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 HISTORY
Journal of the British Columbia Historical Federation | Winter 2011  | Vol. 44 No. 4 | $7.00
This Issue: The Famous Fish | Rev. Freney | Yorke Island and more
]
 HISTORY
British Columbia History is published four
times per year (Spring, Summer, Fall,
Winter) by the British Columbia Historical
Federation.
ISSN: print 1710-7881 online 1710-792X
Subscriptions: $20.00 per year
USA: $32.00 (US Funds)
International: $44.00 (US Funds)
British Columbia History welcomes stories,
studies, and news items dealing with any
aspect of the history of British Columbia, and
British Columbians.
Please submit manuscripts for publication
to the Editor, British Columbia History,
Andrea Lister
PO Box 21187, Maple Ridge BC
V2X 1P7
email: bcheditor@bchistory.ca
Submission guidelines are available at:
bchistoryca/journal/index.html
Book reviews for British Columbia History,
K. Jane Watt, Book Review Editor,
BC History,
Box 1053, Fort Langley, BC VIM 2S4
email: reviews@bchistoryca
Subscription & subscription information:
Alice Marwood, BCHF
1400 Guildford Town Centre, PO Box 42011,
Surrey BC V3R 1N0
Phone 604.582.1548
email: subscriptions@bchistoryca
Single copies of recent issues are for sale at:
- Book Warehouse, 10th Ave, Vancouver, BC
- Book Warehouse, Broadway, Vancouver, BC
- Caryall Books, Quesnel, BC
- Coast Books, Gibsons, BC
- Gray Creek Store, Gray Creek, BC
- Otter Books, Nelson, BC
- Royal British Columbia Museum Shop,
Victoria, BC
- Touchstones Nelson: Museum of Art &
History, Nelson, BC
ISSN: 1710-7881
Production Mail Registration Number
40025793
Publications Mail Registration No. 09835
We acknowledge the financial support of
the Goverrnment of Canada through the
Canada Periodical Fund of the Department of
Canadian Heritage.
1*1
Canadian     Patrimoine
Heritage       canadien
Canada
British Columbia Historical Federation
A charitable society under the Income Tax Act Organized 31 October 1922
PO Box 5254, Station B., Victoria BC V8R 6N4
www.bchistory.ca
Under the Distinguished Patronage of His Honour
The Honourable Steven L. Point, OBC
Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia
Honorary President: Patricia Roy
Bert Parrott, Bud Garrett, and Dick Jenkins of the 15th Coast
Brigade, clowning around on the Yorke Island beach, 1939. Read
more about their story on page 28.
Image courtesy of John Layton collection
Cover Image: Portrait of Sir Richard Musgrave, circa
1895. Read the story on page 5.
Image C-02828 courtesy of Royal BC Museum, BC Archives
Editorial Advisory Committee
Anne Edwards
Jan Gattrell
Catherine Magee
Ramona Rose
Bill Sloan
While copyright in the journal as a whole is vested in the British Columbia Historical
Federation, copyright of the individual articles belongs to their respective authors, and
articles may be reproduced for personal use only. For reproduction for other purposes
permission in writing of both author and publisher is required.
 Membership
The British Columbia Historical
Federation has been working since 1922
with historical sites, societies, groups,
museums, archives, etc. throughout
British Columbia preserving and
promoting British Columbia's history.
The British Columbia Historical
Federation is an umbrella organization
embracing a variety of membership
categories who are interested in the
preservation and promotion of British
Columbia's history.
•   Member Societies: Local and regional
historical societies with objectives
consistent with those of the
Federation. All dues paying members
of the local or regional society
shall be ipso facto members of the
Federation.
Affiliated Members: Groups,
organizations and institutions without
dues paying members with specialized
interests or objectives of a historical
nature.
Associate Members: Individuals may
become members of the Federation.
Corporate Members: Companies are
entitled to become members of the
Federation.
Annual Membership Dues
Member Societies: one dollar per
member with a minimum membership
fee of $25 and a maximum of $75
• Affiliated Members: $35
• Associate Members: $35
• Corporate Members: $100
For further information about
memberships, contact Ron Hyde:
Membership Chair
BC Historical Federation
10991 No. 1 Road - Box 36105, Richmond
BCV7E1S0.
Phone 604-277-2627
email: membership@bchistory.ca
"Any country worthy of a future should
be interested in its past"
W. Kaye Lamb, 1937
€€£
HISTORY
Journal of the British Columbia Historical Federation | Winter 2011  | Vol. 44 No. 4
Contents
3 Editor's Note
4 Inbox
5 The Fish That Made Campbell River Famous
by Diana Pedersen
In 1896, news that Sir Richard Musgrave had captured a record 70-lb.
salmon with a rod and line launched Campbell River to world fame as a
sportfishing destination.
16 Pat is Pat and That is That: Rev. Thomas Patrick Freney
by R.J. (Ron) Welwood
Rev. Thomas Patrick Freney was not your ordinary, everyday man-of-the-
cloth. In fact, he was cut from an entirely different and unorthodox fabric.
24 W.A. Ingram and the Club Cigar Store of Fernie, BC
By Ronald Greene
From cigar club to barber shop, bowling alley to athletic club, lunch
counter to candy shop, Billy Ingram did it all in spite of fires and personal
tragedy.
28 The Fort at Yorke Island: Getting to Know the Neighbours
By Catherine Marie Gilbert
The soldiers and sailors posted to Yorke Island fort during WWII were only
temporary neighbours to the surrounding coastal communities but left a
lasting impression.
34 A Useful and Practical Career
By Theresa Vogel
Sister Mary Matthew McBride, commercial instructor at St. Ann's Academy,
was responsible for creating a program that combined practical skills with
poise and refinement.
36 Archives & Archivists
by Land Title and Survey Authority; edited by Sylvia Stopforth
The LTSA's new state of-the-art, climate-controlled records vault enhances
the preservation of BC's historic hardcopy land title and survey records.
38 From the Book Review Editor's Desk
by K. Jane Watt
40 Book Reviews
42 Index of Vol. 40 No. 1 to 40 No.4, 2007
Compiled by Melva J. Dwyer
47 Miscellany
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4      1
 Officers
President: Barbara Hynek
2477-140th St., Surrey, BC V4P 2C5
Phone 604.535.9090
president@bchistoryca
First Vice President: Barry Gough
P.O. Box 5037, Victoria, BC V8R 6N3
Phone 250.592.0800
vp l@bchistory.ca
Second Vice President: Gary Mitchell
337 Richmond Ave., Victoria, BC V8S 3Y2
vp2@bchistoryca
Secretary: Jean Wilson
303-3626 West 28th Ave., Vancouver, BC
V6S 1S4
Phone 604.222.2230
secretary@bchistoryca
Treasurer: Ken Welwood
1383 Mallard Road, Parksville, BC
V9P 2A3
Phone 250.752.1888
treasurer@bchistoryca
Past President (ex-officio): Ronald
Greene
PO Box 1351., Victoria, BC V8W 2W7
Phone 250.598.1835 Fax: 250.598.5539
pastpres@bchistoryca
Council Members
48 Cabinets of Curiosities
Andrea Lister, editor and author, tells the tale of a 1911 Chilliwack Hospital
Auxiliary member's card that found its way home after 100 years.
Mary Campone
611 Robson Drive, Kamloops, BC
V2E 2B4
Phone 250.374.1509
directorl@bchistoryca
Marie Elliott
c/o BCHF
PO Box 5254, Stn B, Victoria, BC
V8R 6N4
essays@bchistoryca
Frances Gundry Archivist
c/o BCHF
PO Box 5254, Stn B, Victoria, BC
V8R 6N4
archives@bchistoryca
Derek Hayes
15241 Victoria Ave., White Rock, BC
V4B 1G7
director2@bchistoryca
Gary Mitchell
337 Richmond Ave., Victoria, BC V8S 3Y2
director3@bchistoryca
William R. Morrison
831 Cameron Way, Ladysmith, BC
V9G 1N3
Phone 250.245.9247
director4@bchistoryca or writing®
bchistory.ca
Announcing
B.C. History Online
An exciting new project by the British Columbia Historical Federation
The BCHF is proposing to create an online encyclopedia of British Columbia
History—all those facts about our history you wished you could find on
Wikipedia but never can. It will also differ from the Encyclopedia of British
Columbia currently available online in that it will have free access, and
will concentrate on our history. We feel it will be a super resource for
the general public and for schools and other educational institutions and
encourage the dissemination of knowledge about the province's history.
In order for this project to work, we need contributions from you! To be
useful, the encyclopedia has to contain a lot of information. It will have
a search facility, but if that returns nothing useful, people won't use it.
This is what we need to get going:
A piece on every community—city, town, village, unincorporated area—in BC.
So if you know something of your local history—here's your opportunity to tell
others about it. From Spuzzum to Sicamous, from Surrey to Squamish, we want
your history! You can also write about other places, features, or organizations,
such as your favorite ski hill, golf course, club, etc., as long as you can discover
something of its history—and if you don't know now—research it, it's fun!
If you are feeling more adventurous, we need articles on events in British Columbia
history—all of the various gold rushes, for example, anything for which you feel
you have a good knowledge. Or on topical items such as railways, coal mining,
and so on, or companies that had an effect on our history like the Canadian Pacific,
the Grand Trunk Pacific, Cominco, and so on. If it is BC history—we want it! The
more the better, as it will make the encyclopedia database more comprehensive.
If you have a previous article that you feel would work as part of the encyclopedia,
please do send it in. We can also link to other sources. As long as it is your work,
we can use it.
The name of the author will be attached to each piece, big and small. Revisions
and additions will be possible and encouraged. Images are also allowed when
you have them.
We have made it as easy as we can for you to submit your article.
Go to http://www.bchistoryonline.com for submission guidelines
and contact information. It is as easy as sending an email!
You can be part of BC History Online!
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4
 Editor's Note
Canadian history as a thriller?
Sub
mission
Guideli
nes
"Ambition, hatred and jealousy
drive rivals John A. Macdonald
and George Brown in this political
thriller as they struggle to secure
power and forge a nation. "1 This
was the promise of the CBC film
John A: Birth of a Country in
early September. After watching
an American production on
John Adams, producer Bernard
Zukerman wondered why
Canadians "don't revel in our
own stories the way other nations
do. . . . Don't we have stories to
tell? Aren't our central figures as
brilliant and scheming and noble
and vicious?"
Did John A: the Birth of
a Country live up to the
advertising? Yes, it did for me.
I really enjoyed the film and
it made me proud to be Canadian. I
truly think our history is interesting
and that we need to tell those stories
in a compelling and engaging way; that
is one of the goals of British Columbia
History.
To further that goal, the winter
issue brings you a fish tale, "The Fish
That Made Campbell River Famous" by
Dr. Diana Pedersen starting on page 5.
As our May 2012 annual conference is
in Campbell River we also bring you
an article by Catherine M. Gilbert the
fort at Yorke Island. Both stories have
a theme of outsiders leaving a lasting
impression on the community. Let's
follow in their footsteps and register
for the conference May 3-6, 2012, and
leave a lasting and positive impression
of our own.
The stories by R.J. (Ron) Welwood,
Ronald Greene, and Theresa Vogel are
about three unique individuals who
populate British Columbia's history.
Read the tale of Rev. Thomas Patrick
Freney, an unusual man-of-the-cloth,
Billy Ingram, a Fernie entrepreneur,
and Sister Mary Matthew McBride,
commercial instructor at St. Ann's
Academy.
Our Archives and Archivists
column illustrates how our survey
records are being preserved so we
can continue to research and tell our
stories.
This issue also includes the Index
of Vol. 40 No. 1 to 40 No.4, 2007
compiled by the incomparable Melva
J. Dwyer.
Finally, a story from my own
cabinet. I was pleasantly surprised by
a fellow historian who went out of his
way to ensure that an historical object
was preserved and returned home.
Turn to page 48 for the full story. Small
stories about objects are another way
to tell British Columbia's story. I am
always looking for anecdotes about
historic items so take a look in your
attic and send me your curious and
thrilling stories.
Andrea Lister, Editor
1.   http://www.johnabirthofacountry.com/
Manuscripts that have been published
elsewhere or are under review for
publication elsewhere, will be considered
at the editor's discretion.
• Word Count 1000 to 5000.
• Electronic version, with file extension
(either .doc or .rtf), will be required
should the article be accepted for
publication.
• Endnotes, bibliographies, and/or works
cited should follow Chicago Manual
of Style.
• Photocopies/scans of research material
(pages from books, documents, or
journals you have used) for fact
checking are appreciated.
• Illustrations provided with article
submissions are encouraged:
° submit copies of permissions (or
assurance of permission) for the
images;
°   sufficient resolution for high-quality
reproduction, 300 DPI or a pixel
dimension of 1200x1500 pixels
preferable in jpg or tif format;
°   Not embedded in text—send as
separate files;
°   Please provide suggested captions
for the illustrations;
°   Image credit information must be
provided with all illustrations;
°   Low-resolution images may be sent
with initial submission in cases
where images would need to be
purchased from an institution.
• A two-three sentence biographical note
about the author.
If a manuscript is accepted for
publication, major changes will be cleared
with authors before publication. Authors
will also have the opportunity to do a
final proof check prior to publication.
A publications agreement between the
author and the BCHF will be signed that
outlines both parties' responsibilities.
The Author grants to BCHF the nonexclusive, worldwide irrevocable, royalty-
free, fee-free, fully paid-up right and
license to produce, reproduce, publish,
distribute, communicate to the public by
telecommunication, translate, adapt and
use the Article in the Journal in any form
whatever (including print or electronic
media), and by any technology now
known or hereafter developed, either
separately or as part of a collective work;
The articles, reviews, and other writings
in British Columbia History do not
represent views of the editor or of the
British Columbia Historical Federation;
responsibility for opinions expressed
therein rests solely with the authors.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4     3
 Committees
Education
Brenda L. Smith
#27 11737 236th St, Maple Ridge, BC
V4R 2E5
Phone 604.466.2636
education@bchistory.ca
W. Kaye Lamb Essay Scholarships
Marie Elliott
% BC Historical Federation, P.O. Box 5254,
Station B, Victoria, BC V8R-6N4
essays@bchistoryca
Lieutenant-Governor's Award for Writing
William R. Morrison
831 Cameron Way, Ladysmith, BC
V9G 1N3
Phone 250.245.9247
writing@bchistoryca
Membership
Ron Hyde
10991 No. 1 Road - Box 36105, Richmond
BC V7E ISO
Phone 604.277.2627
membership@bchistoryca
Publications
Jacqueline Gresko
publications@bchistoryca
BC History Editor, Andrea Lister
bcheditor@bchistory
BC History Subscriptions, Alice Marwood
subscriptions@bchistory
Newsletter Editor, Ron Hyde
newsletter@bchistory
Website Editor, R.J. (Ron) Welwood
webeditor@bchistory
Recognition
Gary Mitchell
337 Richmond Ave., Victoria, BC V8S 3Y2
recognition@bchistoryca
Historic Trails and Sites
Tom Lymbery
1979 Chainsaw Ave., Gray Creek, BC VOB
ISO
Phone 250.227.9448 Fax 250.227.9449
trails@bchistoryca
Inbox
Letters from Readers
Editor
I enjoyed the Fall 2011 issue of
British Columbia History immensely
because 3 of the articles triggered
some personal interests. As a step-on
tour guide in Vancouver I also guide
longer tours into the interior every
year. One I have undertaken for the
last many years is a circle tour through
the Chilcotin Region to Bella Coola
and back to the Lower Mainland via
Vancouver Island. One can easily grow
to love the Chilcotin and The Flying Vet
article brought alive names that we roll
through every year. I well remember
my first trip many years ago where our
coach slogged along a muddy Freedom
Highway for over 2 hours before
arriving at Anahim Lake. And of course
there was much more to come before
arriving at the bottom of "The Hill" in
the verdant Bella Coola Valley. With
more pavement in various degrees of
smoothness it is now easier and faster
of course, and even more worthwhile
for the adventurous traveler.
As a railway history buff the Van
Home article filled in detail about
a person whose importance is well
covered by many but rarely in such a
personal or interesting fashion.
And finally, for me, notes on
the Ft. St. James cemetery. While on
tours I have visited the settlement a
few times and appreciate its historical
significance, but again, Elliott added
depth to an otherwise slightly better
than ordinary place. Keep up the good
work.
William Johnston
Burnaby
letter from a reader
I am challenged by the blank
space in the last edition!
I have attended every conference
since Nelson in 1998 — I wouldn't miss
one because of the terrific tours put
on by every host centre, and these are
what attracted me to the conferences
in the first place.
How else would we have got to
Texada Island? The Prince George event
is memorable because of the trip to
Fort St. James, there being addressed
by a granddaughter of Sir James
Douglas. We also travelled to Penny up
the north route, and to a First Nations
church featuring the most beautiful
French stained glass windows. This was
also fabulous because the ingenuity of
the driver of the chartered Greyhound,
who put up "New York" on the header
(destination board).
But best of all, are the great
friends we have made at the
conferences, some of whom have
written BC history books that we have
added to our shelves, to be able to reread another year.
Yours — with great expectations
for the upcoming Campbell River
conference,
Tom Lymbery, Gray Creek
Send us your
thoughts.
British Columbia History welcomes
reader's letters and emails, while
reserving the right to edit them.
Email your story to: bcheditor®
bchistory.ca, or mail it to: Editor,
British Columbia History, P0 Box
21187, Maple Ridge, BC V2X 1P7.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4
 The Fish That Made Campbell River Famous
by Diana Pedersen
In 1896, news that Sir Richard Musgrave had captured a
record 70-lb. salmon with a rod and line launched Campbell
River to world fame as a sportnshing destination.
In October 1896, wealthy sportsmen
in Britain and around the world were
electrified by news from Victoria, British
Columbia, that a salmon-angling world
record had just been established in that remote
corner of the British Empire. Off the mouth of
an obscure river on the east coast of Vancouver
Island, Sir Richard Musgrave had taken a 70-
pound salmon (32 kg) with a rod and line—
reportedly the largest salmon ever captured by
that method. Even more remarkably, the record
salmon was taken in an epic two-hour struggle
in swift-flowing tidal waters, with Sir Richard
in a dugout cedar canoe towed by the monster
salmon and paddled by an Indian. To anglers
accustomed to casting for Atlantic salmon from
the banks of domesticated British streams and
rivers, this fantastic account held more allure
than any tale of lion hunting in Africa.
The news of Sir Richard Musgrave's
record catch at Campbell River in 1896
travelled rapidly to every corner of the British
Empire thanks to the existence of a thriving
sporting press. Like many upper-class
sportsmen, Sir Richard chose to write about
his angling adventure, submitting an account
for publication in The Field—a leading British
sporting magazine. A gelatin cast model of the
70-pound (32 kg) "tyee" salmon,1 produced
at the British Columbia Provincial Museum,
generated additional publicity when it was
exhibited in London in 1897. By the turn of the
century, the sensation created by Sir Richard
Musgrave and his record fish had established
Campbell River as an international sport-
fishing destination. Anglers from all parts of
the Empire embarked for Vancouver Island,
where they hoped to encounter their own
monster salmon and to best the world record
set at Campbell River in 1896.
In the late-Victorian and Edwardian
periods, a long-established tradition of
hunting and fishing as suitable recreations
for elite British men, and as training in the
manly arts of war, found renewed expression
on the imperial frontier.2 Newly accessible by
direct railroad and steamship connections,
Vancouver Island in the 1890s was already
known to imperial sportsmen as a destination
of choice for anglers and big-game hunters.
Given the over-hunting of big game and the
destruction of salmon runs that had occurred
on other continents, in the United States and in
much of the rest of Canada,3 sporting tourists
responded enthusiastically to the promotion of
British Columbia's "wilderness" as a veritable
Dr. Diana Pedersen
taught Canadian
history at Concordia
University for ten
years. She is now
an independent
historian and editor
living in Victoria.
Her current
research interest is
the history of early
sportfishing on
Vancouver Island.
Gelatin cast model
of the 70-lb. salmon
at the British
Museum (Natural
History), 1899.
King Salmon or Quinnat.
Salmo (Oncorhynchus)
quinnat.
(Order Isospondyl. Walt
Case 3)
Distribution—North
Pacific, from Alaska
southwards to California
and northern China,
entering rivers to spawn.
Locality—Campbell River,
British Columbia.
Wei$ht-70 lb. Len$th-
52</2 in. Girth-32'/2 in.
Caught by Sir Richard
Musgrave, 20th Sept.
1896 and presented by
His Grace the Duke of
Wellington.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4     5
 sportsman's Eden that offered an inexhaustible
supply of wildfowl, fish and game.4
British Columbia's abundant wildlife was
also promoted as a perquisite of settlement.5
Land available for purchase or pre-emption on
the south and east coasts of Vancouver Island
attracted educated British immigrants from the
landed and professional classes, whose rural
aesthetic embraced not only farming but also
the sporting pursuits of hunting and fishing.
It was the presence of this "bush gentry"6 as
well as the promise of excellent sport in rivers
teeming with salmon and trout, that drew Sir
Richard Musgrave to Vancouver Island on the
eve of his rise to international salmon-angling
celebrity.
Sir Richard Musgrave (1850-1930) was an
impecunious Anglo-Irish aristocrat, educated
at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge,
who, on the death of his father in 1874, had
inherited his title and 8,282 acres (3354 ha) in
Waterford County, Ireland. As the fifth Baronet
of Tourin, Sir Richard embraced the sporting
life of the country gentleman, demonstrating
little interest in estate management. Instead, he
indulged his enthusiasm for shooting and fox
hunting, and his particular passion for salmon
angling. Leaving the management of his Irish
estate in the care of his mother, he travelled
extensively7
Sir Richard likely learned of the sporting
attractions of Vancouver Island through his
paternal uncle. Edward Musgrave, fourth
son of the third Baronet of Tourin, was one of
many younger sons of the British nobility and
landed gentry who embraced emigration as
an alternative to reduced circumstances and
limited prospects at home.8 In 1885, Edward
Musgrave purchased a 7,000-acre (2835 ha)
sheep farm on the relatively isolated western
section of Salt Spring Island, becoming one of
that island's few large landholders until he sold
the farm in 1892. By 1891, more than 1,100 sheep
roamed the slopes of what was then known as
Musgrave Mountain, their wool being shipped
to Victoria from Musgrave Landing.9
During the years of his uncle's tenure on
Salt Spring Island, Sir Richard was a regular
visitor, sampling the delights of Vancouver
Island's unspoiled trout and salmon rivers.
The settler community nearest to the Musgrave
farm was the village of Cowichan Bay on
Vancouver Island; the Musgraves belonged to
the Cowichan Valley Lawn Tennis Club.10 With
the completion of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo
Railway line in 1886, the exceptional trout
fishing of the Cowichan River became easily
accessible to Vancouver Island's political,
business and military elites.11
By the 1880s, the more northerly and
less accessible Campbell and Salmon Rivers
were also attracting the attention of wealthy
sportsmen, including parties en route to fall
hunting trips in the interior of Vancouver
Island or at the head of Bute Inlet.12 Well before
the capture of his record salmon in 1896, Sir
Richard Musgrave was known to Fred Nunns—
an Irish bachelor who, in 1887, became the first
European settler to pre-empt land on the banks
of the Campbell River. Nunns sometimes
guided hunting and fishing parties. His diary
entries reveal his acquaintance with sporting
gentlemen, surveyors, and naval officers from
Victoria, Esquimalt and Comox; in September
1890, Nunns recorded that Sir Richard had
passed by in a party of four, bound for Salmon
River.13
On Vancouver Island, Sir Richard
Musgrave found not only an angling paradise
but also the solution to his increasing financial
woes. Beginning in 1885, poor crops had forced
him to reduce the rents paid by the tenants
on his Irish estate, resulting in diminished
revenues. Then, at the age of forty, he married
into the wealthy and powerful family founded
by Robert Dunsmuir, who had transformed
himself from an emigrant son of Scottish
coal masters into British Columbia's leading
industrialist. With Robert's death in 1889,
control of the Dunsmuir enterprises passed to
his wife, Joan, who devoted the family fortune
to securing husbands and a place in society for
her eight daughters.14
On September 23, 1891, the wedding of
"Sir Richard John Musgrave, Bart., of Tourin,
Waterford, Ireland, and Miss Jessie Sophia
Dunsmuir, sixth daughter of the late Hon.
Robert Dunsmuir" was reportedly "the most
fashionable and brilliant witnessed in Victoria
for many months." According to the Daily
Colonist, Christ Church Cathedral had never
been decorated "more artistically or more
effectively." It was filled to capacity with
invited  guests—the  elite  of  the  provincial
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4
 capital—"while    hundreds    of    ladies    and
dozens of gentlemen not so highly honored,
crowded the side seats in the church, the aisles,
the churchyard and the streets." During the
afternoon,  Sir Richard and Lady Musgrave
lavishly entertained several hundred guests
at the bride's home, "Craigdarroch," before
embarking  on their honeymoon voyage  to
the   groom's   ancestral   home   in   Ireland.15
Caroline    (Trutch)    O'Reilly   reported
to   her   absent   husband,   Indian
Reserve    Commissioner    Peter
O'Reilly:     "[Jessie]     looked
very  well  and  the  whole
marriage      arrangements
were    perfect,    weather
included... [E] ven      Sir
Richard   managed   to
make   the   most   of
himself, and behaved
very well."16
Whatever  the
reputation  of  "the
Bart"    among   the
social elite of the
provincial   capital,
Joan       Dunsmuir
must   have   been
pleased        indeed
to acquire him as
a   son-in-law.   Her
willingness to settle
several        hundred
thousand dollars on
her daughter helped
persuade  Sir Richard
to     renege     on     his
promise to a fiancee in
London. The phenomenon
of     transatlantic     marital
alliances  between  members
of   the   cash-strapped   British
peerage and the socially ambitious
plutocracy of Canada and the United
States was widespread in the late Victorian and
Edwardian eras. Jessie, sixteen years younger
than Sir Richard, was the first of the Dunsmuir
daughters to marry a peer, and she found
husbands for two of her sisters in the whirl of
Dublin society17
The  Dunsmuir  fortune  financed  both
the maintenance of the Musgrave estate in
Ireland and the lavish lifestyle of Sir Richard
and Lady Musgrave. His wife's money made it
possible for Sir Richard to pursue his interest
in salmon angling on Vancouver Island. The
couple followed a seasonal round that allowed
Sir Richard to remain  a regular visitor to
Campbell River during the annual Chinook
spawning run. Spending the latter months of
the year in England for the London season, Sir
Richard and Lady Musgrave proceeded
to Monte Carlo for the early months
of the year and then to their estate
in Ireland for the early summer.
In late summer, they returned
to       Vancouver       Island,
allowing Jessie to visit her
family while Sir Richard
indulged   his   love   of
salmon angling.18
Another    benefit
of marriage  into  the
Dunsmuir family was
access to the family's
private  yacht,   fitted
out for Sir Richard's
brothers-in-law,
James      and     Alex
Dunsmuir, who were
both keen sportsmen.
In his account in The
Field in October 1896,
Sir   Richard   records
that,   thanks   to   the
loan of a yacht by his
brother-in-law,   Mr.   A.
Dunsmuir,   he   and  his
friend, Mr. H.W. Gordon,
were able to reach their
fishing destination-
river   difficult   of   access.'
Certainly there was no regular „
steamer service or docking facility |
at the mouth of the Campbell River, y
European    settlement    on    Vancouver |
Island was just beginning to push northward I
as coastal land in the vicinity of Comox was ™
either pre-empted or logged. "Campbell River" I
consisted of little more than a few stump farms, *
precariously established along the river and on I
the shore of Discovery Passage, with much of *
the surrounding land being covered by timber g
leases.20 Adjacent to the estuary, and covering „
a
"19
Lady Musgrave, nee
Jessie Dunsmuir,
circa 1895
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4
 the Tyee Spit, was Indian Reserve No. 11 of the
Campbell River Indian Band (now part of the
Wei Wai Kum First Nation).21
The Campbell River estuary has been the
site of a thriving salmon fishery for thousands
of years, and it continues to attract sport fishers
to this day. Although there are many salmon
rivers along the British Columbia coastline, few
others provide year-round fishing and access
to all five species of Pacific salmon during the
late-summer and fall spawning runs.22 As one
of the largest rivers on Vancouver Island, the
Campbell River was nourished and protected
by a system of waterfalls and storage lakes
and by vast stands of timber. With its bed of
large cobble-rock gravel, it provided an ideal
environment for the production of abundant
runs of exceptionally large Chinook salmon.23
In the tidal waters of Discovery
Passage—the surging "river of salt" separating
Vancouver Island from Valdes (now Quadra)
Island24—the Kwak'wala-speaking Laich-kwil-
tach tribes perfected the technique of trolling
with a handline from a cedar canoe. In the
highly adapted and specialized aboriginal
fishery of the Pacific Northwest, trolling
(trailing a weighted hook and line behind a
slowly moving boat) was reserved for tidal
waters and was a method developed especially
for taking Coho and Chinook salmon. It
required excellent boat-handing skills, as well
as extensive knowledge of the local waters and
of fish behaviour and habitat.25
In addition to being unfamiliar with
the local waters and the various species of
Pacific salmon, British anglers arriving in the
Pacific Northwest—excepting those who had
fished in the lochs and fjords of Scotland and
Norway—lacked experience with fishing from
boats and with the method of trolling.26 In fact,
trolling was widely regarded by "true anglers"
as dull, lacking challenge, and best suited to
men who had lost the vigour of youth. Upper-
class Victorian British sportsmen esteemed flyfishing above all other methods of fishing.27
In British Columbia, however, British
anglers discovered that migrating Pacific
salmon generally refused the fly after entering
their home rivers. News of this "unsporting"
behaviour by British Columbia salmon was
carried back to Britain and repeated many times
in the piscatorial press. As "Silver Doctor"
lamented in 1898 in The Fishing Gazette: ".. .what
other country can show to the same extent the
enormous numbers of salmon which yearly
ascend its chief rivers and their tributaries?
And yet there is no region where they are so
callous and indifferent to the attractions of the
Jock Scott or other kindred allurements."28
Although a few determined anglers
conducted experiments with the artificial fly
and enjoyed limited success, it was not until
the 1930s that fly-fishing for salmon was
launched as a sporting attraction at Campbell
River.29 At the end of the nineteenth century,
British sportsmen viewed the abundance of
large salmon being taken by Laich-kwil-tach
handliners in Discovery Passage, and began
to rethink their prejudice against trolling as
a form of sport fishing. The fact that skilled
Laich-kwil-tach guides or "boatmen" were
available for hire from the villages at Campbell
River and Cape Mudge, along with their
canoes that were designed for the local waters,
made it possible for a troll-based sport fishery
to develop rapidly.
By the 1890s, Comox was already well
developed as a sporting destination offering
first-class hotel accommodation. Fishing
excursions to Comox were popular with naval
officers, government officials, members of the
judiciary, wealthy businessmen, and visiting
dignitaries.30 Those with access to steam
launches and private yachts could continue
north to the Campbell River where larger fish
abounded and wildfowl were plentiful. Parties
of surveyors and engineers sometimes made
arrangements for unscheduled stops by passing
coastal steamers serving the newly-established
Union Steamship Company.
The comings and goings of private hunting
and fishing parties to Comox, Campbell River
and other destinations were often reported in
the Victoria Daily Colonist, either as local news
or on the society pages. The party's "bag" of
game, fowl or fish was recorded, particularly
if deemed noteworthy in some regard. Thus
the news of Sir Richard Musgrave's return to
Nanaimo from Campbell River appeared in a
small local news item in the Daily Colonist in
September 1896.
Nanaimo, Sept. 21.—Sir Richard
Musgrave brought from Union a dozen
or more salmon, averaging forty-five
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4
 pounds each, which were caught with a
rod and line in Campbell river. One of
these weighed 70 pounds and measured
about 4 feet 8 inches. It was landed in
a canoe by Sir Richard after nearly two
hours hard fighting.
Clearly the Daily Colonist considered the sheer
number of large salmon, all taken with a rod
and line, to be newsworthy. The 70-pound
(32 kg) salmon was singled out in this report,
but there was as yet no mention of a salmon-
angling world record.31
This small announcement in the Victoria
Daily Colonist undoubtedly caused a stir among
Island sportsmen, but it was a longer account
in The Field: The Country Gentleman's Newspaper
that brought Sir Richard Musgrave and his
fish, now confirmed as a world record, to the
attention of the international angling fraternity.
The Field was one of the leading British sporting
magazines, circulating throughout the Empire
and publishing articles on topics ranging from
natural history, agriculture, horses, and dogs,
to rowing, shooting, hunting, and fishing. Tales
of hunting and fishing adventures in Britain's
colonies were especially popular features.
"A Seventy-Pound Salmon with Rod and
Line," contributed by R.J. Musgrave, Victoria,
British Columbia, appeared in The Field on
October 24,1896. In the late Victorian period, it
was common for upper-class British sportsmen
to publish accounts of their travels and
exploits. These were consumed voraciously in
the enormously popular sporting magazines
that combined the forms of the adventure
tale and the travelogue. Writers of sporting
literature aspired to high literary standards
and appealed to educated readers by providing
detailed descriptions of people and places,
peppered with observations on natural history,
geography and ethnography32
Sir Richard Musgrave introduces
his account in The Field as a tale of "some
extraordinary fishing which my friend, Mr.
H.W. Gordon, of the Royal Engineers,33 and
myself, enjoyed lately on a river in British
Columbia." The party of two was transported
by the Dunsmuir steamer to the Laich-kwil-tach
village at Cape Mudge, opposite the mouth of
the Campbell River, where they engaged "two
canoes with an Indian apiece to paddle for us
and gaff our fish."34 Next, they were landed "on
the beach"—presumably the Tyee Spit at the
mouth of the river—"with our baggage, tents,
fishing rods, &c, and waited some time till the
canoes, which we found very small arrived."
Sir Richard and Gordon then spent the next
eight days camped about a mile (1.6 km) up
the river, which would have placed them on
the property of Fred Nunns, with whom Sir
Richard was already acquainted.
Sir Richard provides a day-by-day
account of his and Gordon's activities during
their stay on the Campbell River, with emphasis
on the day's "bag." Beginning at six o'clock
each morning, they trolled for several hours
in the river, taking both spring (Chinook) and
silver (Coho) salmon. After lunch, they varied
their activities, with Sir Richard shooting
several dozen duck over the course of the week
and Gordon casting for trout. Several large
salmon were included in each day's bag. As
Sir Richard observes to readers of The Field:
"Our nineteen spring salmon averaged 48.4
lb., which I think you will agree with me is a
wonderful average."
On one day, Sir Richard and Gordon went
down to the mouth of the river to observe the
local Laich-kwil-tach people taking Chinook
salmon with a beach seine. According to Sir
Richard, 2,400 pounds (1,089 kg) of salmon
were taken in one haul—fifty-four salmon
averaging about 45 pounds (20 kg) each. There
was, however, "not one as big as the 70 lb. fish
I had landed on Monday. The net broke and
a good many got away. It was a sight to see
these huge fish dashing about as the net drew
near land. Everybody was gaffing, shouting, or
hitting the catch on the head."
In contrast to many of the angling
authors who followed him to Campbell River,
Sir Richard does not credit the boat-handling
skills of his Laich-kwil-tach guides. Tyee
fishing in a canoe required furious paddling
in choppy, fast-flowing water to keep pace
with the powerful rushes of a hooked salmon
and to keep the line from breaking under the
strain. Gaffing and boating the fish was a two-
man task. As Sir Richard observes: "It is no
joke getting a 50 lb. fish alive and kicking into
a small canoe, which is made out of a single
cedar tree." The visiting anglers were entirely
dependent on the local men who knew the
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4     9
 water and who could handle a canoe and wield
a gaff.
Victorian sporting authors—engaged in
the demonstration of their own competence,
resourcefulness and masculinity—were often
discomfited by their dependency on other men
in the wild, especially their presumed social
inferiors. The "sports" frequently responded by
disparaging their guides.35 Sir Richard rejects
as "most excruciating" the Laich-kwil-tach
practice of dispatching a played-out salmon
by means of a blow to the head with a wooden
club. In recounting the capture of a 52-pound
(24 kg) salmon, he complains that his gaff had
"become almost useless, as it had been drawn
out nearly straight by the weight of the fish and
by the vigorous way in which Tom, my Indian,
gaffed them. In the end I managed to teach him
how to do his work a little more scientifically."
Surprisingly little of Sir Richard's account
in The Field is devoted to the capture of the 70-
pound (32 kg) salmon. Customarily, angling
authors offered more extended descriptions of
the playing of the fish in order to provide their
readers with a sense of vicarious participation.36
On the angler's favourite subject of tackle, Sir
Richard has little to say beyond referring to
his reel as "a big Nottingham, with regulating
screw," and observing that both spring and
silver salmon "according to custom here, were
caught with the spoon, some of them in the
river, and some of them at its mouth."
Readers of The Field, however, were
enthralled by a brief passage describing the
day of Sir Richard's encounter with the monster
salmon. Evidently, trolling for salmon at
Campbell River was not the "duffer's delight"
disdained by serious anglers; it offered, instead,
the prospect of a mighty contest between man
and fish.
Next day was eventful, as I hooked a
real monster. I played him for an hour
and three-quarters. He turned out to be
70 lb., which, I believe, is the biggest
salmon ever killed on a rod and line
and double gut. There was a very swift
current, and he must have taken me
nearly three miles down the coast. My
back and arms were thoroughly tired,
and my left was trembling so much that
I could hardly put a cigarette in my
mouth, owing to the long, continuous
strain. An old golf glove, too, was quite
cut through by the line, and I had great
difficulty in saving my fingers. I also
got a 50 lb., a 47 lb., and two silver
salmon of 10 lb. and 7 lb. After lunch
I shot four teal, and Gordon got four
trout of about 3 lb. apiece with the fly.
Curiously, this passage manages to convey
the impression that Sir Richard was alone in the
canoe. His Laich-kwil-tach boatman, Tom—
surely exhausted too—remained responsible
for the long paddle back to the river mouth; the
victorious angler customarily collapsed in the
canoe with his vanquished quarry. The Field's
readers could only dream of such a morning
on a glorious day that included successful
trolling for large salmon, fly fishing for trout,
and shooting wildfowl, all at a single location.
By late-Victorian British standards, this was a
remarkable account.
Like the big-game hunters who came
to British Columbia in search of trophy
specimens of wapiti and mountain sheep,
some wealthy anglers hoped for a tyee salmon
that could be mounted and displayed in their
private den or men's club. In 1896, fish taken
in Vancouver Island waters could be sent
directly by steamship to taxidermy studios in
Nanaimo and Victoria. Special boxes existed
for transporting trophy fish. Sir Richard had
come to Campbell River prepared with such
a box, although it proved inadequate for a
70-pound (32 kg) salmon. "I knew that we
should probably get a big one, and brought up
a watertight box 3 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 6 in., but I had
to cut off the tail of the big fellow to put him in
it, as he measured 52Vi in., girth 32Vi in., width
of tail 15 in."37
Although there were at least four
taxidermy studios operating in Victoria in
1896,38 Sir Richard Musgrave's record fish
was destined to receive special treatment at
the British Columbia Provincial Museum at
the hands of its first Curator. John Fannin's
appointment in 1886 was due primarily to his
reputation as a skilled taxidermist and to the
network of wealthy contacts he had acquired
while working as a guide for hunting and
fishing parties. The new Museum had few
staff and no specific mandate for collection.
Fannin therefore encouraged the province's
sportsmen, many of whom were also amateur
10
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4
 naturalists, to donate significant specimens
for the Museum's collections showcasing the
province's wildlife.39
Thanks to John Fannin's skill at fish
taxidermy, the 70-pound (32 kg) salmon from
Campbell River came to achieve international
celebrity status in its own right. Most British
anglers, of course, had never seen a Pacific
salmon, let alone a record "tyee." Skeptics and
curiosity seekers were informed by Sir Richard
Musgrave in The Field that they would shortly
have the opportunity to view the trophy fish
in London. "Mr. Fannin, of the Museum at
Victoria, is kindly going to make a gelatine
model of him for me, and I hope to bring back
next month a memento of one of the pleasantest
weeks I think I ever spent. If any of your readers
care to see this fish, he will be at Mr. Ward's, in
Piccadilly, to be mounted."40
Rowland Ward was the leading
taxidermist of his day. His London studio was
patronized by the elite of imperial sportsmen,
and his authoritative publications stimulated
the Victorian mania for the collection of trophy
specimens and the competition for records.41 In
The Sportsman's Handbook to Practical Collecting,
Preserving, and Artistic Setting-Lip of Trophies
and Specimens, Ward advised his readers that
the preservation of fish presented special
challenges. Since the careful removal and
chemical treatment of the fish skin was generally
impossible in the field, few "foreign fish," he
noted, reached his studio in any condition to be
mounted in a satisfactory manner. A popular
alternative in such cases was the production of
a cast model of the fish using plaster of Paris
that could then be left white or painted by an
artist to simulate the fish's natural colouring.42
Happily for Sir Richard Musgrave,
his triumphant return from Campbell River
to Victoria with his boxed trophy fish in
September 1896 coincided with the adoption
of a new process for preserving and displaying
fish in natural history museums. This process,
pioneered at the Smithsonian Institution,
resulted in a cast model made from hardened
gelatin, rather than plaster of Paris, which was
judged to produce a much more lifelike and
durable replica. The new method, described by
the Victoria Daily Colonist, had been introduced
to the Provincial Museum in 1895:
First a plaster of Paris cast is made of
a fish; then into this mould is poured
the composition composed mainly of
gelatine, glue and wax. This takes a
very sharp impression and when it
hardens is not unlike India rubber in
appearance and nature. The minutest
markers of scales or fins are wonderfully
well brought out and color is all that
is lacking. This coloring is being done
in oils by Mr. Shrapnel, R.A., with
a real fish as a copy and the result is
that it would be hard indeed to tell the
imitation from the real.43
Curator John Fannin had adopted the
"Smithsonian system of preservation" in order
to improve the Provincial Museum's display of
British Columbia food fishes, intended for the
edification of visitors to the provincial capital.
In the creation of such a grouping, Fannin
moved the Museum away from traditional
approaches to natural history displays featuring
random arrangements of discrete objects.44 He
also anticipated the modern trend toward the
manufacture of replica fish mounts produced
entirely from synthetic materials.
When Sir Richard Musgrave and his
fish reached Victoria in September 1896,
John Fannin had returned that very month
from a three-month tour of museums in
North America and England. According to
the Daily Colonist, Fannin had "found to his
unbounded satisfaction that the fish collection
here surpasses in interest and value that of
any other in the world."45 In the case of Sir
Richard's salmon, Fannin undoubtedly saw an
opportunity to acquire a significant specimen
that would attract visitors to the Museum.
Since the employment of a piece mould made
it possible to produce several mounts from a
single fish, Fannin's use of the Smithsonian's
new method of fish preservation also provided
Sir Richard with a trophy to display before his
angling confreres in Britain.
In the spring of 1897, the exhibition in
London of a cast model of the monster salmon
from Campbell River caused a sensation in
sporting circles. In its March issue, The Field
reminded its readers of Sir Richard Musgrave's
report, in the previous October issue, of his
capture of a 70-pound (32 kg) salmon with a
rod and line.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011  | Vol. 44 No. 4      11
 Gelatin cast model
of Sir Richard
Musgrave's salmon
(lower left) at the
Provincial Museum
of Natural History
and Ethnology,
Victoria, BC, 1909.
So far as any living man knows, this is
the largest salmon killed in that manner
of which there is any authentic record.
The cast of the fish, beautifully done, is
on view at Mr. Rowland Ward's, 166
Piccadilly. The interest taken in the
monster is proved by the fact that, since
the promise in the Field of last October
that it would be on exhibition at Mr.
Ward's, there were continual callers
before the cast arrived.
The Field also published a photograph of the
cast model fish, provided by Rowland Ward.46
According to T.W. Lambert's Fishing in
British Columbia, published in London in 1907,
the cast of Sir Richard Musgrave's salmon was
also displayed "at Farlow's, in the Strand" in
the spring of 1897, presumably after it had
been mounted at Rowland Ward's.47 Founded
in 1840, Charles Farlow and Company was
one of the leading London tackle businesses,
making rods, reels, flies and other accessories,
and exporting a substantial amount of tackle
to North America.48 Where the model salmon
made its home for the next two years is
unclear, but in 1899 it was presented by Henry
Wellesley, third Duke of Wellington, to the
British Museum (Natural History), now the
Natural History Museum, where it resides in
storage today (BMNH 1899.10.9.1).
In the years that followed the sensational
news of Sir Richard Musgrave's salmon-
angling world record, every imperial
sportsman who wrote an account of his trip to
Campbell River paid homage to Sir Richard's
tale of his encounter with the monster salmon.
Typical was Sir John Rogers, author of Sport
in Vancouver and Newfoundland, who travelled
directly from Cairo to Campbell River in the
summer of 1908. "From the day I read in The
Field Sir Richard Musgrave's article, A seventy-
pound salmon with rod and line,' and located
12
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4
 the river as the Campbell River, I determined
that should the opportunity arise, I, too, would
try my luck in those waters."49
As a celebrity among imperial sportsmen,
Sir Richard was sometimes consulted by
visiting anglers. In August 1899, a twenty-
one-year old Piscator from a wealthy Anglo-
Irish family—identified only as "Dick" in a
later account—arrived in Victoria, en route to
the Cowichan and Campbell Rivers, with a
letter of introduction to the Dunsmuir family.
"Dick" recorded in his diary that he discussed
the fishing at Campbell River with Sir Richard,
who "was very kind and put me wise generally
how to set about going there, and whom to
get as guide."50 At the end of Sir Richard's life,
according to his obituary in the Cork Examiner,
he recalled the taking of the 70-pound (32 kg)
salmon at Campbell River as his proudest
moment.51
The cast model fish continued to serve
as an attraction at the Provincial Museum
in Victoria.52 A 1909 visitors' guide to the
Museum's collections recommended the fine
"gelatine casts" of "the fishes of the Province,"
that included "a Tyhee or Spring Salmon
(Oncorhynchus tschawytscha, [Walbaum]),
weighing seventy pounds, caught in
Campbell River with rod and line."53 Deputy
Fisheries Commissioner John Pease Babcock
advised readers of the many editions of his
internationally-distributed GameFishes of British
Columbia that a cast of the "magnificent fish"
caught by Sir Richard Musgrave could be seen
at the Provincial Museum.54 The model fish
was evidence, according to the Victoria Daily
Colonist in 1908, of Campbell River's standing
as "perhaps the greatest fishing ground in the
world."
The sport afforded his disciples, who
flock there annually from all parts of
the globe, would make old Isaak green
with envy. The "tyee" salmon run
away up in weight to between eighty
and ninety pounds, one of the record
fish, caught by Sir Richard Musgrave,
of Victoria, being preserved in the
provincial museum for the benefit of
any "Doubting Thomas. "55
The Victoria Daily Times, too, in a 1908
special edition on the attractions of Vancouver
Island, called Campbell River "the ideal fishing
water of the world," and quoted the world-
travelled sportsman and author, Captain Clive
Phillipps-Wolley:
I have...a fair share of imagination,
but I cannot, if I would, tell a fish story
about British Columbia. The truth
would beat the most superlative liar.
You can see Sir Richard Musgrave's
seventy-pound salmon in the Victoria
museum. I should blush to try and
make it bigger.56
Sir Richard Musgrave and his 70-pound
salmon introduced Campbell River to the
international angling fraternity and established
the tiny hamlet on Discovery Passage as a
destination for imperial sportsmen. Campbell
River's appeal was enhanced by Sir Richard's
concluding reference to its idyllic setting and
proximity to excellent hunting. "Grizzly,
brown, and black bear can be got quite easily,
while wapiti can be got with a little hard work,
and deer, geese, and duck are very numerous...
The climate is perfect, and the scenery beyond
description in this happy hunting ground."
Most importantly, the tale of Sir Richard
and his record fish demonstrated that at
Campbell River—a location where suitable
boats and skilled boatmen were readily
engaged—monster salmon could be taken with
a rod and line in waters that promised the most
exciting salmon trolling ever encountered by
world-travelled sportsmen. The prospect of a
journey to Campbell River allowed each angler
to dream that he would be the one to break Sir
Richard Musgrave's world record of 1896. The
tyee rush was on! •
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011  | Vol. 44 No. 4      13
 Endnotes
The author would like to thank
Linda Hogarth and Sandra Parrish
at the Museum at Campbell
River, Moretta Frederick and
Lome Hammond at the Royal BC
Museum, and Oliver Crimmen and
Juliet McConnell at the Natural
History Museum (London) for
their assistance with the research
for this paper.
1. Oncorhynchus tshawytshcha is
the largest and least abundant of
the five North American species
of Pacific salmon; it is known
variously as Spring, Chinook, King,
Quinnat, or Tyee. "Tyee" was the
word for "Chief" in the Chinook
trade jargon of the Northwest
Coast.
2. John M. MacKenzie, "The
imperial pioneer and hunter and
the British masculine stereotype
in late Victorian and Edwardian
times," in Manliness and Morality:
Middle-class Masculinity in
Britain and America, 1800-1940,
ed. J.A. Mangan and James
Walvin. (Manchester: Manchester
University Press, 1987), 176-98.
3. John M. MacKenzie, The Empire
of Nature: Hunting, Conservation and
British Imperialism (Manchester:
Manchester University Press, 1988);
David R. Montgomery, King of Fish:
The Thousand-Year'Run of Salmon
(Boulder, CO: Westview Press,
2003).
4. Karen Wonders, "A Sportsman's
Eden: Part I, A Wilderness
Beckons," The Beaver 79, 5
(October/November 1999): 26-32,
and "A Sportsman's Eden: Part II,
A Wilderness Besieged," The Beaver
79, 6 (December 1999/January
2000): 30-7; George Colpitis,"
"Wildlife Promotions, Western
Canadian Boosterism, and the
Conservation Movement, 1890-
1914," American Review of Canadian
Studies (Spring/Summer 1998):
103-30.
5. For example, J. Despard
Pemberton, Facts and Figures
Relating to Vancouver Island and
British Columbia Showing What
to Expect and How to Get There
(London: Longman, Green,
Longman and Roberts, 1860), 29.
6. Richard Mackie, "Cougars,
Colonists, and the Rural Settlement
of Vancouver Island," in Beyond the
City Limits: Rural History in British
Columbia, ed. Ruth Sandwell.
(Vancouver: UBC Press, 1999), 126.
7. Terry Reksten, The Dunsmuir
Saga (Vancouver: Douglas &
Mclntyre, 1991), 128-9; J.F. Bosher,
Imperial Vancouver Island: Who Was
Who, 1850-1950 (Bloomington, IN:
Xlibris Corporation, 2010), 521;
Cambridge University Alumnae,
1261-1900, online database,
Ancestry.com. Sir Richard
Musgrave was never a military
man, although he is sometimes
erroneously identified as an officer
in the Royal Navy.
8. Patrick A. Dunae, Gen tlemen
Emigrants: From the British Public
Schools to the Canadian Frontier
(Vancouver/Toronto: Douglas &
Mclntyre, 1981), 48-65.
9. Charles Kahn, Salt Spring: The
Story of an Island (Madeira Park,
BC: Harbour Publishing, 1998),
113-14,179-80.
10. Kahn, Salt Spring, 137.
11. Art Lingren, Famous British
Columbia Fly-Fishing Waters
(Portland, OR: Frank Amato
Publications, 2002), 51; Georgina
Montgomery; photographer,
Kevin Oke, The Cowichan: Duncan,
Chemainus, Ladysmith and Region
(Madeira Park, BC: Harbour
Publishing, 2009), 18, 92.
12. For example, Clive Phillipps-
Wolley The Trottings of a
Tenderfoot: A Visit to the Columbian
Fiords and Spitzbergen (London:
Richard Bentley and Son, 1884),
http://www.archive.org/details/
trottingsoftendeOOphiluoft.
13. D.E. Isenor, E.G. Stephens, and
D.E. Watson, Edge of Discovery: A
History of the Campbell River District
(Campbell River: Ptarmigan Press,
1989), 16, 51-4, 231-2; Museum at
Campbell River Archives (hereafter
MCRA), Diary of Fred Nunns,
September 16,1890.
14. Reksten, Dunsmuir Saga, 128-9;
Dictionary of Canadian Biography
Online, s.v. "Dunsmuir, Robert,"
http://www.biographi.ca/index-
e.html
15. "Fashionable Wedding. Sir
Richard Musgrave, Bart, and
Miss Lizzie[sic] Sophia Dunsmuir
United in Marriage. Christ Church
Cathedral Crowded by the Fashion
and Beauty of Victoria," Victoria
Daily Colonist, September 24,1891,
5, http://www.britishcolonist.
ca/dateList.php.
16. Reksten, Dunsmuir Saga,
129-30, 275; "James K. Nesbitt
has Uncovered Letters of a Noted
Victoria Family," Victoria Daily
Colonist, "The Islander," September
17,1961,16. On Caroline O'Reilly
as social arbiter, see Valerie Green,
Above Stairs: Social Life in Upper
Class Victoria, 1843-1918 (Victoria,
BC: Sono Nis Press, 1995), 72-9.
17. Reksten, Dunsmuir
Saga, 129,188; Maureen E.
Montgomery, "Gilded Prostitution ":
Status, Money, and Transatlantic
Marriages, 1870-1914 (London:
Routledge, 1989).
18. Reksten, Dunsmuir Saga, 202.
19. MCRA, Clipping, R.J.
Musgrave, Victoria, British
Columbia, "A Seventy-Pound
Salmon with Rod and Line," The
Field: The Country Gentleman's
Newspaper, Vol. 88, October 24,
1896.
20. Richard Mackie, The Wilderness
Profound: Victorian Life on the Gulf
of Georgia (Victoria, BC: Sono Nis
Press, 1995), 186, 234; Jeanette
Taylor, River City: A History of
Campbell River and the Discovery
Islands (Madeira Park, BC: Harbour
Publishing, 1999), 38-45.
21. Ian Douglas; photographer,
Boomer Jerritt, Campbell River:
Gateway to the Inside Passage,
Including Strathcona, the Discovery
Islands and the Mainland Inlets
(Madeira Park, BC: Harbour
Publishing, 2010), 13, 54-8.
22. Robert H. Jones and Larry E.
Stefanyk, Island Salmon Fisherman
(Madeira Park, BC: Harbour
Publishing, 2008), 109-19.
23. Roderick L. Haig-Brown,
The Seasons of a Fisherman: A Fly
Fisher's Classic Evocations of Spring,
Summer, Fall, and Winter Fishing
(New York: Lyon's Press, 2000), 97;
Van Gorman Egan, Tyee: The Story
of the Tyee Club of British Columbia
(Campbell River, BC: Ptarmigan
Press, 1988), 3-7.
24. Van Gorman Egan, River of Salt:
Tyee Fishing in Discovery Passage
(Campbell River, BC: Riverside
Publications, 2004), 3-7.
25. Hilary Stewart, Indian Fishing:
Early Methods on the Northwest Coast
(Vancouver: J.J. Douglas, Ltd.,
1977), 41-2, 62-3; Dianne Newell,
Tangled Webs of History: Indians and
the Law in Canada's Pacific Coast
Fisheries (Toronto: University of
Toronto Press, 1993), 33-4.
26. Haig-Brown, Seasons of a
Fisherman, 127-8, 254.
27. For example, "Redspinner,"
"The British Angler," Outing
VIII, No. 3 (June 1886), 281-90,
http://www.la84foundation.org/
SportsLibrary/Outing/Volume_08/
outVIII03/outVIII03d .pdf.
28. MCRA, Clipping, "Silver
Doctor," "Salmon Fishing in British
Columbia," The Fishing Gazette, July
9,1898, 23.
29. Les Johnson and Bruce
Ferguson, Fly-Fishingfor Pacific
Salmon II (Portland, OR: Frank
Amato Publications, 2008), 32-7.
30. Mackie, Wilderness Profound,
153; "Comox for Sportsmen,"
Victoria Daily Colonist, September
13,1899, 7.
31. "News of the Province.
Nanaimo," Victoria Daily Colonist,
September 22,1896, 2.
32. R.G Moyles and Doug Owram,
Imperial Dreams and Colonial
Realities: British Views of Canada,
1880-1914 (Toronto: University of
Toronto Press, 1988), 60-85.
14
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4
 33. Lieutenant H.W Gordon of the
Corps of Royal Engineers, nephew
of British war hero General C. G.
"Chinese" Gordon, was stationed
at Esquimalt from 1894 to 1897 as a
member of a detachment sent from
Halifax to build new concrete-and-
earth fortifications (now Fort Rodd
Hill National Historic Site) for the
defence of Victoria and the naval
base at Esquimalt. See Frances
M. Woodward, "The Influence
of the Royal Engineers on the
Development of British Columbia,"
BC Studies 24 (Winter 1974-75):
30-1.
34. Although the identities of
Sir Richard's guide, Tom, and
Lieutenant Gordon's unnamed
guide, cannot be known with
absolute certainty, the most likely
candidates are Tom Kwak-sees-
tahla and another member of the
family of Captain John Kwak-sees-
tahla who lived at Cape Mudge
and on the Tyee Spit. According to
Fred Nunns' diaries, Captain John
"Quacksista" and his sons offered
their services to visitors as hunting
and fishing guides during the
1890s. Thanks to Linda Hogarth for
consultation on this question.
35. Tina Loo, "Of Moose and Men:
Hunting for Masculinities in British
Columbia, 1880-1939," Western
Historical Quarterly 32 (Autumn
2001): 311-15.
36. Compare an account of a
subsequent trip on the Dunsmuir
yacht to the same location. The
party included Sir Richard
Musgrave but the account was
written by one of his companions,
identified as "One of the Party."
MCRA, Clipping, "The Big Salmon
of British Columbia," The Field: The
Country Gentleman's Newspaper,
n.d., ca. 1897-99.
37. Musgrave, "A Seventy-Pound
Salmon with Rod and Line,".
38. The Vancouver City Directory,
March 1896. Containing Provincial
and Local Information with a
Classified Business Directory of
the Province, (Vancouver, B.C.:
Hodgson & Co., 1896), 238,
http://www.vpl.ca/bccd/index.
php/browse/title/1896/Vancouver_
City_Directory
39. Peter Corley-Smith, White Bears
and other curiosities... The First 100
Years of the Royal British Columbia
Museum (Victoria: Royal British
Columbia Museum, 1989), 18-28.
40. Musgrave, "A Seventy-Pound
Salmon with Rod and Line,".
50. An account of "Dick's" journey
is appended to an angling memoir
by his friend, G.D. Luard, Fishing
Adventures in Canada and U.S.A.
(London: Faber & Faber, 1950), 113-
157; diary excerpt, 122.
41. MacKenzie, Empire of Nature, 35.      g
42. Rowland Ward, F.Z.S., The
Sportsman's Handbook to Practical
Collecting, Preserving, and Artistic
Setting-Up of Trophies and Specimens.
To Which is Added a Synoptical Guide
to the Hunting Grounds of the World
(London: Simpkin, Marshall, &
Co., 3rd ed., 1883), 25-6, 56-7, 79-81,
http://www.archive.org/details/
sportsmanshandbOOwardgoog.
43. "British Columbia Fishes. To
Be Exhibited in Natural Color in
the Provincial Museum Collection.
The Smithsonian System of
Preservation—Experiments Prove
Highly Satisfactory," Victoria Daily
Colonist, February 13,1895, 5.
44. Corley-Smith, White Bears, 38.
45. "British Columbia's Museum.
Curator Fannin Returns from
an Interesting Tour Productive
of Much Valuable Information,"
Victoria Daily Colonist, September
13,1896, 8.
46. MCRA, Clipping, "Sir Richard
Musgrave's 70 lb. Salmon," The
Field: The Country Gentleman's
Newspaper, March 27,1897.
47. T.W Lambert, Fishing in
British Columbia With a Chapter
on Tuna Fishing at Santa Catalina
(London: Horace Cox, 1907), 97,
http://www.archive.org/details/
fishinginbritishOOlambuoft.
48. A.J. Campbell, Classic and
Antique Fly-Fishing Tackle: A
Guide for Collectors and Anglers
(Guildford, CT: Globe Pequot
Press, 1997), 211-12.
49. Sir John Rogers, Sport in
Vancouver and Newfoundland
(Toronto: The Musson
Book Co., 1912), 3, http://
www.archive.org/details/
sportinvancouverOOrogerich.
51. Reksten, Dunsmuir Saga, 129,
275. The Cork Examiner, March
, 1930, apparently placed Sir
Richard's triumph at Salmon River.
52. According to this author's
research, the model fish was on
display at the Provincial Museum
until at least the end of the 1920s;
its whereabouts today is unknown.
53. BC Archives, Library NW
907 B862pr, Provincial Museum
of Natural History and Ethnology,
Victoria, British Columbia (Victoria:
R. Wolfenden, King's Printer, 1909),
7-8.
54. John Pease Babcock, The
Game Fishes of British Columbia
(Victoria, BC: Bureau of Provincial
Information, Bulletin No. 25,1910),
University of Victoria, McPherson
Library Microform, CIHM No.
81996.
55. "Victoria City and the Island,"
Victoria Daily Colonist, May 3,1908,
2. Izaac Walton was the author
of The Compleat Angler, or, The
Contemplative Man's Recreation,
first published in 1653 and since
reprinted in countless editions.
56. "Vancouver Island: The Happy
Hunting Ground," Victoria Daily
Times, May 2,1908. On Phillipps-
Wolley's career, see Peter Murray,
Home from the Hill: Three Gentlemen
Adventurers (Victoria: Horsdal &
Schubert Publishers, 1994), 76-133.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011  | Vol. 44 No. 4      15
 Pat is Pat and That is That: Rev. Thomas Patrick Freney
by R.J. (Ron) Welwood
Ron Welwood
volunteers as
Archivist for the
Diocese of Nelson
and has written a
number of brief
histories for the
diocesan website.
He has also written
articles and
book reviews for
British Columbia
History, served
as BCHF President
and currently is
the Federation's
website editor.
Rev. Thomas Patrick Freney was not your ordinary everyday
man-of-the-cloth. In fact, he was cut from an entirely
different and unorthodox fabric.
Ni
First 4 Freneys: Pat,
Cormacfl], Jimfr],
Mary [Betty Anne]
o matter their religious persuasion
or denomination, clergymen are
expected to act in a manner befitting
their ecclesiastical vocation.
Nevertheless, there have always been a few
priests or parsons of the cloth who deviated
from the norm; and there is little doubt,
that Reverend Freney was cut from such an
unorthodox fabric.
Thomas Patrick (Pat), the eldest child
of John Henry Freney and Mary Catherine
Gibbons was born on December 9th 1897 in
Rossland, BC and baptized at Sacred Heart
Roman Catholic Church just over one month
later.1 Pat attended Rossland schools and after
graduation proceeded to Gonzaga University
in Spokane, Washington, for three years
(1916-1918). Following Gonzaga, he entered
California's Saint Patrick Seminary at Menlo
Park to study philosophy.
However, his philosophical education
was short-lived and for the next eight years
between 1920 and
1927, Pat continued
to reside in California
while he practiced
"journalism,
magazine writing and
kindred pursuits."2
Journalism,
purportedly for
Hearst publications,
may have provided
a steady income, but
freelance writing for
magazines freed his
imaginative spirit.
His fictional works
focused on the West
and prospector-
mining themes — a
familiar subject to
one who grew up in
Rossland during its
heyday.
Red Book Magazine rejected Freney's first
story in September 1924; but the very next
month the Managing Editor of The Frank A.
Munsey Company, NY, publishers of Argosy
All-Story Weekly, offered him $753 for "Cheap
Tools" to be published in the "Novelette and
Short Stories" section.4 Although Pat received
another dreaded rejection slip, a common
occurrence for aspiring writers, for "Theories
and Nuggets", success soon followed in 1927
when Maclean's Magazine published both
"Footnotes" and later, "The Release."5
By this time Freney had moved back to
Rossland and in September 1928 he entered
St. Joseph's Seminary in Edmonton, Alberta,
to begin theological studies. Nevertheless, his
days as a fiction writer were not entirely over
and in December he was informed that "Yellow
Buzzard" had been sold to Western Trails for
$60. Shortly thereafter he was issued another
"check for $50 in full payment of First North
American Serial rights to the 'Yellow Buzzard'
appearing in Golden West."6 Surely his successes
must have softened the blow of rejection when
Napier Moore, Editor of Maclean's, returned
his "Holesome Wreckreation" manuscript
indicating that it "doesn't strike me in the right
place."7
Half way through his studies, the
Seminary Council questioned Pat's vocation
to the religious life. His bishop, W.M. Duke,
Archbishop of Vancouver, was informed and,
not knowing Freney, asked his parish priest,
A.K. Maclntyre (Father Mac) for his opinion. Fr.
Mac's response to Rev. M.C. O'Neill, Director of
St. Joseph's Seminary, was a cryptic note stating
"Pat is just Pat, and there is no more to it than
that."8 The director concluded that "Mr. Freney
will do good work" but he also observed that:
he has [a] fine literary ability; he is very
handy with tools, carpentry work, etc.,
and has been ready, at all times, to help
out in any work of that kind around
here.... Father Maclntyre of Rossland
could probably give you [Duke] the
16
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4
 best information concerning Mr.
Freney and his future.... I'm inclined
to think he summed up everything in
one reference to Mr. Freney - 'Pat is
Pat—that's that.' In other words, he's
not an ordinary every day individual.9
Father Mac replied, "I am very grateful
to you [O'Neill] for your letter in Pat Feney's
case. I am glad you [sic] own opinion of him
is so good.... Pat does not make a very good
impression on those who do not know him
and it takes more than a casual glance to see
through him."10
Perhaps seminarian Freney was under
scrutiny because of his somewhat eccentric
behavior, practical jokes and his extra curricular
distraction to creative works of fiction although
he wrote:
My inquiry as to whether I had given
any reason or cause for doubt brought
forth an amazing disclosure, namely,
that I had given the impression that
I considered myself a superior sort
of person by having exaggerated my
abilities as a ski-jumper, as an inventor,
andprobably other things, and that these
exaggerations might — or might not —
indicate the possibility of some future
instability of character. I, of course,
said that it seemed to me that there
might be a kind of misunderstanding
somewhere. At any rate, the rector told
me not to worry about it.11
Also, according to Rossland old-timer,
Ray Keane, Pat had been reprimanded for
reading western pulp fiction while in the
seminary. Apparently, the authorities were
not aware he also penned this popular genre!
Although he may have scribed his stories while
on summer vacation, Keane indicated that the
revenue from these publications helped to
subsidize his seminary tuition.12
Clearly, he was deemed worthy to receive
the sacrament of Holy Orders and on March
12th 1932, Archbishop W.M. Duke, D.D.,
ordained Pat at Holy Rosary Cathedral in
Vancouver. From then on he was referred to as
Father Pat—Rossland's second Father Pat.13
Father Thomas Patrick Freney was
assigned as Curate to the Cathedral until
September when he was appointed rector to
The Golden West
Magazine, March
1929 (featuring
"The Yellow
Buzzard")
the Revelstoke parish that included a small
Ruthenian (Orthodox) mission. During his
short tenure at Revelstoke, church attendance
increased particularly among the Italian
men; and when Freney was reappointed to
Princeton, the Catholic Men's Club telegraphed
the Archbishop expressing dismay that Father
Pat was being relocated.14 This plea was
unsuccessful and he served as Princeton's
pastor until March 1934 when he was yet again
reassigned—this time to Vancouver as editor of
the BC Catholic.
Evidently Archbishop Duke wished
to take advantage of the God-given talent
possessed by his recently ordained priest when
he appointed him editor of the diocesan paper.
The weekly paper averaged about eight pages
up to 1933 then, to cut costs, was reduced to
four. During Freney's short tenure (March
1934 - October 1935), it was enlarged to about
six pages for a short time. According to Ray
Keane, it was filled with humour, depression
survival stories, etc., but to lower costs the
Archbishop asked Freney to reduce the paper's
size. The editor dutifully trimmed the paper
to  its   former  four-page  format   and  when
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011  | Vol. 44 No. 4      17
 Archbishop Duke remarked that he missed the
jokes Freney supposedly replied, "The whole
paper is a joke!"15
By October 1935, Fr. Pat was again on the
move.16 This time he was appointed pastor to St.
Francis Xavier in Trail. While there the Diocese
of Nelson was established (1936) and Fr. Pat
was now responsible to the newly appointed
Bishop Martin M. Johnson who was renowned
for his active and energetic style of leadership.
One of Bishop Johnson's first projects was
to encourage his clergy to raise funds to help
the fledgling diocese become fiscally sound. In
the Vancouver Archdiocese, the United Catholic
Parishes' Bazaar was considered "the most
practical and economical way of providing
funds necessary to carry on the work of the
Church in this Province."17 Bishop Johnson's
tactic was to distribute "Diocesan Drawing"
tickets to be sold by canvassers."18 Father Pat
attempted to comply with his Bishop's zealous
plan but with marginal success and in response
to this scheme, submitted a handwritten,
tongue-in-cheek list of excuses:
N. (Mrs.) Her husband is a Mason....
They have no revenue and no means
but Mrs. N. might contribute prayers.
N. (Miss) Old age pensioner. A recluse
since her fiance died 47 years ago. She
wouldn't be able to contribute anything
financially. She probably wouldn't be
able to contribute any prayers either.
N. (Mrs.) Old age pensioner. She is
said to have received some money for
her mining shares, but the church
hasn't seen any of it yet.... Very tight.
Her spine squeaks.
N. (Mr.) (pronounced Gyppo) Old age
pensioner. Lives in a shack on the cliff
above town.... used to come down to
make his Easter duty until Mrs. N.
hollered up to him that unless he came
to church oftener he would go to Hell
when he died. He hollered down to her
to go to Hell right away.
N. Ed. Canvassers approaching this
prospect should be athletic on account
of the ferocious bull which is almost as
cantankerous as its owner.
N. (Mr.) Old age pensioner.... Sleeps
with rosary in one hand and a rifle
in the other. Very jittery. Canvassers
should not go after dark.
N. (Mrs.) Old age pensioner and
transient. Used to let on she was a
Dogan19 because she liked Fr. Flynn's
fuzzy hair. Doesn't go to church now.
Present pastor lacks above equipment.
N. (family) No faith, no guts, no use.20
During these formative years, one of
Bishop Johnson's many goals was to establish a
diocesan paper hence it was only logical to ask
Father Pat to spearhead this project "because
of his twelve years' experience in writing and
publishing prior to entering the priesthood."21
Father Pat was relieved of his parish work in
Trail. His first task was to visit every parish in
the diocese,22 make contacts and "preach on the
necessity of a weekly paper and the advantages
to be derived."23
After three months' preliminary work,
the first edition of The Prospector was issued
on November 12th 1937 at a $1.00 per year
subscription rate. According to Bishop Johnson,
Kootenay mining people assumed it was an
industry paper and eagerly purchased this first
edition!24
Father Pat's attention to detail in this
inaugural issue did not go unnoticed and he
received many accolades for his effort. The
Rossland Miner produced the first issue and a
veteran printer remarked:
It's a slicksheet, but I was disappointed.
I didn't get the bang I expected. I've
seen many a paper come out in the last
fifty years and worked on several—
especially here in the west. We always
used to save the first editions ... mostly
because of the mistakes it ran. The
world's worst errors usually got into
those first issues.... Outside of some
linotype errors, which nobody can
criticize in a first copy, your job had no
thrillers.25
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4
 Rev. Joseph R. Birch, O.M.I., the paper's
first subscriber26 wrote,
As quondam editor I remember only too
vividly the hustle and bustle and agony
of getting the first issue out.... I read the
paper from cover to cover—wondering
the while who was your proofreader!!...
The wiseacres undoubtedly shake their
heads in dire prophesy but with such
a Bishop to inspire it, such an Editor
to guide it and so loyal a following
to support it, The Prospector has
as good a claim as one can find in the
Dominion.27
Father Pat's previous experience with
the fourth estate28 proved to be a godsend for
the fledgling weekly. However, his editorial
work was inexplicably short-lived and only
lasted to September 1938. Even before the
paper's first anniversary it had reached almost
4,400 subscribers ranking it the second highest
circulating weekly in the province.29 Father
Pat remained affiliated with The Prospector as a
member of its Editorial Board until May 1939
even though he had spent the previous four
months as a replacement in the Cranbrook
parish following a colleague's death.
He remained in Cranbrook when Bishop
Johnson appointed him resident chaplain at St.
Eugene Hospital on May 16th. The bishop noted
that "This office is not a permanent one but we
feel this opportunity should be given you in
the interests of your writing talent. We hope
that within a year you will be able to help the
Diocese by the income of your acknowledged
talents."30 Father Pat was now authorized
to write and, by default, he also became the
diocesan historian.
Little did he realize that he would
continue with this Cranbrook assignment for
the rest of his life! Later, Father Pat intimated
that this temporary assignment became
permanent because nobody knew what to
do with him.31 Although chaplain at the
hospital, he was also the pastor to the Moyie
and district missions located 30 km south
of the city. Supposedly these less onerous
pastoral assignments afforded him time to
write in earnest. Ironically, his proclivity for
creative fiction was renewed when editing The
Prospector where, without byline, he wrote 37
weekly episodes of "Ghost Camp" about "the
early days of Phoenix [BC] in the Boundary
country" between January 14th and September
30th 1938. CD. Pearson of The Nelson Daily
News recalled that Father Pat "would sit down
at the typewriter in our editorial rooms, and
without notes, would dash off a chapter for the
ensuing issue. After several months he said to
me one day, 'Charlie, I have come to the end of
my story' and finished the serial."32
Beginning in 1939, "Mr." Freney of
Cranbrook corresponded with a literary critic
in Arizona, a literary agent in New York and
a literary consultant in Massachusetts. All
offered encouragement and fee for service
schedules. He submitted two stories, "The
Wandering Baron" (1939) and "Showdown"
(1947); a novel, "Ghost Camp" (1940) and
enquired about a proposed, but untitled, novel
concerning a deep-sea diver attempting to raise
a fortune in placer gold from a volcanic hole
under a California river (1946).
In contrast to his creative writing,
Father Pat also began to delve into regional
history. His best-known work concerned
the "Flying Steamshovel" of Rossland.
Father Pat had submitted the story and "In
answer to your question as to where I got
the minute detail describing the flight of
the Flying Steamshovel," responded with a
comprehensive four-page letter to a doubting
The Prospectors,
Nelson, 1937-1938
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011  | Vol. 44 No. 4      19
 Scott Young of Maclean's Magazine. He further
indicated,
My way of writing such an incident,
either fact or fiction, is one I've been
using over 25 years. After getting
the general idea of the happening and
enough facts to form a mental picture
of it, I lined up the continuity for the
narrative and asked questions for the
specific details needed to fill out this
continuity.... In this article, being a
report on a helicopter of ancient and
unorthodox design, the important thing
to show would be how a contraption
would perform having already implied
that it flew.33
Evidently Maclean's was not convinced;
but to assuage future skeptics, Father Pat
obtained sworn affidavits from several
eyewitnesses. Later, the even more reputable
"magazine of rotary wings," American
Helicopter, published the story "back in 1902,
when a boomer engineer, Lou Gagnon, raised
a steam propelled helicopter off the ground in
Rossland, British Columbia.... Bystanders later
called Lou's creation 'The Flying Steamshovel'
because of the resemblance."34
In addition to secular writings, Fr. Freney
had amassed information about the diocesan
parishes to write his "Parish History" series for
The Prospector.
Rev. T.P. Freney, former editor of The
Prospector, andDiocesan historian, will
contribute each week an installment
on the history of various parishes
in the Diocese.... Readers will find
these articles from the pen of Father
Freney interesting, informative and
nostalgic.35
Between March 1949 and October 1952,
Father Pat contributed 38 articles about the
parishes in Nelson, Moyie, Rossland, Trail,
Cranbrook, Fernie, and Michel-Natal. This
series also included information about some
of the founding fathers within the diocese.
After the sixth episode he hinted that more
anecdotes were required as "many important
parochial developments had taken place over
the years, but to date, no record of them has
been compiled. Here again, the cooperation of
contributors will be depended upon, largely for
information to make the history of the parish
complete."36 Collecting these histories for the
Diocese of Nelson was done in his spare time
under the most trying circumstances because
his chaplaincy was 24 hours per day with little
pay and there was no travel assistance to obtain
the necessary information.37
Since Father Pat often talked about
writing a book many people presumed he had.
One researcher sought "advise with respect
to the title, etc., of Father Freney's book" on
the "history of the Oblates in the Kootenay
country." The Bishop replied, "Father Freney
never did get around to writing it. He had a
wealth of information in his head but never got
it even on tape."38 As a writer and historian, Fr.
Pat once remarked, "From the early twenties
I've had the legal status in USA and Canada as
'established author' and 'professional writer'
(including Hollywood experience); but after
25 years of writing local diocesan history, as a
historian I am still a nobody"39
During all this time Father Pat's pastoral
duties were never neglected, nor did his
writing sprees distract him for his primary
responsibility at St. Eugene Hospital. He was
chaplain 24 hours per day without substitutes
despite his failing health. During the 1940s he
had a difficult time with the Sister Superior
who interfered with his duties as chaplain.
Nevertheless he was popular and protective of
the student nurses on the 3rd floor where he
quietly defended them from "the dragon lady"
who was particularly demanding. According to
a graduate student nurse40, Father Pat was "fair
minded and always pleasant, personable with
us—he was the student nurses champion."41
While chaplain, "not a single patient died in
St. Eugene Hospital, of whatever faith, without
his care and ministry. He was Father Confessor,
Uncle, Brother, Devoted Friend and often Co-
Conspirator to generations of student nurses at
St. Eugene."42
Much to the consternation of the staff
it was almost impossible to clean his small,
cluttered apartment at the hospital. This room
(workshop) was littered with dismantled
pianos, automobile parts or other paraphernalia
undergoing restoration or repair; and his
bathtub was used to store a massive stack of
The Prospectorl If not repairing or writing, he
20
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4
 was inventing as suggested in a letter from the
National Inventors Council (his invention was
neither named nor described).43 Father Pat's
fertile and inventive imagination must have
been in overdrive all his life.
One Christmas day Father Pat's
mechanical aptitude came in handy—at a
price. His second Mass was at Moyie and the
third at Yahk
. ..where the jinx is. When I stopped in
front of the Yahk church the gearshift
handle broke off at the floor for no
reason, making it necessary to do a lot
of work after Mass in the cold to put
the car in high gear by hand, involving
unbolting the floor plate and the gear
case. As a result the spine got twisted
and the arthritis flared up promptly
and was really violent.... In fact, out
of control. But the Yahk church was
crowded for the first time since I took
over 14 years ago.44
As a clergyman, Father Pat was a "kind
and remarkable man. He cared desperately for
people, especially the poor, sick and dying."
His habit of daily prayer and meditation as well
as his wry wit, sense of humour and musical
digression helped maintain a balance in his
life although he remained independent and
sometimes a thorn in the side of authority.45
In fact, "there was never a more honest
man nor one more definite in expressing his
opinions."46
He was a great storyteller and mimic. He
would imitate Bishop Johnson's voice on the
telephone and ask to be picked up at the train
station. Later, when the real Bishop Johnson
called, it would be dismissed as another Fr.
Freney prank!47 These imitations included
Archbishop Duke and other clergymen. His
talent with both piano and clarinet were
musical assets he brought to the Cranbrook
City Band as well as a Nelson group known as
The Prospectors.
By the 1950s Father Pat's health slowly
deteriorated. Acute pain from arthritis of the
spine almost paralyzed his arm and fingers.
He reported in 1953, "The arthritis of the spine
is so severe now I don't know what's going to
come of it, the arm being almost paralyzed"
and in 1955, "I've had this terrible affliction
for over 3 years...and the painful sieges can
become violent and lasting. The arthritis has
crowded the vertebra out of place which has
clamped off the brachial plexus of nerves, and
the only remedy appears to be surgery"48 By
1963, his health was seriously jeopardized
after two coronary attacks badly damaged
his heart. After being transferred to Victoria,
a medical assessment at St. Joseph's Hospital
revealed that he also suffered from extensive
brain damage. Father Pat lingered on until
coronary thrombosis took his life on Thursday,
29 October 1964.49 His body was transported
to Cranbrook where a funeral Mass was held
at St. Mary's Church, followed by interment in
the new Catholic Cemetery on November 2nd
1964.
Even in death complications ensued. As
in life, nothing was straightforward with Father
Freney. In August 1963 he had deposited a Will
at St. Mary's Church, Cranbrook;50 however
it was revoked, just days before his death, by
another Will drafted on October 20th 1964. This
last Will included one controversial clause:
PROVIDED that if in the sole discretion
of my trustees the circumstances of my
estate will permit I prefer and direct that
the material comprising my research
into the history of the Catholic Church
in the Diocese of Nelson be given to the
Archives of The Bing Crosby Memorial
Library at Gonzaga University in
the City of Spokane in the State of
Washington, USA.51
Earlier that month Rev. Wilfred P.
Schoenberg, S.J., Archivist at Crosby Library,
had written to Father Freney concerning
"your fine collection concerning the history
of the Church in the Pacific Northwest....It
has occurred to me that as an old Gonzagan
you might welcome the suggestion that your
collection be placed here."52 This letter probably
gave reason to Freney's deathbed alteration to
his Will.
Two days after Father Pat's death, family
members were in Cranbrook for his funeral and
his brother, a Gonzaga graduate, telephoned
Father Schoenberg and suggested he bring a
truck to pick up the material bequeathed to the
Crosby Library. When he arrived in Cranbrook,
Father Schoenberg met Freney's sisters, Mrs. A.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011  | Vol. 44 No. 4     21
 Bregolisse and Sr. Mary Alena, executors to the
estate. They presented the collection to Father
Schoenberg who "took only what appeared to
be the historical records, leaving, however, a
bound set of The Prospector."53
During this melancholic period, Bishop
W.E. Doyle had been out of the country
attending the Second Vatican Council (Vatican
II) in Rome and upon his return he probably
was not fully aware of all details concerning
the transfer of Freney's documents. However,
he did take umbrage with Father Schoenberg's
action suggesting that "before the burial
took place" he had "confiscated" the papers.
Moreover, he demanded "the return of these
files, books and records, to the Diocese of
Nelson, without delay"54 In defense of his
fellow Jesuit, the Provincial of the Society of
Jesus wrote about Father Schoenberg's "good
will and the propriety of his actions in accepting
the historical documents" and that his "action
was not tantamount to confiscation."55
Later, Freney's executors admitted they
inadvertently allowed his files to be taken to
Gonzaga University and only then did they
understand "that in fact the writings belong
to the Diocese of Nelson."56 Fortunately, the
entire Freney affair was amicably settled when
Bishop Doyle met with the Archivist, Father
Schoenberg and the Jesuit Provincial, Father
Kelley at Gonzaga University and the Bishop
reported, "both were gracious in our settlement
of misunderstandings. All of the files and books
were restored to me for the archives of Nelson
Diocese."57
The irony is that Bishop Doyle later
acknowledged "the Freney Collection proved to
be much less important than anyone imagined,
because it had been talked about so greatly"
but that "it remains practically all that the
Diocese of Nelson possesses at present, hence
its importance to us."58 Father Pat probably
would have seen the humour in this cross
border dispute that could be perceived as an
entirely different and exaggerated work of
fiction. There is little doubt that Pat was Pat and
that is that! •
Endnotes
I am indebted to T.P Freney's niece,
Betty Anne Meek of Vancouver, for
graciously sharing her collection
of "Uncle Pat's" correspondence,
photographs, etc. as well as to
Rossland old-timer, Ray Keane, for
his anecdotes. Almost all citations
are from Meek's collection, the
Diocese of Nelson Archives (DNA)
or the Archdiocese of Edmonton
Archives (AEA).
1. Baptismal Register, Sacred Heart
Church, Rossland, 16 January
1898. DNA. For some reason the
entry was recorded as "Francis P.
Freney."
2. Thomas Patrick Freney vita
[Archdiocese of Vancouver]. DNA,
Freney file.
3. CDN $1.00 (1924) valued at
$13.31 (2011), therefore CDN
$75 (1924) would be worth
approximately $1,000 today. Bank
of Canada (accessed 1 June 2011)
4. Thomas P. Freney, "Cheap
Tools," Argosy All-Story Weekly, 7
February 1925, 544-552.
5. T.P. Freney, "Footnotes,"
Maclean's Magazine, 15 Jan. 1927
and "The Release," ibid., 1 April
1928.
6. Author & Journalist, Denver,
CO to Freney, Rossland, 12 Dec.
1928 and Harold Hersey Editor,
Magazine Publishers Inc., New
York, NY to Freney, 15 Feb. 1929.
"The Yellow Buzzard," Golden West
Magazine, March 1929, 227-236.
7. H. Napier Moore, Editor,
Maclean's Magazine to Freney,
Rossland, 27 Aug. 1929.
8. A.K. Maclntyre, Sacred Heart
Church to M.C. O'Neil [sic],
Director, St. Joseph's Seminary,
22 Aug. 1930. AEA. Ray Keane,
a parishioner and Rossland old-
timer, had a slightly different
version: "Pat is Pat and that is
that."
9. M.C. O'Neill, to Archbishop
WM. Duke, Vancouver, 17 April
1931. AEA.
10. A.K. Maclntyre to M.C.
O'Neill, 28 April 1931. AEA.
11. Pat Freney, [St. Joseph's
Seminary] Edmonton to Monsignor
Maclntyre, Rossland, 18 April 1931.
DNA.
12. Ray Keane conversation with
author, 12 Sept. 1996.
13. Reverend Henry Irwin (1859-
1902) was also known as Father Pat
because of his Irish origin. Irwin,
the first Anglican missionary in
the Kootenay region, was posted
to Rossland in 1896. His life was
chronicled by Mrs. Jerome Mercier
in Father Pat: a Hero of the Far West
(Gloucester: Minchin & Gibbs,
1909).
14. CP Revelstoke Night Telegraph
[in Italian] to WM. Duke from
Catholic Men's Club, 3 September
1934. DNA.
15. Ray Keane conversations with
author, 12 Sept. 1996 and 1 Nov.
2008.
16. It is common practice for
a Bishop to relocate clergy to
different diocesan parishes on
occasion, but Freney's postings
were more frequent than normal.
17. Archdiocese of Vancouver,
Chancery Office. Circular letter to
parish priests, 8 Aug. 1936. DNA.
First year operation funds for the
Nelson Diocese came from this
18. Bishop's Residence, Nelson.
Circular letters to parish priests, 22
April, 8 May 1937. DNA.
19. Slang for Irish Catholic.
20. Photocopy, undated [1937?]
from Ray Keane, March 2008.
21. "Priest to publish paper at
Nelson," Province, 21 July 1937.
22. When Bishop Johnson arrived
in 1936, there were 11 parishes
with 62 missions scattered over
48,000 square miles (124,300 sq.
km). When he left in 1954, there
were 31 parishes with 75 missions.
23. Bishop's Residence, Nelson.
Circular letter to parish priests,
[1937]. DNA.
24. Fr. Mark Dumont, OSB,
Mission, BC, email 16 Feb. 2011.
25. "Mistakes," The Prospector, 19
Nov. 1937.
22
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4
 26. Joseph R. Birch, O.M.I.,
Saskatoon, to Most Rev. Martin M.
Johnson, D.D., 5 Jan. 1939. DNA,
Prospector file. "I derive a certain
joy from the fact that mine was the
first subscription received by the
editor, Fr. Freney. I still possess
the receipt he gave me: it is dated
Victoria, BC July 24th, 1937.... Fr.
Freney told me, as he tore a page
out of his notebook and made it
into a receipt, that I had the honour
of being the first subscriber."
27. Joseph R. Birch, O.M.I.,
Saskatoon, to Father Freney, 18
Nov. 1937. DNA, Prospector file.
28. The journalistic profession or
its members; the press. Dictionary,
com, "fourth estate," in Dictionary,
com Unabridged. Source location:
Random House, Inc. http://
dictionary.reference.com/browse/
fourth estate. Available: http://
dictionary.reference.com. Accessed:
November 13, 2011.
29. "Prospector on the go!" The
Prospector, 7 Oct. 1938. According
to this notice The Prospector's
weekly circulation was 2/62 in BC;
and The Toronto Star referred to it as
"an outstanding Canadian paper."
30. Johnson to Freney, nd (card).
DNA; "Important assignments are
announced," The Prospector, 12 May
1939.
31. Fr. John Dulong, "Father Freney
Remembered," Catholic Mountain
Star, Advent 1998,12.
32. "Prospector editors reflect on
past experiences at desk," Nelson
Daily News, 14 Nov. 1962; The
Prospector, 14 Nov. 1962.
33. [Freney] to Mr. Scott Young,
Maclean's Magazine, Toronto. 26
July 1946.
34. Thomas P. Freney, "Flying
Steamshovel," American Helicopter,
Nov. 1947,15-16, 24-25. Abridged
versions appeared in The Cominco
Magazine, Jan. 1949, 6-8 and July
1966, 23-24.
35. The Prospector, 11 March 1949,1.
36.ibid. 14 April 1949,1.
37. Mary Biner, Calgary to
Mary Begolisse (Freney's sister),
Kelowna, 7 Aug. 1966.
38. Ian G Turner, Red Deer, AB to
W.E. Doyle, Bishop of Nelson, 24
Oct. 1966 and Doyle to Turner, 3
Nov. 1966. DNA.
39. Ths. P. Freney to Bishop
Thomas J. McCarthy, 18 Jan. 1958.
DNA.
40. St. Eugene School of Nursing
graduated 209 trained and certified
nurses between 1911-1950.
41. Naomi Miller, Wasa, BC,
email, 7 Sept. 2008; and Margaret
Hutchison, Wasa, interview with
author, 20 Sept. 2010.
42. Fr. John Dulong, ibid.
According to Father J. Barnes,
he was "friend, counsellor,
adviser, mediator and father." The
Prospector, 29 March 1957.
43. The National Inventors Council,
Washington, DC to Mr. Thomas P.
Freney, St. Eugene's Hospital, 10
Aug. 1944.
44. TP, Cranbrook to Dear Pere
[Chancellor?], 14 Jan. 1954. DNA.
45. Fr. John Dulong, ibid.
46. Mary Biner, ibid.
47. Fr. Mark Dumont, OSB,
Mission, BC, conversation with
author, 15 March 2009.
48. Letters to Fr. Bob Anderson,
Chancellor, Nelson, 6 Sept. 1953, 2
Oct. 1955. DNA.
49. Sr. Mary Alena, S.S.A. (Freney's
sister), St. Joseph's Hospital,
Victoria to Bishop Doyle, 16 Sept.
1963; Sr. Mary Angelus, S.S.A.,
Provincial Superior, Victoria
to Bishop Doyle, 1 Oct. 1963.
DNA. BC Dept. of Vital Statistics.
Registration of Death, 1964.
50. Fr. Armando Maglio,
Cranbrook to The Chancery Office,
Nelson, 26 Aug 1963. DNA. This
Will was made out on 21 August
1963.
51. Thomas Patrick Freney's Will
signed in Victoria, BC, 20 Oct. 1964.
DNA.
52. Wilfred P. Schoenberg, S.J.,
Archivist, Crosby Library to Father
Freney [no address], 4 Oct. 1964.
DNA.
53. John J. Kelley S.J., Office of the
Provincial, Portland, OR to Most
Rev. W.E. Doyle, Bishop of Nelson,
22 Jan 1965. DNA. Fr. Maglio
and Mary Bregolisse recalled the
"historical writings" taken by Fr.
Schoenberg: a box of file-folders
containing typewritten parish
histories and clippings, several
boxes of photographs and a few
books. Rev. A.V. Maglio, Cranbrook
to Most Rev. W.E. Doyle, 12 Feb.
1967; Mary Bregolisse, Kelowna to
Bishop Doyle, 11 Feb. 1967. DNA.
54. W.E. Doyle, Bishop of Nelson
to Rev. Father Provincial, Society
of Jesus, Portland, OR, 12 Jan. 1965.
DNA.
55. John J. Kelley, S.J., Office of the
Provincial, Portland to Most Rev.
W.E. Doyle, Bishop of Nelson, 22
Jan 1965. DNA.
56. Filmore & Co., Barristers at
Law, Kelowna to Bishop W.E.
Doyle, 10 March 1965. DNA.
57. W.E. Doyle, Bishop of Nelson
to Mrs. M. Bregolisse [Executrix],
Kelowna, 20 Feb. 1967. DNA.
58. W.E. Doyle, Bishop of Nelson to
Rev. John J. Kelley, S.J., Provincial
Superior, 18 Feb. 1967. DNA.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011  | Vol. 44 No. 4     23
 W.A. Ingram and the Club Cigar Store of Fernie, BC
By Ronald Greene
Ronald Greene is
Past President of       From cigar club to barber shop, bowling alley to athletic
Federatilont0nCal        club, lunch counter to candy shop, Billy Ingram did it all in
spite of fires and personal tragedy
Fernie was founded in 1898, situated in
the Elk Valley. It is located just 52 km (34
miles) from the Alberta border, passing
through the Crow's Nest Pass. The City
is named after William Fernie, a prospector,
railway promoter and one of the organizers of the
Crow's Nest Pass Coal Company [hereafter The
Company]. If there is one word to describe the
reason for Fernie's existence, that word is coal.
"The great coal fields of the Crow's Nest Pass are
now being opened up in two places where the
seams of high grade coking coal are each from
| \  A   Modern   A                         T^T
UJ   open-pit T                         -'-/'
(43) l       mining    1                           A
Sparwood (
\f    ^kNatal
1           ■ Michel
/"CPRllL       y
Crowsnest ]\
w
Pass (1357m) ||
ml Hosmer
Fernie^
1^^    Coal Creek
g Number 9
0                        5                       10
i                         i                         i
kilometres
6 to 7 feet [2 m] thick. The work is in charge of
Mr. Blackmore, M.E. who is opening up the
properties so as to admit of a large production
of coal on the completion of the railway and
is also erecting coke-ovens, so that when the
railway reaches the heart of West Kootenay coal
and coke can be at once delivered at greatly
reduced prices, at the smelting centre there... .'n
The Company opened up mines at two
locations, at Coal Creek about 8 km east of
Fernie, and at Michel, some 35 km north of
Fernie. Fernie acted as the supply point for both
mining communities. Coal Creek was shut down
in 1958. Michel continued for a number of years
afterward, but the residents were relocated to
the new community of Sparwood in the 1960's
and most of the buildings removed. Open pit
coal mining is still going on in the upper Elk
River valley and most of the coal is shipped in
unit trains to Roberts Bank (south of Vancouver)
where it is loaded for Japan's steel industry.
In the early days Fernie was called "The
Pittsburgh of the West." Underground coal
mining is a particularly hazardous business, and
The Company went without a fatality for several
years at a time on several occasions. However,
a 1902 explosion at Coal Creek killed 130 men
and another in 1917 killed 35 men. The city
was incorporated in 1904, with a population of
3750, and still exists although with a population
probably not exceeding 5000 people. The city
suffered a major fire that destroyed several
blocks at the end of April 1904, a lesser fire in
1905 and a third fire - which I call "The Great
Fire" - in August 1908. This latter fire destroyed
most of the business section of town and council
ruled that buildings had to be built of fireproof
material within the city core, in other words
brick. As a result the city has a quite a stock of
brick buildings.
William Alexander Ingram, "Billy" to his
friends, who arrived in Fernie in April 18992,
started his barber shop in either late 1899 or early
1900. In March 1900 he moved from the Victoria
Hotel to the Mclnnes Block, which was on Cox
24
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4
 Street. Towards the end of the year he formed a
partnership with John L. Mclntyre who moved
into the shop in the Mclnnes Block.
Ingram and his wife had some very
difficult times in their lives. Their infant
daughter died in early April 1902 and in May
1903 they also lost an infant son.3 The first of
the Fernie fires April 29, 1904 burnt out the
shop of Ingram & Mclntyre. They lost no time
in reopening in the cigar factory building.4
Within ten days of the fire Ingram had erected
a double store on his lot, and he and Mclntyre
were going to occupy the south half.
That September, Harry Stonehouse
opened up a cigar and news store in the other
half of the building. This store was called the
Club Cigar Store. The first ad read "Club Cigar
Store, Ingram and Stonehouse, props."5 Ingram
made a two month visit to Ottawa and when he
returned in February he personally took over
the management of the Club Cigar Store.
By March 1908 Ingram, had recovered
enough that he decided to erect a brick building
on the site of the cigar store and barber shop.
The building was to occupy the full size of the
lot, 9 m x 29 m and cost in the neighborhood
of $12,000. He obtained permission by the end
of April to erect a small temporary building
on the Turtle (Royal Hotel) corner to hold the
Cigar Store and the barber shop.6 A. Rizzuto,
probably Alexander, purchased the old double
store building and removed it. There is no
official record but perhaps the strain of the
move and tight quarters contributed to the
breakup; Mclntyre and Ingram parted ways as
of May 14th, 1908 with Mclntyre moving to the
Northern Hotel. Ingram's new building was
destroyed by the Great Fire even before it was
completed.7 But undeterred, Billy rebuilt. By
the end of 1908 Ingram had installed a couple
of very handsome baths in his new building
and by February 5, 1909 was advertising very
attractive prizes for high scores at his bowling
alley. Ingram "purchased another new alley
for his bowling room" in May and had the
alleys re-opened in the third week of June.8
An ad stated, "Don't forget that the Club
Cigar store bowling alley is running full blast
every evening." In September of the same year
Billy Ingram "fitted up his big basement with
gymnasium appliances of every description
Left: Ingram's
brass token is
unusual for vertical
orientation, size
and shape
Right: Four men
in front of Fernie
brick store, circa
1908/09. Ingram is
third from left
• 'sJB-i-B-T-xi ~ ~ '
	
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011  | Vol. 44 No. 4     25
 Tokens for the
bowling alley and
lunch counter. The
bowling alley only
existed from 1909
until the end of
1911.
and offers for use of his patrons a gymnasium
that would be a credit to any athletic society. A
small fee is charged monthly for the privilege
of the 'gym.' This will be a splendid place to
spend a half-hour or an hour daily in the
winter."9
In    January    1912    Ingram
tore   out   the   bowling   alleys
over his store and was going
to   convert   the   space   into
offices and apartments. This
gives us some clue as to the
likely dates of the token that
mentions the bowling alleys.
The gymnasium offered some
wrestling exhibitions. In August
1913 P.  Sansum took over the
management of the Fernie Amateur
Athletic Club at Ingram's. In February
1914 Billy Ingram took some time off and Pat
Lynch leased the barber shop. I have not found
any reference that Billy Ingram returned to
work as a barber after this date. The summer
of 1914 saw Ingram start construction of a fine
new residence on Victoria Avenue north. He
liked to bring a telegraph wire into the store
and pool room on special occasions, so that his
patrons could follow boxing matches, round
by round, or election results. During the war
there were notes that Ingram would provide
pipes, cigarettes or tobacco to soldiers from
the Fernie Contingent heading off to training
camps or going overseas. A September 1916
report stated that Thomas Andrew
Ingram, the oldest son of Mr. And
Mrs. W.A. Ingram had been killed
in action, but by October there was
speculation that he might have
been captured. The speculation
was erroneous.10 In 1917 W.A.
was having some ear troubles
and underwent what was called
a "very dangerous operation" in 1
Spokane. In October 1919 he went "
to Rochester, Minn., to consult an
ear specialist at the Mayo Clinic. No
reference was found for when Billy
opened a lunch counter, but by June 1,
1917 he was awaiting a new range which
would allow him to double its size.11
In December 1918 Billy Ingram again
changed his upstairs, converting it into a lodge
room. The Odd Fellows and the Knights of
Pythias lodge had already agreed to occupy
the premises. One of the Ingram daughters,
Eva Blanche married Hugh McLachlan in
September 1920. Another, Nettie, was studying
music at Regina College. Billy retained
his love of horses well into the 1920's.
In August 1921 he spent a week
in Calgary where he purchased
a prize trotting horse. The next
year he was noted as having
driven "one of his fine horses
to Cranbrook for the 24th of
May celebration. In this age of
automobiles Billy still plays the
horse as favorite."12
In 1923, Nettie returned to
Fernie and formed Ingram's Orchestra.
At the same time W.A. remodeled his
upstairs once again, this time making it into
a gymnasium although it could now be used
for dances as well. He was very civic minded,
and purchased two entire sets of uniforms for
youth ball teams at his ball park. In 1930 he
organized two lacrosse teams for boys from 10
to 15 years of age. By 1932 the gymnasium was
in operation five nights a week.
Billy's son, Frank, joined his father in the
business by 1933. That year W.A. did away
with the barber shop, but retained the tobacco
business and lunch counter. It was noted that,
"There is one thing about Bill, he is showing
confidence in the future of the town and is
not afraid to back that confidence with
his money"13 In early 1935 Ingram
fitted up a candy kitchen in order to
produce home-made candy of every
variety. Frank went to Vernon to
take a course in candy making.
From this time onward Billy's
advertisements were for Ingram's
Candy Shop.
Close to midnight one night
in November 1939 three young
men attempted to rob Billy Ingram
on his way home from work. The
ring-leader was Roy Whitehouse,
adopted  son of William Savage of
Fernie. The plan was for the other two to
distract Billy while Roy snuck up from behind.
Roy hit Billy over the head with an iron rod.
He recognized his assailant who ran off, but the
26
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4
 blow proved to be mortal as Billy suffered from
a hemorrhage and died several days later.14
The two accomplices turned crown witnesses,
but the first trial did not produce a verdict
and a second trial the same day convicted
Roy Whitehouse.15 He was sentenced to death,
but a new trial was ordered by the Court of
Appeal16 and in the third trial Whitehouse was
acquitted.17 Billy's son, Frank, joined the army
in 1941 but was killed in a training accident in
1942.18 A grandson, Donald Hugh McLachlan,
was killed in action in Italy in May 1944.19
Overall it was a sad ending for a man highly
respected in the community, and for members
of his family. •
Endnotes
1. Annual Report of the Minister of
Mines, for the Year Ending December 31,
1897, Victoria, B.C. 1898, p. 524. Coke is
a light porous form of carbon created by
heating coal in sealed ovens to drive of the
gases and volatiles.
2. According to an exhibit mounted by
the Fernie Museum, although the earliest
mention in the Fernie Free Press that I found
was March 9,1900 p. 5 when he moved his
existing shop.
3. Fernie Free Press, April 12,1902, p. 5 and
May 9,1903, p. 5 respectively
4. Fernie Free Press, May 6,1904, p. 8
5. Fernie Free Press, September 23,1904,
p. 5
6. Fernie Free Press, April 24,1908, p. 5
and p. 8
7. Fernie Free Press, August 13,1908, p.
1 under losses, W.A. Ingram $2,500, no
insurance
8. Fernie Free Press, May 14,1909, p. 5 and
June 25,1909, p. 5
9. Fernie Free Press, September 17,1909,
p. 5
10. According to the Canadian Virtual War
Memorial, www.veterans.gc.ca, Thomas
Andrew Ingram died on September 17,
1916.
11. Fernie Free Press, June 1,1917, p. 5
12. Fernie Free Press, May 26,1922, p. 5
13. Fernie Free Press, September 8,1933, p. 5
14. Fernie Free Press, December 1,1939, p. 1
15. Fernie Free Press, May 17,1940, p. 1
16. Fernie Free Press, November 8,1940, p. 1
17. Fernie Free Press, May 23,1941, p. 1
18. Fernie Free Press, May 30,1941, p. 1
19. Fernie Free Press, June 1,1941, p. 1 and
June 8,1941, p. 1
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011  | Vol. 44 No. 4     27
 The Fort at Yorke Island: Getting to Know the Neighbours
By Catherine Marie Gilbert
Catherine Gilbert
has her honours The soldiers and sailors posted to Yorke Island fort during
mHfetory'and66        WWII were only temporary neighbours to the surrounding
a background in coastal communities but left a lasting impression.
teaching. She has
recently completed
a book entitled
Yorke Island and
the Uncertain War,
Defending Canada's
Western Coast
during World War
II to be released
by Ptarmigan Press
in early 2012.
Catherine has also
been published
in the Western
Mariner and is a
regular contributor
to the Island Word
and Campbell River
Mirror newspapers.
She works at
the Museum at
Campbell River
as promotions
coordinator.
The declaration of war... meant little
immediate change in the lives of the
people living on the remote West
Coast of British Columbia... With the
installation of guns on Yorke Island,
said to offer protection from Japanese
ships entering Johnstone Strait, the local
people felt a tremor of concern. The war
became more real when local boats on
their way to Port Hardy were stopped
and questioned by Yorke Island patrol.1
Taken from Myrtle Siebert's book From
Fjord to Floathouse, this excerpt aptly
illustrates the sentiments of many of
the inhabitants who lived in the small
communities scattered throughout BC's west
coast during World War II who were near enough
Yorke Island to be affected by the presence of
its fort. The building and manning of the Yorke
Island fort was a major event in that quiet part of
the world, and although thought by some to be
unnecessary, it was evidence that the military was
taking the threat of Japanese invasion seriously.
Yorke Island is a very small and
uninhabited island, just 55 hectares in size,
and is situated in the Johnstone Straits where
it meets Sunderland Channel. Local residents
on Hardwicke Island, its nearest neighbour,
and those who lived at the port of Kelsey Bay
six kilometres to the southwest, were inevitably
drawn into the activity of constructing and
servicing the fort. With so many military
personnel descending on the area, there was
bound to be social interaction as well, and these
communities were affected in a myriad of ways
by their arrival.
Hardwicke Island has been settled since
the late 19th century and in the 1930s and
1940s supported several families and a thriving
logging industry. While it has a beautiful natural
harbour on the west side, sandy beaches and
Hardwicke Island
harbour, circa
1939.
28
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4
 large stands of trees, Yorke Island, by contrast,
is rocky and windswept, sparsely wooded, with
no source of fresh water, and a very small sand
beach for landing on the south side. Although
Yorke has very little to recommend it now, in
1937 it was perceived to be perfectly situated
to intercept any Japanese airplanes, boats or
submarines that might head from north to
south with the intent of attacking Vancouver.
Thus the decision was made to build a defence
site there.
Logan Edward, who was 17 years old in
1938 and working for Salmon River Logging out
of Kelsey Bay when work on the Yorke Island
fort began, was astonished at the speed of
construction. "They banged things together so
fast..." he recalled. One of his co-workers was
hired to operate the 'Cat' tractor and many local
men and loggers were hired to help clear trees
for roads and put up barracks. A substantial
wharf was built and Yorke Island military
personnel were taking delivery of building
materials and supplies all being delivered by
boat. In the early records, the 172 foot freighter
SS Border Prince (formerly a Union Steamship
the Chilkoot) was often at the dock, bringing
supplies and personnel, and as much as 8000
gallons of much needed water each week. The
first troops arrived in late August of 1939 via
HMCS Comox, a converted minesweeper, and
over the years many more were to arrive at
Kelsey Bay on the Union Steamships, to be
transferred to Yorke by military launch.
In a letter written home to Vancouver in
March 1943, Walter Torry described his trip to
Yorke Island:
We arrived here alright with cheers
from the boys we were relieving and
also a snowstorm. Gosh what a sloppy
mess it is right now - mud up to your
knees at the camp, and snow and ice on
the trails. It has snowed for two days
now. And then turned to rain.
First group enroute
for Yorke Island,
members of the
15th Coastal Brigade
from Vancouver,
onboard HMCS
Comox, August
1939
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011  | Vol. 44 No. 4     29
 Observation and
Communication
Post Yorke Island
circa 1941.
0
WTzflf a trip we had on the way up
here, there was so many men on board
we could not find room to even lay
down and the boat we came on had
no staterooms, but we had 3 real good
meals which helped a lot.
The transportation of troops was ongoing
as the men were on rotating shifts generally
from four months to ten months in duration
and were brought from Vancouver, with some
heading further up the coast to other sites like
Prince Rupert. Eventually, the Union Steamship
Lady Rose was commissioned for a short period
to specifically transport military personnel to
Yorke Island.2
If it seemed that getting to the island was
an ordeal, getting off the island, especially in
the early years, could be even more difficult.
Dot (nee Edward) Mann, who was nine years
old at the start of the war, remembered very
clearly how the soldiers would visit the Edward
home on Hardwicke Island. Using ingenious
means to cover the one kilometre of distance
between the islands, they built their own rafts
and manned them with three fellows: two to
paddle and one to steer. The Edward family
enjoyed the visits and it was noted that the
fellows always seemed hungry, and were
thrilled to dine on canned venison. In Dot's
autograph book, she still has the signatures she
collected from some of these visitors.
Not all of the fellows posted there
were anxious to leave. Bernie Smith, now
a retired Vancouver policeman of Bernie
"Whistling" Smith3 fame was posted on Yorke
Island in the spring of 1941, and for the seven
month duration of his stay, he didn't leave
the island once. Unlike many others, Smith
said that he didn't mind. He felt that the army
treated him well, providing him with regular
meals, (a luxury after years of the Depression)
a uniform and good boots. He was grateful
too for the training he received and felt that it
prepared him for his stint overseas.
A revealing glimpse of the conditions at
Yorke Island is found in a report written by the
30
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4
 Chief Medical Officer W.L. Boulter on January
9, 1940. He described the mud and rain, the
lack of good lighting and sufficient fresh water,
the difficulty of keeping clean, and he was
concerned with the psychological needs of the
men. He recommended that a recreation hut
"supplied with tables, chairs, games, electricity,
running hot and cold water, and toilets" should
be constructed and "Row boats and or crew
boats be provided for outside recreation."4
The recreation hut, remembered for its
beautiful hardwood floor, was built about
a year after Boutler's recommendation was
made, and the Yorke Islanders (known as
Yorkies to the locals) were able to invite non
military personnel to their lonely outpost.
Beverly Dingwall was a teenager during the
war years, and remembered coming over from
Kelsey Bay to attend dances. At the time she
was dating a sailor named Dave Edwards who
was in working in communications with the
naval contingent at Yorke Island. Once when
she arrived, a fellow was playing the piano; a
beautiful piece called the "Warsaw Concerto".
She was very impressed by the music as she
had never heard anything like this before. The
family radio was used for listening to war time
news, not music, as people were concerned
about using up their batteries.
By this time it was recognized that
diversions were important to the soldier's
mental balance and Beverley recalled that
"they (the military) provided the music and
sometimes a musical group would be hired to
come up and entertain.. .to keep them sane."
Beverley's friends Joan and Betty Smith,
whose parents ran the store at the Kelsey Bay
dock, also went to Yorke Island dances. Still,
the young fellows far outnumbered the young
ladies, and Fran Hoolsema, Joan's daughter,
heard that one of the officers advised her
mother's parents to say that the girls had the
measles — ostensibly to ward of too much
undue attention from the lonely men!
Community dances were held weekly in
Sayward (adjacent to Kelsey Bay), and Yorke
Island soldiers would attend as often as they
could. Fifteen year old Hazel Anderson from
Hardwicke Island would attend the dances
to see her boyfriend Len Schofield, a soldier
who played the drums. Fred Lewis and Hugh
Knudson, both eight years old when the war
came, were impressed with the talents of the
Yorke Islanders who shared the stage with local
musicians. Music was the common ground that
united the soldiers who came from other parts
of the country with the people of these small
communities. An old favourite they all enjoyed
was the World War I tune 'It's a Long Way to
Tipperary'.
In The Way It Was, Len Crawford
mentioned that several Yorke Island soldiers
turned up at a social function in Shoal Bay
Beverly Dingwall
and friend at
Kelsey Bay, circa
1942.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011  | Vol. 44 No. 4      31
 Left: Edwards and
his naval mates
doing the jive in
their barracks on
Yorke Island circa
1942.
Eight: A group of
sailors on Yorke
Island, date
unknown.
	
on East Thurlow Island, about an hour's boat
trip away, arriving in one of the eighty foot
navy boats. "The visit," he wrote, "was quite a
novelty for all alike."5
They would also hop on the Columbia
Coast Mission boat when it went south to the
hospital at Rock Bay to attend social events
held there.
Walter Torry wrote home about a trip of
group of the fellows took up the coast to Port
McNeill, where they played volley ball and
dined with the loggers, and attended a town
dance.
I went on a trip to Port McNeill and
oh boy did we have a good time. We
left York at about 12:30 Sat and got
there 6:30 at night. We had supper in
the logging camp and did we eat, it is a
heck of a long time since I have seen so
much good grub.
Then we had Sun. dinner with them
and oh what a meal. They sure do
feed them loggers good. On Sat we
had braised short ribs, sauerkraut and
wieners and corn and lots of cake.
For Sun breakfast we had all the eggs
and ham we could eat and grapefruit,
grapenuts and cream of wheat. For Sun
dinner we had roast pork and dressing,
asparagus and green peas and mashed
potatoes and lemon pie and ice cream in
piles. When we got up from the table we
could hardly move.
It sure was a welcome break to get off
the island for a while.6
Transportation by boat was the common
method of getting around for the soldiers
and for coastal residents. Even Kelsey Bay on
Vancouver Island was isolated and reliant on
its port. Small planes were used for medical
emergencies, but weren't commonly used
otherwise. The occupation of Yorke Island
however, precipitated a major event for Kelsey
Bay and nearby Sayward - the coming of a
road! By 1943, the airforce was working on
improving communications up and down the
east coast of Vancouver Island and since it
was deemed important that the Yorke Island
32
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4
 fort should have telephone service, a road
was finally put through from Kelsey Bay to
Campbell River. Logan Edward worked on
the road alongside airforce and home defence
crews, and they used the old logging rights
of way, following the disused railway tracks.
He also took one of the first trips to Campbell
River over that road - an eighteen hour ordeal
through mud, pot holes and over forty seven
trestles that today is managed in just over an
hour.
Although no battles were ever fought at
the Yorke Island fort, the war still left its mark.
The concrete buildings that were constructed
on Yorke Island are still there, and many of the
wooden barracks found their way over much of
the coast, from Minstrel Island, to Port Neville,
to Hardwicke Island and Kelsey Bay, and
even as far away as Campbell River. But most
importantly, many of the soldiers and sailors
who were posted at Yorke Island became, even
if briefly, neighbours to the people who lived
in its vicinity, and left an indelible footprint in
their memories. •
Endnotes
1. Myrtle Siebert, From Fjord to
Floathouse: One Family's Journey from the
Farmlands of Norway to the Coast of British
Columbia (Victoria: Trafford Publishing,
2006), 115.
2. Gerald H Rushton, Whistle Up
the Inlet, The Union Steamship Story
(Vancouver: J.J. Douglas 1974), 141.
3. Bernie "Whistling" Smith was the
subject of the 1975 National Film Board
of Canada documentary Whistling Smith.
The film received an Academy Award®
nomination for Documentary Short
Subject.
4. W.L., Major Boulter, RCAMC, M.O.
York Island B.C. Report on Conditions as
found existing on York Island. January 9,
1940. Robert Critchley Collection, 2
5. Len Crawford, The Way It Was
(Campbell River: Ptarmigan Press, 2007),
110.
6. Peggy Torry Beukers, Walter Torry
Letters March 1943 and April 1943.
d"
RrV
-Tn £      C^N/Dlc RT       So-fM     tWiC,
*m   i
T     <=>(4&D$ DWor/be*    Flue      Cl^ftf.
References
Crawford, Len. The Way It Was. Campbell
River, British Columbia: Ptarmigan Press
2007.
Hunter, T Murray. "Coast Defence in
British Columbia, 1939-1941: Attitudes
and Realities" BC Studies, no 28, Winter
1975-76 Vancouver: UBC Press.
Isenor, D.E., Stephens, E.G., and Watson,
D.E. Edge of Discovery, A History of the
Campbell River District. Campbell River,
British Columbia: Ptarmigan Press 1989.
Rushton, Gerald H, Whistle Up the Inlet,
The Union Steamship Story Vancouver: J.J.
Douglas 1974.
Siebert, Myrtle. From Fjord to Floathouse
- One Family's journey From the Farmlands
of Norway to the Coast of British Columbia
Victoria: Trafford Publishing 2001.
Unpublished Printed Material
1. Boulter, W.L., Major, RCAMC, M.O.
York Island B.C. Report on Conditions as
found existing on York Island. January 9,
1940. Robert Critchley Collection, p 2
2. Duncan, Frances and Harding, Rene.
Sayward For Kelsey Bay Printed by D.W
Friesen & Sons, Cloverdale BC 1979.
3. Pugh, Ronald H, Yorke Island Then
and Now, September 2003.
4. War Diary 85th Hvy. Bty. RCA CASF,
15th Coast Brigade RCA. Yorke Island,
Museum at Campbell River Archives
Page from Dot Mann's
autograph book.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011  | Vol. 44 No. 4      33
 A Useful and Practical Career
By Theresa Vogel
Theresa Vogel is the
Executive Director
of the Society of
Friends of St. Ann's
Academy, Victoria,
BC a not-for-profit
Society sharing
the interest and
dedication of the
Provincial Capital
Commission at St.
Ann's Academy
National Historic
Site. AAs. Vogel
edits a bi-monthly
newsletter,
SEQUOIA,
chronicling
contemporary
events and
historical vignettes
at the site.
Sister Mary Matthew McBride, commercial instructor at St.
Ann's Academy, was responsible for creating a program that
combined practical skills with poise and refinement.
Mother Mary
Matthew McBride,
SSA
Sister Mary Edith Down, Sister of St.
Ann (SSA), in her 1966 book Century
of Service1, refers to the profound
impact made upon generations of
girls and young women as a result of the
influence of one Ann McBride, later Sister Mary
Matthew McBride, SSA. Sister Down wrote:
Together with full academic courses, a
musicdepartmentandanartdepartment,
St. Ann's Academy, Victoria, by
1892, maintained a progressive and
successful commercial department. At
this time the sisterhood was fortunate in
having promising subject in Miss Ann
McBride, who later became Sister Mary
Matthew. This young lady, then in her
nineteenth year, was born in Kilbourne,
Wisconsin, but later resided in
Ellensburg, Washington. Her education
was advanced for a girl of those days. She
had completed normal [teacher training]
school, had taken a business course and
was a court reporter. She was the first
trained stenographer in the Institute in
the west. In March of 1892, she began to
give lessons in shorthand and typing at
St. Ann's in Victoria.
Two hundred years have passed since the
birth of the Founder of the Sisters of St. Ann,
Marie-Anne Blondin, and over 150 years since
the spirit of Mother Marie-Anne arrived on
Vancouver Island. The religious 'daughters'
of this humble mother inexorably changed,
for the better, the social landscape of the
Pacific Northwest. Mother Marie-Anne was an
unlikely founder of a religious congregation
of women dedicated to teaching, as she was
largely uneducated herself until in her 20's.
Regardless, she remained a passionate advocate
for education, and maintained an abiding
interest in the work of her Sisters in the west.
The pioneer Sisters of St. Ann (to be more in
tune with the principal language of the west,
in BC the "e" of Anne was officially dropped.)
in Victoria were never far from her thoughts
and prayers, and she noted in regular letters
that she could not have "...forseen a time when
her daughters would be doing such good in a
faraway land."2 The historical record shows
that the 'daughters' of Marie-Anne Blondin not
only carried her spirit to the west, but used it
to form the better part of history in the regions
of British Columbia, the Yukon, and Alaska.
Sister Mary Matthew McBride's contribution to
the history of the region is founded upon her
skill and zeal at forming efficient and gracious
young business-women at St. Ann's Academy.
Sister Down goes on to recount:
A certain gracious, old-time courtesy
marked Sister Mary Matthew's
intercourse with all  visitors  to  her
tier   h»ry Mstthew, No ***•
34
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4
 department. In fact little rituals worked
themselves out in the unfolding of
yearly curriculum requirements. There
was the procedure of opening bank
accounts for the class, in the realistic
banking section of the classroom; there
was the monthly reading of reports with
the solemnness of a hall of justice; there
were the special examinations, presided
over by special committees; there was
the formal introduction to the class of
the occasional lecturer or demonstrator;
the floral offering that marked a special
function; the hospitable cup of tea; the
quiet conformity to social etiquette.
Sister Mary Matthew's influence extended
well beyond the convent walls, carried outward
by her students, as indicated in Century of
Service: "This influence made Sister Mary
Matthew well-known among business men of
the city of Victoria. They recognized something
distinctive about a St. Ann's girl, who, in
addition to skill in the arts of her profession,
always showed the culture and refinement that
a convent education can give."
The 'Commercial Program' at St. Ann's
Academy     in     Victoria,
from its humble
beginnings in 1892, grew
in credibility and stature,
and spread to programs
at the Sisters of St. Ann
schools in Vancouver
(1899), Kamloops (1910),
Nanaimo (cl938), and
New Westminster (1907).
The Victoria program
received certification in
1897, though Elenore
Madigan was the first
program graduate in 1892.
Eva Nicholson was the
first grad to be employed
by the Provincial
Government.
As the 1960's drew
to a close, the decision
was made to close the
Commercial Department
at St. Ann's. While some
might reflect that declining
enrolment precipitated the
closure, others stress that it was the multitude
of commercial, banking, leadership, and
business courses offered in public schools that
finally 'caught up' to St. Ann's after 75 years. •
Endnotes
1. Down, E. (Sister Mary Margaret of Scotland) Century
of Service, (Victoria, BC, Morris Printing Company,1966)
115-116.
2. Roy, L. (Soeur Marie Adolpe) and Gallagher, E. (Sister
Tames Marie) The Correspondence of Mother Marie Anne
(Lachine, QC, Editions Sainte Anne, 1977) 205.
Commercial
Department, 1906
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011  | Vol. 44 No. 4      35
 Archives & Archivists
by Land Title and Survey Authority; edited by Sylvia Stopforth
Sylvia is a Librarian
and Archivist at
Norma Marian
Alloway Library
at Trinity Western
University.
The Land Title and
Survey Authority
of BC (LTSA)
is a statutory
corporation
responsible for
managing the
land title and
survey systems
of BC. These
systems provide
the foundation for
all real property
business and
ownership in the
province.
The LTSA's new state of-the-art, climate-controlled records
vault enhances the preservation of BC's historic hardcopy
land title and survey records.
In the fall of 2010, the Land Title and
Survey Authority (LTSA) of BC completed
the consolidation of its two Victoria offices
into a modern facility at the Atrium
building located at 1321 Blanshard Street in
Victoria.
The new facility includes a new state-
of-the-art, climate-controlled records vault
that enhances the preservation of BC's historic
hardcopy land title and survey records. It
provides better document storage and a
document conservation laboratory for ongoing
preservation and protection of the collection.
The vault also includes a new, modern drawer
system designed to safely hold very large and
very old plans. Records such as Crown Grant
Indexes, Absolute Fee Books, and Provincial
and Dominion Field Books are now stored in
acid-free archival envelopes or boxes which will
help to preserve them for future generations.
In addition, Records Distribution staff work
stations are now located in the central area of
the vault, allowing staff to provide more direct
assistance to registry agents, land surveyors,
and others requiring access to the records. The
development of the vault reflects input from
various representative groups, including the
BC Historical Federation.
An accredited professional archives
and records management consultant ensured
that due diligence was exercised during the
relocation of the LTSA's records collection to
the new facility. Over 4,000 Hollinger boxes
were ordered, and a team of staff charged
with organizing the move was helped by
approximately ten subcontractors. The actual
movement of boxes was done in accordance
with recognized archival standards, which
included   indexing   and   accounting   for   all
The LTSA vault
contains a
number of mobile
map cabinets
which allow for
better storage,
conservation, and
access of records.
36
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No.4
 materials at their new location through a
labelling and barcode-tracking process.
The move also presented an opportunity
to perform some restoration work to ensure
ongoing preservation and protection of the
collection of historic records. As a result, the
very large, historic Tiedemann Plan was cleaned
and repaired, and over 1,000 bound volumes
were cleaned, with repair work necessary for
about 100 of those volumes.
The LTSA has a long-term commitment to
its stakeholders and legislative responsibility
regarding the preservation of and provision
of access to the extensive collection of historic
land title and survey records. During the fiscal
year 2010/2011, 345 plans were conserved and
395 condition reports were completed for plans
in Victoria and New Westminster.
Members from various representative
groups — including the BC Historical
Federation, University of Victoria Archives,
and Royal British Columbia Museum — have
participated in informative tours of the new
records vaults and conservation lab since
November 2010. The LTSA intends to fully
utilize the capacity of its facilities to conserve
historically important documents and plans
from the New Westminster and Kamloops
Land Title Offices.
If you are interested in touring the LTSA's
new facility in Victoria, please send your
request to Brad Babcook at Brad.Babcook@ltsa.
ca.«
Left to right: Michael Layland, BC Historical Federation; Andrea
Lister, British Columbia History magazine; Sheila Lister, Chilliwack
Museum & Archives; Robin Lister and Jacqueline Gresko, BC Historical
Federation; Rob Gresko tour the LTSA's new facility.
Above: Jean Topham, Paper Conservator, and
the Tiedemann Plan.
Guests visiting the LTSA conservation lab look over the plans that
have been cleaned and restored.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011  | Vol. 44 No. 4      37
 From the Book Review Editor's Desk
by K. Jane Watt
I learned a lesson this week about
friendship and the importance
of getting things right. When
I substituted Stewart for
Sherwood in my last column that
mentioned Jay Sherwood's fabulous
book, Return to Northern British
Columbia: A Photojournal of Frank
Swannell, 1929-39, I received - what
seemed like immediately — a letter,
not from Mr. Sherwood himself (who
had ample grounds for annoyance)
nor from his publisher, but from his
friend. This self-described "stickler
for getting names correct" assured
me tongue-in-cheek that he had
recently lunched with Sherwood and
was certain he had not changed his
name in the interim. Such mistakes
should never happen, but us fallible
humans make them all the time
- and it's wonderful to know that
our friends are looking out for us and
leaping unsolicited to our defense in
times of need.
Ronsdale Press in Vancouver has
just released a biography of sprinter
Percy Williams written by Samuel
Hawley. Called / Just Ran: Percy
Williams, World's Fastest Human
($23.95), this book traces Williams'
life from his early coaching at King
Edward High school in Vancouver to
his triumph at the 1928 Amsterdam
Olympics where he captured gold
medals in the  100 and 200 metre
races. In 1930, Williams ran 100
metres in 10.3 seconds, a world
record that held until Jesse Owens
shaved a tenth of a second off his
time six years later. Hailed by crowds
as he returned to Vancouver after
the Olympics in 1928, Williams was
on the top of the world: he even had
candy bars called Our Percy created
in his honour. Williams retired from
competition in 1932, dropped out of
the sporting spotlight and became an
insurance salesman. He received the
Order of Canada in 1980. Two years
later, "entirely alone" and with "no
living relations with whom he kept
in contact [and] no close friends,"
he took his own life. Hawley's
compelling biography draws from
Williams' private archives of letters,
diaries and scrapbooks and traces his
movement through the world of elite
running in the 1920s and 1930s, to his
life and death beyond the track.
Across my desk recently have
come a number of books about the
importance of place and the passage
of time: Greystone has released a
new edition of its popular Geology
of British Columbia: A Journey
Through Time by Sydney Cannings,
JoAnne Nelson and Richard Cannings
($24.95). It is a book about constant
change in the world around us, a
book that seeks to "bring together a
brief, understandable history of the
province's geological features and
the history of its living creatures into
one cohesive story."
In celebration of the centennial
of parks in BC, Harbour has published
British Columbia's Magnificent Parks:
The First 100 Years ($44.95) by
James D. Anderson with a foreword
by Stephen Hume. It is a look at
a century of the BC park system
through the eyes of committed
park administrator, Jim Anderson
"who was one of a team of patient,
dedicated visionaries who built the
BC Parks branch and the vast park
system it oversees against a backdrop
of vacillating public and political
support. It is truly an epic story of
which every British Columbian can be
proud."
On people less-known: John
Schreiber's collection of stories
called Old Lives: In the Chilcotin
Backcountry (Caitlin, $22.95)
meditates on the encroachment of
urban lives and sensibilities on the
BC interior, and the pressures they
put on old ways and knowledges. Old
Lives "acknowledges and honours the
region's backcountry elders, their
way of life, and the wild liveliness of
the great Chilcotin land where they
have existed for centuries." It seeks
to respect the importance of myth
because, as Schreiber writes, "myth
stories tell us who we are, where we
have been, what we have done, and
what is possible," but only if "we pay
steady attention."
Historian Lynne Bowen's new
book, Whoever Gives Us Bread: the
Story of Italians in British Columbia
(Douglas & Mclntyre, $32.95) outlines
the enormous contributions Italians
have made to British Columbia by
tracing the immigration of sons and
daughters of Italy to British Columbia
after 1860 and their settlement in
the "isolated valleys and cities of
the province to pan for gold, raise
cattle, dig coal, fell lumber, build
railroads, smelt copper and refine
lead." Far from being welcomed with
open arms, Italians were welcomed
grudgingly here even as they worked
hard "for whoever would give them
bread," raised families with pride,
and sought both to build a good life
in Canada and to maintain their ties
to home.
Reprints of beloved books:
Bertrand W. Sinclair's The Inverted
Pyramid, originally published in 1924,
has been released by Ronsdale Press
as part of the City of Vancouver's
125th    Anniversary    Legacy    Books
38
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4
 Project. Sinclair was born in Scotland
in 1881 and immigrated to Canada
with his mother at the age of eight
before taking up many different
jobs in his journey to becoming a
freelance writer, best-selling novelist
and commercial fisherman. Resonant
with the failure of the Dominion Trust
Company in 1914 the novel offers "a
colourful account of British Columbia
in the early twentieth century through
the history of three brothers. Rod, Phil
and Grove Norquay belong to an old BC
family who have made their fortune
from the forest industry." Rod hopes
to recapture his family's past success
in the forest industry, but his brother,
Grove, invests the family fortune in
a world of finance that is destined
to fail. "As the world declines into a
recession after WWI," promises the
book's dustjacket, "Rod is forced to log
much of his family's timber holdings,
but he remains hopeful that he and his
family, working with their own hands,
will be able to make a good life for
themselves - even as the rest of the
world slides into materialist excess."
An elegant little reprint of
Roderick Haig-Brown's 1950 historical
memoir, Measure of the Year:
Reflections on Home, Family, and
a Life Fully Lived with a foreword
by Brian Brett has been released
by TouchWood. ($19.95). In prose
described as "elegant" and "sinewy"
by the New Yorker magazine, Haig-
Brown immerses himself in the
details of life around the home he
called Above Tide. Now owned by
the Province of British Columbia and
leased to the City of Campbell River,
Haig-Brown house stands, Brett notes,
as "a living, thriving memorial to
the glory days of Canada's western
wilderness - and one of Canada's finest
writers and conservationists." In his
musings on the turn of the seasons and
the chores of the month of November,
Haig-Brown writes of the connection
of seasonal work to the stirrings of
memory and imagination. "I often
wonder what kind of a mind it is that
enjoys splitting wood, " he notes:
/ can do it happily for hours,
given a splitting block of the
right height and my own short-
handled four-pound splitting axe.
I think busily of many things and
often of the wood itself. Every
block has character. The stove
blocks are straight and clear and
dull; they split away cleanly and
easily in a rhythm of sound that
is yield without effort. It is a
relief to come upon a twisted,
malformed monster and puzzle
a way between the knots, across
them or even through them. This
is fireplace wood, better for it
than any more standard yield of
the tree; some of the knots are so
distinctive that one remembers
them all the way from the tree
to the woodbox and fireplace
and watches them burn with
greater satisfaction for all that.
I remember one old farmer who
got caught by the kickback of a
twisty, pitch-seamed fir one fall
and broke several ribs. He swore
through the rest of the winter
he would recognize every stick
that came from that tree and as
he picked one up for the fire he
would say, 'That's the son of a
bitch that put me in hospital last
fall.'"
A new edition of Opening Doors
- In Vancouver's East End: Strathcona
edited by Daphne Marlatt and Carole
Itter and with a new foreword
by James C. Johnstone has been
published by Harbour in celebration
of Vancouver's 125th birthday.
Originally published in 1979 as part of
the Harbour's Sound Heritage series,
Opening Doors celebrates the stories
of Strathcona through the text of fifty
interviews with local old timers and
recent immigrants. Called "one of
the best books about Vancouver you
couldn't obtain for love nor money,"
its reappearance is much welcomed.
Under the authorship of Nancy
Oke and Robert Griffin, The Royal
British Columbia Museum has produced
a social history of local food production
and distribution called Feeding the
Family: 100 Years of Food and Drink in
Victoria ($29.95). Beginning with the
founding of Fort Victoria in 1843, the
authors trace the history of the many
butchers, grocers, bakers, importers,
and other suppliers who fed the
growing demand of the city as it
became the commercial powerhouse
of the province in the late nineteenth
century. Drawing from the photograph
and artifact collection of the RBCM,
the book explicates the intertwining
of the domestic, economic and
cultural spheres in Victoria --showing
manor houses and their fledgling
gardens, giant beets, cans and bottles
for storage, and the interiors of shops
and factories catering to various
culinary requirements, including
grocers, butchers, flour and rice mills,
breweries. It outlines the public spaces
of food exchange: public markets,
grocery stores, delivery wagons,
and the offices and warehouses of
wholesalers. It notes the challenges
of food preservation before the dawn
of refrigeration — and reminds us of
the necessity of ice, salt, preserves,
and pickles. Feeding the Family is a
fascinating retrospective.
New local histories: the
Chilliwack Fire Department has
published Chilliwack Fire Department
1906-2006, a celebration of its century
of service to the area and of the
hundreds of residents of Chilliwack
who have historical connections to the
department. A collaboration of four
authors — Grant Ullyot, Wayne Green,
Thomas Beer, and Bill Chambers - three
of whom are past Fire Chiefs, the
book is a community effort, composed
and edited by Shannon Bettles of the
Chilliwack Archives   with   assistance
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4   39
 Book Reviews
Books for review and book reviews should be sent to:
K. Jane Watt, Book Review Editor, British Columbia History
Box 1053, Fort Langley BC V1M 2S4
from Ron Denman and Paul Ferguson of
the Chilliwack Museum. It is available
for $25.00 at the City of Chilliwack
Fire Hall # 1 located at 45950 Cheam
Avenue. The Chilliwack Museum is
doing great things — check out its
beautiful, informative website where
bits and pieces from the Museum's
collection are honoured along with
stories from the city's past.
Small community histories like
this one are threads in the rich fabric
of history of British Columbia. They are
often produced on shoestring budgets,
or on no budget at all save the labour
of volunteers. They are critically
important to our understanding of this
place — so don't be bashful. If your
society has  created  a  history book
- either in paper form or as an ebook
- please let us know so we can shout
of your accomplishments to members
across the province.
Until next time.
Arctic Obsession: The Lure
of the Far North. By Alexis S.
Troubetzkoy.
(Toronto:
^Dundurn, 201V,
$35.00.
Author
Alexis
Troubetzkoy, a
Canadian, born in Paris and
descended from Russian aristocracy,
has as much affinity for the Russian
as the Canadian arctic. He seems
to have archival material from both
countries and therefore includes a
lot of little-known, fascinating arctic
history. The international "obsession"
his book title is based on was the quest
for an arctic passage to the orient,
a quest with deeply historical roots
that Troubetzkoy examines through a
chronological review of international
expeditions.
He starts this historical review
with Pytheas being declared mad after
returning to Greece and recounting
that he had sailed to a place where
the sun did not set. He continues with
the Viking inhabitation of Iceland,
Greenland and Canada between 870
and 1100.
In 1553 Sebastian Cabot (son
of John) was iced in at Archangel in
arctic Russia. From here Cabot was
taken to Tzar Ivan the Terrible, who
lauded him for demonstrating for
landlocked Russia the sea access from
Archangel. The Tzar sent the first
Russian ambassador to England back
with Cabot.
On his third arctic voyage,
Dutchman Willem Barents in 1590
over-wintered trapped in the ice at 710
N.
Henry Hudson, between 1607
and 1611, failed on three arctic voyages
for England but got funding for a
fourth from Holland. During this
voyage, according to Troubetzkoy's
narrative, he discovered Manna Hatta
(Manhattan) and the "Hudson" River
and claimed them for the Dutch. He
overwintered at Hudson's Bay, after
which his crew mutinied and put him
and four sick men in a small boat. He
was never seen again.
A Danish man, Vitus Bering, was
sent in 1740 by Peter the Great with
twenty five sleighs and one thousand
people on a seven year trip across
Russia to the Kamkatchka peninsula.
From here he explored the west coast
of North America and the sea which
came to bear his name.
Four Pomori, a people described
as the Vikings of northern Russia, were
stranded for four years on Spitzbergen
Island, part of the Svalbard archipelago
in   the   Arctic   Ocean   off   Norway.
Through their incredible ingenuity, all
four survived. Incidentally the heritage
Spitzbergen seed vault tunneled four
hundred feet into the rock today
contains thirteen million distinct global
seed samples.
Amongst the other remarkable
stories Troubetskoy relates are those of
• De Long, a man stuck in the ice at
77° N, eight hundred miles from
the north pole for two years who
walked out after his ordeal;
• The Norwegian, Nordenskjold,
who was the first man to traverse
the North East passage from
Norway to Japan;
• The incredible Fridtjof Nansen,
thirteen times national Norwegian
ski champion and professor
of zoology, who skied across
Greenland in temperatures as low
as minus 50 degrees. He skied
to 88° 14'N (nearly at the north
pole), got stuck in the ice for three
years on his way out and wrote a
six volume book on the arctic. He
became Norwegian ambassador
to England and finally won the
Nobel Peace Prize;
• Raould Amundsen, first explorer
to the south pole, then the first
explorer through the northwest
passage; and
• The forty three expeditions
mounted to look for the explorer
Franklin's remains.
Today, of the ten million arctic
inhabitants sixty-six percent are
Russian, and four hundred thousand
are indigenous people. This is a
fascinating book that is well worth
reading.
Reviewer Tony Anthony Kenyon is a
retired Fort Nelson surgeon. He is
currently working on a history of the
Liard Basin.
40
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4
 The Life and Art of Mildred
Valley Thornton. By Sheryl
Salloum.
(Salt Spring
Usland: Mother
^Tongue
Publishing,
i2011) $35.95.
The Life and Art of
Mildred Valley Thornton, is the fourth
biography in the series "Unheralded
Artists of British Columbia." Author
Sheryl Salloum lovingly portrays the
unique life story of painter Mildred
Valley Thornton (1890 to 1967) from
her early years in rural Ontario to
her unconventional married life in
Vancouver. Accompanying the text are
many of Thornton's masterful oil and
watercolour paintings as well as family
photographs.
Thornton's legacy includes
more than 300 portraits, most of First
Nations people. She befriended and
learned from her subjects and came
to advocate on their behalf. Asked
why she chose to paint First Nations
people over other groups, Thornton
simply said she considered them more
interesting.
Several male aboriginal leaders
sat for Thornton, but she also painted
aboriginal women and vivid scenes of
reserve life. Thornton painted quickly,
as the author explains, skilfully
capturing the spirit of her subjects.
She felt an urgency to document what
she feared was a disappearing way of
life. This conviction also compelled
Thornton to share her paintings and
knowledge of First Nations culture
and traditions through writing and
speaking engagements.
Thornton also painted Canadian
landscapes. A few of these paintings
are compared favourably to Group of
Seven artist Tom Thomson. Indeed,
Thornton was described by a critic as
being as "Canadian as hard wheat."
She lived in a time of domestic
conformity for women, yet histories
(such as this book) continue to emerge
to indicate exceptions. Thornton was
supported by her husband, John, who
shared in the raising of their twin sons
Maitland and Jack, born in 1926. His
support at home freed her to spend
time to paint and to travel. She was also
involved with the Vancouver literary
community after her family moved
here from Saskatchewan in 1934 and
was an art critic for the Vancouver Sun
from 1944 to 1959.
Another unconventional woman
of the times was Maisie Hurley, whom
Thornton befriended. Hurley began
publishing The Native Voice newspaper
in 1946 and Thornton was an occasional
contributor.
Emily Carr was also a
contemporary of Thornton's with a
similar interest in aboriginal culture. A
quality which separates these artists,
Salloum notes, is Thornton's sociability
and interest in other people. Perhaps
because of this trait, Thornton, unlike
Carr, portrayed people in her art to the
end of her life. The male-dominated
art world meant, according to Salloum,
that Carr and Thornton, "the two most
talented and independent female BC
painters of the day never collaborated
or celebrated their achievements;
instead, they were forced to compete
with one another."
A wealth of source materials,
detailed in extensive endnotes,
allowed the author to successfully
trace much of Thornton's life, from
her art school days in the mid-west
of the United States to her final days
as a widow in Vancouver's Kerrisdale
neighbourhood. Interviews with
family members including a son, Jack
Thornton, now living in Victoria, and
two grandchildren Janet and John
Thornton, enrich this story as well.
Salloum explores the reasons
acclaim eluded Thornton, garnering
viewpoints from members of the art
community, past and present. Among
her findings, Salloum notes Canadians
tend to undervalue portraiture in
favour of landscapes. The author
also addresses the racial politics
of Thornton's (and others) art in a
sensitive and informed manner as she
considers its impact on Thornton's
legacy.
While in declining health in her
final days, Thornton struggled to find
an appropriate public space in Canada
for her paintings. She didn't want her
collection broken up or sold to private
collectors. The outcome of her efforts is
yet another compelling story revealed
in the concluding pages of Salloum's
biography. Ultimately, she suggests,
the value given to Thornton's work
reflects who we are as Canadians as
much as it reflects the reputation of
this accomplished artist.
Reviewer Janet Nicol is a freelance
writer who teaches history at a
Vancouver high school. She blogs at
janetnicol.wordpress.com.
Note: the painting that graces
the cover of The Life and Art of Mildred
Valley Thornton is an undated oil on
panel painting called Boats, Kitsilano
Beach.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4   41
 Index of Vol. 40 No. 1 to 40 No.4, 2007
Compiled by Melva J. Dwyer
* an article without illustrations
AUTHORS
ATKIN, JOHN. From the Editor. 40:1 (2007): 1.
BRINK, V.C. Vanished: Field Crops & Wooden
Artifacts From BC Farms & Ranches. 40:3
(2007): 16-18.
BROOM, CATHERINE. A Case Based Analysis
of an Early Curriculum Revision: The
Putnam Weir Report. 40:4 (2007): 4-12.
 , . Social Efficiency & Public Schooling
in British Columbia. 40:3 (2007): 8-12.
BROWN, DANI. Archives and Archivists: A
New Home for the Surrey Archives. 40:1
(2007): 31.
CUNNINGHAM, ROSEMARY. Leon
Koerner: Industrialist and Philanthropist
Extraordinaire. 40:1 (2007): 13-21.
de ZWART, MARY LEAH. The Red Book
Revealed: British Columbia's Home
Economics Secret 1930-1975. 40:2 (2007):
11-13.
DENNISON, ROBERT. Cridge, the Making of a
Bishop. 40:3 (2007): 2-7.
EDWARDS, HELEN. Wallace Island: A
Microcosm of Gulf Islands Development.
40:1 (2007): 22-25.
ELLIOTT, MARIE. W. Kaye Lamb Scholarship
Winners Announced. 40:2 (2007): 10.*
FOX, STANLEY. Censured! Unsuitable for
British Columbians: Film Censorship in
British Columbia, 1914-1963. 40:1 (2007): 7-12.
GREENE, RONALD. "C" Battery and the
Skeena Incident. 40:1 (2007): 2-6.
 , . The C.&C. Taxi Service Ltd., of
Victoria, B.C. 40:3 (2007): 23-26.
 , . A Celestial Love Story, or was it? 40:2
(2007): 6-7.
 , . Dave Murray and the Atlantic Cafe.
40:1 (2007): 30.
 , . MacDonald & Company, Bankers :
Token History. 40:4 (2007): 23-24.
HORVATH, J.E. From Budapest to Sitka. 40:1
(2007): 26-29.
LOVE, JIM and BRANT MITCHELL. Sounds of
Brass: Ladner 1889-1902. 40:2 (2007): 8-10.
MacLEOD, KEN. Kingsmill Bridge in Italy:
A Tribute to a Vancouver Man. 40:2 (2007):
16-18.
MAXWELL, JUDY. Chinese Cemeteries and
Grave Markers in B.C.: A Research Guide.
40:4 (2007): 13-17.
NICOL, JANET MARY. The Vancouver Race
Riot of 1907 and the Death of Ng Ah Sim.
40:2 (2007): 2-5.
PARENT, ROSEMARIE. The Leland Hotel,
Nakusp: A Short History. 40:2 (2007): 14-15.
PYNN, LARRY. Vernon Cuthbert "Bert" Brink
1912-2007. 40:3 (2007): 19. *
PRITCHARD, ALLAN. The Royal Navy and
the Comox Settlement. 40:2 (2007): 20-27.
ROGERS, FRED. The St. Alice Hotel: A
Harrison Lake Hot Spot. 40:4 (2007): 2-3.
ROGERS, PATRICIA. The Hotel Phair: And the
Extraordinary Family Who Created her. 40:2
(2007): 28-31.
RUSSWURM, LANI. What Frankie Said: The
Trial of Frankie Russell. 40:4 (2007): 18-22.
SEPTER, DIRK. Third Time Lucky: 64 Years
Later W.W. II Airman's Grave Finally Gets
the Correct Headstone. 40:3 (2007): 20-22.
SILL, ARILEA, Burnaby's New "Total"
Archives and Online Database Project. 40:4
(2007): 25-26.
STOPFORTH, SYLVIA. Archives and
Archivists: The Simon Fraser Letters at SFU
Archives. 40:2 (2007): 32-34.
TURNBULL, STEVE. Letters From Afar. 40:3
(2007): 13-15.
TITLES
Archives and Archivists: Burnaby's New
"Total" Archives and Online Database
Project. 40:4 (2007): 25-26.
Archives and Archivists: A New Home for the
Surrey Archives by Sylvia Stopforth, ed. 40:1
(2007): 31.
Archives and Archivists: The Simon Fraser
Letters at SFU Archives by Sylvia Stopforth,
ed. 40:2 (2007): 32-34.
BCHF Annual Conference Registration
Information. 40:3 (2007): Insert 1-4.
"C" Battery and the Skeena Incident by Ronald
Greene. 40:1 (2007): 2-6.
The C.&C. Taxi Service Ltd., of Victoria, B.C. by
Ronald Greene. 40:3 (2007): 23-26.
A Case Based Analysis of an Early Curriculum
Revision: The Putnam Weir Report by
Catherine Broom. 40:4 (2007): 4-12.
A Celestial Love Story, or was it? by Ronald
Greene. 40:2 (2007): 6-7.
Censured! Unsuitable for British Columbians:
Film Censorship in British Columbia, 1914-
1963 by Stanley Fox. 40:1 (2007): 7-12.
Chinese Cemeteries and Grave Markers in B.C.:
A Research Guide by Judy Maxwell. 40:4
(2007): 13-17.
Cridge, the Making of a Bishop by Robert
Dennison. 40:3 (2007): 2-7.
Dave Murray and the Atlantic Cafe by Ronald
Greene. 40:1 (2007): 30.
From Budapest to Sitka by J.E. Horvath. 40:1
(2007): 26-29.
The Hotel Phair: And the Extraordinary Family
Who Created her by Patricia Rogers. 40:2
(2007): 28-31.
Kingsmill Bridge in Italy: A Tribute to a
Vancouver Man by Ken MacLeod. 40:2
(2007): 16-18.
The Leland Hotel, Nakusp: A Short History by
Rosemarie Parent. 40:2 (2007): 14-15. Leon
Koerner: Industrialist and Philanthropist
Extraordinaire by Rosemary Cunningham.
40:1 (2007): 13-21.
Letters From Afar by Steve Turnbull. 40:3
(2007): 13-15.
MacDonald & Company, Bankers : Token
History by Ronald Greene. 40:4 (2007): 23-24.
The Red Book Revealed: British Columbia's
Home Economics Secret 1930-1975 by Mary
Leah de Zwart. 40:2 (2007): 11-13.
The Royal Navy and the Comox Settlement by
Allan Pritchard. 40:2 (2007): 20-27.
Social Efficiency & Public Schooling in British
Columbia by Catherine Broom. 40:3 (2007):
8-12.
Sounds of Brass: Ladner 1889-1902 by Jim Love
and Brant Mitchell. 40:2 (2007): 8-10.
The St. Alice Hotel: A Harrison Lake Hot Spot
by Fred Rogers. 40:4 (2007): 2-3.
Third Time Lucky: 64 Years Later W.W. II
Airman's Grave Finally Gets the Correct
Headstone by Dirk Septer. 40:3 (2007): 20-22.
The Vancouver Race Riot of 1907 and the Death
of Ng Ah Sim by Janet Mary Nicol. 40:2
(2007): 2-5.
Vanished: Field Crops & Wooden Artifacts
From BC Farms & Ranches by V.C. Brink.
40:3 (2007): 16-18.
Vernon Cuthbert "Bert" Brink 1912-2007 by
Larry Pynn. 40:3 (2007): 19. *
W Kaye Lamb Scholarship Winners
Announced by Marie Elliott. 40:2 (2007): 10.*
Wallace Island: A Microcosm of Gulf Islands
Development by Helen Edwards. 40:1 (2007):
22-25.
What Frankie Said: The Trial of Frankie Russell
by Lani Russwurm. 40:4 (2007): 18-22.
SUBJECTS
ADELPHI SALOON
Greene, Ronald. Dave Murray and the Atlantic
Cafe. 40:1 (2007): 30.
AGASSIZ
Rogers, Fred. The St. Alice Hotel: A Harrison
Lake Hot Spot. 40:4 (2007): 2-3.
AGRICULTURE
Brink, V.C. Vanished: Field Crops & Wooden
Artifacts From BC Farms & Ranches. 40:3
(2007): 16-18.
ALASKA PINE CO.
Cunningham, Rosemary. Leon Koerner:
Industrialist and Philanthropist
Extraordinaire. 40:1 (2007): 13-21.
ANGLICAN CHURCH
Dennison, Robert. Cridge, the Making of a
Bishop. 40:3 (2007): 2-7.
ARCHIVES
Brown, Dani. Archives and Archivists: A New
Home for the Surrey Archives. 40:1 (2007):
31.
Sill, Arilea. Archives and Archivists: Burnaby's
New "Total" Archives and Online Database
Project. 40:4 (2007): 25-26.
Stopforth, Sylvia. Archives and Archivists: The
Simon Fraser Letters at SFU Archives. 40:2
(2007): 32-34.
ARNOLD, BENEDICT
Rogers, Patricia. The Hotel Phair: And the
Extraordinary Family Who Created her. 40:2
42
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4
 (2007): 28-31.
ARTIFACTS
Brink, V.C. Vanished: Field Crops & Wooden
Artifacts From BC Farms & Ranches. 40:3
(2007): 16-18.
ASIATIC EXCLUSION LEAGUE
Nicol, Janet Mary. The Vancouver Race Riot
of 1907 and the Death of Ng Ah Sim. 40:2
(2007): 2-5.
ATLANTIC HOTEL
Greene, Ronald. Dave Murray and the Atlantic
Cafe. 40:1 (2007): 30.
AWARDS
Anne and Phillip Yandle Best Article Award.
40:2 (2007): 40.
BCHF Prizes/Awards/Scholarships. 40:2 (2007):
1; 40:3 (2007): 1; 40:4 (2007): 1.
BANDS
Love, Jim and Brant Mitchell. Sounds of Brass:
Ladner 1889-1902. 40:2 (2007): 8-10.
BANKS
Greene, Ronald. MacDonald & Company,
Bankers: Token History. 40:4 (2007): 23-24.
B.C. STAR
Septer, Dirk. Third Time Lucky: 64 Years Later
W.W. II Airman's Grave Finally Gets the
Correct Headstone. 40:3 (2007): 20-22.
BELLA BELLA
Septer, Dirk. Third Time Lucky: 64 Years Later
W.W. II Airman's Grave Finally Gets the
Correct Headstone. 40:3 (2007): 20-22.
BIBLIOGRAPHIES
Maxwell, Judy. Chinese Cemeteries and Grave
Markers in B.C.: A Research Guide. 40:4
(2007): 13-17.
BIOGRAPHIES
Cunningham, Rosemary. Leon Koerner:
Industrialist and Philanthropist
Extraordinaire. 40:1 (2007): 13-21.
Dennison, Robert. Cridge, the Making of a
Bishop. 40:3 (2007): 2-7.
Edwards, Helen. Wallace Island: A Microcosm
of Gulf Islands Development. 40:1 (2007):
22-25.
BRIDGES
MacLeod, Ken. Kingsmill Bridge in Italy: A
Tribute to a Vancouver Man. 40:2 (2007):
16-18.
BRINK, VERNON CUTHBERT
Died November 29, 2007. 40:3 (2007): 19.
BURNABY
Sill, Arilea. Archives and Archivists: Burnaby's
New "Total" Archives and Online Database
Project. 40:4 (2007): 25-26.
"C" BATTERY
Greene, Ronald. "C" Battery and the Skeena
Incident. 40:1 (2007): 2-6.J
CAFES
Greene, Ronald. Dave Murray and the Atlantic
Cafe. 40:1 (2007): 30.
CALWELL, ANDREW and FAMILY
Greene, Ronald. The C.&C. Taxi Service Ltd., of
Victoria, B.C. 40:3 (2007): 23-26.
CAMERON, JOHN
Greene, Ronald. The C.&C. Taxi Service Ltd., of
Victoria, B.C. 40:3 (2007): 23-26.
CEMETERIES
Maxwell, Judy. Chinese Cemeteries and Grave
Markers in B.C.: A Research Guide. 40:4
(2007): 13-17.
CENSORSHIP
Fox, Stanley. Censured! Unsuitable for British
Columbians: Film Censorship in British
Columbia, 1914-1963. 40:1 (2007): 7-12.
CHINESE CANADIANS
Greene, Ronald. A Celestial Love Story, or was
it? 40:2 (2007): 6-7.
Maxwell, Judy. Chinese Cemeteries and Grave
Markers in B.C.: A Research Guide. 40:4
(2007): 13-17.
Nicol, Janet Mary. The Vancouver Race Riot
of 1907 and the Death of Ng Ah Sim. 40:2
(2007): 2-5.
CHINGS/QING MING FESTIVAL
Maxwell, Judy. Chinese Cemeteries and Grave
Markers in B.C.: A Research Guide. 40:4
(2007): 13-17.
COLVILLE, ANDREW
Dennison, Robert. Cridge, the Making of a
Bishop. 40:3 (2007): 2-7.
COMOX
Pritchard, Allan. The Royal Navy and the
Comox Settlement. 40:2 (2007): 20-27.
CORRESPONDENCE
Turnbull, Steve. Letters From Afar. 40:3 (2007):
13-15.
CRIDGE, EDWARD
Dennison, Robert. Cridge, the Making of a
Bishop. 40:3 (2007): 2-7.
DATABASES
Sill, Arilea. Archives and Archivists: Burnaby's
New "Total" Archives and Online Database
Project. 40:4 (2007): 25-26.
DEATHS
Nicol, Janet Mary. The Vancouver Race Riot
of 1907 and the Death of Ng Ah Sim. 40:2
(2007): 2-5.
DELTA BRASS BAND
Love, Jim and Brant Mitchell. Sounds of Brass:
Ladner 1889-1902. 40:2 (2007): 8-10.
DIARIES
Horvath, J.E. From Budapest to Sitka. 40:1
(2007): 26-29.
DRUG ADDICTION
Russwurm, Lani. What Frankie Said: The Trial
of Frankie Russell. 40:4 (2007): 18-22.
EDITORIALS
Atkin, John. From the Editor. 40:1 (2007): 1.
EDUCATION
Broom, Catherine. A Case Based Analysis of
an Early Curriculum Revision: The Putnam
Weir Report. 40:4 (2007): 4-12.
 , . Social Efficiency & Public Schooling
in British Columbia. 40:3 (2007): 8-12.
De Zwart, Mary Leah. The Red Book Revealed:
British Columbia's Home Economics Secret
1930-1975. 40:2 (2007): 11-13.
Dennison, Robert. Cridge, the Making of a
Bishop. 40:3 (2007): 2-7.
EUCLE TAW TRIBE
Pritchard, Allan. The Royal Navy and the
Comox Settlement. 40:2 (2007): 20-27.
EVICTIONS
Russwurm, Lani. What Frankie Said: The Trial
of Frankie Russell. 40:4 (2007): 18-22.
EXAMINATIONS
Broom, Catherine. A Case Based Analysis of
an Early Curriculum Revision: The Putnam
Weir Report. 40:4 (2007): 4-12.
FARM MACHINERY
Brink, V.C. Vanished: Field Crops & Wooden
Artifacts From BC Farms & Ranches. 40:3
(2007): 16-18.
FESTIVALS
Maxwell, Judy. Chinese Cemeteries and Grave
Markers in B.C.: A Research Guide. 40:4
(2007): 13-17.
FILM INDUSTRY
Fox, Stanley. Censured! Unsuitable for British
Columbians: Film Censorship in British
Columbia, 1914-1963. 40:1 (2007): 7-12.
FIRES
Rogers, Fred. The St. Alice Hotel: A Harrison
Lake Hot Spot. 40:4 (2007): 2-3.
FIRST NATIONS PEOPLE
Greene, Ronald. "C" Battery and the Skeena
Incident. 40:1 (2007): 2-6.
Pritchard, Allan. The Royal Navy and the
Comox Settlement. 40:2 (2007): 20-27.
FOREST INDUSTRY
Cunningham, Rosemary. Leon Koerner:
Industrialist and Philanthropist
Extraordinaire. 40:1 (2007): 13-21.
FORT VICTORIA
Dennison, Robert. Cridge, the Making of a
Bishop. 40:3 (2007): 2-7.
FRASER, SIMON
Stopforth, Sylvia, ed. Archives and Archivists:
The Simon Fraser Letters at SFU Archives.
40:2 (2007): 32-34.
GENEALOGY
Rogers, Patricia. The Hotel Phair: And the
Extraordinary Family Who Created her. 40:2
(2007): 28-31.
GILLIS, JOAN
Turnbull, Steve. Letters From Afar. 40:3 (2007):
13-15.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4   43
 GOLD RUSH
Greene, Ronald. MacDonald & Company,
Bankers: Token History. 40:4 (2007): 23-24.
GORDON, R.L.
Fox, Stanley. Censured! Unsuitable for British
Columbians: Film Censorship in British
Columbia, 1914-1963. 40:1 (2007): 7-12.
GRAVESTONES
Maxwell, Judy. Chinese Cemeteries and Grave
Markers in B.C.: A Research Guide. 40:4
(2007): 13-17.
Septer, Dirk. Third Time Lucky: 64 Years Later
W.W. II Airman's Grave Finally gets the
Correct Headstone. 40:3 (2007): 20-22.
GULF ISLANDS
Edwards, Helen. Wallace Island: A Microcosm
of Gulf Islands Development. 40:1 (2007):
22-25.
GUNBOATS
Pritchard, Allan. The Royal Navy and the
Comox Settlement. 40:2 (2007): 20-27.
HARRISON LAKE
Rogers, Fred. The St. Alice Hotel: A Harrison
Lake Hot Spot. 40:4 (2007): 2-3.
HAZELTON
Greene, Ronald. "C" Battery and the Skeena
Incident. 40:1 (2007): 2-6.J
HOME ECONOMICS
De Zwart, Mary Leah. The Red Book Revealed:
British Columbia's Home Economics Secret
1930-1975. 40:2 (2007): 11-13.
HOT SPRINGS
Rogers, Fred. The St. Alice Hotel: A Harrison
Lake Hot Spot. 40:4 (2007): 2-3.
HOTELS
Parent, Rosemarie. The Leland Hotel, Nakusp:
A Short History. 40:2 (2007): 14-15.
Rogers, Fred. The St. Alice Hotel: A Harrison
Lake Hot Spot. 40:4 (2007): 2-3.
Rogers, Patricia. The Hotel Phair: And the
Extraordinary Family Who Created her. 40:2
(2007): 28-31.
HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY
Dennison, Robert. Cridge, the Making of a
Bishop. 40:3 (2007): 2-7.
ILLUSTRATIONS, COVER
A Chief of the EucleTaw Tribe. 40:2 (2007).
Leon Koerner. 40:1 (2007).
One of the Stages Belonging to the C&C Taxi
Service Ltd., Victoria. 40:2 (2007).
The St. Alice Hotel, Harrison Lake. 40:4 (2007).
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
Broom, Catherine. Social Efficiency & Public
Schooling in British Columbia. 40:3 (2007):
8-12.
INSERTS
BCHF Annual Conference Registration
Information. 40:3 (2007): Insert 1-4.
IRRIGATION
Brink, V.C. Vanished: Field Crops & Wooden
Artifacts From BC Farms & Ranches. 40:3
(2007): 16-18.
INTERNMENT
Turnbull, Steve. Letters From Afar. 40:3 (2007):
13-15.
ISLANDS
Edwards, Helen. Wallace Island: A Microcosm
of Gulf Islands Development. 40:1 (2007):
22-25.
ITALY
MacLeod, Ken. Kingsmill Bridge in Italy: A
Tribute to a Vancouver Man. 40:2 (2007):
16-18.
JAPANESE CANADIANS
Turnbull, Steve. Letters From Afar. 40:3 (2007):
13-15.
KINGSMILL, TONY
MacLeod, Ken. Kingsmill Bridge in Italy: A
Tribute to a Vancouver Man. 40:2 (2007):
16-18.
KOERNER, LEON JOSEPH and FAMILY
Cunningham, Rosemary. Leon Koerner:
Industrialist and Philanthropist
Extraordinaire. 40:1 (2007): 13-21.
KOSZTKA, EMIL
Horvath, J.E. From Budapest to Sitka. 40:1
(2007): 26-29.
KRISZTINKOVICH, BELA
Horvath, J.E. From Budapest to Sitka. 40:1
(2007): 26-29.
KUSKANOOK, B.C.
Greene, Ronald. A Celestial Love Story, or was
it? 40:2 (2007): 6-7.
LADNER CORNET BAND
Love, Jim and Brant Mitchell. Sounds of Brass:
Ladner 1889-1902. 40:2 (2007): 8-10.
LADNER'S LANDING
Love, Jim and Brant Mitchell. Sounds of Brass:
Ladner 1889-1902. 40:2 (2007): 8-10.
LEGISLATION
Fox, Stanley. Censured! Unsuitable for British
Columbians: Film Censorship in British
Columbia, 1914-1963. 40:1 (2007): 7-12.
LELAND HOTEL, NAKUSP
Parent, Rosemarie. The Leland Hotel, Nakusp:
A Short History. 40:2 (2007): 14-15.
LESLIE ARTHER
Love, Jim and Brant Mitchell. Sounds of Brass:
Ladner 1889-1902. 40:2 (2007): 8-10.
LETTERS
Stopforth, Sylvia, ed. Archives and Archivists:
The Simon Fraser Letters at SFU Archives.
40:2 (2007): 32-34.
Turnbull, Steve. Letters From Afar. 40:3 (2007):
13-15.
LUM F00
Greene, Ronald. A Celestial Love Story, or was
it? 40:2 (2007): 6-7.
MacDONALD, ALEXANDER DAVIDSON
Greene, Ronald. MacDonald & Company,
Bankers: Token History. 40:4 (2007): 23-24.
MacLENNAN, MALCOLM
Russwurm, Lani. What Frankie Said: The Trial
of Frankie Russell. 40:4 (2007): 18-22.
MANUSCRIPTS
Stopforth, Sylvia, ed. Archives and Archivists:
The Simon Fraser Letters at SFU Archives.
40:2 (2007): 32-34.
MARINE HISTORY
Septer, Dirk. Third Time Lucky: 64 Years Later
W.W. II Airman's Grave Finally gets the
Correct Headstone. 40:3 (2007): 20-22.
MARINE PARKS
Edwards, Helen. Wallace Island: A Microcosm
of Gulf Islands Development. 40:1 (2007):
22-25.
MAYNE, R.C.
Pritchard, Allan. The Royal Navy and the
Comox Settlement. 40:2 (2007): 20-27.
McLANAGHEN, JESSIE
De Zwart, Mary Leah. The Red Book Revealed:
British Columbia's Home Economics Secret
1930-1975. 40:2 (2007): 11-13.
MILITARY HISTORY
Greene, Ronald. "C" Battery and the Skeena
Incident. 40:1 (2007): 2-6.
MacLeod, Ken. Kingsmill Bridge in Italy: A
Tribute to a Vancouver Man. 40:2 (2007):
16-18.
MINER, NELSON
Greene, Ronald. A Celestial Love Story, or was
it? 40:2 (2007): 6-7.
MISCELLANY
40:1 (2007): 40; 40:2 (2007): 40-41; 40:3 (2007):
36-37; 40:4 (2007): 40.
MONTE CASINO
MacLeod, Ken. Kingsmill Bridge in Italy: A
Tribute to a Vancouver Man. 40:2 (2007):
16-18.
MOVING PICTURES ACT
Fox, Stanley. Censured! Unsuitable for British
Columbians: Film Censorship in British
Columbia, 1914-1963. 40:1 (2007): 7-12.
MURDERS
Russwurm, Lani. What Frankie Said: The Trial
of Frankie Russell. 40:4 (2007): 18-22.
MURRAY, DAVID
Greene, Ronald. Dave Murray and the Atlantic
Cafe. 40:1 (2007): 30.
NAKUSP
Parent, Rosemarie. The Leland Hotel, Nakusp:
A Short History. 40:2 (2007): 14-15.
NELSON
Rogers, Patricia. The Hotel Phair: And the
Extraordinary Family Who Created her. 40:2
(2007): 28-31.
44
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4
 NG AU SIM
Nicol, Janet Mary. The Vancouver Race Riot
of 1907 and the Death of Ng Ah Sim. 40:2
(2007): 2-5.
NORTH VANCOUVER HIGH SCHOOL
Broom, Catherine. A Case Based Analysis of
an Early Curriculum Revision: The Putnam
Weir Report. 40:4 (2007): 4-12.
OBITUARIES
Brink, Vernon Cuthbert "Bert" Brink 1912-2007.
40:3 (2007): 19. *
Spittle, John. 40:4 (2007): 40.
ORGANIZATIONS
Maxwell, Judy. Chinese Cemeteries and Grave
Markers in B.C.: A Research Guide. 40:4
(2007): 13-17.
PACIFIC NORTHWEST COAST
Greene, Ronald. "C" Battery and the Skeena
Incident. 40:1 (2007): 2-6.
Septer, Dirk. Third Time Lucky: 64 Years Later
W.W. II Airman's Grave Finally gets the
Correct Headstone. 40:3 (2007): 20-22.
PHAIR, EDWIN ERNEST and FAMILY
Rogers, Patricia. The Hotel Phair: And the
Extraordinary Family Who Created her. 40:2
(2007): 28-31.
PHILANTHROPY
Cunningham, Rosemary. Leon Koerner:
Industrialist and Philanthropist
Extraordinaire. 40:1 (2007): 13-21.
PIONEER SETTLEMENTS
Edwards, Helen. Wallace Island: A Microcosm
of Gulf Islands Development. 40:1 (2007):
22-25.
Pritchard, Allan. The Royal Navy and the
Comox Settlement. 40:2 (2007): 20-27.
POLICE
Russwurm, Lani. What Frankie Said: The Trial
of Frankie Russell. 40:4 (2007): 18-22.
PUBLIC SCHOOL AND SOCIAL
EFFICIENCY
Broom, Catherine. Social Efficiency & Public
Schooling in British Columbia. 40:3 (2007):
8-12.
PUTNAM WEIR REPORT
Broom, Catherine. A Case Based Analysis of
an Early Curriculum Revision: The Putnam
Weir Report. 40:4 (2007): 4-12.
 , . Social Efficiency & Public Schooling
in British Columbia. 40:3 (2007): 8-12.
RACIAL DISCRIMINATION
Greene, Ronald. A Celestial Love Story, or was
it? 40:2 (2007): 6-7.
Nicol, Janet Mary. The Vancouver Race Riot
of 1907 and the Death of Ng Ah Sim. 40:2
(2007): 2-5.
Turnbull, Steve. Letters From Afar. 40:3 (2007):
13-15.
RATHWELL HOUSE see LELAND HOTEL
RELIGION
Dennison, Robert. Cridge, the Making of a
Bishop. 40:3 (2007): 2-7.
RESORTS
Rogers, Fred. The St. Alice Hotel: A Harrison
Lake Hot Spot. 40:4 (2007): 2-3.
RIOTS
Nicol, Janet Mary. The Vancouver Race Riot
of 1907 and the Death of Ng Ah Sim. 40:2
(2007): 2-5.
ROYAL CANADIAN AIR FORCE
Septer, Dirk. Third Time Lucky: 64 Years Later
W.W. II Airman's Grave Finally gets the
Correct Headstone. 40:3 (2007): 20-22.
ROYAL NAVY
Pritchard, Allan. The Royal Navy and the
Comox Settlement. 40:2 (2007): 20-27.
RUSSELL, FRANKIE
Russwurm, Lani. What Frankie Said: The Trial
of Frankie Russell. 40:4 (2007): 18-22.
SALOONS
Greene, Ronald. Dave Murray and the Atlantic
Cafe. 40:1 (2007): 30.
SCHOLARSHIPS
Elliot, Marie. W Kaye Lamb Scolarship
Winners Announced. 40:2 (2007): 10.*
SCHOOLS
Broom, Catherine. A Case Based Analysis of
an Early Curriculum Revision: The Putnam
Weir Report. 40:4 (2007): 4-12.
Dennison, Robert. Cridge, the Making of a
Bishop. 40:3 (2007): 2-7.
SHIPWRECKS
Septer, Dirk. Third Time Lucky: 64 Years Later
W.W. II Airman's Grave Finally gets the
Correct Headstone. 40:3 (2007): 20-22.
SKEENA EXPEDITION
Greene, Ronald. "C" Battery and the Skeena
Incident. 40:1 (2007): 2-6.J
SOCIAL LIFE and CUSTOMS
De Zwart, Mary Leah. The Red Book Revealed:
British Columbia's Home Economics Secret
1930-1975. 40:2 (2007): 11-13.
Edwards, Helen. Wallace Island: A Microcosm
of Gulf Islands Development. 40:1 (2007):
22-25.
Maxwell, Judy. Chinese Cemeteries and Grave
Markers in B.C.: A Research Guide. 40:4
(2007): 13-17.
Rogers, Patricia. The Hotel Phair: And the
Extraordinary Family Who Created her. 40:2
(2007): 28-31.
SPITTLE, JOHN
Died March 22, 2008. 40:4 (2007): 40.
ST. ALICE HOTEL
Rogers, Fred. The St. Alice Hotel: A Harrison
Lake Hot Spot. 40:4 (2007): 2-3.
SUICIDES
Russwurm, Lani. What Frankie Said: The Trial
of Frankie Russell. 40:4 (2007): 18-22.
SURREY
Brown, Dani. Archives and Archivists: A New
Home for the Surrey Archives. 40:1 (2007):
31.
TAIT, BOB
Russwurm, Lani. What Frankie Said: The Trial
of Frankie Russell. 40:4 (2007): 18-22.
TAXIS
Greene, Ronald. The C.&C. Taxi Service Ltd., of
Victoria, B.C. 40:3 (2007): 23-26.
TEXT BOOKS
De Zwart, Mary Leah. The Red Book Revealed:
British Columbia's Home Economics Secret
1930-1975. 40:2 (2007): 11-13.
TOKENS
Greene, Ronald. The C.&C. Taxi Service Ltd., of
Victoria, B.C. 40:3 (2007): 23-26.
 , . Dave Murray and the Atlantic Cafe.
40:1 (2007): 30.
 , . MacDonald & Company, Bankers:
Token History. 40:4 (2007): 23-24.
TRAVEL- 19TH CENTURY
Horvath, J.E. From Budapest to Sitka. 40:1
(2007): 26-29.
TRIALS
Russwurm, Lani. What Frankie Said: The Trial
of Frankie Russell. 40:4 (2007): 18-22.
UNIVERSITIES
Stopforth, Sylvia, ed. Archives and Archivists:
The Simon Fraser Letters at SFU Archives.
40:2 (2007): 32-34.
VANCOUVER
Cunningham, Rosemary. Leon Koerner:
Industrialist and Philanthropist
Extraordinaire. 40:1 (2007): 13-21.
Nicol, Janet Mary. The Vancouver Race Riot
of 1907 and the Death of Ng Ah Sim. 40:2
(2007): 2-5.
Russwurm, Lani. What Frankie Said: The Trial
of Frankie Russell. 40:4 (2007): 18-22.
VANCOUVER ISLAND
Pritchard, Allan. The Royal Navy and the
Comox Settlement. 40:2 (2007): 20-27.
VICTORIA
Greene, Ronald. "C" Battery and the Skeena
Incident. 40:1 (2007): 2-6.
 , . The C.&C. Taxi Service Ltd., of
Victoria, B.C. 40:3 (2007): 23-26.
 , . Dave Murray and the Atlantic Cafe.
40:1 (2007): 30.
 , . MacDonald & Company, Bankers:
Token History. 40:4 (2007): 23-24.
VOJNICH, OSZKAR
Horvath, J.E. From Budapest to Sitka. 40:1
(2007): 26-29.
WAH CHUNG TAI
Greene, Ronald. A Celestial Love Story, or was
it? 40:2 (2007): 6-7.
WALLACE ISLAND
Edwards, Helen. Wallace Island: A Microcosm
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4   45
 of Gulf Islands Development. 40:1 (2007):
22-25.
WELLS FARGO
Greene, Ronald. MacDonald & Company,
Bankers: Token History. 40:4 (2007): 23-24.
WITCHES
Rogers, Patricia. The Hotel Phair: And the
Extraordinary Family Who Created her. 40:2
(2007): 28-31.
WORLD WAR II
Cunningham, Rosemary. Leon Koerner:
Industrialist and Philanthropist
Extraordinaire. 40:1 (2007): 13-21.
MacLeod, Ken. Kingsmill Bridge in Italy: A
Tribute to a Vancouver Man. 40:2 (2007):
16-18.
Septer, Dirk. Third Time Lucky: 64 Years Later
W.W. II Airman's Grave Finally gets the
Correct Headstone. 40:3 (2007): 20-22.
Turnbull, Steve. Letters From Afar. 40:3 (2007):
13-15.
BOOK REVIEWS
ARMITAGE, Doreen. Tales from the Galley:
Stories of the Working Waterfront. Reviewed
by Philip Teece. 40:4 (2007): 34-35.
BANCROFT, Wendy, Harmony Folz, Richard
Taylor, Marie Crawford. Union of British
Columbia Municipalities: UBCM: The First
Century. Reviewed by Frances Welwood.
40:4 (2007): 39.
BARMAN, Jean and Bruce Mclntyre. Leaving
Paradise Indigenous Hawaains in the Pacific
Northwest. Reviewed by Michael Halleran.
40:2 (2007): 36-37.
BOLES, Glen W., Roger W Laurilla and
William L. Putnam. Canadian Mountain
Place Names - The Rockies and Columbia
Mountains. Reviewed by Harvey A.
Buckmaster. 40:1 (2007): 34.
BOUDREAU, Jack. Sternwheelers & Canyon
Cats: Whitewater Freighting on the Upper
Fraser. Reviewed by Frank Leonard. 40:4
(2007): 33.
BOWLING, Tim. The Lost Coast: Salmon,
Memory and the Death of Wild Culture.
Reviewed by Philip Teece. 40:4 (2007): 36-37.
BRIDGE, Kathryn. A Passion for Mountains:
The Lives of Don and Phyllis Munday
Reviewed by Vernon C. (Bert) Brink. 40:1
(2007): 32.
CAMERON, Ken. City Making in Paradise:
Nine Decisions that Saved Vancouver.
Reviewed by Mary Rawson. 40:4 (2007):
28-29.
CAMPBELL, K. Mack. Cannery Village:
Company Town. Reviewed by Susan Stacey
40:3 (2007): 28.
DALTON, Anthony. Baychimo: Arctic Ghost
Ship. Reviewed by Philip Teece. 40:1 (2007):
33.
DUNCAN, Dorothy. Canadians at Table: A
Culinary History of Canada. Reviewed by
Naomi Miller. 40:1 (2007): 34-35.
FORSYTHIE, Mark and Greg Dickson. The
Trail of 1858: British Columbia's Gold Rush
Past. Reviewed by M. Wayne Cunningham.
40:4 (2007): 37-38.
GUPPY, Walter. Clayoquot Soundings: A
History of Clayoquot Sound, 1880's-1980's.
Reviewed by Catherine Henderson. 40:4
(2007): 29.
IRVING, Joe. Red Iron Over the Canyon.
Reviewed by R.J. (Ron) Welwood. 40:1 (2007):
38.
KELM, Mary-Ellen, ed. The Letters of Margaret
Butcher; Missionary Imperialism on the
North Pacific Coast. Reviewed by Phyllis
Reeve. 40:4 (2007): 35-36.
LAVELLE, Phyllis Grant. The Ghost in the
Turret: A History Mystery for Young
Readers. Reviewed by Janet Nicol. 40:3
(2007): 30.
LAZARUS, Eve. At Home with History: The
Untold Secrets of Greater Vancouver's
Heritage Homes. Reviewed by Janet Nicol.
40:4 (2007): 27.
LEVY, Paul. River Queen: The Amazing Story
of Tugboat Titan Lucille Johnstone. Reviewed
by Bob Spearing. 40:3 (2007): 31.
MANN, Jean, Beverly New and Cathy Barford.
Women Lead the Way: A History of the
University Women's Club of Vancouver,
1907-2007. Reviewed by ? 40:3 (2007): 34.
MORAY, Gerta. Unsettling Encouters: First
Nations Imagery in the Art of Emily Carr.
Reviewed by Michael Kluckner. 40:2 (2007):
38-39.
MURTON, James. Creating a Modern
Countryside: Liberalism and Land
Settlement in British Columbia. Reviewed by
Patrick A. Dunae. 40:4 (2007): 32.
MULLIGA, Claire. The Reckoning of Boston
Jim. Reviewed by Sheryl Salloum. 40:4
(2007): 32-33.
PARENT, Milton. Caulkboot Riverdance:
Working the Columbia, Canada's Wildest
Log Drive. Reviewed by R.J. (Ron) Welwood.
40:3 (2007): 28-29.
PENNIER, Henry. Keith Thor Carlson and
Kristina Fagan, eds. 'Call Me Hank': A Sto:
lo Man's Reflections on Logging, Living
and Growing Old. Reviewed by Jacqueline
Gresko. 40:4 (2007): 27-28.
PETERSON, Jan. Harbour City: Nanaimo in
Transition, 1920-1967. Reviewed by Jane
Turner. 40:2 (2007): 37-38.
REEVE, Lynne. Lantzville; The First Hundred
Years. Reviewed by Ross Carter. 40:2 (2007):
36.
ROGATNICK, Abraham J., Ian M. Thorn and
Adele Wieder. B.C. Binning. Reviewed by
Harvey Buckmaster. 40:1 (2007): 38.
ROGERS, A.C. (Fred). Historic Divers of British
Columbia. Reviewed by Jacques Marc. 40:1
(2007): 35-36.
ROY, Patricia E. The Triumph of Citizenship:
The Japanese and Chinese in Canada, 1941-
1967. Reviewed by Jacqueline Gresko. 40:4
(2007): 38-39.
SCHAFFER, Mary T. S. Old Indian Trails of the
Canadian Rockies. Reviewed by Harvey A.
Buckmaster. 40:2 (2007): 38.
SCHOFIELD, Peggy, ed. The Story of Dunbar:
Voices of a Vancouver Neighbourhood.
Reviewed by Ron Clancy. 40:3 (2007): 29.
SECRIST, T.W. A Place to Stand: A Tale of the
Peace River Country. Reviewed by Janet
Nicol. 40:1 (2007): 32-33.
SHARDLOW, Tom. David Thompson: A Trail
of Stars. Reviewed by Derdrie Simmons. 40:1
(2007): 35.
SIMMONS, Deidre. Keepers of the Record:
The History of the Hudson's Bay Company
Archives. Reviewed by Terry Eastwood. 40:4
(2007): 31.
SIMMONS, Deidre. Servite in Caritate: The
First 100 Years of St. Margaret's School,
1908-2008. Reviewed by Jean Barman. 40:4
(2007): 34.
SOMMER, Warren. The Ambitious City: A
History of the City of North Vancouver.
Reviewed by Ross Carter. 40:3 (2007): 27.
SPALDING, David A.E. Enchanted Isles; The
Southern Gulf Islands. Reviewed by Phyllis
Reeve. 40:4 (2007): 30.
SPARKS, Jean. Oak Bay, British Columbia: In
Photographs. Reviewed by Bob Spearling.
40:3 (2007): 30-31.
STONIER- NEWMAN, Lynne. The Law
Man: Adventures of a Frontier Diplomat.
Reviewed by M. Wayne Cunningham. 40:1
(2007): 36-37.
SWIZER, Ann-Lee, ed. This and That: The Lost
Journals of Emily Carr. Reviewed by Kerry
Mason. 40:3 (2007): 33-34.
THORBURN, Mark. Bathroom Book of
British Columbia History: Intriguing and
Entertaining Facts About Our Province's
Past. Reviewed by M. Wayne Cunningham.
40:3 (2007): 27-28.
TURNER, Nancy J. The Earth's Blanket:
Traditional Teachings for Sustainable Living.
Reviewed by W Grant Hazelwood. 40:3
(2007): 32-33.
TURNER, Robert D. And J.S. David Wilkie.
Steam Along the Boundary: Canadian Pacific,
Great Northern and the Great Boundary
Copper Boom. Reviewed by Frank Leonard.
40:3 (2007): 31-32.
WILD, Paula with Rick James. The Comox
Valley. Reviewed by Jocie Ingram. 40:2
(2007): 35-36.
WILLIAMS, Judith. Clam Gardens; Aboriginal
Mariculture on Canada's West Coast.
Reviewed by Phyllis Reeve. 40:2 (2007): 35.
WILSON, Diana, ed. Heart of the Cariboo-
Chilcotin: Stories Worth Keeping. Reviewed
by Marie Elliott. 40:4 (2007): 30-31.
WOOD, June. Nechako Country: In the
Footsteps of Bert Irvine. Reviewed by Marie
46
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4
 Miscellany
Announcements, research notes, and advocacy
Vancouver Institute
Lectures Given Second
Life on the Internet
The UBC Archives is pleased to
announce the creation of the Vancouver
Institute Digital Lecture Collection.
Dating back almost to the creation of
the University itself, the Vancouver
Institute has for ninety-five years
sponsored regular lectures of general
public interest to foster a liaison
between "town and gown". These
free lectures have featured prominent
local, national and international
speakers whose talks covered a
significant breadth of popular topics
including science and technology,
medicine, environmental!sm, literary
and fine arts, history and politics.
In fact, the efforts of the Vancouver
Institute organizers represent one of
the earliest examples of "community
engagement," an element that features
prominently in the University's
current strategic plan.
Since 1975 the Vancouver
Institute has recorded virtually all the
lectures delivered under its auspices
and these audio and video recordings
have been transferred to the Archives
for preservation and access. However,
use of the recordings has been
predicated first on knowing of their
existence and then being able to travel
to the Archives to access them.
Carried out in conjunction with
the Vancouver Institute, this project
has resulted in the digitization of
over 500 of our approximately 740
VI recordings, and these are now
accessible as streaming audio or
video files in UBC's institutional
repository, cIRcle at: https://clrcle.
ubc.ca/handle/2429/12708 .
Christopher Hives
University Archivist
University of British
Columbia
Anarchist Archive
From the Globe & Mail,
September 14, 2011
ANARCHIST ARCHIVE (by
Tom Hawthorn): The University of
Victoria library has received seven
boxes of papers from Ann Hansen,
who was sentenced to a life term
for conspiring to rob an armoured
car and for a series of bombings in
Ontario and British Columbia in
the early 1980s. The material, which
includes pamphlets and prison
correspondence, will be included in
the Anarchist Archive, founded by art
historian Allan Antliff, who holds the
Canada Research Chair in Modern
Art.
Mr. Antliff approached Ms.
Hansen for the donation, for which
she will receive no payment. Much
of the material will be posted online
alongside other anti-authoritarian
materials in what is the only archive
of its kind in Canada.
The most interesting
contribution is a transcript of
conversations recorded from a police
bug placed in her bedroom before
her arrest. Alas, a 70-year privacy
restriction has recently been placed
on the transcript, which will not be
accessible to the public until 2081.
Ms. Hansen, 58, spent seven
years in jail. She got permission from
her parole officer to travel to the
campus last week from her home on
a farm west of Kingston, Ont., where
she remains active in the prison
abolition movement.
Call for volunteers:
Historic Joy Kogawa House
We are looking for individuals
interested in helping with all aspects
of activities at Historic Joy Kogawa
House—event hosting, home and
garden maintenance, and project
planning.
Historic Joy Kogawa House is
the childhood home of the Japanese-
Canadian author Joy Kogawa. The
Historic Joy Kogawa House Society
is a community-based group of arts
supporters who operate a writer-
in-residence program purely on a
volunteer basis.
The author residency program
is set in the former home of Canadian
author Joy Kogawa (born 1935), and
the 1912 house stands as a cultural
and historical reminder of the wartime experience of Canadians of
Japanese heritage, who were interned
in remote camps and their property
expropriated during World War II.
Our writer-in-residence program
celebrates the work of Joy Kogawa,
which brought this experience to
general awareness among Canadians
in her novel, Obasan (1981), and in
other novels, poems, and essays.
The writer-in-residence program
has been under way since 2009 and
during that time has enriched the
literary community and fostered an
appreciation for Canadian writing by
bringing well-regarded professional
writers in touch with a local
community of writers, readers, and
students.
Anyone interested in joining
our group of volunteers is welcome
to be in touch with me at the contacts
shown below.
Ann-Marie Metten
Executive Director
Historic Joy Kogawa House
1450 West 64th Avenue
Vancouver, BC V6P 2N4
Telephone 604-263-6586
Please send mail to:
8107 Cartier Street
Vancouver, BC V6P 4T6
www. kogawahouse. com
www. conservancy, be. ca
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011  | Vol. 44 No. 4     47
 Cabinets of Curiosities
Chilliwack to ANZAC and back
Andrea Lister, editor and author, tells the tale of a 1911 Chilliwack Hospital
Auxiliary member's card that found its way home after 100 years.
At the end of September 2011 an intriguing email
came through the Chilliwack Hospital Auxiliary
website: "I am a Canadian born historian married
to a woman from "down under"... been down
here for 40 years. I provenance historical items and documents
for a living and always keep an eye out for them little bits of
historical "flotsam and jetsam" that doesn't mean much to
most folks but a lot to others. In my travels I have picked
up a vintage 1914 Chilliwack Hospital Auxiliary member's
card in real nice condition. The member's name space is
blank BUT the card WAS signed by the President — Carrie
Eckert and the Secretary — Elva Grossman. I thought it
might look pretty in your little cabinet of Auxiliary historical
goodies. Free, gratis ... no strings attached — all I need is
an address to post it to from far flung Australia. How did it
come to BE here? probably through an ANZAC [Australian
and New Zealand Army Corps] soldier being treated by a
Canadian nurse — many wounded Australians were treated
at Canadian Field stations- it may have just been given to
him as a form of remembrance of the event... the main thing
is that this goes back "home". Regards Vince MacDonald"
I shivered in excitement; having spent the last several
years researching the Auxiliary's history for the book,
Commitment to Caring: Chilliwack Hospital Auxiliary's 100
Years, 1911-2011,1 knew that neither the Auxiliary collection
nor the Chilliwack Archives had a member's card in their
collection.
+
This is to certify that
The Chilliwack Hospital Auxiliary was founded May
1,1911 when the Chilliwack Hospital Board called a meeting
of the women of the Fraser Valley. They asked the women to
form a Hospital Auxiliary to assist the Board of directors in
maintaining the Hospital. Mrs. Caroline Eckert was its first
president and Miss Elva Grossman was first secretary.
Elva Grossman was a founding member of the
Auxiliary, secretary from 1911-1913, president from 1922-
1925, secretary from 1926-1931, and then president again
from 1932-1933. Elva is also my great-grand aunt so this
object holds both personal and historic value.
Vince MacDonald bought the card through an online
auction system available only to Australians and New
Zealanders. How did a Chilliwack Hospital Auxiliary
member's card end up on a New Zealand online auction
site? The women of the Auxiliary were involved in other
organizations such as the Imperial Order Daughters of
the Empire (IODE) that sent care packages to Canadian
soldiers. Undoubtedly many members had family members
and friends who served during the First World War. Was it
a nurse at a Canadian Field Hospital Clearing Station who
gave it to a soldier?
As the member's name is blank the mystery remains
as to how the card ended up in New Zealand but thanks to
Vince MacDonald the card will join the other objects in the
Chilliwack Museum and Archives collection.*
is a member of the
Chilliwack fiospital Auxiliary
for the year 191 ty-
(Signed) fii^^UdL^J^4^e^/: President.
...-_i£^K/.
yk43k&&£Uta& Secretary.
The card is cream in colour with a red cross and black text. The 1911 has been
altered with a blue pen to read 1914.
Do you have an
object of curiosity
in your cabinet?
Send me 300 to 400 words
with a high-resolution
image of the object,
telling me the story of the
object. Email your story
to: bcheditor@bchistory.
ca, or mail it to: Editor,
British Columbia History,
PO Box 21187, Maple Ridge
BC, V2X1P7
48
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY | Winter 2011 | Vol. 44 No. 4
 Awards and Scholarship Information
for complete details go to http://bchistory.ca/awards/index.html
W. KAYE LAMB Essay Scholarships
Deadline: May 15
The British Columbia Historical Federation
awards two scholarships annually for
essays written by students at BC colleges
or universities, on a topic relating to British
Columbia history. One scholarship ($750) is
for an essay written by a student in a first or
second year course; the other ($1000) is for
an essay written by a student in a third or
fourth year course.
To apply for the scholarship all candidates
must submit (1) a letter of application and
(2) a letter of recommendation from the
professor for whom the essay was written.
First and second year course essays should
be 1,500-3,000 words; third and fourth
year,l,500 to 5,000 words. By entering the
scholarship competition the student gives
the editor of British Columbia History the
right to edit and publish the essay if it is
deemed appropriate for the magazine.
Applications with 3 printed copies of the
essay should be submitted to: Marie Elliott,
Chair BC Historical Federation Scholarship
Committee, PO Box 5254, Station B,
Victoria, BC V8R 6N4
Anne 6t Philip Yandle Best Article
Award
Deadline: To be eligible, the article must have appeared
in the BCHF journal British Columbia History for that
year
A Certificate of   merit and $250 will be
awarded annually to the author of the
article, published in British Columbia
History, that best enhances knowledge
of BC's history and provides reading
enjoyment. Judging will be based on subject
development, writing skill, freshness of
material, and appeal to a general readership
interested in all aspects of BC history.
BC History Web Site Prize
Deadline: December 31
The British Columbia Historical Federation
and David Mattison are jointly sponsoring a
yearly cash award of $250 to recognize Web
sites that contribute to the understanding
and appreciation of British Columbia's past.
The award honours individual initiative in
writing and presentation.
Nominations for the BC History Web Site
Prize must be made to the British Columbia
Historical Federation, Web Site Prize
Committee, prior to the 31st of December
each year. Web site creators and authors
may nominate their own sites. Prize rules
and the online nomination form can be
found on the British Columbia Historical
Federation Web site: http://bchistory
ca/awards/website/index.html
Best Newsletter Award
Deadline: March 1
Newsletters published by member societies
are eligible to compete for an annual
prize of $250. They will be judged for
presentation and content that is interesting,
newsy and informative.
- Only member societies of the BCHF are
eligible
- Only one issue of a society's newsletter
will be evaluated
- Submit three printed copies of this best
issue from the previous calendar year
- BCHF reserves the right not to award a
prize in a given year should applications
not be of sufficient quality
Submit three printed copies of a single
newsletter issue to: TBA, BCHF Recognition
Committee, PO Box 5254, Station B,
Victoria, BC, Canada, V8R 6N4
Certificate of Merit
Deadline: March 1
Group or individual who has made a
significant contribution to the study,
project, or promotion of British Columbia's
history.
Certificate of Recognition
Deadline: March 1
Given to individual members or groups
of members of BCHF Member Societies
who have given exceptional service to their
Organization or Community.
Certificate of Appreciation
Deadline: March 1
Individuals who have undertaken ongoing
positions, tasks, or projects for BCHF.
Nominations
Any member of BCHF may nominate
candidates for Certificates of Appreciation,
Certificates of Merit or Certificates of
Recognition. Nominations, supported
by a letter explaining why the nominee
is deserving of a certificate, should be
submitted to the Chair of the Recognition
Committee by 1 March of each year.
The Lieutenant-Governor's Medal
for Historical Writing
Deadline: December 31
Each year, the British Columbia Historical
Federation invites submissions for its
Annual Historical Writing Competition
to authors of BC history; and the winning
author is awarded the Lieutenant-
Governor's Medal for Historical Writing.
Eligibility
- To be eligible, a book must be about
BC history and be published within the
competition year
- Non-fiction books representing any
aspect of BC history are eligible.
- Reprints or revisions of books are not
eligible
- Books may be submitted by authors or
publishers
- Deadline for submission is December
31 of the year in which the book was
published
Submission Requirements
- For information about making
submissions contact Lieutenant-
Governor's Award for Writing
- Authors/Publishers are required to
submit three copies of their book
- Books are to be accompanied by a letter
containing the following:
1. Title of the book submitted
2. Author's name and contact information
3. Publisher's name and contact
information
4. Selling price
- Books entered become property of BCHF
- By submitting books for this competition,
the authors agree that the BCHF may use
their name(s) in press releases and in its
publications
William R. Morrison Email: writing®
bchistory.ca Phone: 250-245-9247
Judging Criteria
Judges are looking for quality presentations
and fresh material. Submissions will be
evaluated in the following areas:
- Scholarship: quality of research and
documentation, comprehensiveness,
objectivity and accuracy
- Presentation: organization, clarity,
illustrations and graphics
- Accessibility: readability and audience
appeal
Publicity
All winners will receive publicity and an
invitation to the Award's Banquet at the
Federation's annual conference in May
following the year of publication.
Lieutenant-Governor's Medal and Other Awards
The BC Lieutenant-Governor's Medal for
Historical Writing will be awarded together
with $600 to the author whose book
makes the most significant contribution
to the history of British Columbia. The
2nd and 3rd place winners will receive
$400 and $200 respectively. Certificates of
Honourable Mention may be awarded to
other books as recommended by the judges.
Johnson Inc. Scholarship
Deadline: September 15
Canadian residents completing high school
and who are beginning post-secondary
education. 100 scholarships of $1500 each
for Canada.
 Return Undeliverable Canadian Addresses to Circulation Department.     Canadian Publications Mail Product Sales Agreement No. 40025793
British Columbia History Publications Mail registration No. 09835
Alice Marwood, 21400 Guildford Town Centre, PO Box 42011, Surrey BC
V3R1N0
St. Eugene Hospital, Cranbrook. Freney's chaplaincy and residence, 1939-1963
Postcard courtesy of Diocese of Nelson Archives

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