British Columbia History

British Columbia Historical News 1985

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 Published by the British Columbia Historical Federation
$3.50
BRITISH COLUMBIA
VOLUME 18, No. 3
1985
HISTORICAL NEWS
CFFHVV: B.C. Provincial Police Aircraft
D'Arcy Island Leper Colony
John Robert Giscome: Jamaican Miner & Explorer The Beaver float plane has played an important part in the history of British Columbia.
Story starts on page 5.
B.C. Provincial Museum Photo.
MEMBER SOCIETIES
••••••••••••
Member societies and their secretaries are responsible for seeing that the correct addresses
for their society and for its member subscribers are up-to-date. Please send changes to both
the treasurer and the editor whose addresses are at the bottom of the next page. The Annual
Report as at October 31 should show a telephone number for contact.
Member dues for the year 1984-85 (Volume 18) were paid by the following member
societies:
Alberni District Historical Society, Box 284, Port Alberni, B.C. V9Y 7M7
Atlin Historical Society, P.O. Box 111, Atlin, B.C. VOW 1A0
BCHF — Gulf Islands Branch, c/o Mrs. Ann Johnston, RR 1 Mayne Island VON 2J0
BCHF — Victoria Branch, c/o Margaret Bell, 1187 Hampshire, Victoria, B.C. V8S 4T1
Burnaby Historical Society, c/o 5406 Manor St., Burnaby, B.C. V5G 1B7
Chemainus Valley Historical Society, P.O. Box 172, Chemainus, B.C. VOR 1K0
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East Kootenay Historical Association, c/o H. Mayberry, 216 6th Avenue S., Cranbrook,
B.C. VIC 2H6
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B.C. VOR 2E0
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Nanaimo Historical Society, P.O. Box 933, Station "A", Nanaimo, B.C. V9R 5N2
Nanooa Historical & Museum Society, RR 1, Box 5, Kinghorn Rd., Nanoose Bay,
B.C. VOR 2R0
Nootka Sound Historical Society, Box 748, Gold River, B.C. VOP 1G0
North Shore Historical Society, c/o Mrs. Elizabeth L. Grubbe, 623 East 10th Street,
North Vancouver, B.C. V7L 2E9
Princeton & District Pioneer Museum and Archives, Box 687, Princeton, B.C. VOX 1W0
Qualicum Beach Historical & Museum Society, c/o Mrs. Cora Shipsey, P.O. Box 352,
Qualicum Beach, B.C. VOR 2T0
Saltspring Island Historical Society, c/o Mrs. Olive Clayton, RR 3, Comp. 4, Scott Pt. #1,
Ganges, B.C. VOS 1E0
Sidney and North Saanich Historical Society, c/o B. Peirson, 9781 Third Street,
Sidney, B.C. V8L 3A5
Silvery Slocan Historical Society, P.O. Box 301, New Denver, B.C. VOG 1S0
Trail Historical Society, P.O. Box 405, Trail, B.C. V1R 4L7
Vancouver Historical Society, P.O. Box 3071, Vancouver, B.C. V6B 3X6
West Vancouver Historical Society, P.O. Box 91785, West Vancouver, B.C. V7V 4S1
Windermere District Historical Society, Box 784, Invermere, B.C. VOA 1K0
Affiliated Groups
B.C. Museum of Mining, P.O. Box 155, Britannia Beach, B.C. VON 1J0
City of White Rock Museum Archives Society, 1030 Martin St., White Rock, B.C. V4B 5E3
The Hallmark Society, 207 Government Street, Victoria, B.C. V8V 2K8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
HISTORICAL NEWS VolUTO1_3
Features
BCHF Convention - Galiano Island, May 2-3, 1985        4
CF-FHW: The British Columbia Provincial Police Force's Beaver Aircraft        5
by R.G. Patterson
D'Arcy Island 1891-1907       7
by lima C. Salazar Gourley
John Robert Giscome: Jamaican Miner and Explorer    11
by Linda Eversole
The First Burial in Victoria's Jewish Cemetery    16
by Geoffrey Castle
News and Notes
Introducing BCHF President Leonard G. McCann    18
The Future of the B.C. Historical Federation   19
"Is Your Historical Society On Track?"    19
Museums and Archives     21
Contest Winner   21
Bookshelf
Gunboat Frontier: British Maritime Authority and the Northwest Coast Indians, 1846-1890
by Barry Gough; review by Brian A. Young      22
Not Just Pin Money: Selected Essays on Women's Work in British Columbia, edited by
Barbara K. Latham and Roberta J. Pazdro; review by Clare McAllister      22
Sliammon Life, Sliammon Lands, by Dorothy Kennedy and Randy Bouchard; review by
Peter Smith   23
Publications of Interest  24
Wanted - Books   24
New Books: Entries in the 1984 B.C. Historical Federation's Writing Competition   ... 25
Writing Contest    26
Second-class mail registration number 4447.
Published fall, winter, spring, and summer by the British Columbia Historical Federation, P.O. Box 35326, Station E,
Vancouver, B.C. V6M 4G5. Our Charitable Donations number is 0404681-52-27. Printed by Prestige Printers, Victoria,
B.C.
Manuscripts and correspondence for the editor are to be addressed to 1745 Taylor St., Victoria, B.C. V8R3E8. Send all
other correspondence, including changes of address, to the Vancouver address given above.
Subscriptions: Institutional $16.00 per year; Individual (non-members) $8.00 per year.
The B.C. Historical Federation gratefully acknowledges the financial assistance of the British Columbia Heritage
Trust. BCHF CONVENTION — Galiano Island,
May 2-5,1985
Information and registration forms should
have been distributed by member secretaries in
mid-March. Late registrants may contact
Christine Axmann, Registrar, Box 10, Galiano,
VON 1P0. Special rates are available for one-day
attendance. Please note: Saturday, May 4th,
agenda has been changed because of ferry
schedules. The Annual General Meeting will take
place at 1:00 p.m. instead of 9:00 a.m.
Member Societies are requested to bring
enough copies of their annual reports to share
with others attending Annual Meeting, and a
copy for the editor of the B.C. Historical News. If
time permits a brief oral report may be requested
by the president at the meeting.
Overlooking Active Pass from Bluffs Park, Galiano Island.
B.C. Ferries has introduced a new reservation system for automobiles taking the Tsawwassen to Gulf Islands ferry.
Please consult your ferry schedule for instructions well in advance of the Convention dates. Advance vehicle
payment is required to confirm a reservation. Telephone Vancouver 669-1211.
Subscribe!
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NAME:
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Page 4
British Columbia Historical News R.G. Patterson
CF-FHW: The British Columbia Provincial Police
Forces Beaver Aircraft
In 1949, a new branch of the British Columbia
Provincial Police Force was created. It was to be
known as the Air Division. With this Division, the
Force made one of its last major purchases, a
Beaver float equipped aircraft whose call letters
were CF-FHW. The Officer behind the purchase
of the aircraft was Noel Arnold Beaumont. He
was born on November 28, 1911, at Consort;
Alberta. On July 6, 1935, he joined the British
Columbia Provincial Police at Vancouver as a
probationer with the Emergency Squad. From
there he moved to the Mounted Troop which
was headquartered at Oakalla prison farm. A
short time later, Beaumont transferred out into
the field to Dawson Creek; however, he was only
there a year or two and then rejoined the
Mounted Troop. Shortly thereafter he
transferred to the Marine Division and Police
Motor Launch #9 which was stationed at
Campbell River.
On June 30,1941, he purchased his discharge
from the Force and joined the Royal Canadian
Air Force. Initially, he spent fourteen months as
an R.C.A.F. flying instructor at Trenton, Ontario,
then he went overseas, where he was attached to
Royal Airforce 256 Squadron flying Mosquito
aircraft on night raids. Towards the end of his
time overseas, he acted as Flight Commander for
the Squadron. At the end of the War, he was
discharged from the airforce, with the rank of
Flight Lieutenant. Once back in Canada,
Beaumont rejoined the British Columbia
Provincial Police on January 14, 1946, and was
posted back to Campbell River. A year later he
was promoted to Skipper third class, in charge of
P.M.L. #9.
Beaumont's flying experience convinced him
that an aircraft would greatly assist the police
with their day-to-day work. He began to
promote the idea of acquiring a float plane for
the Force, and gathered information on aircraft
types. He favoured the De Haviland Beaver
because of its manoeuverability and versatility.
He also did a comparison and contrast study on
running a police boat versus an aircraft. The
results showed that an aircraft would be far
cheaper to operate and maintain per mile per
year. This data, along with Beaumont's flying
time, was forwarded to Police Headquarters in
Victoria. The impact of this material on the
Headquarters staff was effective, because in
March, 1949, a DeHaviland Beaver seaplane, was
recommended for purchase. However, delivery
was not obtained until October 27,1949.
CF-FHW arrived in Vancouver from the factory
painted silver, with a sage green engine cowling
and stripe down the length of the fuselage. On
each of the passenger doors was the police crest.
The aircraft was equipped with the regular radio
required by the Department of Transport plus
direction finding apparatus and F.M. radio to
keep in contact with the police cars and other
fixed stations throughout the province. The
purchase price for CF-FHW was thirty-two
thousand dollars.
Owing to the late delivery, and unfavourable
weather conditions, its potential was not fully
realized in 1949. Nevertheless, by the end of the
year seventy-seven hours and fifty-five minutes
were flown, covering a distance of 7,460 miles. It
was anticipated that six hundred hours would be
flown during 1950 on police and game patrols, in
areas not really accessible by normal means of
transportation. On January 1, 1950, Beaumont
was transferred to Vancouver to be in charge of
the Beaver. A year later he was promoted to
Sergeant Pilot. The co-pilot for CF-FHW was a
New Zealander, H.J. Thomas. Thomas had more
British Columbia Historical News
Page5 Sgt. Noel A. Beaumont (I.) and Engineer H.J. Thomas (r.) in cockpit of CF-FHW.
than 3,700 flying hours to his credit in both war
and peacetime flying. As well, he had experience
in air engineering and flight maintenance, all of
which made him an invaluable member of the
flying team.
CF-FHW flew out of Vancouver until the takeover of the Force by the Royal Canadian
Mounted Police on August 15, 1950. After the
takeover, both CF-FHW and Beaumont
transferred to the Air Division of the R.C.M.P.
CF-FHW continued in service with the Force
until it crashed, and burned on August 6,1958,
on a mountainside six miles south of Penticton,
British Columbia, while on a search for a wanted
murderer.
Beaumont remained with the R.C.M.P. until
his retirement on October 16,1967. After that, he
flew commercially for a few years, finally retiring
to live in Richmond.
The value of the aircraft was proven in many
ways. It was used for transporting men,
investigating crime in remote places, spotting
escaping criminals in co-operation with police
radio equipped transport, bringing help to the
injured, inspections of remote detachments by
senior officers, patrols along remote sections of
the coast, traffic surveys and aerial photography.
R.G. Patterson is a curator with the Modern History
Division of the B.C. Provincial Museum.
Page 6
British Columbia Historical News lima C. Salazar Courley
D'Arcy Island 1891-1907
When Captain, later Admiral George Henry
Richards sailed into the Gulf of Georgia in 1858,
he named one of the numerous islands D'Arcy.
Thirty-three years later, D'Arcy Island became
British Columbia's first leper colony. It is difficult
to believe that this beautiful, well-wooded
island, now a 207-acre Provincial Park, has such a
grim history. Alerted that leprosy was indeed
abroad in British Columbia, Victoria's health
officials had a large wooden shack of unplastered
and unpainted wood erected on D'Arcy Island.
Governed by fears dictated more by panic than
reason, the Mayor and Council of Victoria
instigated the isolation of leprosy victims on
D'Arcy Island. Part of the land reserve, the island
was made available to the city when a remote
area was needed.
Although leprosy had been very much in
evidence in New Brunswick throughout the
nineteenth century, the first case of suspected
leprosy in British Columbia was discovered
under macabre conditions. On Saturday, the first
of April, 1882, the body of a Chinese labourer was
found under the city council rooms in New
Westminster.2 The man had been strangled then
hung upside down from a beam some six feet
from the floor. Under the body the murderers,
purported to be compatriots, had burned paper
and clothing. This was later said to have been an
effort to destroy contagion.
The British Columbian newspaper of April 5,
1882, reported that the odour and smoke had first
attracted the attention of neighbours. When the
reporter from that paper went to the scene, he
examined the body and found it had been badly
burned. The murdered man, Ah Kye, had been
laid up for four months with a sore foot in the
premises where his body was found. Not
surprisingly, Coroner Trew suspected foul play,
and impounded a jury who returned a verdict of
death by strangulation. Although several
individuals were interviewed, no one was ever
apprehended.
Rumours of leprosy cases in other parts of the
province prompted the health inspectors to
scour places where Chinese workers lived. In
May 1882, there were as many as 9000 Chinese
workers in the province3, and many lived under
the most primitive conditions. In 1890, the first
leper found in Victoria was put into the
quarantine station before being taken to D'Arcy
Island. He was apparently left alone on the island,
and when the Medical Officer visited D'Arcy
three months later, the Chinese man had gone.
Anxious to prevent the spread of leprosy, the
Ministry of Agriculture in Ottawa arranged for
Dr. A.C. Smith to travel from Tracadie Leper
Hospital in New Brunswick to Victoria. His
experience in treating the disease enabled him to
correctly diagnose leprosy. In May 1891, of six
Chinese workers in Victoria who were suspected
of having leprosy, three were found to be in an
advanced stage, two had symptoms, and one
man was free of the disease. The leprous men
were taken to D'Arcy Island, to what government
records described as "comfortable quarters".
The men lived in a line of huts under one roof.
Their supplies, which arrived four times a year
and included coffins, Chinese whiskey and
opium, were put in a shed and each man helped
himself. Each man had a bed, a stove and a chair.
When able, they did their own cooking.
There was no sewage system and water had to
be carried from a well originally used by
fishermen. Occasional visitors to the island were
some missionaries and city officials. So notorious
did the island become that one man, on learning
that he was to be taken to the island, overdosed
on opium. When one white man was isolated on
D'Arcy Island, the Chinese shunned him so
completely that when he died, they would not
even bury his body. Victoria's medical officers
visited from time to time and were appalled at
the conditions, but they could do nothing to
change matters despite representations to
government officials.
British Columbia Historical News
Page 7 Finances, too, proved to be a problem. The
City of Victoria found it was being required to
maintain lepers from all parts of the province.
This they could not do, not only because city
coffers could not bear the expense, but because
the Council had no authority to spend tax
revenues on the maintenance of people sent to
the island from other municipalities. After
repeatedly refusing any financial support, the
federal government eventually acquiesced when
British Columbia's Lieutenant-Governor
intervened. He suggested to the Ministry of
Agriculture that their quarantine division might
well be held responsible for maintaining the
leprosy victims in quarantine quarters. Forthwith,
a grant of $1000 from the quarantine account was
despatched to Victoria in January 1892. The
money was to be for the twelve months
commencing July, 1891. Eventually accounts
showed that the real costs for the twelve months
were $994.10.
Some of the men on D'Arcy Island died, and by
March 23, 1893, seven Chinese and one white
man remained. That same month, Provincial
Secretary, McNaughton Jones, informed the
Minister in Ottawa that they could probably get
rid of the Chinese lepers if a ship could be found
that would take them back to Hong Kong.
McNaughton Jones anticipated it would cost
$100 for each man to go to Hong Kong but, "on
pressure, they (the shipping line) would take
less." It proved impossible to find a ship that
would accept such a 'cargo'. By June, the white
man and three Chinese had died and some of the
remaining Chinese were in a pitiable condition.
Denied medical attention, they suffered painful
leproic fever and erisipelas. It is not surprising
that by 1895, there was a sixty per cent mortality
rate on the island.
An arrangement had been made that any
municipality sending lepers to D'Arcy Island
would pay proportionately towards the cost of
their maintenance. Therefore, because
Vancouver was paying one eighth of the costs,
yet getting no part of the Dominion grant made
to Victoria, the Vancouver Council asked Ottawa
for a grant for the two lepers they were
maintaining. The Minister replied that the grant
was for the whole province, not just for Victoria.
This occasioned the Vancouver City Clerk to
remark that Victoria was taking advantage of the
situation. When the 1895/96 accounts showed a
$2713.48 deficit to be met by the taxpayers of
Victoria, Charles Raymur, the auditor, asked that
the lazaretto be taken over by the Dominion
government as in New Brunswick. Meanwhile,
Victoria requested a cheque from Ottawa for
$2000 for the years 1895 and 1896.
Under pressure to assume full responsibility
for D'Arcy Island, the Ministry of Agriculture
sent out a memo in August 1895. This stated that,
by an amendment to the Quarantine Act of 1872,
the matter of leprosy pertained to public health
and not to quarantine. Therefore, the
administration of D'Arcy Island was the
responsibility of the provincial government.
Whilst each politician defended his own
government's view, as well as its exchequer,
conditions continued to deteriorate on D'Arcy
Island so that questions were asked in the
Legislature. It was the medical officers' reports
that drew attention to the unsatisfactory
conditions under which the lepers had to live.
Some of the men suffered the sensory type of
leprosy, while others had the tuberculoid type.
The latter produced dreadful disfigurement.
When the Minister of Agriculture visited
Victoria in June 1897, he proposed that the
provincial government take over the lazaretto.
That year, when the federal government refused
the grant to Victoria, the city's Council reminded
Ottawa that the poll tax of fifty dollars, which the
Chinese lepers had paid on entering Canada,
had been received by the government in Ottawa.
The federal government remained firm but
granted $947.59 in March 1898. Dr. Fisher, head
of the quarantine service in Ottawa, expressed
the opinion that there was no justification for the
demands of the British Columbia government.
The fact that Tracadie had been taken over by the
federal government was insufficient reason for
the Ministry to assume responsibility for D'Arcy
Island. He also stated that although the lepers
were unfortunate, they were still better off than
lepers in China. None had ever tried to escape (a
stretch of open water lay between D'Arcy Island
and the mainland!), and they were as well
provided for as was possible in the circumstances. Fisher maintained that for whites, D'Arcy
Island would be dismal, but for Asiatics, the
conditions answered fairly well. That December
the medical officer reported to the provincial
government: "This lazaretto is now in a
deplorable state. Only one man is comfortably
able to work. Two are helpless and depend on
the feeble efforts of others. The time has come to
provide proper care for these unfortunates."
When Senator Templeman of British Columbia
asked what emergency procedures were
available should the lepers need help, he
Page 8
British Columbia Historical News was told that there were always boats passing the
island, and there was a flagpole and a flag to draw
attention if necessary. On June 15,1899, when a
fire occurred on the island, one nineteen-year-
old man Lim S. was burned to death. It was three
days before the medical officer knew about it.
Records do not show if the standard emergency
procedure was followed.
Eventually, negotiations with reference to the
poll tax bore some financial fruit for British
Columbia. In August of 1900, the province
received 25% of the poll tax paid for the year
ending June 1900, a sum of $47,362.50. With
money now available, the provincial government
could give some consideration to looking after
the leper colony. Through an Act amending
restriction of Chinese immigration in August of
1903, half the head taxes (raised to $100 in 1901)
paid by Chinese immigrants, went to the
province with the understanding that the British
Columbia government assume maintenance of
the lazaretto on D'Arcy Island. The provincial
government agreed to this arrangement and, in
September 1903, received $258,050. In that year
there had been 5,177 entries to Canada through
British Columbia, less sixteen refunds for
Chinese immigrants who returned to China.
The raising of the head tax to $500 in 1904
effectively slowed the influx of Chinese coolie
labourers, so that between 1904 and 1907, the
province received only $18,800.00. Nevertheless,
it was a welcome addition to the provincial purse,
for by 1904 the economy of the province had
slowed, and Tatlow, the Finance Minister, was
effecting stringent economies to avoid provincial
bankruptcy. But by now the amount received
from the poll tax was far in excess of the amount
that was estimated for the upkeep of D'Arcy
Island—only two lepers remained there in May
1904.
Other cities and municipalities continued to
have to pay maintenance until the provincial
government formally took over D'Arcy Island in
January 1905. By August, the population of the
leper colony had increased to six. That same
month, CJ. Fagan, the Secretary to the Board of
Health, visited D'Arcy Island. He found
conditions had not changed despite the increase
in funding that the province had enjoyed.
In his subsequent report to the Attorney
General, Fagan recommended that the patients
be sent to a place where treatment was available.
There was still no attempt being made by the
British Columbia health authorities to relieve
pain and suffering. Fagan suggested that the
lepers should be located closer to Victoria.
Esquimalt   \C
British Columbia Historical News
Page 9 Believing that the Chinese immigrants should be
more closely inspected, he went so far as to say
that immigrants from infected areas should not
be allowed to land. Such a ruling would have
excluded Asiatics, a state of affairs that the
provincial government in British Columbia had
long sought. Fagan then travelled to Tracadie to
inspect the leper hospital there. He returned to
Victoria by way of Ottawa, where he urged the
Ministry to take over the care of the lepers in
British Columbia.
Shortly after Fagan's report, the Attorney
General of British Columbia wrote to Ottawa
stating that it was only simple humanity to help
the lepers. Because the provincial government
had no regulatory powers over the entrance of
aliens, he wrote, the federal government should
assume full responsibility for aliens who
developed leprosy after entry to Canada. The
Attorney General further suggested that the
Chinese lepers on D'Arcy Island should go to
Tracadie where there was a hospital for lepers.
By the end of 1905, the provincial government
decided to assume responsibility for the Chinese
lepers. Dr. F. Montizambert, Director of Public
Health Services in Ottawa, asked Dr. Fagan for
advice on looking after the lepers. An Order-in-
Council granted D'Arcy Island to the provincial
government in March 1906.
In writing to Dr. A.T. Watt, the Superintendent
of Quarantine Services in Victoria, Dr.
Montizambert outlined two courses of action
which might be followed. D'Arcy Island could
continue as a leper colony with buildings being
erected and facilities installed, but Dr.
Montizambert felt there should be a medical
officer so that "attention would be paid to the
patients and proper treatment rendered to their
specific and other maladies." (This was the first
time that anyone in Ottawa had expressed any
concern for the treatment of the lepers as
patients needing medical attention.) Alternatively, Dr. Montizambert suggested that the lepers
could be transferred to Albert Head. In this way
they could be under the supervision of the
Quarantine Officer at William Head. By the
summer of 1906, plans had been drawn up for the
station at Albert Head.
The health authorities could not have
anticipated the ire of the Victoria and Metchosin
residents when they found out that a leper
colony was to be established at Albert Head, a
favourite picnic area. Residents wired Ottawa
and held a public meeting of protest on July 30,
1906. In August, Premier McBride received a
petition with two hundred signatures.
Residents expressed their fears that the lepers
would escape and terrorize the neighbourhood.
So intense was the opposition that the plan to
develop Albert Head was dropped. Instead,
changes were wrought at D'Arcy Island. By April
1907, a guardian (at a salary of ninety dollars per
month), and a Chinese interpreter (at thirty
dollars), had been placed on D'Arcy Island.
Weekly supplies of fresh food were sent over,
treatment with Chaulmoogra oil was begun, and
ulcerated limbs were disinfected and dressed.
Five months later, a tramp steamer made its
way out of Victoria harbour. On board were the
eight Chinese lepers who had been persuaded to
return to Canton to take up residence in a
Presbyterian mission leper village. For each man
there was three hundred dollars in gold waiting
for him on landing. With the inmates gone, it was
decided to burn the old shacks on D'Arcy Island
and erect, at a cost of $500 each, two cottages in
case they should be needed in the future for
Chinese lepers, pending deportation. The island
was the home of the leprous until 1924, but 1907
saw a new beginning.
In the year ending March 31,1908, part of the
federal Department of Agriculture's Annual
Report read, "All cabins burned." There can be
no estimate of the distress, misery and the
shattered dreams that lay in the ashes.
lima Gourley a high school teacher in Vancouver,
received a Canada Council Award in 1984 to write a
history of leper colonies n Canada.
Sources
Primary documents held at the National Archives of
Canada; Medical Services Branch, Ministry of Health
and Welfare; William Head Penitentiary, Victoria,
B.C.; and Provincial Archives of British Columbia.
Published sources include Ernest Hall and John
Nelson, "The Lepers of D'Arcy Island", Dominion
Medical Monthly, XI, no. 6 (Victoria, 1898); Annua/
Reports, Medical Officers of City of Victoria, 1895-
1904; the British Columbian, April 5, 1882.
Although the World Health Organization has
deemed the term "leper" to no longer denote a
patient who has leprosy or Hansen's disease,
because of the undesirable connotations associated
with the term historically, this writer has retained the
term as used in the documents researched.
Page 10
British Columbia Historical News Linda Eversole
John Robert Giscome:
Jamaican Miner and Explorer
The discovery of gold on the Fraser River in
1858 initiated a massive migration to the colonies
of Vancouver Island and British Columbia.
Goldseekers representing many nationalities
made a contribution to the development of the
Province by opening up new territory. These
individuals were more than mere fortune
hunters for they were often in the vanguard of
exploration. Their journeys into untested and
little known areas were often followed by
detailed reports on the environment around
them, much of which was of great assistance to
those who followed. While little specific
information remains on these early miner/
explorers, some insights into their lives can be
gained through newspaper references, mining
reports, and government records. One
individual who spent much of his life mining and
exploring the remote territory of northern British
Columbia was a native West Indian, John Robert
Giscome.
Giscome, the eldest of three children, was
born in the settlement of Enfield, Parish of St.
Mary, Jamaica in about 1832.1 He grew up in a
tumultuous period in Jamaica's history. The years
prior to his birth were marked by a growing, and
often violent movement against slavery in the
Colony. In 1833 a Bill was passed in British
Parliament prohibiting slavery, and a long
difficult period of adjustment to new economic
structures commenced. Declining land values,
widespread unemployment with few social
services, and a growing poverty level population
forced many Jamaicans to seek employment
outside the country. A common destination was
Panama where an American company,
prompted by news of gold discoveries in
California, had begun work on a railway across
the isthmus. It was believed that the isthmus rail
route would prove to be the most expedient
from the east coast of the United States.
Reportedly by 1854 2,000 Jamaicans had joined
the work force in Panama.2 The railway was
completed in 1855 to link up with a steamer
service that had been plying between the west
coast of the isthmus and San Francisco for some
years. Many of the labourers, upon completion
of the rail link, joined the gold seekers on their
way to California. John Giscome was likely part of
this group as family members recall that he and
his sister had emigrated to Panama.
Little is known of Giscome's activities in the
California gold fields. However, it is known that
many Black immigrants quickly became disillusioned with the State's discriminatory policies. By
the late 1850s an exploratory group was
organized by the Black community of San
Francisco to investigate the possibility of moving
to a more favourable location. The Colony of
Vancouver Island was amongst those proposed,
and with the encouragement and support of
Governor James Douglas, migration began in the
Spring of 1858. Upon arrival many proceeded
directly on to the gold fields of British Columbia.
As several members of this original migratory
group were later associated with John Giscome
as business partners and friends, it is reasonable
to assume that he emigrated at or near the same
time.
Although he was to retain Victoria as his home
base, by the Fall of 1862 Giscome had located
near Quesnelmouth where he pre-empted
property adjoining that of another West Indian,
Henry McDame.3 McDame's background up to
this time is relatively obscure. He apparently was
born in the Bahamas about 18264 and came to the
Colony of British Columbia in 1858. It is not
known if Giscome knew him before 1862, but
British Columbia Historical News
Page 11 ?BIBB IN A T ION) SI VEH
Page 12
British Columbia Historical News they were to remain partners in various mining
endeavours for many years. Both men possessed
an enquiring and adventurous spirit that drove
them to prospect the most northerly parts of
British Columbia. Consequently, in November,
1862, after hearing the report of miners William
Cust and Edward Cary, who told of gold deposits
in the Peace River area, they set off on what was
to be one of their longest and most arduous
prospecting trips.
Giscome Portage
Travelling mainly by canoe they made a
reconnaissance of much of the water system
between the Fraser River at Quesnelmouth and
the Peace River. From there they continued
along the Peace and across the Rocky Mountain
Portage to the Smoky and Red Deer Rivers in the
North-west Territories, now part of present day
Alberta. Along the way they encountered a few
other miners who had reached the Peace River
district by following a route that went via Fort
George to Fort St. James and then along the
Hudson's Bay Company pack trail to Fort McLeod.
However, Giscome and McDame, who had been
forced by weather conditions to winter in Fort
George, decided to follow a route described to
them by local Indians. After a few false starts they
arrived at a place on the Fraser River, from where
they made a portage of nine miles to a lake, now
known as Summit Lake. This trail, later known as
the Giscome Portage, became the object of
much interest to other gold seekers and
eventually became part of the main access route
to the northern gold fields. Although this trail
was known to the Indians and early fur traders,
Giscome and McDame's journey focussed new
attention on the route and by 1871 pressure on
the government, largely in the form of a petition,
prompted the construction of a wagon road over
the portage.5 Travel by this route, however, was
such an uncommon occurrence at the time of
Giscome and McDame's initial journey that it
prompted a congratulatory demonstration at
Fort McLeod.
Visited the Company's Fort on the latter
lake, when a salute of about 30 shots was
fired, with firearms, in honor of the arrival
of the party through this route which had
never been traversed by any others than
Indians.6
As the area did not have the appearance of "gold
country", their stay was brief and they set off for
the Peace River which they reached on May
18th.
At the junction of the Finlay and Peace Rivers
they met William Cust who, with his partner
Edward Cary and several other miners, was
working the area with good results. They too
commenced mining and spent several weeks
following the Finlay for a distance of 140 miles,
exploring an upper branch which they named
the Vermillion River for its colour. However, as
they met with only minimal success they retraced
their steps to the mouth where several miners
were encamped anxious to hear their report.
The Peace River area
Still not satisfied with the mining prospects the
two partners decided to continue their journey
along the Peace River. On the 19th of July they
reached the Rocky Mountain Portage, where
they buried part of their provisions and packed
the remainder the 15 miles across. From there
they constructed a raft which took them down
river to Fort St. John. At the Fort
... they were most hospitably received by
Mr. Barroussa, the company's officer in
charge. Of all the company's posts which
the party visited they represent this to be
the finest and best kept for.7
Barroussa had caused some excitement
among the miners the year before when he had
told Edward Cary and Pete Toy about finding
gold as "big as the end of his finger", but
believing it of little value had thrown it away.8
This in part had precipitated the journeys of
miners such as Giscome and McDame, who
wanted to explore the truth of the statement.
They remained at the Fort long enough to
construct a canoe and then continued on to the
Smoky River. Enroute they stopped at Fort
Dunvegan where the officer in charge, Mr.
Shaw, advised that by taking horses they could
cross to the headwaters of the River in three or
four days, rather than the three or four weeks it
would take by water. However, they opted to
continue by canoe to enable them to make a
careful reconnaissance of the entire stream.
About seventy miles upstream they noted some
strange geological formations.
British Columbia Historical News
Page 13 ... at the junction of Smoky and Red Deer
Rivers, they came upon the collection of
volcanic openings or fissures whence the
river takes its name. The hill on the
immediate bank of the river is from 200 to
300 feet high, and contains upwards of thirty
funnel shaped apertures about the size of
stovepipes, emitting dense columns of
smoke and strong sulphureous gases, but
no flame, the aperture glowing like a live
coal ... all the banks are covered with
deposits of pure sulphur ...9
After Giscome gathered sulphur specimens to
take to Victoria, they proceeded further
upstream but found no promising gold deposit.
On their return trip to Dunvegan and Fort St.
John they encountered "Black Jack" Smith,10 a
miner from the Finlay, who told of gold
discoveries on the Tribe (Nation) River north of
Fort McLeod. The party hastily retraced their
steps to that locality but by the time they arrived
it was late in the year and the weather had turned
very cold. They mined for awhile with some
success, but on October 26th snow began to fall,
and they decided to pack up and return to
Quesnelmouth. Almost exactly a year after they
had first started, they arrived back announcing
their intention to revisit the Tribe River as soon as
possible to prospect the river thoroughly to its
headwaters.
In December of the same year Giscome
returned to Victoria and made a full report of the
expedition to the British Columbian who printed
it under the heading "Interesting from the Rocky
Mountains—Notes of a Prospector from Peace,
Tribe and Smoky Rivers—Good Diggings
Found."11
Giscome and McDame did return, but by 1870
were mining on the newly discovered German-
sen Creek in the Omineca district. They spent
several years here and it was during this period
that Giscome became involved in an unfortunate incident in his life. With the proceeds from
his mining endeavours he began to invest in real
estate and property mortgages. It was one of
these mortgages that put him in serious trouble.
In late 1871 Giscome was charged with assaulting
another Black miner, William C. Port of
Quesnelmouth. Apparently Port had defaulted
on his mortgage, and Giscome, who had
reportedly been lenient with Port for some years,
finally accompanied him to a stable where he
attempted to take Port's horses. A scuffle ensued
and Port received an injury to the head, which he
claimed was a result of Giscome striking him with
an axe. Giscome, who denied this, claimed he
had been hit first, and that Port's injuries came
when he fell among the horses and was kicked.
Port claimed his injury incapacitated him for
several days and that his speech and sight were
seriously affected.
The case was heard in County Court, but was
moved up to the Supreme Court because of the
discrepancy in testimony. By the time they came
before Matthew Baillie Begbie it was believed by
many that Port had been "shamming" and this
was supported by the testimony of the medical
officer, Dr. Chipps. Four individuals who had
known Giscome for at least ten years each, came
forward as character witnesses. They described
him as quiet, peaceable, upright, and honest,
and a man who was never involved in
altercations. This testimony, and other witnesses,
all who contradicted Port, led to a verdict of not
guilty. Begbie noted in his summation that an
assault was justifiable if only one blow was given
in answer to a first blow.12
The Cassiar
The ordeal over, Giscome returned to the
mines of Omineca. By this time the area had
become very popular and with the completion
of the wagon road over the Giscome Portage,
hundreds of miners had begun moving into the
region. Giscome and McDame, always ready to
explore new areas, decided to move up to the
Cassiar district. In early 1873 a party of miners had
discovered rich gold prospects near Dease
Lake.13 The following year several other miners
arrived including Giscome and McDame. Some
came overland from the Omineca and Peace
districts while others arrived by steamer from
Victoria to Wrangell on the coast, and then
travelled up the Stikine River to Dease Lake.
Giscome and McDame centered their exploration on the northern part of the Dease River and
finally settled on a promising creek, later known
as McDame Creek. With several others they
formed the Discovery Company and commenced mining. Gold Commissioner Sullivan in
his report to the Minister of Mines in August,
1874 noted their progress:
I  learn that a new creek has been
discovered ... now known as McDame's
Creek.
Mr. W.H. Smith, a member of the Discovery
Company on said creek, arrived here a few
days ago and brought with him nearly six
hundred dollars in gold dust, taken out of
his claim, the proceeds of a few days work;
Page 14 ... as timber is very scarce in that section
mining operations are carried on in a very
primitive mode ... as the miners have not
had time to erect wing-dams for the
effectual working of the deep ground...14
The scarcity of timber did not deter the
Discovery Company. By early November they
had sawed lumber, packed it in a mile, and
erected four hundred feet of a wingdam and
built sluices. Within thirty days they had
extracted gold valued at $6,000.15
Giscome and McDame and their partners
continued to mine the area for several years.
Sometime in the early 1880s McDame returned
to Omineca, but by 1884 was "broke" and in the
hospital in Victoria. After his recovery he found a
partner, Samuel Booth, who staked him to
another exploration trip to Omineca, where he
died sometime before 1901.16
Giscome in the meantime had remained in the
Cassiar district until 1890 when he returned to
Victoria. Having invested the major part of his
earnings in real estate, he spent his remaining
years buying and selling properties scattered
throughout Victoria. He seems to have lived a
quiet life and, despite his property holdings,
lived in a boarding house.17 On June 24,1907 he
died at the age of seventy-five of a cerebral
hemorrhage and was buried in Ross Bay
Cemetery.18 Perhaps because of the lack of
family his grave was never marked.
The probate of his will revealed an estate
valued at approximately $21,000, mostly property
in Victoria and some lots in Albany, Oregon.19
The sole beneficiary was his landlady, Mrs. Ella
Cooness, who, with her husband Stacy, was part
of the original Black colony from California.
Unlike many pioneers, John Giscome and his
partner Henry McDame have both been
remembered in British Columbia place names:
Giscome in Giscome Portage, Giscome Rapids,
Giscome Canyon, and the former sawmill town
of Giscombe; McDame in McDame Creek,
Mount McDame, and McDame Lake. In
addition, the Heritage Conservation Branch is
commemorating the Giscome Portage with the
erection of an interpretive sign. This will be
placed on the Hart Highway north of Prince
George where a portion of the Portage is extant.
Linda Eversole is a research officer with the Heritage
Conservation Branch.
Footnotes
1 The information on John Giscome's early life in Jamaica
is from correspondence between the author and Mr.
Henry Giscombe of Kingston, Jamaica, a relative of
Giscome's.
2 Sir Allen Burns. History of the British West Indies, p
664.
3 Cariboo Pre-Emption Records PABC—GR 112 vol. 9
fols. 46 & 47, Sept. 16,1862.
4 Canada. Census—1881. District 187 - Coast-Cassiar.
5 British Columbia. Petition Respecting Trails to the
Omineca Mines. PABC - GR 983.
6 British Colonist, Dec. 15,1863 p. 3.
7 Ibid.
8 Da/7y Chronicle Nov. 20,1862.
9 British Colonist, Dec. 15, 1863, p. 3.
10 "Black Jack" was a well known miner in both the Peace
and Cassiar districts. His real name was Nehemiah
Smith, although in some newspaper reports he is
referred to as John Smith.
11 British Colonist, Dec. 15,1863, p. 3.
12 B.C. Supreme Court. Notes of Proceedings Begbie's
Bench Book July 24, 1871 - Jan. 16, 1873. PABC -
C/AB/30.3 N/7. Reports on the incident are also found
in the British Colonist, Mar. 11, 1871 p. 3 and the
Cariboo Sentinel Mar. 25,1871 p. 3 and Nov. 4,1871 p. 3.
13 "The Discovery of the Cassiar Gold Fields" Report of
the Minister of Mines, 1875, pp. 606-607.
14 Report of the Minister of Mines, 1874, pp. 10-11.
15 British Colonist, Nov. 5,1874, p. 3.
16 Report of the Minister of Mines, 1901.
17 B.C. Directories 1890-1907.
18 British Columbia. Ministry of Health. Vital Statistics.
Verification of Death Particulars John Robert Giscomb
[sic].
™ British Columbia. Dep't of Attorney-General, Probate
Court, Will - John R. Giscome - #2679, Probate File -
#3081.
NEXT ISSUE
Deadline for submissions for the next issue of the
News is June 1,1985. Please type double-spaced.
Mail to the Editor, B.C. Historical News, 1745
Taylor Street, Victoria, B.C. V8R 3E8.
Page 15 LANDMARKS
Geoffrey Castle
The First Burial in Victoria's Jewish Cemetery
At ten o'clock in the morning of Saturday,
February 2, 1861, Dr. Featherstone arrived to
examine the body of Morris Price who had died
from multiple knife wounds received when he
was attacked in his store the previous night.
Price, a hardworking Prussian, had, in the space
of a few years, succeeded in establishing himself
in Victoria, New Westminster, and Cayoosh. He
was considered to be quiet and inoffensive with
no known enemies.
Since some gold coins and a quantity of gold
dust were clearly visible and nothing seemed to
be missing from the store, the motive for the
murder was unclear. The only clue was a bare
footprint. Constable Robert J. Flynn offered a
reward at his own expense for information
leading to the identity of the person or persons
responsible for the brutal slaying of this
unfortunate storekeeper. Within a few days,
thanks to the efforts of the local citizens and Mr.
N
Trading post
sr/tft
cayoosh S f razate'"*'"*
j LaFonfatne
A portion. of<3 "Kbitf/i S/fetcfy
of the <Z&t/oosh IXstrtcr ca. /S62
adapted -from 7?A.B.C. CZ*ZA36?
£y (SsorV-reif CTsst/e.
Page 16
British Columbia Historical News Price's fellow Freemasons, the reward was raised
to $1,500. Such an amount was substantial
considering it would purchase and furnish a
home at that time.
Three days later, Skoominolo, a Shuswap
Indian, was arrested. He implicated two others,
Sheoopa and Chioopalaski. It was the latter who
explained that Sheoopa was distraught following
his father's death and felt compelled to give vent
to his feelings.
It was not until March 28 that a committee was
set up to receive the body of the deceased in
order to provide a suitable burial. The remains
were sent to Victoria aboard the Steamship Otter
because the Victoria Lodge was the nearest one
to Cayoosh. The following day, the coffin was
placed in a hearse and a sombre procession, with
the Freemasons of Victoria Lodge number 1085
leading, wound its way from downtown to the
new Jewish cemetery on Cedar Hill Road.
Upon arrival at the cemetery, the Masonic
ceremony was held first, after which the Hebrew
burial service was performed and the body was
lowered into its final resting place. The Colonist
reported that the whole ceremony was most
impressive and charged with considerable
emotion. It was a significant occasion because
Morris Price was the first person to be buried in
Victoria's Jewish cemetery.
Two years earfier, on Sunday, February 5,1860,
the dedication service of the cemetery had been
performed. Located on high ground, near the
edge of Victoria, the provision of a burial ground
represented the fulfillment of a major wish of the
small Jewish community on the west coast of
British North America.
On April 12, 1861, Matthew Baillie Begbie
reported to Governor James Douglas that the
murder of Morris Price was both deplorable and
extraordinary. He also stated that Skoominolo
and Sheoopa were under sentence of death for
the crime. The third person, Chioopalaski,
because he was co-operative with the police,
and less directly involved, was sentenced to
twelve months hard labour on the lesser charge
of manslaughter.
References
Elwin, T. Letter to W.A.G. Young. 16 February 1861.
"Burial of Morris Price." Colonist, 7 May 1861, p. 3.
Begbie, Judge Matthew B. Letter to W.A.G. Young. 12 April
1861.
Geoffrey Castle is an archivist with the Provincial
Archives of British Columbia.
Victoria, B.C.
April 27-28, 1985
Heritage Cemeteries in B.C. Symposium
sponsored by Victoria Branch,
B.C. Historical Federation
Current Research
Preservation
Guided Tours
Historic Landscapes
Symbolism
Tne Stonecutter's Art
Legislation
History
Indian Cemeteries
• Genealogy
Registration $45 for two days, includes bus tour,
one lunch, and reception; or $15 Saturday only,
$10 Saturday evening, $25 Sunday only.
Write to H.C. Symposium,
628 Battery Street, Victoria V8V 1E5
Make cheque payable to B.C. Historical
Federation.
Back Issues of the News
Back issues of the News can be ordered at $3.50
each plus postage from the Editor.
British Columbia Historical News
Page 17 News and Notes
INTRODUCING...
BCHF President Leonard G. McCann
Leonard at work on the next exhibit for the Vancouver Maritime Museum.
Visitors to the Vancouver Maritime Museum
never fail to be impressed with its waterfront
location, the magnificent St. Roch, and the
special displays on maritime history that are
mounted throughout the year. The curator
responsible for these exhibits is our president,
Leonard McCann.
Born on the other side of the Pacific Ocean,
Leonard received his early education in Shanghai
and in the Philippines. His family had been
resident in China since the mid-19th century.
Fortunately for us, Leonard completed his
education on the eastern side of the Pacific, in
Victoria and Vancouver. After a television career
in Vancouver and Toronto, he worked on new
exhibits at the Kelowna Centennial Museum, the
Royal Canadian Engineer's Military Museum in
Chilliwack, the Vancouver Maritime Museum,
and the Museum of Anthropology at the
University of British Columbia. He became
curator of the Vancouver Maritime Museum in
1976.
Leonard has shared his special knowledge of
British Columbia's maritime history in The
Honourable Company's Beaver, and in
numerous articles written for Heritage West,
Harbour and Shipping, Museum Round-up,
Snauq, and Vancouver History. He has served as a
member of the Executive Council of the B.C.
Museums' Association, president of the
Vancouver Historical Society, director of the
Nautical Heritage Society, and in 1985 became a
founding director of the Roedde House
Preservation Society in Vancouver. Please read
his special message for BCHF members on the
following page.
Page 18
British Columbia Historical News The Future of the B.C Historical Federation
A Special Message from the President
7. The objects of the Association shall be: to
encourage historical research and public
interest in history; to promote the preservation of historic sites and buildings, documents, relics, and other significant heirlooms
of the past; and to publish historical studies
and documents as circumstances may permit.
2. The purposes of the Federation are:
a. to stimulate public interest, and to
encourage historical research, in British
Columbia History;
b. to promote the preservation and marking
of historical sites, relics, natural features,
and other objects and places of historical
interest;
c. to publish historical sketches, studies, and
documents.
The first is from the Constitution of the British
Columbia Historical Association as published in
its First Annual Report and Proceedings in
October, 1923. The second is from the
Constitution of the British Columbia Historical
Federation as registered under the Society Act,
July, 1983. Sixty years apart—but, fundamentally,
no real difference in purposes and objectives.
And the 1983 statement is just as praiseworthy
and valid as the 1923 one. So, what is the
problem, if there is one? It is that the rest of the
outside world has altered—but the Federation/
Association's objectives have not. Or rather, it is
the field that the Federation once felt was its sole
domain that has altered. It has not just altered—it
has been pre-empted, and in such a way that I
feel we must consider very carefully our
continuing purposes and objectives, and
possibly redefine them in the light of
contemporary interests.
Let us join the intentions from the two
Constitutions and see what has become of them
in today's world. "To promote the preservation
and marking of historic sites, buildings and
natural features." This is now an activity actively
undertaken by local, provincial and even
national Heritage organizations. "To promote
the preservation of ... relics ... and other
objects". This is now an activity largely carried
out by museum operations and associations—
both local, provincial and national. "To promote
the preservation of ... documents". There is a
Provincial Archives Advisor now, and many
historical societies and museums have their own
well-established archival holdings.
Well, what is left? To promote and publish B.C.
History? That is certainly an expanding field.
Seriously, is this the territory that is now left to the
B.C.H.F.? Remember that in 1922, when the
above objectives were stated as being the
essence of the organization, museums, archives,
and heritage concerns were not separate parts of
the social scene and civic organization, and these
objectives were not really defined with any
clarity. It has only been post-World War II that
such concerns have emerged to take on a
distinctive form and interest of their own, and
with their own distinctive supporters. These
supporters—and many of you can be numbered
among them—are, in the larger context, all
supporters and promoters of an understanding
of British Columbia history, and you are
welcomed and appreciated. But now, with its
declared fields of interest being actively
occupied by other organizations, the B.CH.F.
must consider its own future direction. Your
Council will be very pleased to receive from
member councils and individual members some
considered expressions as to how that future
should be determined. We would appreciate
receiving your thoughts in writing.
—Leonard G. McCann,
President
A Special Message from the
Vice-President
Is Your Historical Society
"On Track"?
Historical Societies experience highs of
enthusiastic participation alternately with
doldrums of despair and disorientation. The
provincial council of your British Columbia
Historical Federation offers the following
suggestions to point the way to meaningful
activities. Each group should assess its progress in
terms of the objectives of the local society. Your
British Columbia Historical News
Page 19 constitution probably urges you to record
history; preserve history (aural histories and
archives); preserve, or encourage preservation
of, historic sites and local artifacts. Further
objectives, sometimes unwritten, urge your
society to create and maintain favourable
relations with the community as a whole. History
buffs should be prepared not only with
information but also to enthuse children in
classes or youth groups about their history and
heritage. Fund raisers should complement rather
than compete with other community groups.
Cooperation and contributions from citizens or
organizations should be given a public "Thank
You".
Good Public Relations requires plenty of
advertising, well in advance, about interesting
programs presented by your group. This
advertising should contain a sincere invitation to
the general public. Are you cooperating with the
Town Council and/or Chamber of Commerce
for special events? Have you thought of
encouraging focaf students by offering a prize for
merit in social studies or history essays? Are your
archives available to the local newspaper? 10
interested researchers? Do your by-laws limit
the time an individual may hold office? Terms of
one or two years reduces stagnation, burnout,
and deification. Teamwork promotes success.
Every member should pause and evaluate
his/her commitment to the local group. What is
the group doing right? What else could it do?
What else would you like to see done? What are
you willing and able to do to arrange that your
group undertakes your suggested program? (It
might be as simple as making a few phone calls
once you have consulted the executive about
dates and times.) Do you need help or advice
from the provincial Historical Federation?
B.CH.F. can, for example, offer information and
advice to writers or would-be writers.
Each of us joined a historical society because of
an interest in history. Perhaps we wanted to
support the development and operation of a
local museum. If this museum is now the
responsibility of the municipality, why not
honour staff and supporters at a social gathering
such as a pot-luck supper or wine and cheese
party? If our aim was to participate in producing a
book of local history, we realize that research
and recording can be ongoing to make it easier
for the writers of that "next volume". Perhaps all
we wanted was the entertainment provided by
good guest speakers. Now is the time to
investigate groups with parallel interests such as a
heritage building restoration committee. Invite
them to participate in a program with your
society. Enjoy history by sharing with others,
especially senior citizens at a drop-in centre or
living in a retirement manor. Analyze your
community. Praise your group for its accomplishments. Look wide. Your opportunities are many.
Participate in future projects, for your personal as
well as your group's well-being.
The British Columbia Historical Federation
wishes to assist and encourage local historical
societies. The Federation council consists of eight
elected table officers, the past president, and the
editor of the BCHF magazine, plus the president
of each local branch society. Every society
represented at the Annual Convention should
ensure that its president (or a deputy) attend the
Council meeting on Thursday evening prior to
the reception and again Sunday morning after
elections and the banquet. The other two council
meetings are held in different centres, one in the
fall and one in the winter. These are attended by
representatives from societies fairly close to the
meeting place.
What do you visualize in a "job description"
for your BCHF Council? The Council currently
arranges for production of a quality magazine,
provides assistance to writers, and engineers
excellent Annual Conventions. The B.C.
Historical News is a glossy magazine edited
quarterly by a volunteer using material
submitted by friends of the magazine. The
magazine's column, News from Branches
provides a forum for sharing, as do the reports
given at Annual Meetings. Writers can
experience the pleasure of seeing their articles in
print in the magazine, or have books evaluated
by the Book Review Editor. The BCHF provides
everything from helpful hints and short-term
loans to full-fledged seminars for writers. Books
receive praise and publicity when submitted for
the writing competition. The author of the best
history of the year earns the Lieutenant-
Governor's medal. Members of the executive
will attempt to answer questions or give
suggestions if they are approached. Possibly this
group could achieve a higher profile if
benefactors could be found to endow a
scholarship for university students majoring in
B.C. History. The 1985 Convention on Galiano
Island and the 1986 Convention in Vancouver are
planned and promise to be very interesting
events. Bring your suggestions and concerns to
the convention or write to: Mrs. Naomi Miller,
Vice President, British Columbia Historical
Federation, Box 105, Wasa, B.C. VOB 2K0.
Page 20
British Columbia Historical News Honour Roll 1923-1985
PATRON                     HONORARY PRESIDENT
PRESIDENT
1923 Lieut.-Gov. W.S. Nichol
Hon. J.D. MacLean
Judge F.W. Howay
1924 "
tt
it
1925 "
jj
t>
for the 4 years ended 1929
1926 —
Hon. J.D. MacLean
Judge F.W. Howay
1927 Lieut.-Gov. R. Randolph
Bruce
William Sloan
it
1928 "
Hon. J.D. MacLean
John Hosie
1929 "
Hon. S.L. Howe
V.L. Denton
1938
Hon. T.D. Pattullo
Dr. W.N. Sage
1939
Judge F.W. Howay
1940 —
Not listed
1941 —
Not listed
Kenneth A. Waites
1942
Not listed
Rev. John Goodfellow
1943
Hon. H.G.T. Perry
B.A. McKenzie
1944
Hon. H.G.T. Perry
B.A. McKenzie
1945
Hon. H.G.T. Perry
Helen R. Boutilier
1946
Hon. G.M. Weir
Madge Wolfenden
1947
Hon. G.M. Weir
George B. White
1948
Dr. Margaret A. Ormsby
1949
Hon. W.T. Straith K.C.
Dr. Margaret A. Ormsby
1950
Hon. W.T. Straith K.C.
Burt. R. Campbell
1951
Hon. W.T. Straith K.C.
Major H. Cuthbert Holmes
1952
Hon. W.T. Straith Q.C.
Dr. D.A. McGregor
1953
Hon. Tilly Jean Rolston
H.C. Gilliland
1954
Hon. Robert Bonner Q.C.
Captain Charles W. Cates
1955
Hon. Ray G. Williston
A.D. Turnbull
1956
Hon. Ray G. Williston
Russell Potter
1957
1968
Mabel Jordon
1969
Mabel Jordon
1970 Lieut.-Gov. J.R. Nicholson
Dr. Margaret A. Ormsby
H.R. Brammall
1971 Lieut.-Gov. J.R. Nicholson
Dr. Margaret A. Ormsby
H.R. Brammall
1972 Lieut.-Gov. J.R. Nicholson
Dr. Margaret A. Ormsby
Col. G.S. Andrews
1973 Lieut.-Gov. Walter Owen
Dr. Margaret A. Ormsby
Col. G.S. Andrews
1974 Lieut.-Gov. Walter Owen
Dr. Margaret A. Ormsby
Col. G.S. Andrews
1975 Lieut.-Gov. Walter Owen
Dr. Margaret A. Ormsby
Frank Street
1976 Lieut.-Gov. Walter Owen
Dr. Margaret A. Ormsby
Frank Street
1977 Lieut.-Gov. Walter Owen
Dr. Margaret A. Ormsby
A. Slocomb
1978 Lieut.-Gov. Walter Owen
Anne Stevenson
Helen B. Akrigg
1979 Lieut.-Gov. Henry P.
Bell-Irving
Anne Stevenson
Ruth Barnett
1980 Lieut.-Gov. Henry P.
Bell-Irving
Anne Stevenson
Ruth Barnett
1981 Lieut.-Gov. Henry P.
Bell-Irving
Anne Stevenson
Barbara Stannard
1982 Lieut.-Gov. Henry P.
Bell-Irving
Anne Stevenson
Barbara Stannard
1983 Lieut.-Gov. Henry P.
Bell-Irving
Anne Stevenson
Barbara Stannard
1984 Lieut.-Gov. Henry P.
Bell-Irving
Col. G.S. Andrews
Barbara Stannard
1985 Lieut.-Gov. Robert G.
Rogers
Col. G.S. Andrews
Leonard G. McCann
Editor's Note: There are a few blanks to be filled in. Can
anyone help?
British Columbia Historical News
Page 21 Bookshelf
Gunboat Frontier: British Maritime Authority
and the Northwest Coast Indians, 1846-1890.
Barry M. Gough. Vancouver, University of British
Columbia Press, 1984. Pp. xvii, 287, illus. $27.95
With this book, Barry M. Gough, Professor of History
at Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, completes
his trilogy on the maritime history ot British Columbia
(the first two books—not in order of publication—are
the award winning Distant Dominion: Britain and the
Northwest Coast of North America, 1579-1809 and the
authoritative The Royal Navy and the Northwest Coast
of North America, 1810-1914). Gunboat Frontier is the
fourth volume in the continuing Pacific Maritime
Studies Series published by the UBC Press.
Gough is at his best in this book about the policing
actions of the Royal Navy in the waters of coastal
British Columbia. He is at one with his subject and his
easy-going style is enlivened by his familiarity with the
area gained from his personal explorations of the
many bays, coves and islands described in his
narrative. Furthermore, this is a well written, solidly
researched and amply illustrated book, which draws
from archival sources in Canada, the United Kingdom
and the United States. Explanatory footnotes—
located at the back of the book—and an impressive
index complete Gough's history.
The purpose of this book is to examine the
administration of Imperial authority, and the
extension of that authority when it collided with the
native cultures of British Columbia. Imperial policy
was created in Westminster and administered by
distant colonial officials such as Sir James Douglas.
Enforcement of that policy in coastal British Columbia
often fell to the Navy and its Royal Marines who were
ordered to quell native disturbances with a show of
force. When trouble loomed on the coast, the cry
"Send a gunboat" was heard in the halls of
Westminster. The gunboat on the frontier was the
symbol of authority—hence the author's title.
Professor Gough focussed his attention on the
period 1846-1890 and, rather than pursue a
chronological format which might disrupt topical
continuity, he divided his work into three distinct
parts. Part 1, "Company and colony" compares mid
19th century native and white societies and traces of
development of the colony of Vancouver Island
through the 1850s. Part 2, "Putting out fires", reviews
colonial Indian policy and naval policing actions
against slavery and liquor trafficking. This section
concludes with an examination of the exercise of
colonial authority as practiced in colonial British
Columbia and Alaska. Part 3, "Extending the frontier",
Page 22
analyzes post Confederation Indian policy to 1890,
missionary activity and naval support—with an
excellent section on William Duncan of Metlakatla—
and closes with an examination of the final days of
gunboat diplomacy on the west coast. Gough closes
his book with an appraisal of his subject: gunboat
diplomacy.
Gunboat Frontier, and the entire three volume set
for that matter, will have wide appeal for it will be of
value to many different readers: naval historians,
ethnologists, anthropologists and the general reader
eager for new knowledge of the history of this
coastal area we call home. Gough's readers will also
note that this is not a book which adopts a glorious
"might is right" approach or an apologetic tone;
rather, it is a sensitively written study of how the
Navy, Gough's "amphibious policemen", dealt with
conflict between two cultures on a collision path.
Brian A. Young of the Provincial Archives of British
Columbia has a long-standing interest in Maritime
exploration.
Not Just Pin Money: Selected Essays on Women's
Work in British Columbia. Edited by Barbara K.
Latham and Roberta J. Pazdro. Victoria:
Camosun College, 1984. Pp. vii, 434, illus., $12.00
(paper).
This volume weighs in (on a not very reliable
kitchen scale) at 1 lb. 14 oz., or 840 grams, if you insist
on metric. It is therefore not very practical for reading
in bed. The bulk is increased by a massive academic
paraphernalia of notes and bibliography. For
example, three papers under the head of "Health", in
all 22 pages, are defended by 101/> pages of notes and
bibliography.
Any of eleven sectional general subjects may be
represented by one, two, three or four researchers,
who worked on sub-topics. "Health" is subdivided
into: "The Search for Legitimacy, Nurses' Registration
in British Columbia", "Vivian Dowding: Birth Contol
Activist, 1892-", and "Reducing Maternal Mortality in
British Columbia: an Educational Process". One finds
that Dr. Isabel Arthur (a familiar "school doctor"
figure of this reviewer's Nelson school days) was, in
1917, addressing a meeting of the province's medical
health officers, crusading for pre-natal care.
British Columbia Historical News In fact, a lot of "crusaders" appear in these pages,
under "Education", "Labour and Auxiliaries", and
many another topic—and, of course: "Politicians".
Under this last heading, one section presents photos
and capsule biographies of the 23 women who have
been elected to the B.C. Legislature. Fuller attention is
given to the first, Mary Ellen Smith, elected in 1918,
and to Tilly Jean Rolston, elected in 1941.
Somewhat puzzling is the title, "The Peacock and
the Guinea Hen: Political Profiles of Dorothy
Gretchen Steeves and Grace Maclnnis". Having
reported a full session of the Legislature for a weekly
provincial newspaper, I don't think of these two
women as a pair, but as two of a trio, wherein the third
was Laura Jamieson. All three were well educated
women, wise and witty. Having also known both
peacocks and guinea hens, species given to
malevolent, hoarse screaming, I am puzzled by the
title. As the author makes no reference to the reason
for this choice, one is left wondering why she felt it
apt.
Other members of the local societies composing
the B.C. Historical Federation may not be recognized
in the material before me. However, among member
contributors, I do note: Jacqueline Gresko on "Mary
Moody's Pioneer Life in New Westminster", and Elsie
Turnbull on "Women at Cominco during the Second
World War". A list of "Women in Whose Honour B.C.
Schools Have Been Named" includes Anne
Mackenzie Stevenson (past honorary president of the
Federation). It is somewhat startling to see a "?" under
the head of "date of death", in the case of one who still
vigorously attends annual meetings. Then the
realization presents: most schools have been named
after the death of women so honoured.
The two editors of this volume have made a
valuable contribution to our understanding of the
social history of our province. They point out that this
volume supplements, rather than replaces their
earlier In Her Own Right. The preface informs us that
this collection is drawn from papers presented at the
first "Women's History in British Columbia
Conference," sponsored by Camosun College in 1984.
The physical production of the book was entirely
handed (at remarkable speed!) by that College's
students, under faculty supervision; surely a
remarkable achievement for one of our community
colleges!
It is to be hoped that existing and possibly further
"Cuts! Cuts!" to educational funding will not curtail
further such productions.
Clare McAllister, a member of the Victoria branch, has
long had a special interest in social policy.
Sliammon Life, Sliammon Lands. Dorothy
Kennedy and Randy Bouchard. Vancouver:
Talon Books, 1983. Pp. 176, illus., no price given.
The authors introduce this book as "a cultural and
historical description of the Klahoose, Homalco and
Sliammon Indian people living along both sides of the
northern Strait of Georgia". They have produced an
attractive, well written ethnology with a brief history
and a wealth of accompanying photographs. It is a
work that should appeal to general readers as well as
specialists.
Bouchard and Kennedy have worked extensively
among the Indians of British Columbia. Their
fieldwork under the auspices of the British Columbia
Indian Language Project has yielded an impressive
array of publications, including Shuswap Stories
(1979) and Lillooet Stories (Sound Heritage vol. 6 no. 1,
1977). The present study focuses upon an often
overlooked area of northern Coast Salish culture.
Anthropologists have generally been more interested
in the northern neighbours of the Coast Salish; the
aggressive, materially rich Kwakiutl. Homer Barnett
attempted to redress this imbalance, gathering
material during the 1930s that would eventually be
presented in The Coast Salish Indians of British
Columbia (1955). Sliammon Life, Sliammon Lands
does not supplant Barnett's earlier study. It offers
instead an entertaining and often enlightening
supplement.
The book is based upon interviews conducted
between 1971 and 1981 among a small group of
informants, including several relatives of people
interviewed by Barnett. In many respects these
informants are the real authors here, providing the
raw material that Bouchard and Kennedy have woven
into a cohesive presentation. The text is littered with
illuminating quotations covering a broad spectrum of
traditional knowledge. Information is arranged into
standard ethnographic subject areas: culture and
language, subsistence, rites of passage, social
organization, tool technology and so on. None of
these topics is treated in depth and very little
interpretation is offered. As noted earlier however,
this is a descriptive rather than a theoretical work.
Speculative ethnology would be an intrusion.
The descriptive approach chosen by Bouchard and
Kennedy is particularly effective in their examination
of material culture. In most instances well-chosen
photographs clearly illustrate the text. When Bill
Mitchell explains how to make a canoe bailer from
red cedar (p. 74), photographs on the facing page
allow us to watch as he works. Other examples of this
successful integration of text and illustration include
Rose Mitchell's description of basket making (p. 76-
78), and Elizabeth Harry's demonstration of salmon
drying techniques (p. 27-30).
British Columbia Historical News
Page 23 Another highlight of Sliammon Life, Sliammon
Lands are the myths and tales collected chiefly in
chapter ten but sprinkled elsewhere through the text
as well. The authors contribute a brief but informative
accompanying commentary in which they remind us
that "the myths lose so much in translation that we are
severely limited in our ability to appreciate the
subtleties of the language and the performance. For,
in the hands of a skilled storyteller, the stories are
performed, not simply told". Nevertheless, these
stories are fascinating in themselves, allowing us a rare
glimpse into a rich oral tradition.
The latter chapters of this book are less successful.
These deal with the effects of white civilization and
culture upon the Indian. This is an important field of
study, but one that deserves more attention than it
receives here. Chapter thirteen consists of little more
than two extensive quotations illustrating government reserve policy. In light of the ethnographic
material that precedes it, this historical afterthought is
awkward and unnecessary. If these chapters had been
eliminated, perhaps we could have had a few more
folk tales or a longer look at material culture.
As good as Sliammon Life, Sliammon Lands is, it
could have been better. The inclusion of some
comparative material for example, would have
strengthened the book considerably, enabling the
reader to see this northern Coast Salish culture in
relation to other cultures of the coast. Criticisms aside,
however, we should be grateful to Randy Bouchard
and Dorothy Kennedy for preserving this valuable
account of traditional Indian ways and making it
available to a wider audience.
Peter Smith, a Victoria resident, has special interests in
history and anthropology.
PUBLICATIONS OF INTEREST
The British Columbia Photographers Directory,
1858-1900. David Mattison, Camera Workers
Press, Box 684, Victoria V8W 2P3. Pp. 100, illus.,
$18 (paper).
WANTED—BOOKS
Good, used Canadiana for our BCHS
Convention May 2-5,1985.
The Vancouver Historical Society will hold a
sale of second-hand and antiquarian books at the
Annual Conference on Galiano Island, May 2nd-
5th, 1985. This sale is again in aid of the
Vancouver Centennial Bibliography Project,
which is almost ready for publication.
The Committee is looking for donations of
good used books, preferably Canadiana. If you
have any books which you would like to donate
to our book table, please bring them with you to
Galiano, or write Anne Yandle, 3450 West 20th
Ave., Vancouver, B.C. V6S 1E4. (Note: we are
unable this year to take any new books to sell on
commission.)
Content
Patricia Roy is the Book Review Editor. Copies of
books for review should be sent to her at 602-139
Clarence St., Victoria V8V2J1
President Len McCann drew the winner's name at the
recent BCHF Council meeting. None other than
Archie Miller, Curator of Irving House, New
Westminster, is the lucky recipient of Winners and
Losers: Gamblers All by Rosemary Neering.
Watch for a new contest in the next issue of the News.
Page 24
British Columbia Historical News NEW BOOKS: ENTRIES IN THE
1984 B.C. HISTORICAL
FEDERATION'S WRITING
COMPETITION
These books are available at local bookstores or by
mail from the address following the title.
Recollections 1909-1984 The Women's Canadian Club
of Vancouver
Editor - Hilary K. Blair, 34 pages, $3.00
Order from: The Women's Canadian Club of
Vancouver
409-207 West Hastings Street
Vancouver, B.C. V6B 1H7
The club from inception to present.
West Kootenay: The Ghost Town Country
Author - N.L. Barlee, 176 pages, $11.95
Order from: Canada West Magazine
General Delivery
Station A
Surrey, B.C. V3S 4P2
A glance at mining history, and the degeneration of
most of the old busy mining communities into ghost
towns.
Growing Up British in British Columbia
Author: Jean Barman, 259 pages, $29.95.
Order from: University of B.C. Press
6344 Memorial Road
Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1W5
A history of boys in class-based private schools in
British Columbia.
False Creek: History, Images and Research Sources
Author - Robert K. Burkinshaw, 81 pages, $5.95 plus
$1.91 postage
Order from: City of Vancouver Archives
1150 Chestnut Street
Vancouver, B.C. V6J 3J9
A brief history in words, pictures and maps of the False
Creek area.
Whistle Punk - Volume 1
Editor - Gord Currie, 32 pages per issue, 4 issues -
$10.00; 8 issues - $18.00
Order from: Curries Forestgraphics Ltd.
2035 Stanley Avenue
Victoria, B.C. V8R 3X7
An ongoing anthology of stories from the logging
industry.
Gunboat Frontier: British Maritime Authority and
Northwest Coast Indians, 1846-1890
Author - Barry M. Gough, 287 pages, $27.95
Order from: University of B.C. Press
6344 Memorial Road
Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1W5
The Royal Navy brings British law to the West Coast
Indians.
Blue Bows and the Golden Rule
Authors - Margaret Lang Hastings & Lorraine
Ellenwood, 138 pages, $5.00
Order from: The Secretary
Provincial Council of Women of British
Columbia
Mrs. Evelyn Fingarson
308 - 5777 Willingdon
Burnaby, B.C. V5H 4B1
Acknowledgements of the contributions made by
participating groups and organizations to the B.C.
Council of Women
Forging a New Hope, Struggles and Dreams
Hope and District Historical Society, 470 pages, $35.00
plus $2.00 postage
Order from: Mrs. Frances Thomas
RR #2, Silverhope Road
Hope, B.C. VOX 1L0
An anthology of Hope, Flood and Laidlaw 1848-1948
The Destiny of British Columbia - Confederation or
Annexation?
Authors - Charles Hou & Marlena Morgan, 134 pages,
$12.00
Order from: B.C.T.F. Lesson Aids Service
2235 Burrard Street
Vancouver, B.C. V6J 3H9
Quotations from arguments 1866 to 1871 as to why
B.C. should confederate with Canada or be annexed
to the United States of America.
Vancouver the Way It Was
Author - Michael Kluckner, 239 pages, $39.95
Order from: Whitecap Books Ltd.
1086 West 3rd Street
North Vancouver, B.C. V7P 3J6
One hundred years of Vancouver's history illustrated
with 42 watercolour paintings and many old postcards
and photos. Biographies and stories presented in
short articles.
Vancouver's Orpheum: The Life of a Theatre
Author - Doug McCallum, 40 pages, $5.00
Order from: City of Vancouver
Social Planning Department
453 West 12th Avenue
Vancouver, B.C. V5Y 1V4
A beautifully illustrated history of the early theatre
and its preservation as a Historical Building
The History of the O'Keefe Ranch
Author - Stan McLean, 192 pages, $9.95 plus 75<t
postage
Order from: Mr. Stan McLean
4005 - 12th Street
Vernon, B.C. V1T 7Y5
A brief history of the famous O'Keefe Ranch near
Vernon
British Columbia Historical News
Page 25 Mysterious Powell Lake
Author - Carla Mobley, 96 pages, $7.95
Order from: Hancock House Publishers
19313 Zero Avenue
Surrey, B.C. V3S 5J9
A story of the characters of the lake presented in a
simple and entertaining way.
Growing Up in the Valley
Author - Imbert Orchard, 79 pages, $4.50
Order from: Sound & Moving Image Division
Provincial Archives of B.C.
Victoria, B.C. V8V 1X4
Stories and personal experiences of some early
settlers in the Lower Fraser Valley
Bunch Grass to Barbed Wire
Heritage Committee, Rose Hill Farmers Institute, 226
pages, $25.00 plus $1.50 postage
Order from: Mrs. W. Philip
Box 49
Knutsford, B.C. VOE 2H0
A beautiful history of the communities south of
Kamloops from homesteading to present day.
The McQueen Story
Author - Phyllis McQueen Smith, 149 pages, $15.00
Order from: Kootenay Lake Historical Society
Kaslo, B.C. VOG 1M0
History and memorabilia of the McQueen family of
Kaslo.
Yellowhead Pass and Its People
Valemount Historic Society, 622 pages, 1,230 photos,
$40.00 plus $2.50 postage
Order from: Box 850
Valemount, B.C. VOE 2Z0
Attn. Aleda Bain Phone (604) 566-4324
An excellent anthology with hard cover.
48th Report of the Okanagan Historical Society
Editor - Jean Webber, Osoyoos, 207 pages, $7.00 plus
$1.50 postage
Order from: O.H.S. Treasurer
P.O. Box 313,
Vernon, B.C. V1T 6M3
An anthology with detailed history of packing houses,
plus pioneer families. Soft cover.
Walachin (Catastrophe or Camelot)
Author - Joan Weir, 104 pages, $7.95
Order from: Hancock House Publishers
19313 Zero Avenue
Surrey, B.C. V3S 5J9
The background and history of the short-lived
settlement of Walachin.
Discover Barkerville - A Gold Rush Adventure
Author - Richard T. Wright, 140 pages, $6.95
Order from: Whitecap Books
1086 West 3rd Street
North Vancouver, B.C. V7P 3J6
Details of Barkerville past and present.
Writing Competition
The British Columbia Historical Federation
invites submissions of books or articles for the
second annual competition for writers of British
Columbia history.
Any book with historical content published in
1985 is eligible. Whether the work was prepared
as a thesis, or a community project, for an
industry, or an organization, or just for the
pleasure of sharing a pioneer's reminiscences, it
is considered history as long as names, locations,
and dates are included. Stories told in the
vernacular are acceptable when indicated as
quotations of a story teller. Please include the
selling price of the book, and an address from
where it may be purchased.
Submit your book with your name, address,
and telephone number to:
British Columbia Historical Federation
c/o Mrs. Naomi Miller
Box 105,
Wasa, B.C. VOB 2K0
Book contest deadline is January 31, 1986.
There will also be a prize for the writer
submitting the best historical article published in
the British Columbia Historical News quarterly
magazine. Articles are to be submitted directly
to:
The Editor,
British Columbia Historical News,
1745 Taylor Street,
Victoria, B.C. V8R 3E8
Written length should be no more than 2,000 to
3,000 words, substantiated with footnotes if
possible, and accompanied by photographs if
available. Deadlines for the quarterly issues are
September 1, December 1, March 1, and June 1.
Page 26
British Columbia Historical News THE BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL FEDERATION
Honorary Patron:
His Honour, the Honourable Robert C. Rogers,
Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia
Honorary President:
Col. C.S. Andrews, 116 Wellington, Victoria V8V 4H7
382-7202 (res.)
Officers
President:
Leonard G. McCann, #2-1430 Maple St., Vancouver V6J 3R9
736-4431 (bus.)
1st Vice President:
Naomi Miller, Box 105, Wasa VOB 2K0
422-3594 (res.)
2nd Vice President:
John D. Spittle, 1241 Mount Crown Rd., North Vancouver V7R 1R9
988-4565 (res.)
Secretary:
T. Don Sale, 262 Juniper St., Nanaimo V9S 1X4
753-2067 (res.)
Recording Secretary:
Margaret Stoneberg, P.O. Box 687, Princeton VOX 1W0
295-3362 (res.)
Treasurer:
J. Rhys Richardson, 2875 W. 29th, Vancouver V6L 1Y2
733-1897 (res.)
Members-at-Large:
Myrtle Haslam, 1875 Wessex Road, Cowichan Bay VOR 1N0
748-8397 (res.)
Mary G. Orr, R.R. #1, Butler St., Summerland V0H 1Z0
Past-President:
Barbara Stannard, #211-450 Stewart Ave., Nanaimo V9S 5E9
754-6195 (res.)
Marie Elliott, Editor, B.C. Historical News, 1745 Taylor St., Victoria V8R 3E8
Chairmen of Committees:
Seminars:
Leonard G. McCann
Historic Trails:
John D. Spittle
B.C. Historical News
Policy Committee:
Ruth Barnett, 680 Pinecrest Rd., Campbell River V9W 3P3
287-8097 (res.)
Lieutenant-Governor's
Award Committee:
Naomi Miller
Publications Assistance Helen Akrigg, 4633 W. 8th Ave., Vancouver V6R 2A6
Committee (not
involved                          228-8606 (res.)
with B.C. Historical
News):                           Loans are available for publication.
Please submit manuscripts to Helen Akrigg. JOIN
Why not join the British Columbia Historical
Federation and receive the British Columbia
Historical News regularly?
The BCHF is composed of member societies
in all parts of the province. By joining your local
society you receive not only a subscription to
British Columbia Historical News, but the
opportunity to participate in a program of talks
and field trips, and to meet others interested in
British Columbia's history and the BCHF's
annual convention.
For information, contact your local society
(address on the inside front cover).... No local
society in your area? Perhaps you might think
of forming one. For information contact the
secretary of the BCHF (address inside back
cover).

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