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The British Columbia Federationist 1915

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Array ■■■0^.w-'um
CoSTO?)     »•«) PER YEAB
It WiU Give a Voice in the
. Public Bodies to the
Designed to Kill Monopoly
of the All Powerful '*'■
[By John H. Humphreys]   .
General Seoretary British Proportional
Representation Society.
Proportional Representation is a new
method .of election, the object of which
is to ensure that aU citizens should obtain representation on elected bodies.
Proportional Representation is
spreading. The idea Ib making headway In every democratic country. Members of parliament are compelled to
think about it—to institute inquiries—
to pass P. R. bills. The up-to-date
pressman knows that P. R. is one of the
subjects which will occupy more and
more space.
The writers who use their pen to stimulate their readers into tackling the
problems of the world, buch as H. G.
Wells, Arnold Bennett and others, press
the claims of F. R. Tet, to judge from
those whom I have mot1—many British
Columbians have but a vaguo conception of what P. R. iB.
Proportional Representation.
What is Proportional Representation I The idea of votors voting in proportion to their voting strength. This
does not mean that all electoral districts
must necessarily be of equal size. Victoria may still continue to return four
-and Vancouver- six members.
What it does mean is that aU the
citizens within Victoria, and all the
' citizens within Vancouver should, so
far as practicable, obtain _ representation. Under the existing system of voting, if one party polls 51 per cent, of
the votes of Vancouver, it will probably
secure all sjx seats. Under Proportional Representation, if labor polls one-
juxth of the votes, labor will secure one
' representative even if the other parties
poll the remaining five-sixths.
Under Proportional Representation,
there cannot be a monopoly of representation in the hands of any ono party.
Monopoly almost invariably breeds corruption, and in every case monoply destroys the moral fibre the vital force of
the party which possesses it.
Some Changes Required.
The following changes in the electoral
law will give Proportionate Representation:
(1) Constituencies returning only
one member should be grouped into lar-
> ger electoral districts, each of which
will return several membors of parliament, the number of members being dependent upon the population. No
change need be made wnere, as in Vancouver City, the district returns six
(2) Each elector will have but one
vote. It does not matter whether the
district returns five, six or more members; in each case he will have but one
(3) This vote will in certain contin*
gencies be transferable, the transfer of
the vote being always, however, under
the control of the elector who gives
the vote.
This system of Proportional Representation is known aB the single transferable vote.
Why Luge Electoral Districts.
When a constituency returns only one
member, only the largest party or group
of citizens secures representation. It Is
not possible to divide the representation.
When as in Vancouver, a conBtltu*
ency returns six members, it immediately becomes possible to share the representation-—to give to each party the
proportion of seats to which its voting
strength entitles it.
Why Only One Vote.
A constituency returning several
members is tho flrst requirement. The
second is tbat each elector should have
one vote. Why! Vancouver elects six
members and under the present system
each elector has six votes. What is the
result! The largest party can place all
its six nominees at the head of the poll;
it can monopolize representation.
This would be impossible if each elector only had one vote. Suppose there
are .10,000 votes pollled in a Vancouver
election—one vote by each of 30,000
electors. It follow b that if 5000 electors have given their one vote to one
and the same candidate—that candidate
must for a certainty be one of theose
elected. He will have' obtained 5000
votes and only six candidates in mil can
obtain as many bb 5000 votes. The single vote in a constituency returning six
members guarantees representation to
every one-sixth of the .electors.
Why a Transferable Vote.
The single vote is made transferable
in order to ensure fairness of representation as between one party and another. When an election is being held
neither candidates, agents nor electors
know what the result will be.
In one constituency, the leader of a
party may be a candidate. Instead of
getting the number of votes requisite
for election—say 5000, as in the example given above—he may obtain 10,000
or double the number. The votes given
in excess would in ordinary circumstances be waBted. The popularity of
the leader instead of being a source of
strength, might result in the loss of a
This difficulty is overcome by making
the vote transferable. The elector votes
^ (Continued on page 4)
1915 IS DEAD
ANNO DOMINI 1915 was the most disgraceful in all human
history.   The only creditable thing it did was to die.
But as long as the Written record of men remains, the year that
is gone will stand in the eyes of posterity as a monument of folly,
in an age and a world equipped with powers for the best diverted to
the worst.
Science, through the flash of genius instinct, and the patient
persistence of myriad devotees, has given to man the innermost se**
crets of Nature, and rendered the powers of earth and air subservient to his bidding.
Applied mechanics have made it possible for him to shake himself free for ever from the bondage of toiling from sun to sun for
the mere physical needs of his existence. The wizardry of wheels
has thrown open wide to him the portals of the larger life which
means the bigger, better man.
Civilization—meaning the purging from him of his ape strain
and cosmic slime—is there waiting his acceptance. But the cunning
of his hands has outstripped the unfolding of his mind, and the gifts
of the gods, which might have brought him all good, are turned to
purposes which have brought more consciously created suffering
and misery upon men than have ever before been crowded in a year
of the world's lifs.
They call it Progress; that veneer of vicious symbolism and
fatuous vanity which, in one process of the suns, has been ripped
from its underlying rottenness.
It was a house set on the sands, and washed into the maelstrom
of madness and staggering folly by the accumulated pressure from
the oozings of its own sewage. And what of the future, when the
last abandon of its ruin passion shall have been spent!
This new year, and the new years yet to come f What of them ?
Trades Congress Executive
to Interview the
There Are Many Matters to
Present to Dominion
The usual annual deputation of the
Dominion TradeB and Labor Congress
to the federal government will take
place next Thursday, when Premier Borden and members of the cabinet will
receive the deputation. A change in
presentation and complexion of the deputation has been necessitated owing to
war conditions, it being anticipated
that no legislative matters will be presented for the coming session, thus congress will accommodate itself to the circumstances.
Munitions Questions Foremost.
The position of the deputation will be
to advance matters affecting the wage-
earners connected directly with the furnishing of munitions and supplies to
the militia. A single exception will be
made in this regard on behalf of the
Federation of Letter Carriers, who will,
through their secretary, A. McMordie
of Hamilton, present a petition to the
postmBBter-general setting forth several
requests for the advantage of the Dominion letter carriers. The other members will deal with munitions and supplies as affecting their several crafts.
Composition of Delegates.
The deputation will comprise President J. C. Watters and Secretary P. M.
Draper for the executive of the Congress; T. Moore, Niagara Falls, Brotherhood of Carpenters; J. H. Kennedy,
Toronto, Sheet Metal Workers; J. Watt,
Toronto, Journeymen Tailors; W. F.
Bush, Toronto, Garment Workers; J.
Bruce, Toronto, Plumbers and Steamfit*
tors. A machinist representative, it is
expected, will also be in attendance.
Parliamentary Committee Meeting.
The parliamentary committee of tho
central labor body will hold Ub regular
meeting next Wednesday evening, Jan.
5, at 8 o'clock,
Organized labor in Winnipeg
haB met with great success in the
municipal elections there. The
following have been elected for
tho various wards: W. B. Simpson, Typographical union, alderman ward 6; John Queen, Coopers' union, alderman ward 5; W.
J. Bartlett. councillor, Blacksmiths' union, municipality of
Assiniboia; H. A. Southall, Street
Rallwaymen's union, councillor,
•municipality of West Kildonan;
J. L. McBride, Electrical Workers, councillor, municipality of
AsBiniboia. Those are the elected,
and J. L, Wiginton, Bookbinders,
was only one vote behind the winner in ward 7, Winnipeg. A recount of this vote is being asked
for. R. A. Rigg, secretary of
Wibnipeg Trades and Labor council, was a member of the city
council last year. During the
term of his office he was elected a
member of the Manitoba Legislative Assembly. In view of his
duties In the provincial parliament he decided not to run for
tho city council this year.
Candidates Are Selected to
Contest  Municipal
Good Attendance and the
Best Meeting Held for
Some Time
President Wells called the last meeting to order at 8 p.m. A fair attendance of delegatos were present.
The executive committee reported
that they had a meeting with the local
Brewery workers regarding their new
agreement and President Wells, J. Day
and C. Sivertz were appointed to deal
with the matter in conjunction with the
Brewery Workers.
Under Head of New Busineu
Delegate Sivertz reported for the
parliamentary committee that the convention of the union men in the city
had been held and Messrs. J. Day and
C. Sivertz had been unanimously chosen
to represent labor in the forthcoming
aldermanic election; also a committee
was appointed to carry on the campaign and solicit funds from the various unions in the city. W. Nunn wbb
appointed aB chairman and F. Hold-
ridge, secretary of the committee. The
report wns adopted. Several communications were received, one from J. M.
Telford, Saskatchewan, asking why
do not more men attend church! The
letter was'referred to the executive
committee to reply, «
One from the Longshoremen's local
re longshoremen being included in the
new compensation act was handed to
the president to deal with the commission at Vancouver, B.C.
Trade conditions showed no change
from the last time.
Munition Classes in Schools,
Under new business the president
spoke for some time regarding the matter of munition classes in the night
schools. Tho goneral impression around
the city was that the Trades and Labor
council had originated tho idea, but
Buch was not the case, therefore the
executive committee wero instructed to
take steps to disillusion the publlo on
the matter.
The call for tho B. C. Federation of
Labor convention was laid on the table
till next regular meeting when delegates, if any, will be appointed and
vice-president for the district will
specially appeal for a good attendance
next meeting.
Delegate Day spoko regarding the
proposed new labor paper. He had
been meeting with success in the matter
of securing promises of advertisements
and he was of the opinion that the day
was not far off when we should have
a local labor paper. The report was received aa progress.
In view of the fact thot the meeting
was late in getting through' business
it was decided to hold a special meeting for the purpose of considering the
new constitution and by-laws.
After a very good meeting the council adjourned till the 24th of December.
Trail Ii Overcrowded Now.
The following advertisement appeared in the columns of Vancouver Daily
Province last Monday inght:
"City of Trail, B. C.,—Notice to
Workmen—Men looking for work are
warned not to come to Trail, British
Columbia, as there is an over supply of
men for all departments. W, E. B.
Monypenny, city clerk."
Distressed Damsel—Oh, sir, catch
thnt man!   He wanted to kiss met
Pensive Pedestrian—That's all right.
There'll be another one along in a minute.
Conservative Trade Unions
Must Widen Their
And  Industrial  Evolution
WiU Require It to
Be Done
[By Helena Gutteridge]
The daily press of Vancouver, and no
doubt throughout the Dominion of Canada, on Monday last contained a full
report of an address and appeal from
David Lloyd George to a gathering of
some three thousand trade unionists
and workshop stewards, in the city of
The British minister of munitions, in
urging the dilution of skilled with unskilled labor, stated that on the acceptance of such a proposal by the trade
unionists, depended not only victory for
Britain and her Allies, but the saving
of numberless lives of their fellow men
in the trenches.
The Eternal1 Sacrifice.
Just how much sincerity there is in
such an appeal is speculative, both the
workers and the women, right down the
ages, have at every crisis in tbe history
of a nation, been called upon in the
name of patriotism .and unselfishness,
to sacrifice somethingHhey have fought
for and hold precious, so that the governing class may cover past errors and
the capitalist class by exploitation in
the name of patriotism, make more
The Facts As They Are.
However, apart from the question of
the "glorious opportunity" of gaining
the victory and saving their country
from Prussian militarism, is a still more
important matter to trade unionists,
both' at the present time when the war
is going on, and more so after the war
is over, what will be the effect on the
wages and status of skilled trade unionists, if the Amalgamated Society of Engineers sefuse to open their unions to
unskilled labor, who are even now
working on munitions, and becoming
The facts must be looked in the face,
the present British government has
been in office over ten years, and a majority of the present ministry holding
their portfolios for that length of time,
and are supposed to be familiar with international affairs, and a knowledge of
the possibilities for or against war at
any time during the past ten years.
The responsibility therefore, for lack
of munitions, lies not with the workers,
but with the government, and now the
supply of munitions must be materially
increased to win the war and lover the
errors of judgment of Mr. Lloyd George
and his colleagues in the cabinet. To
do this, both skilled and unskilled labor
will be employed; in fact, many unskilled are working on munitions now,
and whether the Amalgamated Society
of Engineers suspend their rules or not,
the labor employed will be just the
same, with the exception that, if taken
into the union, the unskilled can be better regulated in the interests of both
skilled and unskilled.
If the A. S. of E. and other trade
unions, with a big membership are wise
they will take notice of the hint given
by Mr. Lloyd George in his address.
Threat of Female Labor.
Alluding to the excellent work he
had seen done by women during the last
few days, he said that if the men failed
to adhere to the government's programme, there were other alternatives
tbat had already been recommended. If
the hint means anything at all, it Is
certainly a thinly veiled threat to use
unorganized women to do the work and
undoubtedly at less pay.
The Women Warned Them.
For many years past women, and suffragists in particular, have been urging the A S. of E. to open their ranks
to women, especially In those branches
of the trade under their jurisdiction
where the manipulation of comparatively simplo machinery is such, that it
matters not whether the labor be skilled
or unskilled; and where employers havo
already installed women to run the machines.
But again and again with the true
British obstinacy and*shortsightedness
of the male worker, and his conviction
of the inferiority of women to his splendid Belf, the A. S. of E. went blindly
on. Of warnings they had many, on
one occasion in' the Midlands of England, a Btrike, or rather a lockout, occurred in some of the shops under the
jurisdiction of the society. To break
tbe men down, the employers put women
in charge of the machines vacated by
men, and, of course, paid them lesB
They WUl Get a Jolt.
The men, instead of reading the signs
of the times rightly, and taking tho women into their union, and recognizing
them as workers in a competitive labor
market, whose employment and conditions should be regulated by the organization, called the women "blacklegs" and "scabs," antagonizing
them, and playing into the hands of
tbe employora.
The members of the big conservative
craft organizations of males havo a
rude awakening before them, and at no
great distance of time, for, in spite of
the request of the federation of women workers and the recommendation
of Mr. Lloyd George that they should
receive not less than a pound a week,
many private firms with government
contracts   aro   paying   their   women
1916 IS HERE
ANNO DOMINI 1916 is likely to mark an epoch in working
class history the world over. Autocracy under an infinite variety
of names, challenges Democracy to a fight for the future.
Spread over the surface of things is the war which, in the perspective of time, is gradully coming to be looked upon as a last desperate move by semi-feudal militarism, and vested interests jealous
of its flesh-pots to set back all the forces which were working, each
in their own way, to make the world a better place to live in for the
men and women who by labor of brain and hand, do its daily work.
Below the surface, there are signs of the birth of a new social
consciousness born of the terrible experiences of the past sixteen
The war itself, despite the real intent of those who have schemed
for it, has forced upon society lessons in mutual aid and collective
action for self preservation in a national sense.
The socialization of industry can be accomplished in a few
hours when the business of death requires it. Later,.people will
want to know why it cannot be done when only the business of living is engaging their minds and labors.
It depends upon how far this is recognized before the ultimate
result of it can be determined.
Howsoever it may befall, there are great.things doing these
days, for all who have eyes to see, and minds to think out their
meaning. i  , |  j [4|^
After this madness there will be lessons aplenty; written in
language of blood and fire; of world agony and the despair of millions who died paying the age old price exacted of those who do not
Workers in Toronto
Do Not Receive a
Living Wage
Favored  Middlemen Take
the Cream Off the
(Coatinued oa Pag* Four)
The Canadian soldier Is asked to go
as a champion of tho women and children of Belgium and northorn France,
of Britain, and of Canada. He has donned the khaki, with tho maple leaf
showing bravely on cap and collar.
What would the soldier say, asks the
Ottawa Citizen, if ho knew the very
khaki clothing he wore had been made
under conditions verging on girl slavery in Canada!
Sweating on Military Work.
Khaki clothing is being mado in To-
ronto, under certain militia contracts,
where tho girl workers aro said to be
little better than Bweatod woge-alaves.
They work long hours, twelve hours or
more a day, on pioce work whore tho
price is out to the sweating levol. They
seem to havo no trade union organization to protect them. But they have
had the tomerlt'y lately actually to ask
for better pay. The rate allowed for
finishing of khaki trousers is 6 cents per
pair. They are Baking for an increase
of one cent!
.    72 Cents trom Morn Till Night
The finishing off work on a pair of
khaki trousers includes sewing on 11
buttonB, and doing certain necessary
hand stitching, as well as taking out all
tacking threads left in during tho machining operations. It is virtually an
hour's work; and tho pay is 0 conts.
Tho girl Blavo at tho ond of twelve
hours work will have 72c due to hor!
But supposing a girl to have exceptional skill, with eyes never tiring under
the strain—even the finishing of 10
pairs of khaki trousers nor day will
moan i cents less than u dollar for the
day's slavery—and tho work would
have included sewing on '176 buttons,
and an equally laborious amount of
stitching and picking ont of threads.
The Trail of the Profiteer.
Hon. A. E, Kemp, M. P., has deniod
the chargo made in tho clothing trade
journal, Men's Wear, that a militia
clothing contract had beon placod with
a real estate agent. But has every
clothing contract beon placod with a
gonuine clothing manufacturer! Has
every contract been carried out by tho
person receiving tho order from tho war
contracts committee! Or hns thero
been sub-lotting and profiteering middlemen! This country should know. It
has to pay for the clothing. Does it
pay at a rate of 0 cents nn hour for girl
slavery! Or is tho prico only a sweatshop price aftor tho [profiteering rnt has
boen devoured by middleraon! Civilians
might at lonst stir from thoir firesides
to wipe out the swoat-shop, while the
soldiers nro handling tho enemy abroad.
Trades Council Next Weok.
The regular meeting of Vancouver
Trndos and Labor council will bo hold
in Labor Templo next Thursday evening. The recent appeal sent out to the
unions urging them to bo fully represented at all mootings of the council,
has been producing good results of Into.
All delegates to tho council should bo
In their places at all tho meetings.
Otherwise they should not be delegates,
but stand aside and let others tako
their places.
Washington Federation Convention.
Officers of tho Washington Stnto Federation of Labor havo issued a call for
tho fifteenth annual convontien, to bo
held in North Yakima, beginning January 17.
War Making a Class of
Get-Rich-Quick Gun
Eminent  Political  Parrot
Performs for Benefit
of Parliament
[By W. M. C]
Speaking at a meeting in aid of the
war emorgency fund or tho Church of
England Waifs and Strays society, tho
Marquis of Crewe relieved himself thus*
ly: '-Tho studendous tax which was boing mado upon the manhood of the nation created a sense tnat in future years
there would bo no real placo for the
idlo and thriftless, or for those who, for
any reason, wero not engaged in some
work of value for the nation."
Just who the old fellow was hinting
at iB a bit of a guess; but if he means
to take them all in, irom both extremes
of society, wo will second tho motion.
He Most Like War.
From Everyman: "It is not an opon
secret that this war is producing a new
class of ' nouveaux riches' of war traders rapidly transforming into millionaires! A war miUionaTro told a friend
of mine that during tho laBt twelve
months ho had made £250,000 in net
profits, and that he would not mind if
tho govornment took £200,000 of it."
If tho modest gentleman would kind*
ly furnish his name and address, wo
would rolievo him of any further anx
lety in the matter.
What the Parson Thinks.
In a letter to his congregation, tho
Bov. Mr. Somorvihe, Selkirk West
United Freo Church, who is acting as a
chaplain at tho Dardanelles, expressed
himself ns follows: -'Away in the distance wo were shown tho spot where
lino upon lino of our country's noblest
and bravest sons have neon lying dead
for months, rotting through oxposure,
and shrivelling to skeletons.
"Could anything bring homo to ono
moro vividly tho inhumanity of thoBO
conditions of modoin warfare, which
debar tho dead from burial, and pro*
vent evon their identification discs
from boing colloctcd! It may bo that
war may onco havo had Its uses as a
factor in developing somo of the higher
qualities of human cnaractor. But If
ever there was such a day, lt is surely
past for ovor now.
Modern wnrfnro Is heathenish and
devilish past all description. Ono groat
cardinal triumph of tho forces thot annul progross, nnd retrogress towards
primitive barbarism."  Thero aro many
(Continued on neon 3)
Monday—Boilormakors, Eloctrl*
cal Workors No. 813, Brewory
Workors, Tailors.
Tuesday—Bricklayers, Cigormak*
ors, Amal. Carpenters, Bailway
Wednesday—PresB Feedors, Tile
Layers, PlaBtorors.
Thursday—Garment Workors, T.
aad L. council.
Friday—Hod Carriers and Laborers, Railway Carmen, Patternmakers, Lotter Carriers.
Expanding Capitalism Determined the Conflict
in Europe
Nationalization of Industry
Is Likely to Be the
Next Order
[By W. W. Lefoaux]
My impression of the European situation! YeB, I have necessarily a tm
Ideas on the subject, but to foretell a
solution when one's proposition itself
must be baaed upon unknown quantities
ie, to Bay the least of it, a somewhat
dubious proceeding.
Wu Is no "lien Incident"
One cannot well pass the situation
over with the classification of a "mere
-incident," nor yet with the other extreme of being "the end of capitalism"; both of these pronunciamentos
are open to very apparent and grave
Maybe a glance at events loading up
to the present struggle will enlighten
us a little or, at most, not befog ne.
Observers of European developments
for tho last forty years have had a field
of speculation before them unaparellel-
ed in the history of human society.
The Most Important Epoch.
Tho advent of modern industry, with
itB harnessing of natural forcos and introduction of machinery has stamped
the closing years of the last century
and the opening years of this century
as an epoch surpassing in importance
any other period ln human history.
Has not thia period evolved machinery of production* by means of whieh
society, or the working portion of society, can produee many more times the
amount of commodities necessary to its
own subsistence!  ■
And the history of tho evolution of
the machine, with its consequent induitrlal expansion of all nations that have
called upon lt for assistance, is the
basis of the history of modern Europe.
Britain Had the Lead.
Oreat Britain obtained the start in
the race. Duo to its insular position
and extended sea coast it had for gen-
orations been fairly socuro from invasion and had devoloped a very successful maritime population of world traders, freebooters, pirates, slavcdealers
and missionaries.
Britain's industrial development was
practically undisturbed while the other
European countries were being overrun
by invading hosts from neighboring
states or were marshalling all their
available manhood to pay the same
compliment to tho follow noxt door.
The Art of Colonising.
In tho meantime the Englishman sailed the seven boob and plantod himself
where ho would. Peacefully if convenient, otherwise if not. He got there
anyhow. If his religious emissaries were
not successful in implanting a desire
for Lancashire cottons, Yorkshire woollens, Birmingham-made idols and other
ingredients of civilisation, then other
means of "opening up" the country
had to bo rwfdf* _to^He usually found
it necoflBarylT*
and "civiliq
proclaim hia
and sundry |
Nobody ci
the unavoidal
opment and 1
body olso woul
But we roay^
remark that it
with a trifle less cant and hypocrisy.
However that may be, conditions and
natural instinct determined that he
havo tho start as the world's biggest
trader and providor.
Hence tho particular conditions of
this war.
War Brewing fer Many Yean.
Tho drama or holacaust wo have beforo us is tho war for which Britain
and Oormany havo beon shaping thom-
solvoB for many ycarfl, driven tlioreto
by tho inexorable natural laws of the
evolution of human society.
Foreseen! Yoa decidedly. Accidental!   Not by any means!
Britain hud attained tho premier industrial position iu the world's markets
and it was a vital matter—a matter of
lifo and death—that she rotaln that
position. Without markets for tho products of its productive working class,
Britain was doomed to stagnation and
The Else of Germany.
Tho rise of modern Germany since
tho days of Bismarck and tho Frnnco-
Oorman war has been meteoric and pho-
nomonal. It is a subject of infinite interest to tho studont and thinker, affording a wonderful illustration of tho
play of events nnd circumstances on the
humnu mind and the "determination"
of human action. Tho subject is altogether too largo to deal with hero, but
we may notice tho outstanding features.
The comparatively recent confederation of German States into the modern
Gorman Empire presented a nation of
various groups, sharply defined, with
agriculture aa lta chief and almost sole
Industry—except fighting—and a dominant ruling aristocracy of foudal lords
nnd kings thnt rulod by right of night
and wore nover troubled by any question of their divine appointment. Add
to this a sotting of warlike nations on
all sidos, and a Britain on the seas, and
we hnvo a picture of tho problem faced
by tho strong individuals that condi-
(Continued on page 4) PAGE TWO
FBIDAY DECEMBEB 31, 1018   (
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Published tttty rridsy morning to ths 1. 0. Pedant*
Uonlst, .United
B. Para Pettlplece Manager
J. W. Wllklnaon Editor
Oflea: Beea 117, labor temple.   Telephone Bichaage
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Subscription: 81.50 par year; la Vancouver Olty, 01;
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ABllatod with the Weitern Labor Preai Association
"Patty ot Labor; the Heps et ths World"
this issue, and we desire to show
our  appreciation  of  "whatever
gods there be," and who havo in the fulness of their wisdom permitted us to survive to such a ripe and
WISHnra VOU     !*CB1'ly old a8c- b? wish;
A HAPPIER !?8  a.»  ?»r  -3adcr8wA
NEW TEAR. 1IaPP'CI' N?W ***& Y8
say   happier   with deliberate intention  bred
of a year of recollections, which will not
rank among thc happy ones for the working men of British Columbia.
0 0 0 0
The dead year may bury -its dead, but
their experiences live after them as memories and lessons which should serve as an
instruction to those who are left. And unless wc much misjudge the signs, the prospect which awaits organized labor here
during tho coming year will need all the
accumulated wisdom of past experience to
enable it to weather through; there is nothing to be gained by being doleful or
pessimistic, but there is every reason to
be cautious, and by thoughful provision
beforehand, to anticipate the difficulties
likely.so that they can be met and handled in such fashion as will leave the least
amount of ill after effects.
•       •oo
The B. C. Federationist itself has had a
rather trying year to contend with; a
year which has seen several labor papers,
both in this country and Britain pass out
of existence. The war forced the strictest
economy on us, both in the matter of size,
and general running expenses. But we
have much to be thankful for. Chief in
this respect is the continued support of
subscribers, During the year we have
very considera.bly increased our circulation. That is chiefly due to the practical
support of well-wishers who desire to help
us over this period of industrial depression. And so, to them and to all our readers, we again wish A Happier New Year.
R. WALTER BUNCIMAN, president of the British board of trade,
has the true profiteer mind, as
he very conclusively proved at the time
of the South Wales miners  trouble a
while ago.   As minister
MAKBro of   agriculture   before
THINOS e WSr'        WBS *
plain shareholder in the firm
of Cammel, Laird and
company,   one   of  the
shipbuilding firms in the armament ring.
• •     *      •
His proclivity for displaying the huckster attitude was further illustrated last
Thursday in thc British house of commons
when he said:
So far as commerce is concerned,
Germany is a beaten nation, and it is
for us to see that it does not recover.
German trade in South America and
the east has received a serious blow
and it is the duty of the board to see
that our business men have every advantage.
Gradually as the war goes on, this question of trade advantage is being spoken
of much oftener by those in authority.
Bludgeoned Belgium hardly gets any
mention now. But if any indemnity is
ever to bo paid by Germany for the ravaging of that country, it will have to be
paid out of the profits of German commerce.
• •      •      •
Germans talked about France in 1871
much the same as Mr. Runciman is now
talking about Germany. But in these
days, with the internationalism of finance
and commerce, it is a practical impossibility to annihilate the economic life of a big
manufacturing and trading nation; and
especially one so highly skilled in thc
technical processes of manufacture as
Germany is admitted to bo, even by thc
bitterest of its commercial and other rivals. Argument to the contrary.may be
very popular whilo the passion of the war
is upon thc nations, lint in the end it will
prove to be one of tho great illusions
which Mr. Norman Angcll strove to dispel from the minds of superficial economists some years ago.
original in one of the most un-ori-
ginal aggregations of political bunglers that has ever been called a British
government.   If he were not, he would
never have dreamed of
OHBISTMAB j*« noti°n l^tagto
DAY AT Glasgow to address 3000
trade unionists on
Christmas day, about
loosening up their rules
so as to allow—as the news despatch puts
it—of "dilution of skilled with unskilled
labor," so that war munitions can be
mado with greater spoed and in increased
quantities. The cabled report of the proceedings contains some notable passages;
and assuming that it was first passed by
thc censor, it seems as though, reading between the lines, the gathering was a decidedly strenuous one to say the least.
o       o      •      •
Aftor recording thc opening theme of
the speech, in which reference is made to
tho noed for an adequate number of skill
ed mechanics to keep up the supply of
war munitions, the following, passage occurs ; ,
The minister of munitions' scheme
to amend the trade union regulations
was proposed by a committee, including seven trade unionists.                     •
"We don't trust trade union leaders," several voices in the audience
"Whom do you tru*-t," Mr. Lloyd
George demanded, and the voices replied :
Mr. Lloyd George then proceeded
to explain how thc national gun and
munition factories were being established throughout the United Kingdom, and that 80,000 skilled workers
were required.
"You won't get them,"someone in
the meeting declared.   "I come here
and face 3000 Glasgow trade unionists, the minister shouted in reply.
"Will that gentleman venture to go
to Flanders and face three thousand
British soldiers in the trenches?"
Going over that carefully, and bearing
in mind a number of things, including
some of tho  industrial  struggles  which
have taken place on tho Clyde in recent
years, leaves one in a very difficult position to judge thc accurate value of the
various explanations which suggest themselves.
•       oo       •
We can quite believe there are those
who would rush into thc hastily formed
opinion, that this outburst was due to the
existence of a substantial body of incipient
but revolutionary opinion among the
workmen concerned. That, in our opinion,
is one of the ideas most likely to be farthest from the truth. The probably true explanation is, the well-known economic
jealousy which exists to some extent almost everywhere among skilled workmen,
when their material advantages are
threatened by the encroachment of the
unskilled. That may not sound very nice
to everybody, and will very likely rub
some fur the wrong way in cases where
the cap fits. By this, we do not wish to
be understood as holding any particular
brief for any particular element concerned in this incident. What we want to do
if possible is, to correctly appraise the
precise meaning of the sentiment which
was present in this meeting, according to
the foregoing report.
were some thousands of unemployed men in Canada. A big proportion of them had been purchased by the
government by bonuses to transportation
companies. In order to
COULD NOT reduce the distress, gov*
FIND HONEY events, both provin*
FOR THAT oia' an"* *9deral, were
urged to institute relief
measures of a productive nature. To make this practical, it
was suggested that money be taken up by
the government oh loan, bearing guaranteed interest the same as other loans of
the government.
• •      •      •
It was pointed out that from a strictly
business standpoint, such a plan would
provide ample security for the money invested, because by the time it had been
spent a productive enterprise such as farming, and so on, would represent the
money invested. But those plans were
discouraged with callous indifference,
considering the appalling destitution
which prevailed from one end of the
country to the other. It was implied that
they were well meant, but hopelessly Utopian.
• •      •      •
When it is a question of a war loan a
different attitude is manifested. It is not
our object at this time to criticize tho
purposes to which the materials which
will be purchased with the proceeds of
that loan, will be applied, any more than
to point out that they are entirely destructive. Surely then, money invested in
a productive scheme such as those suggested to relieve unemployment, would
have been at least as wisely employed.
• oo*
From a merely selfish and exploiting
standpoint, it remains a mystery why the
plans suggested were not eagerly adopted.
The only explanation of it seems to be
that the men in control of the administration of government in this country, do
not understand enough about the rudiments of political economy to enable them
to carry out thoroughly their own desires
in the matter of exploiting to the limit
the labor power of the working class in
WHILE RICH MEN HIGH in political place in Britain aro telling
thc common people how necessary it is that every economy should be
practiced by them in order that the sinews may continue to be
222 provided to carry on the
PRECEPT AND     war> . some„   interesting
THE PRACTICE. V™ctwes of the»' own to
the contrary are being
brought into the limelight. The lord mayor's banquet in London, that annual gargantuan guzzle indulged in by the civic notabilities of that
city, is commented upon thus by tho London Herald:
The lord mayor's banquet was an
outrage and a disgrace. The Daily
Sketch is to bo congratulated on securing the menu card—a menu card
consisting of wines, liqueurs of every
kind; turtle soup at 15s. a quart!
This outrageous banquet was sat
down to by the prime minister of
England and his colleagues, together
with the archbishop of Canterbury,
all of whom are continually calling
upon the poor to practise economy.
We aro not sure if Lord Deyonport
was present or no, but this man who
is known in labor circles as champion
strike breaker, had the audacity in
tho House of Lords on Wednesday to
demand in the name of economy that
separation allowances to the wives
and dependents of soldiers and sailors
should be cut down. When will, the
governing classes understand that
there can be no social peace, no national unity while these kind of practices and proposals are carried on?
There is only one remedy: True national ownership, true national service, then these sort of gluttonous orgies which Lord Mayor's banquets
bring before our eyes will be things
of the past.
Mr. Eustace Miles, the "food expert,"
a* while ago published some recipes, telling the poor of England how to make
really nourishing soup from potato parings and other vegetable offals, so that
they might economize their food resources
during the war. After careful perusal of
the foregoing, his unsolicited advice on
gastronomies acquires increased interest.
Why not tell them to eat grass, like one
of the thoughtful gentleman who lost his
head during the French revolution.
Australia have met with very well-
organized and determined opposition from organized labor.  This is following the lead taken up by the last convention    of    the    British
CONSCRIPTION    Trades Union Congress
NOT WANTED     In Au8tra»a an attempt
IN AUSTRALIA    was made by some of
the bigger capitalists to
stampede the nation into
conscription through the medium of the
Universal Service league, which did not
live long as the result of the outcry raised
against its proposals, and the exposure of
its constituent membership.
•      •      •      •
As an erample of the arguments put up
by organized labor, the following by Edward Kenendy, secretary of Melbourne
Typographical union is worth perusal.
He said:
The governments of the world did
not ask the man of wealth to give his
wealth for the war. They asked him.
to lend it to them, and offered him
41/2 to 5 per eent., practically for all
time, on what he had-lent them. But
they did not scruple to go to the
worker and ask—nay, often demand
—that he should give up his all, his
life. Would they treat the worker
and the man of wealth alike—for
example, would they go to the worker and value his life at, say, £3000,
and guarantee him 4-^ to 5 per cent,
on that sum for himself if disabled,
and for his wife and children if he
fell? —
If the British government seeks to introduce conscription over there, organized
labor will have something similar to say
to the wealthy in that "the richest nation
on the face of the earth."
tho chamber of deputies from the
' department of the Seine, is dead at
the age of 76 years.   He was first elected
to the chamber of deputies in 1893.  Vail-
lant was a member of
the Paris commune.  He
was born in 1840, was a
doctor of science, and
studied medicine both in
France and Germany.
During his sojourn at Heidelberg university he joined the international working-
men's association. At the time of the
Franco-Prussian war he returned to Paris,
being attached to the national guard, and
during the siege of Paris devoted himself
to spreading the doctrines of the internationals.
0 0 0*
When the insurrection of thc Paris communists was suppressed in 1871, Vaillant
was obliged to flee to England and was
condemned to death. When amnesty was
declared he returned to France. He concerned himself with militant political socialism, and was elected in 1884 a municipal councillor of Paris. Later he was
elected several times a deputy, and in
1913 was a candidate for,the presidency
of the republic. On that occasion M. Poin-
care was elected on the second ballot with
483 votes, Jules Pams receiving 296, and
Edouard Vaillant 69.
1      0 0 0 0
Vaillant was opposed to war. He was
famed for his discourse in thc French
chamber of deputies in support of a limited period of army service. He favored
a democratic militia instead of a standing
army. Ho was the co-author with Keir
Hardie of tho resolution that was to have
been presented to the international con-
gross in 1914, calling for a general strike
of workers in munition factories to prevent war.
The Labor Leader says:
In Berlin, we are told, ten thousand
men and women marched through
tho central streets crying for peace .
and singing, "High with tho New International."
"High!"    How  much  higher?    We
thought it had already been blown about
as high as a kite in Berlin.
"Lounger," writflig in the Victoria
Week, says:*"I know nothing about politics, and therefore am led to ask, what to
the average man may appear a very childish question. 'What is a machine?' " We
cannot think of any place in tho whole of
this province where this innocent abroad
should be able to got the information he
seeks quicker than in Victoria.* It is rotten with "machine."
Mr. C. B. Stanton, who has succeeded
to the parliamentary seat rendered vacant by the late Keir Hardie, made his
"maiden speech" almost before he stepped over thc threshold of the house of
commons. Ho referred to "the hypocritical nonsense of saying that the people
were afraid of conscription ?" If they are
afraid of it they will most likely get it.
If they are not, they likely will not get it.
Mr. Stanton sounds very much like "a delegate for the first time."-
For sheer stupidityjand narrow-mindedness, the moving picture censor in Vancouver is the limit. He is storing up
trouble about-as quick as anyone we
know just now.
Mr. Codlin Tisdall and Mr. Short Macdonald will be the candidates at a by-
election if one is held in Vancouver. They
will both come out "for the good of the
people." We feel both oan be expected
to do the people good—and plenty.
Although we say it what shouldn't, still
the Phoenix Pioneer, commenting on the
B. C. Federationist, observes:
This is the only*iabor paper west
of Winnipeg, and we might add the
only publication discussing fearlessly the economic questions affecting
We looks towards our contemporary
and likewise bows.
Street railwaymen of Oakland, to the
number of ono thousand, last week decided by a referendum vote of their union
membership to subscribe as a union for
the Tri-City Labor Review, the official
newspaper of the Alameda county central
labor council. Thc street railwaymen of
the bay city are evidently of the same
progressive turn of mind as their fellow
unionists in Vanoouver, who subscribe as
a body for Tho B. ,C. Federationist.
The Colorado Fuel and Iron company,
of whioh John D. Rockefeller is the moving spirit, tells its employees they must
become teetotal on January lst* The
company has issued a bulletin in which it
"Exercising    your    arm    lifting
glasses does not give you the kind of
strength that puts the punch into
your work with the pick."
Think it over—and don't forget those
20 or more women and kids burned and
alive at Ludlow.
There are now three sections in the German social democratic group. Dr. Liebknecht and one or two colleagues are mili-
tantly opposed to the war and are fearless in their opposition to the German govornment. Dr. Bernstein, Dr. Kautsjty,
Herr Haase and a strong central group
are in favor of immediate steps being
taken towards peace, but are more moderate in their denunciation of the government. Herr Scheidemann and the majority, which has supported the prosecution
of the war, are in favor of Germany immediately proposing peace terms, but are
prepared to continue their support of the
prosecution of the war in national defence.
The almost allround incompetence
whioh the war has revealed of the nueelus
of British politicians which constitutes
tho government, brings to mind a portion
of one of George Bernard Shaw's notable
prefaces.   Therein he says:
Under the head of "Government
by Bullies," he says:
We are bluffed by hard simpletons
and headstrong bounders as the Russians were bluffed by Ney; and our
Wellingtons are thread-bound by
slave democracy as Gulliver was
thread-bound by the Lilliputians.
We arc a mass of people living in
a submissive routine to whieh we
have boen drilled from our childhood.
Dotted about among us are a few
spirits relatively freo from this inculcated paralysis,. And we see these
few rising as if by magic into power
and afflence, and forming, with the
millionaires who have accidentally
gained huge riches by the occasional
windfalls of our commerce, the governing class.
And how can this rabble of the
casual products of luck, cunning and
folly, be expected to know how to
This estimate was prophetic.
Are you
a Lover
of nice dinnerwaro, looking for oxtra
good quality at a low price. Wo aro
pleased to quote prices ond give estimates on our stock of patterns.
Special—07-picco dinner set, English
ware, in white and gold, with a thread
line in black; extra good quality; handsome in design, 916.75; regular $19.75.
Millar & Coe, Ltd.
776 Oranvllle Street 120 Hastings Street
any class of the people. Clean, newsy and
bright—a newspaper you can trust. THE
SUN upholds the principle of government
by the people.
KEEP IN TOUCH with the news of the
day by reading THE SUN.
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Houses, Bungalows, Stores
and modern suites for root
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Safety Deposit Boies for rent st
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Deposits accepted and Interest at
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tot .nd third Thundeye. Eiecutive
board Junes H. MeVety, pn.ld.nt; B. P.
Pettipleu, vice-president; George Bsrtler
general seeretary, S10 Un Temple* Hli.
H. Gutteridge. treunrer; Fred. AT Hoofer,
statistician; sergeant-at-arms, John Sully; A
J. Crawford, Fred. Knowles, F. W. Weiss,
CIL.—Meets  seoond  Monday ln  tbo
month    President, H. J. Bothel; secretary'
B. H. Neelands, P. 0. Boi 10.
of America, loesl 784, New Weitmlmter.
Meet, second Sunday of each month at 1:80
p.m.   Secretary, F. W. Jameaon. Boi 480.
at call of president, Lsbor Temple, Van*
courer, B. 0.   Director.:    Jamea Campbell,
Sresident: J. H. McVetjr, aeoretarytreaiurer;
. Watchman, A. S. Wells. R. Parm. Petti-
piece, manager, 217 Labor Temple. Tele*
phone:   Seymour Hit.
Men's Hatters and Outfitters
Three Storei
. Of America	
COI-T8I0IIT »T»»0I WllHHtHII i.».
Vote against prohibition I Demand personal liberty In choosing what you will drink.
Ask for thto Lab.1 whan pnrchaalng Bear.
Ala or Porter, aa a guarantee that It U Un
Ion Mala. this It Our Label
. ."£"' ?°°m m ■*•*■">••■' Temple. Meats
flrst Sunday of each month. President,
James Campbell; Inanelal secretary. H.
Davis, Boi 484/phone Sey. 4752; reeordlng
iecretary, Wm. MotUshaw, Globe Hotel, Mala
—Meets every let and 3rd Tuesday.
! p.m.. Room 807., Preeldent, Jamee
Haslett; corresponding secretary, W. &
Dagnall, Boi 63; nnanclal lecretary, F.
"•Brown; business agent, W. a Dag-
nail. Room 215. ^
and Iron Ship Builder, and Helpers
or America, Venoonver Lodge No. 184—
MeeU  drat  and   third  Monday.,   8  p. m.
Preaident, A. Campbell, 78 Seventeenth arcane west; secretary, A. Fraaer, 1151 Bows
Union—Meets flrst Friday In eaeh
montb, 8:80 p. tn.. Labor Temple. A. Graham, busineu representative. Offlee: Room
900, Labor Temple. Houra: 8:80 a. m. te
10; 2 to 6 p. m. Competent help fnrnlihed
on short notice.   Phone Seymour 8414.
meets room 205, Labor Temple, every
Monday. 8 p.m. Preildent, D. W. HcDougalL
1162 Powell .treet; reeordlng iecretary,
R. N. Elgar, Labor Temple: financial secre-
tary and business agent, E. H. Morrison.
Room 207, Labor Temple.
, NORTH AMERICA.—Vancouver and
vicinity. Branch meeta let and 3rd Fridays st Laber Temple, room SOI. H. Night-
scales, preildant, 178 Flfty-ilith avenne
can; Jot. G. Lyon, Inanelal eecretary, 1711
Grant itreet; J. Campbell, recording iee*
retary, 4819 Argyle street
„ PLOYEES, Pioneer BWalon, No. 101—
Meeta Labor Temple, second and fourth Wednesdaya at 2:80 and 8 p. m. Preeldent, Jos.
Hubble; recording seeretsry, Jas. I. Orlffla;
188, Twenty-flfth avenue eaat; Inanclal ceo-
KSHT.-fi business agent, Fred. A Hoover,
2408 Olark Drive.
tovtmntat  tailors-   onion  of
. .. VP2PA, ,*0.•*, "o* "«-"eellnfS
held flret Tuesday In each month, I p. a.
President, Frsneii William.; vice-president,
Miss H. Gutteridge | recording see, 0. He-
Donald, Boi 808; Inanclal secreUry, K.
Paterson, P. 0. Boi 508.
MeeU lait Sunday of each month at t
p.m.   Prealdenl, R. Farm, Pettlplece; vice*
8reeldent, W. 8. Metsger: secretary-treasurer
;. H. Neelands. P. 0. Boi 88.
In annual convention In January. Exec-
ntive offlcere, 1816.16; Preeldent, A. Watch*
man; vlce-presldents—Vancouver, W, F,
Dunn, J. H. MoVety; Victoria, B. Simmons;
New Weatminster. W. Yataa; Prince Rupert
W. E. Denning; Revelstoke, J. Lyon; Dls-
«**1»* J»- Ht.tr. of A. (Vancouver Island),
S. Outhrle; District 18, U. M. W. of A.
(Crow's Noit Valley), A. J. Carter; secre-
tMy-trsseurer, A. S. Wells, P. 0. boi 1588,
Victoria, B. 0.
Labor hall, 1424 Government street, at 8
6 m.   President, A. 8. Wells: iecretary, F,
oldrldge, Bci 809, Victoria, B. 0.
« ...D.lr"*or!! •'"•Brown, preeldent; R. P.
Pettlplece, Vice-president; Edward Lothian.
James Campbell, J. W. WHUnson, Geo. Willy, W. J. Nagle, F. Blumberg, H. H. Free.
Managing director and aeeretary-treasurer, J.
H. McVety, room 811, Labor Temple. PBIDAY... DECEMBER 31, 1915
REAL SHOE ECONOMY is provided when the ihoes
actually withstand every demand made upon them
over a fixed period of time. The only kind which give
icrvice are those which are HONESTLY built of HONEST
leather by experienced manufacturers.   -
The reason for the lueceu of LECKIE SHOES is became
these essential! exist in LECKIE SHOES—there is abaolutely
so "experiment"
Some shoes are made merely to sell at a low price. They may
look as good as a LECKIE. But LECKIE SHOES are made
will be worn long after the other kind ii forgotten.
That's real ihoe economy—the only kind you can afford.
Named Shoes are frequently made in Non-
Union Factoriei—Do Not Buy Any Shoe
no matter wait Its name, unless lt bean a
plain and readable Impression or this stamp.
All shoes without tho Union Stamp aro
always Non-Union.
246 Summer Street, Boston, Msss.
3, F. Tobto, Pros.   0. L. Blaine, Seo.-Treas.
Telephone 895
Wholesale, retail and family trade
Corner Begbie and Front Streets
B. C. Special
Nine Years in Wood
Established 1903
An Interval of
Keen Enjoyment
Is that when you can put aside
your work for a time, forget
that there even is such a thing
and sip the goodness from a
glass filled with sparkling
Really we bolieve therein no other beverage that you eau partake of with
so (treat a relish. '
is a boon to the man who works.   The human body, being simply a machine, must be kept in good repair for best results.
nourishes, tones and strengthens, because of the barley malt and hops it
Westminster Brewery
stands for all the essential requirements of a first-
class bottle beer. CASCADE on a bottle of beer is—
like the Sterling mark on silver—proof that it's good
honest beer, brewed right, bottled clean, in the most
modern plant on the Pacific Coast, by CANADIAN
UNION WORKMEN. We also manufacture high-
grade—UNION MADE—aerated waters.
You'll find they are of the same high standard as
you are accustomed to in our brand of CASCADE
BEER.  On sale everywhere.
Vancouver Breweries Limited
The Result of the Ballot Will
Be Known Early
in January
If Adopted the New Rule
Would Be Made
(Continued from Page One.)
That five days of eight hours shall
constitute a week's work for union carpenters of San Francisco and vicinity,
is stipulated in a proposed amendment
to the constitution of the local District
Council of Carpenters,
.Referendum Besiilt January.
The proposed amendment has been
submitted to a referendum vote of af-
fihitcd unions, and tne rosult of the
balloting will bo known early in January. If adopted, the Building Trades
council will then be requested to ratify
same before the five-day week is inaugurated.
To Be Permanent Bnle.
It is proposed that the five-day work
week for carpenters Bhall be permanent, and not, as is the case with some
other organizations of the building
trades council, maintained only through
the winter months, when there is an unusually large number of unemployed
building mechanics.
With the adoption of the shorter
work week there will come no reduction
in wages, the carpenters still to demand
a minimum wage of $5 per day for eaeh
day they are employed.
Affects Four Counties.
The object of the reduced work week
is to-furnish employment to a larger
number of carpenters.
If the proposed amendment is adopted, it will affect union carpenters in the
following counties: San Francisco, Alameda, Maria and San Mateo.
Methods of Western Ooal Operators
Oive Many Causes for Friction.
MICHEL, B. C, Dec. 26.—The mining company here is this week taking
another rock tare, though it is only
about six weeks since the last one. The
miners are not represented on this occasion, so the eompany will have its
own way. The men nre becoming so
aggravated and dissatisfied with the
squeezing methods of the company for
the past few months, possible only because of the large number of unemployed and their wretched poverty,
that almost anything is apt to arise
out of the desperation, in whieh tho
question of "agreements" will not be
such an important factor.
The commissioner of the Western
Coal Operators' association was in camp
this week, investigating a yardage dispute along with Mr. B. Cuulfield and
Preaident Graham of District 18, U. M.
W. of A. No agreement was arrived at,
and the knotty problem has boen referred to an independent chairman.
Your correspondent entirely agrees
with a recent writer to The Fed. who
emphasized the value of the labor
press, particularly because a paper can
be circulated in many enmpzs where
union men are forbidden employment.
"I have worked in camps in Utah
where it was impossible for a union
man to make his identity known, but
oven there labor papers crept in to such
an extent that effective educational
work waB accomplished and the way
paved for the organizations which exist today.
In a province like British Columbia,
where modern slave plantations obtain
in plenty, it is highly necessary that a
paper like The Fed. be sustained and
pushed into overy camp in the mountains.
If war times should happen to squeeze
The Fed. out, the progress of organized
labor will be retarded immeasurably.
It is the plain duty of all who can dig
up a sub. to do so."
Coal mining right! of the Dominion, In
Manitobai, Saskatchewan and Alberta, the Yukon Turirtory, the Northwest Territories and
lik a portion of tbe Provinoe of British Columbia, may be leased for a term of twenty-one
years at an annual rental of |1 an acre. Not
more than 2,660 acres will be leaaed to one
Applicatlona for lease must be made by the
applicant tn person to the Agent or Sub-Agent
of the district In whioh the rights applied
for are situated.
In surveyed territory the land must be described by lections, or legal subdivisions of
suctions, and In unsurveyed territory the
tract applied for ahall be staked by the applicant himself.
Each application must be accompanied by
a fee of 15, which will be refunded If the
rights applied for are not available bat not
otherwise. A royalty" shall be paid on the
merchantable output of the mine at tbe rate
of five oenta per ton.
The person operating tha mine ahall furnish the Agont with sworn returna accounting for the  fall  quantity of merchantable
coal mined and pay the royalty thereon.   If
_    jig rights are not being open ,
sucb returns should be furnished at least once
the ooal mining
• fear.
The lease will include the coal mining
rights only, but the lessee may be permitted
to purchase whatever available surface rights
may be considered necessary for the working
of the mine at the rate or §10 an aore.
For full Information application ahould be
made to the Secretary of the Department of
tho Interior, Ottawa, or to any Agent or Sob-
Agent of Dominion Lands.
Deputy Minister of the Interior,
N. B.—Unauthorised publication of this advertisement will not be paid for—80000
of us who can heartily endorse these
views without going either to the front,
or the back of the front, to have them
driven home.
Tariff Reform Tricks.
The special commissioner of the Sunday Chronicle says: "I find that the
British hosiery makers are not wishful
for a higher tariff. They want one to
enable them to compete on equal terms
with the Germans in our market."
There is a great deal can be said1
about this tariff business; but, for the
present, the following point may be
noted. Freight rates from Canada and
the United States to Britain have greatly increased of late. That excess freight
is equivalent to a protective tariff in
favor of British-grown products.
But British farmers nave increased
their prices almost to the full equivalent of the excess freight which the
produce of these countries must pay.
That is how " tariff reform " will work,
and this little plaint about the Germans
'is only another move of the "artful
Just Mere Talk of Law's.
The stress of tjic times is germinating new thoughts in high places. The
following excerpt is taken from a
speech by Mr. Bonar Law, British conservative leader and cabinet minister,
and was lately made in parliament:
"We are asking theae men who go to
the trenches to give up everything, not
merely their capital, but perhaps their
"I agree with him, (Mr, J. H. Thomas) that we .have no right whatever to
make a demand like that unless we are
prepared to spread it over the whole
nation, and to take from every man and
every class, anything that is necessary
to bring this war to a successful conclusion. I do not agree—I am going to
speak quite frankly—in thinking that
you can have perfect equality, that ono
man will be exactly the same as another.
"That cannot be either in war or in
peace; but I do say this, and I think
the government have shown they are
acting up to it to a considerable extent—we have shown It in many ways
—that to my mind it is a small thing
tol demand the wealth of the people of
this country in comparison with demanding that they should risk their
lives.*" Just the same, there appears
little danger of the present government conscripting either land or capital
or even nationalizing them. .
Bingo! Tut! Sure Not, Etc.
The British government, according to
reports, lately offered Cyprus to the
Greeks; but so far we -nave not heard
any reports of them offering Britain to
the British,
The archbishop of Canterbury has
told his clergy not to enlist. ' Wonder
if the Defence of the Bealm act will be
invoked here?
The increased tithe (tenth) shae of
the farmers' extra profits to the clergy
of England is 1%%. Mr. Snowden, M.
P., was informed by tho chancellor of
the exchequer that this extra clerical
picking was not subject to the excess
profits tax. Phillip must have forgotten himself, if he ever thought that
they would.
Still Doing Their Bit.
The British ship owners are still busily engaged "doing their bit," (and
their country.) When war began, coal
freights from the Tyne to London
jumped from 3s to 17s per ton. When
the government interfered, the rate foil
to 7s 6d.
ThiB extra rate is causing the poor of
London to pay fld per cwt. to the ship
owners, thus proving conclusively that
class barriers and class hatred have entirely disappeared from our midst, and
we are nil one family, 'with King
George as the pater. But there's a
snake in the grass, in the' form of the
Recently a deputation of distressed
ship-brokers appealed to the president
of the board of trade that the government's action in dealing direct with the
ship owners had "threatened to mnke
serious inroads into the business of the
brokers." And .the official recount of
the interview said that "Mr. Runciman
was not at all unsympathetic." Lord
preserve the parasites!
Who Gets the War Loan.
Tho Dominion labor -department has
asked for more evidence in the following charge made by Toronto union leaders:
That "A" secured a contract from
the governmont and re-sold it to "B
for pOOO cash and a bonus of 50 cents
a pair. The net result' of thia deal
brought $9250 to "A," who was not a
tailor and had no machines for making
uniforms. Tbe order was for 12,500
pairs of pants. The workers got 26
cents all told for making the trousers.
Mr. John H. Humphreys,
Mr. .Tohn H. Humphreys, gonernl
socrotary of the British Proportional
Representation society was a visitor to
the Fed, offico this week. An nrticlo by
him on the subjoct of proportional representation—a proposal which has boen
endorsed continually by organized labor
in Cauda—appears in another column,
The Herald and The Daily
Citizen Were Put on
the Rocks
Courts Make Embarrassing
Decision for the Union
About a year ago, says a writer in
the Firemen's Magazine, England possessed for the first time in its history
two daily labor newspapers, the Daily
Herald and the Daily Citizen.
The first of these ran practically
without any capital at all and was sold
mainly on the clever labor cartoons of
Will Dyson. The other, the Daily Citizen, was supported by large grants from
all the leading trade unions. But in
the end the war killed it, and it joined
the Herald in the grave.
A curious aftermath of this is a declaration in the law courts recently that
the executive council of the United Society of Boilermakers and Iron and
Steel Shipbuilders should repay to the
unions' funds a sum of $5000 which
they had invested for the union in the
Daily Citizen company.
The aetion was brought by one member of the union, and the executive
council wil also have to pay his legal
costs. This society has 60,000 members
so that from this point of view the investment wbb beyond tile powers of the
union as laid down by its articles of
Stanfield's Underwear
For Men
Unequalled Vaudeville  Means
1.4S, TM, 0.16    Season's  Prices!
Matinee, 150.i Bvenlngs, lie., ao.
eon \5obacco.
Japanese in California.
At a lunch given Inflt woek by Baron
Shlbusawa, Japanoso financier, to bovoi*-
iil trade union officials, these workors
frnnkly told tho Oriental banker thnt
the opposition to tho Japanoso in
California is not rncial, but economic.
It was tho fear that tho Japanoso,
through ignorance, would tnke thoir
jobs because they would work cheaper,
and theroby lower tho living standards,
that American wnge workers objected
to this lf%st invasion.
Baron Shibusawa acknowledged
that his country must reckon with organizations of workors, as industry develops in Japan.
Maximum Compensation Awarded De*
pendents ef Protection Victim.
His Honor Judge Sehults, sitting aa
an arbitrator under the' Workmen's
Compensation *.et, has ordered the Wes-
tern Fuel company, Nanaimo, to pay a
sum of $1500 as compensation to the
relatives of the late James Macintosh,
a miner, who was killed in an explosion
in the Protection mine on Aug. 27,1914.
The eompany had made a voluntary
settlement of $1100 with the relatives
of Bichard Munro, who was killed at
the same time as Macintosh, but refused to settle the Macintosh case. The
company through its counsil, Mr. Joseph Martin, K. C, took the ground that
Macintosh had, contrary to the provisions of the Coal Mines Regulation act,
exploded the charge himself instead of
.waiting for the flreboss to como, and
was therefore the author of his own
The hearing of the case was marked
by considerable feeling between the
counsel engaged. His honor took tho
view of the case put forward by Mr,
1.1. Bobinowitz, counsel for the brothers and sister of Macintosh, namely,
that there was nothing to prove who
fired the shot, and there was no pre*
sumption that it was Macintosh. The
award of $1500 and costs is the maximum allowed under the present Workmen's Compensation act.
Trades and Lahor Council.
January 3, 1800.
Delegates elected to Trades and La-
bor council: Painters, Dan O'Dwyer, C.
Jordan. Bricklayers, W. Towlor, G. F.
Cook, A. Leonard. United Brotherhood
of Carpenters nnd Joiners, Jos, Dixon,
J. L. Franklin, W. P. Brown. Typographical, F. W. Fowler, John A. Fulton, A. B. Campbell. Stevedores, Wm.
Davenport, Frank Britton, H. Brooks.
Hod Carriers, F. Oale.
Wm. Towler, on behalf of tho working card committeo, reported that the
cards had been printed, and handed to
the secretaries of tho various building
trudes unions.
Thia underwear ia the best value we know today of whieh we ean
Jive onr customers a complete selection.  Onr English Unas hare so far
ailed to put ia an appearance, and we do not expeet thejr will owing to
the war.  So there is every resson why a man should torn to Stanfield's
aad he well satisfied with it.
FOB $1.26 A GASMEN!—Medium weight, unshrinkable wool underwear
in fine elastie rib finish.
COMBINATIONS are available in all three weights at twice tho pries of
single garments.
Two heavier weights in the same finish at »1.60 and $1.78 per garment.
Please note that these are prices of a year ago.
Best WorkShlrt Value st $1.00
The makers tell us it ia value
for $1.25 in all other stores where
sold. We believe this to be true,
for there are few stores that ean
or care to sell at the fine margins
that Spencer's do. Mado of heavy
twill, tough, almost untearable.
In plain khaki and black with pin
stripe.  Large, roomy fitting.
'      to 17ft.
sizes i
Men's Pyjamas, tl A Mt
This is the garment nine buyers
out of ton want. A suit thst hss
every useful attribute—a suit
that is well snd roomily msde sf
good quality, soft finished, striped
flannelette. For 11.00 this garment offers remarkable veins. All
David Spencer Limited
E««mm«*■.<■*■«•.#«. *"" oU am a-m mea a mm.
r11iiii   11c**■*-°*u4>-aa<7*™" ™* *—**
*Aaa mAMmahmAM mm. imiM<g* y\ mr ^-f, niisss.
Hastings Furniture Go., Ltd., 41 Hastings St West
A Strike in Seattle.
Low wages is the reason for a strike |
of 400 employees of the Seattle Construction and Drydock company. One-
half of these workers are boilermakers I
and shipbuilders.' The strikers demand
higher rates and pay for overtime.
An old woman on tho coast of Maine
has become wealthy catching live seals
for $25 each. In the cities it is not uncommon for a girl to become rich by
catching just one live lobster.
Whst moro welcome nt thin Benson
thnn n box of berried holly ur n growing flowering plant t Thoso mnke gifts
valued at far nbove what they cost—■*
far more wolcome thnn anything at
four times tho prico,
Woll berried holly tii fnney boxes ox-
nctly sultnblo for Christmas gift.
Ready for mailing or shipping, nor
box  ,,  600
Beautiful Bpganlns, Cyclamens, Ferns,
Palms, etc., growing and blossoming.
Guaranteed Bturdy and well-grown np,
from  50c
Jnat Above Bobaon
SET. 2105
$12.00, $15.0Q
or $18.00
Is your limit for
see what we have to offer.
Good Variety, New Styles
The Mon 'a Clothing Centre
1217-1219-1221    Government   St.
and Trounce Avenue
Vancouver—Ofllce and Chapel,
1034 Qranvllle St., Phone Boy. 348!.
North Vancouver — Office and
Chapel, 122—Sixth St. Wet, Phone
Refined Service
One Blook weit of Court Houee.
Uae  of  Modern  Chapel and
Funeral  Parlora  free  to all
Telephone Seymour 2421
tl\J 1 Etimt New — Modern — Fireproof
VANCOUVER, British Columbia
Now under the management of W. V. MOBAN
Boom with detached bath 11.00 ytt itr to
Boom with private bath ...91.SO per tty ny
Special Winter Reduced Rates to Permanent Guests
Onr electric motor bos meeta til baits and trains freo
LOTUS GRILL-Open Continuously
e.SO to 8.8
Hoalo from
8.00 and 10 lo midnight
Phono Seymour 8880
HNow Blectric Auto Bui Meeti all But. anl Train. Free
Hotel Dunsmuir
Vancouver1! Newest and Moit
Complete Hotel
250 ROOMS ; 100 with Private Bathe
EUBOPEAN PLAN, *1.00 per Day np.
Oarrall and Hastings Streets
All the wrappers of BOTAL OBOWN SOAP and BOTAL OBOWN PBO-
DtJOTS exchanged for beautiful presents
see our Christmas display
Gall whether you have coupons or not.
Special offers for Christmas and the New Year, contained in our new
Premium Bulletin just issued. Write for catalogue of premiums and
special offers.
Tou oan Bave money by saving your coupons off Boyal Crown Soap,
Royal Crown Washing Powder, Boyal Crown Naptha, Boyal Crown
Cleanser, Boyal Crown Lye.
The Royal Crown Soaps Ltd. Vancouver, B.C.
Special Notice
December 28th, 1915
The B. C. Electric Railway Company wishes to announce that
its sale of Tango Tickets will be discontinued at all points after
December 31st next, and will be replaced by a green ticket, six
of which will be sold for 25c and which will be available on the
street cars in thc Cities of Vancouver and Victoria, not only
until midnight, but during thc whole time the car service is
The new tickets will entitle thc holder to the privilege ot a
transfer. '
As thc supply of Tango Tickets is limited, and it would be
obviously unfair for them to puss into the hands of a few, thc
Company has decided, between this date and the 31st of December, not to sell at any ono timo more than eight tickets
(25c), on the cars, or sixty-four tickets ($2.00), to any one person at thc Company's Offices.
Tango Tickets in circulation on December 31st will be accepted on the cars until January 31st, 1916. After that date
any outstanding tickets, provided they arc not less than eight
in number, will be redeemed by thc Company at its Ticket
Offices at Carrall Street and at Granville Street Stations.
Phone Seymour 80Q0 page four
The Hudson's Bay Company
takes the opportunity to wish
its Friends and Patrons a
Brighter and More
Prosperous New Year
 tmaaasaans  tara     mm— t aammtW. staasa mwiwiM .
Granville and Georgia Streets
This Official List Of Allied Printing Offices
eaa amrsx tou with the allied fbihiiho trades uhioh label
BAOLKT » SONS, 151 Haittnga Straet Bejmom 816
BLOCHBERGER, F. R„ 819 Broadwar Eaat Fairmont 80S
BRAND * PERBY, eii Pendei* Street, Weat  Seymoar 2678
BURRARD   PUBLISHING   CO.,   711   Seymour   Btreet    Sermour  8530
CHINOOK PRINTING CO., 4601 Main  Street   Fairmont 1874
OLABKB * STUART, 820 Seymour Straet   Seymour 8
COWAN A BROOKHOUSE, Labor Temple Bonding.  .Seymoar 4490
DUNSMUIR PRINTING CO., 4IT Dunamulr Stnet Seymour 1106
EVANS A HASTINGS, Art. and Craft. Bid*, Seymour St ..Seymour 6660
JEWELL. M. L., 841 Pender St Seymour 1444
KERSHAW, J. A.. 58» Howe 81 Seymour 1674
LATTA. R P., 888 Gore Are Seymour 10a«
MAIN PRINTINO CO., 8851 Mala St Fairmont 1888
MCLEAN * SHOEMAKER, North Vancoorer. N. Van. 58
MOORE PRINTING CO., Cor. Granrllle aad Bobaon Sta Seymour 4548
NEWS-ADVERTISER, 801 Pender St Seymoar 1028*41
NORTH SHORE PRESS, North Vancourer    N Van. 80
PACIFIC PRINTERS, World Building Seymour 0602
PEARCE « HODGSON. 618 Hamilton Street Seymour »2t
ROEDDE, 0. A., 616 Homer Street Seymour 264
SCANDINAVIAN PUBLISHING CO., 317 Gamble Bt Seymour 6609
TERMINAL OITT PRESS, 2408 Weatminater Road. Fairmont 1140
THOMSON STATIONERY, 825 Haatinga W Seymour 8520
TIMMS, A. H„ 230 Fourteenth Are. E Fairmont 621R
WESTERN PRESS, 328 Cordora W. ..Seymour 7666
WESTERN SPECIALTY CO., 331 Dunamulr St Seymour 8526
WHITE A BINDON, 157-159 Cordora St Seymour 1216
Write "Union Label" on Tour Copy when Tou Send It to tha Printer
Two Stores and Three Offices To Let
At Low Rentals, in the
Cor. Homer and Dunsmuir Streets
The completion ol the Georgia-Hurls Street viaduct hu placed
the Labor Temple la the flow ot down-town traffic
II Intereited call on or phone
Seymour 7495
ROOM 211
High Class Dental Services at
very Moderate Prices
High-clan and palaleaa dentutry at very moderate pricei, which anyone can afford— *>
Gold Oiowm, 22k  H00
Oold Brldgework, per tooth 14.00
Perfect Pitting FUtM, each 16.00
Porcelain Ulllng* eaeh   11.00
Amalgam fillings, each fl.00
Teeth extracted free of pain.
*    All work guaranteed for TEN TEAKS.
Offlce open every evening from 7 te 8 p.m.
Phont Seymour 8581 Offlee:  101 Bank of Ottawa BotMint
  Good for odo yew's subscription to The B.
[ at a   a*m_ * *p *r%    af*. a  m*_ •_*»_ a~*a  0- Fedentlonlst, will be mailed to mr ad*
If) *hTTK   I    ARTm dress In Csnsdi for $10.    (Good anywhere
| IV O \J U. ^niXJ-ZO outside of Vmcoutw eity.)    Order ten today.   Remit when sold.
(Continued from page 1)
by placing the figure 1 against the
name of his first choice. The vote is
credited to that candidate. The elector
places the figures 2, 3, etc., against thc
names of other candidates. If the elector 's favorite has received more votes
than he requires for election, the returning officer will transfer the vote to
the elector's next choice.
The transfer is controlled by the elector—the returning officer merely acting
on the instructions given by the elector.
Meets Case of Split Party.
Sometimes a party nominates more
candidates than it can carry to victory.
A party might number 5000 voters, but
if these votes were scattered over the
candidates, none of the candidates
might win.
The transferable vote means this difficulty too. The elector can vote for
his favorite and express preferences for
the others. The candidate who has fewest votes (after alt excess votes have
been transferred from candidates who
have a surplus) is declared defeated.
The votes given to him are not' wasted.
They are transferred to those candidates whom the electors have marked as
their next choice.
In this way the 5000 votes which may
be scattered over three candidates will
(if the electors have so marked their
preferences) find their way to that candidate who iff most popular and ho will
be elected as the representative of the
Fair Representation Secured.
The returning officer acting upon the
instructions given, builds up groups of
equal size, each of which secures one
representative. If a party has two such
groups, it secures two members, if
three, It secures three members and so
This system has been tried out in
severul countries. Tasmania, South Africa, etc., wherever it has been tried,
the results are so fair that the Bystem
spreads. The labor government of
South Australia is pledged to introduce
a bill providing Proportional Representation; the New South Wales government will apply Proportional Representation tb the election of the municipal council of Sydney; New Zealand has passed two Proportional Representation acts—one to elect the legislative council, the other to allow municipalities to adopt it. Proportional
Representation in-different forms is
spreading throughout Europe.
The Attitude of Labor.
The Proportional Representation
movement attracts tke support of men
of all parties who desire the efficiency
of democracy as expressed through representative institutions.
Jaures, the leader of the French so*
cialists whose assassination was a great
loss to the world, worked most strenuously for Proportional Representation,
because it would make for clearness of
thought in political campaigns. Each
party would be concerned with the advocacy of its own policy.
Herr Branting, leader of Swedish socialists, Bays: "I am an avowed advocate of Proportional Representation.
Of the opponents of Proportional Representation, when it was first introduced there are scarcely any that have
remained so, nearfly all of them having
become convinced both of its fairness
and of it's practical advantages."
Similar testimonies could be quoted
from all countries in which it is in
Attitude of Canadian Labor.
But what has been the attitude of
labor in Canada. At the federation of
labor conventions held in British Columbia, the principle of Proportional
Representation was endorsed. ^
The question now is, what will labor
do to bring it about? Let it press for
its application to election of Vancouver
municipal council. Let it press for its
adoption by all candidates at the next
provincial elections.
. Brantford Labor Candidate.
H. C.Symonds, the corresponding secretary of the Brantford, Ont., Trades
and Labor council, is coming out as a
candidate for the olV.ce of municipal
Btreet railway commissioner.
Machinists Are Victimised.
Machine shops in Medicine Hat engaged in turning out shell work have
discharged a number of hands for joining the International Association of
Machinists. Up to the present time the
efforts of officials of the organization to
have these men reinstated have not met
with any tangible results. The government is not essaying to bring about a
settlement, as the employees of the
firms who have signed agreements with
the I. A. M. have threatened to come
out on strike if things are not straightened out. As machinists are steadily
growing scarcer, a strike at this time
would completely tie up the industry
in Medicine Hat.
Government Takes Charge
of the Whole of This
Year's Harvest
Will Take the Corn from the
Farmers and Handle
It for Them
A municipal, a provlnolal aad 'a federal
election will take place daring th. next few
months. Unleaa TOU are claaalfled with tha
Indiana, lnnatica and propertrleai women,, re*
slater at onee. Do It now or hold rear peace
oa election dayi
Factory: 1365-7 Powell Btreet
Telephone Highland 285
Eft 1004        Vaneoum. B. 0.
(Continued from Page l)
[Special Australian Correspondence]
[By W. Francis Ahern]
SYDNEY, N. S. W., Dec. .10.—The
governments here aro rapidly extending
their ramifications in ail directions, especially in the matters governing the
ultimate living cost of the people. I
have detailed from time to time some
of the matters we have taken in hand,
in these columns.
Control of Wheat Harvest
The latest matter taken in hand by
the Commonwealth government is the
control of the wheat harvest of Australia, Here was a golden opportunity
for the private speculator and market
rigger to make a fortune. But the experience of last year has prevented all
While yet the harvest waB ripening
the Commonwealth government was
hard at work working out problems
for the nationalizing of the supply and
the marketing of the product.
How It Will Be Done.
I have already shown how the
freights were fixed, how 1000 ships are
wanted to carry off the golden grain.
A full plan haB been drawn up providing for the financing, handling, transporting and sale of wheat.
The state governments are to act as
sellers of the wheat on behalf of the
farmers in each state. AU the existing
machinery for tho handling of the
wheat trade will bo utilized, but Shippers and agents, instead of buying for
themselves, will act on behalf of the
government on a small commission
An agreement has been made with
the banks under which the farmers will
be able to secure advances for the
wheat they store with the millers or the
government agents.
A farmer, for instance, on delivery
of 1000 bogs of wheat at tho recognized
depot', will receive n receipt which he
will be able to negotiate at the bank
on the basis of up to 72 cents per bushel
of his grain.
Government Owns the Wheat.
From the time he delivers his wheat,
it is government property, and will be
handled, after shipment, by the various
agents-generals and high commissioner
in London, who will control the sale of
the grain at the other end of the world.
At the end of the season, calculations
wiH be made and from this amount the
expenses of the entire business will be
deducted, and the balance handed baok
to the farmers, lesi the advances made
by the banks.
Farmer Gets Better Deal.
By this means all element of risk will
be avoided, as tha farmer will be paid
a flat rate—since all soles will be pooled
till the end of the season.
Special provision will be made, of
course, for millers securing grain for
use in Australia on the same basis of
profits to the farmer.
The great secret about the whole
matter is tbat, for the first time ln history, the government will tako the matter of risk off the shoulders of the farmer, and he will be able to calculate
just how much he will get for his entire harvest.
He will not be forced to sell to market riggers, as of old, and be robbed of
half his profits, simply because he has
no money.
1 Under the Australian system he will
deliver his wheat, get a 76 per cent, advance on it from the bank at once, and
the balance when the harvest is over.
(Continued from page 1)
workers only one half or three-quarters
that amount.
Arranging It Nicely.
The managing director of one firm
pursuing this policy is the representative of the minister of munitions for
that particular district, and tho only
redress open to the women is under the
munitions act; where, in this case, the
representative to 'whom they must appeal is also tho employer.
What It Means.
In the Clyde district, women are receiving fifteen shillings per week, working side by side with semi-skilled men
receiving thirty-five shillings per week.
Meantime, the women are learning,
and when a more compulsory form of
conscription removes the man for military service, the woman will slip into
his place at half his wage, and'help
train moro women, who will eagerly
take up work both in the name of patriotism and to earn a small amount
more than at their previous trade.
Where Ignorance Is Bliss.
Through lack of training £ econo
micB and organization, the avWage woman will accept joyfully the wage that,
to her, is an advance, and through sheer
ignorance lower the standard wage set
by mon, after years of strenuous work.
And what about the men the women
aro competing with and meantime
learning the trade! Their simple faith
in tho government, is astounding. When
first the need arose for women to oome
forward and by doing men's work, set
men free for military service, a com'
mittee of trade union leaders and government representatives met and agreed
that the women receive a minimum of
one pound a week.
What la Awaiting Them,
The government representative promised that women would be employed
only while the war lasted. The simple
faith that trusts in a government promise will get a rude awakening; especially after the war and perhaps'"sooner,
when he is told by employers that the
wage of one pound a week being now
sanctioned by trade unionists, has become the standard, and he does not
care whether it be man or woman.
The tendency of employers is already
in this direction. The Engineer, an employers' publication states that the introduction of woman'a labor ean be
tions have forced to the front in the
German Empire.
No Bourgeois Be volt.
No rising capitalist class in Germany
has been forced to summon t£e proletariat to its aid to overthrow an unbearable feudal state for the government has long recognized and encouraged, by all means in its power, industrial, expansion.
No French aristocracy had to be dethroned by the drastic purge of a Paris
Feudal lords had not to be relegated
to a back seat by the aid of the proletariat as in Britain.
Bismarck and his kind saw to it that
conditions were not made sufficiently
irksome to the bourgeois to compel
them to overthrow their peculiar form
of government, although of recent years
the heavy burden of taxation has boen
responsible for much ominous grumbling and gathering of storm clouds. The
strain could not have lasted much longer without internal eruption of some
Was Capturing Markets.
~ By collective effort and highly developed efficiency, Germany was fast capturing the open markets of the world,
and becoming a serious menace to Britain's commercial supremacy. But the
open markets were few and Britain saw
to it that the choice places of the earth
were not left for Germany or any other
country to exploit.
At the time that Britain was planting its flag all ovor the globe, Germany
was too busy with internal organization and defensive measures to take
a hand in the game, even if Britain
had allowed it. Too late the German
government awoke to the fact of the
vital necessity of commercial expansion
by colonization, etc., if profits were to
be realized from the labor of the German working class and the wheels of
industry kept running.
Choice.  War Without.   Revolt Within.
Two outstanding factors determined
the German government on war. Th<
first was the threatened bourgeois revolt against tho taxation necessarily
imposed by the semi-feudal government,
and secondly, the necessity of providing the German proletariat with work
in never failing quantity. As long as
the proletariat or working class of any
nation has plenty of work it will remain content and tho German government was well aware of the fact. Iff
ordor to provide work, ever increasing
markets must be found, for the workors
become moro productive every day (unfortunately for thom), and this the Gorman government could not do.
And the result I Undoubtedly the relegation of Germany to a secondary
position among the powers for she cannot be allowed to win from the Allies'
point of view, even if it takes ten'years
to beat her and involves the nationalization of all property in Great Britain,
France, BuBsia and Italy.
If Germany Wins.
The triumph of Germany would mean
an invincible German Empire- for her
superior industrial organization alone
would drive the rest of the industrial
world into bankruptcy—not to mention
the indemnity.
Germany's sudden rise and effectiveness has driven her far ahead of the
other nations. Hence she must be destroyed. Her collective efficiency was
too efficient in production for herself
and her neighbors and she must be halted in no uncertain manner.
And after that t Who knows f Most
probably increased efficiency in the
other European nations and a setback
in Germany.
How Long Will War Last?
How long will that lastf The various stages of modern capitalism are
certainly not getting any longer. The
outlook just now is that the war will
last long enough to force the various
nations into state capitalism and if
state capitalism is wisely engineered—
from the capitalistic point of view—its
life can probably be prolonged quite a
If the various governments do not
take a leason from Germany, and protect their proletarians by paternalistic
legislation, the Baid proletarians will be
forced into revolt and anarchy will
reign for a while which would most
likely only lead to the same legislation.
Social reform—as hinted by Lloyd
George and otherB—will no doubt be
the programme and the workers will be
assured work, corned beef and cabbage.
Of intelligent class-conscious action,
by the working olass, I have very little
Plenty of work, a stomach full of
the contents of the average dinner pall,
and an occasional football match, will
keep even the "free British working-
man" wonderfully and marvellously
The Armament Octopus.
Palmer 'b Shipbuilding and Iron company in Britain has made a net profit of
£103,822 thiB year. Last year the net
profit waB £66,006 and the year before
Waat National Labor Bureau.
The proposal to establish a national
labor bureau system for Canada has
been endorsed by a gathering of representatives of a number of societies and
municipalities In tho Montreal district.
used to reduce the payments to men,
because It has been proved that men
are paid too much for work that can
be done without previous training.
However, a few have their eyes open
The New Statesman in an article on
"Women's Wages," makes the follow-
ing trenchant remarks: "For trade
unions to try to act by keeping women
out of the trades, is not only unfair to
women, but in the conditions which result from the war will be doomed to
failure. Under these circumstances
there is only one adequate defenco for
labor—namely, to insist that women's
and men 'b scales of wages Bhall be the
same. It is no good talking about
"equal pay for equal work," for that
much-abused doctrine provides too
many loopholes for the evasive employer. In whatever trade or occupation
women's labor can be used as alternative to mon % the trade union will have
to fight for a minimum time wage
which, after any unnecessary probationary period for either sex, is the same
for man and woman. The critical nature of that fight must be obvious to
anyone, It can only be won by a reversal of the ordinary trade unionist's
attitude towards women's labor, and by
his late awakening to the elementary
fact that it is only by organizing her
labor that his own. organization oan be
It is somewhat like using a steam
hammer to crack a nut. but if the awakening could only be through the war,
tho war has accomplished one good
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15168—J. A. Good, 3680 Fifteenth Weat $2.00
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Full printed particulars on the back of each delivery note.       .'
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BATTIBW 1076-1077 f\
J. D. McNeill
Mayoralty Candidate
solicits your vote for a sound
and an early completion of
Dr. T. G.
Who will run in the coming
Municipal Elections for
Aid. M. McBeath
Jingle   For Tha moat hut nd leut amount ol waata.   Lamp, |(.00.
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80 Pender Stnet Weit
PHONES: Soymonr MS, SOS, 6408, 6409
Phone Seymour 210 Phone Seymour 210
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union organizations everywhere.
Our departments cover printing of pamphlets, books
and catalogues.
We Print Everything But Money
Labor Temple
Vancouver, B. C.


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