British Columbia History

BC Historical News Mar 2, 1973

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Vol. 6 No. 2 February 1.973
Published November, February, April and June each year by the
British Columbia Historical Association, and distributed free to members
of all affiliated societies by the secretaries of their respective societies.
Subscription rate to non-members $3.50 per year, including postage, directly
from the editor, Mr F.A. Yandle, 3450 West 20th Avenue, Vancouver 8, B.C
Hon. Patron: Lieut-Gov. J.R. Nicholson
Hon. President: Dr Margaret Ormsby
President: Col. G.S. Andrews
Past President: Mr H.R. Brammall
1st Vice-President: Mr F. Street
2nd Vice-President: Mr J. Roff
Secretary: Mr P.A. Yandle
Editors: Mr & Mrs P.A. Yandle
Treasurer: Mrs H.R. Brammall
Executive members: Mrs Clare McAllister
Mr H.B. Nash
Editorial 2
Minutes 2
Society notes & comments 4
Jottings 6
Obituary: Mr CD. Stevenson 8
Miss Hazel Hill 8
B.C. Books of interest 8
Book Reviews: B.C. Perspectives 9
A history of Victoria: Gregson 10
The Ladners of Ladner 1.2
Paddlewheels on the frontier: Downs 1.4
Hiking,trails: Vict. & S.Van.Island   15
LookS they're REAL! by Dave Brook 16
Okanagan Similkameen Parks Society Brief 1.7
Vancouver: a lost branch of the van Coeverden
family, by Adrien Mansvelt 20
The cover series for Vol. 6, Nos. l*-4, drawn by Robert Genn,
will have sketches of buildings throughout the province that are
of historic significance. They may be still standing or they may
be only a memory. The deadline for entries will be October 1st,
1973. A prize will be awarded to the winner. No. 1 was "Where
was it?"; No. 2 is "Where is it?" EDITORIAL
In the summer of 1.970 the Federal Government, through the National
Historic Sites Service of the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern
Development, initiated a survey of Canada's old buildings from Dawson in
the Yukon to St. John's, Newfoundland. This information was gathered by
students who worked in specific areas across the country, using a master
coding system that detailed the site, age, past and present use, construction details and architectural style of the buildings surveyed.
This information was then computerized for a readily available information
service. The general historical boundary for survey was considered to
be 1,880 in the Eastern Provinces and 1.91.4 for the West and North. The
National Historic Sites Service has issued a pamphlet in which it states
" The inventory will serve as an invaluable reference for art
historians and architects, for in many cases it will be the only such
source of building appraisal data  ......If a new highway, harbour
complex, or an industrial park is projected, some means must be found to
find out at once the possible loss."
All this information on our behalf we must find very commendable,
but when the computer print-out is used as a weapon against strong public
opinion we must begin to wonder what kind of a monster has been created.
Two recent examples in Vancouver tend to point out to what extent facts
can be used for ulterior motives. The first came to light when the
Vancouver Historical Society asked for information on the old National
Harbours Board building at the foot of Dunlevy. The print-out in its
analysis gave this beautiful old building a straight zero in all classifications. And if this wasn't enough to make us distrust the regurgitations
of the Ottawa monster then it certainly was demonstrated by Conrad Guelke
in a brief supporting the demolition of Vancouver's Christ Church Cathedral.
According to him the National Historic Sites Service "deemed the Cathedral
not of historic or architectural significance on the national scale".
In a recent television interview Mr Peter Bennett, Director of this
survey, still seems to labour under the delusion that we here on the
Pacific West (this being distinct from the Easterners' West which begins
at Thunder Bay) have no historic buildings other than log cabins built
in the gold rush days. It's a pity that none of us historically minded
people was not consulted when decisions': were being made for us.
One last thought on Christ Church Cathedral:  Isn't it about time
Christ returned and chased the money changers out of the temple!
Minutes of the Third Meeting of the Council of the B.C. Historical
Association for 1972-1973, held in Vancouver, Sunday, February 1.1, 1973.
Present: F.B. Street (1st Vice-Pres.); J. Roff (2nd Vice-Pres.);
H.R. Brammall (Past Pres.); P.A. Yandle (Sec'y); P. Brammall (Treas.);
A. Yandle (Co-Edit.); H.B. Nash (Exec.M.); D.New (Gulf Islands);
E. Norcross (Nanaimo); K. Adams (Port Alberni); J.E. Gibbard and J. Gresko
(Vancouver); A. Slocomb (Victoria). Visitors: E.J, Kneen (Nanaimo);
N. New (Galiano); R.D. Watt (Vancouver). With Vice-Pres. Street in the chair in the absence of the President,
the meeting was called to order at 1.45 p.m. On motion of P. Yandle and R.
Brammall the minutes of the Second Meeting were adopted as circulated.
Mrs Brammall, as Chairman of the Convention Committee of the Vancouveir
Historical Association, reported the following plans for the Annual Convention to be held in Vancouver, May 24, 25 and 26:  Registration fee $2.00.
Accommodation for out-of-town members and guests reserved at Walter Gage
Residences, University of B.C.,.at $1.2.50 per day, meals in residence
included, for Thursday., Friday and Saturday nights.
Thursday, May- 24th, evening, at University Women's Club, Hycroft,
including guided tour and refreshments,
Friday, 25th, following the Annual General Meeting, Luncheon and
President's address. Afternoon, tours of Vancouver City Archives and/or
Museums with a special Planetarium show from 4.30 to 5-30 at $1.00.
Evening, a forum type meeting in the Walter Gage Centre with supper for
non-residents at $1.35«
Saturday, May 26, 1.0.30 to 2.30, Burrard Inlet tour on M.V. Hollyburn
with sandwiches and coffee, $5.00. Evening, Banquet, guest speaker: Mr W.
Sampson, U. of Alberta. Mr Sampson has offered a choice of four titles:
(1) K. Mackenzie and the Beginnings of Agriculture in B.C.; (2) Fur-trader
and Priest; (3) The Jurist and the Fourth Estate; (4) John Work. P.. Yandle
moved, seconded by Nash, that the speaker be asked to use the first title;
A walking tour of Gastown will be arranged for Sunday morning on request,
Thanks were expressed to Ijcs  Brammall and Mrs Gresko for the great
time and effort they devoted to making the above arrangements.
Mr Brammall reported that the Association has received from the
Government of Canada an Income Tax Deduction Number for use on receipts
for donations. Local societies are encouraged to apply for the same
privilege if they have need
Mrs Yandle reported the work of the ad hoc committee appointed at
the previous meeting (A.Yandle, chairman, J.Roff, A. Slocomb and R. Watt)
to study and report on the organization and policies of the Provincial
Library and Archives. The report took the form of a written statement
which could serve as a brief, and after its distribution and reading it
was moved by P. Yandle, seconded by Roff, that the report be adopted in
its entirety. Carried unanimously. Mrs Yandle added that the Provincial
Archivist says he plans to-., resum?, publications within a year and to revive
the "British Columbia Historical Quarterly" within two. Mr Watt pointed
out that the new budget for Library, Archives and Museum has been greatly
increased -- approximately doubled. Moved P. Yandle, seconded Gresko and
carried, that copies of the report bo sent to the Provincial Secretary,
the Premier aixd  the Provincial Archivist and Librarian, also to President
Andrews, presently lecturing in Brazil.
P. Yandle, reporting on the publication of Champness: To CAriboo and
Back, dedicated to the late Gordon Bowes, said the printer has the work
well in hand and that it should be ready for sale at the Annual Convention,
May 24-26.
The Secretary then reported as follows:
'(a) He had ordered, as directed, 1.0,000 membership cards from the
printers in Victoria but had received no reply or acknowledgement. After
some discussion it was agreed that Mr Nash would call upon the printers
immediately for clarification of the situation.
(b) A letter had come from Campbell River proposing affiliation of a
local history society, a move which will be welcomed. •(c) Institutions in B.C are charged $1.0.00 membership through their
local affiliated societies and cannot, like institutions outside the province
subscribe to the News for the non-members' subscription rate of $3<50 (see
masthead). This is because institutions in B.C. makd the News available
free to many persons who might otherwise become members or subscribers.
(d) He had officially endorsed on Dec 1.3 the application of a group
of women represented by Mara Gagnon for a L.I.P. grant for a Project
entitled "Herstory".. He asked approval of his action and got it by unanimous
(e) A copy of a brief of the Okanagan-Similkameen Parks Society has
been received. It asks for the preservation of the Hudson's Bay Co.
Brigade, ^rail between Hope and the Tulameen by extending the boundaries of
Manning Park to include it. Moved P. Yandle, seconded Gibbard, that the
Association support the brief by re-petitioning the Government to the same
effect. Carried.
Mir Slocomb reported the experience of the Victoria Society in importing
recording equipment duty-free and offered information and price-lists to
other affiliated societies, E. Norcross inquired how transcriptions can be
got from the electronic tapes. R. Watt said a Mr Langlois is doing such
work but cautioned about the costs and the necessary quality of the
•recording. He thought L.I.P. or other grants might be obtained to help
with cpsts. Storage of tapes is difficult and costly, and if the transcription is not good it is hardly worth it.
Mr New inquired whether any stand had been taken on the proposal to
"develop" Christ Church Cathedral, Vancouver. P. Yandle reported that the
Vancouver Historical Society has officially opposed the proposal, and R.
Watt, who is Vice-President of the Society, explained that it had sent two
letters, one to Vancouver City Council approving and supporting its action
and one to the Provincial Secretary asking to have Christ Church declared
a Historic Site.  P. Yandle moved, seconded by Roff, that we, also, ask
the Government to declare it a Historic Site.
The meeting adjourned at 4.45 p.m. on motion of Yandle and New.
ALBERNI At their October meeting the Alberni Society greeted John Sendey,
their new museum co-ordinator, who spoke on his hopes and plans for the
museum. He also showed slides of a "dig" at Neah Bay.
As is -tlie custom, the November meeting, an open social meeting,
welcomed many old timers. Kenneth Mollet of Sidney, B.C., whose greatgrandfather and grandfather arrived in the Alberni Valley in the late 1.870's
and whose grandfather was the first government agent there, spoke of his
family and showed pictures, promising to search out more and make them
available to the Society.
In January Captain Dick McMinn, whom marry members will remember from
the trip last May on the Lady Rose, spoke on the Alberni Canal and Barkley ■
Sound, ending with a plea for all to fight pollution in these and other areas,
BURNABY The. Burnaby Historical Society can chalk up 1.972 as a time of worthwhile achievement. . Given the responsibility of setting up the sitting room
in the Manor House of Burnaby's Heritage Village, members, tinder the
direction of Mrs Charles Killip, came up with a display that brought
delighted reaction from many of the 30,000 people who visited the Village
whilai it was open. Also, during the summer, members put in a creditable number of volunteer hours filling various capacities in the Village. A
long-time dream came true in the Fall with the acquisition of a permanent
meeting place and also a filing room - both in Burnaby's Century Park
complex. Several male members sawed, hammered and painted to make the room
ready for what the BHS hopes to enlarge into a historical-reference source
for public use. Already, several speakers' presentations have been taped
and these will form the nucleus of a proposed tape library.
WEST KOOTENAY Speaking to the West Kootenay Historical Society in November,
Eruce Ramsey talked about Camels in B.C. Mr. Ramsey has hunted camel bones,
tombstones and camel stories throughout B.G. for many years. When they
were first brought to B.C. the animals which were advertised as being able
to carry about 500- lb. sold for $300 each. Their history is sketchy and
the fate of some of the original 25 camels is still not known. One historian
believes the camels were brought to an area about 7 miles from Trail. A
pack of 5 or 6 camels was seen going through Pend d'Oreille country to the
Kootenay River and must have travelled on the Dewdney Trail. .One camel
was released at Cherry Creek on the Kootenay River but permission was
later given for the animal to be shot. Its meat was eaten and its hair
used for pillows. Later reports said camels were sighted by frightened
Indians and in one spot there was a wooden plaque saying seven camels
which had died in a storm were buried there. The last camel reported to
be living in B.C. "Queen" was a great .hit at country fairs. Queen died one
day in a farmyard where she was kept and is now buried there. . What now
remains of B.C's camels are some sketchy historical records and a picture
of Queen, the country fair star.
At their January meeting Mrs Helen Peachey described various historic
sites she visited on a recent European tour,from Stonehenge to Hamlet's
castle at Elsinore. The local history part of this meeting dealt with the
Dewdney Trail and archaeological work at the' site of old Fort Colville in
Washington State. The Trail Horsemen's Society has done considerable work
in relocating the trail which was once the prime link between the Fraser
River and the gold diggings of the East Kootenay. The portion of the trail
passing through the Boundary country has been obliterated, but about 70$
of the route between Christina Lake and Rossland have been identified.
It is hoped that when clearance has been obtained from the various agencies
including the provincial Department of Lands and Forests, a clean-up
campaign can begin as well as the construction of picnic sites. Although
the site of old Fort Colville. is now drowned, a considerable amount of
archaeological work was done when the Lake Roosevelt reservoir 'was low
and some television programmes about the old HBC post have been shown on
local screens.
NANAIMO ■ At the January meeting the guest speaker was Rev. Reginald H.
Purdy who recollected life on the Queen Charlotte Islands. Rev. Furdy
went,: along with his father and uncle in 1.909,to take up land in the
Queen Charlottes. Fifty years ago, Mr Purdy helped to build a church at
Massett, to which he returned last summer to speak again in the church.
The previous meeting in November was held in the Museum, during which
members had a conducted tour of the museum and afterwards listened to a
tape recording, courtesy of Mr Barraclough, of a C.B.C. broadcast of
November 20 th, 1.970, entitled "The Death of a Raven".
On November 27th, the Society, as usual, held its service at the
"Rock" to commemorate the landing of the Princess Royal pioneers.
Speakers were Alderman Mrs Hall and Mayor Frank Mey. Mrs Kneen read the
roll call of the pioneers and the newly formed chapter of the Sweet
Adelines sang "This is My Country". 6
VANCOUVER The Vancouver Society has had two meetings since the last report.
On November 22nd, Mr Alex Bulman, the well known Kamloops rancher and author,
spoke on "Kamloops Cattlemen", which in reality was a history of the cattle
trade in British Columbia as well as the story of ranching in the Chilcotin
and the Cariboo. The next meeting was held on 24th January, when Dr V.G.
Hopwood gave a talk on David Thompson's travels in British Columbia,
illustrated with slides of Thompson's maps and early nineteenth century
surveyors' instruments - a sextant and an artificial horizon of the type
used by Thompson.
VICTORIA At their November meeting Captain A.R. Phelps, retired, gave an
address on .the topic "History of Early Coastwise Shipping". He showed a
large number of slides of early vessels used on British Columbia coastal
waters, some going back to the era of the Hudson's Eay early ships.. His
slides pointed up the extensive research work that he had done over the
years, especially in locating hard-to-find photogr aphs.
As a special guest speaker at their Annual Christmas dinner, Gerald
Wellburn, long-time resident of Duncan and the Victoria area, reminisced
about Christmasses past - one in England before the Wellburn family
emigrated to Canada and another in Victoria when they first arrived in 1911.
It is interesting to note that Elizabeth Forbes, author and columnist,
reproduced Gerry Wellburn*s address, in part, in the Victoria Times of
December 1.8th and 20th, 1972.
Members, enjoyed, in January, a lively talk by the Rev. John Travis,
Victoria, on the subject "Discovering Robert Rundle, Pioneer, Missionary
Explorer in Alberta". His talk brought to mind the fact, often forgotten,
that many of the early explorers in Canada were men of the cloth. This is
true of the Rev. Robert Rundle who arrived, in what is now Banff, Alberta,
:in 1840. He kept a diary of his trip to the western part of Canada, and,
as so often happens, the diary was "lost". Rev. John Travis, who for some
years was the minister at the Rundle Memorial United Church at Banff gave
himself a research problem, namely, to find the lost diary. His interesting talk told how the diary was found after a fantastic search that
extended to the British Islas and Trinidad.
The Vancouver Numismatic Society Annual Coin show and Educational
Symposium is being held in Vancouver April 1.4th and 15th. The coin show
will be held in the Oakridge Auditorium on April 1.4th, and the symposium
at the Holiday Inn on April 15th. There will be speakers on the following
topics:  "History of the R.CM.P. in British Columbia and their medals;
a slide presentation "B.C. Banknotes"; "The Exposition of 1894, San Francisco";
"Resolution and Adventure Medal 1.772 at Nootka, B.C." - a Captain Cook medal.
Further information may be obtained from Mr Norman Williams - 526-0744 or
From the Vancouver Sun, Jan. 25th, 1973    .A new Provincial
Class A Park of 1.2 acres called Blessing's Grave Historic Park near
Barkerville. The park commemorates Morgan Blessing, a miner murdered by
John Barry, the only white man hanged in the Cariboo District. Barry's
conviction was brought about by a nugget stolen from Blessing and given to
a dance hall girl and later the nugget was recognized by' a friend of
Blessing's. ' From the Vancouver Sun, February 5th, 1.973 '.' Yellowknife,
N.W.I, A blue print for a "two-holer" outhouse was introduced at the
Council of the Northwest Territories by Yellowknife member Searle,
together with an angry letter from J. Olsen of Deslisle Sask. The letter
commented on Searle's statement that the Federal Government was not providing
sufficient funds for sewage disposal in the North. Olsen asked "Are the
Indians begging for the white man's flush toilets or did the white man who
is not even native to the North, introduce the idea to them that they
cannot be content without a flush toilet?" Searle replied "With respect
to your not so unique suggestion of a "two-holer" two real problems exist.
First,' it is rather difficult to dig through rock and permafrost. Seeond,
at below zero temperatures it would be difficult to use if it were possible
to build"."
The Society for Historical Archaeology is concerned with the identification,
excavation, interpretation and conservation of sites and materials on
land and under water. Membership includes subscription to the annual
journal Historical Archaeology. Apply to Roderick Sprague, Sec-Treas.,
Dept of Soc/Anthrc, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83843.
ORAL HISTORY Plans are being considered to establish a sound record
institute and oral history association in B.C. The institute would be a
headquarters forjresearch and instruction in everything to do with the
recording and preservation of sound tapes, and the oral history association
would enable the institute to maintain contact with interested people all
over the province. Members of the association would be given special help
in the techniques of recording and in matters of research. They would
receive a oeriodical publication which would, contain articles about newly
acquired recordings, the latest equipment and So on. It is proposed that
an inaugural meeting be: held in the spring. If you would like to be kept
informed about further developments please write to Committee for- Oral
History Association of B.C., c/o Oral History Project, The Library,
University of B.C., Vancouver 8, B.C,
In National Historic Parks News, published quarterly by the National
Historic Parks Branch, Issue No. 9 concentrated on "Boats with Bustles".
"The restoration of boats is a relatively new move for the National Historic
Sites Service. Only in the last twelve- years have floating structures
been considered of historic importance and been counted along with the
more than 600 major and minor historic sites that plot the advent of
Canadian history from Newfoundlandto Vancouver Island." The restoration
of the St. Roch, historic conqueror of the Northwest Passage, will be
complete by the latter part of 1.974. Two sternwheelers, S.S. Keno at
Dawson and S.S. Klondike at Whitehorse, are the property of the National
Historic Sites Service arid plans are well underway to restore them to
their original condition of 1930 and 1937 respectively. They will form
part of the extensive Klondyke Goldrush International Historic Park -
symbolizing the Important role the sternwheeler. has played in the
development of the north. When restored, Keno will stand as a tribute
to the importance of the sternwheelers in the development of the Yukon.
Klondike will be converted into a museum housing exhibits, artifacts and
relics relative to the history of transportation in the Yukon.
GENEALOGY CLASSES Mrs Gay Curran-'Husband is at presant teaching a class
in genealogy at'Delbrook Senior Secondary School in North Vancouver. The
course offers aft introduction-to genealogy, how to search, how to keep 8
records, and a workshop. Her next course on genealogy will be at Point
Grey High School, Vancouver, starting towards the end of March. Enquiries
may be addressed to B.C. Genealogical Society, Box 94371, Richmond, B.C.
Mr CD. Stevenson Our Society has learned with great sadness of the
untimely death of Doug Stevenson of Williams Lake. Many of us first met
the Stevensons' at our successful'Gulf Islands Conference of 1966,
following which they personally hosted the I.967 Williams Lake Conference.
Since then those of us who have had occasion to pass through Williams Lake
have enjoyed the wonderful Cariboo hospitality of the Stevensons. Doug's
love of history, along vrith  his enthusiasm as a collector of books on the
Pacific Northwest, was infectious to all, and he took great pride in
showing and discussing his fine book collection with his many visitors.
His generosity, support and encouragement to all will be missed by our
Society and all who had the good fortune to know him. The Association
extends its deepest sympathy to Doug's wife Ann.
Miss Hazel Hill It is with extreme regret that we note the passing of
liss Hazel Hill of Lytton, B.C on November 1.4th, 1.972. Miss Hill had a
most interesting background that very few of us knew. Graduating from
the University of Toronto and a feommercial business course at Windsor, Ont.,
she specialized in writing French language policies for Canada Life
Assurance Co. before obtaining her Master's degree from the University of
Alberta i: 1.963. During her life she lived in New York, France and
Switzerland, and was invited to go to New Delhi for the World Council of
Churches but could not obtain leave. Before going to Trail she spent some
time in the Alberni Valley doing social work. She was a commercial
teacher in Trail from 1.955 to 1.967 when she moved to Lytton and continued
teaching until her retirement two years-ago. Hazel had been active in
the community life of Lytton and served a term as mayor. Before she became
ill last summer she had been planning to institute a branch of the B.C.
Historical Association at Lytton and had settled on October 1.972 for its
inaugural meeting.
BRITISH COLUMBIA BOOKS OF INTEREST, compiled by Frances Woodward.
BEGG, Alexander. History of British Columbia from it's earliest discovery
to the present time. Toronto, McGraw Hill-Ryerfcon, 1973. 590 pp. illus.$9.95
CARMICHAEL, Dean. A holiday trip: Montreal to Victoria and return via the
Canadian Pacific Railway. Montreal, Railfare Enterprises, 1971. 32 pp.,
illus. $1.50. Reprint of 1.888 edition.
CURTIS, Edward S. In a sacred manner we live: photographs of the North
American Indian; introduction and commentary by Don D. Fowler. Barre, Mass.,
Barre Publishers, 1.972. 1.52 pp., illus. $1.5.00
DAVIES, Marguerite and Cora Ventress. Fort St. John pioneer profiles. Fort
St, John, Centennial Committee, 1.971. 72 pp. illus. $2.85
DILL, Reg. History of the Rotary Club of Nelson, B.C.; golden anniversary
issue, I922-I972. Nelson (1-972) 40 pp., illus.
DOWNS, Art. Paddlewheels on the frontier - the story of British Columbia
and Yukon sternwheel steamers. Surrey, Foremost Pub. Co. Ltd., 1972.
1.60 pp., illus. $9.50; Pt.l $2.95; Pt.2 $3.95 paper. DUFF, Wilson. The Upper Stalo Indians of the Fraser Valley, B.C Vancouver,
Indian Education Resources Centre, U.B.C, 1.972. I.36 pp. illus.$2.00
(Reprint of Anthropology in B.C. Memoir No. 1, 1.952)
GAAL, Arlene. Memoirs of Michel-Natal 1.899-1971. Rutland, 1971. 202 pp. $4
HUNGRY WOLE, Adolf. Good medicine traditional dress issue; knowledge and
methods of old-time clothing. (Good medicine series No. 3) Golden, Good
Medicine Books, 1.971. 64 pp., illus. $2.50.
HUNTER, Tom. Wildlife of B.C. (reprinted from B.C. Outdoors Magazine) Surrey,
Foremost Pub.. Co., 1.972. 64 pp., illus. $2.95.
LADNER, Leon J. The Ladners of Ladner; by covered wagon to the welfare state.
Vancouver, Mitchell Press, I.972. 1.6l pp., illus. $6.50.
MACFIE, Matthew. Vancouver Island and British Columbia, their history,
resources and prospects. Toronto, Coles Pub. Co., 1.972. 594 pp. illus. $6.95.
(Reprint of 1.865 ed.)
NITINAT STUDY GROUP The Nitinat study -> a research project concerning the
Nitinat Triangle region on Vancouver Island. Victoria; 1972. 73 PP« illus.
OPPORTUNITIES FOR YOUTH PROJECT, 1.972. Architecture of the Fraser Valley.
Vancouver, 1.973. 112 pp., illus.
OUTDOORS CLUB OF VICTORIA. Hiking trails Victoria and southern Vancouver
Island. Victoria, 1.972. 32 pp., illus. $1.50.
PATERSON, T.W. Shipwreck, piracy and terror In the northwest. Victoria,
1.972. 64 pp., illus. $2.00
PIERCE, Richard A. Alaskan shipping, 1.867-1.878 - arrivals and departures
at the port of Sitka. Kingston, Limestone Press, 1972. 63 pp. illus. $3.50.
POOLE, Francis. Queen Charlotte Islands. Vancouver, J.J. Douglas, 1972.
347 pp. $8.95. Reprint of 1.872 ed.
ROTHENBURGER, Mel. We've killed Johnny Ussher! Vancouver, Mitchell Press,
1973. 210 pp., illus. $5.50 hard cover; $3*75 paper.
SWAN, James Gilchrist. Almost out of this world: scenes from Washington
Territory: the Strait of Juan de Fuca 1.859-61'.; ed. by Wm A. -Katz. Tacoma,
Washington State Historical Soc, 1.971. xxiii, 1.26 pp., Ons. $7«50.
TRELEAVEN, G. Fern. The Surrey story today, v.3 (1940-1971). Surrey, Surrey
Museum & Historical Society, 1.972. 48 pp., illus. $1.95.
TRIMBLE, William J. The mining advance into the inland empire. Fairfield,
Wash., Ye Galleon Press, 19-72. 254 pp. $1.0.00
VANDIVEER, Clarence A. The fur-trade and early western exploration. New
York, Cooper Square Pub., 1.971. 316 pp., illus. $8.95. Reprint, of 1929 ed.
VAN TAMELON, Jon P, Canada by canoe; Hudson's Hope, B.C to Montreal, Quebec.
Hudson's Hope, 1972. 1.90 pp. $5.00.
B.C PERSPECTIVES. Kamloops, Cariboo College, 1.972- (Subscriptions
$3.00 for three issues)
The Department of Social Sciences at Cariboo College must be congratulated for undertaking the publication of B.C. Perspectives. This journal,
of which two issues have now appeared, has set out to publish student work
on various British Columbia subjects. The aim is two-fold: to make the
results of student research on local subjects available and to show the
public the kind of work being done in provincial colleges and universities.
Thus, in the first issue (February 1.972) Roland Neave's study of the
"sequent occupance" of the Lac Du Bois region and James A. Utley's analysis 1.0
of the Cloverdale Fair present interesting historical data gleaned from
newspapers, government records and personal interviews. Both articles
reveal a concern for "relevance" to the local community. Mr Neave warns
of the harmful effects of the encroachment of housing on productive
grazing land and Mr Utley proposes a return to the original concept of a
country fair as a means of overcoming recent deficits in the fair's operations. The third essay is a statistical examination of Who's Who in
British Columbia which shows some striking changes between 1.931 and 1951
in the values which made certain British Columbians "prominent". Neil
Porteous argues that between these years there was "a moving away from
aristocratic British leanings to attitudes which have an affinity with
American capitalist values." He offers some thoughtful'explanations of
why this took place but only hints at the most obvious, the eclectic
policies of the editors of Who's Who.
In spite of some rough edges, the articles and the four book reviews are,
on the whole, well above the standard one usually finds in -undergraduate
writing. And, the volume is.nicely presented with appropriate maps -and
The second issue (October 1.972) breaks with editorial policy. Indeed,
the contributors are professional historians who participated in a symposium on "Approaches to Local/Regional History" held at Cariboo College. In
a witty keynote address, J.M.S. Careless, the only participant from out-
Side the province, warmly endorses the study of local history but-properly
warns against allowing it to become parochialism. Closely related to this
theme is a very personal essay in which G.L. Cook describes how he uses
local.history to launch his Simon Fraser students into their study of the
discipline. On the other hand, A.J. Hiebert, in a fascinating account of
the Prohibition movement in the Okanagan, notes the' difficulty of using
local studies to investigate the grass roots of widespread phenomena.
Nevertheless, his 'work does help to explain why British Columbia went "dry".
The fourth paper is J. Gresko's impassioned plea for closer co-operation
between college history teachers and local museums'.
The picture which emerges from both issues of B.C. Perspectives is
a happy one. With"students of'the calibre included in the first issue
and instructors with the enthusiasm of the editors and the contributors
to the second issue, the future of B.C studies is bright. Let us hope
that B.C. Perspectives will continue to record it as such.
Patricia Roy
Dr Roy, a member of the Victoria Branch, is a member of the Department
of History, University of Victoria.
A HISTORY OF VICTORIA: 1.842-1970, by Harry Gregson. Victoria, Victoria
Observer Publishing Co., 1.970. 246 pp., maps, illus. $1.0.00.
This first full-length history of Victoria is a concise outline of
the city's political, economic, social, and cultural development from its
founding in 1.842 as a trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company to the
present. The author has performed a welcome task of synthesis, drawing
widely from both published and original source material as well as verbal
reminiscences. Fresh illustrations complement the text, and several hew 1.1
maps, especially those of large homes and former estates, will be of particular interest to the local history enthusiast.
Victoria does not appeal to all tastes. One disappointed visitor was
moved to proclaim that to him Victoria was nothing more than "God's
waiting room . . . the only cemetnry in the entire world with street
lighting."! James Douglas, on the contrary, was so captured when in 1.842
he first saw the meadows and oaks of what was then Fort Camosun, that he
wrote to a friend: "The place itself appears a perfect Eden in the midst
of a dreary wilderness of the Northwest Coast, and so different in its
general aspect from the wooded, rugged regions around that one might be
pardoned for supposing it had dropped from the clouds ..." (Gregson, p.2).
Who could have imagined then that by the end of the nineteenth century
the streets of this tranquil Eden would be flowing with "top-hatted, frock-
coated merchants, lawyers, business men and politicians, sharing the side
walks with semi-naked Indians peddling salmon, jog-trotting Chinese with
laundry baskets on their heads, roistering red-jacketed sealers, lumbermen and adventurers of many nations"! (pp. 121-1.22)
In the latter half of the nineteenth century Victoria's strategic
position as an important trading headquarters close to San Francisco, and
as best port of embarkation to the North, transformed a tiny Fort into a
colourful, cosmopolitan centre of activity, particularly in 1.858, year of
the Fraser River Gold Rush, and again thirty years later, during the
Klondike Rush, In many entertaining anecdotes Gregson shows that the
resultant influx and expansion produced an interesting clash of personalities, an intermingling of all nationalities with the rather austere
Scottish element and sometimes "uppish", usually more light-hearted English
strain. "Old square toes" Douglas, for example, is seen sternly ignoring
that volatile gadfly Amor de Cosmos, and Lady Douglas, spurned by the
wife of Rev. Staines because she is of mixed blood, evidently prefers the
company of her children and her chickens to that of Mrs Staines.- The
famous dispute between the irascible Dean Cridge and Bishop Hills reads
like a chapter from the days of .Oliver Cromwell, with its locked cathedral
doors and the hurling of invective both written and verbal. This quarrel
led Governor Seymour to exclaim that the Victorians were "tempest torn
and excited" and resulted in the Reformed Episcopal Church which is still
on Humboldt Street and is Victoria's oldest church building.
'   A host of eccentric "characters" gives Victoria its truly unique
flavour, and Gregson obviously delights in telling us about them. There
is "Blanket Bill" who, when captured by Indians, is said to have been
swapped for a blanket offered by Douglas, and there is "Singing Lola"
whose "vindictive and stern look in a photograph seems to indicate that
she 'went off song' after a few years of cmarriage ton John cToda" (p.64).
There was Bill Nye, the ,rag and bone man, who scoured the waterfront in a
barrel using his hands as paddles, and there was "Pig Iron Kelly", the
notorious smuggler of Chinese domestics, who weighted his emigrants with
pig iron so that all evidence could be drowned in anemergency. The list
is seemingly endless.•
At the turn of the century the financial crisis in the U.S. seriously
T. • A visitor from "Gotham" (New York). Quoted in J.W. Jackman, Vancouver
Island. Toronto, Griffin House, 1972, p.154. 1.2
affected Victoria's mining and industrial interest. This factor coupled
with the rapid growth of Vancouver and Seattle tended to dethrone the "Queen
City" and to demote her to a much "lesser princess". Hopefully Victoria's
economic misfortunes will help to preserve her unique character.  "A cemetary
  with street lighting" she may sometimes appear to be, but she has also
managed to remain as Emily Carr remembered her - a place where every aspect
is lovely, North, South, East and West - blue sea, purple hills, snowcapped -.Olympic mountains bounding her southern horizon, little bays
and beaches heaped with storm-tossed driftj pine trees everywhere, oak
and maple in plenty.
So stands tranquil Victoria in her Island setting - Western as West
can be'before earth's gentle rounding pulls West east again.
2. The Book of Small. Toronto, Oxford University Press, 1942, p.245.
Jennifer Gallup
Miss Gallup is a librarian in the Humanities Division, U.B.C. Library.
THE LADNERS OF LADNER - By Covered Wagon to the Welfare State, by Leon J,
Ladner. Vancouver, Mitchell Press Ltd., 1.972. 1.62 p., illus. $6.50.
Relatively few place-names in British Columbia, or elsewhere for that
matter, are derived from the patronyms of the first settlers. In the lower
mainland Agassiz, Rider Lake, Deroche, Mount Lehman, Bradner, Haney, Newton,
Port Kells and Ladner are the only examples that come to mind, though some
would add Hammond. Of these only Agassiz, Haney and Ladner are viable
communities, and even these have no separate organized entities, being
unorganized communities within the district municipalities of Kent, Maple
Ridge and Delta, respectively. Moreover, of the families whose name
survives as place-names, only one would otherwise attract any attention
today. The name Ladner would be well known in this area even if Ladner's
Landing had been named Chilukthan, Trenant or Delta from the beginning to
the present.
For these reasons it will interest many to' know that a prominent scion
of the family, Mr Leon J. Ladner, has produced a book entitled "The Ladners
of Ladner". The subject proves as fascinating as one would expect. Mr
Ladner has gone to great trouble to trace the early career of his father,
Thomas E(llis) Ladner from the time he left his native Trenant, Penzance,
Cornwall, in 1.851 to accompany his only brother, ten years older, returning
to Mineral Point, Wisconsin, whither their father, Edward, had gone in 1.847
and where he was to die before his family could join him. Thus left to
their own devices, the two brothers began to plan joining the gold-rush to
California and early the next year, still aged only twenty-five and
fifteen, they were in Omaha with saddle-horses, ox-wagon and a herd of cattle
which they took by way of Laramie, Salt Lake City and Donner Pass to Placer-
ville, a journey of five months and six days. They spent six years in
California but their migration was to be continued in the gold-rush to the
-•Fraser River mines in 1.858, this time by steamer, canoe, river-boat and
pack-train. Ten more years, gold-hunting, packing and other enterprises,
were to elapse before settling on the Delta. 13
Nor does the author tell his story in a vaouum. From Omaha to Barkerville and the Big Bend he is at great pains to fill in the geographic
setting and historical background with much attention to social and economic conditions in which the brothers moved. This, with a digression into
the life of the Indians in British Columbia, constitutes more than half the
story of the wandering years but adds to rather than detracts-from its
interest. The remaining quarter of the book is chiefly concerned with
Thomas E.'s salmon canning empire (nine canneries in all, from San Juan
Island to Skeena River) and his retirement in Vancouver, 1909-1-922
(largely the author's own travels in Europe before the First World War).
In all, it is an absorbing story.        :
And yet . . . "The Ladners of Ladner"? This reader, at least, would
have liked more: more of that older brother, William H. Ladner, J.P., M.P.P.,
and of his sisters, Mrs Armstrong and Mrs Phillips of New Westminster, the
former the mistress of the first private residence in that city; more of
the next generation of Ladners growing up on the Delta; more of the rest of
the Ladner family as members of Lower Mainland society in the Twentieth
Century, since they are, in the generations following that of the author,
people of some consequence in their own rights. Mr Ladner, it is true,
in his eighty-ninth year, promises Us another volume, but on an entirely
different "subject. It is to deal with "that creeping political and
economic menace, Communism, the tentacles of which are spread throughout
the world". Even knowing the author's experience as leader of the "Friends
of the Soviet Union" at the' end of World War II, what new information he
can bring at this late date to that tired, over-worked subject one can only
His publishers have done a good physical job for Mr Ladner - good
printing, binding and illustrations - and have included an appropriate
foreword by Dr Norman A.M. MacKenzie, President Emeritus of the University
of British Columbia. It is too bad they did not also give him guidance
and assistance in two specific editorial matters: The proof-reading was
definitely inadequate. One or two typographical errors are usually to be
expected, but when they misname people ("Suther"- for Sutter, "Jeuness"
for Jenness) or confuse wording and meaning ("having" for loving, "rides"
for rifles, "shipping" for whipping) or identify the capital of the
United States as "Washington, B.C." the results must be at least embarrassing for the author.. Even more serioUs is Our second complaint, the
inadequacy of the bibliography or list of "References" at the end of the
book. They are listed in absolutely random order, giving titles and authors
without mention of publishers excepting where the publisher, was.apparently
responsible for unacknowledged authorship and, with three exceptions, '
without dates excepting where the date is essentially part of the title.
Also, while the text cites one "Report" nowhere clearly identified, there
are three works among the eighty-four listed that look grotesquely out of
place:  "Fascism; Mussolini", "Moin Kampf; Adolf Hitler", and"Leninism;
Joseph Stalin". Several other titles are nowhere referred to either nor
have any bearing on the Ladner history as given. One can only suppose
they are thought either to have some bearing on the author's obtrusive
biases or to prepare readers1for that promised second volume.
Nevertheless, one must be grateful to Mr Ladner for his positive
achievements: a lively and authentic account of a migration over the
Mormon Trail to California following '"Forty-Nine" with personal aspects 1.4
of the Fraser River and subsequent gold ;rushes in British Columbia, 1.858-
I.867, and new light on the lives, personalities and achievements of two
important British Columbians, his father and himself.
John E. Gibbard
Mr Gibbard, a member of the Vancouver Historical Society, is a past
Secretary of the B.C. Historical Association
STERNWHEEL STEAMERS, by Art Downs. Sidney, Gray's Publishing Ltd., 1.972.
1.60 pp. $9.50.
This volume originally appeared in two soft cover parts in I.967 and
1.971, published by B.C. Outdoors Magazine. Boat buffs of all sorts will
welcome having it all in one piece and librarians and researchers will be
pleased to know that a very adequate index is now provided. Among its
real strengths is the author's ability to describe the deep affection for
the paddlewheelers.that grew up among many of the users of these ships and
it is clear that the same fondness guided Mr Downs as he wrote. The result
is a truly sympathetic portrait, a celebration of the contribution made by
the paddlewheelers and the men who owned and ran them to the development
ofBritish Columbia. As he explains in his foreword,
"The record that paddlewheelers and their crews left ranges from
comic to tragic, from merely impossible to incredible. The book
is not intended to be a concise history of these events. Rather
it endeavours instead to present a broad picture of the vessels
and their crews and the contributions both made in the transformation of a frontier to the land we know today."
In other words, this is a "popular" treatment of the subject. If we are
looking for precise footnoting and extensive bibliographies we will be
disappointed. Nevertheless, there has obviously been a great deal of
research, in both public institutions and among knowledgeable individuals,
no matter how loosely it may be acknowledged or arranged. Consequently,
I think the author achieves his own purposes, producing a very entertaining
and humorous narrative admirably illustrated.        ' .
The period covered, if one disregards for a moment, the portion of
the story referring to the Beaver, is almost exactly 1.00 years; from I.858
when the first paddlewheeler churned up the Fraser River to 1.957 when the
Moyie, the last of the breed, was retired from service on Kootenay Lake.
Within these years, the narrative is organized by river system, which
places the ships in their proper setting and among those which were their
commercial rivals. Thus there are two chapters on the Lower Fraser and
one each on the Cariboo and Central B.C, the Skeena and Stikine, Kamloops
and the Shuswap Country, the Okanagan, the Columbia and Kootenay Rivers,
the Arrow and Kootenay Lakes and Northern B.C and the Yukon.
In keeping with his main aim, Downs has filled each chapter with an
abundance of verbal and photographic description. For the former he has
relied heavily on contemporary newspaper accounts in his reconstruction
of the flavour of the period, the ships and the crews. The following is
characteristic of many descriptions of arrivals and departures at small
communities, 15
"In May 1.911, the B.X. produced more of a flurry at Quesnel than
usual. Her whistle blast caused the drayteam organized by George
Johnson to bolt, with George "pluckily holding onto the lines and
riding out the storm". Then a stagehorse coming down the gangplank
fell into the river . . . One horse bucked and "rider, saddle, and
blankets went about six feet into the air and landed a few paces away".
Afterwards the vessel churned away and calm returned."
Bright as the text is, the photographs are certainly the chief glory of
the book. Not only are they numerous and well chosen, but the commentary is for once as complete as anyone could wish. The comments do not
merely identify the subject but expand on it, often adding important new
points to the discussion. Some might quarrel that the proper place for
this sort of thing is in the body of the text, but I found it a refreshing change from cryptic, incomplete or even non-existent identifications
of photos. There is one piece of vital information missing from all the
photographs, however. Not one of them carries a reference to source,
although many contributing repositories are mentioned on one of the
introductory pages. Not only is this gross discourtesy to the librarians,
archivists, curators and private owners who located and made material
available, it makes it almost impossible for those who, after reading the
book, want a certain illustration, to establish who has custody of the
Apart from being entertaining in itself, I think this book paves the
way for other historical studies in this area of a more, specialized nature.
An obvious candidate would be a more detailed treatment of the economic
role played by the sternwheelers on the Lower Fraser between 1.858-1.886, the
latter date marking the establishment of the C.P.R. transportation monopoly on the Lower Mainland. Certainly several good biographies leap out
of these pages, notably one on Captain William Moore, who, as Downs notes,
played a part in every gold rush from '58 to '98. Following the author's
identification, location and picturing of so many different craft, someone
might like to attempt an analysis of sternwheeler construction and design
in B.C. Mr Downs has laid a good foundation, we can only hope that
others will build on it.
R.D. Watt
Mr Watt is Vice-President of the Vancouver Historical Society.
Outdoor Club of Victoria. Victoria, 1.972. 36 pp. $1.00.
This booklet consists chiefly of detailed sketch maps with brief
descriptions of the trails. It will appeal particularly to newcomers to
this area and those longer-time residents who now wish to explore our
parks, woods and beaches on their own rather than with a club.
All the trails mentioned are clearly defined trails and in the main
are for walks rather than strenuous hikes. However, some longer day hikes
are also included and, in particular, there is a very fine detailed map of
East Sooke Park. The area covered goes,as far west as Port Renfrew and
as far north as the Malahat.
The Outdoor Club ojr Victoria Trails Information Society hopes in
due course to produce further publications of a similar nature. For
further information write to Mrs Muriel Hunt, Box 1875, Victoria, B.C 1.6
'l^ook! They're REAL!", by Dave Brock
The following talk was broadcast on Good Morning Radio, CBC Vancouver on
February 6th, 1.973 and is reproduced here by kind permission of Mr Brock.
On February 3, 1973 there closed for ever the condemned sections of
Eaton's old store on Hastings Street, which of course until 1948 was David
Spencer's old store. My family didn't get to know the place until we moved
here from Ottawa in 1.91.4, when Spencer's had already been open for about
eight years. But we did know it for 34 years, and our account number was 35.
When Eaton's bought Spencer's out, they let us keep that charge account
No. 35. Sales girls would say 'Yes? 35 what?" and we'd say "35,period", and
this was great fun, except that it made us feel about a million years old.
When the computers took over, small numbers became impossible . n . a computer
can't think in small numbers ... I have noticed the same very human flaw in
politicians who are spending other people's money. So our account number is
now 1.2-million-and-something. This is a very low number for a computer. My
Woodward's number is 200-million-and-something; and when I last heard, my
Social Security number was not much under a billion. But all the same, 1.2
million just doesn't get as much awe-struck attention from the sales-girl, or
get many old fond memories from me.
But never mind, I keep great supplies of memories on hand anyhow, and my
best David Spencer one is undoubtedly the old roof garden, with lunch or afternoon tea in the open air, looking out across the harbour. The other roof
garden of those kindly days was on top of the old Vancouver Hotel, pulled down
long ago te make room for more memories, which are Vancouver's one really lasting product. From the Hotel's roof garden you could admire the pleasant terra
cotta facade of the Birks Building, which to-day grows even more handsome with
the years; so, we'll be pulling that down too, a few months from now.,
I remember Spencer's book department being far above average, even in
the days when other bookshops also stocked great standard works that anyone
remained glad to have bought and kept, instead of mere best-selling stacks
of recent piffle.
I remember Spencer's French Room of imported dresses. And what was
probably the town's best millinery. And the wonderful flower shop. Also I
remember that a spencer with a small S once meant a provisioner (to a castle
or palace or such) and since Spencer's store was just across Cordova from the
CPR trains and ships, thousands of us who were leaving home had all kinds of
dainty and cheerful nourishment thrust on us by seers-off who dashed over
to Spencer's on a sudden friendly whim.
In that same food department I watched Seaforth wives trying (not very
successfully) to cheer themselves up with food after seeing the Seaforths off
for Hitler's war in December '39. The cheeriest thing I «srver saw there was a
great array of peach blossoms, hundreds of branches all through the food department. My wife touched a spray and cried "Look! they're real!" (They'd be
from some Spencer family ranch.) And then, watching us. and beaming with pleasure
at my wife's pleasure, we saw Colonel Victor Spencer, the ranching shopman,
to whom not only Nature and B.C. were real, but the store and its staff were
real, and we were real too.      And I remain,
Yours really,
Number 35'. 17
The following brief to extend Manning Park and protect the historic trails
of British Columbia was submitted in the latter part of 1.972 to the '
Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
This is a proposal for the preservation of several of the early historic
trails of British Columbia. It has particular reference to those parts
of the trails which lie between Hope and the Similkameen country. These
are trails around which the Province developed. The most interesting, as
well as being the earliest and least known of these trails is the Hudson
Bay Company's Brigade Trail, From 1.849 to 1.861 this trail carried the
whole of the commerce of the Interior down to Hope, from as far north as
Babine Lake, During those years brigades of several hundred horses passed
over the trail. Judge Begbie travelled it in 1.859, on his first visit to
Kamloops from the Coast. It was only with.the construction of the Dewdney
Trail - the first government road to the Southern Interior - that the
Brigade Trail fell into disuse	
From the historical point of view, it would be a tragedy for these
trails to be lost. Their educational value is unquestionable: there can
be no better way to absorb the story of our predecessors than to walk in
their footsteps; in a very literal sense this will be possible with the
trails. In these days of increasing interest in hiking, riding, and exploration on foot and on horseback, there will be ever more people seeking to
take part in these activities.
Now that the Federal Government has announced its own program, "Byways
and Special Places", there may be an opportunity for co-operation in the
preservation of a heritage which undoubtedly belongs to Canada as well as
to British Columbia. It is worth noting that the West Coast Trail, which is
similar, though much more limited undertaking, attracted over 1000 people
during the' summer of 1.972. The re-opening of the trails to the Interior,
possibly as a joint prdject of government at two levels, is an exciting
A substantial additional value of this proposal lies in the unspoiled
and magnificent country through which the trails pass. An opportunity
exists to protect this country as-well as the trails. It lies to the north
of Manning Park, and it is suggested that the logical way to protect the
trails and the area itself would be to make a substantial enlargement of
the park, to take in the necessary territory. This country is still
difficult to get into, and neither the mining or forestry industries are
at present operating in it. It would therefore seem to be an area which
is mot only highly desirable, but one which could be added to the park
without any major opposition from industry. The headwaters of the Tulameen
River and other drainage systems are included in the proposed extension of
the park. This piece of country has great potential as a wildlife sanctuary,
a sanctuary from pollution, an area for hiking, riding, campiag and climbing
and as an ecological reserve.
The'easy access to, and increased use of the present Manning Park make
it impossible, for the future, to regard it as a primitive sanctuary area.
The addition to it of the suggested extension, which would be better protected both by regulations and by its geography, is a way of providing such
an area near the Province's heaviest concentrations of population. 1.8
A considerable amount of exploration of the historic trails has been
done in recent years by members of this Society, the Okanagan Historical
Society, the Boy Scouts of Canada and others. The extensive amount of
information collected by our members is available for study by members of
government departments, as they investigate this proposal. The people who
made the exploration will happily provide their own knowledge and experience.
Mr Harley Hatfield, P.Eng., a member of this Society, and others have explored
the area annually since 1.967. • •
This Society is deeply committed to the proposal contained in this brief.
Both the Society and those of its members who are well-informed on the subject, will be available to assist, in any way they can, the further investigation of the proposals set forth.
Respectfully submitted:  The Okanagan Similkameen Parks Society.
The Hudsons Bay Company Brigade Trail-
The trail went some miles up 'the Coquihalla River from Hope, and then
followed Peers Creek to Manson's Ridge, thence down to Fool's Pass - a very
steep and difficult route. It continued along the west side of the Sowaqua
Creek valley, crossed the creek and then skirted the northwest spur of Mt.
Davis, at an altitude of approximately 6,000 feet, thus reaching the Podunk
Creek valley. It followed this to the upper Tulameen valley. It crossed
the Tulameen River, and travelled easier country past Lodestone Mountain to
join the Tulameen River again, and thence north to Fort Kamloops. A branch
trail led down the river to Princeton (then known as Vermillion Forks.)
The Dewdney Trail
This trail was started in 1.860, and completed to Vermillion Forks in
1.861. Edgar Dewdney and Walter Moberly (who later achieved fame for his
survey work for the C.P.R.) were the contractors, and a good part of the
work was done by the Royal Engineers. This road was a much bigger project
than the old trails, and was later continued to Fort Steele. The trail
followed the present route of Highway 3 to the Skagit, and then went up Snass
Creek, and so over to Whipsaw Creek. Later, a new route up Skaist Creek
and through the Hope Pass was developed. The new route became known as the
Hope Trail, and the older part, which followed Snass Creek, was called the
Canyon Trail.
The Whatcom Trail
This was a variant of the original Dewdney Trail, and was developed
before the Hope Trail.
The Ghost Pass Trail
This led down from the Brigade Trail to the Dewdney Trail, using
Eighteen Mile Creek. Along with Blackeye's Trail (an ancient Indian route)
and a short trail leading up the upper Tulameen valley; this served as a
better route than the original Brigade Trail, cutting out the difficult
Peers Creek section of the-, latter. 19
The Pacific Crest Trail
This Is not a historic trail, but its recreational importance is
such that a possible route is marked on the map, which would enable it to
be linked to the trail system now being recommended,
These suggestions are not intended to be final or precise, but are
given as suggestions for study.
The new boundary could start from the western extremity of the
present park at Seventeen Mile Creek. From this point to Peers Creek it
could take in all the high alpine country and come down to the highway
wherever this would not interfere with any good logging area. It could
include the slide.
In the Peers Creek and Sowaqua Creek valleys, it should give full
protection to the Brigade Trail without taking in areas where logging is
presently feasible. The south slope of Tulameen Mountain is steep, rocky
and rough. It is good wildlife and wilderness area, but not good for
anything else. The north or east branch of the Sowaqua should be kept
free of pollution. The Brigade Trail runs along the north side of the
Podunk Creek valley which contains only small lodgepole pine. The boundary
should protect the trail and the whole valley, to the point where the
trail enters the long-used cattle range at the edge of the plateau.
Along the east side of the Tulameen valley, to where the Dewdney
Trail swings east, the boundary should follow, as far as possible, the
edge of the range which has actually been used by cattle for some years.
From this point to the junction with Manning Park, the boundary shown on
the map is drawn to protect as much as possible of the Dewdney and Hope
Trails, without intruding too much on traditional cattle range. Where
cattle have been pushed in, in the last year or two, or where it is merely
hoped to extend the grazing area, it is suggested that the park extension
should have priority.
" I read with much interest Dr Akrigg's address "The Naturalists
Discover British Columbia", It surprised me that botanists, two hundred
years ago, would have been endeavouring to send seeds etc back to Kew.
It is also remarkable that Capt. Cook should have found space in his
small craft for two botanists. Yours sincerely, George Pearkes."
INDEX TO B.C. HISTORICAL-NEWS VOL. 1.-5 will be circulated with this
issue. If you dp not receive one please ask the Secretary of your
.Society for a copy.     ... - -.-
NOTE: CONVENTION'DATES: fey 24, 25 and 26, 1.973 at VANCOUVER
****** * ****** **'*■*** *.:* 20
by Adrien Mansvelt
van Coeverden
Ever since my arrival in Vancouver, British Columbia, I have been
intrigued by the fact that although a vague notion seems to exist that
Captain George Vancouver's family was originally of Dutch origin,
nobody apparently has been able tp prove his descent. And yet long
before I came to this part of the world and though previously not-
connected in any way with Vancouver, B.C, I had heard that the family
name was originally not Vancouver but Van Coeverden.
A search in the Vancouver Public Library and the U.B.C. Library
produced only three works of interest concerning Vancouver's lineage;
a book "Vancouver; a life 1757-1798" by George Godwin, a pamphlet
"George Vancouver, the story of a Norfolk sailor" by G.H. Anderson, and
an article in the British Columbia Historical Quarterly, Volume VI, 1942,
page 77 under the title "Captain George Vancouver, a study in commemorative place names" by F.V. Longstaff. However, the information contained therein on Captain Vancouver's ancestors, does not go very far.
In the second paper it is stated that nothing is known about the origin
of the father of Captain Vancouver except that John Jasper Vancouver 21
was Deputy Collector of Customs at King's Lynn and that Captain Vancouver's
grandmother, a certain Mrs Sarah Vancouver, was living in St. James'
Street at King's Lynn, where she was listed as a householder and died in
I.769. It is admittedly known though that Captain Vancouver did .himself
remember his Dutch origin when mapping the area in the North West
American Continent as in the Chatham Strait (Alaska Panhandle) he named
a Couvorden Island, a Point Coevorden and a Couvorden Rock.
It seems that .nobody ever thought of working on the riddle of the
origin of the Vancouver family from the other end, neither did anybody
ever try to find out which member of the van Coeverden family came over
to England and established the Vancouver family there. It was probably
the language barrier that accounted for this fact and formed the main
impediment to further studies. Research in The Netherlands into the
van Coeverden ancestry brought to light that in 1.883 an article was
published in the Dutch heraldic magazine "Heraldieke Bibliothsek" by a
certain Captain CJ. Polvliet, member of the Dutch Army Engineers Corps,
giving the  complete van Coeverden genealogy.
As it is, the van Coeverden family happens to be quite well known
in their homeland. They are one of the most aristocratic families in
The Netherlands, if not the Dutch family with the oldest ancestry. But
even in The Netherlands little has been published on the family, though
they are listed in the Handbook on Netherlands Nobility, the Dutch
equivalent to "Burke's Peerage". Their origin lies indeed in the town
of Coevorden, a town almost on the German border in the North East of
Holland. In the nineteenth century it had only a population of a few
thousand inhabitants. Nowadays its population numbers about 1.2,000
inhabitants and the town has developed into a centre of local trade and
industry. In former days it used to be an important fortress and
originally it formed the capital or the main town of the Province or
Region of Drenthe.
The earliest we know is that the van Coeverden's were Viscounts of
Coeverden by the middle of the 1.2th Century, and from their Castle at
Coevorden covered the defence of the area. They had the right of coinage
and they remained in the hereditary position as Castellans of Coevorden
for about two and a half centuries, under the .suzerainty of the Bishops
of Utrecht, who were sovereigns of the area.' Then about 1.400 one of the
more forceful Bishops of Utrecht decided to put an end to this hereditary
rule and instead appointed an official in charge of the Coevorden Castle
and hence of the area. The van Coeverden's then were enfeoffed instead
with feudal estates near Goor in the Province of Overijssel, which area
came under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Utrecht as well. They
belonged to the Overijssel Knighthood and in the course of time through
intermarriage with descendants of other noble families added to their
possessions various castles in that Province, such as Goor and Wegdam.
Once the Dutch Republic had been established in 1.579 the van
Coeverden's became faithful military men in the service of the Princes
of Orange and served the Dutch Army in different military capacities,
meanwhile continuing to intermarry with the noble families of the East
of Holland. .By the end of the 1.8th Century, apart from the Goor and
Wegdam Castles, the Manor Houses of Den Doom, De Schuilenburg, Stoevelaar,
Rande and Kampferbeek in the Province of Overijssel, Schelfhorst in the
Province of Drenthe and Putten in the Province of Gelderland, were or had
been owned by members of the van Coeverden family. 22
One of the van Coeverden's, a certain Reint Wolter van Coeverden,
(eventually Captain in the Army of the Dutch Republic) as a young man
served as a Squire at one of the German Courts, where he fell in love
with one of the ladies in waiting, the English Lady Johanna Lillingston,
presumably a daughter of Luke Lillingston.  (The Lillingston's are mentioned
in Burke's "Landed Gentry" as a Yorkshire family). He married her and
the couple had one son, named Lucas Hendrik (born at Meppel, Drenthe, in
1.699) or as he may have called himself later on, Luke Henry, and one
daughter, named Johanna Sidonia. The father, Reint Wolter,seems to have
been a bit of an adventurous person. About the year 1.700 he decided to go
via England to the West Indies where he presumably may have served the
Dutch West India Company in Surinam, as mention is made of his stay in
South America. He took his wife and two. children to these faraway lands.
At their return from the West Indies they were shipwrecked but eventually
were saved. Johanna van Coeverden presumably died in England, her home
country, and their son Luke Henry through his English affinities may have
lived there the rest of his life, although so far I have been tunable to
find any further mention of him but that he died outside Holland. However,
as the earlier mentioned Sarah Vancouver was a contemporary of his the
assumption may be made that she might have been his wife. This assumption
probably looks a bit rash but proof thereof we find later on.
The father, Reint Wolter, meanwhile returned to Holland, joined the
Dutch Army again and remarried a certain Miss Johanna Catharina van
Broekhuysen. He had one son by his second wife by the name of Arent Louis.
Arent Louis van Coeverden became a lieutenant captain in the Army of the
Dutch Republic, married a Miss Helena Gezina van Triest, and had two sons.
One of them, Johannes Josephus Wigbold van Coeverden, Lord of Kamferbeek,
born in 1741, started as a lieutenant in the Dutch Army. He became an
important local administrator and was a member of the Provincial Legislative Assembly. He died at Vollenhove (Overijssel Province) in 1.81.8.
Meanwhile the Kingdom of The Netherlands had been founded in 1.81.3
and an official Dutch nobility with voting rights established after the pattern of
House of Lords - previously Dutch noblemen only held titles granted by
the Holy Roman Empire or by the French Kingdom - Johannes Josephus Wigbold
van Coeverden in 1.814 had conferred upon him the title of Jonkheer
(Baronet). He married three times and by his first wife, a certain Miss
Maria Catharina van Jeger, had two daughters, of whom the elder was Louise
Josephine van Coeverden, born at Breda, 1.2 June I.768. It was she who
gave the clue to my previous assumtion that Sarah Vancouver was Luke
Henry's wife, because Louise- Josephine van Coeverden on 6th March 1.798
married at Vollenhove (Province of Overijssel) Charles Vancouver (the
brother of Captain George Vancouver), who in the. van Coeverden family
papers is recorded as a remote cousin (as they had the same great-grandfather) . They each carried the same coat of arms as the van Coeverden
family, being three red eagles against a gold background. The couple
remained without issue and as far as I have been able to make out the
marriage cannot have been a very successful one. Charles Vancouver went
by himself to North America and died in Virginia, whilst his wife remained
living with her father, and after his death, lived with her half-sister,
Helena Gezina van Coeverden, the wife of Jonkheer (Baronet) Jacob van
Foreest, Member of the Provincial Parlement. She died on 5th July/ 1831
at Heemse Manor near Hardenberg (Province of Overijssel), the van
Foreest home. 23
The basic link between the van Coeverden and the Vancouver families
now having been given, it may be assumed that Captain Vancouver's grandfather came over to England with his parents and became an Englishman
through his mother's affinity to the country.
For those interested, a full descendance of the van Coeverden
family may be found in. Polvliet's article, a copy of which is available,
in Dutch, in the Special Collections Division of the U.B.C. Library.
Mr Mansvelt is the resident Vancouver Consul General of The Netherlands.
The crest at the beginning of this article is the coat of arms of the
town of Coevorden in The Netherlands.
MAY 24, 25, and 26, at


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