British Columbia History

BC Historical News Jun 30, 1976

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Vol. 9 No. 4        ISSN 0045-2963 June 1976
Published November, February, April and June each year by
the British Columbia Historical Association, and distributed
free to members of all affiliated societies by the secretaries
of their respective societies.  Subscription rate to non-
members: $5.00 Canadian per year, including postage, directly
from the Editor, P.A. Yandle, 3450 West 20th Avenue,
Vancouver, B.C. V6S 1E4.
Deadline for submissions: the 10th day of each month of issue,
NOTE SOCIETY SECRETARIES: Please report any change of name
and address directly to the Editor.
Executive 1975-76
Hon. Patron: Lieut-Gov. Walter Owen
Hon. President: Dr Margaret Ormsby
President: Mr Frank Street
Past President: Col. G.S. Andrews
1st Vice-President; Mr Jack Roff
2nd Vice-President: Mr Alf Slocomb
Secretary: Miss J.Rowland
Recording Secretary: Dr Patricia Roy
Editors: Mr & Mrs P.A. Yandle
Treasurer: Mr Kent Haworth
Executive members: Mr Donald New
Mr Rex Tweed
Convention '76 - Victoria Page
Society notes and comments 4
Jottings 6
Minutes 8
Book Reviews:
Ghost town trails... by T.W. Paterson 11
The best of Bob Edwards, ed by Hugh Dempsey 11
Kootenaiana. 12
Report from the Provincial Archives 14
B.C. Books of Interest 14
Pictures of the Convention - facing pages 14 and 15
The Lions Gate Bridge - the Great Canadian Bridge
Game. Part I. Bennett Plays his Hand, by Joan
Stockdill 16
The cover for this issue, the last in the series on Indian
canoes, features Nootka canoe types, drawn by Robert Genn.
EDITOR'S NOTE:  Since the staff of the News were on a European
safari there will not be the usual report in doggerel on the
Convention.  In its place here are the observations of several
Jaak Roff:  A Tour of Victoria Harbour with Ainslie Helmcken
Mr Ainslie Helmcken recalled the early days of the harbour
as we stood by the "Iron Rings" on the site of the Hudson's
Bay Company fort facing the Customs House, built by the Federal
Government in 1874, under the terms of Confederation.  Across
the water was the Songhees village where the speaker remembered
the last potlatch held there when silver dollars were given
away.  Here, in the late 1800's each family was granted the
"fortune" of $10,000 for his land, and in return was given new
land for settlement in Esquimalt.  Plans for development followed,
ranging from an elaborate system of locks and tidal basins, to
the more prosaic one of pilings and land fill.  One problem lay
with the dozens of islets and ledges, which were drilled and
blasted to allow boats to enter safely.  In the expansion that
followed passenger and freight schedules became very competitive
and a trip to Seattle could be made for 25c, with a "beer to go".
The unloading of ships was a memory of clouds of dust, as
the cattle and sheep were brought ashore to be driven through
the streets to the slaughter house beyond Blanshard.
Hichael Halleran:  Some Random Comments from the Banquet
Address of Ainslie Helmcken
Ainslie's reminiscences of his grandfather were a series
of anecdotes of a man who had been somewhat passed by, by time,
when Ainslie arrived on the scene.  One might be reminded of
Tennyson's lines from "In Memoriam":
'The last red leaf is whirl'd away,
The rooks are blown about the skies.'
The old gentleman distrusted the telephone, which he permitted in the house only to please his daughter Dolly.  When the
device had to be used, he would stand at a distance and shout at
it.  The prospect of a ride in a motor-car driven by his grandson
was a terrifying thought , and the last  straw in a changing
world was when Ainslie joined the R.C.A.F. and actually flew over
the very same Niagara Falls which had so amazed the Doctor on his
eastern trip for the Confederation discussions a half-century
before.  Even in his old age the Doctor still  continued the
generous and lavish family entertainments that must have brightened
life in Fort Victoria.
An interesting aside might be that several people present for
the talk were of an age that placed them close to Dr Helmcken's generation, rather than that of Ainslie or the majority of the
audience.  There was at least one gentleman present who had been
a card partner of the Doctor's, and a lady, or ladies, who had
been admirers of Sir Henri Joly de Lotbinie"re (Lieutenant-Governor
1900-1906), when Ainslie was a child.  The Doctor always wore
a blue serge suit and black "string tie", and was considered an
easy touch by beggars and anyone with a. hard luck story.  Probably his greatest contribution to notoriety was a crude song he
used to sing, called "Uncle Ben", which he would render at mixed
gatherings and at New Year's.  This would be considered something
of an outrage by some modern ideas of propriety if not morality!-
Ruth Barnett:  Field Trip to Washington State - Port Townsend.
A perfect day, and coastal scenery brightened by summer
flowers, made our bus  trip to Port Townsend a delight.  The tour
was given us by our hosts, the Jefferson County Historical Society and showed us evidences of the past by both the native people
and the coming of the white man.
We were shown a Makah canoe which is on display at almost
the exact point where Captain George Vancouver landed and named
the spot Port Townsend in 1792.  Chetzemoka Park, a memorial
dedicated to the memory of a friendly Indian Chief who was otherwise known as the "Duke of York", is situated on the shore line
between Point Wilson and Point Hudson.  His face, as well as that
of one of his wives, "Quean Victoria", is a sculptured feature
of the old brick Customs House built in 1892.  This replaced an
earlier building which centred around a controversy by a customs
collector transferring it to Port Angeles.  A few substantial
frame and brick buildings reflect the tremendous boom of the '80's.
A huge advertisement painted on a brick wall for Bull Durham
tobacco still attracts the eye.  Homes, now restored, range from
the simplicity of the Rothschild House to the 'carpenter's Gothic'
of the Starrett home.  There are mansard roofs, fancy-butt shingles
gazebos, towers, turrets, steeples, wrought iron railings, stained
glass, etc.  Indoors we browsed among antiques of all kinds of
household furnishings.  Outdoors we paused to identify herbs in
an old garden, but it was unfortunately too early for the moss
roses.  An Ailanthus, the 'Tree of Heaven', flourishes just south
of the Washington Street hill.  It was presented by a grateful
captain, whose storm-swept ship found refuge here on its way to
San Francisco carrying a number of trees as a gift from the
Emperor of China.  The port is said to have become a hang-out for
adventurers and desperadoes, and waterfront saloons were found to
contain trapdoors leading to the beach as access for smugglers of
opium, whiskey, wool, and Chinese, and as exits for the purpose of
the shanghaing of crews for the sailing ships.  However, the sea
trade collapsed in the '90's and the harbour became a boneyard of
the squareriggers, of which, unhappily, none remain.
Representing the gentler side of life is the Episcopalian
Church built in 1865,reminiscent of our Church of England buildings of the same period.  Abandoned by the military and never
involved in war, Fort Worden is a typical example of such Federal
establishments erected at the turn of this century. There is so much to see and dwell on in this quiet town,
Our two bus-loads of members found that Stephanie and Norman
Manson, along with Celia and Tom Hughes, all of the Victoria
Society, had, indeed, "laid on an attraction".
ALBERNI   At their February meeting old and new methods of logging
were contrasted; Mr Allen West described the development of the
industry from the use of oxen to logging trains; Mr Douglas
Ruttan showed current sophisticated apparatus such as water
bombers, helicopters, boom-boats, portable and spar trees.
In March, Mr Neilson, Manager of Canadian Overseas Telecommunications (now known as Teleglobe) spoke of the establishment, of
the cable station at Bamfield, its unique place in history, and
changes since the establishment of Port Alberni.  Former Bamfield
cable station operators were invited, and contributed anecdotes
of that period.  In April, Mr Ian Smith, author of "The Unknown
Island" presented "A Look Around the Island".  As Regional Wildlife Biologist, his photographs included some taken when he has
travelled to remote areas by plane and helicopter, and therefore
not seen by most tourists.  At the May meeting Mr Fred Boyko
showed his collection of pictures of the Alberni district, which
covered his hobbies of old logging and mining photos, flowers
and photography.
The Society's contribution to the Youth Festival was two
book prizes for historical essays at the Junior and Senior High
School level.  The winners were presented with their awards by
Prime Minister Trudeau when he closed the Youth Festival.  The
current project of the society is the publication of a book on the
place names of the Alberni Valley.
BURNABY  Mr Harold Steves Jr. addressed the May meeting on the
history of Steveston.  Mr Steves is a descendant of the family
who were the first white settlers on Lulu Island.  The annual
field trip on June 13th was a tour of historic spots along the
Fraser River.  The tour included the old Grauer General Store;
the old interdenominational church in Richmond Park; past the
McKim farm, old,Lon(ion House and deserted ferry dock to the red-
painted bunk houses and shops that once constituted a Chinese
community.  With the historic village of Steveston as its goal,
the cavalcade wound past the modern Buddhist Church which provided
a sharp contrast to the nearby original mission, bank, hotel and
school buildings.  After a picnic in Minoru Park a visit was paid
to the beautiful old Steves' house, where Mr Steves' father,
Manoah Steves, had originally settled in 1877, and eventually
built up a 400-acre farm, and after xfhom Steveston is now called.
CAMPBELL RIVER  During the summer months of 1975 active members
supervised the operation of the Visitors' Information Centre,
along with a paid staff cf three part-time employees; and that of the Museum with a salaried staff of one professional, one part-
time employee and some 20 volunteers.  Both enterprises are
subsidized by the Municipality, but are the Society's responsibility.  The Society obtained an L.I.P. grant which enabled six
workers to collect and catalogue more material for the archives,
including some 50 tapes.   T.V. programmes have been presented
on the local outlet.  Meetings instead of being held monthly
are now held only when a fine programme has been prepared.
Programmes at general meetings have included reminiscences of
pioneer life on Saturna Island by Dolly Payne Richardson, Nimpkish
Chief James Sewid of Alert Bay speaking on the Law of the Sea
conferences, the classic Curtis film 'Land of the War Canoes' and
the History and Repair of Contemporary and Antique Dolls by the
Slemins of the Courtenay & District Historical Society.
The substantial surplus from the 1975 Convention will be
used for the publication of local history.  During the year the
Provincial Archives held a workshop on oral history for the Society
CHEMAINU3  Pioneer Cemetery on Kuper Island, which ±u   deeded to
the local Society, was visited by one work party during the year,
and was cleaned of scrub growth and weeds.  Up until this time,
the only access to this area was by private boat, making it
difficult to gather together a large work party, due to  boats
and workers not being able to meet at the same time.  A car ramp
has been added to the ferry-slip, which will make it easier to
reach the cemetery.  The biggest progress this past year has been
the gathering of material for a book on the local pioneers.
Mrs Lillian Gustafson and her co-workers have made great headway
in this, and the book will be going to print later this year.
Only source of income for the Society has been the sale of "Water
Wheel" prints.  Mrs Audrey Ginn has made a great effort in this
Mr Ray Knight of Ladysmith spoke to the Society at one of
their meetings.  He showed slides and described the early logging
days and of the time when the coal mines were active iii Extension,
south of Nanaimo.  Later in the year, Miss E. Blanche Norcross
spoke on the life of Dr John Chapman Davie and his descendants.
The number of meetings held was severely curtailed due to the fact
that the Rotary-Kin Hall was almost destroyed by fire.  Mr Harry
Olsen, Treasurer for many years, stepped down from office and he
was appointed a life-time Director of the Society.
GULF ISLANDS  In July 1975 the Gulf Islands members joined
Victoria members for a luncheon on Saturna Island.  At the October
meeting Mr Allen Turner, Provincial Archivist, talked on the purpose and use of archives.  The following month Mr Willard Ireland
outlined events at the turn of the century and showed how they
affected conditions today.  At the next meeting in March, Mr
John Borradaile, author of The LAdy of Culzean, told of his
experiences at Point Comfort during the 1920's and 1930's.  At
the annual meeting members saw slides taken by Harvey Janszen the
previous year during a survey of the flora of the Outer Gulf
Islands.  New officers elected were:President; Lorraine Campbell;
Vice-President; Jesse Brown; Secretary; Gillian Allen; Treasurer:
Jack Saunders. In May 1976 members from Pender, Saturna, and Mayne travelled
to Galiano for a supper meeting at which long time residents of
Galiano shared recollections of early incidents on the island.
EAST KOOTENAY  The only news from East Kootenay is that Dave
Kay has resigned as Secretary after 14 years of service, which
must be a severe blow to the Society.  (Editor's note: Many
thanks, Dave, for many years of friendly cooperation.)
WEST KOOTENAY  At its February meeting Mr Leo Telfer spoke on the
mining history in the early days of Rossland, 1924-45.  He told
some interesting stories, with maps to illustrate the area.  At
the annual meeting in March Fred M. Edwards was elected President
and M.T. Jory Secretary-Treasurer.  Members inspected the Museum
premises adjacent to the Council Chamber.  This project has
involved extensive renovation and redecoration of the old R.C.M.P.
quarters in the Trail City Hall.  The Museum was expected to be
fully operative by Late June.  Present at this meeting were
Craig Andrews and Robert Tarplett, producer and cinematographer
respectively, of Trail's 75th anniversary film, scheduled for
release during official Diamond Jubilee festivities 30th June-
lst July.  At the April meeting Duncan Burnham gave an illustrated
talk on trees and the beautification of Trail.  To honour Trail's
anniversary the City is planning to replace trees previously taken
down to provide parking space.
NANAIMO  At the April meeting Mr Zane Lewis, Curator of the
Nanaimo Museum told the story of the three routes that were beaten
out in the last century and early in this one, to carry man and
beast Up Island, culminating in the present Malahat Drive.  In
May an audience of about 200 saw a highly successful presentation
of historic costumes of Nanaimo.
VICTORIA  During the year the Oral History Group of the Society
have recorded a number of interviews which have been transcribed
and deposited in the Provincial Archives.  Many members of the
Victoria Society spent a lot of time and effort during the year
planning for the 1976 Convention and deserve much praise for
their successful effort.
The American Association for State and Local History has
issued a new list of its publications.  Here are some titles which
may be of interest to member, societies.  They may be obtained
from the Association at 1400 Eighth Ave South, Nashville,
Tennessee, 37203.
CREIGH, Dorothy Weyer. A primer for local historical societies.
224 pp. illus. $6.50. FELT, Thomas E. Researching, writing, and publishing local
history. 192 pp. illus. $6.00.
WEINSTEIN, Robert A. and Larry Booth.  Collection, use, and care
of historical photographs.  Price not set yet. To be pub. Fall'76.
ALDERSON, William T. Interpretation of historic sites. 189 pp.
illus. $6.00.
SILVESTRO, Clement M. Organizing a local historical society.
38 pp. $2.25.
BAUM, Willa K. Oral history for the local historical society.
64 pp. $3.00.
HARRINGTON, J.C. Archeology  and the historical society. 53 pp.
A Guide for beginning writers on how to  research, write and
publish local histories is also available from the Bookshop,
Provincial Archives of Alberta, 12845 - 102 Ave., Edmonton,
Alberta T5N 0M6.  $1.00 for individuals; free to historical
societies and organizations.
Mrs Hyla Fox, 114 Bombay Avenue, Downsview, Ontario M3H 1C3,
has written to the Association for help in her research on
Canadian samplers.  She would like any information, photographs,
or documents relating to samplers, e.g. seminaries, churches or
parishes where needlework was taught.  She plans to publish a
book on the subject.
The History Department at Simon Fraser University, Burnaby,
has been fortunate in drawing together a group of distinguished
archivists who will be presenting papers at S.F.U. on 5th and 6th
October, 1976 under the general title "The Use of Archives".
Speakers will include the Dominion Archivist, the Keeper of Public
Records, London, the Keeper of the Records of Scotland, a
representative of the Smithsonian Institution, and the B.C.
Provincial Archivist.
From Ruth Barnett, Campbell River Historical Society: a clipping from North Island Gazette, Apr. 22, 1976.  This is a letter
from R.E. Hooley, Lincoln, England, regarding the preservation of
a 1910 Hornsby Steam Tractor which was shipped to the Klondike
gold fields and is now left to moulder away on the beach of Holberg
Inlet.  Mr Hooley writes "We were planning to restore it to new
condition and keep it in the Museum of Lincolnshire Life.  Imagine
my disappointment to learn that the machine cannot now be moved.
What will happen to it now?"  (The tractor was originally manufactured in Lincolnshire.)  It is ironic that the Provincial Act
that protects these artifacts from being stolen or taken from the
province can also lead to their destruction.  This comes under the
jurisdiction of the Mount Waddington Regional Board and it is to
be hoped that rather than let such a valuable piece of history rust
into oblivion they find a way to allow this Museum to acquire and
preserve this piece of old machinery. 8
From D.F. Pearson, B.C. Representative, Canadian Permanent
Committee on Geographical Names:  "Recently I conducted a survey
among people believed to be involved in place names research1in
B.C.  Of the 66 questionnaires sent out 34 were returned.  The
Committee establishes a common set of principles and procedures
governing geographical names, and issues gazetteers for each
province and the territories."  Any of our societies or private
individuals so engaged would be advised to write to Mr D.F. Pearson
for further information.(Surveys & Mapping Branch, Victoria, B.C.)
Minutes of the 1976 Annual General Meeting.
The Annual General Meeting of the B.C. Historical Association
was called to order at 10.15 a.m., June 5th, 1976, in the McLaren
Building at the University of Victoria, by the President, Mr Frank
Street.  Mr Street asked Mr Leeming, President of the Victoria
Branch to introduce Alderman McKenzie who gave a welcome for
Victoria City and District.
Mr Street gave a report of the previous year.  Moved McAllister, seconded Edward: Minutes of the last annual meeting May 24,
1975 in Campbell River be adopted as : read.
Interim Secretary, J. Rowland read the Secretary's report.
Seconded Tweed. Carried.  Mr Street voiced the appreciation of
the Association to Miss Rowland for acting as interim secretary.
Treasurer's report was read by K. Haworth; seconded A. Slocomb,
carried.  Mr Brammall spoke to the report and commented on the
delinquency of some member groups with their assessment.  Mr Leeming presented Victoria's point of view.
Mr Brammall read the Editor's report in the absence of P.
Yandle.  Moved Brammall, seconded Leeming. Carried.  Mr Brammall
thanked Mr Barraclough for his contributions to the News.  Mr
Brammall made further comments on the problems of the publication
of the News due to the increase in circulation.  Mr Street
recommended the incoming Council should take serious consideration
of this report.
The report of the Historic Sites Committee had not been rec'd.
Mb-ved Slocomb, seconded Brammall that K. Leeming be Auditor for
the ensuing year. Carried.
Reports from the following societies were heard:  Atlin (G.
Andrews); Burnaby (R. Millway); Campbell River (R. Barnett);
Chemainus (Mr Stephanson); ' Cowichan Valley (J. Fleetwood); Gulf
Islands (L. Campbell); West Kootenay (F.Edwards); Nanaimo (F.Long);
Port Alberni (J.Joyce); Victoria (K. Leeming). The following societies had no report: Creston, Golden, E.Kootenay, Vancouver & Windermere .
It was moved that municipalities which had given financial
support to their historical societies be given letters of commendation.  Seconded Mackenzie. Carried.
Application for affiliation was received from Bowen Island
Historical Association and Maple Ridge-Pitt Meadows Historical
Association.  Moved Tweed, seconded Millway that Bowen Island be accepted. Carried.  Acknowledgement by Mr Creelman.  Moved
Leeming, seconded Brammall that Maple Ridge-Pitt Meadows be
accepted. Acknowledgement by Mrs Dunning.  A. Bramhall extended
an invitaticr. to hold the 1977 Annual Meeting in Burnaby. Mr
Street accepted for the Association.
Moved Leeming, seconded Slocomb the motion to amend by-law
No. 15.  A very comprehensive discussion ensued.  The motion
was defeated 28 to 6.  By-law No. 9.  Moved Leeming, seconded
Millway. Carried.  No. 10.  Moved Leeming, seconded Rowland.
Carried.  No. 11. Moved Leeming, seconded Rowland. Carried.  No.
11A Moved Leeming, seconded Edwards. Carried.  No. 27. Moved
Leeming, seconded Brammall. Carried.
G. Bramhall recommended a letter be sent to Craigdarroch Castle
Society commending them for their efforts to maintain the castle as
a historic site and to the artist for his contribution to contemporary history.  Mr Roff spoke to the Historical Trails Brief.
Requested that his committee be disbanded.  Moved Roff, seconded
McCook. Carried.  Moved Roff, seconded McCook, that a standing
committee of the B.C.H.A. be established to maintain contact with
government departments and others who are concerned with the protection of historical trails of B.C. Carried.  Moved Tweed, seconded Haworth resolution from Campbell River with addition of 'and
archival materials'. Carried.
Moved Tweed, seconded Leeming Nesbitt Resolution. Carried.
Mr Leeming with the unanimous approval of Council announced that
Phil and Anne Yandle will receive combined Life Membership in
the B.C.H.A.  Mr Leeming, Chairman of the Nominating Committee,
presented the Committee's list of nominationsfor table officers.
The meeting elected unanimously the following officers:
President: Mr Alf. Slocomb, Victoria; 1st Vice-President:
Mr Rex Tweed, Campbell River; 2nd Vice-Pres.: Mrs Winnifred Weir,
East Kootenay;  Secretary: Mrs RUth Barnett, Campbell River;
Recording Secretary: Mrs Arlene Bramhall, Burnaby; Treasurer:
Michael Halleran, Victoria.
A  vote of thanks was given to President Street.  The
meeting adjourned at 12.50 p.m.
Minutes of the last meeting of the 1975-76 Council, Victoria.
The President, Mr F. Street called the meeting to order at
9.00 a.m. June 5th, 1976.  Eighteen members were present;  The
minutes of the previous meeting were approved as circulated.
Moved A. Slocomb, seconded K. Leeming.  A. Bramhall was asked to
act as Recording Secretary in the absence of P. Roy.
J. Roff reported on the brief re historic trails of B.C.  Moved
J. Roff, seconded R. Barnett, that the Council recommend to the
Annual Meeting that a committee be set up to maintain contact and
to keep informed of the status of historic trails in British
Columbia as requested in the brief.
Applications for membership in the Association have been received from Maple Ridge-Pitt Meadows Historical Society and Bowen
Island Historical Society.  Moved Tweed, seconded Leeming the
Council recommend acceptance of these applications.  It was reported that North Shore and Sidney will be making application for
affiliation next year. 10
Correspondence  A resolution was received from Campbell River
concerning the establishment of Regional Heritage Advisory Committees.  Mr Tweed read the resolution and a discussion was held.
No recommendations were made by Council.  Secretary J. Rowland
reported that the Association had purchased a Directory of Historical Associations in the U.S. and Canada.  Mr Tweed reported
that he would be presenting two resolutions concerning Craigdarroch Castle to the Annual Meeting as recommended by J. Nesbitt.
Concerning the resolution for amendments to the By-laws, Mr
Street confirmed that there had been adequate discussion at
previous meetings.  J. Rowland gave a plea for future secretaries
to be more orderly in housekeeping.  Meeting adjourned 9.40 a.m.
Minutes of the first meeting of 1976-77 Council.
The first meeting of the Council was held on June 5, 1976
at 5 p.m. at University of Victoria with 16 members present.
The President, Mr Slocomb was in the chair.
Mr Slocomb welcomed new members.  He asked A. Bramhall to
act as Recording Secretary for the Council Meeting.  Minutes of
the previous meeting were accepted as read.  Mr Tweed read Campbell River's resolution and a discussion  was held.  Mr Slocomb
appointed Mr Tweed to chair a committee to implement the Campbell
River motion.  Mr Street suggested the committee should be open
ended and able to include a member from any group which may need
assistance.  Mr Slocomb recommended that each affiliated
society be notified of this resolution.
Mr Slocomb appointed Mr McCook to be chairman of the Historic
Trails Committee and that this committee should have the power
to add members if necessary.  Mr McCook suggested an inventory
could be made of all historic trails of significance in the province.  Mrs McAllister suggested legal consultation could prove useful particularly if the law of access to foot path is still viable.
New Business  Some members of the Council questioned the timing of
dues collection, i.e. Section 16 of the By-laws.  A discussion was
held.  Moved Tweed, seconded Halleran that the dues date be put
on the Agenda for the next meeting.  Moved Leeming, seconded
Camp bell that the dues assessment for associated groups be $1.00
per member. Carried.
Mr Leeming stated that copies of the rules and regulations
and the amended Constitution should be distributed to all Council
members and affiliated groups.  Moved Leeming, seconded Street
that the attached changes be made to the rules and regulations.
Moved Street, seconded Halleran  that the Co-editors, Mr and
Mrs Yandle be reappointed for the coming year.  Carried.  A discussion was held re the position of Editor and the Association's
indebtedness to the Editor.
Moved Leeming, seconded Street that the new signing officers
be the Treasurer, along with either the President or Col. Andrews.
Mr Street submitted the problem of keeping Triangle Mountain
available to the general public as an historic site.  The problem
was turned over to Mr J. McCook and his Committee.
It was suggested by R. Barnett that the next Council Meeting 11
be in September and at that time we hear reports of the committees.
Mrs Barnett also asked what the plans of the Association were for
the 1978 annual meeting as they related to Campbell River.  Mr
Street explained it would probably be a no host year.  There has
been no action by the Government through their joint committee.
Mrs Barnett suggested if the Government does not take any action
before September the B.C.H.A. should start on a programme.
Mrs Bramhall asked if the dates of the 1977 Convention could
be decided.  President Slocomb suggested Burnaby set tentative
dates and submit them for approval at the next council meeting.
Mrs Barnett suggested the B.C.H.A. should have a publicity person
to make press releases and to serve as a contact with the press.
Mr Nesbitt would like to be notified as to the results of the
Craigdarroch Resolutions.
Meeting adjourned at 6.30 p.m.
Stagecoach Publishing, 1975.  167 pp., illus. $5.95.
Mr T.W. Paterson has greatly enhanced the history of Vancouver Island.  His numerous articles have appeared in the weekend
section of the Victoria Colonist for many years.
I should feel somewhat honoured that a chapter in this book
has been devoted to my discovery of Fort Defiance.  However, I
question the reason for such a historical event to be included in
a book principally chronicling mining ghost towns.
History based on gleanings from newspaper accounts is  bound
to reveal inaccuracies.  Mr Paterson's description of life at Fort
Defiance is as true as can be determined 185 years later, and
had he expended a stamp or a phone call to me, I would have been
most happy to relate the true sequence of  events leading to the
discovery before they appeared in print.
From an amateur historian's point of view, I feel that the book
tends to sensationalize historical fact for the sake of readability.  In summation, I find it difficult to find fault with an
author much more capable of writing than myself, and to be sure,
Mr Paterson has included valuable features of Vancouver Island
history in other chapters, which I have not previously seen in print
Ken Gibson.
Mr Gibson, who lives at Tofino , is a building contractor, and
also Alderman and Fire Chief.
THE BEST OF BOB EDWARDS, edited by Hugh Dempsey. Edmonton, Hurtig,
1976.  272 pp. $8.95.
Robert Chalmers Edwards' skill as a journalist has always been
unquestionable.  Better known as Bob Edwards, or "Eye Opener Bob",
he was as controversial as he was humorous. 12
Hugh Dempsey, the author and editor of The Best of Bob
Edwards, has done a noteworthy service in the publication of
this book.  Being Director of History for the Glenbow-Alberta
Institute at Calgary, he had access to most issues of the Calgary
Eye Opener, that famous (and perhaps notorious) Calgary newspaper
published by Bob Edwards from 1902 to 1922, as well as other pertinent facts pertaining thereto.  He points out in his introduction that this Calgary newspaper was not Edwards' first effort
at journalism.  He had previously become a lively and well known
figure at Wetaskiwin, Alberta, as a writer in the Wetaskiwin
Free Lance, the first newspaper to be published between Calgary
and Edmonton.  In the introduction Mr Dempsey gives a good biographical account of Edwards with some little known facts about him.
The nineteen chapters are a collection of quotes from the
Calgary Eye-Opener;  each chapter on a separate subject: i.e.
Religion, Politics, Morality, Personalities, the Fair Sex, and so
on and so forth, ending with one on Pure Philosophy.  He treated
each subject in a satirical manner, sometimes even ribald, always
topical, with the typical dry British wit, and much of which
might be apropos today.
The book is complete with 19 pages of sources of all the
quotations.  It appears to be only the second important book about
Bob Edwards, the other being Eye Opener Bob, by the Hon. Grant Mac-
After reading Mr Dempsey's book one. feels that Bob Edwards
still lives, not only in Alberta, but as a special figure in Canadian history and should be so recognized.  It is certainly worthwhile reading, and one can hope that Mr Dempsey will continue with
more historical books to add to his already creditable list.  The
reviewer considers this a good selection to add to a book
collector's library. „ , .. _  , _-,-.,
J Mabel E. Jordon.
Mrs Jordon, a resident of Calgary, is Past President of the B.C.H.A,
KOOTENAIANA: a listing of books   relating to the Kootenay
area of the province of British Columbia and located in the
libraries of Notre Dame University of Nelson, B.C. and/or
Selkirk College, Castlegar, B.C. up to March 31, 1976.  R.J.
Welwood, editor.  Nelson, B.C. Notre Dame University of Nelson,
Library; Castlegar, B.C. Selkirk College Library, 1976.  (Available from Selkirk College Bookstore, Box 1200, Castlegar, B.C.
V1N 3J1)  $4.95.
Local collections of Kootenay materials at Notre Dame
University and Selkirk College have grown impressively in recent
years.  Kootenaiana, published with the financial assistance of
the Leon and Thea Koerner Foundation, is intended to improve local
knowledge of library resources and accessibility to them by providing an up-to-date key to the identification and location of
items concerning southeastern British Columbia held in these
increasingly comprehensive collections.
Presented in a convenient 21 x 27.5 cm. soft-cover format,
this listing contains 1,724 numbered entries reproduced by offset
from the libraries' card catalogues and arranged, two columns to .13
a page, alphabetically by author, or by title where no author is
specified.  Location symbols indicate whether items are held in
one library or the other or both.  The compilers have enhanced
the interest and attractiveness of this publication by including
two maps, forty captioned photographs illustrating local historical
themes, and - randomly sprinkled throughout the text - reproductions
of old etchings, drawings, newspaper advertisements, poems, etc.,
aptly chosen for humour or general interest.  The detailed index
is made up of titles, subject headings designed for regional
studies, added entries, and cross references.
In his preface, the editor defines the scope of Kootenaiana:
.... this is a listing of holdings only and it in no way
pretends to be a definitive Kootenay bibliography.  It is
strictly an integration of the card files of two libraries
complete with their differences in cataloguing, format, type
face and reproduction quality.  Limitations in money and time
would only allow for the production of a reasonably legible
list without any pretension of being a professionally designed, slick publication.  Identification and location were
considered more important in this edition.
Accordingly, the list omits uncatalogued Kootenay archival
documents and photographs, and materials relating to the history
of the two institutions.
Within the indicated guidelines, the compilers have achieved
their goals very well.  The clarity and legibility of the reproduced entries are quite adequate, and the amount of information
given is sufficient for identification and location purposes.
Students and researchers of the Kootenay region - both in local and
distant libraries - will appreciate the new information on uniquely
held materials and on relevant individual articles within such
publications as Cominco Magazine, Boundary Historical Society
Reports, and Mir (the Doukhobor youth publication).  By virtue of
its coverage of sources of information on the Doukhobors collected
intensively by Selkirk College, Kootenaiana can be used-to supplement Maria Horvath's Doukhobor Bibliography*, especially for local
ephemera, nonprint sources, and post-1972 works.
The extensive index has been carefully compiled, with the unfortunate exception of Russian-language titles, among which numerous
errors of typography or nonstandard romanization appear.  Correction
of these errors,and the imperfect cataloguing responsible for most
of them, will avoid unnecessary confusion for the reader of future
editions who, though having difficulty with Russian, may wish to
identify such items for possible use.  I hasten to add that Russian
entries make up a very small proportion of the total listing.
1.  Horvath, Maria.  A Doukhobor bibliography based on material
collected in the University of British Columbia Library (Part I:
Books and periodical articles. Enl.rev. ed., 1972; Part II: Government publications. 1970; Part III: The Doukhobor file; audiovisual
and unpublished writings by and about the Doukhobors. 1973).
Vancouver, University of B.C. Library. (Only Part III is in print.) 14
The editor and contributors are to be commended on the
publication [of this reference, aid for students of Kootenay topics.
Kootenaiana is an example of the benefits to the community of
interlibrary cooperation and a welcome contribution to British
Colum bia regional bibliography.
Jack Mcintosh.
Mr Mcintosh is Slavic Bibliographer, University of B.C. Library.
Birds' Eye views of Victoria, first printed in 1878 and 1889
have been reproduced by the Provincial Archives.  Full size
prints are approx. 26" x 40"; half size 18" x 26".  Full size
prints are available for $4.00 plus 28c? tax; half size (1889 only)
are $2 plus 14c tax, including postage.  Prints may be obtained
from- the Provincial'Museum Bookstore, Victoria, B.C., or by
ordering from Visual Records Division, Provincial Archives,
Victoria, B.C. V8V 1X4.
BOOKS OF INTEREST, compiled by F. Woodward.
ADACHI, Ken. The enemy that never was: a history of the Japanese
Canadians. Toronto, McClelland & Stewart, 1976. 456 p.illus.$14.95.
AFFLECK, Edward L.  Kootenay pathfinders: settlement in the
Kootenay district, 1885-1920. Vancouver, Alexander Nicolls Press.
1976. 222 p. illus. $7.50.
ANGIER, Bradford and Vena. Wilderness wife. Radnor, Pa., Chilton
Book Co., 1976. 177 p, illus. $8.95.
BALF, Mary. Kamloops, 1914-1945. Kamloops, Historical Committee,
Kamloops Museum, 1975. 141 p. illus. $4.
BANNERT, Sylvia. Run hog or die. (Grand Forks) Orris Press, 1974.
197 p. illus. $4.95.
BERNSOHN, Ken & Kathy. Prince George backroads. Sidney, B.C.
Saltaire, 1976. 139 p. illus. $4.95.
BOVAY, E.H. Le Canada et les Suisses, 1604-1974. Fribourg,
University Press, 1976. 300 p. illus. $22.
BROADFOOT, Barry. The city of Vancouver. Vancouver, J.J. Douglas,
1976. 183 p. illus. $29.95.
BORDEN, Charles. Origins and development of early Northwest coast
culture to about 3000 B.C. Ottawa, National Museum of Man, 1975.
137 p. illus.
1. "Do you think Carter could be so lucky to get me for a running
2. "Now all you have to do is put him back together again."
3. "If my old dad, P.C. 49 could see me now."
4. "Would you like me to tell you another limerick?" .
5. "You see the problems all start here in No. 1 cell block."
6. "Sure he's real.  I've seen them at the P.N.E. standing like that.'
7. "Really. Just the two of us for a quiet dinner."   15
CAREY, Neil G. Guide to the Queen Charlotte Islands. Anchorage,
Alaska, Northwest Pub. Co. 1975. $2.95.
FRJ.ESEN, J. ed. Historical essays on British Columbia, edited by
J.F. Friesen and H.K. Ralston. Toronto, McClelland & Stewart, 1976.
293 p. $5.95.
HODGSON, Maurice. The squire of Kootenay west: a biography of Bert
Herridge. Saanichton, Hancock House, 1976. 232 p. illus. $12.95.
HOU, Charles ed. The Harrison-Lillooet gold rush trail; a Canadian studies programme project, June 1-6, 1976.  Burnaby,
McPherson Park Junior Secondary School, 1976. (52 p. ) illus.
KEATE, Ed. Land, land, loverly land; a light look at land as an
investment form; the pitfalls and the potential.  West Vancouver, Lagoon Estates, 1975. 136 p. illus. $3.95.
LANGLOIS, Wm, ed. A guide to aural history research.Victoria,
B.C. Provincial Archives, 1976. 58 p. illus.
LEE, Bobbi. Bobbi Lee; Indian rebel; struggles of a native Canadian woman... Richmond, B.C. LSM Information Center, 1975.
123 p. illus. $1.95.
SCOTT, R. Bruce. Barkley Sound; a history of the Pacific Rim
National Park area. Victoria, 1972. 278 p. illus. $5.
SCOTT, Jack. Plunderbund and proletariat; a history of the I.W.W.
in B.C.  Vancouver, New Star Books, 1975. 169 p. illus. $7.2.95 p
TOWNSEND, Arthur H. Cariboo country saints and shenanigans.
Beaverlodge, Alberta, Horizon House, 1976. 122 p. $1.75.
TRAINER, Mary D. A history of policing in Burnaby, 1892-1950.
Burnaby, R.C.M.P. 1975. 64 p.
from,the Walter and Marianne Koerner Collections in the Museum
of Anthropology, U.B.C. Vancouver, U.B.C. Press, 1976. 47 p.,
illus. $4.95.
Indian artifacts from the H.R. MacMillan Collection in the
Museum of Anthropology, U.B.C. Vancouver, U.B.C. Press, 1976.
47 p. illus. $4.95.
WATTS, Reg. The bathtub races. West Vancouver, R.J. Watts &
Associates Ltd., 1976. 112 p. illus. $6.95.
8. "Do you think they've taken the bait?"
9. "If you don't mind we'd like to get it over with. We're
both rather shy."
10. "Oh no. Not that one about the bear up in the Kootenays again.'
11. "I'm prepared to meet her, but she's got to speak first."
12. "I should have resigned rather than get expelled from the
13. "Alright, you can come back this time, but remember, no more
little bundles."
14. "I really must get some decent tobacco; my hands get so tired
keeping every pipeful down."
15. "Great heavens, how many did you invite?" 16
From a manuscript written by Joan D. Stockdill on the life
of her father A.J.T. Taylor, the Editors of the News have produced
the following article which will appear in two parts.
INTRODUCTION  This is an account of the frustrations which beset
one of British Columbia's dedicated sons, because he was an idealist who thought he could devote himself and his energy to the benefit
of not only the City of Vancouver and the province of B.C., but
also the Dominion of Canada.  He did, however, succeed in his dream
of building a bridge spanning the First Narrows, and saw a magnificent housing development creep up the mountainside of West
Alfred James Towle Taylor was born on August 4th, 1887 in
Victoria, B.C., the son of a Deacon of the Anglican Church, and died
on July 21st, 1945.  During his lifetime he had many accomplishments to his credit, but he will be remembered in B.C. as the man
who spanned the First Narrows.  His achievement was born out of a
series of political frustrations which to date have been known only
to his intimate friends.  The News  wishes to thank Mrs Stockdill
for allowing this story to be told.
The Lions Gate Bridge has a total length, including approaches
of 5978 feet, with a central span of 1500 feet between the anchor
towers.  The deck rises approximately 200 feet above mean high water
in the centre.  The total cost of the bridge, approaches, park roadway, franchises and right-of-ways, and after providing for ample
working capital, was $5,700,000.  At the time this bridge was the
largest suspension bridge in the British Empire, and while of lesser
magnitude, compared favourably with the Golden Gate Bridge in San
Since 1912, when Taylor first started his own company, Taylor
and Young, he had dreamed of doing some great service for Vancouver,
as a mark of his devotion and pride.  What the service should be
varied from year to year, but from the early 1920's"  a decision took
shape; that of persuading British capital to invest in his native
province.  By 1928 all that fluctuated in his mind was in what project he should first get his wealthy English friends to invest.
During the many discussions between Taylor and his partner and
friend, W.S. Eyre, this pleasant problem came up time and again.  Mr
Eyre had a great deal of money, but, as the two men's ideas grew
larger and larger, they soon realized that his money alone could not
carry any worthwhile plan to completion.  Here Taylor introduced his
idea of involving even more British capital in Canadian investment,
probably through some kind of Trust Fund.  Eyre was not certain how
many people would want to invest in the wilds of British Columbia,
for Britons of the twenties and thirties generally knew little and
cared less for the Dominion.  Eyre himself knew British Columbia, as
did Lord Southborough, another of Taylor's allies, but they both
realized that  there were many projects outside Britain, but nearer
home, to attract British investors first. 17
Throughout the discussions with Eyre, Taylor's sights gradually narrowed down to three possible projects which he could undertake for Vancouverites.  The first was a hydro-electric system-
involving the waters of Indian Arm.  This work had first interested
him when he was working on the industrial town of loco.  Then secondly was a bridge across the First Narrows entrance to Burrard Inlet.
This he saw not only as a shorter way from Vancouver City to the
municipalities on the north shore of the inlet, but also as a link
to the future highway to Howe Sound, to Garibaldi Park, which he
envisaged as a winter and summer playground for Vancouver, and
further up, possibly to Prince George, along the then disused
Pacific Great Eastern Railway*- thoroughfare.
The third possibility was the development of some real estate,
preferably on the north shore of the inlet also, where Taylor would
organize a huge park-like estate, largely self-contained, for wealthy
Britishers, who had been lured by him to spend their Jarge fortunes
on more projects for British Columbia.
At this point Taylor decided that he should show Eyre exactly
what they had to work with.  In 1930, the two men planned a trip to
Vancouver.  Just before they left England Taylor met a man he had
known slightly as a member of Parliament in Ottawa; the Honourable
Mr T.  Eyre was very taken with this gentleman, and, at his invitation, Eyre and Taylor decided to stop off in Ottawa for a few days
on their way out to the coast.  While in Ottawa they met a Mr V.2
for whom Eyre took a particular liking.  Taylor was surprised on
leaving Ottawa to find Mr V. had decided to join them on the crosscountry train trip, at the end of which Eyre told Taylor that Mr V.
had been kind enough to give him some shares in a new company he was
starting in Vancouver.  There seemed nothing wrong with this and, in
fact, when Taylor looked into the new company both he and Eyre decided that it was unlikely to come to anything anyway.  A day or so later
Taylor learned that Mr V. had a local reputation of being something
of i  knave, and Taylor was on his guard from that moment; however
he did not feel the matter was important enough to warrant Eyre
returning the shares given earlier.
Some time later, in July 1932, when Taylor and Eyre were in New
York for the laying of the cornerstone of another of their projects,
the British Empire Building, part of the Rockefeller Centre in New
York, Taylor was surprised, and somewhat annoyed to hear that Eyre
had agreed to invest some money in Mr V.'s company.  This time Taylor
was quite pointed in showing Eyre his displeasure.  Frankly he didn't
want any of their money to be diverted from the major projects they
had planned in Vancouver.  Eyre, rather surprisingly took Taylor's
censure quite humbly, refraining from pointing out that their money
was really his, not Taylor's.  However he asked if John Anderson
1. The P.G.E. Railway ran a single track along the north shore,
roughly parallel to Marine Drive, and west out to Whytecliffe Park,
from 1912 to 1922.  Originally conceived as the southern link of a
railway which ran Squamish to Quesnel (1922) to Prince George (1952).
Source:Mr Armstrong,B.C. Railways, April 1972.
2. This was the beginning of a series of events which took place during the next few years.  They did not seem important to Taylor at the
time, nor will they seem important to the reader; however, the story
will be told, in part, with some names disguised.  This is not to
avoid a libel suit (it is thoroughly documented) but to avoid any
possible embarrassment to descendants of those involved. 18
could be put on the board of the new company, to look after his,
Eyre's interests.  In 1931, Anderson, Taylor's 'right arm' since 1916,
had returned to Vancouver as resident manager of the company's
interests, and Taylor agreed that Eyre's request could be met.
Taylor agreed - and that was all - to a simple, if unwise, business transaction.  Even when the men realized later that the previously mentioned Honourable Mr T., member of R.B. Bennett's Conservative Party, was part owner of the new company in which Eyre had invested - even then they saw no harm, and equally no good, could
result regarding the main projects they were planning.
Their ambitions for the future were to receive several shocks
over the years, for in 1930 the pattern for dealing with these setbacks had already been demonstrated by Taylor's management of his
financial problems on the New York stock market.  By retaining various
lucrative positions on company boards in London, cutting his living
expenses drastically, and working four times instead of only twice as
hard as the average man, Taylor had, by 1932, been able again to
amass sufficient capital to allow him to carry out all the work he
did in and for Vancouver from that time on, without remuneration,
except for payment of expenses incurred by his work.
As soon as the two friends, W.S. Eyre and A.J.T. Taylor had
narrowed the field of their future endeavours In Vancouver, they
started wheels rolling.  In the late summer of 1930, when he and Eyre
were returning to Britain from Vancouver, Taylor stopped off in
Ottawa to call on the Prime Minister, R.B. Bennett.  He knew by now
that both the idea of a bridge across the Narrows and any hydroelectric projects were likely to run into considerable opposition
from public and private sources, and he wanted to know at first hand
exactly what he would be up against from the public or Government
viewpoint-*.  Expecting opposition he was surprisedto find that Mr
Bennett was obviously quite sincere in his admiration of Taylor's
plans for financing from Britain, and particularly interested in the
idea of a bridge for Vancouver, volunteering to do his best to secure
from Parliament, once the project was set up, a remission of the duty,
ordinarily charged, on materials required for building.  The Prime
Minister also telephoned to several departments, while Taylor was
still in his office, asking them to assist Taylor in his work in any
way they could.
Before Taylor returned home from Ottawa he also visited Mr Edward Beattie, Chairman of the Canadian Pacific Railway.  He knew that
the C.P.R. had been opposed to the building of a bridge across the
First Narrows since 1926, not only because of possible danger to
their shipping, but also because Shaughnessy, their high-class housing district might well suffer from the opening up of more residential areas on the North Shore.
In writing to his wife, Mona, of the interview, Taylor, as was
his wont, used the Letter to organize his thoughts, reporting the
event as he would in the book he planned to write in the future:
".... I not only told him of our plans in detail, but I went
further, I said that we would welcome his company as partners
3.  Since 1895 when it was reportedly first suggested, the proposed
bridge building had met with so much opposition that it had never got
beyond the drawing board, in spite of the offer by West Vancouver in
the '20's of free land to the builder of such a bridge. 19
anytime and to any extent on the same terms that we secured.
We specifically discussed the bridge and I explained that, to
avoid delays in Ottawa in our application, assuming we were
successful in Vancouver, we had decided to make its span 1,500
feet instead of 1,200 feet as offered by others and so to
exceed the Government's published minimum by a full 100 feet
Mr Beattie did not say he would support or oppose our bridge,
but he did say "The C.P.R. will not be captious", and he complimented me on our enterprise and said he would always be glad
to see me ...."
When Taylor left Ottawa that month he had already half decided
to put his whole effort into one project - the bridge.  However, on
the boat he remet an old friend, the Hon. H.H. Stevens, a member for
Vancouver of Bennett's Government.  Stevens was obviously quite depressed and it wasn't long before Taylor discovered why.  Early in
1929 the former, being in real estate in Vancouver, had acquired from
West Vancouver municipality about 2000 acres of land north of Marine
Drive and reaching to the 1200 foot level up the mountain side.  He
had been able to interest a wealthy Scot from Tacoma in the idea of
using the land for a residential development, knowing that some day,
someone would be bound to build a bridge across the First Narrows,
thus making the development easily accessible.  (There had been a
railway/auto bridge across the Second Narrows since 1925.)  The land
had been promised to Stevens at a ridiculously low price, and everything seemed most hopeful until, later in 1929, his backer from the
States had taken suddenly ill and died.  And then, to compound the
misfortune, the crash of 1929, and resultant panic and depression
had forced Stevens to recognize that no one in his right senses
would .touch a real estate project such as his.
It took a matter of minutes only for Taylor to absorb the facts
and recognize the chance for his own dream real estate development,
a chance too good to miss.  As soon as the two men arrived in England
they arranged by cable with West Vancouver for the land transfer.
As there had been no actual purchase by Stevens, the whole transaction was simple."*
Realizing the value of the land on the north shore, once a
bridge had been built, (and to Taylor, the bridge was already a
reality) Taylor was delighted to hear that West Vancouver municipality was holding an additional 4000 acres of land, high above
Marine Drive and stretching up the mountainside and out as far as
Horseshoe Bay, which they would dearly love to give to anyone who
would pay the taxes due on it.  He arranged to buy it all, at $20
an acre and payment of current taxes, as soon as the municipality
was able to dispose of it.^
Although Taylor surveyed the possibilities for a hydro-electric
project in Indian Arm at this time, he soon realized that the real
estate and the bridge would be enough to keep him busy in the way of
major projects, and decided to concentrate on these two.
His investigations into the question of the bridge building
were progressing.  Taylor knew that there were already two companies,
4. Interview with H.H. Stevens, November 1969.
5. The agreement, signed with W.Vancouver, Oct. 1931, stipulated
that the British Pacific Properties (newly incorporated) would spend
a specified large sum of money on development of some of the land,
and would use only W.Vancouver workers, except where certain skilled
personnel could not be provided. (West Vancouver ARchives.) 20
First Narrows Bridge Company and Lions Gate Company Ltd, who had
taken out charters to build such a bridge.  Also that one of them had
already submitted plans to the Federal Government and had been turned
down, as the proposed main span of 1200 feet was deemed too narrow.
On June 17th, 1930, he understood, the two companies had merged
their interests, not so much to have twice the strength to battle
opposition, as to present a more attractive package for any prospective buyer.
Taylor's whole attitude to 'his bridge' was one of great care.
He wanted it to be without blemish of political intrigue, and he
wanted something else.  He dreaded the possibility of future citizens
claiming that he took advantage of earlier efforts to build the
bridge; he wanted to start with a clean slate.  But when he started
negotiations in June 1931 he soon realized that although now there
was just one Bridge company, there were two factions within the company, representative of the two charters already in existence, and
he determined to buy both charters.  Mr Eyre felt this was a waste of
money.  He held that they could ignore these existing charters and
get another one themselves, and he further accused Taylor of being
ultra-sensitive.  After a rather heated discussion Eyre gave in, and,
on December 4th, 1931, they bought both charters, and the First
Narrows Bridge Company was theirs.6
Just two months before this the British Pacific Properties Co.
had been incorporated and John Anderson had been happily installed
back in Vancouver.  Taylor was envious of him, and, in fact, put his
own house in England, Rabbit Lane, up for sale that October just
before leaving for Vancouver, in spite of the fact that his family
had just moved in the previous July.  Mona was most distressed, and
she spent a worried few weeks until Taylor returned from Canada and
reluctantly took the house off the market.  He had hoped to move to
Vancouver at once, but soon realized that if the money was to come
from Britain, he himself must live there, at least until the bridge
was started.
Taylor was not 'news' in Vancouver. If there was talk of another
bit of real estate changing hands, men probably only shook their  - •"
heads and marvelled at 'some fools'.  And it was the same with the
Bridge; in England the proposed investment was spoken of as 'building a bridge to nowhere', Mr Ken Sandbrook, and even in
Vancouver men asked: "Who would be dumb  enough to build a bridge to
the North Shore at this time?"  There were ferries and one perfectly
adequate bridge already.
By late 1932 British Pacific Securities were moving into high
gear in London, and Taylor felt he should have an office befitting
its status in the community.  In January 1933 the company moved into
4 Cleveland Square, a rather high and narrow house of beautiful
Georgian proportions overlooking the back windows of St. James'
Palace, and forming the centre of a most pleasing vista for the Londoner approaching the Palace along Pall Mall.  He finished the apartment at the top of the six floor building and planned to stay there
during the week when he was in England, only going home to Rabbit
Lane at the weekend.  This seldom happened, because his wife Mona saw
no reason for staying in London, less than forty miles from home.
 After buying the two existing Provincial charters for building
6. The two charters purchased were the Campbell Charter and the
Armstrong-Morrison Charter. 21
a bridge across the First Narrows in December 1931, Taylor and
Anderson decided that little of the work done since the Charters had
been granted was of any use to them.  Taylor didn't like breaking
this news to Eyre because it tended to show up his own 'waste of ■
money' in buying them, but, as he impressed on Mona, for, she
thought wearily, the hundredth time:  "I want to be proud of this
bridge; I don't want any vestige of graft or sharp practice
attached to it". "But dear" Mona interrupted with a slight edge to
her voice, "No one could accuse you of dishonesty, or Mr Eyre or
others - why are you so worried?"  Taylor thought for a moment:
"I don't know, Mona, I really don't know, but I remember someone in
Ottawa saying "Take care. When you deal with a Government, you are
dealing with things that matter to a lot of people.  Some men will go
to great lengths to persuade you to do things their way, or else - to
break you!" Taylor indeed had reason to remember that warning.
One thing Taylor's company did inherit from the previous Bridge
Companies was the services of a first class bridge architectural firm
Messrs Monserratt and Pratley of Montreal.  True, their previous
bridge plans for this site had been turned down by Ottawa, under the
Navigable Waters Act (the only official Act under which the Federal
Government in Ottawa could turn down a bridge which they had not been
asked to finance), but they assured Taylor that, given additional
money with which to work, they could design a suspension bridge of
the necessary length.  Taylor emphasized the architects' value and
minimized the lack of other benefits bought with the two Charters at
his next discussion with Eyre.  It seemed as though the building of
the bridge was well within possibility, so Eyre agreed to put aside
another 50,000 pounds (about $200,000 at that time) for the
necessary preliminary negotiations as outlined by Taylor':
"First there is the Provincial Government in Victoria, but those
negotiations are formalities only, because we've bought the two
existing Charters",Taylor smiled happily at his friend.  "Actually
they just grant us permission to build at that particular site.'
Then we have to get permission from the City of Vancouver and the 3
north shore municipalities to build the approaches to the bridge,
and Parks Board is involved because the road will have to go through
Stanley Park".  Here Taylor consulted his notes again:  "Then a City
of Vancouver Franchise is needed to operate the bridge, once built,
under a system of tolls, as fixed by the Government, for however many
years we and the City decide.  And finally we have to take it to
Ottawa for permission to build under the Navigable Waters Act.  That
last is likely to be pretty easy too.  After all, they said how long
the bridge would have to be when they turned down the last application"
By April 13th, 1933, the Provincial Government satisfied on the
first count, the new First Narrows Bridge Company was ready to present its case to the various municipal agencies.  Taylor was not surprised that the first consent came only on August 18th of the same
year, from the City of North Vancouver, to be followed within days by
the other two north shore communities.
Within another few days Sir Edward Beattie (knighted since last
meeting with Taylor), President of the C.P.R., gave a speech on
another subject and made the statement that if a new bridge were built
the people of Vancouver must be sure that it had the longest possible
span.  At once there arose a technical and highly confusing argument
7. Later it was realized that permission from the Provincial Gov't
was needed to "attach it to a Provincial road". 22
in the newspapers over the necessary height and length of the proposed bridge.  The Bridge Company retained Sir Alexander Gibbs, a ■
noted British authority on bridge building, who had frequently been
used by the Federal Government for consideration regarding other
bridges.  After due consideration he gave his opinion that 1200 feet
in length and 170 feet above high water would be adequate for safety.
However, knowing that this length had been rejected by the Federal
Government already, Taylor and his partners made certain the length
of 1500 feet and height of 200 feet were possible, and set them as
minimum requirements.  Still the argument continued.  Taylor was not
able to be in Vancouver a great deal during this year, 1933, as he
was busy with other parts of his life.  However, John Anderson and
their Vancouver lawyer, T.P. Stockton were there to handle the tedium
and tensions as they came, and these ultimately included the rejections by the Vancouver City Council of their brief to build the bridge.
During one of Taylor's sessions in England, early in 1933, he
happened again to meet Canada's Prime Minister, the Hon. R.B. Bennett,
and they greeted each other courteously, Mr Bennett remembering to
ask how matters went for Mr Taylor in Vancouver.  At one point during the ensuing conversation Bennett's face clouded, as if he remembered something unpleasant, and he drew Taylor aside from the
crowd in the Canada House reception which they were attending.
"I understand you are having dealings with Mr V.", Bennett frowned;
"Don't.  He is a dangerous man - mark my word".  He paused for effect,
"And above all, don't lend him money".  Taylor remembered Mr V. and
was surprised to hear his name from the Prime Minister.  He immediately said that he had never thought of lending that gentleman money
but he thanked Mr Bennett warmly for warning him.  "But even the
dealings that I have had with Mr V. were of a very minor nature, Sir,"
Taylor's curiosity forced him to continue, "I am surprised that anyone would have been interested in mentioning them to you".  Taylor
was incredulous when Bennett told him that Mr V. himself had reported the close business dealings he had had with Taylor and his company.
Taylor could not let this pass, and told Bennett of the chance meeting with Mr V. in 1930, of the gift of shares made by Mr V. to Eyre,
and of the latter's subsequent purchase of more shares.  He also tcld
the Prime Minister of the placing of John Anderson on the Company's
Board of Directors, to protect Eyre's investment.  After a pause,
Taylor further confided that he personally had no use for Mr V. and
had not had the time nor the interest to acquaint himself with the
state of Mr V.'s company.  Bennett seemed satisfied, and their conversation passed to other things.
That was, as noted, early in the year, and Taylor was so occupied later that it soon left his mind.  By October 27th, the Bridge
Company was again ready to present a revised brief to Vancouver City
Council.  It was quite a different paper from their first proposal,
as Taylor had insisted time and again that they give in to the City's
every demand.  He was determined to build this bridge no matter what
it cost him.  Or more correctly, no matter what it cost Mr Eyre and
the Trust.  And because of this determination, Taylor wantdd to be in
Vancouver, and in the Council Chamber when his new brief was being
considered.  So it was that Thursday November 9th, 1933 found him
sitting in the public gallery of Vancouver City Council Chamber,
along with John Anderson and Mr Stockton.  The first item on the
agenda was the passing of the Agreement between the Bridge Company
and the City concerning the road from the Georgia Street entrance to
Stanley Park to the proposed bridge.  It had been put forward by the 23
special Committee of Aldermen and Park Commissioners which had been
dealing with the Bridge Company.  The spokesman showed, with charts,
the problem which now existed at the Park entrance and how it would
be alleviated by the Bridge Company's new road giving access to the
Park as well as to the Bridge, at a cost of approximately $4Q0,0Q0-
The fact that the Committee had managed to get a private company to
spend that amount of money to do a job that the City would have to do
in the near future anyway, was greeted by an awed silence of the
Council, followed by some rather self-conscious applause.  At this
point the City Engineer, Charles Brakenridge, a member of the Committee, commented sourly that the Committee had certainly driven a
very hard bargain, whereat Alderman Warner Loat, another member,
challenged him to admit that it was, however, a fair bargain.
Brakenridge shook his head and continued:
I personally felt that the City could very well contribute, but
the rest of the Committee held that the ratepayers should not be compelled to pay anything."  Then he exploded in exasperation, "But these
arrangements are far more adequate than the company should be called
upon to provide"I  The atomsphere of the Council Cnamber tingled with
tension, but there was no more comment on the subject except a rapid
passing of the motion.   Taylor jumped to his feet at one point and
would have addressed the Council if Stockton hadn't caught his sleeve
and whispered:  "You can't do that."  Taylor looked hurt as he sat
down again: "I was only going to say that our company is happy to do
this for Vancouver", he whispered back defensively.
Then opened before the astonished watchers in the public gallery
a scene rarely witnessed in such a Chamber.  Mayor Taylor, who seemed
strongly in favour of the bridge, appeared to have no authority over
the assembly, and if the Aldermen had started throwing spitballs at
each other, Taylor would have been no more surprised at their behaviour than the Mayor would have been.  Actually if the evening paper
had not written it up so adequately, he could well have thought he had
been dreaming.
.... Before it was through for the morning, Mayor Taylor had been
reversed on a ruling by a 9-2 vote of the Aldermen; His Worship
had hinted at collusion between Aldermen Fraser and Harvey; Alderman Deptford had linked Alderman Harvey with the Canadian Pacific
Railway.  Alderman Fraser was interrupted on the verge of accusing
the bridge company of having powerful friends in Ottawa; and all
accused parties had become properly indignant  °
The article continued to tell how Aldermen quoted one authority
after another, going back as far as 1926 to prove the undesirability
of the bridge.  Everyone becaame an expert.  Taylor smiled in spite of
himself as he read on:
.... Alderman Harvey continued, (that) he was sorry that a lot of
people read, and believed, the argument of a large local newspaper
that St. James Street^ was opposed to Vancouver and so didn't want
the bridge.... The newspaper had stampeded the Mayor and some
Aldermen in the initial stages of negotiation into a decision to
try to pass the agreement without submission to electors by
plebiscite he continues	
The article went on to say - but Taylor didn't finish it, he was
caught on a word and he knew what had to be done, a plebiscite!  And
8. Vancouver Sun, November 9, 1933.
9. Tht current slang term for the Canadian Pacific Railway. 24
they mustn't wait to see if the City would vote the money for it or
not, his Company must pay for it.  His mind worked rapidly now - no
time to contact London about this, he'd go to the Mayor tomorrow -
no - he'd phone him tonight
It didn't take long for Taylor to make his decision and to put his
plans in action, and on November 10th, the very next day, the Council,
once again cowed into silence by the way this bridge company was so
happily taking over City expenses, voted approval for a plebiscite to
be held on the question of whether there should be a bridge across
the First Narrows.  It was to be at the Bridge Company's expense and
to be held on December 13th.  Taylor didn't wait for the plebiscite;
he returned to Britain to pacify an incredulous Mr Eyre.
The notice of the plebiscite started the battle again.  Sir Edward
Beatty came out with a statement that the bridge must be 2000 foot
span, but he later modified this, on questioning by the press, to
1800 feet.  The Board of Trade attempted to rush through a damaging
report as representing the views of the general membership, but this
was courageously combated by one of their members, Col. J.P. Fell,
in an article in the Sun10 and it was soon seen to be simply the views
of a few C.P.R. "yes-men".  Almost all of the objectors could be
traced back to the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The plebiscite was decisive.  The Bridge Company got a healthy
majority in every ward in the City.  Out of 24,000 who voted (the
largest number to turn out to vote on a Vancouver matter to that date)
they got 17,000 in favour.
Taylor needed this boost.  He had just received the sad news of
the death of a dear friend, Lukin Johnston, a fellow Vancouverite,
who was working in London at the time.  The bridge seemed a certairatv
now; only one more formality to manoeuvre - permission from the Federal Government - surely a foregone conclusion.
By January 1934 the First Narrows Bridge Company was ready to file
a brief with Ottawa.  This was duly done and it was expected, at least,
in Vancouver, that the decision would have been made and the necessary
Order-in-Council passed before the Easter recess.  But nothing happened - not a word, for or against, leaked out from the Federal Government.  It was known that there was still a certain amount of
opposition to the proposed bridge in Vancouver - this couldn't be
expected to die down over-night, and in fact the Province newspaper
persisted toward the negative aspects of the project as, for example,
the comment appearing on June 5th, 1934:
A heavy file of correspondence on the matter, tabled in the House
of Commons, discloses that the First Narrows Bridge proposal has
been a bone of contention in the Pacific Coast city for nearly
seven years, and the end. is not yet	
But surely, people reasoned, the citizens of Vancouver had voted
for the bridge just the previous year, and Ottawa was hardly in a
position that they could, or would, want to oppose the common wish.
10. The Board of Trade's argument was that no bridge should be narrower than the dredged width of the channel, and Colonel Fell insisted
that beyond a certain width the channel would silt up almost as fast
as it was dredged; for this reason it would take 50 years to dredge
to 1800 feet.  Vancouver Sun November 25, 1933. 25
Business acquaintances tried to persuade Taylor and Anderson that
their brief had not been considered because of the absence of lobbying
in the House, and also because of their refusal to contribute to Party
Funds.  This line of reasoning infuriated Taylor, and made him feel
horribly embarrassed regarding his country's politics.  He believed
that the important thing was to keep the bridge question in the limelight, so now he re-hired Sir Alexander Gibbs, opened the company
records to him, and asked for a complete report to the Federal Government of the desirability of the bridge.  This report was tabled early
in May, but it was not uncovered by the newspapers until June, when
it was described as 'a bombshell'.  The report was found to be completely in favour of both the bridge and the company who sought to
build It.  Taylor immediately requested a hearing with the Ministry of
Public Works in Ottawa; again a pause.
During this spring of 1934, when Bill Stephenson's planned trip
to India greatly decreased the funds available for the bridge, Taylor
had attacked his problem carefully and, as usual, constructively.  He
doubled his sales efforts and, early in June, British Pacific Securities financed a sightseeing tour of Canada for a number of British
industrialists.  They were all men who were interested in the British
Pacific Trust, already having money in it, or being on the verge of
investing.  The hosts were Lord Southborough, the Honourable W.S. Eyre
and A.J.T. Taylor, and among the guests were Viscount Elveden (son of
Lord Moyne) and C.H. Bland, trustee of the Iveagh Trust.H
The whole affair was well organized.  The party, which included
many wives and a few daughters, travelled across Canada by private
railway car picked up, as arranged beforehand, by the regular crosscountry Canadian National Railway trains.  They visited various cities
and were widely feted, making their last stop at Vancouver.  As soon
as the party arrived at the station, Taylor had them whisked up to
the Vancouver Club for a special luncheon featuring freshly caught
British Columbia salmon.  After the company had been well wined and
dined, Taylor guided them to one of the large windows overlooking ft™.
harbour, and pointed out the First Narrows to the west and the British
Pacific Properties to the northwest on the other side of the inlet.
The financiers were entranced and, as a direct result of the tour,
the financing of the proposed bridge was assured.
Meantime, following the 'discovery5 of the Gibts report by the
newspapers, the Federal Government was forced to set up a Special
Committee under Mr Corriveau, acting Chief Engineer of the Department
of Public Works.  And now that Vancouver had seen the wealthy British
visitors, and realized that the bridge could become a reality, the
newspapers and the general public pressured the City Council into
sending the City Solicitor, J.B. Williams, to Ottawa to appear before
this Committee.  The Depression was lying heavily on the city at this
time and the new bridge would mean work for large numbers of men.
People worried, if there were more delays now, that the costs would
rise and the British financiers might withdraw their support.
In August of the same year, 1934, the report of the Special
Committee was published.  They, like Sir Alexander Gibbs, were completely in favour of the bridge.  Vancouver was thrilled.  But still
no reaction from Ottawa!
A week later, Prime Minister R.B. Bennett, with no apparent expert
backing, stated that the proposed First Narrows Bridge in Vancouver
11.  The Guiness 'Empire'. 26
must be at least 1800 feet in length.  Immediately Taylor insisted,
officially, that the Company would not go to the extra expense and
that it was not warranted.  He pointed to all the reports made by
experts so far, and requested further consideration.  After making
this public statement he received notification from the Office of the
Prime Minister that the length of 1550 feet would suffice.
On Monday evening, September 10th, Taylor, now back in England,
received a cable from Anderson in Vancouver.  The front page of Monday's Vancouver Sun had carried the report from Ottawa that the bridge
promoters had been advised again by the Prime Minister that the bridge
must have a span of 1800 feet.  The Sun called it 'Bennett's Private
Blockade', drawing attention to the fact that the demand had not been
made public until two days after the Prime Minister's departure on a
trip to Europe.  Anderson pointed out in his cable, and to the press,
that his Company had received official notification of this renewed
demand only on the previous Saturday.  This the Sun picked up gleefully, pointing out that Bennett had refused to name the expert authority on which he based his opinion.
Taylor was incredulous and wired at once to Bennett's office quoting the August acceptance of the bridge length.  He received a note of
acknowledgement,  Taylor realized there was something wrong.  He knew
Bennett to be a good friend of the C.P.R., yet he was an honest man
and couldn't be holding the project up to patronage, a project that
had been voted for by the people of Vancouver over a year ago.  There
must be another reason and he knew he must go to Ottawa to find it.
Taylor had the feeling that he was hitting his head against a brick
wall, and it depressed and angered him.  In September, when writing to
Vilhjalmur Stefansson, he confided just how 'fed up' he was with all
this delay.  He was writing to a man who would understand - a man who
had also suffered terrible frustrations from the Government.
If the Government wanted, for their own private reasons, a bridge
of 1800 feet, and if the British Pacific Trust simply wouldn't put up
the extra money, perhaps the Government itself would foot the bill.
Taylor wrote this suggestion to Ottawa, and also requested an interview with the Prime Minister as soon as the latter returned from
When Taylor came for the inte -view he found two other men with the
Prime Minister: the Honourable Hugh Stewart, Minister of Public Works,
and the Honourable Grote Sterling, Minister of National Defence. The
interview got under way, and Bennett did most of the talking, protesting again and again that, though he would like to see the bridge built
for his Vancouver citizens, he felt that it was :just too short.
"But how much too short, Sir?" Taylor asked for the fifth time.
Having ignored the question repeatedly before, Bennett now responded:
"Well, as you ask me, I'd say 1800 feet would probably be wide enough"
"But Sir" Taylor kept his voice under control with difficulty, "the
high water mark in the Narrows is only 1650 feet, and the navigable
channel is 950 feet, why should the suspension portion of the bridge
be that much longer?"
Bennett looked sceptical and turned to Hugh Stewart,who, after
glancing at some notes he held, agreed to these figures rather uncomfortably.  Hopefully, Taylor remarked: "I understand that all of your
technical advisors have approved our dimensions".
Bennett twitched with annoyance as he looked up from his desk
belligerently.  Taylor, pretending not to notice, continued: 27
"Sir Alexander Gibbs agrees with them."
Bennett scoffed: "Experts work for those who pay them, Mr Taylor".
Taylor parried quickly, "Sir .Alexander worked for you several
times, Sir, and we thought him  - eminently impartial."
Bennett thought for a moment, then, in the voice he used to
address the House, he stated loudly and slowly: "This may be so, but
all I want, Mr Taylor, is a bridge adequate for all time", he paused,
"adequate for the unborn children of Canada, whose custodian I am".
Taylor, having had no lunch, felt tired and depressed.  He decided
on a frontal attack and asked the Prime Minister if the Canadian
Pacific Railway had discussed the matter with him.  Bennett responded
abruptly that he was not in the habit of discussing such matters with
disinterested persons.  There was a pause before Bennett indicated an
article in the Toronto Saturday Night magazine that was lying on his
desk: "I suppose, Taylor, you blame that on the C.P.R."
Taylor had seen the article, which suggested that Vancouver was
overbuilt and, by inference, that the bridge would be a new menace.
Se replied ,wearily: "Yes^Sir,, it's ,in.line with their tactics to date",
ennett made no comment but changed his ground.  He growled:
"Do you know that Lloyds of London are apprehensive about this bridge,
and have made strong representations to me?"
Taylor sighed and replied:  "Sir, we have heard this before and Mr
Eyre and I went directly to the heads of Lloyds, in London, who confirmed that they had taken no action at all in the matter, but had
heard that their local agent in Vancouver, Captain Barney Johnson,
had, in his private capacity, gone out of his way to attack the bridge,
and that Lloyds had disassociated themselves entirely from the matter".
By the end of Taylor's long statement, Bennett seemed to have lost
interest and was reading over some documents on his desk.  As Taylor
stopped talking, the Prime Minister looked up, and darted out the
question:  "What are you doing with Mr V?"
Taylor started, that name again - what had that miserable man got
..o do with this business, he wondered.  He answered emphatically:
"Nothing, Sir".
Then, in a menacingly ugly tone, apparently calculated to
frighten this annoying little man and to impress his Ministers,
Bennett continued:  "I warned you in London to leave that man alone,
you have been lending him money".
Taylor had recovered from his surprise and said heatedly:  "Sir,
you did kindly so warn me in London.  I have heeded your warning; I
have not lent Mr V. money, but I have no objection to telling you
once more, in the presence of your Ministers, the series of events
from which you have gleaned a garbled and quite wrong impression".
Taylor thought for a moment before continuing:  "I have never had
anything to hide from you, but it is not normally my custom to
broadcast other people's business".  He then went on to retell the
story he had told Bennett in London in 1933, of his only business
contact with Mr V.  It hardly seemed to Taylor as if Mr Bennett was
listening, and when he had finished his story the latter simply said
that he would like to see a longer bridge for Vancouver.
Taylor was very tired.  The interview was now well into its
second hour. 28
"To what tribunal may we apply for permission to build this
bridge, Sir?"
The Prime Minister was probably also tired, but he pulled himself
out of his chair and, to the amazement of the three men present,
leaned over his broad desk toward Taylor and thundered: "Richard B.
After a stunned silence, Taylor said in the most humble voice he
could command:  "I am here, Sir".
The drama over, Bennett sat down again, and rather brusquely,
indicated the interview was over.  On leaving the office, Mr Stewart
said: "Come to my office later, Mr Taylor, and, if you can make
some concessions in the span, we can probably get things fixed up".
Over a late lunch Taylor reported the meeting to Anderson, and they
agreed the reasons against the bridge, no matter what their source,
were definitely not of an engineering nature.
The two men were at Stewart's office about three o'clock.  And
there they met, for the first time, Mr Corriveau, the engineer who had
written the fine report of the previous August.  Taylor started
talking as soon as the introductions were over and they were all
seated:  "Gentlemen, we want to build an adequate bridge, we have
offered a span of 1500 feet.  If, to save face, or for some other
political reasons, a longer span is desired, please say so and we will
agree,without further talk, to build it".
The members present all murmured their appreciation, but seemed,
at first, to have no positive suggestion as to how to make the bridge
more palatable to the Federal Government.  After a pause, a suggestion was made, a little hesitantly, Taylor thought, that if the South
Pier could be moved north 50 feet, and the North Pier were moved
north 100 feet, thus increasing the span to 1550 feet, they might be
able to come to terms.
Taylor instantly agreed, but was met only by an uncomfortable
silence.  After a few more moments, Taylor and John Anderson took
their leave, being assured that Mr Stewart would contact them in the
near future.
Back in his hotel room Taylor and Anderson agreed that although
Bennett's reasons for blocking their bridge were undoubtedly valid
to him, there seemed to be no way of finding out what they were.
Anderson felt there was nothing to do but wait for the next
election, which, it was rumoured, was imminent.
Taylor slumped in his chair, then straightened:
"Well, I'll be able to get home for Christmas, I guess, but  "
his brow furrowed,  "I certainly don't know how I'm going to face
Eyre and Southborough".
"And the Trust?", Anderson queried.
"Oh, yes - John, how could-we Canadians be so dumb?"
Part II will be published in the November issue:" Taylor makes
It Game and  Rubber."


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