British Columbia History

British Columbia Historical Quarterly Oct 31, 1948

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 THE
BRITISH
COLUMBIA
HISTORICAL
QUARTERLY
OCTOBER, 1948 ie
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
Published by the Archives of British Columbia
in co-operation with the
British Columbia Historical Association.
EDITOR.
Willard E. Ireland.
Provincial Archives, Victoria, B.C.
ADVISORY BOARD.
J. C. Goodfellow, Princeton. T. A. Rickard, Victoria.
W. N. Sage, Vancouver.
Editorial communications should be addressed to the Editor.
Subscriptions should be sent to the Provincial Archives, Parliament
Buildings, Victoria, B.C. Price, 50c. the copy, or $2 the year. Members
of the British Columbia Historical Association in good standing receive the
Quarterly without further charge.
Neither the Provincial Archives nor the British Columbia Historical
Association assumes any responsibility for statements made by contributors
to the magazine.
The Quarterly is indexed in Faxon's Annual Magazine Subject-Index
and the Canadian Index. BRITISH COLUMBIA
HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
" Any country worthy of a future
should be interested in its past"
Vol. XII Victoria, B.C., October, 1948. No. 4
CONTENTS.
Page.
The Development of the Eastern Fraser Valley,
By George B. White  259
Judge Begbie's Shorthand: A Mystery Solved.
By Sydney G. Pettit    293
McCreight and the Church.
By Patricia M. Johnson    297
Notes and Comments:
George M. Wrong: 1860-1948.
By W. N. Sage    311
British Columbia Historical Association  312
New Dominion Archivist    313
Contributors to this Issue   314
The Northwest Bookshelf:
Harvey:   Douglas  of  the  Fir,  a Biography  of  David Douglas,
Botanist
By J. W. Eastham _   315
Minutes of the Hudson's Bay Company, 1679-1684.   Second Part,
1682-1684-
By George F. G. Stanley   319
Papers read before the Historical and Scientific Society of Manitoba.   Series III, No. 3.
By Willard E. Ireland      322
Mclnnis: Canada, A Political and Social History.
By F. W. Soward    323
Winther: The Great North West, A History.
By W. N. Sage     323 THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EASTERN
FRASER VALLEY.*
There are few regions more bountifully endowed by nature
than that known as the Lower Fraser Valley. In general terms,
it stretches from the mouth of the river eastward to a natural
constriction, where lies the town of Hope. This valley is approximately 90 miles in length and varies in width from 10 miles to
25 miles. On the north side of the river the mountains hem in
the valley closely; on the south they extend only as far west as
Sumas Prairie. Here is an area of about 750,000 acres, most
of which is richly fertile and suitable for mixed farming. The
terrain consists of two different types—the highlands and the
lowlands. The former, which comprise lands up to 500 feet in
elevation, are glacial in origin, somewhat irregular in topography, and were originally clothed with a magnificent forest of
conifers and deciduous softwoods. The lowlands are alluvial in
origin, the rich product of countless ages in the history of the
mighty Fraser River. The climate of the valley is as equitable as
can be found in the temperate zones, seldom going above 90° in
the summer or below zero in the winter. The rainfall averages
about 40 inches a year at the mouth of the river, Steveston, and
increases to about 60 inches at Hope.
Despite these physical advantages, it is not to be supposed
that nature was so beneficent as not to test thoroughly the mettle
of those rugged pioneers who laid the foundations of new settlements about eighty-five years ago. The most valuable agricultural land, nowhere much above high-water level, was subject to
annual flooding during the freshet season. During the years of
greatest fioodings, in 1894 and 1936, farmers suffered serious
losses. Continuous and costly efforts have had to be made to
confine the river by dykes. Even at the present time it is not
possible to say that all danger of flooding has been entirely over-
* The presidential address delivered at the annual meeting of the British Columbia Historical Association, held in Victoria, on January 16, 1948.
British Columbia Historical Quarterly, Vol. XII, No. 4.
259 260 George B. White. October
come.1 The higher lands, less richly fertile, required herculean
and costly efforts to clear of forest-growth. And all settlers
faced, during the summer-time, a common enemy—the pestiferous mosquitoes. They were the result of the annual flooding
of the lowlands, and, to say the very least, a nuisance which tried
the souls even of the stoutest. However, with the elimination
of the problem of flooding came the gradual mitigation of the
minor problem of the mosquito.
That portion of the valley lying east of New Westminster is
the area to be considered in this article.2 Here, as in the whole
valley, there has been a noteworthy and steady development.
This has mainly taken place since the completion of the Canadian
Pacific Railway in 1885. For this reason, and because the earlier
history of the valley is better known, the progress that has taken
place in the last sixty years will be emphasized. A brief glance
at the early history is necessary, however, in order to give continuity to the story of progress.
Prior to the coming of the white man in 1808 the Fraser
Valley was inhabited by numerous tribes of Indians belonging to
the Cowichan group of the Salish linguistic stock. The most
powerful of these tribes was the Kwantlen, whose chief village
was situated where the city of New Westminster now stands.
Their territory lay between the North Arm of the river and
Nicomen Island, their neighbours being the Musqueams of the
delta area and the Hatzics to the east. The life of these early
inhabitants must have been rudely simple, but comparatively
care-free. Salmon and wild berries provided them with food,
and animals and the bark of the cedar provided them with
articles of clothing. In the main, too, these people were peaceably disposed, but they suffered from frequent raids by the more
savage and war-like Yucultas of Seymour Narrows.3
(1) This account was prepared many months before the disastrous floods
of late May and early June,, 1948. For a well-illustrated account of this
event, see Nature's Fury, the inside story of the disastrous British Columbia
floods of 1948, Vancouver, 1948.
(2) A detailed history of a portion of the valley lying on the north bank
of the Fraser River is to be found in J. J. Woods' History and Development
of the Agassiz-Harrison Valley [Agassiz, 1941].
(3) For a recent account of Indian activity in the valley, see B. A.
McKelvie, Fort Langley, Outpost of Empire [Montreal], 1947, passim. 1948        Development of Eastern Fraser Valley. 261
Such was the condition of the Indians when the first-known
party of white men, led by the intrepid Simon Fraser, came into
contact with them in July, 1808. Fraser had successfully overcome the dangers and hardships of the descent of the river which
now bears his name. He had reached the mouth of the North
Arm of the river, and having taken his bearings had proved,
to his disappointment, that this river was not the legendary
Columbia.4 The hostility of the natives was such that Fraser
deemed it wise to retrace his steps with all possible speed. He
had little opportunity to explore the possibilities of the valley,
even from the view-point of a fur-trader. It was to be nearly
two decades before a permanent settlement was made in the
valley.
In 1821 the rivalry between the Hudson's Bay Company and
the Nor'-Westers was brought to an end by amalgamation of the
two companies. Pursuing a vigorous policy of expansion in an
effort to control the fur trade of the Pacific slope, the new company sent a party under James MacMillan to establish a post
about 35 miles from the mouth of the river. Thus Fort Langley
in 1827 became the first permanent white settlement in the valley.
During the first few years the fur trade was profitable, but
the officers of the company utilized other available resources to
increase returns to the company. Salmon was salted and cured,
not only to be used as an additional article of food by the
employees of the company, but also for export trade. The agricultural possibilities of the soil did not fail to attract attention,
and it was not long before several patches of land near the fort
were producing enough foodstuffs to supply the needs of the
small community.5
(4) " This river is therefore not the Columbia! If I had been convinced of this when I left my canoes, I would certainly have returned."
Simon Fraser, " Journal of a voyage from the Rocky Mountains to the
Pacific Coast, 1808," in L. R. Masson, Les Bourgeois de la Compagnie du
Nord-Ouest (premiere serie), Quebec, 1889, p. 203. Fraser's sojourn in the
valley, from June 30 to July 6, 1808, as recorded in his Journal appears in
ibid., pp. 195-207.
(5) R. L. Reid, "Early Days at Old Fort Langley: Economic Beginnings in British Columbia," British Columbia Historical Quarterly, I (1937),
pp. 71-85; and R. L. Reid (ed.), "Fort Langley Correspondence," ibid., I
(1937), pp. 187-194. 262 George B. White. October
After 1839 there was a considerable increase in agricultural
products at Fort Langley, owing to the fact that the company
was paying rental for the lease of the Alaskan "pan-handle"
by means of farm produce. The company's farm on Langley
Prairie, comprising at one time some 2,200 acres,6 was famous
throughout the valley. After the termination of the lease in
1877, with trade decreasing and settlement increasing, the policy
of the company was, perforce, changed to meet the new conditions. In 1878 this farm was subdivided into parcels of land of
varying acreage and sold at auction.
For political reasons the Hudson's Bay Company in 1843 had
transferred its headquarters from Fort Vancouver on the Columbia to Fort Victoria. As a result of the settlement of the Oregon
Boundary dispute, the company was forced to find a new trade
route between the Interior forts and Victoria. An overland
route to Kamloops was found; Fort Yale was built in 1848 and
Fort Hope a year later.7 Fort Langley then became merely a
point for transhipment of supplies. From this time on the
importance of the historic fort began to wane, although the first
few months of 1858 saw a feverish, albeit a brief, renewal of
activity.
But the period which seems, in retrospect, to be the most
romantic—the day when the fur-trader was king—was indeed
passing. In 1856 gold was discovered in the gravelly bars of the
Fraser River and its tributaries. The news spread like wild-fire,
and early in 1858 thousands of eager miners, many of whom had
earlier flocked to California, were making their way up the
Fraser River.8 Fort Langley at first was the head of navigation
for steamers, but in June, 1858, the American steamer Surprise
succeeded, with the aid of an Indian pilot, in reaching Fort
(6) F. W. Laing, " Hudson's Bay Company Lands on the Mainland of
British Columbia, 1858-1861," British Columbia Historical Quarterly, III
(1939), p. 91.
(7) F. W. Howay, " The raison d'etre of Forts Yale and Hope," Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, third series, XVI (1922), section ii,
pp. 49-64.
(8) jSee F. W. Howay, The Early History of the Fraser River Mines
(B.C. Archives Memoir No. VI), Victoria, 1926, passim. 1948       Development of Eastern Fraser Valley. 263
Hope.9 It meant the beginning of the end for Fort Langley. For
many years the fort was reduced to the status of a small general
store, but even that was ended before the close of the last century.
During the gold-rush James Douglas, a chief factor of the
Hudson's Bay Company as well as Governor of Vancouver Island,
took immediate steps to cope with the situation created by the
arrival of the throng of gold-mad miners. He wished to establish
law and order, as well as to safeguard the interests of his company. The Imperial Government, made aware of events, moved
with unwonted promptness4. Some of Douglas' actions were
declared ultra vires, and on August 2, 1858, an Act was passed
creating the Crown Colony of British Columbia. On November
19 of the same year, in an historic ceremony at old Fort Langley,
James Douglas was installed as Governor of the newly created
colony. At the same time the trading privileges of the Hudson's
Bay Company were formally revoked.
Upon the request of Governor Douglas for a military force to
maintain order in the mining camps, Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton,
British Colonial Secretary, wisely sent out a special detachment
of Royal Engineers. The advance guard of this force reached
the coast in time to take part in the installation of Governor
Douglas. The commander, Colonel R. C. Moody, arrived at Victoria on December 25, 1858, bearing credentials as Commissioner
of Lands and Works in the new colony. The Governor had intimated that in all probability old Fort Langley, or Derby, as it
was called, would be the capital of the new colony; Colonel
Moody promptly overruled that choice and selected the present
site of New Westminster as more suitable. The disbanding of
the Royal Engineers took place in 1863 after they had assisted
in the building of the famous Cariboo Road and in other important public works.10 Most of the rank and file of the Engineers
had already felt the lure of the new colony; many took up land
near New Westminster and became honoured pioneers in the
country of their adoption.
(9) Norman Hacking, " Steamboat 'Round the Bend," British Columbia
Historical Quarterly, VIII (1944), pp. 259-262.
(10) F. W. Howay, The Work of the Royal Engineers in British Columbia, 1858 to 1863, Victoria, 1910, passim. 264 George B. White. October
Among the thousands of adventurers, eagerly searching for
fortune on the bars of the Fraser, were many sturdy sons of the
farms and towns of Eastern Canada and the United States. As
they made their way up the valley they could not have failed
to notice the agricultural possibilities of the lush meadows and
sloping hillsides that stretched on either side of the river. When
the gold fever had abated somewhat, many of these men, disappointed in their quest for immediate wealth, chose a less
spectacular method by cultivating the soil or by supplying
merchandise to those who still sought for gold. The Chilliwack
and Sumas Valleys attracted several in 1862 and 1863, and it was
there, with the exception of the Hudson's Bay Company's farm
at Fort Langley, that the first attempts at systematic farming
in the Fraser Valley were made.11 Fruit, vegetables, grain, and
hay were grown in abundance, and with the introduction of
cattle the dairy products of the valley began to establish their
present-day reputation.
During the decade following the inception of the Crown
Colony of British Columbia, other settlements in the valley were
begun at Mud Bay in Surrey, at Mission, at Maple Ridge, at
Pitt Meadows, and on Nicomen Island. At the time of British
Columbia's entry into Confederation the population of the valley
was estimated at 4,000.12 In April, 1872, the newly elected
Legislature of the Province passed the Municipality Act and one
year later, on April 26, 1873, Chilliwack and Langley Municipalities were incorporated,13 the first rural municipalities in British
Columbia. These were followed by Maple Ridge on September
12, 1874,14 and Surrey, Delta, and Richmond on November 10,
1879.15 Only these six municipalities were incorporated previous
to the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
Thus, by the year 1885, there were several small but vigorous settlements, most of which were naturally near the river.
(11) E. 0. S. Scholefield and F. W. Howay, British Columbia from the
Earliest Times to the Present, Vancouver, 1914, Vol. II, p. 592.
(12) John E. Gibbard, The Early History of the Fraser Valley, 1808-
1885 (M.A. thesis at the University of British Columbia), p. 218.
(13) British  Columbia  Gazette,  April  26,  1873, pp.  2-6.    Chilliwack
Municipality is spelled " Chilliwhack."
(14) Ibid., September 12, 1874, pp. 199-201.
(15) Ibid., November 10, 1879, pp. 385-393. 1948        Development of Eastern Fraser Valley. 265
Gradually also had been established the concomitants of Anglo-
Saxon civilization. Boards of local government were instituted,
churches and schools were built, and roads and bridges were
constructed. Pioneer merchants had established small general
stores, and usually undertook as well the duties of postmaster.
Some industrial development had also taken place to exploit
the marvellous natural resources. Salmon-canneries at several
points on the river gathered in the rich annual harvest of the sea.
Small sawmills and grist-mills catered to local needs. But the
completion of the long-awaited transcontinental railway inaugurated a new era of growth in population and in industrial
activity. Since 1885 the progress of the Fraser Valley has been
remarkably steady and consistent.
TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES.
There is no doubt that the comparatively rapid settlement of
the Fraser Valley has been due to the fact that modern means of
transportation have been available during the last sixty years.
Few regions have been better served. The river-steamer, the
railway, ferries, bridges, the electric tram, the automobile, and
paved highway have all played their parts in this settlement.
To-day no section of the valley is more than two and one-half
hours away from the coast cities, and residents think nothing of
taking in a special musical or sporting event in Vancouver during
the evening.
Waterways, of course, offer the easiest means of travel in a
new country, and here was a river navigable throughout the
length of the valley by the modern river-steamer. Although
sea-going ships had come up the river to Fort Langley when it
was a Hudson's Bay post, the real era of the river-steamer dates
from the time of the gold-rush. During that time, as well as
during the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, many
a steamer churned her way up the muddy Fraser.16 The completion of the railway, though an advantage to the settlements
on the north side, did not by any means displace the steamer.
(16) See Norman Hacking, " Steamboating on the Fraser in the 'Sixties,"
British Columbia Historical Quarterly, X (1946), pp. 1—41; and by the
same author, " British Columbia Steamboat Days, 1870-1883," British Columbia Historical Quarterly, XI (1947), pp. 69-111. 266 George B. White. October
For many years there was enough business for two or three
steamers, and this continued until the completion of the Fraser
Valley line of the British Columbia Electric Railway in 1910.
Passenger traffic on the steamers practically ceased from that
date, but for several years after there was enough freight for
one boat.
The typical river-steamer was a sternwheeler, 100 or more
feet in length, 20 to 35 feet in beam, of shallow draught and
capable of a speed of about 12 knots. When conditions were
stabilized, the regular run was from New Westminster to Chilliwack, going up one day and returning the next. The up-river
run took about nine hours, but the return trip was usually at
least two hours less. There were some thirty regular ports of
call on the route, many of them with wharf accommodation.
Such accommodation, however, was not a necessity. Wherever
a white flag was flying, the boat would make a call. Service was
a prime consideration, and nothing in the way of freight was too
large or too small. A call would be made for a can of milk or a
crate of eggs as readily as for a ton of hay or shipment of live
stock. The crew of a dozen or more husky deck-hands would
soon get freight or passengers from shore to boat. For the
passengers the tedium of the journey was always relieved by
watching this transfer of freight, particularly if it happened to
be a refractory animal. Although Indians and half-breeds were
mainly used as deck-hands in those days, any husky young fellow
could get work on the river-steamers if he so wished.17
The first decade of the present century was the hey-day
of the sternwheeler. The Canadian Pacific Railway, having in
January, 1901, bought out the Canadian Pacific Navigation Company, was then operating the Beaver, namesake of the Hudson's
Bay Company's famous steamer. This boat was undoubtedly
the finest of a long line of river-boats. Built in 1898 at Victoria
by the Canadian Pacific Navigation Company, she was 140 feet
in length, 28 feet in beam, and 5.1 feet in depth, and of 545 gross
tonnage,18 and could make 14 knots.    In contrast to the usual
(17) Information supplied to the author in an interview with W. H.
Nesbitt, a former purser on the river-boats.
(18) Mercantile Navy List and Maritime Directory for 1900, London,
1900, p. 35.    She was powered by 13-horse-power engines. 1948        Development of Eastern Fraser Valley. 267
river-steamer, she had a steel hull and was, in fact, the first steel
ship to be built in British Columbia. She was originally intended
for the Stikine River, but instead was placed on the Fraser for
the run to Chilliwack under the command of Captain George
Odin. In 1903 she was commanded by Captain F. W. Reid, with
W. H. Nesbitt, purser, and Fred. Mcintosh, steward.19
Her most serious competitor was the Ramona, which had been
built in 1896 at Portland and brought to the Fraser by Captain
Richard Baker for the Lower Fraser River Navigation Company
to replace one of the three vessels lost in the disastrous New
Westminster fire of 1898.20 She was the largest sternwheeler to
operate on the Fraser, being 178 feet in length, 25 feet beam, and
4.4 feet in depth.21 On April 17, 1901, she was destroyed by fire
at Fort Langley when her boiler exploded, killing four people.22
Subsequently her hull was purchased by a group of New Westminster merchants who had organized the Western Steamboat
Company23 and she was rebuilt and put under the command of
Captain Hollis Young.24    On April 21, 1909, she foundered oppo-
(19) New Westminster Supplement to the Daily and Weekly British
Columbian, December, 1903, p. 5. She was described as " one of the best
of the kind on the Coast." Subsequently, in 1919, she was sold to the
Provincial Government and extensively refitted to operate as a ferry between
Ladner and Woodward's Landing. The Transfer, owned by the same company, operated on the run from New Westminster to Ladner and Steveston.
She had been built in 1893 by Alexander Watson at Victoria and was 122
feet in length, 24.5 feet in beam, and 5.6 feet in depth, powered with 18-
horse-power engines and of 264 gross tonnage. [Mercantile Navy List and
Maritime Directory for 1900, p. 352.]    In 1909 she was sold and broken up.
(20) New Westminster Supplement to the Daily and Weekly British
Columbian, December, 1903, p. 5.
(21) Mercantile Navy List and Maritime Directory for 1900, p. 292.
Her gross tonnage was 251 and she was powered with 9-horse-power
engines.
(22) New Westminster British Columbian, April 17 and 18, 1901.
(23) The promoters were T. J. Trapp, president; R. Whitmore, manager and secretary; F. J. Hart, T. S. Annandale, L. A. Lewis, and J. A.
Cunningham, directors.   Ibid., April 22, 1909.
(24) At that time Charles Tait was purser and Frank Latta, steward.
See New Westminster Supplement to the Daily and Weekly British Columbian, December, 1903. If this newspaper account is correct, evidently she
had been reconstructed on a smaller scale, for her dimensions were given as
length, 130 feet;  breadth, 23 feet. 268 George B. White. October
site Port Haney.25    Her place was taken by the Paystreak, built
at New Westminster in 1909 for the Royal City Navigation
Company.26    Other vessels on the river at this time included, the
Royal City,21 Favorite,28 Hamlin,29 Mona,30 and Defender.31
In 1904 river service was described as follows:—
The steamer Transfer runs from New Westminster to Ladner and Steveston,
and connects the other places of call along the river. Daily service is kept
up each way, winter and summer.
On the upper river there are four steamers. The Beaver, which, like
the Transfer, is owned and operated by the C.P.R., is run to Chilliwack,
alternating with the steamer Ramona, owned by a local company. These
steamers, too, give the river valley settlers a regular service all the year
round, being seldom interrupted, and that only for a few days in midwinter
occasionally by ice, which sometimes jams in the river.
The steamers Favorite and Defender are run from New Westminster
up the river to Mt. Lehman, Mission and other points.   Once a year the
(25) New Westminster British Columbian, April 22, 1909.
(26) According to the Mercantile Navy List and Maritime Directory for
1911, p. 399, she was 126.5 feet in length, 26.4 feet in breadth, and 4.6 feet
in depth; of 382 gross tonnage and powered with 10-horse-power engines.
In 1917 she was dismantled.
(27) This vessel was built at Langley in 1898 for William West. Her
dimensions were: Length, 99.1 feet; breadth, 17.7 feet; and depth, 4.6 feet.
Her gross tonnage was 200 and her engines were rated at 10 horse-power.
[Mercantile Navy List and Maritime Directory for 1900, p. 306.] She was
burned at the wharf at Mission on April 10, 1901. [New Westminster
British Columbian, April 10, 1901.]
(28) The Favorite was screw-propelled, with engines of 9 horse-power.
She was 100 feet in length, 20 feet in breadth, and 3.8 feet in depth, and
was built in 1901 at New Westminster for George C. Harvey, who acted as
her mate and purser. [Mercantile Navy List and Maritime Directory for
1903, p. 140.] For a time she was commanded by Captain Charles E.
Seymour.
(29) This vessel was built in Vancouver in 1898 for the Canadian Pacific
Railway. She was of 515 gross tonnage and powered with 17-horse-power
engines, being 146.2 feet in length, 30.8 feet in breadth, and 4.6 feet in
depth. [Mercantile Navy List and Maritime Directory for 1900, p. 156.]
For a time she was commanded by Captain John H. Bowser.
(30) No details are available on this vessel; evidently she was brought
from the Stikine by Captain John H. Bowser and operated on the Fraser
in 1903.
(31) Built in 1901 at Langley for Henry West, she was of the following
dimensions: Length, 85 feet; breadth, 16.5 feet; depth, 4 feet; gross tonnage, 216; engines, 13 horse-power. [Mercantile Navy List and Maritime
Directory for 1902, p. 99.] 1948        Development of Eastern Fraser Valley. 269
steamer Beaver makes a trip up Harrison river and lake with supplies to
Fort Douglas, the Hudsons Bay post at the head of Harrison lake.32
The last of a long line of sternwheelers was the Skeena.
Built in 1908 at a cost of over $40,000 for use on the Skeena
River during the construction of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway,83 she was brought down from the North in 1912 and for
some years ran up the North Arm of Burrard Inlet. In 1914
she was transferred to the Fraser and operated for many years
by Captain Charles E. Seymour, with W. H. Nesbitt as purser,
both well-known figures on the river. Her regular schedule was
to Ladner and return on Monday, to Chilliwack on Tuesday,
returning Thursday, and to Mission and return on Friday. On
Captain Seymour's death the Skeena was tied up at a New Westminster wharf for some months, despite the futile efforts of the
Board of Trade of that city to put her again into operation.
Eventually she was bought for a song by Ewen's Cannery, dismantled, tied up to the wharf, and used as a bunkhouse for the
cannery employees.34 Later still, without superstructure, her
hull was used as a barge by one of the oil companies.
Thus passed from the scene, in rather ignoble fashion, the
last of the river-steamers, making way for a speedier means of
transportation. Nevertheless, the pioneer residents of the valley
viewed the passing with a measure of regret. For them the
daily arrival and departure of the steamer was a social event of
some importance, a brief contact with the outside world, which
satisfied in some measure the gregarious instincts of those who
live in lonely places. For over half a century these boats, their
officers and crew, had provided a reasonably efficient means of
transportation. In times of special stress, as in the floods of
1894, they had done a magnificent work in rescuing settlers and
their live stock. It is not too much to say that the ubiquitous
sternwheeler rendered exceptional service to the Fraser Valley.
(32) New Westminster Supplement to the Daily and Weekly Columbian,
December, 1904, p. 13.
(33) According to the Mercantile Navy List and Maritime Directory for
1910, p. 469, her owner was John W. Stewart and her dimensions: Length,
121.2 feet; breadth, 26.8 feet; depth, 5.6 feet; gross tonnage, 515; and
engines, 8 horse-power.   Captain Seymour was her owner from 1914 onward.
(34) Vancouver Morning Star, December 17, 1928. 270 George B. White. October
Bisected as it is by a great river, the valley needed some
means of communication between its north and south shores.
In the early days a bridge was out of the question because of the
cost; therefore, ferries were operated as the most useful substitute. The first of these, which bore the cryptic name K de K,
was operated between New Westminster and Brownsville, just
west of the present bridge. It afforded connection with the Yale
Road, built in 1875, but the service was most unsatisfactory.36
A new ferry, the Surrey, was built by the City of New Westminster at a cost of $25,000. She was launched on December 11,
1890,36 and made her first run on February 19, 1891.37 This
ferry gave reasonably satisfactory service until the new bridge
was completed in 1904.38 Another ferry was maintained at
Mission for many years. Still another link, between Chilliwack
Landing and Harrison Mills, was originally operated in fulfilment
of a contract to carry mail across the river to the Canadian
Pacific Railroad. This service was instituted by J. T. Harrison
in 1887 and from 1900 to 1910 was well patronized, as many
preferred the train to the slower river-steamer. The completion
of the British Columbia Electric Railway to Chilliwack, however,
(35) " Formerly the ferry—a mere apology for such—ran at a diagonal,
lengthy route across and up river, and had such poor accommodation in the
way of landings that it was too much of a risk to attempt to put horses and
vehicles on the boat and it was seldom attempted." New Westminster
British Columbian, March 14, 1891. The K de K, named after J. S. Knevett
de Knevett, a Belgian gentleman with large interests in New Westminster;
began operation about 1883, although according to a pioneer, James Johnson, as early as 1873 Thomas Penney had operated a small steamboat with
a scow. Fares charged were heavy: 25 cents single fare for an individual;
50 cents single for an individual with horse and saddle; wagon and team
single, $1.75; return, $2. Ordinarily the trip took only ten minutes. Memorandum from James Johnson to R. E. Gosnell, MS., Archives of B.C. See
also Vancouver Daily Province, March 25, 1948.
(36) Victoria Colonist, December 12, 1890.
(37) New Westminster British Columbian, February 19, 1891.
(38) In 1903 the Surrey was commanded by Captain R. Purdy, with
John Power as purser and James Grier as engineer. " The Surrey is unique
also as being the only fire boat in British Columbia, and her crew are firemen as soon as an alarm is turned in." New Westminster Supplement to
the Daily and Weekly British Columbian, December, 1903, p. 6. 1948        Development of Eastern Fraser Valley. 271
practically put an end to the run.39 Further up-river the Rose-
dale-Agassiz ferry has been in continuous operation since 1901.40
The popularity of Harrison Hot Springs as a health resort will
ensure the retention of this service, unless the Government
accedes to the present-day agitation for a bridge at that point.
For some localities ferries may continue to serve as a link
between the north and south shores in the future, just as they
have in the past.
The need for a bridge at New Westminster was recognized
for nearly a generation before the plan was brought to completion. The local press of that period reflected the demands for
the bridge, many cogent reasons being given for its erection.41
Nearly every year some new scheme was put forward or an old
one revived, but invariably the negotiations were wrecked on
the rock of financial responsibility. About the beginning of the
century the Provincial Government recognized the project as a
necessary public utility, but hoped to get some assistance from
Ottawa. The most the Federal Government would do, however,
was to promise to subsidize any private company that would
undertake the work.42 Popular sentiment was strongly in favour
of construction as a public work, and as such it was finally
undertaken by the Dunsmuir government, the necessary financing being taken care of by a loan. It is true that a highly
popular Royal City native son, the Honourable Richard McBride,
(39) Operators of this ferry were: 1887 to April, 1891, J. T. Harrison;
1891-1899, William MacDonald; 1899 to March, 1901, J. F. Harrison; 1901-
1908, J. F. Harrison and Captain R. C. Menten; 1908 onward, Chilliwack
Ferry Service (J. T. Henley and associates). Captain Menten used the
Minto on this run; later the J. P. Douglas was used until she was burned
in January, 1909, and then the Vedder was in operation until September,
1911; thereafter a gasboat was used until 1917. See J. J. Woods, op. cit,
p. 60.
(40) This service was started by Messrs. J. and M. Vallance and W.
McGrath. In 1907 it was taken over by Noble Ryder and Charles Gill, and
they obtained a Provincial Government subsidy for two trips daily. From
1922-1932 the Government took over complete operation, and since then
have given five-year contracts with subsidy, and Captain J. T. Henley has
'been in charge.    Ibid., pp. 59-60.
(41) New Westminster British Columbian, December 24, 1895.
(42) E. O. S. Scholefield and R. E. Gosnell, British Columbia: Sixty
Years of Progress, Vancouver and Victoria, 1913, part ii, p. 168. 272 George B. White. October
was a valuable friend at court, and it was very fitting that he
was the head of the Government that completed the project.
Nevertheless, the undertaking had the unanimous endorsement
of the members of the Legislature.43 The same could hardly be
said of the present Pattullo Bridge. *
The Dunsmuir government wisely decided to spare no
expense in the construction of the bridge, which was to be a
combined railway and vehicular traffic structure of masonry and
steel. One of the most eminent bridge engineers of the continent,
J. A. L. Waddell, a Canadian by birth, but a resident of Kansas
City, Missouri, was engaged to design and supervise its construction. The contract for the substructure was awarded to the firm
of Armstrong, Morrison & Balfour, of Vancouver, while that for
the superstructure went to the Dominion Bridge Company.
Construction was commenced in August, 1902, but the substructure was not completed for more than a year, for the depth
of the water on the north side presented an unexpectedly difficult
engineering problem in the building of the piers. This was
solved by the use of caissons of timber which were filled with
cement and sunk for nearly 40 feet into the river silt. Masonry
was then built on top of the cement. The five piers in the shallower water of the south side rest on cedar piles driven 100 feet
into the river-bed. With the completion of this work, the superstructure was rapidly erected. The steel was fabricated in
Lachine, Quebec, and brought to the south bank of the river on
the tracks of the Great Northern Railway, the first shipment
arriving in June, 1903. In March, 1904, the Y-span at the north
end of the bridge was placed in position and the work was
virtually complete. The total cost was over $1,000,000, but at
the time it was considered one of the finest bridges on the continent. The central swing span of 361 feet, speedily operated by
electricity, allowed passage for large boats. The roadway,
including the approaches, was 2,850 feet long and 16 feet wide,
a width which was considered " ample to accommodate general
traffic."44 On July 23, 1904, with appropriate ceremonies, the
bridge was formally opened by the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir
(43) New Westminster Supplement to the Daily and Weekly British
Columbian, December, 1903.
(44) Ibid. 1948        Development of Eastern Fraser Valley. 273
Henri Joly de Lotbiniere. One of the features of that opening
was a long procession of river-steamers and tugs through the
open span. Each vessel, loaded with passengers, saluted the
bridge, as it passed through, with a long blast of the whistle.46
Benefits of the long-awaited structure were immediately
apparent. The Great Northern Railway, which had maintained
a terminus at South Westminster, now had access to the cities
of New Westminster and Vancouver. For this privilege the
company pays an annual rental of $20,000.46 By 1910 the British
Columbia Electric Railway also made use of the bridge for its
Fraser Valley line, and within a few years the Canadian Northern trains were using the bridge and the Great Northern's right-
of-way into Vancouver. The railways continue to use the old
bridge.
The growth of population and traffic have fully justified the
erection of the bridge, but few would have been so rash as to
foretell the need for another bridge within thirty years. The
increase in automobile traffic was a totally unexpected development. A 16-foot roadway was barely wide enough to permit the
passage of two big trucks or buses. On holidays the traffic-jam
proved that the old bridge was no longer adequate. The Pattullo
government accordingly proposed a new bridge for vehicular
traffic only. Although a great deal of acrimonious discussion
arose among laymen and professional engineers as to the wisdom
or necessity of building a new bridge, the Government proceeded
with its plan and tenders were opened on June 10, 1935. In a
little more than two years, on November 15, 1937, the present
magnificent four-lane bridge was open for traffic.47 This structure, immediately west of the original one, cost $3,500,000 and
makes it predecessor look antiquated and ugly. There are
few to-day who still maintain that the new bridge was not
necessary. Tolls were removed from the first bridge within six
years48 and, needless to say, Premier McBride had popular
approval for this act. What plans the Government has in that
respect as far as the Pattullo Bridge is concerned remains yet
(45) New Westminster British Columbian, July 23, 1904.
(46) Scholefield and Howay, op. cit, Vol. II, p. 529.
(47) Vancouver Daily Province, November 15, 1937.
(48) New Westminster British Columbian, April 1, 1910. 274 George B. White. October
to be disclosed, although it is only fair to say that the present
tolls are not excessive.
There has been a bridge across the Fraser at Mission since
1891.49 It was erected by the Canadian Pacific Railway
primarily as a railway bridge to connect a branch line with the
Great Northern at Abbotsford. Two wooden bridges preceded
the present steel one. In 1927, after many demands by residents
of the district, this bridge was planked and opened for vehicular
traffic. In recent years railroad needs in that area have
decreased considerably, and consequently the bridge has increasingly been used as an alternative route across the river for
automobile traffic.
A railway or an electric-tram line on the south side of the
river first began to materialize with the proposal of the British
Columbia Electric Railway. After preliminary surveys to
determine the best route, this project was commenced on August
26, 1907,60 and was in operation as far as Cloverdale within a
few months. The last section from Abbotsford to Chilliwack
was delayed for many months because the route hinged on the
much-mooted Sumas reclamation scheme. However, this section
of the line was completed in due course, and on October 3, 1910,
the inaugural train of three gaily decorated coaches left New
Westminster at 10 a.m. A large party of notables, headed by
the Lieutenant-Governor, Thomas W. Paterson, and Premier
McBride, was welcomed all along the line. The gaiety of the
occasion was not even marred by the fact that for the last part
of the journey one of the company's steam locomotives which
had been used in construction-work had to be requisitioned as
motive power. An electrical storm the previous evening had
caused a large tree to fall across the power-lines at Sumas
Mountain. Chilliwack residents, led by a brass band, turned
out en masse to greet with wild acclaim the somewhat delayed
arrival.   The Premier of the Province performed truly and well
(49) " Quite a large number of Vancouverites were down at the Canadian Pacific depot this morning to witness the departure of the first regular
through train to Whatcom by way of the Mission-Sumas branch arid the
Bellingham Bay road. . . . Assistant Supt. Downie of the C.P.R. also
went over and there were 40 passengers beside. The train consisted of
three coaches and a baggage car."   Vancouver World, June 22, 1891.
(50) New Westminster British Columbian, August 26, 1907. 1948 DEVELOPMENT OF EASTERN FRASER VALLEY. 275
the customary ceremony of driving the last spike.61 For the
little city at the eastern terminus of one of the longest electrical
interurban lines in the world, it was hailed as " the greatest day
in the history of Chilliwack."62 Within a year a daily schedule
of three passenger-trains each way, in addition to the " milk
train," was put into effect. One thousand passengers daily were
frequently transported.63
For nearly two decades this interurban line was probably the
most important factor in the transportation facilities of the
valley. But with the improvement in automotive transportation
and in the construction of highways came the greatest competition to railways. Just as the river-steamer was superseded
by the electric railway, the latter in turn suffered eclipse because
of the automobile. The " march of time " has relegated the railway to the background in the present system of transportation.
The valley's transportation facilities profited to some extent
also as a result of the orgy of railway-building induced by the
general spirit of optimism during the first decade of this century.
Even before the long-deferred hopes of the valley residents had
been consummated in the completion of the British Columbia
Electric Railway, Mr. Donald Mann, later Sir Donald, had
announced that the Canadian Northern Railway would be in
operation within a year.64 The site for the new terminus was
to be Port Mann, on the south bank of the river about 2 miles
east of New Westminster. A contract for clearing a 2,000-acre
townsite was let, and lots were soon selling at boom prices.
Extravagant claims were made as to the ultimate importance of
this " Liverpool of the Pacific." Strangely enough, even a Vancouver newspaper prophesied that it was " soon to become a
serious rival to the growth of Vancouver."66 Those dreams were
never even remotely realized. The logical decision to extend the
railway to tide-water at Vancouver would have caused the collapse of the original plans, even if the pre-war depression had
not.    However, the consolidation of the line as part of the Cana-
(51) Ibid., October 3, 1910.
(52) Chilliwack Progress, October 5, 1910.
(53) New Westminster British Columbian, June 1, 1911.
(54) Ibid., June 13, 1910.
(55) Vancouver World, Industrial Supplement, September 21, 1910. 276 George B. White. October
dian National Railways has given a regular service to some of
the older settlements on the river. Being a transcontinental
railway, it has not had to depend on local traffic as had the
British Columbia Electric Railway, but both suffered from the
competition of motor buses and trucks.
It would not be an extravagant claim to say that the automobile has revolutionized the economic, the educational, and even
the social life of the residents of the valley. In the early days
it was probably an all-day task for the farmer to take a load of
grain, hay, or fruit to a river-landing for the steamer. The
railways improved conditions greatly, but to-day huge trucks
ensure that quick delivery of farm products which is so advantageous to consumer and producer alike.
The increase in the number of automobiles in British Columbia since 1907, the first year of registration, has been incredible.
It has jumped from 175 in that year to well over 100,000 to-day.66
A conservative estimate would give about 60 per cent, of this
number to the towns and cities of the Lower Mainland. The
number of trucks and buses has shown a similar increase. There
does not appear to be any serious rival to the dominant position
such vehicles now hold in the field of transportation. Keeping
pace, perforce, with the improvement of the automobile has been
the improvement of highways. To-day the valley is served by
splendid primary highways—the Lougheed Highway on the
north side and the Trans-Provincial and Pacific Highways on the
south side. There are also several important " feeders" or
secondary highways, as well as hundreds of miles of gravelled
roads.
It was not always thus. The pioneers did little systematic
road building or planning. Roads were often evolved by the
dumping of gravel on old foot or pack trails and consequently
seldom followed the best or shortest routes. Financial arrangements, too, were very haphazard. In each electoral district
funds were allocated to a superintendent of road-building, who
depended on resident settlers for necessary work.67 During the
1890's the valley newspapers complained with a great deal of
(56) Canada Year Book, 1946, p. 663.
(57) Province of British Columbia, Manual of Provincial Information,
Victoria, 1930, p. 204. 1948       Development of Eastern Fraser Valley. 277
asperity about the condition even of the Yale Road during the
winter months. The British Columbian characterized certain
stretches of it across Langley Prairie as " an impassable ditch
... an example of sheer neglect."68 Only real pioneers could
adequately describe the condition in winter months of the
" feeder " roads.
About 1908, however, owing to the use of automobiles, the
Department of Public Works began a systematic construction
of trunk roads suitable for motor traffic. The Province was then
in a prosperous state—the McBride Government had actually
produced a surplus for several years in succession. It was during this period of prosperity that more work was done than ever
before. During the First World War a policy of retrenchment
prevented any extension of the programme, despite the rapid
increase in motor traffic. Most of the improvements noted to-day
have been effected since 1924. The Trans-Provincial Highway,
following mainly the old Yale Road of pioneer days, the Lougheed
Highway, and the King George VI Highway to Blaine have been
relocated in places, widened, and resurfaced, so that to-day they
conform to standards required for modern traffic.
A commentary on the conditions of yesteryear is contained in
an item from the Chilliwack Progress of November 2,1910, under
the caption " Fast Motor Driving."
H. Hooper, of Vancouver, who has been in the valley the past week or
ten days demonstrating to prospective buyers the splendid qualities of the
Hupmobile, made a record trip from this city to Abbotsford yesterday.
With S. Pugh they made the trip in 2 hours and 10 minutes. The time is
authentic, it being telephoned back to Chilliwack upon their arrival at
Abbotsford. The trip is a most remarkable one considering the state of the
roads and it is a practical tribute to the qualities of the Hupmobile as a
utility car. Across the Sumas prairie, in places, the axle of the car dragged
through the mud and water. Dr. Swift, of Abbotsford, came back with
Mr. Hooper today and the same good time that was made yesterday was
repeated today.69
Such a trip could easily be made to-day in less than half an hour!
AGRICULTURE.
The agricultural possibilities of the Fraser Valley first
attracted permanent settlers there.    It has been the increasing
(58) New Westminster British Columbian, December 26, 1890.
(59) Chilliwack Progress, November 2, 1910. 278 George B. White. October
development of those possibilities which has laid the foundation
for the prosperity of the valley. An equable climate and fertile
soil provided the initial advantages, of which the pioneers were
not slow to take advantage. The growth of two cities at the
front door of the valley ensured a good market for the sale of
their produce, but wider markets have been by no means
neglected.
The major problem that many valley farmers have had to
face was the annual freshet season. Both the date and the
maximum height of the freshet have always been uncertain,
being dependent on weather conditions in the upper reaches of
the river during the spring months. There were several low-
lying sections of the valley that were always subject to flooding.
The first of these from the eastern end of the valley was the
Agassiz flats, an area of nearly 5,500 acres. The next point of
danger was at Chilliwack, where nearly 22,000 acres were subject
to floods, but most of it only during the highest freshets. The
third area was that of Sumas Prairie, nearly 30,000 acres, all
subject to annual flooding. Next was Nicomen Island, a comparatively small area. A little farther west, at Dewdney, there
was an area of over 5,000 acres that suffered, while across the
river, on the south side, were the Matsqui fiats, comprising 10,000
acres. The most westerly danger-point was the Pitt River flats,
an area of over 8,500 acres, lying in the angle formed by the
confluence of the Pitt and Fraser Rivers.60
In 1876, after more than a decade of settlement, the highest
freshet then on record occurred toward the end of June.61 In
1882, about the middle of June, this height was surpassed by
13 inches on the gauge at Mission City, which has always been
considered the standard for measuring the height of flood-waters.
The accounts as to the relative height of water as compared with that
of 1876 are conflicting, but there is no doubt that it is now considerably
higher and it is equally certain that it is proving much more destructive.
In the Chilliwack, Sumas, and other settlements there is utter ruin everywhere on the lower lands. Crops are destroyed, live stock in some instances
is perishing, and even buildings are wrecked, and some of the settlers have
been driven for refuge to their less unfortunate neighbors or to the moun-
(60) R. E. Gosnell, The Year Book of British Columbia   .   .   .   1897,
Victoria, 1897, pp. 276-280.
(61) New Westminster Mainland Guardian, June 28, 1876. 1948       Development of Eastern Fraser Valley. 279
tains. Everywhere ruin and consternation reigns. And the water is still
rising! . . . And when shall the end be? God only knows!62
But in 1894 occurred the greatest flood that has ever been
recorded in the valley. A very hot spell in the Interior caused
a tremendous run-off of water. The river began to rise on May
19 and thereafter rose at an average rate of 2 feet per day until
June 6. At that date the Mission gauge registered 25.75 feet, an
all-time high. Several lives were lost, and crops, live stock,
dykes, bridges, and roads suffered tremendous devastation.63
The right-of-way and telegraph-lines of the Canadian Pacific
Railway were damaged to such an extent that communication
with the East by these means was interrupted for several days.
Sumas Prairie was flooded to a depth of 15 feet. River-steamers,
which did valiant rescue-work, steamed without difficulty from
Chilliwack to Huntingdon on the International Boundary.
Assistance, both private and governmental, was rushed to the
residents of the stricken valley, but it took considerable time to
repair the ravages created by the " Big Flood."
Lulled into false security by the hope and belief that high
water came only once in a decade or so, the settlers were caught
unprepared by the freshet of 1896. The maximum height did
not quite equal that of 1882, but since it was later than usual—
July 8—the damage was serious.
While the damage by flood, in the Lower Fraser Valley, this year, is
nothing like so widespread and serious, on the whole, as resulted from the
unprecedented freshet of two years ago, evidences are coming to hand which
leave no room for doubt that, in some sections, the effect of this year's high
water, though at the highest from three to four feet lower than the 1894
high water mark, will prove practically almost equally disastrous to the
farmers whose lands are overflowed.64
It did demonstrate very convincingly the necessity of a comprehensive system of dykes and drainage if crops on the low-lying
lands were to be secure from annual devastation. During the
succeeding years many miles of dykes have been constructed, and
these have given reasonably good protection.66    Not until the
(62) New Westminster British Columbian, June 14, 1882.
(63) Ibid., May 19 to June 15, 1894;   also Chilliwack Progress, June 6
and 13, 1894.
(64) New Westminster British Columbian, July 10, 1896.
(65) Report of a Special Investigation Commission, Fraser Valley Dyking Affairs, 1934. 280 George B. White. October
summer of 1936 did these dykes undergo a very severe testing.
In that year the height of the flood—22.61 feet—was exceeded
only by that of 1894.66 Fortunately the residents were forewarned by the Dominion Hydrometric Bureau at Vancouver, and
most of the main dykes were maintained intact. Several small
private dykes gave way under the strain, and, in addition, breaks
in the main system at Agassiz and Dewdney resulted in the
flooding of about 7,000 acres.
In all, about 120 miles of dykes have been constructed, only
about 15 miles of which have been financed without Government
assistance. Naturally the original cost and that of maintenance
has been a serious financial drain on the valley farmers and on
the Government. There has been much special legislation,
several Commissions have been appointed, and frequent revisions
of assessments in an attempt to deal equitably with this major
problem.
Fruit-growing, dairying, and hop-growing are the most
important phases of agricultural industry in the Fraser Valley.
In pioneer days the growing of fruit received most attention, but
the lack of suitable shipping facilities and good markets resulted
in much fruit being left to rot on the ground. The first regular
shipments to the Prairies by express began in the 1890's67 and
since that time have increased steadily. With the development
of the Okanagan Valley as a superior apple-producing region, the
fruit-growers of the valley ceased to be particularly interested
in that phase of horticulture. The modern trend has been toward
specialization, as certain districts were proved to be especially
adapted for the growing of the smaller fruits. Thus the Chilliwack district has specialized in cherries, while the bench lands
of Mission and Maple Ridge are well adapted to the production
of strawberries, raspberries, and loganberries. With the discovery of a special process of preserving the berries, the growers
have been able to extend their markets even to the British Isles.
For the dairy-farmer, the valley offers a mild climate, good
water, and nutritious grasses, all prime factors in successful
dairying.   As early as 1868 the Chadsey brothers, pioneer settlers
(66) Vancouver Daily Province, June 6, 1936.
(67) R. E. Gosnell, The Year Book of British Columbia  .   .   .  1911-1914,
Victoria, 1914, p. 233. 1948        Development of Eastern Fraser Valley. 281
in the Sumas district, had put the industry on a commercial
basis.68 They put their butter in hermetically sealed tins, trans-
-ported it to the Cariboo, and did a thriving business with the
luxury-hungry miners still in that district. From that time on
the value of the dairy products has increased amazingly. In
1896 the first creamery in the valley began operating at Sardis,
near Chilliwack. It was the well-known Eden Bank Creamery,
a co-operative concern, the outgrowth of a private venture by
A. C. Wells, an honoured pioneer of the Chilliwack Valley, who
had made butter and cheese at his own farm for several years
previously.69 A few years later the Chilliwack Creamery was
built to serve the producers of the eastern end of the valley.
In 1906 these two creameries alone produced nearly 500,000 lb.
of butter.70 A creamery at New Westminster drew supplies from
the neighbouring districts.
From 1910 onward, two important factors changed the whole
outlook of the dairying industry. One was the tremendous
growth in population of the coast cities. The other was the completion of the Fraser Valley line of the British Columbia Electric
Railway. From the beginning a " milk special " left Chilliwack
daily at 6.15 p.m. The two creameries immediately turned their
attention to the selling of whole milk and cream in the coast cities
rather than to the making of butter and cheese. The reason was
quite simple—it gave better returns to the producer. The dairymen soon realized that some form of co-operative marketing was
highly desirable, and the first of several organizations was incorporated in 1910. The present organization, under the name
of Associated Dairies, Ltd., operates plants at Vancouver, at
Delair near Abbotsford, and a utility plant at Sardis.71
The dairy-farmers have shown a progressive spirit that is
commendable. They early recognized the importance of purebred stock of the best milking strains, and to-day some of the
valley herds of Holsteins and Ayrshires, Jerseys and Guernseys
(68) Scholefield and Howay, op. cit, Vol. II, p. 593.
(69) Chilliwack Progress, June 17, 1896.
(70) New Westminster British Columbian, October 28, 1907.
(71) For a detailed study of the dairy industry in the Fraser Valley,
see R. E. English, " Problems of a Specialized Area—the Fraser Valley," in
H. A. Innis (ed), The Dairy Industry in Canada, Toronto, 1937, pp. 213-
245. 282 George B. White. October
are internationally known. In 1925 the Federal Government
enacted legislation in an attempt to eradicate bovine tuberculosis
through testing by veterinary inspectors. Several such tests
have been given, each showing a marked decrease in the number
of reactors.72 The area is now up to Government standards in
freedom from disease, and the purity of Vancouver's milk-supply
is well safe-guarded.
Hops of splendid quality are grown in the eastern end of the
valley, the soil and climate there being particularly favourable.
Early records indicate that John Broe, of Aldergrove, was the
first to experiment with this crop about the year 1884.73 It was
from this pioneer plantation that the early growers in Chilliwack
and Agassiz got their supply of root stocks. These hops soon
established an excellent reputation among the brewers of Great
Britain,74 and this reputation has been maintained since the
beginning. Hop-growing is a profitable venture, though it requires a heavy initial outlay, and for that reason is to-day in the
hands of well-established companies.
One of the features of this industry has always been the
influx of hop-pickers in the fall. In early days these were mainly
families of Indians who came from far and near, attracted by
the social as much as by the financial opportunities. Not an
evening went by without their engaging in long drawn-out games
of chance, to the accompaniment of rhythmic chanting and the
beating of tom-toms. For about three weeks there reigned a
carnival spirit in the district, and the merchants profited greatly.
The depression years broke the ancient monopoly in hop-picking
established by the Indians, and for some time white people and
Chinese have come in considerable numbers to assist in the
annual harvest of the fragrant crop.
Among the minor activities and crops connected with the
agricultural industry may be mentioned stock-raising (other
than cattle), poultry-raising, the production of honey, and the
growing of all kinds of root crops.   Tobacco is a comparatively
(72) Canada, Department of Agriculture, Health of Animals Branch,
Bovine Tuberculosis, Ottawa, 1929, p. 6, gives the following percentages of
infection:  1926, 7.9 per cent.; 1927, 1.1 per cent.;  1928, 0.76 per cent.
(73) Vancouver Daily Province, October 28, 1933.
(74) New Westminster British Columbian, May 19, 1894. 1948        Development of Eastern Fraser Valley. 283
new-comer among the crops, as it was first grown on the reclaimed land of Sumas Prairie. After initial set-backs that
were most discouraging, the industry is now more firmly established and making headway.76 The growers face strong competition from the other tobacco-growing regions in Canada, and
experience has proved that the best plan in marketing the crop
is to sell it entirely to the powerful interests in Eastern Canada.
It is fitting that tribute should be paid to the invaluable services of the Provincial Department of Agriculture and to the
Dominion Experimental Farm at Agassiz and its various superintendents—T. A. Sharp, P. H. Moore, and, since 1916, W. H.
Hicks. They pioneered in all phases of agricultural and horticultural experimentation, and the farmers of the valley are fully
aware of their great debt to the work which has been carried on
for their benefit. Nor would it be just to discount the part
played by fall fairs in this chronicle of development of agriculture. Nearly every centre of population has a long record in this
matter, although Chilliwack has the honour of having organized,
in 1874, the first fall fair in the valley. There was a definite
educational value for the farmer in these exhibitions, but for
many years they were purely preliminaries to the annual exhibition at New Westminster, sponsored by the Royal Agricultural
and Industrial Society. It was there that a healthy rivalry among
the valley municipalities always brought forth a magnificent display of live stock and produce. That the standard of excellence
was high has been demonstrated in recent years, when several
exhibitors have gone to the neighbouring States or as far east
as Toronto and come back with more than their share of prizes
and awards.
OTHER INDUSTRIES.
Although primarily an agricultural region, the Fraser Valley
is richly endowed with at least two other sources of wealth—
timber and salmon. The legitimate exploitation of these resources has assisted in no small measure in promoting the prosperity of the whole valley. Apparently there is only one of
British Columbia's primary industries—mining—that has little
(75)  From information supplied the author by Mr. G. E. W. Clarke,
District Horticulturist, Department of Agriculture, Abbotsford, B.C. 284 George B. White. October
or no future in the valley. Undoubtedly there are some heavily
mineralized areas throughout the region, but up to the present
these have proved to be of low-grade ore content or the cost of
developing them is prohibitive.
Little need be said of the salmon-fishing industry. Its importance ever since the Hudson's Bay Company established Fort
Langley has been known to the whole world. It was not until
1871, after some experiments in canning salmon undertaken by
James Symes as early as 1867, that the first cannery for that
purpose was built at Annieville,76 just across the river from New
Westminster.77 By 1901 the number of canneries on the river
had increased to forty-eight,78 and the output that year was over
a million cases (48 lb. to the case).79 Although there are six
species of salmon useful commercially, the sockeye, because of
its unsurpassed colour and flavour, is the most important. The
sockeye's life-cycle is only four years, and, in consequence, the
big runs have usually come every fourth year. In 1913, during
the construction of the Canadian Northern Railway, a huge slide
of rock blocked the river at Hell's Gate. It was a major disaster
for the industry, for 1913 was a " big run " year and millions
of salmon died without being able to reach their usual spawning-
grounds. The resulting serious depletion became a matter of
international concern. In addition, American fishermen were
using huge fish-traps and purse-seines in the Gulf of Georgia,
while river fishermen were allowed only a gill-net. Many years
of negotiation finally led to the appointment of an International
Commission with control of all operations of the industry. One
major project has recently been completed by the Commission
(76) Although officially called "Annieville," it was known locally as
"Anniesville."
(77) " Canned Salmon.—A new company has commenced operation in
the above business in the premises formerly occupied by Mr. J. Syme with
every prospect of success." [New Westminster Mainland Guardian, June
7, 1871.] "A company has started the business of putting salmon up in tins
in the fishery premises opposite the town of New Westminster." [Victoria
Colonist, June 8, 1871.] Later that same year still another cannery was
started in buildings formerly part of the Royal Engineers' camp at Sapperton.    [New Westminster Mainland Guardian, June 20, 1871.]
(78) Manual of Provincial Information, 1930, p. 128.
(79) Report of the Fisheries Commissioner for British Columbia, 1901,
p. 823. The value of the pack that year was $5,000,000, more than double
that of the previous year. 1948       Development of Eastern Fraser Valley. 285
which promises to restore the industry to its former importance.
Fish-ladders have been constructed at Hell's Gate, enabling
greater numbers of fish to reach the spawning-grounds.
The sockeye run was a godsend, especially to the early settlers
in the valley. Some of the record catches on the river have been
made in the section between Mission and the New Westminster
bridge.80 The settlers depended on the fishing to provide them
with ready cash, and it was a poor year when they did not make
$500 or $600 for their summer's work. Women and children
carried on with the farm-work while the bread-winner was fishing, but the main run was over before the harvest-time began—
a wise dispensation of Providence. Evidently the lot of the
pioneer farmer in the Fraser Valley would have been a more
difficult one had he not been able to depend on the harvest from
the river to supplement the harvest from his field.
It is now almost impossible to estimate accurately what the
quantity of marketable timber in the valley was previous to
settlement. A conservative estimate would be twenty billion feet,
board measure. Douglas fir, red cedar, and hemlock predominated, but the most valuable stands have long since disappeared.
One of the last of these was the famous " Green Timbers " in
Surrey, through which the Pacific Highway ran. Despite strenuous efforts to save this as a scenic attraction, it was logged off
by 1930.81 Forest fires and land-clearing operations have also
taken toll of a great deal of valuable timber. As a matter of
fact, to the settler who wanted the land for crops, the timber
was a detriment rather than an asset. Until 1910 there was
little sale for timber, and only those fortunate enough to be near
a sawmill were able to profit, either by the sale of timber or by
getting the lumber for house or barn. Millions of feet of the
finest timber were destroyed simply to get it out of the way.
The idea of conservation of forest wealth certainly did not
originate with the early settlers.
Few people, perhaps, realize that the lumbering industry in
the valley was under the control of the Federal Government.
When British Columbia joined the Canadian Confederation in
1871, the Province agreed to give a strip of land 20 miles in
(80) New Westminster British Columbian, September 17, 1910.
(81) Vancouver Daily Sun, August 28, 1930. 286 George B. White. October
width on each side of the right-of-way in consideration for the
building of a railroad. Known as the " railway belt," this strip
of land extended from the Alberta boundary to a line just east
of New Westminster. It was administered by the Federal Government from 1883 to 1930, when it was returned to the Province. Timber licences being much cheaper under the Federal
system than under the Provincial, and being easily accessible to
the railway, it is not difficult to understand why timber berths
in the railway belt were eagerly sought after. The few marketable stands of timber remaining to-day are around Harrison Lake
and in the Chilliwack River district.
Almost from the beginning of settlement down to the present
day, there have been a few mills in various parts of the valley,
but they were cutting lumber mainly for local requirements.
After the building of the British Columbia Electric Railway
Fraser Valley line there was increased activity for some years.
Most of the mills were small; on the other hand, 2 miles east of
New Westminster there is one of the largest mills in the British
Empire, the Fraser Mills. Logs from the Fraser Valley were
used extensively a few years ago, but in recent years the main
supply has come from Vancouver Island or the coast districts.
The lumber industry, though not benefiting the settlers as directly
as that of the fishing, has contributed greatly to the economic
life of the valley. If the Government pushes its policy of reforestation vigorously, much could be done to maintain this industry as a permanent one in the valley.
Other factors in the economic development may be briefly
mentioned. Fruit-canneries have been operated at different times
and with varying success. At first the idea was mainly to use
fruit that would otherwise be wasted. These early efforts were
mainly in the Chilliwack section of the valley,82 but the improvement of transportation facilities, particularly the use of refrigerated cars, has provided the fruit-growers with a chance to
market fresh fruit even on the Prairie market, and naturally as
such it demands a better price than canned fruit. As the centre
of the small-fruits district, Mission has probably been most
active in the fruit-canning industry. There are several plants
still in operation at the present time.
(82)  Chilliwack Progress, April 16, 1891. 1948       Development of Eastern Fraser Valley. 287
Clayburn and Haney brick and tile products established a
sound reputation among British Columbia contractors a good
many years ago and have maintained it to the present day. The
Clayburn company has extended its field of operations to Kilgard
and intends to concentrate its efforts there.
A comparative new-comer among industries is fur-farming.
The shades of the old Hudson's Bay Company traders, McMillan
et al., have thus seen the economic wheel turn full circle, but with
what feelings they might regard the modern methods of obtaining furs we can only conjecture. What the future holds for this
industry is uncertain. There were several fur-farms in the valley, and a number of farmers that were trying fur-farming as
a side-line up to the time of the outbreak of World War II. It
requires a great deal of patience and skill in the handling of
animals, but prices of good pelts make it profitable. During the
war, difficulties in getting food for the animals and help to care
for them have caused a decrease in the number of fur-farmers.
The supply of pelts has never caught up with the demand, and
there may be a promising future for the newest and the oldest
industry in the valley.
SUMAS RECLAMATION PROJECT.83
. The project of reclaiming and draining the lands of the Sumas
Prairie area was one which had challenged the attention of the
farmers, civil engineers, and financiers since the 1870's. Scarcely
a year went by without the expenditure of time, money, and
energy on the project. The record of the early years is strewn
with failures and abortive attempts to get the work started.
It was not until 1919, when the Provincial Government, through
the Land Settlement Board, undertook the project, that success
seemed assured. With its completion in 1926 the long-deferred
hopes of the farmers of the valley were realized and some 30,000
fertile acres were added to the agricultural resources of the
valley and of the Province.
The earliest record of this scheme goes back to 1875 or 1876,
when Edgar Dewdney, later to be Lieutenant-Governor of the
(83) The author has drawn much of his information from a special
report prepared by W. S. Latta, Director of the Land Settlement Board, and
dated December 31, 1926, entitled " Record of Events—Sumas." 288 George B. White. October
Province, made a survey of the whole district. In 1878 the Government authorized Ellis Luther Derby, through the " Sumas
Dyking Act," to proceed with the work of dyking and draining
'certain lands in the Chilliwack, Sumas, and Matsqui districts.84
Amendments to the Act in 1879, 1883, 1885, and 1888 indicate
a continued interest in the scheme, but there is no record of any
actual construction having been undertaken during that decade.
About 1890 the problem of draining the area became greatly
complicated as a result of one of nature's pranks. The Vedder
River, which up to that time had followed the Luck-a-Kuck channel through Sardis direct into the Fraser River, changed its
course at Vedder Crossing and, flowing thereafter north-westerly, emptied into Sumas Lake. This materially increased the
difficulty of draining the area, although the silting action of the
river increased the fertility of the lake-bed soils. In 1892 a
Sumas Reclamation Company was incorporated86 and the first
actual construction was done, but subsequently abandoned. The
following year a Dyking Commission was appointed, and for a
time it appeared that action would be taken. Messrs. Keefer and
Smith, engineers, were called in to make surveys and prepare
plans which were duly presented early in 1894,86 but financial
difficulties prevented the work from getting beyond the preliminary stage. In 1905 a Seattle company, Messrs. Lewis and
Hill, prepared plans which the property-owners approved by a
two to one majority on September 17, 1906, but the proposal was
definitely vetoed by the Department of the Interior at Ottawa
when it was learned that the proposal involved making all Crown
lands subject to assessment. In 1908 the British Columbia Electric Railway Company, proceeding with the building of its Fraser
Valley line and desirous of encouraging the development of the
(84) Statutes of the Province of British Columbia . . . 1878, Victoria,
1878, pp. 33-45 (chap. 6).
(85) Statutes of the Province of British Columbia . . . 1892, Victoria,
1892, pp. 369-381 (chap. 59). The promoters of this scheme were C. A.
Holland, H. S. Mason, J. A. Lumsden, and F. A. Lumsden. The previous
year D. McGillivray, C. T. Dunbar, and C. G. Major had incorporated the
British Columbia Dyking and Improvement Company to undertake much the
same project. Statutes of the Province of British Columbia . . . 1891,
Victoria, 1891, pp. 403-421 (chap. 48).
(86) Victoria Colonist, January 14, 1894. 1948       Development of Eastern Fraser Valley. 289
area, prepared plans for the project. These were dropped when
the London board of the company failed to approve of the undertaking. Still later, two other companies—the Dominion Stock
and Bond Corporation, Ltd., of Vancouver, and L. M. Rice and
Company, of Seattle—put forward proposals, but financial difficulties were again too great. The declaration of war in 1914
caused the postponement of any further plans.
By 1917 the property-owners of the district were petitioning
the Government to undertake the work through the Land Settlement Board. The Government acceded to this request, assumed
responsibility for unpaid liabilities of the old Dyking Commission to the extent of some $14,000, and became the heirs of a
voluminous pile of plans, agreements, and maps pertaining to
the project. Then arose a controversy between the two engineers
that were preparing plans and specifications, which was settled
only by calling in a third engineer as consultant.87 On November
24, 1919, a meeting of the property-owners was held at Huntingdon to hear the report and to vote on the project. Those owning
86 per cent, of the assessed value of the land were in favour of
proceeding,88 and tenders were accordingly called.89 Four companies submitted bids, each of which was considerably higher
than the engineer's estimates, and the bid of the Marsh Bourne
Construction Company was finally accepted. Work began on
August 30, 1920.
Delays and difficulties too numerous to mention continued to
dog the successful completion of the project. Necessary dredging equipment was hard to get, the contracting company became
insolvent, new and unforeseen work had to be done, and to cap
it all the winter of 1921-22 was unusually severe. However, by
April 7, 1922, the first phase of the work, that of diverting the
Vedder River into a canal dug for it, was completed.90 During
the summer and following winter, work on the main pumping-
(87) The Brice-Smith plan put forward by H. C. Brice and after his
death in March, 1919, by W. C. Smith; and the Sinclair plan, put forward
by F. N. Sinclair, were the two rival proposals. C. E. Cartwright was the
third engineer, and he recommended in favour of the Sinclair plan.
(88) Chilliwack Progress, November 27, 1919.
(89) Tenders were called on January 22, 1920, to be opened February
25, 1920.
(90) Chilliwack Progress, April 20, 1922. 290 George B. White. October
station and dam proceeded apace. Pumping actually began on
July 4, 1923, and on June 26, 1924, the last of the water in the
Sumas basin had been pumped out.91 By this time some 6,000
acres of lake-bottom land had been seeded to timothy. In July,
1925, the Federal Government, having accepted $1 as a nominal
payment for the area, forwarded the title to Victoria.
The total indebtedness of the Sumas Dyking District was
shown in March, 1926, as $3,716,277.85—nearly $2,000,000 over
the original estimates.92 There is no doubt that the engineers
had based the original estimates on insufficient data. However,
it was necessary to build a plant that would take care of maximum floods without difficulty. That this course was wise was
proved in 1936 and in 1948. Severe criticism was levelled at the
Government as a result of the excessive cost of the whole project,
but the Premier, John Oliver, during whose regime the work was
carried out, persistently maintained his stand that the relationship between the Government and the Sumas Dyking District
was simply that of mortgagor and mortgagee.
Looking over the whole reclamation project after a period
of twenty years, one cannot but feel that it was well worth while
and that it will repay all the time and money spent on it. For
countless years there lay an 8,000-acre area of mud and water
that was too shallow for navigation and probably too deep for
the comfort of duck-hunters, who were the only ones to get even
a few days' use of it. In addition, it was probably the finest
breeding-ground in the whole Dominion of Canada for mosquitoes. To-day there exists as fine a stretch of farming country
as one could wish to see, with excellent soil, ample water-supply,
a splendid system of drainage, and only 50 miles from an urban
community that already contains nearly 400,000 people. It is
difficult to conceive of any farm lands in North America more
favourably situated.
To conclude this somewhat incomplete chronicle of the development of the Fraser Valley, one must remember that it has
mainly occurred during the life-time of many of its present-day
(91) Ibid., July 9, 1924.
(92) In all fairness it should be pointed out, however, that some
$850,000 of this increase arose from items not included in the engineer's
estimates. 1948 .      Development of Eastern Fraser Valley. 291
residents. All modern conveniences—electricity, telephones, hospitals, educational and library facilities—are available to them.
They enjoy all the advantages of urban life combined with the
freedom of rural life. To enjoy a pleasant vacation, whether it
be at the sea-side or at a picturesque mountain lake, one does
not need to leave the confines of the valley. To the sportsman,
whether he be a Nimrod or a disciple of Isaac Walton, it is a
veritable paradise. At the north-eastern end of the valley, beautifully situated, is Harrison Hot Springs, an internationally
known health resort. The mineral waters of potash and sulphur
there have undoubted therapeutic value, a fact of which the
aborigines were fully aware. Truly Mother Nature, with prodigal hand, has heaped upon the valley a profusion of all things
necessary for pleasant living.
What does the future hold for this area ? It would not be too
bold a prediction to say that the future development will surpass
that of the past. Even a casual trip through the valley will
reveal evidences of substantial prosperity. The trend in agriculture will probably be toward more intensive cultivation, with
the larger farms being subdivided into smaller holdings. One of
the most interesting of recent suggestions is that of the Town
Planning Commission of Vancouver, which released details of
a scheme for a control of decentralization and regional planning
for the whole area from Vancouver to Hope.93 To foresee that
region as one great metropolitan area is not too difficult a feat
of imagination. The pioneers laid truly and well the foundations
for such a structure.
George B. White.
Vancouver, B.C.
(93)  Vancouver Daily Province, August 7, 1947. JUDGE BEGBIE'S SHORTHAND:  A MYSTERY
SOLVED.
Students of the colonial period of the history of British Columbia almost invariably encounter Judge Matthew Baillie
Begbie in their reading and research. As first Judge of the
Crown Colony he established the judiciary and made that system
supreme. At the same time he was a member of the Executive
Council and so played a part in the formulation of policy and
the promulgation of law. In addition, he performed many services beyond the strict line of official duty. On one occasion he
conducted a scientific reconnaissance into the Interior.1 He drew
maps and helped with surveys, much to the chagrin of the Royal
Engineers.2 His dispatches show him making arrangements for
ferry services and the sale of town lots.3 In one report to Governor Douglas he gave a long account of the condition of the roads.4
In short, he was not only head of the judiciary but also a member
of the Government who, in the early days of the colony, rode
about the Interior as a representative of the legislative and
executive branches of the administration.
Yet, in spite of these multifarious duties and the wide range
of personal contacts that they entailed, there is little known
about the Judge. His correspondence, which is guarded and
generally impersonal, contains hints that it was his habit to
discuss problems in private conversation with the Governor and
his officials. As no minutes of the Executive Council are extant
—perhaps none were taken—scholars are left very much in the
dark as to the background of Douglas' administration. It is
known that Judge Begbie disagreed with the Governor in mat-
(1) Begbie to Douglas, April 25, 1859, Begbie Letters, MS., Archives
of B.C.
(2) Sydney G. Pettit, " Judge Begbie in Action: The Establishment of
Law and Preservation of Order in British Columbia," British Columbia
Historical Quarterly, XI (1947), p. 123.
(3) Ibid.
(4) Begbie to Young, no date but received January 19, 1863, Begbie
Letters, MS., Archives of B.C.
British Columbia Historical Quarterly, Vol. XII, No. 4.
293 294 Sydney G. Pettit. October
ters of policy, but there is no inkling as to the nature of the
objections taken.6
On the personal side, the few fragments of correspondence
at present available cast little light upon the man himself. They
do nothing to account for his attitudes or explain his behaviour
which, on some occasions, was quite extraordinary. Was Judge
Begbie the author of the squib that set poor Mr. Langford by
the ears ?6 What actually took place at Cottonwood in the summer of 1862 V We should like to know whether he played a part
in the final settlement of the Cranford-Wright dispute.8 And
his secret giving—who were the recipients?9
It is possible that a key exists to some of these vexing problems. In the Provincial Archives are a number of the Judge's
Court note-books and two large pocket-books which he carried
with him on his journeys. Scattered throughout these records
are entries in an antique shorthand which, up to recently, has
defied identification. How much would a transcription of these
mysterious passages reveal?
The discovery of the system that Judge Begbie used thus
became an attractive but baffling approach to a number of unsolved problems. The first and obvious step to be taken was to
submit the script to shorthand experts. When none of these
authorities was able to identify the system, the present writer
ransacked second-hand bookshops for old texts. This, too, proved
fruitless. At this stage of the investigation it seemed possible
that the Judge, like Samuel Pepys, might have invented his own
system. If such were the case, the task would be one for a cryptographer and not a historian. While reflecting on the difficulty
and expense of obtaining professional assistance of this kind,
(5) Victoria Colonist, March 11, 1864.
(6) During the election of 1860 a squib written at the expense of a
candidate, Mr. Langford, was plastered all over the walls of Victoria.
Langford accused Judge Begbie of being the author.
(7) Sydney G. Pettit, "His Honour's Honour: Judge Begbie and the
Cottonwood Scandal," British Columbia Historical Quarterly, XI (1947),
pp. 187-210.
(8) Sydney G. Pettit, "The Tyrant Judge: Judge Begbie in Court,"
ibid., pp. 273-287.
(9) W. Kaye Lamb, " Memoirs and Documents relating to Judge Begbie,"
British Columbia Historical Quarterly, V (1941), pp. 125, 126. *i./•% <l,_.a ^ ,^./"^i,
K^t A'^' r-i C    ' c &^/t a|
A sample of Begbie's shorthand from a diary in the Archives
of British Columbia.
. . . 8.15 came to a very nasty bend in the river and had to lighten the
ship and get a rope. I stood by and took observation—pretty good one—but
to my great disgust my watch stopped last night shortly after I got into bed.
I took Pooley's watch which he says is a good one, keeping good time at
least.   .   .   . 1948 Judge Begbie's Shorthand. 295
the writer suddenly conceived of another avenue of inquiry. It
appeared to be a reasonable hypothesis that a contemporary of
Begbie's would use the same shorthand. Almost instantaneously
Charles Dickens sprang into the writer's mind. Dickens, born
in 1812, was only seven years older than Begbie and, like him,
had been a Court reporter. If these men used the same system,
identification would not be too difficult, for the vast quantity of
Dickensiana would be almost sure to contain the name of the
shorthand that the great novelist employed.
A fragment of biography written by Sir Henry Dickens,
entitled Memories of My Father, contained the final clues.10
First, Sir Henry stated that his father used the Gurney system.11
Secondly, a reproduction of a few of Dickens' symbols tallied
closely with those used by Judge Begbie.12 As it was still possible, however, that the two scripts might be similar but not
identical, the final test consisted in obtaining one of Gurney's
texts. At length, through the kindness of the Provincial Library,
two volumes were secured, one from the Library of Congress and
the other from the Philadelphia Public Library. A careful
comparison of these texts with the Begbie note-books established
beyond shadow of doubt that the Judge used the Gurney shorthand.
The Gurney system, it appears, had been invented by Thomas
Gurney (1705-1770) and developed by members of his family,
presumably his sons. One volume, printed in 1778, bore the
following title:—
Brachygraphy: or an easy and compendious system of shorthand, adapted
to the various arts, sciences and professions; improved after more than
forty years practice & experience by Thomas Gurney; and brought still
nearer to perfection upon the present method by Joseph Gurney. The 9th
ed. London.   Printed for J and M Gurney;  sold by M. Gurney, 1778.
The other volume, published in London in 1803, bore the same
title, save for the number of the edition, which was omitted.
The present writer's wife, Constance Pettit, who learned the
shorthand, transcribed a number of samplings from the pocket-
books.   While these yielded no startling information, they were
(10) Sir Henry F. Dickens, Memories of My Father, London, 1929.
(11) Ibid., p. 27.
(12) Ibid., p. 28. 296 Sydney G. Pettit.
not devoid of interest and value. The Judge recorded, for instance, times of arrival and departure, topographical details,
weather conditions, and the state of the roads. There are personal trivia, such as " I took Pooley's watch," which he says
is " a good one keeping good time at least." He describes a
house as one " with walls like a gridiron, roof little better than
a colander."
As one of Begbie's closest friends, Canon Beanlands, describes him as being reticent and " no diarist," it is possible that
all his entries are of the kind given above.13 On the other hand,
there may well be, tucked away among the Judge's observations,
a passage of rare importance that might illuminate what is now
obscure and clear the way for further inquiry. Such a discovery
would be a rich reward for the exacting task of transcription.
Sydney G. Pettit.
Victoria, B.C.
(13)  W. Kaye Lamb, op. cit, p. 128. McGREIGHT AND THE CHURCH.*
Ulster Protestantism formed the religious background of
John Foster McCreight, with both his father and his grandfather
ordained as clergymen in the Anglican Episcopal Church in
Ireland. He was himself baptized into the same faith and later
became a steady supporter of the Anglican Church. Of his
religious affiliations in Ireland and Australia there is little record,
but on Vancouver Island he became a member of the congregation of Christ Church Cathedral.
This Anglican church originated in Victoria in 1853 when its
building was begun by the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1855 the
Rev. Edward Cridge arrived from England to become the third
Hudson's Bay Company chaplain1 and the first rector of the
colonial church. In 1856 the new church was dedicated and in
1859, on the arrival from England of Bishop George Hills, it was
named Christ Church Cathedral. The diocese over which the
new bishop was to preside included both Vancouver Island and
the Mainland of British Columbia and was to be known as the
Bishopric of British Columbia with the bishop taking the title of
" Lord Bishop of British Columbia."2 The usual powers were
granted to the bishop, with an oath of obedience to be made to
the Archbishop of Canterbury. Under the new bishop, Cridge
was appointed dean and rector. In 1869 Christ Church Cathedral was destroyed by fire, but was rebuilt almost at once and the
new building was consecrated in 1872.
As soon as Bishop Hills arrived and the diocese was organized,
a Church Committee was formed for the cathedral. McCreight
was one of the original members, and then became people's
warden from 1869 to 1873 and again in 1875 and 1876. When
a synod was organized for the diocese, McCreight was a lay dele-
* This is the fourth and concluding article in a series of four dealing
with various aspects of the career of John Foster McCreight.
(1) He was preceded by Rev. Herbert Beaver at Fort Vancouver in
1836 and Rev. R. J. Staines at Fort Victoria in 1849.
(2) Letters Patent of the Diocese of British Columbia, Transcript in
Archives of B.C.
British Columbia Historical Quarterly, Vol. XII, No. 4.
297 298 Patricia M. Johnson. October
gate, representing his church there from 1874 to 1883. At first
the diocese represented the whole Province, but in 1879 a division
was made. Vancouver Island and adjacent islands became the
Diocese of Columbia; the Lower Mainland, the Diocese of
New Westminster; and the Northern Mainland, the Diocese of
Caledonia.
This brief sketch shows that McCreight was an active participant in church work. Even when he must have been most
occupied holding the position of Premier of the Province, he still
maintained the appointment as a church warden. It is known,
too, that he was a great personal friend of Bishop Hills and fully
concurred in his somewhat " high church " views.
In 1874 occurred a most significant event. Dean Cridge, the
rector of the cathedral, felt that he could neither serve under
Bishop Hills nor agree with his doctrines. The causes of his
disaffection were many. Fundamentally it seems to have been
the diverging trends of a "low church" man from a "high
church" man. Cridge objected to the ritualistic practices and
doctrine of the bishop and to the organization of a synod for the
diocese. To him, ritual was wicked " Popery," a synod was an
authoritarian substitute for the local self-government of each
congregation.3 In June, 1874, at a meeting of the Church Committee, Dean Cridge listed his reasons for dissent as:—
(1) An attempt to introduce disputable doctrines and practices into the congregation.
(2) An endeavour to force the Christ Church congregation
into a synod without their consent and contrary to their
wishes.4
Bound up with these objections was the feeling that Cridge
had certain rights in connection with the church, its administration, and its property. At the height of the controversy he sent
a request to the Governor-General and to the Archbishop of
(3) In a letter to Bishop Hills, dated January 6, 1874, and published in
the Victoria Colonist, January 10, 1874, Cridge stated: " I believe that every
congregation with its accepted Pastor, is a complete church (the word and
sacraments being duly administered therein); that a Diocese is no necessary
part of a Church.   ..."
(4) Christ Church Cathedral Minute Book, p. 141, under date June 17,
1874, and initialled by " E.C." (Hereafter this source will be cited as
C.C.C.M.B.) 1948 McCreight and the Church. 299
Canterbury regarding the deeds of trust of the cathedral. This
document is a significant one. Drawn up in 1864 as an indenture
between the governor and committee of the Hudson's Bay Company and Governor Kennedy of Vancouver Island on the one
hand and the Archbishop of Canterbury and Bishop Hills on the
other, it bears the signatures of " G. Columbia, A. E. Kennedy,
Governor, C. T. Cantuar, Thomas Fraser for Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's Bay."6
It granted to the bishop and his successors the land on which
the church was built—land which had been the property of the
Hudson's Bay Company—also the site and buildings of the parsonage and the bishop's residence. It stipulated that part of the
rents should go to pay the £600 stipend of the Rev. Edward
Cridge, provided that:—
the said Edward Cridge and each of his successors of the said incumbency
shall be deemed for the purposes of this deed to continue incumbent thereof
until he shall die or resign or be removed from the said Rectory and
incumbency; Provided also that no such removal shall take place except
for failure to conform to the Doctrine, Worship, Discipline and Government
of the said United Church of England and Ireland, and that every such
removal shall be subject to such appeal and review as are provided.*
The document was possibly the ordinary one for such cases, but
the mention of Rev. Edward Cridge by name, the special provisions for him, and the right of appeal do point to the fact that he
was a Hudson's Bay Company chaplain before he was a church
rector. He had " the company " solidly behind him. If he left the
church, many of the old stalwarts would leave with him. This
is an interesting side-light on the "family-company-compact"
influence in Victoria. Even in 1874 the company's power was
still felt. Cridge belonged to them; they would take care of him.
Bishop Hills had no association with the company; he was
regarded as an outsider.
It was easy to see where McCreight's sympathies would lie.
He apparently admired the ritualistic doctrines of the bishop, a
not uncommon thing among students of religion of his day. The
Oxford Movement had a great appeal for scholarly minds, and
(5) Trust Deeds relating to Christ Church Cathedral, Transcript in
Archives of B.C.
(6) Ibid.    Provision was made that the stipend might be increased to
£800. 300 Patricia M. Johnson. October
McCreight, once he had formed a belief, would adhere to it
unwaveringly. Then again, McCreight had no connection with
the church before Hills' time and certainly no claim to belong to
that select group of "company men"—the Douglas-Helmcken
aristocracy. Finally, McCreight had a strong regard for law and
authority. The bishop was the representative of the authority
of the church and he was to be obeyed. It would be partly a
matter of personal loyalty, certainly a matter of personal conviction, McCreight would take the bishop's part and would condemn Cridge for his "revolt"—meanwhile deploring its very
necessity.
McCreight's part in the controversy is, as Mr. G. H. Slater
expressed it, that of "the power behind the throne."7 He was
never vociferous, never unfair. He tried to be conciliatory and
to keep the dignity of things at a time when tempers were hot and
men expressed themselves bitterly. The first mention of the
affair came on January 16, 1874, when a meeting of the Church
Committee passed a resolution:—
that the Committee of Christ Church Cathedral having read the letter from
the Very Revd. Dean Cridge to the Right Revd. the Bishop of Columbia
published on the 10th of January 1874 in the Standard and Colonist on
Synod, do not acquiesce in such a letter and regret its publication.8
The meeting was presided over by the Honourable J. W. Trutch
and was attended by Robert Williams and W. C. Siffken who
voted against the resolution and R. C. Jackson, Henry Wootton,
H. P. P. Crease, B. W. Pearse, J. W. Mackay, W. C. Ward, and
McCreight who voted for it. As a consequence of this resolution,
a letter was sent to Dean Cridge as follows:—
Govt. St. 20th Jany.
1874.
Dear Sir,
In pursuance of my promise I send you a transcript of the Proceedings
of the Church Committee meeting of the 16th Jany Instant. As I earnestly
wish that the whole matter may now drop I should have been glad if you
had not asked for them, & trust they may not create any feeling between
you & any of the members of the Congregation.
I should look upon this as one of the greatest misfortunes arising from
this unhappy controversy.
(7) G. H. Slater in a letter to the author, dated December 1, 1946.
(8) C.C.C.M.B., p. 104, dated January 16, 1874. 1948 McCreight and the Church. 301
With sincere regards & hope that what ever all have done simply as a
matter of conscience and duty may not offend.
Believe me,
Yours faithfully,
J. F. McCreight.
Very Rev. Dean Cridge,
Quadra St.9
In spite of McCreight's wish that the matter might be ended,
there was only a temporary peace. In March, 1874, the Church
Committee drew up a voting list for a convention to be elected
from the members of the congregation—this convention to
appoint the synod delegates. On April 4 a congregational meeting passed the following resolution: " That in the opinion of this
meeting it is expedient that delegates from the congregation of
Christ Church should be elected for the proposed convention for
a Synod."10 This action was taken despite the reading of a letter
from the dean in which he stated his reasons for opposing the
establishment of a synod and hinted that much of the congregation was not in favour of it. However, the synod elections went
on as planned and the Lieutenant-Governor (J. W. Trutch), R. E.
Jackson, B. W. Pearse, C. T. Dupont, W. C. Ward, and J. F. McCreight were elected.11 But the dean had rallied his forces. The
Church Committee might oppose him, but a large part of the
congregation did not. Here lay his strength, in his group of
personal friends, ex-company officials, and those who favoured
his doctrine. At the annual vestry meeting of the cathedral
held on April 15, 1874, W. C. Ward, who had served as rector's
warden, received no nomination, and his position was taken over
by A. F. Pemberton, a supporter of the dean. McCreight, who
had served as people's warden, was opposed by Robert Williams
who defeated him 41 to 32.12 At the next meeting McCreight
resigned from the Church Committee and was followed by Pearse
and Crease. The friends of the dean were now in control, and a
declaration signed by 147 members of the congregation stated:—
We the undersigned Members of the Congregation of Christ Church, beg to
say that, taking all the circumstances into consideration, we do not wish
(9) Ibid.,p. 107.
(10) Ibid., p. 117, dated April 4, 1874.
(11) Victoria Colonist, April 14, 1874.
(12) C.C.C.M.B., p. 128, dated April 15, 1874. 302 Patricia M. Johnson. October
that the congregation of Christ Church should in any way be connected with
the Synod as proposed to be constituted, or be represented therein.18
Apparently to justify his position, Bishop Hills wrote a letter
explaining his stand on the whole matter. The Church Committee objected to this and wrote to the bishop stating their
displeasure.14 From the registrar of the diocese, M. W. T. Drake,
came the reply: " I am not aware that it falls within the province
of the Church Wardens to interrogate the Bishop of the Diocese
as to the authority of addresses which he may issue."16 This did
nothing to help. The matter was getting beyond the point where
conciliation could be effected. The Church Committee ranged
itself solidly behind the dean and proceeded to defy the bishop.
It declared itself " altogether Protestant and opposed to Ritualism " and criticized a sermon on ritualism preached by a visiting
archdeacon.16 It went a step further in open defiance of the
bishop when it refused to receive his annual visitation until
replies had come to the protests that had been sent to the
Governor-General and the Archbishop of Canterbury. In fact
the next stage was open rebellion when, on July 2, the rector's
warden stated that the bishop by his behaviour appeared to have
seceded from the Church of England and ceased to be the Bishop
of Christ Church17—an open insult and contradiction of the legal
fact of the case. In thus writing to the bishop, A. F. Pemberton
well illustrates the attitude of the "company group" to the
bishop. " I had been Church warden of Christ Church several
years before your arrival in Vancouver Island, and after nearly
ten years service in that capacity resigned my office. . . ." He
then goes on to mention many of the reasons for this resignation
—the bishop's ritualism, land disputes, and the like, but the main
point remained summed up in the words "several years before
your arrival."18
(13) Ibid, pp. 131-133.
(14) A. F. Pemberton and R. Williams to Bishop Hills, May 22, 1874,
ibid., p. 137.
(15) Ibid., p. 138.
(16) Ibid., p. 139.    The visiting archdeacon was Rev. William S. Reece.
(17) A. F. Pemberton to Bishop Hills, July 2, 1874, ibid., p. 143.
(18) Ibid. 1948 McCreight and the Church. 303
Faced with this uncompromising attitude, the bishop was
forced to take decisive action. On July 14, 1874, the following
letter was sent to Cridge:—
Bishop's Close,
July 14, 1874.
My dear Sir,
Ten days having elapsed without any intimation of regret or apology for
your conduct in reference to and on the occasion of my visitation at the
Cathedral on the 3rd inst. I am forced to the painful necessity of instituting
proceedings for your defiance of the Episcopal authority and of the laws of
the Church contrary to your Ordination Vows and your oath of Canonical
obedience. Deeply pained to be compelled to take this course, I now offer
you, before formal steps are begun the opportunity of acknowledging your
fault, expressing your regret and submitting yourself in future to lawful
authority.
I am &c.
G. Columbia."
The bishop then proceeded to revoke Cridge's licence to preach
and announced that he would take the services himself in the
cathedral. To this the wardens replied with cold politeness that
they had already arranged for the dean to take the services.
Cridge himself remained at his post, quoting to the bishop the
decision of the Privy Council on the deprivation of the Bishop of
Natal that "suspension or deprivation is a matter of coercive
legal jurisdiction, and not of mere spiritual authority."20 The
bishop took the matter up at once, declared that the lawful
authority was the Supreme Court, and instituted proceedings
against Cridge to remove him from his position. In this McCreight was of great assistance, as he could conduct the legal
proceedings of the matter. The Church Committee, sure of their
position, began to raise funds for the dean's legal expenses.21
The case came up before the Chief Justice, Matthew B. Begbie,
on September 10, 1874. It was charged that Cridge had violated
the doctrines and discipline of the church on eighteen separate
charges, all but two of which were proved. The fact that he had
defied the authority of the bishop was stressed, and an injunction
was granted forbidding him to preach as a minister of the
(19) Bishop Hills to Very Rev. Dean Cridge, July 14, 1874, ibid., p. 147.
(20) E. Cridge to Bishop Hills, September 26, 1874, ibid., p. 148.
(21) Ibid., p. 151, dated September 18, 1874. 304 Patricia M. Johnson. October
Church of England.22 In consequence, Cridge announced that
"not being able conscientiously to refrain from ministering
he contemplated attaching himself to the Reformed Episcopal
Church lately organized in Canada and the United States."23
A memorandum by A. F. Pemberton tells the end of the controversy :—
The Minister and Church Wardens; the whole of the Church Committee;
the greater part of the congregation, and of the Sunday School, with the
Superintendent and most of the Teachers; nearly all the choir, with the
Organist; and the Sexton left Christ Church in consequence of the proceedings against their minister and worshipped in Pandora Street Church.2*
The memorandum does not add that Cridge remained in the
Christ Church rectory claiming his right to that property under
the trust deeds. This caused a second Court case, tried before
Judge J. H. Gray, after which Cridge was evicted and the property restored.
By November, 1874, the storm was over. A sadly depleted
little congregation met at Christ Church to elect a new committee
and wardens. W. C. Ward was again chosen rector's warden
and C. T. Dupont, people's warden. McCreight once again became a member of the Church Committee. Apparently funds
had suffered as a result of the break, for the Honourable J. W.
Trutch, H. P. P. Crease, and McCreight are each on record as
contributing $50 to expenses.26 The following year McCreight
returned to his old position of people's warden and during 1879
contributed "$25.00 towards the deficiency."26 The synod continued its work and at the vestry meeting of April 19, 1883,
McCreight, now a Judge, was present and was again elected lay
representative to the synod.
The last mention of McCreight came a year later. At the
annual vestry meeting, April 17, 1884, it was moved by R. H. G.
(22) The case was heard September 10-12, 14, and 17, and the judgment
was given on October 24, 1874. For a detailed account with supporting
documents, see Trial of the Very Reverend Edward Cridge, Rector and Dean
of Christ Church Cathedral, Victoria, Documents, Evidence, Correspondence
and Judgment, as used and given in the Bishop's Court and in the Supreme
Court of the Province before the Hon. Chief Justice Begbie, Victoria, 1875.
(23) C.C.C.M.B., p. 153, dated October 27, 1874.
(24) Ibid., p. 154.
(25) Ibid., p. 157, dated November 4, 1874.
(26) Ibid., p. 161. 1948 McCreight and the Church. 305
Jackson, seconded by W. C. Ward, "that Mr. Justice Crease be
appointed as Lay Delegate to the Synod from the Cathedral in
the place of Mr. Justice McCreight who has seceded from the
Church."27 This statement fixed the date of McCreight's withdrawal from the Anglican Church as somewhere between April,
1883, and April, 1884. Recent material has come to light fixing
the event in the period between September and November, 1883.
An entry in McCreight's diary for October 28, 1883, reads:
" Baptized about this time by Father ,"28 and a note on the
back cover of the same diary reads: " Thank God heartily for all
His great mercies during A.D. 1883 and most of all for bringing
me to the true Church."
The circumstances connected with McCreight's change of
religion are somewhat obscure. According to Bishop Hills the"
change came as a great surprise and shock. On August 31,1883,
the bishop received a letter from McCreight "showing great
interest in the Church of England and offering $50 subscription."29 On September 9 the bishop noted that McCreight was
absent from church. On September 21 came the warning that
something was wrong, for the bishop noted that McCreight—
Was at Church this Friday evening and came into vestry after service.
Said he wished to speak to me upon a very important subject. He seemed
much excited. Said he had doubts whether the Church of England was
a Church at all. Got doctrines from Parliament. Anything could be
taught. Baptismal regeneration not a necessary doctrine. Decision on
Gorham case shewed this. Could not suppose when Our Lord said the gates
of hell shall not prevail against it, that he meant his Church to be a
creation of the State. Said he had been reading the Roman Catholic answer
to Littledale's reasons, but had not seen Littledale's book. Could I lend it
to him. Said he had been reading " Ellery " (I think) he must read both
sides. He had arrived at a negative (I suppose that the Church of England
was not a Church) but had not yet reached the affirmative (I suppose as to
Rome.)
I used a few obvious arguments.    He showed ignorance of the controversy and I promised to send him books.30
(27) Ibid., under date April 17, 1884.
(28) J. F. McCreight Diary, 1883, MS., Archives of B.C. Unfortunately
the name of the priest is undecipherable.
(29) The following details are to be found in a note-book written by
Bishop Hills and now preserved in the synod office of the Diocese of
Columbia, Victoria, B.C.
(30) Ibid.
4 306 Patricia M. Johnson. October
Further correspondence followed, the bishop trying to help
McCreight to study the whole matter, McCreight merely acknowledging the letters. By November it was known that McCreight
had been received into the Roman Catholic Church and the bishop
upbraided him: " Either you were a hypocrite for some time past
which I cannot believe or you were rashly precipitant. The least
to be expected, considering our relations, was that you wd. have,
communicated your doubts and sought quiet discussion.   .   .   ."31
The whole subject of McCreight's conversion to Roman
Catholicism is an interesting one, for it shows most clearly many
sides of his character. It was obvious that the Cridge episode
and his own part in it would be an important phase in McCreight's spiritual life. It has been mentioned that McCreight
favoured ritualism and so-called " high church practices"—
perhaps not a very far step from the Roman Catholic Church.
Again it can be seen that McCreight stood for authority, for
discipline, for absolutism in belief. The Cridge revolt would
seriously challenge the authority of the Anglican Church—it
could certainly make a man doubt whether that authority could
be maintained. The Roman Catholic Church would permit of
no such defection. In its confines, authority would be absolute,
faith unwavering. To a man of McCreight's temperament, the
answer seems obvious. Shaken in his respect for the authority
of his church, leaning toward practices not popular with it, and,
above all, driven by a clear, lucid mind and a relentless conscience,
he could not fail to doubt, then to question. The doubts and
questions must have tormented him exceedingly, and he could not
put them by. Slowly, strongly, uncompromisingly he would work
out a formula, then he would take a definite stand. He was a
man who must choose one way or the other—a doubtful position
was of no use to him. Finally he decided to leave a church which
could no longer satisfy him—it would have been strange had he
not done so.
Great stress has been put on the personal factors that encouraged him to enter the Roman Catholic Church. This takes
the story of McCreight to the Cariboo country, where he lived
between 1880 and 1883. In the little town of Richfield there was
only a Roman Catholic church administered by the priests of St.
(31) Ibid. 1948 McCreight and the Church. 307
Joseph's Mission at 150-Mile House. Of these priests, the most
outstanding was Rev. Father J. McGuckin, O.M.I. He had been
sent to establish a mission near Williams Lake in 1869,32 and
he had been most successful in his work amongst the Indians.
During the period that McCreight was in the Cariboo, Father
McGuckin was actively at work in the vicinity. He was, apparently, a scholarly man, but with great energy and executive
ability. It is known that he later became president of Ottawa
College—so he must have been a man of learning and character.
It is probable that McCreight felt lonely during his stay in the
Cariboo. In a letter to Judge H. P. P. Crease, written in November, 1881, he deplored " the useless nature " of his life, but at the
same time went on to say: " Meanwhile I can be of use in getting
a clergyman for the people."33 In January, 1882, he mentioned
Charles Blanchard, the Anglican clergyman from Barkerville.
Apparently his interest in Roman Catholicism became
stronger after that time. There is every reason to believe that
the isolated life and McGuckin's personality would be factors in
leading McCreight to study the new faith and finally to adopt it.
The fact that Father McGuckin's home church was St. Peter's in
New Westminster34 is perhaps significant. The contacts would
be maintained when McCreight came to live in New Westminster
in November, 1883. The only other mention of Father McGuckin
comes in 1897, a month after McCreight's retirement, when the
British Columbian announced that Father McGuckin " for many
years a resident of this city but now president of Ottawa College " had broken down in health and was reported to be dying.36
The point is often made that McCreight was a very ardent
Roman Catholic, almost to the point of bigotry. This is natural,
considering his type of mind. Once he had made a change, once
he had accepted the new faith, he would cleave to it with all the
(32) A. G. Morice, History of the Catholic Church in Western Canada,
Toronto, 1910, Vol. II, passim.
(33) J. F. McCreight to H. P. P. Crease, November 26, 1881, MS.,
Archives of B.C.
(34) This church was located at the corner of Columbia and Blackwood
Streets. It was later burnt down, and the present church is of more recent
construction.
(35) New Westminster British Columbian, December 11, 1897. 308 Patricia M. Johnson. October
strength of a concentrated personality. McCreight did nothing
by halves, he desired to be exactly right. It is claimed that his
conscience troubled him owing to his strong religious convictions,
a fact which is certainly in keeping with his character.
In spite of his religious views, he continued to be extremely
impartial in his work. There never was an occasion where it
could be suspected that his judgment was swayed by his religious
views. Dr. R. L. Reid quotes one case to which the Roman
Catholic convent at New Westminster was a party and McCreight's decision, as Judge, was against the convent. " He
regretted the necessity, but as he told the registrar of the Court,
also a member of the same church, ' I know the Mother Superior
will be very angry at me, but the law is the law and must be
obeyed, no matter whose feelings are hurt.' "36
After McCreight retired in 1897, he spent some time in Rome.
By 1909 he was established in Hastings, England, near the Pious
Society of Mission's hostel for aged men—many of them elderly
priests. That he was still closely associated with the Roman
Catholic Church is shown by his will, originally drawn up on
August 20, 1909. The executors who were appointed included
two priests, Rev. Father Dominic Crescitelli, rector of the Roman
Catholic Church, High Street, Hastings, and Rev. Father John
Davis, High Street, Hastings (probably the address of the
hostel). The third executor was a solicitor, Frederick George
Manley Wetherfield, Gresham Building, London. In a codicil of
June 20, 1911, the latter was replaced by Miss Elizabeth Fisher,
85 High Street, Hastings—the address at which McCreight himself resided.37
The bequests of the original will, apart from those to his two
sisters and to the four daughters of Mrs. Fisher, included £50 to
Rev. Father Crescitelli and a similar amount to Rev. Father
Davis. Then there were bequests of £100 each to the Superior
of the Convent of Notre Dame des Missions (The Hermitage, The
Croft, Hastings) and to the Superior of the Convent of Marie
(36) R. L. Reid, " R.W. Bro. John Foster McCreight," Proceedings of
the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge A.F. and A.M. of British Columbia, 70th
Annual Communication, Vancouver, 1941, p. 174.
(37) By the same codicil, Wetherfield's legacy was reduced from £150
to £50. 1948 McCreight and the Church. 309
Reparatrice (Hastings Lodge, Old London Road, Hastings), with
a stipulation that the money " be applied in each instance as in
the past."38 In memory of his religious connections in British
Columbia, he left £100 to the Roman Catholic Bishop of New
Westminster " to be applied for the benefit of the Roman Catholic
Church as the Bishop shall think fit." A codicil of June 19,1911,
willed £50 to the Rev. Father Bernard McCoul of the Roman
Catholic Church, High Street, Hastings. All remaining property, "real and personal, estate and effects," was left to Rev.
Fathers Crescitelli and Davis for the reduction of the debt
existing on the Roman Catholic Church, High Street, Hastings,
or otherwise exclusively for its benefit. McCreight's estate
amounted to £3,619 when all other legacies had been paid, so,
taking death duties into account, the church at Hastings probably
received over £2,000.
Patricia M. Johnson.
Ladner, B.C.
(38) The present rector of the Roman Catholic Church in Hastings, Rev.
H. Treacy, P.S.M., in a letter to the author, dated February 20, 1947, states:
" He [McCreight] paid for the heating of the church in winter. At the
Convent of the Reparatrice Nuns he converted part of it, which was formerly a Hydro Baths, into a Club room for Catholic Women's organizations.
He was most generous to the poor." NOTES AND COMMENTS.
GEORGE M. WRONG:  1860-1948.
The death occurred in Toronto during the summer of Professor George
MacKinnon Wrong. He was the last survivor of a notable group of
Canadian historians who flourished during the early years of this century.
From 1895 to 1927 he was professor of history in the University of Toronto.
His predecessor, Sir Daniel Wilson, president of the university, had been
appointed to the combined chair of history and English literature in 1853.
During his early years Professor Wrong worked alone, but gradually he
built up a well-staffed and efficient department, manned, in the main, by his
former students, most of whom had continued their studies at Oxford.
George M. Wrong was a Canadian, born in Gravesend, Ontario, in 1860.
His father's family was United Empire Loyalist, his mother was Highland
Scottish. After his early schooling in Aylmer and a brief business training
in Toronto, George Wrong decided to enter the Anglican ministry; he
enrolled in arts in University College, Toronto, and in theology at Wycliffe
College. Although he was admitted to Holy orders he does not seem to have
ever been placed in charge of a parish. He often, however, conducted services at his summer home at Murray Bay, Quebec. His chief interest was
in historical study. From 1883 to 1892 he lectured on church history at
Wycliffe College.
His marriage to Sophie Blake, daughter of the Honourable Edward
Blake, sometime leader of the Liberal party, brought him into closer touch
with public affairs. He was a staunch Liberal, but he never paraded his
political opinions.
In 1892 he was appointed lecturer in history at Toronto. The same year
witnessed the publication of his first book, The Crusade of 1388, material for
which he had gathered in England, especially in Oxford where he worked
under the direction of Reginald Lane Poole. Oxford enthralled him, and he
modelled much of his instruction in Toronto after the Oxford Honours School
of Modern History.
Although well known as an author, it was probably as a teacher that
Professor Wrong accomplished his greatest and most enduring work. He
was notable as a lecturer and he was also a keen critic of style. He introduced into Toronto the Oxford system of tutorial instruction, and no one
who has read essays to him will ever forget his searching, though kindly,
criticisms. His students are to be found in many Canadian and American
universities. In 1939 his former colleagues and students presented him
with a volume of Essays in Canadian History; of the sixteen contributors,
ten were former students, eight of them members of the Department of
History in the University of Toronto, and the other two heads of departments in their respective universities. For three years, from 1922 to 1925,
all the members of the Department of History of the University of British
Columbia were former pupils of Professor Wrong.
British Columbia Historical Quarterly, Vol. XII, No. 4.
311 312 Notes and Comments. October
If he had been asked what he considered his greatest achievement, Professor Wrong would probably have referred to the Review of Historical
Publications relating to Canada which he started in 1896. In 1920 it was
merged into the newly established Canadian Historical Review. It is interesting to note that all the editors of this publication have, to date, been his
former students.
For over thirty years Professor Wrong published books, articles, and
reviews in the field of Canadian history. He was much interested in French
Canada and was scrupulously fair to the French-Canadians. His Rise and
Fall of New France is one of his best-known books. He was widely known
and respected in the United States, so much so that when the Chronicles of
America series was being planned he was asked to write on " Washington
and His Comrades in Arms." His work was also favourably known in Great
Britain, and for many years he was one of the honorary vice-presidents of
the Royal Historical Society.
His literary style was good and his books are most readable. His critics
have claimed that he cared more for style than for research, but this is not
altogether just. He did make use of source material, a good example is his
volume The Fall of Canada, but he did not haunt the Public Archives in
Ottawa with the steady assiduity of some of his contemporaries and successors.    Nonetheless, he did inspire in his students a love of history.
His death, at the advanced age of 88, is in a very real sense the end of
an era. He built up a large department at the University of Toronto and
he wrote many books, including some valuable high-school text-books. But
he is chiefly remembered by his old students as a great teacher. He is gone,
but his work lives after him.
Walter N. Sage.
Vancouver, B.C.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION.
Victoria Section.
The fall sessions of the Victoria Section opened with a meeting in the
Provincial Library on Tuesday evening, October 19. The speaker on this
occasion was Mr. George A. Hardy, botanist on the staff of the Provincial
Museum, who chose as his subject The History and Botany of the Jordan
Meadows. Mr. Hardy traced the early history of this area from the time
of the naming of the Jordan River by the Spaniards down to the opening of
the British Columbia Electric Company's power-site on the river in 1912.
There had been some interest in the region at the time of the Leech River
gold excitement in the 1860's and again in 1883 when surveys were being
undertaken for the island railway, but the first permanent settler, George
Weeks, did not arrive until 1887, and incidentally his title deeds were not
delivered until 1910. Conditions for settlement were not good, and as a
result the area to-day remains comparatively untouched and is of great
interest to natural historians. Mr. Hardy showed a splendid series of slides
to illustrate the district under consideration. 1948 Notes and Comments. • 313
Vancouver Section.
The final meeting of the spring season of the Vancouver Section was held
in the Hotel Grosvenor on Tuesday evening, June 1, when Mr. Henry Cas-
tillou spoke on Prehistoric Man in North and South America. By vocation
a lawyer, but by avocation an enthusiastic anthropologist and archaeologist,
Mr. Castillou brought a refreshing enthusiasm into his lecture, which dealt
with the location in time and place of many of the famed anthropological
discoveries, including Heidelberg man, Pekin man, Java man, Sandia man,
and Folsom man. While many of his listeners may not long remember the
technical details of a very excellent address, they will not forget his advice:
" If you would free yourself from the worries, frustrations, and trivialities
of this disturbed age and see things in their right perspective, get the
anthropological and archaeological bug and experience the rare satisfaction
that comes with the discovery of an untouched midden or an unentered
cave." The Section also noted, with regret, the passing of Rev. James
Henry White, D.D., in his ninety-fourth year. Dr. White had lived for
nearly ninety years in British Columbia, having come as a young boy to the
then colony when his father, Rev. Edward White, established the first
Methodist church in New Westminster in 1860.
So interested was the Section in Mr. Castillou's address in June that he
made a return appearance before the Section on Tuesday evening, October
26, at a meeting held in the Grosvenor Hotel. This time dealing more specifically with Traces of Prehistoric Man in British Columbia, Mr. Castillou
was able to draw upon his own wide experience as an amateur anthropologist. So successfully did he interest the Section that a resolution was
adopted urging the Council of the Provincial body of the British Columbia
Historical Association to undertake by means of a questionnaire an archaeological census of the Province.
NEW DOMINION ARCHIVIST.
The announcement, early in September, of the appointment of Dr. W.
Kaye Lamb, Librarian of the University of British Columbia and formerly
Provincial Librarian and Archivist, to succeed Dr. Gustave Lanctot as
Dominion Archivist was received with mixed feelings in British Columbia.
Naturally we are proud that a native son of this Province and one who has
made so considerable a contribution to historiography in the Pacific Northwest should be so chosen, but at the same time we are saddened by the realization of the loss we are sustaining in losing the close contact with so
staunch a friend of the British Columbia Historical Association and this
Quarterly.
Dr. Lamb goes to Ottawa with the backing of an enviable reputation in
the historical field. Largely through his zeal the British Columbia Historical Association was reorganized shortly after his appointment in 1936 as
Provincial Librarian and Archivist, and the British Columbia Historical
Quarterly came into being. For its first ten years Dr. Lamb was its editor
and set a standard of achievement and publication that is largely responsible
for the high position this journal holds in the field of historical serials. 314 Notes and Comments.
A frequent contributor to many historical publications, he will long be
remembered for his scholarly introduction to the three volumes of McLoughlin's Fort Vancouver Letters published jointly by the Hudson's Bay Record
Society and the Champlain Society.
Great things may be expected from Dr. Lamb in his new and broader
field of action. The good wishes of this association are tendered to him,
and we are philosophical enough to believe that our loss is a national gain.
CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS ISSUE.
George B. White, M.A., immediate past president of the main body of the
British Columbia Historical Association, is a native son of this Province and
on the teaching staff of the Vancouver Technical School.
Sydney G. Pettit, M.A., is assistant professor of history and sociology of
Victoria College in affiliation with the University of British Columbia.
Patricia M. Johnson, M.A., is on the teaching staff of the Ladner Junior-
Senior High School, Ladner, B.C.
Walter N. Sage, Ph.D., is head of the Department of History at the
University of British Columbia.
George F. G. Stanley, Ph.D., is the author of The Birth of Western
Canada and a professor in the Department of History, University of British
Columbia, and winner this year of a Guggenheim Fellowship.
F. H. Soward, B.Litt., is past president of the Canadian Historical Association and director of International Studies and professor of history at the
University of British Columbia.
J. W. Eastham, formerly botanist and plant pathologist of the British
Columbia Department of Agriculture, is an authority on the history of
botany and botanists in this Province. THE NORTHWEST BOOKSHELF.
Douglas of the Fir, a Biography of David Douglas, Botanist. By A. G.
Harvey. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1947. Pp. x,
290.    Maps, ill.    $5.
A. D. Rodgers, writing recently on the history of botany in America,
observes that " the number of really great North American botanical
explorers is not many: David Douglas, Thomas Drummond, Thomas Nuttall, John Charles Fremont and [C. C] Parry." The abilities and achievements which entitle a man who died at the early age of 35 to be numbered
among this select few may be expected to excite the inquiring admiration of
workers in the same field, but do not necessarily make him a figure of wide
or popular interest. Douglas, however, was a many-sided character, who
neglected nothing that came within his field of view, and both the circumstances of his life and the geographical region in which he pioneered should
make a wide appeal to citizens of the Pacific Northwest. He was the first
white man, other than a fur-trader, to explore the hinterland of the Pacific
slope, while his association with the chief timber tree of the region has made
his name almost a household word.
The literature on Douglas is widely scattered in publications originating
in Great Britain, North America, and Hawaii. Many of these are scientific
and other journals of limited circulation, long out of print, and only to be
found in the larger libraries. Probably the best-known and most accessible
is the Journal kept by David Douglas during his travels in North America,
published in 1914 by the Royal Horticultural Society. Presumably the
edition was a small one, for it was soon out of print. In addition to the
'published material, the author has had access to much unpublished matter
in the archives of learned societies, the Hudson's Bay Company, and other
institutions, and has supplemented this by wide correspondence. As the
fruit of these researches, we have now the first full-length biography of
Douglas—a well-written narrative, not too technical for the general reader,
with an exceedingly full documentation for the historical and botanical
student.
The traits which shaped Douglas' career revealed themselves at an early
age in an exceptionally strong love of natural history and an outdoor life.
The son of a working stone-mason, his educational opportunities were
limited, and he left school at 10 or 11 years of age. His father, an intelligent man of strong character, having observed his son's love of plants,
secured employment for him in the neighbouring famous gardens of Scone
Palace. Here he served an apprenticeship of seven years, winning the
approbation of the head gardener. Two years later he joined the garden
staff of the Glasgow Botanical Gardens. This was one of the landmarks of
his life, as his abilities and zeal, as both gardener and botanist, attracted
the notice of Dr. (later Sir) W. J. Hooker, regius professor of botany in the
University.    In 1823, at the age of 24, he was appointed, on the recom-
British Columbia Historical Quarterly, Vol. XII, No. 4.
315 316 The Northwest Bookshelf. October
mendation of Hooker, to a position as botanical collector for the Horticultural Society of London. Almost at once he was sent on a mission to the
Eastern United States and Upper Canada to obtain such varieties of fruit-
trees as were new to Britain, as well as vegetables and any other plants of,
interest. The voyage from Liverpool to New York took fifty-nine days, and
four months were spent collecting material. This mission was " a success
beyond expectation."
Douglas' qualifications having been established, arrangements were now
made with the officials of the Hudson's Bay Company for the botanical
explorations of the Pacific slope, on which his fame rests. On April 12,1825,
he landed at Fort George (Astoria), accompanied by Dr. John Scouler, a
fellow passenger, after a voyage of over eight months. The story of his
wanderings in the next two years is given in detail, and the author has
been at pains to help the reader to follow them by giving the modern
names of rivers and the settlements which have sprung up in what was then
an aboriginal wilderness. These pages contain many names well known to
students of the fur trade, for Douglas met many of the chief men of the
Hudson's Bay Company, the posts being his only source of supplies and his
only contact with civilization. He seems to have got on well with them,
even with the redoubtable Peter Skene Ogden, whose later views on scientific
collectors are given in an amusing and revealing note: " it would not be
good policy not to treat them politely, they are a perfect nuisance." Douglas'
relations with the Indians, sometimes his only companions and who dubbed
him the " Grass Man," were also good, although there were occasions when
hostilities were narrowly averted.
The collections he had sent home had delighted his patrons and justified
the expedition. After two years of fatigue, hardships, often near-starvation, and incessant anxiety over his collections, and having covered over
7,000 miles in his wanderings, Douglas left Fort Vancouver, March 20, 1827,
with the fur brigade on the long arduous journey overland to Hudson Bay,
arriving in England on October 11. The total cost of the expedition to the
society, including Douglas' salary, was under £400. A chapter is devoted
to the Mount Brown and Mount Hooker controversy, and the author's conclusion is that Douglas' error was almost entirely due to his having accepted
an excessive height for the pass itself—11,000 feet as opposed to the true
height of 5,571 feet—from information given him by those better equipped
for making observations than himself. The author finds no evidence of
Douglas having reached Kootenay Lake on any of his expeditions, and that
oft-repeated story of his being the original discoverer of the lode of the
Bluebell mine has no foundation in fact.
The story of the next two' years in London is based to a considerable
extent on letters and unpublished material and contains much that is new
to this reviewer. Douglas was received with acclaim and honours in the
scientific world, but London life soon irked him. Here, for the first time,
he appears in a somewhat unfavourable aspect, showing irascibility and
petulance and a tendency to depreciatory comment on his contemporaries.
As the author points out, however, there were extenuating circumstances.
To be lionized by society hostesses and to associate with peers and notables 1948 The Northwest Bookshelf. 317
while " not as well paid as the Society's porter " must have been embarrassing. Also there seemed to be no permanent position in sight. However,
being retained on the society's pay-roll, albeit grudgingly, enabled him to
work at his collections and to publish papers which enhanced his reputation
as a man of science and not merely as a collector. These mental stresses
were resolved when the society decided to send him once more to the Pacific
Coast.
This time the Colonial Office and the Hudson's Bay Company were also
co-sponsors. Edward Sabine, secretary of the Royal Society, instructed
him in the methods of determining latitude and longitude and magnetic
data. He appears to have been so impressed with the possibilities of his
pupil that he exceeded the authorization of the Colonial Office in the cost
of instruments furnished Douglas, a matter which will be referred to again.
On June 3, 1830, Douglas arrived once more on the Columbia, but before
the end of the year moved on to California, where plant collecting had only
been done at a few points along the coast. His collections during nineteen
months here were very rich. Hooker said, " I think I scarcely ever in a
collection of such an extent saw so much that is new and rare." It is to be
noted, however, that the society was much less enthusiastic. George Bentham,
who had succeeded Sabine as secretary, wrote to Hooker "... for the
interest of the Society, that last expedition has been generally so much less
productive than the former, that it may be a matter of doubt whether it is
worth the Society's while in the present state of its finances, to urge his
continuing in their service at the same rate of expenditure as hitherto."
Be it noted that Douglas' salary at that time was only £120 a year and the
Colonial Office had agreed to pay most of his other expenses. In this
matter, Bentham was no doubt writing as a horticulturist and not as a
botanist. Although central and southern California may have been a virgin
paradise for the botanist, it is unlikely that a large proportion of its plants
would thrive in British gardens. With Douglas' resignation from the
society's service, following the news that Sabine had resigned, the botanist
finally triumphed over the horticulturist and thereafter all his plants went
to Hooker.
The story of the expedition to Fort St. James and the disastrous shipwreck in the Fraser River, with the loss of journals, collections, and supplies, has been told by the author previously in this Quarterly (Vol. IV,
pp. 221-241), and only its results need be considered here. Previous to
this event, hardship had affected Douglas' health, and he had lost the sight
of his right eye from repeated attacks of ophthalmia. Frayed nerves
resulted in the quarrel with Samuel Black. After the disaster he wrote that
it had "much broken my health and spirits." The prearranged journey home
by Sitka, where Baron Wrangel was eagerly awaiting him, and Siberia was
abandoned, and, in consequence, he sailed for the Sandwich Islands, from
.whence he expected to take a ship home. For a man in broken health and
in a tropical climate, his activities during his stay of six months in the
Islands are astonishing, and include not only extensive collections but the
ascent of the three volcanoes of Hawaii, two over 13,000 feet high, and
writing a paper on them, which was published posthumously. His tragic
death in a bull-pit containing a trapped wild bull, July 12, 1833, caused not 318 The Northwest Bookshelf. October
only profound regret but much discussion. The fact that the last person to
see him alive and who gave him his final directions was an escaped convict
from Botany Bay strengthened suspicions of foul play. In Appendix A the
author reviews the evidence and inclines cautiously to the accident theory.
In the final chapter, " In Tribute," the author assesses the character
and achievements of Douglas. While his fame rests primarily on his
botanical explorations, the stimulus which he gave to horticulture, with over
200 ornamental plants introduced to cultivation, was very great. His
accounts of the primeval wilderness, now covered with populous and thriving communities, will always be of interest. But for sheer ill luck his
discoveries in ornithology might have been second only to those in botany,
but the long sea voyage, with two crossings of the Equator, together with
the carelessness or indifference of consignees, ruined much of his collections.
He published scientific papers on birds, mammals, and volcanoes. He made
a long series of determinations of latitude and longitude and barometric
and magnetic variations for the British Government, entailing a vast
amount of tedious work. Where Douglas had done so much for so little
material gain, it is a melancholy commentary on the ways of governments
that for years after his death officials were still disputing over who should
pay for the instruments supplied him by Sabine, and it is even hinted that
these bills were never paid.
The book is attractively produced and typographical errors are remarkably few—a missing second bracket to a scientific name on page 177 and
Asplevium for Asplenium on page 218 being all noticed. In the event of
a future edition, which it is hoped will be needed, the following might also
be noted: On page 157 " the 200th centenary" of Dr. John Rae should
surely be " the second centenary " or " the 200th anniversary "; on page
242 the name given by Lambert was Pinus taxifolia, based on Menzies'
collection (given correctly on page 154). The fact that taxifolia is the
oldest name is the reason why it was revived and Douglasii dropped by
modern botanists in accordance with the rule of priority. On the plate
which bears simply the caption " Mt. Hood," attention might be drawn to
the fact that the striking plants in the foreground are the bear-grass
(Xerophyllum tenax), mentioned on page 58 and in Appendix B, although
the botanical name there given and also in the 1914 edition of the Journal
is now restricted to the Atlantic species.
This is an important work and fills a gap in both the historical and
botanical literature of the Pacific slope. From the extent of the author's
researches in all quarters which might possibly throw a ray of light on
his subject, it will probably remain the definitive biography for many years
to come and the indispensable starting-point for any future investigation.
It is gratifying to know that it has been done by a citizen of this Province.
In a Province of which lumbering is still the most important industry, and
of which industry the Douglas fir has been, and will probably continue to
be, the mainstay, it deserves to be widely read. One still meets occasionally
persons intelligent and otherwise well informed who associate the Douglas
fir with Sir James Douglas.    This work should hasten their disappearance.
J. W. Eastham.
Vancouver, B.C. 1948 The Northwest Bookshelf. 319
Minutes of the Hudson's Bay Company, 1679-1684. Second Part, 1682-
1684. Edited by E. E. Rich, with an introduction by G. N. Clark.
Toronto: The Champlain Society; and London: The Hudson's Bay
Record Society, 1946.   Pp. xlvii, 368, xv.
This volume contains the second part of the Hudson's Bay Company's
Minute Book for 1679-1684. The reader will find the minutes of 3 General
Courts, 169 meetings of the Committee, and 23 sub-committee meetings.
The appendices include copies of selected documents relating to the suit in
the High Court of Admiralty brought by Charles Boone, John Davall &
Company against the Hudson's Bay Company as a result of the detention
of the " interloper " Expectation in Hudson Straits; copies of invoices of
outward shipments to the company posts during 1684; and a number of
biographical notes. The value of this documentary material is enhanced by
a useful introduction by G. N. Clark, who has recently returned to Oxford
as head of Oriel College from the Regius Chair of History at Cambridge.
The editorial work has been competently done by E. E. Rich. The style and
format of the volume are those which we have come to expect from all
Champlain and Hudson's Bay Record Societies' publications.
The years covered by this, the third of the published volumes of Hudson's
Bay Company minutes, were years of challenge to the position and the
monopolistic privileges of the company. From England, America, and
France came interlopers seeking to share in the anticipated profits of
trading into Hudson Bay. In 1682 Thomas Phipps, a former stockholder,
and others fitted out the ketch Expectation (Richard Lucas, Master) for a
trip to the Bay. On June 13 the minutes of the Committee read:—
Ordered that Mr. Cradock and Mr. Hayward be desired immediately to hire
a Coach for Windsor and repaire to his Highness Prince Rupert and
acquainte him that this Committee is certainely informed that there is a
certaine Interloper now intended for Hudsons Bay and what charges they
are at to place to the Compa. Acco.
Apparently Prince Rupert and the Committee acted quickly, too quickly.
The vessel which they fitted out to pursue the interloper was lost at sea
owing to the lateness of the season, while the offending ship put back to
England. In the following year, however, the Expectation was caught by
Captain Nehemiah Walker and the company's vessel Diligence. The interlopers brought legal action against Walker and the company, but without
success. Two of the interlopers went over to the company's side and
exposed the designs of their employers. For these services they were both
taken into the company's employ.
The documents in Appendix A deal with the action brought against
Walker and the company. They reveal something of the court procedure
of the day and outline the arguments for and against the charter of 1670.
One of the arguments advanced on behalf of the interlopers, that the
company's monopoly was in conflict with certain undertakings given the
Muscovy Company by " K. Phillip and Q. Mary in the first and second yeare
of their Reigne of all the Lands territoryes dominions Isles Signoryes and
other places now pretended unto by the said Hudsons Bay Companye," seems 320 The Northwest Bookshelf. October
not to have weighed very heavily with their lordships of the High Court
of Admiralty.
Interlopers from America were dealt with with equal vigour. On June
27, 1683, Sir James Hayes, deputy governor of the company, was instructed
by the Committee " to prepare a Letter of Atturney to impower some person
att Boston in New England to Seize on Young Gillam Commander of the
Batchelors Delight whome the Committee is informed went last yeare as an
Interloper for Hudsons Bay and Capt. Zachariah Gillam and Capt. Ezbon
Sandford if they Arrive there as allso to procure a letter from the Committee of Plantations to the Governr. in New England to be Assisting to
such person as the Compa. shall imploy as their Atturney." The power of
attorney referred to in this minute was given to Edward Randolph, Collector
of His Majesty's Customs at Boston. Just what Randolph did is not
revealed in later minutes, but on April 25, 1684, the Committee noted:—
Mr. Randolph haveing done good Service for the Company in New England
in Carring the Kings Letter to the Government there & Delivering the Same
for which good Service it is ordered that Mr. Willm. Walker buy a peice of
Plate to the vallue of £10 with the Companys armes upon it, and Sr. James
Hayes be Desired to present the Same in Behalfe of the Compa.
The French interlopers presented a more serious problem to the company, particularly as they were led by the two renegades Radisson and
Groseilliers. The company protested to King Charles II against the French
action, and the matter was taken up on a diplomatic level. There are few
references to the actions of the Canadian fur-traders, but one of these is to
be found in the minute for January 14, 1684, which stated:—
Sr. James Hayes haveing Delivered into this Committee a coppy of the
petition upon the notice of the French Invasion of Porte Nellson as allso
a coppy of the memoriall that was sent from his Majesty thereupon to the
French King as allso coppys of Affidavitts to prove the fact Ordered-they
be all entred in the Compa. bookes of Forreigne letters.
The formal protest sent to Louis XIV from London, together with the
instability of character of Radisson, produced the not so astonishing but
still unexpected minute which appeared in the company's records for
May 12, 1684:—
Sr. James Hayes and Mr. Yoong made report to this Committe that Mr.
Espirett Radison is Lately arrived from france and haveing tendered his
Service to the Company that they had Caryed him to Windsor and presented
him to our Governor His Royall Highness who the Said Mr. Radissons
Protestation of fidellity to the Company for the future was pleased to advise
he Should be received againe into faviour the Service of the Company as
thereby they had made an agreement with him to receive him accordingly
under the wages of £50 p. annum and the Benefitt of haveing two Hundred
pounds in the Capatall Stock of the Compa. dureing his Life and good
behaviour in the Service, and that he Should have £25 to Sett him out for
the present expedition for Pt. Nelson And that his Brother Grossilier who
is now in france if he comes over Shall have 20 s. a weeke for his Support
dureing his abode here he Ingageing also to be faithfull to the Interest of
the Company for the future.
This was too much for one member of the Committee. The minute
continued:—
This Committee Judging it to be for the Interest and Service of the
Company have approved thereof all Except Mr. Weymans. 1948 The Northwest Bookshelf. 321
During the period covered by this volume the company continued to hold
its privileged position close to the Crown. On November 29, 1682, Prince
Rupert died, and at a General Court held on January 3, 1683, H.R.H. the
Duke of York was elected governor. Prince Rupert had always displayed
a real interest in the affairs of the company. Of the thirteen General
Courts held during his period as governor, no less than eleven were held at
his lodgings in Spring Gardens. He was, moreover, the only governor for
many years who personally signed the commissions and letters of instruction issued by the company. The Duke of York, for instance, refused to
bother himself with such responsibilities, and arrangements had to be made
for the secretary of the company to sign on the Duke's behalf.
Let it not be imagined by the reader that he will be able to piece together
a narrative of the general history of the Hudson's Bay Company from these
minutes. They are, as one might expect, concerned chiefly with the details
of the trade as seen by the members of the Committee in London, and it was
fortunate that Professor Clark was able to supplement them by drawing
upon the Wynne Papers at All Souls College, Oxford, and upon other
materials in the Public Records Office and Somerset House in London.
After all the names of the members of the Committee show them for what
they were, not " adventurous, ruthless and far-sighted imperialists," but
simply " hard working London business men, efficient enough in what they
had been brought up to understand, but dependent on expert advice for
everything outside it, and only learning by painful experience how to make
their distant enterprise into a profitable investment" (p. xlvii). We must
still await the publication of the inward and outward letters and the post
journals to obtain a clear picture of the company's activities on the Bay.
To the student of economic history these minutes must, however, be of the
greatest significance.
A point of special interest in these days of 2 and 3 per cent, returns on
investments is the announcement of the first dividend paid by the Hudson's
Bay Company. The minute for March 24, 1684, reads:—
The Committee haveing Sould all their Beaver doe resolve to make a
dividend of £50 p. Ct. Ordered the Secretary bring in to the next Committee a Coppy of all the adventurers with their Stock and make out
warrants for each adventurer upon one as allso Goldsmiths Payable the
23d of Aprill next, Except his Royal Highness the Duke of York which the
Commite have resolved to Present him his Dividend in Gold.
This large dividend has been taken by some writers as indicating tremendous
profits on the part of the Hudson's Bay Company. It should be remembered,
however, that the company had paid no dividend since its incorporation in
1670 and four more years were to pass before another was declared.
Certain it is that the 50-per-cent. dividend bore little relation to the company's financial position in 1684. The company was, in fact, obliged to raise
an overdraft of £600 and a loan of £1,000 at 6 per cent, in order to finance
the outward voyage the year the dividend was paid. Whatever the reason,
the effect of the inflated dividend seems to have been exhilarating—perhaps
this in itself furnishes the necessary justification. Financial lean becomes
an unappetizing diet to even the plumpest of investors when extended over
too long a period. _ „   _
George F. G. Stanley.
Vancouver, B.C. 322 The Northwest Bookshelf. October
Papers read before the Historical and Scientific Society of Manitoba.
Series III. No. 3. Edited by Clifford Wilson. Winnipeg, 1947, Pp. 54.
111.    $1.
With this year's Papers the Historical and Scientific Society of Manitoba
has changed slightly its publication policy. Heretofore the papers published
had been read at meetings during the previous season; now, however, the
publication of papers read at earlier meetings when no annual publication
existed has been undertaken, and the first two papers of the present series
fall into this category.
The late Most Rev. S. P. Matheson was a native son of Manitoba, having
been born at Kildonan in 1852. " Floods at Red River " deals with the
inundations of 1826, 1852, and 1861. The first flood is described by means
of extracts from the letters of John Pritchard and the second from the
published account of Bishop Anderson's Notes of the Flood. The description
of the flood of 1861 is an eye-witness account, and, in addition, some reasons
for the comparatively rare recurrence of floods in later years are set forth.
The second paper, " Early Winnipeg Newspapers," is a sketch of the
first seventy years of journalism in Manitoba by the late John Dafoe, for
years editor of the Winnipeg Free Press. Mr. Dafoe's association with journalism in Winnipeg dated from 1886, and consequently he was able to draw
upon personal knowledge for much of his narrative. The pioneer paper
was the Nor'Wester, begun by William Coldwell and William Buckingham
on December 28, 1859. Much interesting information regarding other early
newspapers is provided, and numerous related and amusing anecdotes have
been combined to make a most readable and informative article.
J. W. Harris was long associated with the city of Winnipeg as assessment commissioner and city surveyor, and his diaries contain a wealth of
information on the early development of the city. Mr. Percy Eaton in
"An Early Manitoba Diary" has extracted many of the most significant
portions and pieced them together for the years 1873-1922. At best, however, such treatment is rarely very satisfactory and serves only to arouse
the reader's curiosity as to what other information the diaries might
contain.
Mrs. Irene Craig has contributed the most useful of the four papers.
" Green Paint on the Prairies " is an account of the theatre in Winnipeg
from 1866 to 1921. This deals primarily with amateur dramatics, although
passing reference is made to the visit of early stock companies. A tremendous amount of research has gone into this paper, and those interested
in early theatre movements will find it not only a valuable source, but also
pleasant reading.
As with the previous Papers, the brochure is very well published,
although in the opinion of this reviewer it does not quite measure up to the
standard of the first two of the series.
Willard E. Ireland.
Victoria, B.C. 1948 The Northwest Bookshelf. 323
Canada, A Political and Social History.    By Edgar Mclnnis.    Toronto:
Clarke, Irwin & Co., 1947.   Pp. viii, 574.    $6.50.
For years contemporary Canadian historians were quite justly reproached
with being so engrossed in their own researches that they failed to present
to the general reader a perspective of the country as a whole. The result
was that for some time the only one-volume text-book on Canadian history—
and a good one—was the work of an American scholar, Carl Wittke. But
times have changed, and in the past five years we have had a series of
volumes by A. L. Burt (A Short History of Canada for Americans), D. G.
Creighton (Dominion of the North), A. R. M. Lower (Colony to Nation),
' and most recently by Edgar Mclnnis. Each of them has profited from the
really impressive amount of monographic material that has been produced
in what may be called the Mackenzie King era of Canadian history.
Still fresh after the seven years of toil upon his excellent history of the
Second World War, Professor Mclnnis of the University of Toronto has
produced a solid and careful survey of Canada's development, which he
describes as "a study in political survival." Patience, compromise, and the
deliberate choice of the unspectacular middle course, he suggests, have
enabled Canadians to continue their efforts to build a distinctive society
" in the face of numerous stresses, both internal and conflicting." Like
■Professor Lower, the author is no wide-eyed optimist expatiating on our
great natural resources and wonderful future. In the very last sentence of
the book, with reference to our role in world affairs, the author warns his
readers that " The direct connection between internal structure and external
policies had become clearer and more inescapable than ever; and Canada,
which had reached mature stature among the nations of the world, must
first prove her capacity to solve the internal difficulties that confronted her
if she was to fulfill the destiny that now lay before her."
In this reviewer's opinion, except in its splendid collection of prints and
pictures, the volume scarcely lives up to its promise of being a social as well
as a political history. It is not as provocative in its generalizations as
Lower's, nor as attractively written as Creighton's. But for thoroughness,
proportion, and analysis, it deserves high marks. The volume has an excellent select bibliography, good maps and index, and is notably free from
errors of fact or careless proof-reading.
F. H. Soward.
Vancouver, B.C.
The Great North West, A History.    By Oscar Osburn Winther.    New York:
Alfred A. Knopf, 1947.   Pp. viii, 383, xxv.    Maps, ill.    $4.50.
This is one of the best, if not the best, one-volume history of the Pacific
Northwest. The author, Professor Oscar O. Winther of Indiana University,
although born in Nebraska, grew up in Oregon and obtained his early
education there. A graduate of the University of Oregon, he took his
master's degree at Harvard and received his doctorate from Leland Stanford.    He has been a member of the History Department of Indiana Univer- 324 The Northwest Bookshelf.
sity since 1936.    During 1945—46 he was a research fellow of the Huntington
Library in California, and there he wrote most of the present volume.
Professor Winther knows not only American sources, but British and
especially Canadian as well. His long bibliography (pp. 346-383) is noteworthy for the large number of citations from recent Canadian books and
periodicals. He tells the story of the Pacific Northwest clearly, simply, and
with perspicacity. It is quite frankly a regional study, and its defects are
those inherent in regional histories. It does not attempt to place the Great
Northwest in its North American and world settings. Diplomatic history
is rather slighted, and there is but little attempt to assess the formative
influences of the Eastern and Middle Western States on the institutions of
the Pacific Northwest.    Nonetheless, this is a very sound piece of work.
A British Columbian is at once struck by the author's fairness in treating both the North West and Hudson's Bay Companies. The first nine
chapters, comprising nearly half the volume, tell the story of Old Oregon.
Of these, three and a portion of three others deal with the British fur trade
and British claims to Old Oregon. As might be expected, the American side
of the case is, on the whole, stressed, but the British is by no means neglected. The Indians, too, receive sympathetic attention. The story of
Chief Joseph and his Nez Perce followers is termed " lamentable." Professor Winther is just and generous in his treatment of controversial topics.
More than half of the volume deals with the development of the Northwest Pacific States. The treatment is topical and lacks the cohesion of the
earlier chapters. This is not really the author's fault. It illustrates a'
defect in historical scholarship observable in Canadian as well as American
writings which deal with events of the last half to three-quarters of a
century. Most of the solid research has been done in the earlier periods.
All that an author has to do is to summarize fairly well-known sources.
But in the later period, although much good spade-work has been done,
research has not yet emerged from the monograph stage. In fact, even
monographs are lacking, and the author has to fall back on periodicals and
a mass of, as yet, undigested source material. On the whole, Professor
Winther's economic chapters are more successful than those which deal with
the political and cultural history of the area. This is perhaps to be
expected.
There are a few minor details on which the reviewer finds himself at
variance with the author, but they are relatively unimportant. For example, one might suppose that the old legend of David Thompson's so-called
" race to the sea " had been sufficiently discredited that it would not appear
again. But legends die hard. Professor Winther is to be congratulated
upon adding this valuable volume to the ever-increasing historical literature
of the Northwest Coast.
W. N. Sage.
Vancouver, B.C. THE
BRITISH COLUMBIA
HISTORICAL
QUARTERLY
VOLUME XII
1948
VICTORIA, B.C.
Published by the Archives of British Columbia in co-operation with the
British Columbia Historical Association EDITOR.
Willard E. Ireland.
Provincial Archives, Victoria, B.C.
ADVISORY BOARD.
J. C. Goodfellow, Princeton, B.C. T. A. Rickard, Victoria, B.C.
W. N. Sage, Vancouver, B.C.
Editorial communications should be addressed to the Provincial Archives,
Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C. CONTENTS OF VOLUME XII.
Articles : Page.
Empress Odyssey:   A History of the Canadian Pacific Service to
the Orient, 1913-45.
By W. Kaye Lamb      1
John Foster McCreight
By Patricia M. Johnson_ ... _      79
The Early History of Hedley Camp.
By Harry D. Barnes .    103
McCreight and the Law.
By Patricia M. Johnson       127
Federal   Parties   and   Provincial   Groups   in   British   Columbia,
1871-1903.
By Walter N. Sage        151
Staging and Stage Hold-ups in the Cariboo.
By Willis J. West       ... 185
McCreight and the Bench.
By Patricia M. Johnson    211
The Development of the Eastern Fraser Valley.
By George B. White '..  _   259
Judge Begbie's Shorthand: A Mystery Solved.
By Sydney G. Pettit....       293
McCreight and the Church.
By Patricia M. Johnson  _. 297
Documents :
Gold-rush Days in Victoria, 1858-1859.
With an introduction by Willard E. Ireland   231
Notes and Comments     _.93, 171, 247, 311
The Northwest Bookshelf:
Esquimalt—" Place of Shoaling Waters."
By W. Kaye Lamb    177
Romantic Vancouver Island;  Victoria, Yesterday and Today.
By Madge Wolfenden ,    178
Fort Langley: Outpost of Empire.
By Willard E. Ireland  178
The Letters of Letitia Hargrave.
By Walter N. Sage.    180 The Northwest Bookshelf—Continued.
Ballads of B.C.                                                                                   Page.
By Dorothy Crighton    182
Prize Winning Essays.    Armitage Competition in Oregon Pioneer
History, Reed College.
By Willard E. Ireland   183
Douglas of the Fir, a Biography of David Douglas, Botanist.
By J. W. Eastham      315
Minutes of the Hudson's Bay Company, 1679-1684.    Second Part,
1682-1684-
By George F. G. Stanley  ,.... 319
Papers read before the Historical and Scientific Society of Manitoba.    Scries III, No. 3.
By Willard E. Ireland      322
Canada, A Political and Social History.
By F. W. Soward      323
The Great North West, A History.
By Walter N. Sage     323
Index...     _    325
ERRATA.
Page 82, line 5, and page 86, line 26:  For Babbington read Babington.
Page 104, line 10, and page 108, line 3:  For Lamby read Lambly.
Page 108, line 23:   For 1936 read 1933.
Page 118, line 21:   For Bank of British Columbia read Bank of British
North America.
Page 152, line 12:  For Duff read Dufferin.
Page 156, line 13:   For Carnavon read Carnarvon.
Page 159, line 22:   For W. G. Prior read E. G. Prior.
Page 163, line 4:  For J. H. Abrams read J. A. Abrams.
Page 163, line 7:  For Helgeson read Helgesen.
Page 202, line 20:   For 1894 read 1904.
Page 215, line 13:  For S. F. Wootton read S. Y. Wootton.
Page 215, line 36:  For now read how.
Page 240, foot-note (17), line 1:  For 1848 read 1849. INDEX.
Abbott, William, 203
Abraham, Dorothy, Romantic Vancouver Island, review of, 178
Abrams, James, Atkinson, 162, 163
Adamson, James, 7, 46, 77
Agricultural fairs, 283
Agriculture, Fraser Valley, 261, 262, 264, 277-
283 ;  Vancouver Island, 237, 238
Aikman, Capt. E. F., 36, 51, 63, 66, 70
Allison, C, 103
Alston, E. G., 89
Anderson, A. C, 254
Anderson, William, 147
Annandale, T. S., 267
Annieville, 284
Argyll, Duke of, 158
Armstrong, W. J., 161, 164
Armstrong, Morrison & Balfour, 272
Arundel, C H., 103-106
Ash, Dr. John, 163
Ashcroft, 186, 190, 202, 203
Associated Dairies, Ltd., 281
Atkins, M. D., 63
Atlantic and European Express, 186
Auld, William, 8, 46
Aurora v. Gulch Mining Company. 218
Baker, Capt. Richard, 267
Bald, John, 47, 52
Baldwin, Robert, 155
Ballads of B.C., review of, 182
Ballagny, Madame, 138, 139
Ballou, W. J., 186, 187
Bank of British North America, Hedley, 118
" Bannockburn," 248, 249, 251, 253-255
Barkerville, 186
Barnard, F. J., 186-189
Barnard, F. J., & Company, 189
Barnes,  Harry D.,  Early History of Hedley
Camp, 103-126
Barry, Capt. L. C, 48, 49
Bartlett, Rev. E. R., 114, 115
Bartlett, Elizabeth, 223
Beanlands, Canon, 296
Beatty, Sir Edward, 42
Beauclerk, Mrs. Wyndham, 6
Beaven, Robert, 153, 158-161, 163, 164, 169    '
Beaver, Rev. Herbert, 297
Beaver Harbour, 239
Beck, A. E., 88
Beecher Bay, 236
Beetham, Capt. Edward, 7, 44, 46, 77
Begbie, Sir M. B., 81, 82, 85, 87, 88, 141-149,
211, 212, 214, 216,  217, 220, 222, 226,  293-
296, 303
Begbie's Shorthand, Judge, 293-296
Bell, James, 231-233, 243, 244
Bell, James, Gold-rush Days in Victoria, 1858-
1859, 231-246
Bench, McCreight and the, 211-229
Blake, Edward, 156
Blake, H. J., 116
Blanchard, Rev. Charles, 215, 217, 307
Blankly, 206
Boeing, 122
Bole, Judge W. N., 221, 223
Bond, 123
Booth, J. P., 161, 167
Bosworth, G. M., 25
Bosworth, Mrs. G. M., 6, 21
Bourne, Marsh, Construction Company, 289
Bowack, George, 222
Bowes, J. H., 222
Bowron, John, 215
Bowser, Capt. John H., 268
Boyce, Edward, 138
Boyd, 214
Bradshaw, Edith, 107
Bradshaw, Thomas, 107
Brass, J. D., 115, 120, 122
Brass, Mrs. James, 119
Brent, Joseph, 111
Brice, H. C, 289
Brick industry, B.C., 287
Bridges, Fraser River, 271-274
British Columbia, Colony of, 263
British Columbia and Victoria Express Company, 188, 189
British   Columbia  Dyking  and   Improvement
Company, 288
British  Columbia Electric Railway, 266, 270,
273-276, 281, 286, 288, 289
British Columbia Express Company, 186, 189,
190, 192-198, 200, 202-206, 208
British Columbia Historical Association,  93
97, 171-173, 255, 256. 312-313
British Columbia Police, 200, 201
British Columbian, 142, 147
British Iron & Steel  Corporation   (Salvage),
Limited, 68
Broe, John, 282
Brown, 254
Brown, A. H., Ill, 120, 121
Brown, J. C, 168
Brown, Peter, 214
Brown, Robert, 247
Brown, William M., 163
Brule, W. H., 121
Bulldog Claim, 103, 105
Bullion, 203, 204
Bunster, Arthur, 155, 162, 165
Butler, Fanny Catherine, 253
Butler, Capt. George Steven, 253
Byrnes, George, 215
Cahill, George, 104, 105
Cameron, Rev. A. H., 114
Cameron, David, 134, 135, 140, 141, 145, 147,
232, 250
Camp Hedley, 104
Campbell, Fraser, 104
Campbell and Shier, 119
325 326
Index.
Camsell, Dr. Charles, 105, 121
Canada, A Political and Social History, review
of, 323
Canadian Historical Association, 256
Canadian National Railway, 5
Canadian Northern Railway, 275
Canadian Pacific Navigation Company, 266
Canadian Pacific Railway, 156-158, 160, 164-
166, 190, 201, 260, 264-266, 268, 274 ;   trans-
Pacific service, 1-78
Canadian Pacific Railway v. Parkes and Pain-
chaud, 226, 227
Canadian Pacific Service to the Orient, 191S-
i5;   Empress Odyssey:   A History of the,
1-78
Cantuar, C. T., 299
Cariboo, 186, 186
Cariboo Hydraulic Mining Company, 201
Cariboo   Road,   186,   190-192,   197-200,   263;
hold-ups, 201-209
Carnarvon, Lord, 156
Carrall, R. W. W., 165
Cartwright, C. E., 289
Cary, G. H., 86, 134, 138, 142
Cascade Mining Case, 218
Cawston, 110, 113
Chadsey brothers, 280, 281
Chilliwack, 274, 275
Chilliwack Creamery, 281
Chilliwack Municipality, 264, 288
Christ Church Cathedral, Victoria, 251, 297-
305
Church, McCreight and the, 297-309
Church of England in British Columbia, 297-
307
Clare, Arthur, 116, 120, 121
Clark, 209
Clarke, James, 119
Climate, Vancouver Island, 235, 236
Coaches, 196, 197
Coal discovery, Vancouver Island, 239
Cochran, Commander Archibald, 11
Colbeck, Mrs. A. J., 115, 116
Colbeck, Alice, 116
Colomb, Commander P. H., 10
Colonist, 154, 160
Colwood Farm, 238
Commercial Hotel, Hedley, 109, 113
Conn, Rev. J. T., 114
Conservative Party, 151, 152, 159-169
Constance Cove Farm, 238
Coombs, Robert, 135
Cooper, Capt., 249
Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, 152
Copper Cleft Claim, 103
Copperfield Claim, 103, 105
Cornish. E. O., 231
Cornwall, Clement F., 158, 165, 206
Coulthard, J. O., 103
Courts in British Columbia, 82, 141-149, 211-
227
Courts in Vancouver Island, 134-141, 145, 147,
211, 232, 233
Cowan, George, 164
Cowper, David, 47, 62-64
Craigflower Farm, 238, 249, 260
Cranford, John F., 142-146
Cranford, Robert C, 142-146
Cranford v. Wright, 82, 88, 141  146
Crease, A. D., 81, 86, 87, 221
Crease, Sir H. P. P., 81, 89, 135, 137, 138, 147,
149,  211,  212,   214-217,  222,  226,  300,   304,
305, 307
Cridge, Edward, 231, 297-304, 306
Crighton, Dorothy, Ballads of B.C., review by,
182
Crofts, 57
Crowther, Richard A., 139
Cummins, H. B., 69
Cunningham, J. A., 267
Cusson v. Little, 136
Dairying, Fraser Valley, 280 282
Dallemore, F., 120
Dalton, C. P., 115
Daly, Marcus, 105
Daly Reduction Company, Ltd., 106, 108, 109,
111, 121-124 ,
Davie, A. E. B., 86, 167-159, 161, 164
Davie, Theodore, 168, 159, 161, 164, 169, 223-
225
Davies, W. J. P., 46, 77
Davison, Capt. A. W., 9, 11, 14, 15, 44, 46, 70,
77
Deans, J. B., 47, 50, 78
Deardorf, I. A., 108, 110
De Cosmos, Amor, 81, 100-102, 153-155, 158-
162, 165, 169
De Cosmos, Amor, Unveiling of the Memorial
Plaque to, 100-102
Delta Municipality, 264
Demers, Bishop, 136, 137
Dennes, G. E., 136, 138
Derby, E. L., 288
Derby, see Fort Langley
De Salis, William Fane, 130
Development   of  the  Eastern  Fraser   Valley,
The, 259-291
Dewdney, Edgar, 103, 165, 166, 2S7
Dickens, Charles, 295
Dickinson, Robert, 162
Dietz & Nelson, 186, 18■, 189
Dobie, Edith, 152, 169
Docksteader, Rev. C. E., 114
Dodd, Charles, 250
Dominion Bridge Company, 272
Dominion Pacific Herald, 160
Dominion Stock and Bond Corporation, Ltd.,
289
Donald, H. G., 69
Douglas, David. 247, 248
Douglas,  Sir James, 154,  188, 243, 244, 250,
263, 293
Douglas, James W., 162
Douglas, Capt. L. D., 8, 12, 14, 18, 20, 30, 37,
44, 45, 48, 50, 69, 78
Douglas  of  the  Fir,   a  Biography  of  David
Douglas, Botanist, review of, 315-318
Drake, M. W. T., 226, 302
Drummond, James, 163
Duck, Simeon, 163, 164
Dufferin, Lord, 157, 196
Dulton v. Ah Hing, 218
Dunbar, C. T., 288
Dunsmuir, Alexander, 90
Dunsmuir, James, 159, 168 Index.
327
Dunsmuir, Robert, 158
Dupont, C. T., 301, 304
Dyer, Margaret, see Thomson, Margaret
Dykes, Fraser River, 280, 288-290
Early History of Hedley Camp, 103-125
Eastham, J. W., Douglas of the Fir, review
by, 315-318 ;  A Note on Archibald Menzies
and David Douglas, Botanists, 247, 248
Eden Bank Creamery, 281
Edgar, J. D., 156
Edmond, 110, 113
Edmonds, H. L., 84, 87
Elections, Federal, 151, 155, 157, 162, 163, 165 ;
Provincial, 152, 157-159, 162, 163, 168
Elliott, A. C, 143, 153, 157, 161, 162
Empress Odyssey: A History of the Canadian
Pacific Service to the Orient, 191S-i5, 1-78
Enterprise Company, 218
Esquimalt, description of, 240, 241
Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway, 156-158
Esquimalt — " Place    of    Shoaling    Waters,"
review of, 177, 178
Evans, John, 162
Experimental Farm, Agassiz, 283
Express companies, B.C., 186-190
Eyerly, Frank, 223
Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, 2-4, 6, 20, 21, 29, 34, 47. 72
Federal Parties and Provincial Political Groups
in British Columbia, 1871-1903, 151-169
Ferguson, George, 163
Ferries, Fraser River, 270, 271
Ferris, W. D., 145
Fisher, Elizabeth, 228, 229
Fisher, Mrs. Mary Jane, 228
Fleming, Rev. J. E., 114
Flewelling, Rev. E. P., 114
Floods, Fraser River, 259, 260, 278-280
Ford, M. R., 116
Fort Langley: Outpost of Empire, review of,
178-180
Forts and trading posts, Douglas, 269; Hope,
244, 245, 262, 263; Langley, 242, 261-265,
284; Rupert, 239, 240; Vancouver, 262;
Victoria, 262 ;   Yale, 244, 262
Foster, Anna, 128, 131
Foster, Catherine, 128
Foster, Henrietta, 128
Foster, John, 127
Foster, John Leslie, 128
Foster, John Vesey Fitzgerald, 130-132
Foster, Letitia, 128
Foster, Rev. William, 127, 128
Foster, Rev. William Henry, 128
Foster, William John, 130
Fottinger, Dr., 24
Fowlie, Rev. A. J., 114
Fraser, 123
Fraser, Finlay, 119, 120, 122
Fraser, Simon, 261
Fraser, Thomas, 299
Fraser and Thompson River Express, 187
Fraser River, 242-245
Fraser Valley, 259-291
Fraser Valley, The Development of the Eastern, 259-291
Fraternity Hall, Hedley, 119
Freeman and Company, 186
Freight rates, Cariboo Road, 197
French, F. H, 110, 122
Froude, W. H., 47, 78
Fruit-canneries, Fraser Valley, 286
Fulfovd, Capt. John, 241
Fur-farming, Fraser Valley, 287
Galbraith, R. L. T., 160, 163, 164
Gambitz, Kady, 139
General Hospital Society, Hedley, 122, 123
Gibbon, J. M., Ballads of B.C., review of, 182
Gibbs, Miften W., 138
Gill, Charles, 271
Gillespie, Dougal, 113
Gillespie, F. M., 108, 110
Gold, transportation of, Cariboo Road, 200, 201
Gold-mining, Fraser River, 234, 235, 244, 245,
262-264
Gold-rush Days in Victoria, 1858-1859, 231-246
Goold, Capt. George, 18, 46, 48, 60, 51, 60-63,
65-67, 69
Gordon, Capt. George T., 140, 141'
Gosnell, R. E., 86, 87, 89, 151,  152, 160, 161,
228
Grace Methodist Church, Hedley, 114
Granby Mines, 103
Grancini, E., 139
Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, 5, 192, 268
Grand Union Hotel, Hedley, 109
Granite Creek, 103
Grant, John, 164
Gray, Judge J. H., 149. 211, 212, 216, 217, 304
Great North West, A History, The, review of,
323, 324
Great Northern Hotel, Hedley, 118, 119
Great Northern Railway, 124, 273, 274
Great Northern Steamship Company, 4
Green, Capt. E. P., 46
Grier. James, 270
Grier, James W., 118
Griffin, Benjamin P.,  139
Gurney, Thomas, 295
Hackney, D. G., 107
Hailey, Capt. A. J., 22, 27-30, 44, 45, 70, 78
Hamburg Amerika Line, 23, 24, 76
Hardwick, Rev. E., 114
Hare, Alexander, 147, 149
Hart/rave, Letitia., The Letters of, review of,
180-1S2
Harris & Dixon, 77
Harrison, Eli, 149, 212
Harrison, J. F., 271
Harrison, J. T., 270, 271
Harrison Hot Springs, 271, 291
Harrison River, 245
Hart, F. J., 267
Hart, John, 152
Harvey, A. G., Douglas of the Fir, review by,
315-318
Harvey, George C, 268
Haskell, W., Company, 142
Haynes, Mrs., 87
Hedley, Rev. J. W., 114
Hedley, Robert R., 104 328
Index.
Hedley, 103-125 ; bank, 118 ; Board of Trade,
120, 121 ; celebrations. 111, 112; churches,
114, 115; clubs, 119, 120; electricity, 117,
118; fire department, 123; Freemasons,
120; golf, 124; halls, 119; hospital, 122,
123; hotels, 107-109, 118, 119 ; library, 119,
120; newspapers, 118; orangemen, 120;
orchestra, 120; post-office, 110; railways
at, 124; schools, 115-117; stage-line, 110;
stamp-mill, 108, 109, 112, 113, 117; telephone, 123 ;  water-supply, 117
Hedley Athletic Association, 120
Hedley Camp, Early History of, 103-125
Hedley City Townsite Company, 107
Hedley Gazette, 118, 120
Hedley Gold Mining Company, Limited, 124
Hedley Golf Club, 124
Hedley Hotel, 107, 108
Hedley Lodge, No. 43, 120
Hedley Orchestra, 120
Hedlund, 122
Helgesen, Hans, 163, 164
Henderson, D. & W., & Co., Ltd., 77
Henley, Capt. J. T., 271
Herron, Robert, 109
Hibbert, Rev. R. W., 114
Hickey, Capt. R. J., 69
Hicks, Albert, 139
Hicks, W. H., 283
Higgins, D. W., 217
Hillhouse, Dr. Percy, 4, 5
Hills, Bishop, 136, 137, 297-300, 302, 303, 305,
306
Hincks, Sir Francis, 151, 164
Hine, W. B., 108, 109
Historical and Scientific Society of Manitoba,
Papers read before the, review of, 322
Holbrook, E. A., 121, 124
Hold-ups in the Cariboo, Staging and Stage,
185-209
Holland, Capt. J. A., 18, 45, 46
Holland, C. A., 288
Hooper, H., 277
Hops, Fraser Valley, 282
Horsefly Claim, 103
Horses, Cariboo Road, 191-195
Hosken, Capt. A. J., 7, 44-46
Houseman v. Peebles, 214
Howay, F. W., 152
Howe, Joseph, 154, 155
Hudson's Bay Company, 218, 261, 262
Hudson's Bay Company, 1679-1684, Minutes
of the. Second Part, 168S-1684, review of,
319-321
Humphreys, T. B., 154, 155, 157, 161, 163
Huston, Neil, 109
Indians, Fraser Valley, 260, 261 ; Saanich,
251, 252 ;   Victoria, 237, 239
Ireland, W. E., Fort Langley, review by, 178-
180; ed., GolaWush Days in Victoria, 1858-
1859, 231-246; Papers read before the Historical and Scientific Society of Manitoba,
review by, 322; Prize Winning Essays,
Armitage Competition in Oregon Pioneer
History, Reed College, review by, 183, 184 ;
William and Margaret Thomson: Saanich
Pioneers, 248-255
Irving, P. A. E., 218, 227
Irwin, Rev. Henry, 115
Irwin, J. J., 118
Jacklin, Surgeon-Lieut., 63
Jackson, John, 118
Jackson, R. E., 300, 301
Jackson, R. H. G., 304, 305
Jacobson, Albert, 103
James, Capt. Herbert, 18, 46
Jamieson, John, 120
Jeffray, William, 187
Jeffray & Co.'s Fraser River Express, 187, 188
Jeffreys, Edward, 128
John Foster McCreight, 70-92
Johnson, 107
Johnson, C, 103
Johnson, James, 270
Johnson, John, 29-32, 34, 35, 47, 75, 76
Johnson, K., 116
Johnson, Patricia M-, John Foster McCreight,
79-92 ; McCreight and the Bench, 211-229 ;
McCreight and the Church, 297-309; McCreight and the Law, 127-149
Joly de Lotbiniere, Sir Henri, 168, 272, 273
Jones, Avonia, 106
Jones, Gomer P., 106, 116, 121, 122, 124
Jones, Rev. J. J., 114
Joyner, Charles, 116
Joyner, Mrs. Charles, 119
Judge Begbie's Shorthand: A Mystery solved,
293-296
Judges, B.C., 211-213, 215, 216, 220
Kamloops Museum Association, 174
Kelowna Exploration Company, 108
Kendrick, H. R., 66
Kennedy, A. E., 299
Kennedy, Mrs. Arthur, 89
Kent, J. Horace, 187
Kersey, Major Maitland, 4, 5
King, A. J., 120
King, E. Hammond, 134, 135
King, S. V., 69
Kingston Mineral Claim, 103, 108
Kinley, Capt. W. T., 46, 50
Kinney, Rev. George, 114
Kintyre Steamship Company, 77
Kirby, 108, 109
Kitchen v. Paisley, 225
Knevett de Knevett, J. S., 270
Knowles, B. W., 124
Knox v. Woodward, 219
Lafontaine, Louis, 155
Lamb, James, 36, 37, 46, 47, 78
Lamb, R. B., 121, 122
Lamb, W. Kaye, 313, 314; Empress Odyssey:
A History of the Canadian Pacific Service
to the Orient, 1918-1,5, 1-78; Esquimalt—
" Place of Shoaling Waters," review by,
177, 178
Lambly, C. A. R., 104, 117
Lamont, Marion D., 116
Land, Vancouver Island, 238
Langford, E. E., 238, 294
Langley, 242, 243
Langley Municipality, 264 Index.
329
Latta, Frank, 267
Laurier, Sir Wilfrid, 166, 169
Law, McCreight and the, 127-149
Law Society of British Columbia, 213, 214
Ledeirer, Felix, 138, 139
Lesbonis, see Ledeirer, Felix
Letters of Letitia Hargrave, The, review of,
180-182
Lewis, L. A., 267
Lewis, R., 134
Liberal Party, 151, 152, 154, 155, 161-169
Liddell, R. R., 47, 48, 52, 69
Lidgate, Duncan, 249, 251
Linaker v. Ballou, 144
Lind, John, 118
Lindhart, J. W., 187
Lindhart & Bernard's Express, 187
Little, George, 139
Loewenberg, Leopold, 137
Lome, Marquis, see Argyll, Duke of
Love, John, 110, 119-121, 123
Lovegrove, Capt. A. V. R., 18
Lowe, Rev. Richard L., 252, 253
Lower Fraser River Navigation Company, 267
Lumber, Fraser River, 285, 286
Lumsden, F. A., 288
Lumsden, J. A., 288
Lyon, G. B., 116
Lytton, Sir E. W., 263
Macaulay, Donald, 238
McBride, Richard, 85, 152, 153. 159, 168, 271-
274, 277
McColl, Judge A. J., 226
McCrea, James A., 138, 139
McCreight, Anna Dorothea. 128
McCreight, Mrs. Elizabeth Foster, 127, 128
McCreight, J. D., 127
McCreight, Rev. James, 127
McCreight, John Foster, 79-92, 127-149, 153-
155,  161, 211-229, 297-309 ;   will, 228, 229,
308, 309
McCreight, Mrs. John Foster, 89, 90
McCreight, Letitia, 128
McCreight, William, 128
McCreight and the Bench, 211-229
McCreight and the Church, 297-309
McCreight and the Law, 127-149
McDermott, 109
McDonald, 108
McDonald. Sir John A.. 151, 156-158, 164-166
MacDonald, William, 271
Macdonald, William J., 166
McEwen, Dr. M. D., 123
McGillivray, D., 288
McGrath, W., 271
McGuckin, Rev. Father J., 215, 307
MacHaffie, L. G., 118, 121, 122
Mcllmoyl, James Thomas, 162, 163
McInnes, T. R., 159, 165
McInnes, W. W. B., 168
Mclnnis,   Edgar,   Canada,   A   Political   and
Social History, review by, 323
Mcintosh, Fred., 267
Mcintosh, Capt. John, 250
Mclntyre, J. A., 119
Mackay, J. W„ 300
McKelvie, B.  A., Fort Langley:   Outpost of
Empire, review by, 178-180
Mackenzie, Alexander, 156, 160, 162, 164, 165,
168
McKenzie, Capt. D. M., 138
Mackenzie, Kenneth, 238, 249
McKinnon, John, 122
McLaren, W. D., 3-6, 7, 69
McLean, Allen, 147, 149
McLean, Archibald, 147, 149
McLean, Charles, 147, 149
McLean, W. A., 109, 115, 116, 120
McLeese, Robert, 164
McLeod, Margaret Arnett, ed., The Letters of
Letitia Hargrave. review by, 180-182
McMahon, J. P., 106
M'Millan, A., & Sons, Ltd., 76
MacMillan, James, 261
McMurray, Capt. R. W., 48, 49
McNeill, Capt. W. H., 250
MacPhail, Angus, 248
McPhillips. A. de B., 229
McRae, 108
MacVicar Marshall & Company, 76
Magistrates, 212
Mainland Guardian, 160
Mairhofer, John, 110
Major, C. G., 288
Mann, Sir Donald, 275
Maple Ridge, 264
Mara, J. A., 161, 163
Marchand, Aime, 141
Marks, 109
Marsh Bourne Construction Company, 289
Marshall, John, 223
Marshall, Capt. O. P., 44
Martin, Joseph, 159
Mascot Fraction, 104
Mason, Rev. G. L., 114
Mason, H. S., 288
Matsqui district, 288
Matthew, 144
Matthieson, Archibald, 139
Mayall, Capt., 53
Megraw, Ainsley, 118
Melrose, Robert. 249
Memorial Plaque to Amor De Cosmos, Unveil*
ing of the. 100-102
Menten, Capt. R. C, 271
Menzies, Archibald, 247, 248
Mercer, Eleanor B., 152
Merrill, I. L., 124
Metropolitan Claim, 108
Meyer v. Grant, 214
Midway Advance, 118
Miller, Dr., 63
Millington, William, 135
Mills, E., 116
Miner, Bill, 202-204
Minutes of the Hudson's Bay Company, 1679-
168i.   Second Part,  168S-1684,  review of,
319-321
Mission, 264
Moody, R. C, 243, 244, 263
Moore, Capt., 50
Moore, P. H., 283 330
Index.
Moresby. W. C, 84, 86. 221, 224
Moresby, Mrs. William, 227
Mound Claim. 103
Mud Bay. 264
Munson, 109
Murphy, Denis, 85-87
Nanaimo, 242
Needham, Judge Joseph, 147, 211
Negroes in Victoria, 138. 139
Nesbitt. W. H., 266. 267. 269
New Westminster, 243, 244, 263
New Zealand Hotel, Hedley, 118
Nickel Plate Claim, 103-108, 121
Nickel Plate Mountain, 103, 104
Nicol v. Bell. 136
Nicomen Island, 264
Nippon Yusen Kaisha, 38, 40
North German Lloyd, 11, 23
North West Company, 261
Nuttall, Thomas, 248
Odin, Capt. George, 267
Okanagan Historical Society, 174, 175
Oliver, 69
Oliver, C. E., 108, 109, 113
Oliver, John, 290
Oliver, William H., 139
Oregon Boundary Treaty Centennial Plaques,
Unveiling of the, 97-100
Orr, James, 163
Owens, Ed., 207
Pacific Great Eastern Railway, 206
Pacific Mail Company, 2
Painter, Nathan. 138
Paisley, 225
Papers read before the Historical and Scientific Society of Manitoba, Series III, No. 3,
review of, 322
Parker, William, 204, 206
Parkinson, R. H.. 107
Parliament Buildings, 159
Passenger rates. Cariboo Road, 197; Fraser
River. 270
Paterson, Thomas W., 167, 274
Patrick, Capt. J. F., 46, 63
Pattullo, T. D., 162
Payne, W. T., 3
Peacock, Mrs. E. R.. 36
Pearkes, George, 138, 140
Pearse, B. W., 300, 301
Pemberton, A. F., 138, 301, 302, 304
Pemberton, J. D., 138
Penney, Thomas, 270
Pentreath, Archdeacon Edwyn S. W., 114
Peterson, 118
Pettit, Sydney George, 88; Judge Begbie's
Shorthand:   A Mystery solved, 293-296
Pimbury, Edwin, 138, 139
Pioneer Fraser River Express, 186
Pitt Meadows, 264
Political Groups in British Columbia, 1871-
1908, Federal Parties and Provincial, 151-
169
Politics in British Columbia, 1,51-169
Port Mann, 275
Portnam, Edward, 135
Postal service. Cariboo, 188, 191, 192, 195-
197, 200
Power, John, 270
Prevost, Capt. J. C, 241
Princeton Claim, 103
Prior, E. G., 159, 167, 168
Prize Winning Essays, Armitage Competition
in Oregon Pioneer History, Reed College,
review of, 183. 184
Provincial Political Groups in British Columbia, 1871-190S, Federal Parties and, 161-169.
Puget Sound Agricultural Company, 237, 238
Pugh, S., 277
Purdy, Capt. R., 270
Pybus, Capt. Henry, 44, 45
Quaedvlieg, Eugene, 110
Queensborough, see New Westminster
Record Passages across the Pacific, 9, 19, 87,
45. 77, 78
Reece. Rev. William S., 302
Reformed Episcopal Church, 304
Regina v Anderson, 147
Regina v. McLeans and Hare, 147-149
Regina v. Peebles, 214
Regina v. R. Lewis, 134
Reid, Capt. F. W.. 267
Reid, Robie L., 87, 91, 127, 308
Reider, Mrs.. 209
Representative government in British Columbia, 153
Re ponsible government in British Columbia,
153-155
Revely, Fred, 110, 113
Rice, L. M., and Company, 289
Richards, Capt. G. H., 241
Richmond Municipality, 264
Richter, Charles, 109
Ring, D. B., 82, 86, 133-136, 139-141, 144,
145
Riordan, James, 103
Roads. B.C., 245; Fraser Valley, 276, 277;
Similkameen, 106; Vancouver Island, 251,
252
Robertson, Judge A. R., 212-214, 216, 217
Robertson, William Archibald, 162
Robinson, Leigh Burpee, Esquimalt—"Place
of Shoaling  Waters,"  review by,  177,  178
Robinson, Capt. Samuel, 8-10, 14, 25-27, 81,
36, 37, 44-46, 70, 77, 78
Robson, John, 142, 153, 166, 158-161, 163,
164, 166, 169
Rodgers, Charles, 220, 221
Rodgers, M. K., 106, 106, 109, 113, 116, 117,
121
Rodgers, Wesley, 109. Ill
Rollo Claim. 103. 104
Rolls, Dr. F., 110
Roman Catholic Church and J. F. McCreight,
306-309
Romantic Vancouver Island; Victoria, Yesterday and Today, review of, 178
Roscoe, E. S., 165 Index.
331
Ross. F. A.. 121. 122, 124
Rotheram, T. H-. 123
Routes of travel to Cariboo, 185, 186;  Fraser
River, 245:   Hedley, 105, 106
Rowland,   Martin  Van  Buren,  204-206
Royal City Navigation Company, 268
Royal Engineers, 263
Royal Holland Lloyd, 76
Rumsey, Dr. William, 135, 136
Ryckman, William L., 138
Ryder, Noble, 271
Saanich Agricultural Association, 254
Saanich Pioneers—a Tribute; WiUiam and
Margaret Thomson, 248-255
Sage, W. N., Federal Parties and Provincial
Political Groups in British Columbia, 1871—
190S, 151-169; George M. Wrong: 1860-
1948, 311, 312; The Great North West,
A History, review by, 323, 324; The
Letters of Letitia Hargrave, review by,
180^182
St. Joseph's Mission, 306. 307
St. Mary's Church, Hedley, 114
St. Peter's Church, New Westminster, 307
St. Stephen's Church, Saanich, 252, 253
Salmon, 237, 261, 283-285
Sampson, William, 124
Sanders, George H„ 139
Saul, William, 163
School, Saanich, 253
Schubert, James A., 109, 113, 115
Scott, Peter, 103, 104, 108
Scottie Creek, 205, 206
Semlin, C. A., 159, 161, 164, 167
Sesquicentennial of the Death of Captain
George Vancouver, 175
Seymour, Capt. Charles E., 268, 269
Seymour, Frederick, 89
Sharp, T. A.. 283
Shatford, L. W., 110
Shaw, R. H., 37. 61, 78
Shier, R. G., 121
Ships, Alsatian, see Empress of France;
Ampang, 59; Andes, 49-51, 53; Aorangi,
67; Aquitania, 49; Asama Mary, 41;
Askold, 11; Assiniboia, 3; Atlantis, 66;
H.M.S. Aurora, 56; H.M.A.S. Australia,
49; H.M.S. Bacchante, 138; Bay State,
see President Madison; Batory, 50; Beaver,
236 ; Beaver, 266-269 ; Berwyn, 77 ; Borden,
77; H.M.S. Boreas, 63; Brabantia, 76;
C. D. Rand, 225, 226; Caledonia, 242;
Calgarian. 72; Campania, 3; H.M.A.S.
Canberra. 49; Chiyo Maru, 2, 7; Colonel
Moody, 242; Consort, 250; H.M.S. Corinthian, 63 ; H.M.S. Crocus, 63 ; Dakota, 4 ;
H.M.S. Danae, 67; Defender, 268; Devonshire, 59; Drottningholm, 66; H.M.S.
Eagle, 49; Emden, 11, 12; Empress of
Asia, 1, 3, 4, 6-17, 19-22, 28, 30, 31, 38,
40-48, 50, 52-54, 56-59, 69, 71-74, 77, 78;
Empress of Australia, 21, 23-32, 42, 44, 47,
71, 76; Empress of Britain, 34, 42, 49-51;
Empress of Canada, 20-24, 27, 28, 30-36,
39-56, 60-63, 71, 74-78;  Empress of China,
3, 6; Empress of China (2), 23, 25;
Empress of France, 31, 33, 72; Empress
of India, 1, 7, 9, 23, 25, 44, 45; Empress
of Ireland, 3; Empress of Japan, 7-9, 16,
25, 36, 44-46, 52, 77; Empress of Japan
(2), 1, 10, 34-37, 40-42, 44, 45, 47-51,
54-56, 64, 68, 71, 75, 78; Empress of
Russia, 3, 4, 6-16, 19, 20, 22, 28, 30, 31,
38-47, 52-66, 60, 65-74, 76-78; Empress of
Scotland, see Empress of Japan; Empress
Van Horne, 3; H.M.S. Exeter, 56; Favorite, 268; Felix Roussel, 59; Franktor,
77 ; H.M.S. Ganges, 241; Governor Douglas, 242; Hamlin, 268 ; H.M.S. Hampshire,
11. 12 ; H.M.S. Hecate, 241; Heliopolis, 77 ;
H.M.A.S. Hobart, 49; Hong Kong, 59;
J. P. Douglas, 271; Jinsho Maru, 42;
Johan Heinrich Burchard, 76; K. de K.,
270; Keewatin, 3; H.M.S. Kent, 48, 49;
H.M.S. Leander, 49 ; Limburgia, 76; Lombardia, 76; Lucania, 3 ; Maine, 77; Mark,
11; Mattawa, 18, 76, 77; Mauretania, 49,
72; Mediator, 77 ; Methven, 17, 18, 22, 45,
77; Minnesota, 4; H.M.I.S. Minto, 13;
Minto, 271; Mona, 268 ; Monarch of Bermuda, 50; Monteagle, 16, 45; Montlaurier,
23 ; Montnairn, 23 ; H.M.S. Nelson, 53;
Niagara, 7, 53; H.M.S. Nigeria, 55 ; Norman Morison, 249; Orion, 49; Otranto,
49; Pacific, 241; Panama, 243 ; Pasteur,
53 ; Paystreak, 268; H.M.S. Petunia, 63 ;
Pine Tree State, see President Grant;
H.M.S. Plumper, 241; President Coolidge,
41; President Grant. 19 ; President Hoover,
41; President Madison, 19; Prince George,
5; Prince Rupert, 5; Princess Adelaide,
3 ; Princess Charlotte, 3 ; Prinz Freidrich
WUhelm, see Empress of China; Queen
Mary, 49 ; Queen of the Pacific, 90 ; H.M.S.
Ramilles, 49; Ramona, 267, 268; Rangitata,
49; Reliance, 76; Resolute, 76; H.M.S.
Rodney, 53 ; Romance, 46; Royal City, 268 ;
H.M.S. Royal Sovereign, 67; Saint Hugo,
76; H.M.S. Satellite, 241; H.M.S. Sedlitz,
57 ; Silverhorn, 45 ; Sin Kheng Seng, 59 ;
Skeena, 269; Strathaird, 49, 60; Strath-
eden, 50; Strathnaver, 49; Suffren, 49;
Surprise, 262; Surrey, 270; H.M.S. Sussex, 49; H.M.A.S. Sydney, 12; Tenyo
Maru, 2, 7; Tirpitz, see Empress of Australia; Transfer, 267,268; H.M.S. Triumph,
10; Tung Shing, 42; Vedder, 271; William, 250 ; William O'Swald, 76 ; H.M.A.S.
Yarra, 57;   Yeitai Maru, 42
Shorthand, 293-296
Siam, King of, 36
Siffken, W. C, 300
Sillitoe, Bishop A. W., 215
Similkameen Hotel, Hedley, 118
Sinclair, F. N., 289
Skinner, T. J., 238, 249
Slater, G. H., 87, 300
Smith, Rev. D. F., 114
Smith, David G. R., 47, 50
Smith, Donald, 48. 56-59, 69
Smith, H. F., 186, 187 332
Index.
Smith, J. Bissett, 53, 57-59
Smith, Ralph, 166
Smith, S. L., Ill, 115, 116
Smith, Thomas, 139
Smith, W. C, 289
Smith,   William  Alexander,  see   De   Cosmos,
Amor
Smithe, William, 153, 158, 159, 161, 163, 164,
169
Soward, F. H., Canada, A Political and Social
History, review by, 323
Sporborg, Moses, 139
Sporborg & Goldstone, 141
Sproule, 108  "
Sproule, G. H., 118
Staging and Stage Hold-ups in the Cariboo,
185-209
Staines, R. J.. 297
Stanley,  G.  F. G.,  Minutes of the Hudson's
Bay    Company,    1679 1684.    Second   Part,
1682-1684, review by, 319-321
Stawell, William, 130-132
Steamboats, Fraser River, 265, 266, 269
Stevens, 251
Stewart, Rev. J. C, 114
Stewart, John W., 269
Stroebel, Albert, 223, 224
Stuart, Capt. R. N., 51, 60, 63, 65, 66, 68
Sumas Prairie, 287-290
Sumas Reclamation Company, 288
Sumas Valley, 264
Sunnyside Claim, 103, 105, 121
Surrey Municipality, 264
Swanston, Robert, 250
Swift, Dr., 277
Symes, James. 284
Tait, Charles, 267
Terms of Union, 151, 156, 157, 160, 162, 164,
165, 168
Thain, W. H., 187
Thomas, 122
Thomas, Capt. J. W., 45. 50, 51
Thomas, Rev. L.. 114
Thompson, Joshua Spencer, 164, 166
Thompson & Fike, 187
Thomson, Alexander. 250, 254
Thomson, David, 231
Thomson, David. 248. 251
Thomson, James, 62
Thomson, John, 231;  letter to, 234-246
Thomson, Mrs. Margaret, 248-255
Thomson, William, 248-256
Tillman,   108
Tingley, F. C. 206
Tingley, Harvey, 119
Tobacco, Fraser Valley, 282, 283
Tolmie. W. F., 161. 162
Toyo Kisen Kaisha, 2, 40
Transportation, Fraser Valley, 265-277
Trapp. T. J.. 267
Trutch, Sir J. W., 153, 154, 157, 300, 301, 304
Turner, J. H., 158, 159, 167, 169
Twentieth Century Club, Hedley, 119, 120
Twenty Mile Flume, 112
Unveiling of the Memorial Plaque to Amor
De Cosmos. 100-102
Unveiling   of   the   Oregon   Boundary   Treaty
Centennial Plaques, 97-100
Ussher, John, 147
Vallance, J., 271
Vallance, M., 271
Vancouver, George, 247, 248
Vancouver,   George,   Sesquicentennial  of   the
Death of Captain. 175
Vancouver Island, description of, 236-240
Vancouver,   Victoria   and   Eastern   Railway,
124
Vedder River, 288, 289
Vereydhen, Charles, 139
Vernon, F. G., 163
Vernon News, 118
Victoria, description of, 1858-59, 240-242
Victoria Daily Standard, 154, 160
Victoria, 1858-1859, GoldWush Days in, 231-
246    .
Viewfield Farm, 238
Von Muller, Capt., 11
Waddell, J.A.L., 272
Waddington, Alfred, 244, 253
Walcott, Commander C. C. 10
Walkem,   G.  A.,   87,   148,   153,   155-164,   169,
220, 224
Walker, Capt. G. C, 90
Ward, T. W.. & Sons, Ltd.. 68
Ward, W. C, 300, 301. 304, 305
Warhorse Claim. 103. 108
Wasserman v. Davis, 136
Watson, Alexander, 267
Watson, John, 66
Weir, Norman, 120
Welby, W. E., 110
Wells, A. C, 281
Wells, F. M., 108
Wells, Fargo & Company, 186, 187
West, Henry, 268
West, William, 268
West, Willis J., Staging and Stage Hold-ups
in the Cariboo, 185-209
Western Steamboat Company, 267
Westoby, Charles, 208, 209
Wheeler, Roscoe, 124
Whillans, Dr. H. A., Ill, 115, 120
Whillans, M. L., 115
White,   George B.,  The Development of  the
Eastern Fraser Valley, 259-291
Whitmore, R., 267
Whyte, Capt. J. D., 58, 59, 69
Wilcox, James, v. J. D. and A. F. Pemberton,
138
Williams, F. W., 163
Williams, M. Y., 103
Williams, Robert, 300, 301
Wilmot, Lemuel Allan, 155
Wilson, William, 163
Winkler, Anton, 109
Winters, G. H., 118
Winther, O. O.. The Great West, A History,
review by, 323, 324 Index.
333
Wolfenden, Madge, Romantic   Vancouver Island, review by, 178
Wollaston, F., 103-106
Woods, Duncan, 104
Wootton, Henry, 300
Wootton, S. Y., 216-
Wright, G. B., 82, 88, 141-145
Wright, G. B., v. Cranford, 82, 88, 141-146
Wright, H. A., 120
Wright, Mrs. H. P., 89
Wrong, George M., 311, 312
Yale Mining Company, 106
Yates, Harry, 104
Young, AL, 209
Young, Charles Newton, 253
Young, Capt. Hollis, 267
Zelner, William, 139
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
L'riuted by Don McDiaumid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Mnjesty.
1940.
660-12486526 We
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
Organized October 31st, 1922.
PATRON.
His Honour Charles A. Banks, Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia.
OFFICERS, 1948.
Hon. W. T. Straith     .... Honorary President.
Willard E. Ireland - President.
George B. White ----- Past President.
Margaret Ormsby    - 1st Vice-President.
G. H. Stevens     ----- 2nd Vice-President.
Madge Wolfenden   -      -      -      - Honorary Secretary.
J. K. Nesbitt       ----- Honorary Treasurer.
MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL.
Helen R. Boutilier.        Burt R. Campbell. Muriel R. Cree.
John Goodfellow. W. Kaye Lamb. B. A. McKelvie.
W. N. Sage.
Willard E. Ireland G. H. Stevens L. S. Grant
(Editor, Quarterly). (Victoria Section). (Vancouver Section).
OBJECTS.
To encourage historical research and stimulate public interest in history;
to promote the preservation and marking of historic sites, buildings, relics,
natural features, and other objects and places of historical interest, and to
publish historical sketches, studies, and documents.
MEMBERSHIP.
Ordinary members pay a fee of $2 annually in advance. The fiscal year
commences on the first day of January. All members in good standing
receive the British Columbia Historical Quarterly without further charge.
Correspondence and fees may be addressed to the Provincial Archives,
Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C.

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