interest Ilea not in the story itself, but
partly In its scene and setting and
strange characters, and partly in the
problems which the play sets forth.
The story Is a very simple one, assisted, as it were, by the supernatural element ln which Elizabethan
and later audiences delighted, because belief In witchcraft and magic
was common. Prospero, the Duke of
Milan, was deprived of his kingdom
by his younger brother and together
with his dnughter Miranda was
borne out to sea In n miserable vessel
and loft to drift. Fortunately, an
honest old courtier had providod
them with soime necessities and books
and they wero able to exist until their
boat touched land—an almost unln-
Ye  elves  of  hills,   brooks,
lakes, and groves;
And ye, that on the sand with print-
less foot
Do chase the ebbing Neptune and do
fly him.
When he comes back ... By whose
aid, I have bedlmmed
The noontide sun, called forth    the
mutinous winds,
And 'twixt   the   green   sea and the
assured  vault
Set roaring war; to the dread rattling thunder
Have I given flre. and rifted Jove'i
stout oak
With his own bolt: the strong-based
Have I made shake; and by the spurs
plucked up
The pine   and   cedar . . . But   this
rough magic
I do here abjure.
Ariel who has faithfully served
Prospero for many years gainB his
long desired freedom and sings the
well-known song:
Where the bee sucks, there suck I
In a cowslip's bell I He;
There I couch when owls do cry.
On the bat's back I do fly
After summer, imerrily.
Merrily, merrily, shall I live now,
Under the blossom that hangs on the
There are many other beautiful
passages that make the play so thoroughly appreciated by all who love
beautiful language; indeed few
Shakespearian plays-are as charming
as the Tempest. But there are other
reasons why the play is interesting.
It throws a good deal of light on
current events and problems, problems which have not been satisfactorily solved as yet. There ls a hint
of discontent even then with econo--
mlc conditions for, no doubt, it was
an age when people took their con
ditions for granted, as Inevitable
facts, even more than they do now.
Old Qonzalo, the honest old courtier,
helps to cheer his shipwrecked companions by discussing thc Ideal state,
He says:
In the commonwealth I    would    by
Execute all things; for   no   kind of
Would I admit;  no name of magls
Letters should not be known; riches,
And use of service, none;    oontract,
Bourn, bound of land, tilth, vineyard,
No use of metal, corn, or wine, or
No occupation; all men idle—all,
And women too , . .
No sovereignty . . .
All things ln common, nature should
Without sweat or endeavor; treason,
Sword, pike,  knife, gun, or need of
any engine,
Would I not have; 'but nature should
bring forth,
Of Us own kind, all abundance,
To feed my innocent people.
From which it will be seen that
even William Shakespeare, one of the
master mind of the ages, had ln him
the germs of socialism, and that he
recognized the "right to be lazy;"
really the right to lelsure-r-that riches
and poverty and the hiring out of
one's labor wero considered by. him
as undesirable; that he regarded the
land and its resources as common
property; that he had no use for the
tools of war, nor for the trappings
of sovereignty, nor for inan-rtnade
law. There may be some ideas in
the foregoing passage with which
many would disagree, but mankind
has travelled far in the last four
centuries; if not in actual betterment
of conditions, then In Ideas and consciousness.
The Elizabethan age witnessed the
beginning of European colonization
cf America nnd parts of Africa, and
Shakespeare must, have given eome
thought to thc deep problems which
arose therefrom. And the great
question in the minds of those whose
thoughts were not all-engrossed by
commercialism was "What effect Is
the coming of the European going
to have on the native." Left to themselves the natives would have devel
oped as other races have done for
because a race is backward, in the
childhood of its life, inferiority should
not be assumed. With careful handling, the child-races would soon
have reached the level of self-determination, but the pages of history
show that riot the native, but commerce has been the flrst consideration; and except for a smattering of
so-called civilization, a very doubtful
quantity indeed, the subject races
have merely been exploited, And
the representatives from Europe who-
first eame into contact with many of
these races were not by any means
of the best; they themselves were
often the lower strata of socioty,
themselves exploited as the natives
were exploited. . . . Dispossesion, enslavement and later, as even Sir
Walter -Raleigh admitted, -degradation and new means of abasement
were the inheritance of the native
peoples. Hitherto their lives had
been perfectly natural and moral according to their lights. The character of Caliban is Interesting from
this point of view. Savage, earthy as
he is, he has a keen appreciation of
the beauty of the island. The island
was his, but he was disinherited, and
his freedom was changed to servitude.
Prospero has tried to civilize him;
to use Caliban's own words:
You taught me language,*   and    my
proflt on,lt
Is, I know how to, curse.
And civilization on its baser side,
as represented by the two sailors in
the play, drags him down still further. So^ whether Shakespeare Intended It or not, the play was peculiarly fitting as a warning in those
days. And one might add, In these
days too.
Freedom ts one of the keynotes of
the play. Ariel desires freedom.
Caliban with all the force of his
savage nature wishes freedom, and
somehow sdmething of the latter'a
thirst for liberty, communicates it
self to the two debased sailors, and
they decide to throw off the chains
of authority and take the power and
all its trappings upon themselvea
But like too many leaders of the people who bring to an end their achlev-
ment on behalf of liberty by quarrelling over trifles and fighting over
the spoils, so our two revolutionaries
end    their    laughable attempt,
The epilogue of the play is thought
by some writers to be of personal
slgniflcence. Shakespeare wa8 finishing his great task and no doubt, he
saw much therein to pardon, for he
knew that every energetic dealer
with the world must seek a sincere
and liberal pardon for many things.
Store Opens at 9 a.m, and
Closes at 6 p.m.
A Blouse for Every
Need and Occasion
W/E have here all types of blouses that are
meeting with favor, whether they are
to be worn with tailleur, sports clothes, or
a dressy costume. Tucked blouses, frill
blouses, stunningly beaded or embroidered
blouses, buttoned blouses. All the new versions of the mode, beautifully made and unusually attractive. Of crepe de Chine,
printed and other favored silks, in a wealth
of colors.  Prices are moderate.
575 Oranvllle Street
Phone Seymour 8540
im or nm
Exclusion Is No Final Solution of
Economio Problem—Relations
With Other Countries
[Extract from Hansard]
l^fB. WOODSWOKTH: I agree with
the member for Comox-Alberni
(Air. Neill) that we ought not to permit the incoming of Orientals, oi
for that matter, of any other group
to lower our standing of living,
think the hon. member contributed
a great service the other evening
when he so well called attention to
the fact that by the bringing in of
a certain number of Chinese in bond
on the British Empire Steel company's boats the Immigration law had
been practically evaded. There is
a danger that In this way we may
establish a very vicious form of peonage ln Canada, at the same time lowering our own standards and degrading the unfortunate immigrants who
are thus brought ln without proper
But I call attention to the fact,
I have done on previous occasions,
that mere exclusion of Asiatics will
not solve the economic problem of
the competition of the Oriental races?
The fact is that if steamers cannot be
repaired cheaply enough on this side
of the Pacific they are repaired on
the other aidg; the fact is that these
ships which enter our ports from
China, Japan and other ports of the
Orient are bringing In goods that are
made by cheap Oriental labor, and
these goods compete with our goods,
and thus with our workmen. So I
repeat, exclusion Is no final solution
of the economic problem, However,
I protest as emphatically as I can
against the attitude taken by the
member for Comox-Atlin when he
used words something like this:
"That the preservation of our civilization depends on the .dominance of
white races over the other races of
the world. If that be the case, then
the sooner this civilization perishes
from off the face of the earth the
better. Does the hon, melmber
mean to say that we of the white race
must eternally bestride this earth
and keep other races in subordination? It seems to me that thia Is the
very doctrine which some people ae
cused the Germans of preaching, for
the defeat of which the world war
was supposed to have been fought.
It is the use of the word "domi.n
ance," this idea of some superior
Nordic race, that Is responsible for
a great deal of the trouble which we
have at the present time, and I do
not think that such a statement
should   go  unchallenged.   The   hon.
member recognized that this is a
world problem, but I submit that
when he advocated exclusion and expressed a great deal of prejudice
against other races he did not offer
anything like a world solution of the
• Mr. NEILL: I did suggest a solution, I submit. I suggested that if
the white civilization was to be maintained we should maintain the white
Mr. WOODSWORTH: That is the
kind of solution which I think any
thoughtful or far-seeing man will
surely repudiate. The immediately
practical solution was that we were
more or less to exclude these people
from our territories. But exclusion
is no solution of the problem. If we
are to have trade, It involves our going over to those countries, and also
inevitably Involves more or less their
coming over to this country; lt means
that our ships must go abroad, and it
will very likely mean that their ships
must come over here. What about
our relations with other countries,
India, Egypt, China; does it mean
that the British people must preserve
their countries having learned a
measure of our civilization if you
Uke, having learned something of the
Industrial methods of the western
world, will In the future be ln an
altogether different position; they
can now compete as they never could
before with the western nations, and
they can, if necessary, resort to force
as the western nations have done In
the past. Are we willing to withdraw,, from all these different countries where our commerce has penetrated and whence to-day our financiers are drawing immense revenues?
That is the question that, it seems to
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Checko-Slovakia Controls a Number of State Enterprises on
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Organic Evolution
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TN the last article dealing with those
primitive and peculiar life-forms
collectively known to us as the Fungi,
we saw that the life-history of these
organisms was full of the evidences
of an evolutionary process ln the life-
world, and that the various progressive phases exhibited by them Illustrated for us some of the steps by
which the early single-celled organisms passed Into and became the
many-celled, complex, tissue-forming bodies of later times.
We saw, too, that this evidence
was particularly clear and illuminating in regard to sex differentiation.
For here within one group of organisms we might perceive and mark
all the differential processes, actually taking place as It were under
our Very eyes by which the continuation of life,, from its very dawn on
our globe down to our own days, has
been carried on and made possible
and further, that all these remarkable transltlonary, developmental
phases, as manifested in the life-history of this group of organisms, were
wholly without explanation or mean
ing unless interpreted ln terms of organic evolution.
The truth of this statement will
come home to us with even greater
force, as we seek in this .article to
learn and understand something of
the significance and purpose of these
sex differentiations we saw arising
among the Fungi; and which play
so vital and paramount a part in the
realm of life as constituted to-day.
We are so accustomed to sex differentiations that we do not stop to
think about them. We take them
for granted and imagine they have
always existed; that life has always
manifested Itself under these dual
But lt ls clear from our 'consideration of the bacteria and the fungi
that this is not so; and* we shall
see further, tn our consideration of
the Import and purpose of sex dlff*
erentatlons tn this article, that although sex distinctions have given to
life so much of its interest and fullness and Joy, especially for the higher organisms, they have not always
existed, nor are they so essential to
the continuance of life-forms as we
have been accustomed to think.
They are clearly the product and
outcome of the evolutionary process
Itself; and their primary purpose In
the life-realm would seem to be to
assist In this process.
Sex differentiation has enormously
aided In bringing about that wonderful variety of form we see ln the
world of life to-day. The possibilities of variation have been tremendously Increased by this bisexual
method of reproduction. The offspring draw from two lines of an*
cestry, with all their diverse characters and tendencies, instead of from
Many biologists look upon sex
dimorphism or .bl-sexual propagation as the chief cause of variation In Hfe-forms; some holding that
the male-cell by its differentiation has
taken over all the active, dynamic
qualities of the original, asexual organisms and thus initiates all the
modifications by which new varieties arise; while the female-cell having now become relatively inert and
passive holds baok and checks this
tendency to change Inherent In living
matter, and thus becomes the static
hereditary influence or factor ln the
reproductive  process.
That there is some ground for this
view seems to be clear from the experiments in artificial fertilization of
ova carried on by Jacques Loeb and
his school of biology. According to
Loeb, the main instrument of here
dlty Is the ovum. He found that he
could activate the eggs of sea-urchins
In several ways and Induce them to
develop Into larvae by artificial
means without the use of the sperm
of the male at all; but that on the
other hand nothing would cause the
spermatozoon to develop into a larva apart from the Ovum,
He discovered further that the
hereditary Influence of the sperm up
on the offspring In bisexual unions
was always in a ratio proportionate
to the genetic relationship existing
between the parents; that paternal]
characters could be transmitted to!
the offspring only when the sperm j
came from a male of the same or a
nearly-related species; that if the
sperm of a distantly-related species
of sea-urchin was used no paternal
characters were transmitted. Th*
offspring, showed only maternal characters, that is the characters of the
species to which the mother belonged.
We may gather from these experiments, flrst, that the ovum Is the
essential and predominant partner!
in the reproductive process; and,
second, that the ovum Is able alone
to carry on and transmit the characters of the race even in cases where
the organisms concerned have reached
the  bl-sexual   stage  of reproduction.
We are prepared for this conclusion by what we saw taking placo
among the: fungi. One bf the methods of reproduction there, it may be
recalled, was by the union or' fusion
of two female-cells in a species where
the male-cell had not yet been evolved  or was  not functioning.
We may regard these differences
of function in the reproductive cells
as due primarily to "division of labor," It ls dear that when the unicellular organisms had once entered
upon the cluster or colonial state, differentiation In function would have
necessarily to follow If these cell-
clusters were ever tb become the
complex, closely-Integrated bodies
characteristic of the present-day
higher organisms.
differentiation will therefore,
be best understood if regarded as
the outcome of a "division of labor"
among colonizing cells. It undoubtedly took place early in the history
of organic life soon after the primitive single-celled organisms had
become colonial groups, and may be
regarded as one of the earliest steps
in organic evolution.
The greater passivity, and larger
size of the female cell, is obviously
due to the. fact that in it is commonly
stored the yolk, that is the food element necessary to the sustenance and
growth of the new organism in Its
earlier stages. It is also the builder
up, the constructive factor in the
reproductive process; while the male
cell is chiefly the energlzer, the act
ivator or starter of the process.
Greater activity is obviously necessary on its part to perform the functions it has to carry on. One of these
is to seek out the more passive and
inert ovum before union with it can
take place. It has also to supply in
larger measure than the ovum does
at this stage of evolution the energizing life-force so essential to the proper and full development of the new
life-form; the absence of which
causes the premature death of so
many of the larvae produced by artificial fertilization; and also the untimely shrivelling up and falling away
of so much immature fruit from our
bushes and trees. This last is particularly observable among cherry-
trees, when for some reason or other
the blooms have been poorly fertilized by the insects, or where the
pollen brought by them' has not
been of the right kind. A single
Isolated cherry-tree, that is one rather remote from others of a like kind,
seldom bears fruit that comes to
maturity and ripens, though the tree
may each season be covered with
blossoms. The cherries wither,
shrivel up and fall off in the early
stages of development, because they
lack the vital-force conveyed by 'the
male elements; the tree not being of
the self-fertilizing kind.
We need not here at this point consider further the part played by the
germ-cells in the transmission of
parental and ancestral characters.
This question will come up a little
later when we have to deal with the
mechanisms of inheritance. The
point we want to bring out here is
the meaning and purpose of the reproductive process and its relation to
the kindred processes of regeneration and rejuvenation. For when
these three processes are rightly
viewed, reproduction is seen to be
but a specialized form of regeneration and rejuvenation.
All three processes are essentially
means employed by nature for the
prolongation of life ln the individual
and in the species. In other words
they are the mechanisms for the
perpetuation of organic forms.
Regeneration manifests itself in
various ways in the organic world
and a very brief consideration of Its
processes soon convinces us that it
ls fundamental to sexual reproduction. It Is more common among the
lower life-forms than among the
higher; but even here it is always
at work though Its activity Is restricted to narrower limits.
Regeneration is always going on
even In bodies as complex as our
own. Worn-out and injured cells
are always being renewed and restored. Every time a lesion ls healed
regeneration has taken place. Many
marvellous Instances of this regenerative power of the cells of our
bodies were shown in the case of the
soldiers Injured In the late war.
Graftings of bone and tissue met
with success undreamed of in surgical science a few years ago. Restorations of lost parts, such as the
nose, jaws, nnd face, were so perfectly effected that in many instances
the scars were scarcely  noticeable.
All these wonderful healings and
all the marvellous successes that now
commonly follow surgical operations
fn our hospitals are due as much to
the regenerative power of our cells
as to the skill of the surgeon. Indeed, without this regenerative power
his skill would be of little avail.
Spontaneous regeneration of lost
parts manifests Itself in many ways
and among practically all forms of
life. Speaking generally this power
seems to be conditioned by the complexity and organization of the organism. The greater the complexity
and the higher the organization the
less the power of regeneration. But
there are occasionally remarkable exceptions   to  this   general   rule.
Thc best instances of regeneration
are naturally found among the lower
life-forms. Thus for example a starfish deprived of a ray or an arm,
can spontaneously roplace this by
new growth. In the snme way, crabs
dnd lobsters can renew the whole of
their great-claws when lost in fight
ing orvin.any other way; and a lizard
can  regrow  a  lost  tail.
The newt or triton has also great
powers of regeneration and can re-
grow lost limbs or other portions of
its anatomy. Nais and Lumbrlculus,
two kinds "of segmented worms, can
not only regrow lost parts but can
regenerate the whole body from a
small' portion and even renew a lost,
One of the most extreme instances
of this regenerative power is furnished by those lowly forms of animal
life known as the hydra, These
primitive little water animals exhibit perfectly wonderful powers of
this kind. Wilson has shown that
some of the simpler forms can regrow
the whole body from the tiniest bit
strained through a cheese-cloth.
They also lend themselves to grafting experiments, and some odd things
have been done, with them along
this line. It was from our experiments upon these Uttle organisms
that we derived our earliest knowledge of grafting, a process that has
since become so Important- In many
surgical cases.
But similar powers of regeneration are found ln animals muoh higher in the scale of life than any we
have' yet mentioned. The ascidlan,
an aquatic creature which has the
distinction of linking up the invertebrate animals with those with
backbones, possesses likewise great
regenerative powers. It is able to
renew its whole body from practically
any portion of itself with all lta organs and specialised parts perfectly
And, at times, this regenerative power crops out ln organisms
of advanced organization. Weismann
has recorded an interesting case of
this kind in a creature as highly organized as the stork. One of these
birds had lost the fore-part of Its
bill in some way. In course of time
the lost part was spontaneously renewed and the bill became as perfect as before the accident.
We may gather from this and other
instances of a like kind, that although
the higher life-forms have had to
pay for their superior organization
by a decided curtailment in their regenerative powers, the cells of our
bodies still retain potentially, in
considerable measure, their primitive
powers of regeneration; and that
these may be called into play at any
time ln exceptional circumstances.
It is possible that the genuine
cases of so-called mental healing are
brought about by this regenerative
power which -seems still to linger
within the individual cells that compose our bodies.
Weismann was inclined to think
that the power of renewing lost
parts of an organism was in some
measure due to their physiological
Importance. This was a deduction
he drew from the case of the stork's
bill. And it certainly seems that we j
have justification for this view in the
light of the fact that the phenomena!
regeneration are seen to be primarily and essentially methods of
perpetuating life. If the organism
could not regenerate an Injured or
lost part essential to its continued
existence lt would have to perish
and pass away.
We may regard regeneration, then,
as one of nature's methods of perpetuating her life-forms; and reproduction both asexual and dimorphic, as only another way of doing
the same thing. For reproduction by
budding and fission is at bottom only
other forms of regeneration, as becomes clear when we view lt in its
relation to rejuvenation.
Chlld'ti interesting and extensive
experiments with planarians bring
out the intimate and fundamental relation that exists between these two
These creatures are a kind of flat
worm, mostly aquatic in their habits. They are generally of an oval
or elliptical shape and move about,
as do many of the primitive animals,
by means of vibratlle cilia. They
also have great powers of regeneration and lend themselves readily to
many  forms  of  experiment.
If we cut off isolated portions
from the bodies of complete, mature
Individuals, these portions undergo
regeneration and reconstruction and
become  complete   forms.
But these experiments have some
other suggestive feature* about them;
certain conditions must be observed
before restoration can take place.
In the first place thc several pieces
must be of a certain size. If the
pieces fall h.elow this size only imperfect regeneration will follow. In
the second place, the detollB of the
regeneration will differ according to
the level or part of the body from
which the piece was taken; thereby
showing that certain parts of the
organism have mon!" regenerative
power than othors. The process
takes place as follows; in the course
of two or throe days, out-growths of
new embryonic tissue appear on tho
surface of the cuts. During the
next two or three days the forepart
of the out-growth forms into a hend
with eyes, cephalic lobes and a new
cephalic ganglion or nerve centre,
and the hinder part Into a new end.
From his experiments as a whole
Child shows that the rate of metabolism of these regenerating parts is
practically the same os that in young
planarians produced from eggs in
the ordinary wny. This is a very
Important point; for It seems to,say
that rejuvonescencc is tho outcome
of  regeneration.
He   carried   on   this    regenerativo
Ing from a severed bit of one from
the previous generation after it had
reached maturity. The series then
came to an accidental termination
by the over-heating of the place
where the experiments were being
carried ,on.
As far as may be Judged from
these and Bimilar experiments upon
other organisms by other students,
there seems to be good grounds for
supposing that reproduction by these
means could have gone on indefinitely. .At any rato while theBe experiments are not absolutely conclusive
on this point, they indicate as far
as they go an unlimited power of
rejuvenescence in the. cells of these
animals; for each generation of planarians brought Into being In this
way, renewed Its youth by the regen
erating process as if tt had begun its
life in the normal way from an egg.
We gather from this that the un
derlylng factor in rejuvenescence is
physiological activity. Induce physiological activity in a cell or 'body
and rejuvenation of that- cell
body follows as a natural consequence.
Keep up the physiological activity
of ah organism and It can never
grow old, would seem to be the logical conclusion to be drawn from
these experiments.
This opens up an interesting question, but we must not pursue it further, here, beyond saying that many
biologists hold the opinion that what
we call "death," is only an accidental occurrence in thc life of an organ
ism. and not an inevitable one; or
if so, In the case of the higher organism, it is the price they haven
been called upon by nature to pay
for their greater complexity and
higher organization. That among
the lower organisms, where the propagation of new forms is carried on
by budding or binary fission, there
seems to be no reason why the parent-form should ever die except by
an accident; as the very act of dividing and sharing its substance with
Its daughter cells increases its physiological activity, and thus rejuvenates it, making it actually young
Viewed in this way the reproductive process is seen to be the
outcome and consequence of a high
metabolism In cells and bodies; in
other words of increased physiological activity, such as may be observed in both plants and animals,
with the on-coming of spring, after1
the relative inactivity and quiescence
of  the winter  season.
Some interesting, experiments carried on by Professor Woodruff of
Tale on the anamalcule, Paramecium,
nurelia, lead to the same conclusion besides Incidentally illustrating
the marvellous power of reproduction
possessed by these lowly forms of
life. He isolated one of these anl-
malcula and watched It produce
four new daughter-cells by binary
fission. These four were then isolated to forim the ancestors of four
lines of descent. The pedigree culture was maintained over a period
of five years by taking a specimen
practically every day from each of
the   four   lines.
In the five years there were 3029
generations; 452 in the flrst year; 690
in the second; 618 in the third; 612
in the fourth; and 662 in the flfth.
The mean rate Ot division was in excess of three fissions in 48 hours.
Now follows the point of Interest.
The original four animalcula were
as healthy and vigorous at the end
of the five years as at the beginning.
They had also Incidentally given
evidence of the potentiality of producing, if every new form had been
kept alive, a volume of protoplasm
appoxlmately equal to 10,000 times
the volume of thc earth! What
prodigious metabolism here! What a
marvellous physiological activity!
As observed before, it is among the
lower organisms that life Is most
These experiments seem to show
us that given an Ideally favorable
environment thero fs no reason for
death or evon old-age among these
simple life-forms, whatever thore
may be among the higher ones.
They possess the secret of eternnl
youth, which the higher forms have
had to barter away In return for
their superior organization and other
The experiments of Child with thc
planarians go to show thnt rojuvenos
cence can take place In certnin eir
cumstances in tho cells after maturity
and old-age have overtaken them
They demonstrate for him the fact
that ths differentiated somatic
body ccIIh can return to a physiological condition which approaches that
of the undifferentiated gorm or embryonic cells. This is an important
deduction and has momentous bearings upon thc transmission to offspring of acquired characters, as wo
shall   later see.
At this point we are concerned
chiefly with the evidence those experiments offer respecting the fun
dnmental relation between the three
processes of reproduction, regeneration and rejuvenation. We may
perceive from thom thnt nature can
use any one of these processes as
needs anil circumstances requlro; for
It Is clear that they arc fundamentally only so many different methods
or means employed by her to preserve and perpetuate hor lire-forms.
We Rather further from the facts
of rejuvenation nnd regeneration
that bisexual reproduction follows
nn turn Ily upon the primitive moth
ods of budding and binary fission
when     the    unicellular      organisms
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We gather also that the bisexual
propagation of organic forms ls
primarily an outcome of that necessary division of labor among cells
after cell-aiggregatlon has taken
place, and they have entered upon a
corporate and Interdependent existence; and that nature has taken
advantage of the bisexual method
of reproduction and made use of lt
for securing greater diversity of organic forms. By this means she has
been enabled to achieve ln the shortest time and by the most direct
route, her final end and purpose In
the life-realm—the evolution of man.
This brief consideration of some
of the more salient facts of reproduction, regeneration and rejuvenation ought not to be brought to
a close without some reference to
the latest advances ln the new
Science of Experimental Biology.
We have incidentally touched upon
some of the wonders that are daily
being wrought ln this new field of
.research, such as grafting of lost
parts and the reconstruction of
fresh organisms from bits of older
ones; and the artificial activation or
fertilization of eggs. But these and
similar practices are already the
commonplaces of this new science.
Far greater wonders than any of
these have been performed of late
in our biological laboratories; and
stilt greater ones are predicted and
foreshadowed. We have learned how
nature determines sex fn her life-
forms, nnd have taken the process
out of her hand; and can now
largely determine thfs question for
ourselves. Nay, more, we can undo
what nature has already done, nnd
reverse the sex characters she has
stamped   upon  an   organism.
Sedate nnd matronly hons, which
have laid honest egg*, and brought
up many broods of chicks, have
bcen transformed by surgical operations into male birds, thut not only
assume thc secondary sex characters,
sueh as coloring arid style of feathers, and crowing, but are able also
to mate with othor hens and fertilize   their   eggs.
Hiit more even than that hns bcen
done. The ova of such animals as
rabbits nnd guinea-pigs have been
taken from the ovary nnd artificially
fertilized, nnd the resultant embryos have been developed In u
culture serum nnd kept 'Ulvo for
definite   periods  In   this  way.
Somo of the more daring of our biologists and eugen ists predict startling developments along this line
In the near future, not only among
thc lower mammals but also among
the higher. They even go bo far as
to predict (as witnoss ITaldane's
"Dtednlus, or Helenco of the Future")
that a race of supermen may be
brought into helng In this unusual,
extra-uterine way.
The future has doubtless many
wonders in store for us, but whother
this Is one of them remains to b«
seen. The Interesting point about
it all for the evolutionist is the significant fact that man, the ultimate
outcome and product of all nature*^
strivings, Is taking the evolutionary,
and life processes out of her hand,
and learning to mould and manipulate them for his own ends and purposes. Or, regarding the matter*
from another point of view, we may
say that nature has been preparing
for herself all down the long ages,
a highly-specialized Instrument, by
which to carry out more intelligently and efficiently than In tho
past, her future purposes and plana
In the life-realm; and that thts In*
strument  Is   Man.
(To be continued)
Brought to Taak by Bob Minor
at Reoent Fanner-Labor
A recent St. Paul press despatch)
says that as ono man, the farmer-
labor convention in the St. Paul
municipal auditorium rose to cheer
Robert Minor, editor the Liberator,
when he gave the capitalist reporters the dressing down they had lot
themselves In for. Thinking to Inject a little by-play into the convention, the big battery of reporters for
the news services and individual papers, including William Hard, David
Lawrence, John J. Leary of tho Xewj
York World and others organized
themselves Into what thoy called tho
Brass Checkers' local No 1, of Newa
Writers, and elected Minor as their
convention delegate. Then they petitioned thnt thoir delegate be seated.
Bob Minor was not only seated
but was given the floor for a speech.
Ho drew wilder and wilder cheers
at. he apologized for the cowardly,
polluted, unclean craft to which ho
belonged. "The reporters have to
prostitute themselves and 1 know I
am spenking for thorn," Minor wild,
"when I tell you how ashamed thoy
feel at having to misrepresent thla
fine convention in order to- queer tho
third party movement all over tho
country. My colleagues have to do
thnt dirty work, and I'm sure wo ull
feel sorry for thom." The reporters
looked on In amused chagrin.
Boost  for  our advertisers.
are helping boost for you.
DIuppMn m tf by angle whan
Is  used,     Om   pilot, aold   atomaeh,   aour
stomach,   burning  sad all  after-rating  dlt*
tr«M  rallrvfd la twa mlnatei.     All Drug
process through  thirteen generations j have   by  cell-aggregation   passed   In-
of new forms;  each new form arls-l to the multicellular condition of life.
Fresh Cut Flowers, Funeral Designs, Wedrtlnjt Bouquets, Pot Plants,
Ornamental and Shade Trees, Seeds, Bulbs, Florins' Sundries
Brown Brothers & Co. Ltd.
M HMU-WI Stnet EM     . I—STORKS—I        *U Gnuirill. Street
Sey. BM-.71 "SAY IT WITH FLOWEHS" Sty. tSII-IMl *•"•"•"•"•"»■■■■■
FRIDAY July 25, 1924
Streot cars direct to Park
every few minutes
Today and
Seven Races Daily
Rain or Shine
Mutuela under supervision Royal
Canadian Mounted Police
Westminster Thoroughbred
Association, Limited
346 Hastings Street East
Vancouver. B. C.
Piano Values
Beethoven Pianos
Beautifully  finished  In  Oak  and
Ftm stool, ttte tuning, freo delivery
Several sllght!*r iisoit pianos by Nord*
helmer, Mason & BiBOh, Willis and
Newcombe,   etc.,  at   bargain   prices.
Wo SOU on Eaay Terms
Lewis Leads!   Follow Who Can!
Boost for
The Fed.
Industries to be forced to give em-'
ployment to disabled veterans! We
sincerely hope so. - What puzzles
us in this connection is who is going to force the industries to do this.
It is needless to remind our readers
that theso industries, moro or lesst
control our government. "We can
rest assured that this is a little
more camouflage—a little "soothing
syrup,"  as it were.
• •     *
When tho time comos that industries aro going to bo forced to
employ men, wo will havo gono just
another step forward towards showing the absolute hoplossness of ever
making our present competitive
system, function in the interests of
tho great masses of mankind. We
Will watch this Utile experiment
with interest, but we really do not
think  there  will  be  much  of it to
• •      •
The codling moth is in the California fruit, they say. We do not
doubt it. We were certain that
something would turn up to mar the
glowing prospects, they seid they
had, down there. Apparently codling moth has gotten into their
"building boom" as well, judging by
the way people are getting out.
• *     •
Some people are still of the opin
ion the boom can last forever.
When will they learn, we wonder?
It would appear that each generation, in each particular section of
the country must get their lesson
through practical experience.. The
results never vary, however.
• *     *
Alderman    confuse    meaning    of
words! How annoying—to some
one! We have our doubts about
there being much else to get confused over in connection with our
city council's activities. However,
when It is in connection with matters pertaining to the B. C. E. It
and confusing ls limited entirely to
"words" and not the "people's intereats."
• *     •
Dr. T. J. Glover and his co-called
cancer cure ie getting into disrepute.
We had little doubt that such would
be the .ease. When a medical practitioner refuses to make known
his fellows the details and results
of his method of cure there is only
one group into which he should be
placed and that is the "quack group.'
To arouse the hopes of the unfor
tunate sufferers from this dread
disease, and then dash them to the
ground, is a most disgusting past-
• *     *
"Our," so-called, representatives at
Ottawa have seen flt in their wis-
donn, to reject the eight-hour day
bill. Mr. Murdock, minister of labor asserted that the provinces
might feel that such legislation was
an encroachment upon the privileges of the provincial legislatures.
Such utter nonsense! Mr. Murdock, in our opinion, is being Influenced wholly and solely by the "big
interests." They do "not want the
eight-hour day, so he promptly finds
an excuse for them. All that we can
say is "he is some minister of labor."
Give Bread First
Place in Your
Diet &   &
liVERY task you undertake—mental or manual—
every "lick of work " you do "eats up" energy.
Keep your furnace fires fcoinfc with plenty of fcood
1 HAT hurried mid-day meal—make it a luncheon of delicious
golden-crusted Bread with a bowl of creamy rich milk—perfect
fuel-food for the human dynamo.
A Case for Inquiry
(Continued from page 1)
Premier King says that he is considering the abolition ol* the senate's veto privilege. We wish him,
luck. It will be some flght, how-;
ever. Tlie senate is, in our humble
judgment, tho surest protection tho
"big interests" have. They will not
part with it without a desperate
struggle. We will look forward to
the   fight   with Mnterestt
* *      +
Tho youths who held up a local
drug store latoly are an example of
the effects of our modern educational system. Early repressions flnd
thoir outlet fh this way very often,
and the thirst for adventure in these
youths is no doubt onc fortin of rebellion ngainst thc east-Iron discipline in which some parents and teach,
(■rs so  flrmly believe In.
* *      *
It seems a crime that youngsters
should have to spend thcir time in
yelling themselves hoarse to soil
newspapers, when the precious hours
of our future citizens could be better
spent in some creative and recreative occupation. Children were
never meant to develop under these
♦ *     •
Child labor is only one of our
grievances against capitalism. No
doubt, many of the parents object
to the exploitation of their children
even though they themselves knew
harder conditions as children. But
the dollars are scarce with the producers of our needs.
# •     *
The dean and chapter of Westminster have decided that Byron shall
not have a memorial tablet because
of his immoral life. We have always thoughts that the -clergy are
demoralized by their living on i
moral pedestal, and we are remind
ed of a certain story—about the
Pharisees. No doubt, lf Byron were
to choose he would not want the
"honor" of such a memorial; his
better  poems are memorial  enough,
• *     •
Evidently we were suffering under
a delusion when we thought that the
learned ones, and especially the
higher clergy, knew enough about
psychology to make allowances for
causes rather than to condemn results. Perhaps the golden rule,
"judge" not" only refers to the laity.
Summer Excursions
Low Fares
Prairie Points
Eastern Canada
Central and Eastern States
Optional Routes—Stopovers—Side Trips
Vancouver—Prince Rupert—Jasper Park
" A delightful rail and water trip
Tourist and Travel Bureau, 527 Oranvllle Street
Canadian National Railways
Ideas About God
(Continued from page 1)
is nothing very remarkable about
its continuance in adult life. He
brings his difficulties to this God
and he makes various requests. He
is taught that this is faith. When
his prayers are granted he is satisfied and grateful'(if he remembers
to be so), but lf his prayers are
unheard, he considers it ls all for
the best, even though his reasoning
power knows very definitely that
the contrary is the case. But just ns
the naturo of God, or rather our eon
ception of God's nature, is constantly changing, so is the nature of the
prayers. It will be seen then that
there is a law of evolution in regard
to religion as to everything else, and,
therefore, it is almost impossible to
deny that God Is really a mnn-imade
Idea, and that man has made God
ln his own image perhaps the very
best image, but none thc less, man-
And now it might well be asked,
what influence this belief in such
a personal God Jias on the minds
of the masses, and what effect the
total discontinuance of sych ideas
would have? In the first place, the
idea of dependence on another,
whether God or mortal, is derogatory
to   progress1.
It tends to inhibit individual act
ion. Freedom from this dependence
would "make for greater self-reallza^
tlon. Equally important is the effect
on morals of the doctrine that one
man can bear the sin of another, when
every law in nature goes to prove the
contrary. By the constant introspection that this belief induces, it
is probable that* most people look
within themselves for the causes
of social evils rather than perceive
them in the social system. As has
been reiterated so often beforo,
Christianity Is acknowledged as
good for the individual but impracticable  for society.
In conclusion, science long ago
pronounced the doom of belief in n
personal diety, though it is no less
true that somo scientific casuists—
for example, the Jesuits, have tried
to reconcile, religion and science.
But to the nvernge reasoning person it Is clear that science and supernatural religion with its many superstitions of which the idea of God
is one, are incompatible. There
seems little doubt that with many
such false Ideas removed, man will,
as it were, take hold of life with
both hands and make the very best
of it; and, instead of childishly putting his whole faith into a vague
belief, he will learn to believe In
himself. After all, belief in man's innate good, man's untold posslbili
ties was one of the main principles
of Christ's teaching. At present,
however, man starts off with the idea
that the human race ls fundamentally
bad and religious people set up impossible, non-human standards of
life (at least In many branches of
the  orthodox religions).
But the first principle of progress
must be the belief that man Is essentially good, given a reasonable
chance, and that true morality can
only be attained by freedom. There
Is no virtue In being forced Into
looking to them to get busy and
purge our public departments of
much  of their  maladministration.
I assert that the political party,
which wilt have the courage to abolish the unsavory system of patronage and forgetting themselves and
their personal friends ln their,public
work, devote themselves solely for
the good of thcir country, will not
only obtain ofllce speedily, but will
retain it as long as they desire in
spite of mistakes they may make
from lime to time.
Tlie pendulum is on tlio swing, and
a large section of tho public are
watching events very closely and are
determined that in the near future
public life shnll be purged of
its graft and tho grafters ostracized
from all association with clenr-m lnded persons.
Let us examine the following crpfjg-
examlnatlon in the trial above referred to:
Q. And It is your practice, is it
not, that a workmnn Is bound
to submit to any operation that
the board direct or you would
cancel his ri&ht to be paid?
A.   The act itself gives authority to
suspend. *
Q.   That is to say if a workman-
if Mc William  did  not adopt  the
suggestion   of  your   medical   ad
viser as to an operation he would
be  liable  to  be  suspended  from
the benefits of the act?
Yes, that is correct.
In the interests    of the    workers
this requires alteration, and I recom
mend it to Mr. Woodward for con
This means that a workman who
is dissatisfied with the treatment received, and who knows he Ib not getting proper attention, must yet submit
or quietly retire from all benefits.
When I say quietly retire I may be
wrong, as one injured workman testified under oath that ho was told
to either submit or get out "p.d.q,"
"Pretty damn quick" is how we ox-
pel porchclimbers and other undesirables who venture uninvited on to our
premises, but is not a polite or humane way of dismissing an injured
workman from the benefits of the
Workmen's Compensation act.
Again   note   the   following:
Q.   So no matter what the fee mny be
you fix it for the surgeon who is
in charge of the case?
A.   We absolutely fix that  fee.
Q.   •Yes.    By fixing it you mean you
fix it according with the schedule.
A.    Yes.
Q.   Or in accordance with your discretion.
A.    Yes.
Does this seem right and proper
to you?
Could not this lead to much undesirable work?
Supposing for the sake of argument that the board was composed
of persons of a low sense of right
and wrong—not perhaps a probability, but yet a possibility—could
not this lead to a conspiracy being
formed by which certain doctors and
themselves could beneflt materially
by the possession of such discretionary powers?
I will point out to Mr. Woodward
that the public expressed in their
vote that such matters a,s this should
be looked into and at once.
In conclusion let me assert thnt
this Workmen's Compensation ' act
must be speedily amended.
In the first place It must not remain as the triple autocracy it is
at present.
Workmen must have the privilege
of appealing from its decisions and
the "pretty damn quick" business
must be entirely eliminated.
An outside and competent authority
must be appointed to deal with euch
cases'" as the one which enme up in
court to be tridq and where the jury
found the plaintiff had been damaged to the amount fit one dollar, for
whioh dollar damage the defendent
was penalized several hundred dollars in counsel's fees alone—which
seems Incredible, but incredible
things happen in many law cases.
In appealing to Mr, Woodward to
take these matters up and insist that
something to be done ln the matter, I
will hint that in many other ways in
our public administration he can get
his broom to work and the public by
their vote expect him to do so.
I have not the pleasure and honor
of the personal acquaintance of Mr.
Woodward, but I am assured on all
sides that he is desirous of doing the
The Position of the
Emigrant in Canada
, (Continued from page 1)
seizures' by the sheriff for arrears
)r taxes alone. In Buchanan 254 .
quarter sections of land wore sold
because the farmers could not afford
to pay tho necessary taxes whilst at
Clayton 2*10 quarter sections of land
were sold for thc same roason. That
means that in threo municipalities
alone ln tho province of Saskatche**
wan 1,148 quarter soctions, or 183,088
acres of land wero sold becauso of
the inability of the farmers to pay
their required taxes. It means,
brother, that the farmer of theso
prairie provinces, despite his sixteen
hours of strenuous turmoil, ls In the
direst  destitution.
In conversation in the' hoube of
commons two days ago with a reverend gentleman, a resident In Canada
now in England on a short holiday,
wo dlsoussea (It some length this.aspect of the emigration problem, and
I quoted to him tho nbovo Hgurcs.
"I can give you a further illustration on the same lines," ho said, and
ho told me that in the municipality
of Enfield, Saskatchewan, last year
60 sections of land were either seized
for taxes or abandoned by their owners because of their Inability to earn a
livelihood. A section of land In Canada Is 640 acres.
Substantially the same conditions
obtain in the provinces of Alberta and
Manitoba, and ln a lesser degree In
the province of British Columbia.
The climate In .British Columbia IB,
from many standpoints, ideal, and a
large part of that beautiful province
agriculturally produces rich crops of
fruit. This is especially true of the
Okanagan valley. Alas, the factB pertaining to the fruit farms In this beautiful part of British Columbia are as
tragic and painful as tho experience
and facts recorded concerning the
prairie provinces. Thousands upon
thousands of acres of rich and luscious fruits in the Okanagan valley
have not. been maketed, and allowed
to rot In the orchards.
And the economic condition of hundreds of fruit ranchers in British
Columbia Is, to put it mildly, one of
The Industrial situation is not by
any means prosperous or hopeful. I
have met ' scores of men who have
come from the old land, some from
my old mining constituency, Whitehaven, and many other mining centres, particularly from South Wales,
who, to use a CanadlaniBm, have
found themselves up against lt, and
in a very bad way.
In conversation with a mining engineer some two days before I left
Vancouver, I was told that there were
probably not less than 1,100 miners in
Nanalmo and district unemployed. aB
a result of the mines closing down or
restricting their operations.
The causes are manifold, and might
be the subject of another article later
on; but in the meantime, I do ask
the labor movement and the government in Britain to realize how strong
the feeling and the opinion of the
Canadian workmen are on this subject; realizing as they do, that a. large
and Increasingly large number of unemployed workmen In Canada Is a
menace to their standard of living,
nnd is used by the employers of labor
and high finance to undermine the
status and position of organized labor
In Canada.
On the constructive side there are
Have You a Friend?
To whom you would like us to send a sample oopy of
the British Columbia Federationist
We want NEW READERS—Help us to get them
'I have a friend whom I think could be induced .({.subscribe
to the British Columbia Federationist. Please send him a
sample copy to the address below:
Lot 66 x 120 feet, corner McDonald and 13th Avenue,
Price $1,000
Terms—$50 down, $10.00 per month.
Bome suggestions which I would venture to make on another occasion, but
In the meantime I would strongly
urge that until such times as the government, and, I hope, in consultation
and in co-operation with the labor
movement ln Canada, have been able
to evolve a well-considered plan,
worked ont on scientific lines, implemented by somo form of organization that will give some measure of
security to thoso emigrating to Canada, that no further emigration should
be encouraged by the government to
tho dominion of Canada.
lenoe WUl Sot Make' World
Neither the violence of Communists nor the violence of Imperialists
will ever make the world one scrap
better than it is.—George Lansbury,
M.  P.
Sidelights on a Great
If you have an Idea that you think
will   beneflt  Labor,   let  us  have  It.
We'll spread it.
The  Federationist
"cultural revolution,"
believes    in a
not a  "bloody
Believed in firo minutes «ltk
Jo-To rellevei gas palm, acid stomach, heartburn, after-eating distress, and all forma of
indigestion quickly, without harm.
AU Drag Storsa
Vancouver b.c. Fair
August 9th to 16th
Send for largo Prize List
CANADA'S PAIR OV THE  WKST—Agriculture, Live Stock, Indus-
__ .     trial, Horse Show, Horse Races, Auto Races
Tour friends might be glad to subscribe for The Federatlonist if you
asked them.   Try.
right thing always and ot the rlgh^
timo. The time ls now and his tfisk
Ih a herculean one. Let us note how
he   succeeds.
Work ins; Men and  Public
Working men who are running
national services owe a duty to the
public, and the public owes a duty
to the working men. When both
sides carry out their duty there will
be no danger of public services
being stopped.—Tom Shaw,   M.P.
Britain owns many of the cotton
mills in Shanghai; children from
eight years of age are employed and
the majority of adults work 88 hourB
per week. There are few laws and
restrictions In the foreign settlements
which are controlled by foreign banks.
Patronize Federatloniat advertisers.
FOLLOWING   lost   ooples    of
The B. C. FederationiBt are
missing from the files:
March 80, 1928.
October 12 to December 28,
1928, inclusive.
We will be very much obliged
to subscribers having any of
these papen at their disposal it
they would kindly send same to
this office.
Heavy Tax Burden
on Wood Products
Operating End of the Industry
Also Contributes Increasing
Millions in Support of
"■THE  forest    industries    of    British
Columbia contribute more to the
'upkeep of the Province than all the
other Industrial groups put together.
The B. C, timber holders during the
Inst fifteen years have paid Into the
Provincial treasury,. In the shapo of
royalties and rentals, the enormous
sum of J40.000.000, or approximately
one-fourth of the total revenue of
British  Columbia  for  that  period.
The tlmberholders* direct payments
towards the running expenses of the
Province ln 1923 were more than four
times greater than they were in 1904,
and almost twice as great as In. 1916.
In twentV years the receipts from
B. C. timber-owners have risen from
$455,000 to  $3,600,000.
'Many Forms of Taxation
Again the operating end of the Industry, represented by the loggers
and manufacturers of wood products,
pays annually several millions of dollars ln Income tax and other form of
Dominion, Provincial and Municipal
taxation. Heavy customs duties or
equipment, workmen's compensatldn
and other direct imposts also enter
Into the cost of manufacture of
product, the price of which is not
arbitrarily fixed by the producer but
by the actual consumer in a highly
competitive market.
Embarking ln the lumber industry
entails a big.Initial outlay and the
menance of over taxation ls even now
actually diverting the entry of fresh
capital from British Columbia's basic
This series  of  articles communicated   by   the   Timber   Industries
CouncU of British Columbia.
Lof*_3 x 120 feet, on 13th Avenue West, Kitsilano.
Price $500
Terms—$50.00 down, $10.00 per month.
Ask for CATTO'S.    For sole at all Oovernment Liquor Stores
Thli edvertlument Is not published or displayed by tbo Liquor Control Boud or
by the Government of Britiih Oolnmbls
CTOVES AND RANGES, both malleable and steel,
7 McClary's, Fawcett's, Canada's Pride, installed
free by experts; satisfaction guaranteed. Cash or
$2.00 per week.
Canada Pride Range Company Ltd.
346 Hastings Street East Sey. 2399
Quarter-Acre Lot on Dow Road, between Victory
and Trafalgar, Burnaby.
Price $400
Terms—$50.00 down, $10.00 per month.
This lot, which has been cleared for building, has a
magnificent view overlooking the North Arm.


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