British Columbia History

BC Historical News 1980

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Honorary Patron:   His Honour, The Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia,
Henry P. Bell-Irving
Honorary President: Anne Stevenson, Box 4570, Williams Lake, V2G 2V6 392-4365 (res.)
President:        Ruth Barnett, 680 Pinecrest Rd., Campbell River, V9W 3P3
287-8097 (res.)
1st Vice-President: Barbara Stannard, #211-450 Stewart Ave., Nanaimo, V9S 5E9
754-6195 (res.)
2nd Vice-President: Winnifred Weir, Box 774, Invermere, VOA 1K0
342-9562 (res.)
Frances Gundry, 295 Niagara St., Victoria, V8V 1G4
385-6353 (res.)
387-3623 (bus.) Provincial Archives of B.C.
Michael Halleran, #8-1711 Duchess St., Victoria, V8R 4W2
598-5883 (res.)
Recording Secretary:Margaret Stoneberg, Box 687, Princeton, VOX 1W0
295-3362 (res.)
Ex Officio:
Naomi Miller, Box 1338, Golden, VOA 1H0
344-5000 (res.)
Graham Beard, Box 162, Qualicum Beach VOR 2T0
752-9810 (res.)
Helen Akrigg, 4633 - W. 8th Ave., Vancouver, V6R 2A6
288-8606 (res.)
John Bovey, Provincial Archivist,  Victoria, V8V 1X4
387-3621 (bus.)
Patricia Roy, Co-editor, JJ. C.  Historical News
477-6911, local 4793 (bus.) "
Terry Eastwood, Co-editor, 15. C.  Historical News
387-6671 (bus.)
Chairmen of Committees
Constitution and
Historic Trails:
Anne Yandle, 3450 W. 20th Ave., Vancouver V6S 1E4
John D.Spittle, 1241 Mount Crown Rd., North Vancouver, V7R 1R9
Publications: (not involved with J3. C.  Historical News)
Arlene Bramhall, 5152 Grafton Court, Burnaby, V5H 1M7
433-7176 (res.)
Cover Photograph:
West side of Government Street looking north from Fort Street,
Victoria, B. C, showing the Theatre Photographic Gallery (the two-
storey, wooden building in the centre) described by David Mattison
in this issue.  Taken by Frederick Dally, circa 1869.  PABC photo #8720. BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL NEWS
vol.   14,   no.   2 Winter 1980
Second-class mail registration number 4447.
Published fall, winter, spring, and summer by the British Columbia Historical
Association, P.O. Box 1738, Victoria, V8W 2Y3.  (Printed by D.A. Fotoprint Ltd.,
747 Fort Street, Victoria, V8W 3E9.)
Correspondence with editors is to be addressed to Box 1738, Victoria, V8W 2Y3.
Subscriptions: institutional $15.00 per a., Individual (non-members) $7.00 per a.
The B. C. Historical Association gratefully acknowledges the financial assistance
of the Ministry of the Provincial Secretary.
Victoria Theatre Photographic Gallery. .David Mattison 4
Sapper Duffy's Exploration R. C. Harris 14
Book Reviews:
The Forces Which Shaped Them David C. Jones 20
The B. C_. Parliament Buildings Tom Palfrey 21
Trail Between Two Wars Jamie Forbes 22
Lower Canada, 1791 - 1840 Chad Gaffield 23
Indians at Work Ian McPherson 24
News and Notes 25
Bibliography Frances Woodward 28
British Columbian Company Records Graydon Henning 28 AN ILLUSTRATED HISTORY!
Please turn the page for more -2-
The Victoria Theatre Photographic Gallery (And The Gallery Next Door)
The Victoria Theatre Photographic Gallery existed for nearly two decades on
or near the southwest corner of Government and View Streets. As the building
itself has been adequately documented elsewhere by Craig Clifford Elliott, it
is not the intention of this historical drama to re-cover old ground except where
necessary in order to present a different interpretation.
The importance of the Theatre Photographic Gallery lies in its longevity,
its successive control by a number of indivuals important in Victoria's history
and the history of Canadian photography, and in the opportunity the gallery presents
for the study, sometimes imaginatively, of stylistic changes in photography.
After 1866 a photographic gallery next door, on the south side of the theatre
building, became identified with the Theatre Photographic Gallery, partly because
of its proximity and partly because of its proprietorship by one Noah Shakespeare.
He became mayor the year the Victoria Theatre/Theatre Royal was demolished, an M.P.
in 1883 and postmaster in 1888. The fact that he was also a photographer for at
least thirteen years has generally been glossed over.
This article is neither pure history nor pure fiction. It is an attempt to
trace the rise and disappearance of the Theatre Photographic Gallery and the Gallery
Next Door through the use of newspapers, city business directories and municipal
tax lists which verify and help date the careers of these photographers.
The impetus to establish a photographic gallery in the Victoria Theatre "to
the rear of the dress-circle, and immediately over the front-entrance" (Colonist,
May 17, 1861) may have occurred when John William Vaughan read an advertisement
in the British Colonist on September 25, 1862 which announced the "FIRST TIME OF
THE Photographic Gallery" in a show presented by the Metropolitan Minstrels. The
next day's paper merely stated that "the 'Photographic Gallery' closed the entertainment."
Shortly after John S. Potter was made acting and stage manager at the start
of the regular dramatic season (Colonist, October 23, 1862), the first advertisement
appeared in the newspaper for Vaughan & Fulton (October 30, 1862).
Mark the Fleeting Shadow.
Ambrotypes, Cartes de Visite, Photographs, and
Stereoscopic Pictures.
Portraits set in Lockets, Pins and Rings, and in a superior style. All work warranted. Satisfaction given
or no pay exacted. Charges moderate.
Hours from 9 a.m. until 3 P.M.
"Legitimate Theatre in Early Victoria", B. C. Historical News. April 1970; Annali
of the Legitimate Theatre in Victoria, Ph D. dissertation, University of
Washington, 1969. -3-
Christopher Fulton, Vaughan's first partner, had come to Victoria from New
Westminster where he had been taking portraits at the Columbia Hotel.  The New
Westminster British Columbian on August 23 reported that
Mr. Fulton, the Photographist, who has been very
successfully engaged here during the last three
or four weeks, intends visiting (Port) Douglas,
Hope and Yale during the incoming week.  The people
of these towns will thus have a favorable opportunity
to 'mark the fleeting shadow.'
Fulton's three-line notice in the Columbian first appeared in the August 6, 1862
issue.  Its first line was the same as the first line of the Vaughan & Fulton
Whether the people of Douglas, Hope and Yale ever had the chance to pose in
front of Fulton's camera has not been determined. We do know that he returned to
New Westminster in March or April 1863 and then visited the Cariboo gold fields
that summer.  On January 23, 1864 the Columbian published an advertisement for the
sale of his photographic equipment.
For a town of its size, Victoria attracted a large number of photographers,
which may have had something to do with the high number of transients for whom
Victoria was a way-station on the route to the "Stickeen" territory and the Cariboo
creeks. The Fraser River gold rush of 1858 had also drawn photographers, notably
George Robinson Fardon who eventually established a studio on the west side of
Government Street just north of the Victoria Theatre, and Stephen Allen Spencer who
by January 1862 had moved into his third studio at the corner of Broad and Yates
Streets. Both men came from San Francisco. Another pair of photographers, Blacklin
& Bristow, operated a gallery on Fort Street next door to the Central School.  One
of their advertisements, possibly the only one, appeared in the October 23, 1862
Colonist and ran for several issues.  Future photographers Frederick Dally, Charles
Gentile, and Hannah and Richard Maynard were already in the city by the time the
Theatre Photographic Gallery opened.
After the Vaughan & Fulton partnership was dissolved Vaughan became involved
in a scheme to photograph business buildings in Victoria for engravings to
illustrate the 1863 directory.  This directory does not have any engravings based
on photographs, but it does have an advertisement (p. 18) showing that Vaughan was
familiar with a wide variety of photographic formats.
nss»" GALLERY,
Victoria Theatre, Government Street.
Visiting Cards, Stereoscopic Views and Portraits,
Ambrotypes, Melaineotypes, Photographs
and Tinted Pictures
Executed in the BEST STYLE, and Artistically arranged,
Albums, Frames and Cases in Great Variety. -4-
Visiting cards or cartes de visite, measuring about 4x3 inches with a print
about 3x2 inches, were a format popular from about 1860 to the early 1880's.
Ambrotypes were portraits on glass which superficially resembled the daguerreotype.
The daguerreotype, the first successful commercial photographic process introduced
in France in 1839, was no longer commercially practiced by the early 1860's.  The
melainotype was an early name for what is generally called the tintype, an American
photographic process still in use today.
Vaughan's advertising campaign in the Colonist continued unabated through
1863.  From March 16 to August 4 he ran an advertisement consisting of his name,
occupation and address.  In late April, Vaughan ran an advertisement for a week
which, notified the public of
orable for taking
Views of the City,
AND PRIVATE RESIDENCES, orders left at my
Photographic Gallery will receive prompt attention, where specimens can be seen and other information given.
On August 5, Vaughan began a new partnership with William Francis Robertson.
Robertson had been in business as a photographer on Fort Street prior to his
association with Vaughan.  One of the few mentions of their work outside of a
continuing advertisement which lasted until the partnership was dissolved in March
1864 (Daily Chronicle, 4 March) came in the December 8 and 9 Daily Chronicle and
Colonist respectively.  Vaughan and Robertson photographed members of Thomas Ward's
acting company, mounted the cartes de visite in a gilt frame, and presented them
to Ralph Phelps, acting manager of the troupe.
Another competitor, George Robinson, opened a photographic studio in the
block north of the Victoria Theatre but on the east side of Government Street
next to the San Francisco Baths (Colonist, May 9, 1864).  Robinson would, in early
1865, purchase the lease of the Theatre Photographic Gallery from Vaughan.
New technology or a desire to increase his business prompted Vaughan to begin
a new advertising campaign in the Colonist on May 9, 1864.
public for their liberal support, would intimate his being fully prepared to take Views of
any part of Victoria, Residences, &c, upon the .
shortest notice, Stereoscopic or otherwise.
He would again call attention to his having completed the additional improvements in the LIGHT
at the Gallery, which is now 'First Class' and
suitable to any kind of work at any time of day.
Photographic Materials from the best houses in
Europe and the United States always on hand and
for sale.
JOHN WM. VAUGHAN, 'Victoria Theatre' -5-
Despite the announced improvements in the lighting of the studio, his hours
of operation remained the same as they were in 1862 when the studio opened.  The
improvements may have consisted of both new props and panes of blue glass, evidence
of which can be seen in cartes de visite of this period.  Commonly used props were
a column, draped or undraped, a curtain, an urn, usually on a column, and a chair.
A month after the above advertisement began, another appeared in its place
(Colonist, June 10, 1864) in which Vaughan quoted his prices: $4 for the first six,
$6 for the first twelve or $3 for six, and $10 for twenty-four or $5 for twelve
cartes de visite. This advertisement was replaced by another (Colonist .August 8, 1864)
in which prices for ambrotypes were given "according to size and quality of case,"
with the best quality from $5 to $10 and the second quality from $1 to $4.  Discounts were given for large orders of cartes and "large Photographs"; the latter
may refer to albumen paper prints from negatives measuring anywhere from 5x7 inches
to 10 x 12 inches.  Photographs could also be coloured with watercolours or crayons
and no charge was made for this service "except where extra work is required."
Vaughan was presumably anxious to increase his business when he ran an
advertisement (Colonist, September 7, 1864) announcing that
The proprietor, J.W. Vaughan, having recently
associated with him Mr. Geo. H. Brown, an experienced Photographic Artist, formerly connected
with Brady's extensive Photographic Galleries of
New York and Washington, U.S., and recently from
New Orleans, La., will shortly be prepared to
execute Photographic Pictures of larger size and
superior character to any heretofore done in Victoria . . .
Mathew Brady (1823/24-1896) opened his first "Daguerrean Miniature Gallery" in
New York City in 1844.  His first operator was James A. Brown (1819-).  Brown, also
described as a water-colourist,was supposed to have operated his own studio at a
later date. Whether this is the same individual hired by Vaughan has yet to be
determined.  Brown arrived in Victoria on the bark Rival from San Francisco on
September 2, 1864.  He may not have remained in Victoria for long, as the Colonist
(November 8, 1864) ran another advertisement in which Vaughan
graphic business, and make himself generally
useful about a Gallery . . .
Vaughan's last promotion appeared on January 2, 1865 in the Colonist.
With a flair for copy writing, he announced a photographic technique which he called
is superior to anything afloat.
One sitting of a few seconds is
only required to produce sufficient
photographic definition for the artist
to work a picture of any size.
Distortion, occurrent in solarizing,
is avoided, and durability attained.
Medium size, $20; Life size, $30;
colored, $50.  Suitable frames, from
$10 to $30. -6-
Five days later came the announcement that the lease of the "Photographic Gallery
immediately adjoining the Theatre" was for sale.  The advertisement mentions a
private entrance from the sidewalk and suggests a future use as "Refreshment Rooms."
Vaughan, whom we presume to be the proprietor, was preparing to leave for Honduras
and wished to sell the lease quickly.  The solicitor was Robert Bishop.
Vaughan did not leave town at once, for he was involved in a court case of
his own making. He charged John Butts, a well known Victoria scoundrel, with
having stolen "a quantity of photographic chemicals and apparatus" (Vancouver Times,
January 16).  The material was worth $20 (Daily Chronicle, January 17).  Butts'
defense was that Vaughan, while drunk, had instructed him to sell the equipment
(Evening Express, January 17).  Appearing as a witness was George Robinson, mis-
identified as "Mr. Robertson," Vaughan's old partner, who stated that he had bought
the equipment from Butts at Scott's Auction Rooms about a year ago.  The material
which Robinson purchased was probably used by him to open his first studio in May
1864.  So far as is known W. F. Robertson did not practice photography after the
partnership with Vaughan.
The case was committed to trial, but the Colonist did not report the outcome.
It is possible the case was dismissed for lack of evidence or because of Vaughan's
departure from Victoria.  Butts, however, was arrested once more in early February
for theft of a keg of porter's beer (Evening Express, February 5, 1865). He was
sentenced to three months in prison with hard labour.
Vaughan may have resided in Peru for a while, because The Photograph Collector's Guide (1979) lists a "Vaughn" as active in 19th century Peru. A J.W. Vaughan
later turns ud in Vancouver in the early 1890's, but this person is a surveyor and
civil engineer and probably not the same person as the photographer.
George Robinson, to whom Vaughan sold the lease of the Theatre Photographic
Gallery, is reported to have arrived in the Colony of Vancouver Island in i854.
He was in charge of developing the coal mines at Nanaimo for the Hudson's Bay
Company and returned to England in 1859, but re-entered the Colony at Victoria in
the early 1860's (Nanaimo Free Press, March 13, 1895).  By 1864, as we have seen,
he had opened his first photographic studio.
This studio was temporarily closed during June while he prospected for a
group of investors in the area south of Barkley Sound.  The Colonist published part
of Robinson's diary detailing his explorations around Pachena Bay.  Robinson returned to Victoria on June 29 (Colonist, June 30 and July 16, 1864).  Resumption of
his photographic business was announced in the July 4, 1864 Colonist.
Robinson departed the city once again in 1865, this time for the Queen Charlotte Islands, where he was to manage both the Queen Charlotte Coal Mining Company
development and the Custom House. He also intended "to take views of the surrounding
country" (Columbian, June 8, 1865). A further report on this mining company appears
in the September 30, 1865 Colonist. but it is not clear whether Robinson was in
Victoria or had remained in the Queen Charlottes. No record has yet been located
of who operated the Theatre Photographic Gallery during his absence.
Another early photographer, Charles Gentile, who arrived in Victoria in 1862,
opened a fancy goods store under the Occidental Billiard Saloon on Fort Street at
Government Street (northeast corner) and later a photographic gallery (Colonist,
October 31, 1863).  The following February he sold the store to pursue the profits of photography.  By the summer of 1864, he, along with George Robinson, was
exploring the central interior of Vancouver Island with their cameras.  Gentile was
even responsible for a minor gold rush in the Alberni district.  In August 1864
when the Leech River gold rush was on, he journeyed to the area and photographed
the mining camps and claims.
The following March he tried selling the studio, but, finding no buyers,
continued his travels to New Westminster in May 1865 to photograph the Queen's
Birthday celebrations, and in July and September to the Cariboo and Thompson River
regions.  Governor Frederick Seymour was so impressed with Gentile's work that he
ordered a set of the photographs for the Cariboo Literary Institute at Barkerville,
but there is no evidence the order was ever filled.
Gentile moved his photographic studio to Government Street "next door to
the Attorney General's, and opposite to the Hotel de France" and "adjoining the
Theatre Building" (Daily Chronicle and Colonist, May 18, 1866).  The studio,
which opened on May 17, was "constructed on the latest Italian principle, and
possesses a great advantage over most other galleries in the Colony." An inaugural
photograph was taken of the American General Frederick Steele and his staff.
Gentile appears to have been on familiar terms with American officials, for that
March he had photographed the waterfalls "on the Cascades accompanied by Governor
William Pickering" of Washington Territory (Colonist, March 14, 1866).
Gentile may also have been among the social elite of Victoria, for he and his
wife attended Governor Kennedy's ball at Government House (Daily Chronicle, May 26,
1866).  That July he travelled once more, this time to Cowichan, Nanaimo and Comox
(Colonist, July 25, 1866) , while August saw him involved in a third court case
(the first two being suits for non-payment for photographs) to recover $104 for
board supplied to Ernest Watson (Colonist, August 7, 1866).
An energetic but inexpert field photographer, to judge from the few remaining
examples of his work, Gentile was at least innovative. He announced through the
Colonist (August 15, 1866) that he had hired Noah Shakespeare to manage his photographic business during his absence from the colony.  The next month he published
an advertisement telling of an impending visit to Europe to arrange for the publication of his outdoor and portrait photographs.
Misfortune struck, however, for in October there appeared an advertisement,
run under Thomas Allsop's name, asking the finder to return a box of "photographs
and stereoscopic views" that was left on either the Josie McNear or the Eliza
Anderson on or about September 13 (Colonist, October 27, 1866).  Both steamers
left Victoria on September 13 for the Puget Sound and all evidence suggests that
Gentile was aboard one or the other (odd that he did not remember which) and
forgot his precious photographs aboard.
He probably never returned to Victoria, for, his Photographic Gallery in the
capable hands of Shakespeare, he opened a photographic studio early in 1867 in San
Francisco.  After several years in the American Southwest as an itinerant photographer, he settled in Chicago where he continued to practice photography until his
death in 1893.
Just about two weeks after Gentile opened his new studio next to Robinson's
Theatre Photographic Gallery, another photographer announced his presence.
Frederick Dally (1838-1914), who, like Gentile, had arrived in 1862 (Colonist,
September 22, 1862) and started as a merchant, moved in March 1864 to the northeast
corner of Fort and Government Streets where he occupied Gentile's old store. -8-
Although he had tried to auction the lease of the photographic gallery at the
same time he had auctioned his stock and the lease of the store, Gentile ultimately
failed to sell the lease of the gallery.  Thus, there is some circumstantial evidence
that Dally may have acquired an interest in photography through Gentile.
Daily's photographic business began on Fort Street (Daily Chronicle, June 1,
1866), but it is not known if he remained in the Occidental building which Gentile
vacated in May, or whether Dally moved into premises on the south side of Fort
Street.  It is this latter building which shows up in a few photographs of the late
1860's.  Dally, like Gentile, made trips to the Cariboo and during his years in the
United Colony of British Columbia and Vancouver Island accumulated a magnificent
collection of images.  His biography is presently being written by Joan M. Schwartz
of the National Photography Collection, Public Archives of Canada.
Hannah and Richard Maynard were also well established in Victoria by 1866.
Part of their story can be read in two recent publications.  Richard Maynard also
had a boot and shoe store in the Occidental building, but it is generally believed
he was taught photography by his wife and not by Gentile or Dally.
There were also a few amateur photographers in Victoria.  One, Arthur Vipond,
emigrated as a civilian with the Royal Engineers in 1858.  He brought his camera
and photographer's certificate, but so far as is known did not practice commercially.
Some of the views of Victoria in the early 1860's usually attributed to Richard
Maynard are more than likely Vipond's work.  By 1874 Vipond was working as a gunsmith. The Provincial Archives recently acquired a number of Vipond's photographs
and the certificate he earned in England.
With all this spirited competition, it is any wonder that George Robinson
determined to remain in business.  He sought and received his share of publicity
by presenting to the Colonist three photographs of the Spanish bombardment of
Valparaiso, Chile (Colonist, June 19, 1866).  It is possible, however, that these
were the work of Bischoff & Spencer, stereographic photographers of Peru and Chile.
The Colonist (July 4, 1866) reported further naval photographs by Robinson who had
captured the H.M.S. Alert in Esquimalt Harbour, "the only weapons he used in
effecting his object were a camera and a bit of glass."
Robinson also advertised in one of the competing Victoria dailies, the
Evening Telegraph, for the "Theatre Photographic Gallery (Up Stairs)," where cartes .
de visite could be had for $5 a dozen, a $1 drop in price from Vaughan's charge
in 1864.
Yet another photographer appeared in Victoria in 1867 when the steamer Active
arrived from San Francisco with William M. Ashman (Colonist, February 26, 1867).
On February 27 the Colonist notified the public of his presence with this advertisement :
Gentile's Photographic Gallery
Government Street,
Adjoining the Theatre, Victoria.
Mr. Ashman, Operator, from London
and San Francisco
Portraits and Views Taken,
Pictures Copied.
David Mattison, "The Multiple Self of Hannah Maynard," Vanguard (October 1980);
Claire Weissman Wilks, The Magic Box; The Eccentric Genius of Hannah Maynard (1980) -9-
Only two examples of Ashman's photographs have been located.  Both are cartes de
visite.  In one of the portraits there is a baseboard moulding which also appears
in a carte de visite tak^n and signed by Noah Shakespeare (PABC #6638).  The
other carte is a photograph of a house (PABC #30027).  There are also two tintypes
of members of the Maynard family taken in the Gallery Next Door about 1867,
possibly by Ashman.  One is a stark portrait of a fatigued Hannah Maynard holding
new-born Lillie.  The distinctive floor pattern identifies the studio as the
Gallery Next Door (Gentile's Photographic Gallery).
Noah Shakespeare, who had been managing Gentile's Gallery prior to Ashman's
arrival, was hired by George Robinson to manage the Theatre Photographic Gallery.
Robinson intended to take outdoor photographs only (Colonist,March 11, 1867).
Shakespeare (1839-1921), according to an article in the Victoria Times (March 10,
1917), arrived in the Colony of Vancouver Island on January 10, 1863. He was
eventually hired by George Robinson Fardon to manage his gallery on Langley Street
for a year while Fardon visited England (Colonist, July 8, 1865 and July 26, 1866).
Perhaps it was Shakespeare who answered Vaughan's advertisement for a youth
to learn photography in November 1864, for it is unlikely Fardon would have hired
an inexperienced operator.  Following his year with Fardon, Shakespeare, as we
have seen, was hired by Gentile to handle the Gallery Next Door to the Theatre
Photographic Gallery.
George Robinson added a new occupation to his varied career, that of dentist,
as evidenced by the advertisements from the 1868 Victoria directory. Another
curious coincidence is Frederick Daily's subsequent career as a dentist in England.
He left Victoria in 1870, studied dentistry in Philadelphia, and went back to
England where he remained till his death.  Since Robinson and Dally were both Freemasons in Victoria, it is easy to speculate on the influence Robinson's dental
practice might have had on Dally.
OFFICE :—Theatre Photographic Rooms.
&X0MS  l©BMi©E
Shakespeare continued in his capacity as operator of Gentile's Photographic
Gallery (1868 directory, p. 44).  It is probable that during this year he acquired
the lease of the gallery from Gentile. A photograph of the west side of Government
Street looking north from Fort Street, possibly taken by Frederick Dally in 1868-1869,
shows Shakespeare's Gallery next door to Robinsons's Photographic Gallery in the
Victoria Theatre (PABC #8720).1 By 1869 Shakespeare was totally in charge of this
gallery, as shown by this advertisement from the 1869 Victoria directory:
ffl. SIMSlfMBI,
Alio, Enamelled Pictures, Ainbrotype?. Mehiaoiyfes, P«jrrotype«,
with neatness a ad diipatch.
A Collection o'f Xadian Pictures on hand.
Nest the Theatre, Ground Floor.
George Robinson retired from the photographic business,  as  announced by an
advertisement in the March 29 - May 6,  1869 Colonist.     The Theatre Photographic
Gallery passed into  the hands of J.  Augustus Craigg,  who also advertised in the
1869 directory:
Over the Theatre, Government Street.
The undersigned respectfully informs his Friends and the Public
that the old established Gallery is now coudncted by him.  ■
Ambrotypes, Melaintypes, and Cartes da Visite
Also, Solar Pictures, life-size and life-like.
J. AUGUSTUS craigg;
The "solar pictures, life-size and life-like" that Craigg advertised were
undoubtedly made from a solar camera, that is, an enlarging camera which used
focused sunlight to produce enlarged prints from various sized negatives.  Solar
cameras were popular in the late 1860's and an example of their use can be found
in William Welling's Photography in America:  The Formative Years, 1839-1900.
The equipment was usually set on a rooftop; it is possible that Shakespeare and
Craigg shared the same solar camera and used the top of the Victoria Theatre
building for this purpose.
Only a few examples of Craigg's photography have been located.  One carte de
visite portrays a sombre youth in a Scottish costume.  Seated on a table covered
with a cloth that appears in several portraits by J.W. Vaughan, the subject's
backdrop appears to be a coastal scene with a distinctive white spot, possibly a
sail (uncatalogued carte de visite, PABC).
1 This photograph is shown on the front cover of this issue. -11-
This "coastal" backdrop with its distinctive crooked tree appears in portraits by Robinson and was installed in 1865-1867.  A.N. Birch, last administrator
of the Colony of Vancouver Island, had his portrait taken in the Theatre Photographic Gallery before he returned to England (Columbian, June 26, 1867).
G. R. Fardon used a very similar backdrop for a while and later Shakespeare
photographs with his Government Street address can be identified as having been
taken in Fardon's Langley and Yates Streets studio between 1865-1866.
Many Robinson cartes, on the other hand, with the imprint shown earlier have
a plain backdrop with the sitter standing beside a chair, an odd juxtaposition
since many children photographed by Robinson were shown standing rather than seated.
Quite possibly these portraits were taken in 1864 before he moved in to the
Theatre Photographic Gallery.
By the summer of 1870, Shakespeare had remodelled the lighting of his
gallery (Daily Standard, August 20).  Craigg, meanwhile, announced a price
reduction in the. same issue (Daily Standard, 20 August 1870).  He was to remain in
business, price reduction or otherwise, for another two years.  He sold the Theatre
Photographic Gallery in early April 1872 to Stephen Allen Spencer.
Spencer, who came from San Francisco remained a U.S. citizen until at least
1875 when he tried to get out of jury duty by claiming alien status (Colonist,
December 1, 1875).  He is supposed to have arrived in Victoria in 1858.  His
third studio, opened in January 1862, remained open only a short time (Colonist,
January 11, 1862).  Spencer was still practicing photography as late as October 1863,
for the Daily Chronicle (October 30) reported the departure of the Hudson's Bay
Company steamer Otter for the Queen Charlotte Islands copper mine with passengers
Robert Burnaby and "Mr. Spencer, a skillful photographer, (who) accompanies the
expedition to take views of the mines and the surrounding country."
Spencer's life between this date and June 30, 1871 are a mystery so far.
On the latter date he arrived in Barkerville via Yale on Barnard's Express
(Cariboo Sentinel, July 1).  The following April he purchased Craigg's Photographic
Gallery over the Theatre Royal.  Spencer was described as "a gentleman well known
to the Victoria public as an accomplished Photographer, and who intends to fit it
up and conduct it on San Francisco principles" (Colonist, April 12, 1872).
The Colonist (May 9, 1872) ran an advertisement for "Spencer's New Gallery,
Theatre Royal, Government Street." Theatre Royal was the name given to the Victoria
Theatre in 1867 at the time it was remodelled (Colonist, September 30 and October 3,
1867).  The May 9 issue of the Colonist also contained an adulatory description of
Spencer's newest gallery, but gave no real details, simply advising readers "to take
a look into it to see the great improvements." As an inducement to public support,
the newspaper commented on the drop in prices.
Although at this time there was a new style of portrait photography called
the cabinet card photograph, its appearance in Victoria on a mass scale does not
seem to have occurred until the mid- or late 1870's.  Cabinet card prints measured
about 4x5 1/2 inches on a card about 4 1/2 x 6 1/2 inches.  The cabinet card format was being used by New York City photographers as early as November 1866. Later
evidence suggests Spencer may have been one of the first to try this style of photography.  On November 7, 1874, the Colonist reported his return from San Francisco
with "approved appliances for taking and finishing pictures.  Mr. Miller, an
experienced retoucher from the first San Francisco galleries, came with Mr. Spencer,
having been engaged by him." Retouching only originated with the cabinet photograph, -12-
so this indicates Spencer was practicing the style by this time.
Noah Shakespeare at this point was showing interest in political photography, for the Colonist (November 23 and 24, 1872) commented on photographs he
made of caricatures drawn by the Chief Commissioner of Land and Works and John
Robson.  Perhaps it was these photographs which led him in 1875 to photograph the
Legislative Assembly members on the closing day of the assembly (Colonist,
April 23, 1875).
Before this happened, however, another change in the management of the
Gallery Next Door to the Theatre took place.  John B. Uren and an individual
named Hoyt purchased "the photographic gallery of Mr. Shakespeare" (Colonist,
April 30, 1874).  The next day an advertisement began which read
For the Best
Go (to) the
(Late Shakespeare's Gallery.)
See specimens in show window.
The advertisement ran until June 8 when it was renewed.  The Daily Standard
(May 4, 1874) also referred to the change in ownership, noting that
The firm (Uren & Hoyt) we allude to has just
leased the office hitherto occupied by Mr.
Noah Shakespeare, on Government Street,
and we understand are prepared to eclipse
all former photographic productions
emanating from artists of this city.
No photographs by Uren & Hoyt have been located yet.
Shakespeare apparently re-acquired the lease of the Gallery Next Door some
time that summer, for in August he was credited with a panorama of Victoria
taken from the Driard Hotel (Daily Standard, August 20, 1874).  This incredible
panorama (PABC #2108) shows the top of the Theatre Photographic Gallery.  Beneath
the arch can be read the old sign "Vaughan's Photographic Gallery."
Shakespeare was in control of the Gallery Next Door by October 1874. On
June 20 the Daily Standard announced that S.A. Spencer had hired R.A. (or B.)
Desmond, retoucher, a recent arrival by the steamer Prince Alfred from San Francisco. He came from the famous studio of Bradley & Rulofson. The Colonist
(October 16, 1874) reported that
N. Shakespeare...has perfected arrangements
with Mr. R.B. Desmond, late artist of Spencer's
Gallery, whereby his services are transferred
to the Shakespeare Gallery from this date.
By the next year, 1875, Shakespeare was able to buy out Spencer's lease on
the Theatre Photographic Gallery (Colonist, May 13, 1875).  Spencer moved to a new
location on Fort Street near Broad (Colonist (June 29, 1875).  On July 7 the
Colonist announced: -13-
Spencer's New Photographic Gallery.—Mr. S.A.
Spencer will open his handsome new photographic
studio on the second floor of the building
lately erected by Hayward & Jenkinson on Fort
Street opposite Fell & Co.'s.  The studio is
reached by a spacious staircase.  The visitor
first enters a large and finely finished
reception room, and thence is conducted into
the gallery, where improved appliances are in
use for the successful prosecution of the
profession.  There is every convenience for
visitors on the premises, and Mr. Spencer is
now prepared to take pictures in the highest
style of the art.
It was in this studio that the bulk of the extant Spencer portraits were taken.
At this time Spencer, leaves the stage of our drama.
The denouement followed with the 1878 reappearance in Victoria of John
Uren. Having spent the summer of 1875 in the Cariboo, he probably returned to
Nanaimo in 1876 and remained there till he purchased the Theatre Photographic
Gallery, probably from Shakespeare (Colonist, June 5, 1878).  John Uren is listed
in the 1877-78 directory as a photographer in Nanaimo.  So far as is known he is
the last photographer to occupy the Theatre Photographic Gallery.  By February 1879
he had moved to New Westminster and opened a photographic studio "on the corner
of the streets leading to the Drill Shed, a few doors from Columbia Street"
(Mainland Guardian, February 8, 1879).
The last mention of photographic activity in connection with the Gallery Next
Door was, as we have seen, in the summer of 1874.  It is highly likely that once
Shakespeare leased the Theatre Photographic Gallery from Spencer in 1875, the
Gallery Next Door was torn down or converted to some other use.  In October 1882,
the Victoria Theatre/Theatre Royal was torn down.
other moveable appurtenances of
Will be SOLD LOW.
Apply by letter or in person before the 14th Sept.
to The Colonist office.
The Colonist (8 October) wrote the obituary.
Vanity Fair. Yesterday the removal of the front
or entrance portion of the old theatre on Government
Street was completed and considerable inroads were
made into the interior. The previous day the curtain
was carefully wrapped and removed from its place,
and no more will an expectant and appreciative
audience be compelled to read its gilt lettered
advertisements while waiting for the play,
and its loss to literature and scenic effect
must be regretted....But the falling timbers -14-
recall the dreamer to the present.  The music
ceases, the gay throngs vanish from their
seats, the curtain begins to fall and the
footlights flash out, and in dust and gloom,
with its banners of waving cobwebs, the old
theatre is going too.
Colonist, October 8, 1882.
The final irony in the play is that the building erected on the site of the
Victoria Theatre/Theatre Royal housed the new offices of the Daily Colonist,
the newspaper which had frequently documented the changes in both the theatre
and the Theatre Photographic Gallery.
Sic transit gloria theatri.
David Mattison,
Vancouver, B. C.
David Mattison, a photographic historian and critic, is preparing a photo-biography
of C.S. Bailey (1869-1896), a Vancouver photographer.  He wishes to thank J.
Robert Davison and Les Mobbs of the Provincial Archives, Joan Schwartz of the
Public Archives of Canada and Rob Johnson of Nanaimo for assistance in preparing
this article.
Sapper Duffy's Exploration
Cayoosh Creek to Lillooet Lake, 1860
In the late summer of 1860, a small party of Royal Engineer surveyors was
laying out town and suburban lots at Cayoosh (now the town of Lillooet).* The
lots were needed by the colonial government for sale by auction to anxious settlers.
Field notes in the Surveyor General's office show Sapper Duffy was tiangulating
the principal features of the district with a five inch theodolite, while Sapper
Breakenridge was booking the readings.
During the survey, His Excellency Governor James Douglas came into town on
Friday, 07 September, 1860, via "the Horse-way, formed in 1858."  He was inspecting
the Harrison-Lillooet (Lake) route to the goldfields, with a view to converting it
to a waggon road.  Douglas wanted to be sure he had the best location for the
Second Portage, which ran from Lillooet Lake to the town of Cayoosh on Fraser's River,
Moody to Assistant Commissioner of Lands, Lillooet. 19 June 1861 "  the Governor
desires that the town sometimes known as Kayoosh should be known by its original
Indian name of Lillooet." PABC C/AB/30.7/2
Despatch No. 13, 09 October 1860, Douglas to Newcastle, para. 21. -15-
Before reaching his decision, he required the exploration of an alternative^
Indian pass to Lillooet Lake via Cayoosh Creek. He called for"a qualified volunteer
to lead the expedition.  With some diffidence, Sapper James Duffy stepped forward
(and made his name immortal), but was soon reprimanded^ by his military superiors
for leaving his regular surveying duty without authority.
Duffy was one of the group of military surveyors who arrived in British
Columbia in 1858, under Captain R.M. Parsons, R.E., as part of the Columbia
Detachment of the Royal Engineers.  This detachment was separate from the North
American Boundary Commission whose members had arrived earlier, under Captain J.S.
Hawkins, R.E., to survey and mark the boundary along the 49th parallel.
On the morning of Monday, 10 September 1860, Duffy started up the Cayoosh
trail with several experienced Indians.  He had received written instructions^
from Cayoosh magistrate Thomas Elwyn, who sent a second letter to Lieutenant H.S.
Palmer, R.E., at Port Pemberton, asking Palmer to meet Duffy "on Lillooet Lake
with a supply of provisions."
Duffy travelled an estimated 56 miles to Lillooet Lake at a steady eight
miles per day, descending steeply to the lake on Sunday, 16 September 1860 at what
is now Joffre Creek.  His route, mostly on the Indian trail, ran up the left
(north) bank of Cayoosh Creek past a long lake , then over the divide and down
the right (north) bank of Joffre Creek. He did not return by the same route, but
went three miles north up Lillooet Lake to report to Lt. Palmer in Port Pemberton,
at the mouth of Birkenhead River.
Duffy's report of exploration is dated Wednesday, 19 September 1860, R.E. Camp,
Douglas to Moody, 08 September 1860, reporting having found the Indian who
knew a road direct from this place to Lillooet Lake, PABC F485c/4.
PABC F495a/2. Luard to Duffy, 26 September 1860, New Westminster;
Duffy to Luard, 06 October  1860, Cayoosh.
Elwyn to Duffy, 10 September 1860, Original not found, but copies are identified
below at 6, 7.
Duffy's long strip map of the exploration at 1 inch=l mile. PABC 8500 A61
The first record of this lake's existence is on: "Sketch of Part of British
Columbia by Lt. R.C. Mayne, R.N. of HMS Plumper, 1859. Approximate scale
1/4 inch = one nautic mile." On the line of what is now Cayoosh Creek is
noted: "from Cayoosh Lake, exact position unknown." Surveyor General of B.C.
33 Tl (Large) Original Maps. -16-
Harrison Road.  His notes and sketch maps give an adequate description of the
route.  (See the extracts concerning natural history collected at Appendix A.
and a map compiled from his report at Appendix B.)  Duffy mentioned having
received verbal instructions from the Governor to look for gold en route, and
records washing eight specks of gold from a shovel full of dirt, at mile 18.
Regarding the prospects for a waggon road, Duffy says, "The line of road
is generally pretty good - as far as I can judge practicable for a waggon road ...
The greatest obstacle is at the Lillooet Lake end where there is a very rapid
fall of about 1,000 feet to the Lake.  I think a waggon road could be made up
this portion by zigzagging."
On his one mile to one inch strip map, Duffy names the long lake between
his camps 4 and 5 as Lake Melvin. We do not know whom Duffy was honouring, and
the lake was actually named "L Duffey" on the map  of British Columbia later
completed by his colleagues** in New Westminster as they were disbanding in
October 1863.  The name remains to this day.
Duffy's "Lake Melvin"was accommodated by a later Surveyor General who named
a small Melvin Lake and Creek about five miles east of Duffey Lake.  Duffy shows
Joffre Creek as Sunday River, for the day he descended its right bank to Lillooet
Lake.  It was, however, shown as Duffey Creek on provincial maps until 1914, when
it was renamed in honour of another soldier, Marshal J.J.C. Joffre, Commander in
Chief of the French Army.12
Following his report of exploration, which he handed to Lt. Palmer, Duffy
returned to his duties at Cayoosh town, where he found a questionnaire" demanding
an explanation of his absence from duty. He answered with commendable forthrightness.
Duffy to Palmer, R.E. Camp, Harrison Road, 19 September 1860, Report of ten
pages, including copy of instructions Elwyn to Duffy, 10 September 1860.
PABC F495 a/2.
Duffy's general sketch map showing old and new routes to Lillooet Lake, with
a second copy of instructions Elwyn to Duffy, 10 September 1860. PABC 8500 A60
See also note 6.
Map: (part of) "British Columbia," ten miles to one inch, sheets 2 and 5 joined.
"Prepared under the direction of Capt. Parsons, R.E., New Westminster, September
1863. Reduced and drawn by (Corporal) J. Conroy, R.E. Lithographed by (Sapper)
W. Oldham, R.E." Received by the Royal Geographical Society, London, 04 November
1867.  RGS call no. D52.
Parsons to Moody, 13 October 1863. PABC F1313/10. "I enclose the Lithograph
of Sheet 2 .... it will be in our power to produce the sheet north of it,
No. 5, ... in ten days if I be permitted to retain Corporal Conroy for that
period and Sapper Oldham for a few days to print the copies."
Dept. of Lands, map 2B: "New Westminster and Yale'(Districts), 1914, four miles
to one inch," shows "Joffre (Duffey) Creek." Surveyor General, B.C. Plan 1T6
Lillooet Indian Reserves, also shows "Joffre (Duffey) Creek."
PABC F495a/2. -17-
The town plan of "Kayoosch" was soon completed, and the lots sold.  The
manuscript is filed by the Surveyor General as 9, 10T2, Townsites: and tracings
by Corporal J. C. White will be found in 2 Locker 13H.
We have not traced Duffy's movements for the remainder of 1860, but he was
back on the Harrison-Lillooet trail early in 1861.  The British Colonist- and the
New Westminster T-imp;p reported1^ he was found frozen to death in the snow on the
first, or long, portage between Douglas (head of navigation on Harrison Lake) and
Lillooet Lake. With some difficulty, his body was returned to New Westminster
where he was escorted to his grave by the whole detachment of Royal Engineers on
Sunday, 19 January. His widow, Alice, was enquiring about her inheritance in the
Fall of 1862.
Duffy's name has been recorded three ways.  Governor Douglas used "Duffie"
in his diary and when reporting1^ the intended exploration to his Grace the Duke
of Newcastle, Colonial Secretary in London.  Army records in England show "James
Duffy" enlisted 02 October 1848 and was assigned Regimental Number 2146.  His was
the only death in the Columbia Detachment in 1861; the date is recorded as 09 January.
Duffy and his colleagues used Duffy and Duffey almost indiscriminately; there
was a slight preference for Duffy, though it is recorded as Lake Duffey on the
last Royal Engineer map of British Columbia. This inconsistency of spelling continues
today, when both spellings may be found on one page.
The Gazetteer of Canada has adopted "Duffey", possibly to distinguish it from
the Duffy Creek and Lake south of Kamloops Lake, which was named for Patrick Duffy
the pre-emptor of Lot 824 , (near the mouth of the creek), 27 August 1896.
A century after Duffy's exploration, a forestry road was completed over
Duffy's Cayoosh Creek route to Lillooet Lake.  It is now (1980) a provincial highway, connecting Pemberton, and Lillooet Lake, with Lillooet town. A new bridge
over the Fraser River near Lillooet town will handle traffic from the "Duffy"
R. C. Harris.
The British Colonist, 18 January 1861; New Westminster Times. 26 January 1861.
Despatch No. 13, 09 October 1860, Douglas to Newcastle. "Three exploratory
parties were dispatched, during my stay, from Cayoosh:  the first under the
charge of Sapper Duffie, had orders to examine a route by the Cayoosh River
from Port Anderson to Lake Lillooet, reported by the natives to be more direct,
and in many respects more convenient than the present route by Anderson Lake;
the second, under Sapper Breakenridge, ...."
,- ii
Beautiful British Columbia, Summer 1980, p. 3. -18-
Appendix A
Items of natural history, sampled from Duffy's report.
16        Cedar, Cottonwood, Poplar
Caught 36 trout (up to 1/2 lb.) in an hour, with a fly
High bush cranberries very plentiful.
Gold found here, 8 specks in a shovel full of dirt.
Slide - Marble blocks
Good grass and Indian wapatos (potatoes).
Indian camping ground.
Berries of several kinds, very plentiful
Bear ponds.
High bush cranberries very plentiful
Blazed trees and an Indian camp - good soil.
Several large black bears seen here.
Ground hogs (marmots, from Duffy's description) and sheep.
Bear pools.
Great quantities of goose and raspberries.
47 1/2     Good soil.
Bilberries very plentiful.
48 Grouse plentiful.
27 1/4
30 1/4
37 1/2
END (BCR and Hwy <fi)
(Green River)
report"« pais
from me-'
purrard lnler
3 days travel
and a oood trail
bcptoratbn of the Indian trail up
Cayoosh Creek lb bllooef Lake, by
Sapper James Duffy Roya Engineers
September 18q0
Summit I
tes Lk)1
Rjrt" Anderson
5* Co
(Poffty Lake)
Lai<e Melvin
Great dri.
or Colon bridge
tfi) Indians
inXsV,/ Port r\ndersort in
v£- a dovy a«d a half
\Mclvtn Uke)
Creek)      Xfeownfon
Modern names ox*, shown
in (brackets).
Ml other names and notes
taken from lames Duffy, RE
®-<w^"Duffy's route and camps
Sketch showing botn Routes-
flneir relative jpositlon to each
*"•>*   TORE*
\ Iracmt senf express 4-H' Od 18^0
Mr Brew Av
(, Itoanqs «enT express 4-" Ucr ItW r.e,v
te <y Woo^ ccl+w, ar Ne* ^feUinsren*    j^t        Appendix E> -20-
Book Reviews
CHILDREN IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.  Mary Ashworth, Vancouver, B.C.: New Star Books,
1979. Pp. iv, 238; illus.; $6.50 pa; $14.95 cl.
The Forces Which Shaped Them is an educational history of five important
minority groups in British Columbia—native Indians, Chinese, Japanese, Doukhobors,
and East Indians.  The chapter on native Indians is the longest and one of the
most interesting. Tracing the efforts of the early missionaries, it focuses on
the residential schools, the suppression of language and culture, and ends with
recent attempts to provide a policy for native education. All the chapters, of
course, deal with discrimination, but the ways of discrimination were often
strange and varied.  The sections on the Chinese and Doukhobors, for example,
reveal the odd quirks of racism—how in the former case popular opinion favored
dispensing with any public obligation to educate the race, preferring instead to
allow the Chinese to run their own segregated schools; and how in the latter case,
popular opinion seemed to favor compulsory attendance in state run schools.
One of the strengths of the book is that it attempts to bring matters up to
date.  This characteristic may well stem from the fact that Ashworth is not a
professional historian and is thus less apt to be satisfied with a period piece.
This is not to demean the professional since he is often quite right in seeing
clearly defined periods in history.  It is possible concerning the Doukhobors,
for instance, that most of the story ended years ago. Not surprisingly, Ashworth
is least successful in bringing the Doukhobor chapter to the present.
Another strength of the book relates to the author's use of certain "new"
sources, the most effective of which are interviews regarding Doukhobor incarceration in the Girls' Industrial School in 1932, and the escape from New Denver in
The work might be criticized for failing to use effectively a number of
important works in the field. Ashworth manages to pick up Forrest La Violette's
The Canadian Japanese and World War II (1948)  in her bibliography, but her
relevant chapter does not draw on the work, especially on La Violette's interesting
thesis regarding the level of self-consciousness in British Columbia and its
relationship to the social position of Orientals.  Nor does she employ Tien-Fang
Cheng's Oriental Immigration (1931), a crucial contribution to the literature on
the Oriental problem by an Oriental, a book which, like N. Lascelles Ward's tract
Oriental Missions in British Columbia  (1925), would have moved her more into a
critical discussion of the alleged inassimilability of Orientals.
The book fails to detail a social theory which might make the minority problem in British Columbia more understandable. This weakness may be less the fault
of Ashworth than of a publishing industry which for its own survival cannot become
too theoretical. Where there is theory, after all, can tedium be far behind?
Such is the thinking of many "popular" publishing houses.
These shortcomings aside, the overall impression The Forces Which Shaped Them
leaves is favorable. The book is unified and nicely illustrated.  It is eminently
readable, and the frequent long quotations rather than detract, lend a documentary
air, credible and illuminating, capturing the essence poignantly at times. More
than that, the book is interesting—a point many professional historians could well
David C. Jones, University of Calgary. -21-
Arcom, 1979. pp. 88, illus., $8.50 softcover, $24.95 casebound.
This publication traces the history of British Columbia's seats of government with particular emphasis on the present day Parliament Buildings and its restoration. Under the general editorship and authorship of Martin Segger, contributing
authors Douglas Franklyn, Robert Watt and George Giles have chapters reflective
of their areas of expertise. The word chapters is used loosely as the general
feeling of the publication is that of a collection of short stories sharing the
same main character. Each in its field is authoritative, but the disparate
styles and aims make for an uneven whole.
The book starts with an introduction that fits the Parliament Buildings
into its historical, social and stylistic context.  Similar public edifices across
Canada are discussed, as is the need for such a building in British Columbia.
Architectural influences and prevailing aesthetics are considered.  Chapter two
is a somewhat breathless excerpt from the Victoria Times of February 10, 1898
entitled "A Marble Palace" which made this reviewer wish for a complete period
photographic record of the unknown correspondent's tour.  Instead, fine present
day photographs of the Buildings are interspersed throughout this text, illustrative
of the unknown correspondent's remarks, but, their juxtaposition with copy is disconcerting. For instance the reference to mosaic floor occurs on page 20, with
a tantalizing close-up detail photographed.  The floor is not revealed entirely
until page 28.  Generally, throughout the publication, recent photographs take
precedence in size and location over historical photographs and illustrations.  This
is unfortunate as present day visitors can see much of the Buildings themselves
but few have ready access to the historical details. Mention must also be made of
the marginal notations. At first it was hard to decide whether they were precis
or additional information. At the risk of quibbling, I would suggest cut lines
under photographs and illustrations rather than on opposing pages would be preferable.
The chapter written about previous Government Buildings, particularly those
appealing oddities, "The Bird Cages" , certainly puts the present Buildings into
historical perspective but, being of a relatively ordered mind, this reviewer
would have appreciated having the information in the introduction to the book.
A possible progression of chapters might have evolved with chronological reorganization.  The Design Competition and the subsequent triumph of F.M. Rattenbury is
next detailed. The inclusion of illustrations of five competing designs confirms
the happy choice made by the committee.
The section devoted to the individual creators and firms who worked on the
building deserves further treatment, and one looks forward to an expanded, detailed
book or pamphlet to use as an on-the-spot guide. The story of the restoration
naturally follows from an examination of craftsmen, and is treated as an epilogue.
In a mere two and a half pages it condenses what must have been a Herculean effort
that is still underway. Again, a book or paper devoted to the history of the restoration, the techniques used and those developed would be a happy adjunct to
existing information.
Any reservations about this publication centre more on its style and presentation. The basic historical information is well researched and well written, but
one must ask for whom? Is it intended as a guide book for the layman which the
glossy format suggests, or is it for the interested admirer of art, architecture
and history as the text suggests? Combining the two has resulted in an uneven
Tom Palfrey, B. C. Provincial Museum. -22-
TRAIL BETWEEN TWO WARS  Elsie G. Turnbull.  Victoria:Morriss Printing, 1980.  Pp 93,
illus. $6.00
Students of Trail history have recently welcomed a third major work by
Mrs. Elsie Turnbull on the history of the 'Silver City', entitled Trail Between
Two Wars .  This book is a follow-up to Mrs. Turnbull's very successful Topping's
Trail published in 1964, and covers the period 1911 to 1945.  This period in Trail's
history is one of growth and prosperity for the town following the successful advancements of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Co. (CM. & S. Co.) smelter in
Tadanac (now Cominco Ltd.).  An account of this period is long overdue and Mrs.
Turnbull has filled this void in Trail's recorded history very well.
Any history of Trail must inevitably contain a history of the CM. & S. Co..
Trail's future has always hinged on the fortunes of the smelter and the city's
growth and prosperity closely parallels that of the Company.  In her foreward Mrs.
Turnbull indicates her theme - the growth of the community and the CM. & S.
Company, the part the town played in the successes and failures of the Company,
and the stewardship of the Company by S.G. Blaylock and his influence and role in
community affairs.
Mrs. Turnbull has attempted to do justice to all of these, a difficult task
in 93 pages when writing a history of the Company alone in this period would be a
major undertaking.  If Mrs. Turnbull has one failing in this book it is the emphasis she has placed on the development of the CM. & S. Co., in particular the
career of Blaylock.  This is particularly noticeable in the chapters on the 1930's
and the World War II years.  She devotes one chapter alone to the C M. & S.
Company's pioneer use of airplanes for mineral exploration in the north.  I question
this connection to Trail's history.
As the book progresses through the 1920's and 1930's, Mrs. Turnbull provides
the reader with less a history of Trail and more a history of the CM. & S. Company.
This is not a major criticism as her story of the Company is interesting and well
written. Mrs. Turnbull's treatment of the career of Blaylock is excellent and long
overdue.  However, more of a balance between the Company's history and the town's
would have made the book that much more enjoyable.
Mrs. Turnbull does, in touching briefly on events or people prominent in
Trail's history, spark an interest in pursuing our history further. It is a
period in Trail's history that has not been explored and Mrs. Turnbull's work is
most welcome.  The author has a fluent writing style making her works easy and
enjoyable to read.  They are well organized and researched and provide a good
reference for further study.
By and large an enjoyable book, a must for anyone interested in Kootenay
history and, on a broader scale, the unique evolution of the industrial company
town in B. C
Jamie Forbes, Trail City Archives. -23-
Translated by Patricia Paxton.  Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1980.
pp. xiv, 427, illus., maps.
The writing of Canadian history has changed significantly during the past
two decades.  This change has involved two distinct elements: the nature of
research questions and the type of sources which are brought to bear on those
questions. The traditional focus on great men and events has expanded to include
all forms of popular experience and even subtle aspects of social change.  Similarly,
conventional emphasis on literary evidence such as newspapers, government records,
and personal correspondence has given way to pursuit of information about the
inarticulate.  Historians have found this information in sources like the census,
land records, and assessment rolls. Fernand Ouellet's Lower Canada, 1791-1840: Social
Change 6^ Nationalism offers an example of certain aspects of these current trends
in historical thinking and should be of interest to historians of British Columbia.
Ouellet divides the history of Lower Canada between 1791 and 1840 into two
periods.  The first period endures until 1815 and was the product of structural
changes and ideological shifts dating from the time of the conquest.  Ouellet
argues that economic developments reorganized Lower Canadian society; a merchant
bourgeoisie emerged, tradesmen became important, and rural society diversified.
These developments engendered an effective challenge to traditional power groups,
the aristocracy and the clergy, and thereby led to a new political realignment
which lasted until the early nineteenth century.  Significantly, however, this
realignment was not predominantly characterized by cultural tension although the
seeds of such tension are evident as early as 1800.
In Ouellet's analysis, the 1815-40 period must be understood in the context
of French Canadian nationalism and the dominance of ethnic struggle.  Ouellet
emphasizes that at the root of these phenomena was a severe social crisis which
tore apart Lower Canada.  This crisis was brought on by the demographic pressure
of rapid population growth and by economic difficulties associated with soil exhaustion and land shortage.  In this context, urban and rural discontent came to
be expressed in cultural terms, most significantly in the Rebellion of 1837-1838.
Although this "revolutionary adventure" failed, the establishment of cultural
tension had lasting importance.
Many of the questions which Ouellet considers in the case of Lower Canada
are also appropriate to other times and places including British Columbia.  One
example concerns the relative importance and interrelationships of cultural conflict and social division.  Similarly, Ouellet's research strategy represents
fresh avenues of approach.  Ouellet supports his analysis by reference to the ideas
of major leaders but, more importantly, by also examining population patterns,
economic change, and political behaviour including voting results.  Evidence from
sources such as the census, poll books, and parish account documents form an important dimension of Ouellet's approach to the questions of social change and
nationalism.  This evidence is not examined in the style of the "New Social History"
but is used to establish a general context within which the activities of certain
groups and individuals can be properly understood. The Rebellion thus becomes
more than the experience of a small number of political and social leaders; rather,
it represents decades of social and ideological development involving the entire
population of Lower Canada. This perspective has broad application and represents
a major strength of recent historical writing.
Finally, Lower Canada, 1791-1840 is important as one of the few English
translations of a major work concerning Quebec.  The translation itself is smooth
and accurate.
Chad Gaffield, University of Victoria. -24-
1858-1930.  Rolf Knight.  Vancouver:  New Star Books, 1978 Price $6.50 paper,
$13.95 hard cover.
Native history in Canada has been dominated by a few main themes such as
government-native relations, missionary programmes among natives, the role of the
mounted police, and the contact phenomenon.  This book, along with a few others,
begins the difficult task of broadening out beyond the traditional preoccupations.
It attacks a myth manifest in our historical views of Indians: that once the
white man became established, the native people faded into villages of poverty
on remote reserves, unable to adjust to white society. Knight demonstrates how
inaccurate that view is.  He strips the layers of romanticism and paternalism of
the traditional views and advances effectively a new argument: that B.C. Indians,
at least, adjusted well to the advent of the white man's economy between 1858-1930.
Knight makes his point by methodically examining a series of industries
in turn. He looks at the fur trade, cottage industries, farming, fishing, canning,
the merchant marine, the forest industries, mining, railway construction, and
casual labour, and, in each case, finds significant Indian participation.  He
demonstrates that the Natives as a group were stable, resourceful employees who
played a major role in the opening and development of the province. He also
documents several instances where Indians became successful entrepreneurs, farmers,
and fishermen.  He also shows that many Indians made an easy adjustment to white
man's technology, and he does not accept the common notion that Natives had any
particular difficulty in adjusting to white work systems.
Throughout the book, there is a tendency to see Indians as part of a large
amorphous work force buffeted by the harsh way in which the province was developed.
Somewhat like many whites, they floated from job to job, finding work where they
could, usually in areas close to where they lived.  In many instances, Indians
were similar to the navvies, the blanketstiffs and the immigrant workers who flowed
through B.C. for much of the period Knight discusses.  In many other instances,
they were like the thousands of subsistence farmers or small fishermen who were
unable to withstand the assaults of better financed, better educated competitors.
One corollary of this view is that we mustn't be too hasty in assuming a kind of
permanence to white work patterns in the years before 1930.  Mobility, for both
whites and Natives, was a fact of life; most economies were localized, work was
varied, and security was rare.  In that environment, Knight shows the Indians fared
One hesitates to criticize a book so obviously born of hard work and dedicated
labour. Nevertheless, a few weaknesses should be mentioned.  First, the volume
shows the need for better editing. The syntax is often convoluted, and the organizational structure is weak.  It reads as a series of virtually independent essays
ended by a remarkable Appendix which surveys Indian-white relations generally.
Surely, it would have been better to develop this context throughout the book.
Second, the author should have discussed the nature and weaknesses of his
sources more explicitly.  Normally, historians can avoid such a discussion, but
historians of Native themes can rarely do so.  Specifically, Knight seems not to
have examined the records of the Department of Indian Affairs and its predecessors,
except for its publications.  This may explain the frequent vagueness as to numbers
and trends. He relies for effect—and perhaps because of problems with his sources—
upon examples or small groups of people. How reliable are the generalizations that -25-
are then made? Third, the author, in attempting to correct over-emphasizes on
racism, perhaps errs in hardly taking it into account at all.  Surely, the
attitudes and institutions emerging from white societies must have had an effect,
even in the years before 1930.
Nevertheless, Knight has made an important contribution.  He has argued
effectively that until recently Indian people in B.C.—and perhaps, he suggests,
across Canada—were important participants in wage economics and commodity production.  It will be fascinating to see if other researchers exploring the same
theme elsewhere find the same result.  It will be equally fascinating to see how
reserve dependence and semi-permanent unemployment became institutionalized in
the years since 1930.  Knight has presented a new and stimulating interpretation
for all those who are interested in the role of Native people in our society.
Ian MacPherson, University of Victoria.
News and Notes
President's Message to Members of the British Columbia Historical
Greetings in this new year of 1981!
It is good to report that 1980 saw the BCHA take significant steps in providing services to individuals and societies working to preserve our province's
heritage.  Many of our members remain unaware of the proposals and accomplishments
of the executive council of this organization because only a minority of member
clubs takes advantage of its right to take part in Council discussions.  This provides me with the opportunity of bringing them to the attention of all. We may
take pride in the record of 1980 which is only made possible by the dedication,
the generosity, and the drive of our volunteers, some of whom are mentioned below.
You are all aware, of course, of the contribution of our editors, Pat Roy
and Terry Eastwood, who vacate their posts with the completion of Volume 14 of the
British Columbia Historical News. They leave with our regret, gratitude and best
wishes. As yet, no successor has been appointed.
The low scale of membership fees has proved insufficient to offset the cost
of publishing the News for some years.  Since our first application to it in 1978,
the Ministry of the Provincial Secretary has provided a subsidy supplying the
deficit.  In Canada, most journals of provincial historical associations are
supported in part by public funding.  The revenue from our membership fee structure
provides nothing for the administrative costs of the BCHA. We could forge stronger
links with our member societies, improve inter-communication and build up membership if funds were available for travelling, etc. by the officers, and thus create
a stronger provincial organization.
Last spring, we received an additional sum in the provincial grant which
enabled us to conduct a subscription drive, in which some 950 sample copies of
Volume 14, number 1 were mailed to Canadian institutions viewed as possible subscribers to the News. -26-
If escalating costs do not abort the project, a portion of the grant just
received is to be spent converting the physical format of the News to one which
is more attractive, more compact and more easily shelved,  commencing with Volume
15 in the Fall of 1981.  So much for the News!
These last two summers, our second vice-president, Winnifred Weir, has
organized meetings of historical groups of the East Kootenays in the interests
of mutual co-operation and the exchange of ideas.  We are, also, developing a
liaison with the federation of historical societies in the Okanagan Valley.
In future, you will receive  a report by Arlene Bramhall of a publications
assistance fund for our members, set up by means of a gift from an anonymous
donor and added to by the Nanaimo Historical Society. We hope that this will
prove to be a revolving fund such as is our convention fund, provided from the
surplus of Nanaimo's convention of 1979.  Conference hosts may draw on this latter
account, the sum to be returned after the event.
Are there would-be historians in your region who would benefit from a workshop in the researching, writing and publishing of local history? The well-known
chroniclers of B.C. history, Philip and Helen Akrigg, our past president, have
been conducting most informative sessions in a series organized by our first vice-
president, Barbara Stannard, and their success has led us to establish a seminar
fund.  Mrs. Stannard's interim report appears in this issue.
Our 1981 convention is preparing a programme as varied and interesting as
that which we enjoyed so much in Princeton. Chairman Turner of the convention
committee when discussing it at our November Council meeting, informed us that
delegates can register at the convention hotel in Cranbrook, The Inn of the South,
where our meetings are to take place. Convention dates are May 28, 29, 30 and 31.
For this event the Vancouver Historical Society has offered to prepare a display
for the exhibit and sale of members' publications.
I feel sure that those registering the East Kootenay Historical Association's
convention will find it to be both stimulating and rewarding, and I look forward
to meeting many of you at that time.
December 20, 1980 Ruth Barnett, President.
B.C.H.A. Seminars
Two very successful seminars were held under the auspices of the B.C.H.A.
with Dr. and Mrs. G.P.V. Akrigg presenting them both.
The first was held September 30 and October 1, 1980 in Golden.  The format
took the form of an illustrated lecture on Gold Rush Days in early B.C. on September 30, and a talk on B.C. place names on October 1 to the High School students of
the area. This seminar was very well received.
The second seminar was held in Nanaimo at Malaspina College on November 8,
1980 with a different format.  The morning session presented place names studies,
local histories, and teaching B. C history.  The afternoon session was researching
B. C history and writing and publishing B. C history. An interesting discussion period followed. This seminar was well received with good attendance and
with favorable comment. -27-
I feel this is a very worthwhile project for the B.C.H.A. to sponsor.  It
takes the work of the society to a larger section of interested persons.
Barbara N. Stannard
News From the Branches
heard W. H. Espey, a retired customs officer, speak on interesting and amusing
events in his career at Churchill, Manitoba, Chemainus, and Nanaimo.
Mrs. Tom Twentyman recently gave the society a painting she had done of one
of the oldest houses in Chemainus, "the old Lewis house," which was torn down
last year.
VANCOUVER - According to the November newsletter of the VANCOUVER HISTORICAL
SOCIETY, members of that branch have recently enjoyed tours of the Historical
Photograph Section of the Vancouver Public Library and of the North Shore, its
Archives and its Museum.  They are looking forward to a Ukrainian New Year's
Luncheon in January. Among their recent speakers have been Victor Wilson and
Harley Hatfield on the Cascade Historic Trails Wilderness and Rhonna Fleming on
the current scene in Vancouver Heritage affairs.
VICTORIA - The VICTORIA branch has published over thirty "Family Capsules"
in a twelve page booklet.  Copies of these brief histories of Victoria families
are for sale at $1.00 each.
Members enjoyed their annual Christmas Dinner early in December.  The
guest speaker, Provincial Archivist, John Bovey, spoke on "Riding to the Hounds
in the Cariboo." At the regular November meeting, Reuben Ware addressed the
Victoria section on "The Songhees Indian Reserve."
Historic school buildings
The Canadian Inventory of Historic Building is about to begin a study on
early schools in Canada. As a base for this work, we would like to locate any
buildings constructed as schools in Canada before 1930.  If there is such a
building in your area and you would like to see it included in the study, please
write to:  School Study, Canadian Inventory of Historic Building, Parks Canada,
Ottawa, Ontario K1A 1G2.
The winner of the contest in the last issue is P.L. Miller of Golden.  The
editors wish to thank everyone who took part.  To judge by the entries spelling
is not a lost art.  The word apropos seemed to be the stickiest wicket.
Congratulations to P.L. Miller, who has won a copy of The Colour of British
Columbia. -28-
BAIN, Donald M.  Canadian Pacific in the Rockies.  Calgary, Calgary Group of
the British Railway Modellers of North America, 1978.
GLEN, J., sr.  Where the rivers meet: the story of the settlement of the
Bulkley Valley.  Duncan, New Rapier Press, 1977. 118 p., ill. $5.95
HUNGRY WOLF, Adolf. Rails in the Canadian Rockies. 2nd ed. Invermere, B.C
Good Medicine Books, 1980. (iv) 368 p., ill. $35.00
KEENE, Roger, and David C Humphreys.  Conversations with W. A. C Bennett:
based on a series of interviews conducted by Roger Keene, background scenario
by David C Humphreys.  Toronto, Methuen, 1980, xii, 146 p., ill. $16.95
ville, Committee, 1979.  357 p., ill.
KOPAS, Cliff.  Bella Coola.  Vancouver, Douglas & Mclntyre, 1980. 296 p., ill.
MENNONITE BENEVOLENT SOCIETY OF B.C. The beginning and the work of the Mennonite
Benevolent Society in B.C. from 1953 until 1978.  (Abbotsford) Society, 1978.
81 p., ill.  In English and German. Cover title: Miracle on Marshall Road: 25
years of the Mennonite Benevolent Society of B.C.  1953 - 1978.
MUNICIPAL HISTORICAL SOCIETY. "Your Worship, Members of Council"; highlights
from municipal reform movements in the Lower Mainland. Vancouver, Society,
1980. 104 p. $4.95.
QUIMBY, George Irving, and Bill Holm.  Edward Curtis in the land of the war canoes.
Vancouver, Douglas & Mclntyre, 1980. 132 p., ill $18.95.
ROY, Patricia E.  Vancouver: an illustrated history.  Toronto, James Lorimer,
1980. ill. $24.95.
WHEELER, Marilyn, comp. & ed.  The Robson Valley story: sketches by John Wheeler,
s.l.; Produced with the help of the government of Canada's New Horizons Programme by the McBride Robson Valley Story Group, 1979. viii, 376 p., ill $21.00.
The files of defunct firms may not sound the most exciting source of documents
but they can contain some very useful information for social, economic, business
and labour historians.  They reveal the date of registration and the location of
the registered company; lists of directors and shareholders, including their
occupations and addresses; information about the capital structure and some annual
balance sheets, especially if they were public companies; and the Memorandum and
Articles of Association give details about the company's objectives and the legal
framework within which it operated. As a number of British Columbian firms were -29-
registered in London, the Public Record Office at Kew can be an important source
of documents because the Companies Registration Office of the Board of Trade has
most of its pre-World War II records lodged there.
These records are listed under the classification BT 31, Files of Dissolved
Companies 1856-1948 and each company has an individual number.  There is an
index, two large bound volumes, in which many of the companies are listed by
name, but P.R.O. archivists hasten to remind you that this index is not exhaustive
and that the only complete listing is on the catalogue cards at the Companies
Registration Office.  In order to get a full listing even for British Columbia
one would need at least two years full time work, because every catalogue card would
have to be checked and a very large number of the individual files would
also have to be scrutinised. An additional complication arises from the fact that
a destruction schedule was drawn up in 1950 and most of the extant files are
incomplete. Only the first and last and every intermediate fifth of the
annual returns has been retained. However, a one per cent sample of the files
has been preserved in its entirety.
There is also another group of records classified as BT 34, Dissolved
Companies, Liquidators' Accounts 1890-1932. This is a much smaller collection
because liquidators' accounts were only deposited with the Registrar of
Companies as a result of the Companies (Winding Up) Act 1890.
Any researcher who has the name of a firm he wishes to trace can easily
check with the Reference Room of the P.R.O. in order to ascertain if the company
in question was one of British registration and whether any papers survive.
I have prepared a list of sample British Columbian firms that gives an indication
of some of the sorts of companies which were registered, but mining and land
development ventures are prevalent. The listing was derived by using geographical
place-names and is not exhaustive given that,basis of selection. Moreover there
are many other companies whose names began with Canada or Canadian and upon
closer inspection it may be discovered that some of them relate specifically to
British Columbia.
Graydon Henning - University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales.
[Editor's note:  Graydon Henning's list is on file in the Manuscript Division
of the Provincial Archives, Victoria, from where a copy of it may be obtained.]
The address of the Public Record Office is Ruskin Avenue, Kew, Richmond,
Surrey TW9 4D4, England.
There are 33,943 boxes of these records and nearly all of them contain at least
five files.
The Companies Registration Office was created in 1904.  It is situated at
Companies House, 55-71 City Road, London EC1Y IBB, England. MEMBER SOCIETIES
(The individual societies listed below are
responsible for the accuracy of address, etc.)
Alberni District Museum and Historical Society, Mrs,
V9Y 7M7.   723-3006.
C Holt, Box 284, Port Alberni,
Atlin Historical Society, Mrs. Christine Dickenson, Box 111, Atlin, VOW 1A0.
BCHA, Gulf Islands Branch, Elsie Brown, R.R. #1, Mayne Island, VoN 2J0.
BCHA, Victoria Branch, Francis Gundry, 255 Niagara, Victoria, V8V 1G4.  385-6353.
Burnaby Historical Society, Una Carlson, 6719 Fulton Ave., Burnaby, V5E 3G9.   522-8951
Campbell River & District Historical Society, Julie 0'Sullivan, 1235 Island Highway,
Campbell River, VOW 2C7.
Chemainus Valley Historical Society, Mrs. B. W. Dickie, Box 172, Chemainus, VOR 1K0.
Cowichan Historical Society, P.O. Box 1014, Duncan, B. C V9L 3Y2.
Creston & District Historical and Museum Society, Margaret Moore, Box 253, Creston,
V0B 1G0.  428-4169.
District #69 Historical Society, Mrs. Mildred Kurtz, Box 74, Parksville, VOR ISO.
Elphinstone Pioneer Museum Society, Box 755, Gibsons, VON 1V0.  886-2064.
Golden & District Historical Soriety, Fred Bjarnason, Box 992, Golden, VOA 1H0.
Gulf Islands Branch: BCHA, Mrs. M. Ratzlaff, Box 35, Saturna Island, B. C VON 2V0
Historical Association of East Kootenay, Mrs. A. E. Oliver, 670 Rotary Drive,
Kimberley, VOA 1E3.  427-3446.
Kettle River Museum Society, Alice Evans, Midway, V0H 1M0. - 449-2413.
Ladysmith New Horizons Historical Society, Mrs. B. Berod, Box 130, Ladysmith, B. C
Maple Ridge & Pitt Meadows Historical Society, Mrs. T. Mutas, 12375-244th Street,
Maple Ridge. V2X 6X5.
Nanaimo Historical Society, Linda Fulton, 1855 Latimer Road, Nanaimo, V9S 2W3.
Nootka Sound Historical Society, Beverly Roberts, Box 712\  Gold River, V0P 1G0.
North Shore Historical Society, Doris Ble^tt, 1671 Mountain Highway, North Vancouver
V7J 2M6.
Princeton & District Pioneer Museum, Margaret Stoneberg, Box 687, Princeton, VOX 1W0.
Sidney and North Saanich Historical Society, Mrs. Ray Joy, 10719 Bayfield Road, R.R. 3.
Sidney, V8L 3P9.   656-3719.
La Societe historique franco-colombienne, #9, East Broadway, Vancouver, V5Z 1V4
Trail Historical Society, Mrs. M. Powell, 1798 Daniel Street, Trail, V1R 4G8 368-9697
Vancouver Historical Society, Irene Tanco, Box 3071, Vancouver, V6V 3X6. 685-1157
Wells Historical Society, Ulla Coulsen, Box 244, Wells, V0K 2R0.
Williams Lake Historical & Museum Committee, Reg. Beck, Box 16, Glen Drive, Fox
Mountain, R.R. #2, Williams Lake
Windermere District Historical Society, Mrs. E. Stevens, Box 784, Invermere, VOA 1K0


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