British Columbia History

BC Historical News Jun 30, 1968

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\ BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
Executive
President: Mrs. Mabel Jordon
First Vice-President: Mr H.. R.  Brammall
Second Vice-President: Mir G. E. Bowes
Secretary:
Treasurer:
Executive Committee;
Editor:
Mr P. A. Yandle
Mrs G. E. Bowes
Mr H. B. Nash
Col. G. S. Andrews
Mr P. A. Yandle No.  3 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL NEWS June 1^68
Published November, February, Aoril and June each year.hy the B.C.H.A.
Editor:    P.A. Yandle,  3450 West 20th Ave., Vancouver 8, B.C.
The Convention of the Association held this year in Victoria
was an extremely interesting and. well organized event, and the Victoria
Branch may stand and take a bow for their efforts.    There was little
spare time for many of us to do any browsing around the city on our
own.    Some events may be termed routine, which encompassed the business
of the Association, but the Maritime Museum, the Centennial Square
film and the bus tour of old homes in Victoria are worthy of extra
mention.    A tribute must also go to the vreatherman who gave us a meek-
end of sunny,breezy, early summer weather.    The two major addresses
given to the Convention, first by Mrs Jordon, the President, at the
Annual General Meeting on the subject "Florence Baillie-Grohman - her
unpublished manuscriDt", and secondly by Mr Clifford Wilson on "Robert
Campbell, the forgotten explorer",  at the Banouet, will be published
in their entirety,  one in this and one in the next issue.    It was
our pleasure to have with us at the Banquet the three  students who
won the major awards in the B.C.  Historical Association Centennial
Scholarship' Contest      We have now in our possession all the essays
entered in the competition, and many will find, their way into forthcoming issues of the News.    A year ago I was beating the weeds for
material for the News, but now I have -a nice cosy back-log to draw on.
The Annual'Reports of the branch societies under Notes and Comments
vail not appear in this issue, having been covered in past issues.
Unreported events vd.ll be added to the reports in the Fall issue.
However,  if any society has been overlooked or slighted,  please let
me know so that it may be rectified or a suitable penance carried
out.    Suggestion - a walk from Vancouver to New Westminster with my
shoes full of peas.     (May I boil them first?)
We wish all members a pleasant summer and happy holidays,  and
if you're driving please drive safely.    We want to see all of you next
season,  and it is unlawful to litter the highways.
The following are the minutes of all meetings as recorded by
the Secretary, but hive not been ratified for adoption.
Minutes of "Third Council meeting for 1967-68 of the B.C.  Historical
Association, held in Victoria, May 24th,  1968 at 9.00 a.m.
Present:    Mrs Jordon, President; Mr Brammall, Vice-President; Mr New,
Mr and Mrs G. Bowes; Col.  Andrews; Mr Nash; Mr Schon; Mr Ireland; Mr
Yandle. -  2 -
Minutes of Council fleeting of November 19th, 1967 were read and
adopted on motion.
Arising from the minutes, Mr Ireland reported that the Quarterly
was well under way and an issue could be expected in June or July 1968.
The Centennial Scholirship results were read from the report
by Mr John Gibbard (Chairman of Scholarship Committee) and vrere as
follows:
University Section:    Miss Jacqueline Kennedy of New Westminster (U.B.C.)
- $250.00.    "New Westminster,  1861-1869, a Disappointed
Metropolis"
Secondary School Section;    Joint  -inners    Tiss Sandy McLeod. of Ganges -
$125.00.    "The Caldwell Family of Saltspring Island".      and
Mr J. Roderick Grierson of Vancouver - '?125.00.  "There Be of
Them that have Left a Name Behind Them".
Regional Section:    Five prizes of $50.00 each.
Region 1.    Jody Whittaker, Cowichan.  "The Cowichan Indian Tribe
of Vancouver Island."
Region 2.    "'ichnel Robinson, Vancouver.  "Rose Skuki".
Region 3.    Dorothy Affleck, Haney.     "The Doukhobors of B.C.".
Region 4.    Carole McKay, Keremeos.   "Captain George Vancouver."
Region 5.    Donna TTesser, Chase    "The Shuswaa Indians of Yesterday and Today".
Prize money in the Regional Section was donated by the B.C.
Social Studies Teachers' P.S.A.
The Secretary reported that the three major winners had been
invited to attend the Banquet on Saturday evening, when the President
would present their prizes;    a press release had been given to Mr
Bruce Ramsey of the Vancouver Province, to appear in Monday's edition.
Council further instructed the Secretary to write to the principals
of schools concerned in the Regional Section,  enclosing the $50.00
cheques for the winners.
Council went on record that all essays in the Competition were
the property of the Association,  along with the right to publish all
or any at the discretion of the editor.
Mr Ireland thought that some  of the submissions might be
considered for inclusion in future issues of the Quarterly.
Moved New Seconded Nash   That the Treasurer be instructed to disburse the prize money from the Generil Funds,  and issue the appropriate cheques.  - Carried.
The Treasurer reported that donations totalling $375.00 had
been made to the Scholarship Fund, and a pledge of $100.00 to come
would, bring the total to $475.00. - 3
Mrs Jordon reported that her request to' Mr L.J. Wallace asking
for consideration to publish the series "Founders of B.C." had been
refused. Reason given was that it was not financially possible at
this time.
Mr Ireland asked Council's considerition to make facsimile
reprints of back issues of the Quarterly. There would be no cost
to the Association; they would sell at approximately $5.00 per
volume. After discussion it was Moved. New, Seconded Brammall,
That the Association give approval in principle to reprints of the
Quarterly. - Carried.
Moved New, Seconded Nash That the Secretary write a letter
of condolence to Mrs Holmes on the death of her husband, Major
Holmes - a founding member of the Victoria Branch. - Carried.
There was some discussion on the site for next year's convention. It was suggested that it be recommended to the General
Meeting to consider Alberni or Nanaimo. It was the general opinion
of Council that it would boost the interest in the smaller centres.
Re Captain, Vancouver ^painting presented, to the Asspciatipnjby
Dr Patterson. Mr New stated that he had approached Col. Symons
some time ago with a suggestion th^t it be displayed in the Victoria
Maritime Museum as it was lying in storage in the basement of the
Vivcouver Maritime Museum ^nd the plaque had been stolen. This
offer had been accented with thanks  Mr Bees thought it would be
of more benefit at this time to Vancouver as the opening of the
new museum, combined with the proposed replica of the "Discovery"
would make a worth while display. Moved Yandle Seconded Bowes That
the picture be on loan to the Victoria Maritime Museum for the
current museum season. - Cirried. Vancouver Maritime Museum was to
be asked to crate the picture and Col. Andrews will arrange transportation to Victoria. Mr Brammall to make the arrangements and ask
the Vancouver Maritime Museum to replace the missing plaque.
The present officers indicated that they would continue for
the season 1968-69 if required by Council.
Mrs Dalzell, recipient of a Koerner Foundation grant through
the Association, has published her book on the Queen Charlotte
Islands; it went on sale May 21st at $12.00 plus tax per copy.
Meeting adjourned on motion at 1.00 p.m.
Annual 'General Meeting of the B.C. Historical Association, held in
Victoria, May 25th, 1968 it 10.00 a.m.
The meeting was called to order by the President, Mrs Jordon,
with the reading of tho minutes Qi  the meeting held in Williams Lake,
May 27th, 1967. Moved Yandle, Seconded Hew That the minuted be
adopted as read. - Carried. 4 -
Treasurer's Report was read by Mrs Bowes. C.t,sh en hand in
General Fund - $1,933.10. Receipts - $668.15 - to make a total
of $2601.25. Disbursements $487.57, leaving cash in General Fund
as of April 30th, 19-68 - $2,113.68. Publication - $2,428.15.
Drury Fund - $75.00. Total cash on hand April 30th, 1968 $4616.83.
Moved Mrs Bowes, Seconded Leeming - That report be accepted. -
Carried.
The Secretary reported that the normal duties of his office
had been carried out and reports from the Centennial Scholarship
Fund had been attended to according to the recommendation of the
Chairman, Mr Gibbard. All arrangements had. been made for the announce
ment of the winners at the Banquet on Saturday night, which would
be made by the President. An advance oress release had been
forwarded to the Vancouver Province. The Secretary wished at this
time to thank Mr Gibbard for his co-operation and compilation of
the final reoort.
As editor, the Secretary had acquired the necessary equipment
to produce the R.C. Historical News and so far two issues had. been
produced and circulated, to the various societies, along with cam-
olimentiry copies to non-member organizations  The costs cf
producing the News had been cut to a minimum and it was running
at approximately 12A- cents per copy, all inclusive. This w..s
using present available funds of 5 Op per member and leaving nothing
for other secretarial expenses
The President thanked the judges who had worked or. the submissions to the Centennial Scholarship competition. In the University
section they were Mr Douglas Cole, Dept. of History, Simon Fraser
University, Mr Willard Ireland, Provincial Archivist a:J Librarian,
and Professor Neil Sutherland, Faculty of Education, University of
P.C. From the High School Section they were Mr H. R. Brammall of
the B.C. Historical Association, Mr Bruce Ramsey of  the Vancouver
Province and Mr W..P.K. Saga of the Social Studies Teachers'
Provincial Specialists Association,
A resolution ■r"ror" the Native Sons of P„C. was read, dealing
with the preservition and protection of artifacts and archaeological
sites in P,C. In the discussion Mr Ireland, stated that there was
an act already in force in this Province, but the authorities found
it virtually impossible to put it into effect.  In the matter of
totem poles and Indian artifacts, most of these were on reservation?
and is such come under, the jurisdiction of the Federal Government
and therefore are not subject to Provincial regulations. Mr Ireland
stated that the province has no powers covering ourchase of relics
bought to be exported.  In his own department he had found it wise
to gi"re as little publicity as possible to new finds,, so as to keep
the general public from molesting such sites. Moved Col. Andrews,
Seconded Awmack - That the President be empowered to refer this
matter to someone of her choice for further study. - Carried, - A -
Regarding the suggestion in the rider to the resolution of
volunteer wardens it was moved Mrs Turnbull, Seconded Leeming
That we are in favour of volunteer wardens. - Carried.
The site of next year's Convention was proposed by Council
to be either Alberni or ^anaimo. Botl societies felt that they
could not at this time undertake such a venture, but would start
preparations now for a future convention. Several sites were
suggested, including the proposal of a joint convention with
the Okanagan Historical Society. As nothing was resolved the
matter was left to Council to make a decision.
It was moved New, seconded Stevenson, That the Association
consider raising an assessment to cover the cost of the News. The
Secret;?ry and Mr Brammall both felt that the financial situation
of the Association at t! is time was not serious, and. that it should
be the aim of the Association to give tho affiliated societies something for their membership without taxing the members at this time.
Mr Ireland said that his Department would assist the News by supplying stencils and paper.  In view of the discussion the mover and
seconder withdrew their motion.
Arising from discussion Council was empowered to set a price
for individual copies of the News..
The President thanked T'rs Yandle for the work she had done in
typing and assistance in producing the News.
Reports on the activities of the Societies were given by the
respective secretaries, with the exco tion of Burnaby which had no
report.
Arising from, the reports there pas a r solution from East
Kootenay dealing with the petroglyphs near Cranbrook.
" Whereas the petroglyphs near Cranbrook represent
one of tho few known sites of ancient rock carvings
in the interior of British Solum ia, and. whereas
some vandalise] has occurred at the site, Therefore
be it resolved that the B.C. Historical Association
go on record as recommending th^t a suitable fence
be constructed to protect the petroglyphs south of
Cranbrook, ^.C."
Moved Awmack, Seconded Bra aall that Council be empowered to
deal with this matter. - Carried.
Mr Brammall oroposed a vote of thanks to the Victoria Branch
for its splendid arrangements and conduct of the Convention
proceedings, which was unanimously endorsed by the Meeting.
Meeting adjourned on motion at 1.00 p.m. - e -
Minutes of First Council meeting of the 1968-69 season of the
B.C. Historical Association, held in Victoria, May 25th, 1968 at
2.30 p.m.
Present: Mrs Jordon (President); Mr R. Brammall (Vice-President);
Mrs G. Bewes (Treasurer); Mr D. New (Past President); Mr P. Yandle
(Secretary and Editor); Col. G.S. Andrews (Exec, member); Mr H.B.
Nash (Exec, member); Delegates: Mr Schon (Nanaimo); Mr Bowes
(Vancouver); Miss Johns -n (Trail).
The first order of business was the election of officers for
the ensuing year, and all officers for the past year were re-elected
by acclamation,
Mr Bcives considered that our money could be held in available
securities bearing considerably better interest rate than at present.
Moved-New, Seconded Yandle that tho Treasurer be given authority to
invest- in a True Savings ..' •■: aunt surplus monies as she sees fit. -
Carried.
The Council was unanimous that the Secretary be given a petty
cash account in the amount of $25.00 and. that he be reimbursed for
out of rocket expenses incurred, as Secretary and Editor.
Moved Yandle, seconded Andrews that the Drury Fund of $75.00
be transferred to the General Funds for use in publishing the B.C.
Historical News, - Carried.
Col. Andrews to get information from Mr Ireland regarding
supplies offered to the Association to publish the News.
The Editor stated that requests for copies of the News to
date had been supplied to interested parties, non-members, on the
basis of a subscription paid to the society of their area of
residence. There are on hand a number of requests outside of the
Province, and it was Moved Bowes, seconded Schon that copies of the
News could be sold outside the area of any society at $1,00 per
copy or $3.°0 per year. Monies to go to the General Fund of the
Association.. - Carried.
The- Secretary to write to the Native Sons concurring in their
resolution, and that the General Meeting of the Convention wholeheartedly supported the idea of voluntary wardens, and also
supported in principle their action in this regard.
Regarding the matter of the petroglyphs near Cranbrook, Mr
Schon felt that the Provincial Parks Board would take care of this
if approached. A similar situation at Nanaimo had been fenced by
them; It was the decision of Council that Mrs Jordon take the matter
in hand.
Discussion dealing with the site of the next convention failed
to produce a positive solution to the problem. Moved Brammall,
sjcorLd.3d Andrews that Mrs Bowes5' offer to approach the Okanagan - 7 -
Historical Society be accepted, to find out if there is a possibility
of holding a joint convention next year.
Meeting adjourned on motion at 3.30 p.m.
Presidential Address given by Mrs Mabel E. Jordon, President,
British Columbia Historical Association, at Victoria, B.C. on
May 25th, 1968.
FLORENCE BAILLIE-GROHMAN - HER USFOBLISHBD MANUSCRIPT
My address today is not designed to be the exacting historical
paper usually delivered as a presidential address, and for this
reason I hope it won't be a disappointment. Being a special year
for the city of Victoria it seemed appropriate to choose a subject
related in some way to this city, but to find something new or
different in or about Victoria where you have so many historians
constantly digging into the past was something of a problem. As
well as Victoria I wished to include in some way something about
East Kootenay since it is not unusual for a president to speak
about the area which he or she represents. My subject includes
both places.
This talk is different in the sense that I shall be reading
some selected excerpts from the unpublished manuscript mentioned in
the title of this address, but first I should say something about
the author.
On one of my former visits to England I had occasion to call
on a very distinguished gentleman whose birthplace is Victoria; the
year 1888. His name is Vice-Admiral H.T. Baillie-Grohman, C.B., D.S.O.,
O.B.E., retired from the Royal Navy. He then gave to me a copy of
this manuscript written by his mother, Florence Baillie-Grohman,
titled "British Columbia", and as late as a month ago when I met
him again he informed me that this had not been published.
Florence lived for several years in Victoria, from 1887 to
1894> coming here as a bride. Ker husband, ^illiam Adolph Baillie-
Grohman, has gone down in history because of his project in the
Kootenays which was one of building a canal and lock to divert
water from the Kootenay River into the Columbia for reclamation
purposes, but his wife is little heard of. During her six years
residence in British Columbia this young woman twice journeyed back
to England and also spent a summer with her husband at the canal works. - 8 -
At the time that part of the interior of the province was just a
wilderness, and ladies with any degree of rank seldom ventured so
far from civilization. She writes at some length of having to
rough it in the bush, without the servants she was accustomed to
having; yet she was able to see the lighter side of life and adapted
herself to almost any condition, as you will learn later.
She was born Florence Nickalls in 1861, the eldest of a
family of twelve. Her father was a very popular Piaster of Hounds and
consequently she became an expert horsewoman. The father had an
interesting link with America in the 1860's in Chicago. He was
involved in some way with the Pony Express mail carriers but it was
unprofitable for him. However, because of the knowledge he had
acquired regarding transportation and the uocoming railroads he
accumulated, some stocks and shares and made a fortune on the stock
market., then returned to England.
This manuscript of Florence's was written in England in 1932;
eleven years after the death of her husband. She was then sixty-one
years of age and was obviously reminiscing on her experiences and
frierds in British Columbia. If some of the dates she mentions are
not entirely accurate it is of no real consequence here today. The
manuscript comprises fifty foolscap pages.
This was not her first attempt at.writing. Her husband had
had several books and numerous articles published, probably one of
the best known here is his "Fifteen Years of Sport & Life in Western
America & British Columbia". At the end o^ this book is a chapter
cy Florence dealing with the servant problem in Victoria as she
found it when she lived here. Years later she assisted her husband
with a major work, that of editing "The Master of Game" from Chaucer's
English into a modern version and her name appears as co-editor.
The preface was written by President Theodore Roosevelt cf the
Raited States, a fellow sportsman and friend of Baillie-Grohman,
Florence was also an artist of considerable talent. She
rwt-udr'ad with the Slade School of Art, and painted in the art galleries
In Dresden, Germany.
I shall now read from her manuscript some of her observations
and experiences of life in "British Columbia" beginning in 1887. Many cf
of the names she mentions will be familiar to some of you I am sure:
She writes:
"I think British Columbia was one of ray happiest experiences,
refore going into any details I must say that I liked the people,
the life, and the country. My mother had. been dreadfully upset about
my going out West, but I am sure that if she had been younger, it
was exactly what she would, have enjoyed: beautiful scenery, which
was never monotonous; all kinds of people, all very hospitable and
friendly, and a lovely climate. - 9 -
We arrived there in June. (1887). I think it was the year
that the Canadian Pacific was opened: the cars were not yet in good
running order, and (en route) we did net catch up with the restaurant
car, so between Calgary and Field we were nearly one whale day without a meal, the breakfast eventually arriving rather late at night!
Luckily as a wedding present I had a very nice luncheon basket which
had been very well-filled, and so for the two starvation days I was
able to feed not only ourselves, but other eeople in the sane cr •,
one of them being Sir Joseph Trutch, agent for the Dominion in British
Columbia. Through the luncheon basket we became fast friends.
Arriving in what is row Vancouver, we found the smoking ruins
of what had been a little log encampment for the workers of the C.P.R.
and the depot man  The only sign of habitation now was a few tents
erected, but we passed straight from the train on to the chip which
was to take us across to Victoria. I think it was about fifteen or
sixteen months later that I returned to Vancouver with a party on
H.M.S. Caroline (the Captain was Sir Charles Wiseman) to attend a ball
on the opening of tho first hotel in Vancouver. In that fifteen months
large buildings had been erected; an hotel had been built with 500 bedrooms; a theatre was going up; electric trams were running; and. electric
light poles were everywhere, but still the roads were very muddy. As
one passed' along a street, one saw a big building with shops and offices,
then burnt logs, then trees, and another big building - just the elements
of the large town that was to be.
Arriving in Victor a we went to the Driard Hotel, then run - I
think - by a Frenchman and Eng' ishman in partnership; and I had my
first experience of Chinese servants. As my husband was going upcountry
I could not very well stay at the Driard, as a good deal cf drinking
went on there' in the evening - the Frenchman was supposed to have the
best wine in Victoria. We hunted about iov  rooms, and went fcr a
short time to a little bungalow opposite the Cathedral, owned by a
Mrs Howard. She was a widow, and a pretty daughter lived with her.
They let rooms to batchelors. This place I found would net do very
well either, as I felt the three or four men living there would
rather'have it to themselves.  There were the Chief Commissioner of
Lands and Works (Mr Vernon - an Irishman); Mr Drummond, a widower,
and Marmaduke Pike. His brother Warburton, was then avray on a sporting trip, and we had his room. There was also Ted Bovill, a great
character in Victoria in those days, and secretary to Sir Joseph "
Trutch. We heard there was a widow and her daughter living alone in
the bungalow next door; and we thought she surely had more rooms
than she wanted!' After a little persuasion she consented to give us
two rooms, and to let me stay there while my husband wont up to the
Kootenay country, which was then a good four or five days'- journey,
so I packed into there, and after two or three weeks' strenuous work
in the various offices in Victoria my husband went off to Kootenay,
intending to come back in a couple of months. Moauwhile l had made
friends with several of the inhabitants already at Sir Joseph Trutch's
house, where we had dined. I met Mr Bovill's sister, afterwards Mrs
Butt, and his brother- also his mother 'who although she was 85; had
• just done a trip arcund the world, going to Ceylon to s-^e one son
and coming on to see the other in Victoria.  A truly wonderful eld - 10 -
ladyl Then there was Mrs Langley nee Fisher, one of the prettiest
little women I have ever seen, looking sweet in a bonnet, and a man
who was farming in Manchausan." (Metchosin?)
"Soon people began to call on me at Mrs Doan's, and some of
these people have remained my lasting friends. There was the family
of the Tyrwhitt-Drakes, as sporting a family in British Columbia as
their relations and ancestors had been in England; Judge Gray's wife;
the Creasys, and the Pembertons and many others.
My husband had arranged for me to take a hc-ree from Barnard's
livery stable, so that I could ride, which I did nearly every day.
It was a very nice little Mexican nag, which was "bridle wise" I
was told. Not knowing what this meant at first, I was surprised
when I pulled ray reins, he would dig his feet in and stop so suddenly
that I nearly shot over his head. Were the ends of the reins thrown
over to the right, he moved to the left, and vice versa. When I
once knew this, it was all right, but it nearly cost me a couple of
falls before I found out what was meant by "bridle wise". Mr.
Bovill very kindly escorted me on some of these rides until some old
lady suggested it might be injudicious as my husband was away, so I
asked if she thought it would be better if I re"1-: alone, to which
she replied: ;:You could not possibly do that!" So I said: "Now Mrs
Gray, why don't you come with me?" However, I did not ride very
much longer
Mrs Doan was quite a character. She was not at all popular in
Victoria as she was what people would vulgarly call "no class" but she
had had a romantic life. . She was one of eighteen children of Irish
parents who had emigrated to Australia in the early days. One of
her brothers had come to California in the gold rush, and had struck
it rich, and had written home to know if one of his sisters could
not come and keep house for him, so she persuaded her father to let
her come over to San Francisco, she being then not quite 18. Captain
Doan was the captain of the schooner in which she sailed from
Australia to San Francisco, and having arrived there she found no
brother to meet her, but her brother's friend who said the brother
had been killed at a card affray, but he had got two bags of gold ,
dust for her >jhich he handed over. While considering what to do,
her fate was settled for her by Captain Doan proposing to marry
her. From that time she travelled about in the schooner all up and
down the coast of North and South America. She did the journey .
from San Francisco to Halifax and back again, twice. I think she.
said it was in the '58 or :59 that -hen at San Francisco her
husband heard that there had been a gold rush at Victoria, and
thought he would sail up and do some trading. When he landed in
Victoria there were thousands of miners encamped. The Hudson Bay
fort was still surrounded by its wooden walls, and houses were
going up in every direction. Mr Yates came to meet her husband, .
and they ¥<rent to stay with him. I mention this as there is a street
now in Victoria called Yates Street. The Doans were so delighted
with the greenness and the rich look of the country, that old Doan
put some money into town lots and bought other property there. He
seems to have retired from the schooner, lived, there for a few years, - 11 -
and then died. Mrs Doan had one son who was in a Bank in New Westminster, and one daughter who was living with her. She knew the
history of everyone in the town, and very soon I knew the origin of
most of the families - as known by Mrs Doan! She would sometimes
sa5' of someone, vdth a sneer, perhaps a smart lady then in society:
"Who is she? Why her father had only got a second rate schooner. Of
course it was easy for her to manry her man because there were so few
white women here then." There were two or three who seemed to have
come up on schooners besides Mrs Doan. There were many too, whom
she knew had Indian forbears
Until the railway was built, the only communication with
British Columbia had. been, first around the Horn, or alternatively
the Isthmus of Panama. My old friend Mrs. Tyrwhitt-Drake, on  her
first journey out, had come round the Horn, and when she went home
with her eldest daughter, to see her friends in England and Scotland,
she carried her daughter in front of her on a mule across the Isthmus
of Panama
It was most interesting to hear all these old tales, and my
husband was especially interested in all that had happened in the
early days. Mr Tyrwhitt-Drake he knew would be full of information
about those times, but he told me he was very close and would never
say anything. I found, however, that he talked most freely to me
about events.  I think when he was asked questions in the eager way
my husband was apt to interrogate, having a legal mind, he felt he
was being cross-examined, and cautiously would, not give himself
away. He told me one day when I asked him why he would not tell my
husband anything, that he always wondered what was behind it!
Great annoyance had. been caused by a man who also wanted information
about the old. days. He had. been there some years previously, with
the intention of publishing a book on the history of British Columbia,
and had got all kinds of valuable papers from Chief Justice Matthew
Begbie and others in Victoria, promising to return them, but he had
never done so. As Sir Matthew said: "That rascal ha stolen all the
papers which ought to be in our archives." Everyone had been
induced to subscribe to these volumes as they came out, and these
were being shot at them one after the other. I think my husband,
following on with eager questions after this, did not get the
results he had hoped. for>. although I obtained a good deal in
pleasant gossip!
To return to the Doans, Miss Doan was subject to hysterical
epileptic fits, and one day when talking to rae had had one; meanwhile Mrs Doan had gone to bed with bronchitis, and I tried to
look after them both.. Their Chinaman left, saying that Miss Doan
had got the devil, and no other Chinaman could, be induced to come,
so I did the cooking and looked after the invalids as best I could.
After the doctor had paid one or two visits, he said I could not go
on doing this and I had better leave.  I replied that I could not
possibly leave the woman -alone, and. should not know where to go
until my husband came down, Hov-ever, Willie returned in a few weeks,
and then we' set out to look for a more permanent residence. The
first place we went to was on the Esquimalt road, a house belonging - 12 -
to Colonel Holmes. He greeted us with great cordiality, and pull- -
ing a card out of his pocket said (to me): "I had the pleasure of •
meeting your father at our mess in Toronto some years ago and he
invited me to go and stay with him in Surrey." We did not take the
house as it was too large for us, but we took one on the straight
road between the Gaol and the town, belonging to a Mr Tighe. It
was a small red brick bungalow with two bow windows, each side of
the front door, and a bow window looking out at the side on to a
small garden. There were two sitting rooms, a bedroom, and two
little dressing rooms, a kitchen, and a Chinaman's room, and there
was a field behind for the pony. This suited us very well, and as
Mrs Tighe was leaving for a trip to Europe, she asked me if I would
take on her Chinaman, a boy of i8, which I did, and never regretted
it. When engaging him, I asked if he could cook. To my surprise he
walked to the corner of the room, out himself in the corner in fact,
back to me, and roared with laughter, then said: "Oh! what do you
think? Of course I can cook." Not knowing the ways of Chinamen,
this amused me very much; in fact he always did amuse me. He was
quite frank in his opinions of everybody, and was full of gossip.
If I had listened, to him, he would have gossiped all day long, and
I should have known the history of every man in Chinatown, and every
woman out of it, so I was rather surprised later on when one of the.
older inhabitants of Victoria - she had kept house there for 30 or
40 years - informed me that it was so nice having Chinamen, as they
never gossiped, and nothing that went on in your house ever went
out of it! How mistaken the poor lady was, for my Gee would even
tell me how many times one of her daughters had tried to get married,
and had just missed it, and the names of all the fortunate Naval
Lieutenants and Commanders who had escaped! He certainly could
cook, and was extremely clean. He asked me who was boss in the
house, and I said: "I boss you, and Mr Grohman bosses me." To this
he assented, but when ray husband wished to give him any orders, he
used to come and ask me if he should obey them!
Gee was the only Chinaman I have ever seen on a horse, and
when he went out on the old white pony that his former master had
left in our stable, it was truly a sight to behold  The first time
I saw him he was carrying a huge bundle in one hand, and the reins
and his hat in the other, his pigtail floating in the wind as the.
old pony ambled into town.
It was in this house that my boy was born, in January. I had
been trying for some time to get a good monthly nurse, but those
who appeared in answer to my enquiries were so dreadful that I really
could not have had them in my room, so I bethought me of a faithful
old servant of one of my Kentish aunts, who, after my aunt's death,
had been through Queen Charlotte's Hospital, and was now monthly
nursing in London, I cabled to her asking if she would come out,
mentioning the wages, and saying she must stop two years and should
start at once. It was a great relief v/hen I received a reply cable
that she was starting in a few weeks' time, and she arrived a fortnight before the baby. I do not think I should have survived had
she not come, as the doctor who attended me infected me with
puerperal fever, and at one time they did not think they would see
me through, and they had to cable home that I was dangerously ill. - 13 -
However, my good constitution took me through. The doctor afterwards
told me he never expected I should live: he had had thirteen cases
in the last few months, and only I and one other had lived. I was
too ignorant at the time to know that he had no business to have
attended me under these circumstances. This doctor, who had a great
reputation there as a surgeon, was always sober, and the other two
to whom I might have gone, were apt to be anything but sober in the
afternoon. A few years later he went to Europe for a coupie of years,
visiting the hospitals in Vienna, Berlin, and London, and on his
return I asked him if he had learnt much that was new, and he said
that having been there now and seen everything, he wondered he had
not killed more people than he had!
The Chinaman was greatly disturbed by nurse's presence: he
did not like her quiet, solemn ways, and said she had the evil eye.
As soon as she went into the kitchen to get something, he turned his
back on her. He was very anxious for me to engage a Chinese woman,
who would know how to wrap the baby up properly - in white flannel,
instead of all these white clothes.
During my illness, I had found the bed most fearfully uncomfortable, and although I do not remember, I suppose I complained about
it very much as I lay tossing in fever. One day I said to nurse:
"The bed is much more comfortable than it was. Have you done anything
to it?" and she looking rather surprised, replied: "Don't you remember
we changed it ma'am?" Then she told me that when Mrs Drake, heard me
complaining about my bed, she had sent round a nice new spring mattress.  Afteewards I heard that her husband had given her this mattress that very Christmas, and she had never had a spring mattress
before in British Columbia. Such was tho kindness of Mrs Drake, and
in fact the whole family, all the time I was out there. I received
so much hospitality and such kindness from so many people while in
British Columbia, that as I have said before, it was one of the .
happiest times of my  life, I could never understand a lot. of
Englishwomen going out and saying, as they did, that they did not
like the Colony, and that it was a dull place. There was plenty
going on: the Navy was in Victoria a greater part of the year, and
there were dances, tennis parties, and picnics, boating picnics up
the Arm of the sea, and many drives on a duckboard with the Drakes
did I have. Added to this, there was the lovely scenery, the fine
weather, and the beautiful wild Spring and Summer flowers, besides
all the well-known English flowers grown in the pretty gardens. The
families there, were mostly old. English or Scottish."
Here I would like to add an anecdote about Gee from Mrs
Baillie-Grohman's chapter in her husband's book which, although
some of you have read it, I am sure you will find amusing. It goes
like this:
"One day Gee rushed in in great excitement. Ah Lam Sam, a
friend of his, the head of his company (they all belonged to societies
of some sort), had been put in prison on what he said was a false
charge of writing a threatening letter to the English Government
interpreter.. - 14 -
"Too bad, too bad", moaned Gee. He really seemed in great
distress. Ah Lam Sam was what they call a boss Chinaman; he owned
a shop in Chinatown, and. was a contractor for Chinese labour. While
he was in gaol, his wife and little girl used to drive by our house
once a week on their way to visit him, but he remained there some
months, and, as he was not allowed out on bail, his business languished, and ready money became short. Soon his wife and child, instead
of driving, hobbled painfully on their little feet along the two
miles or so of wooden sidewalk that led from their house to the City
gaol. As my house was a little more than half-way between the two,
Gee asked me if the woman and child might rest in my kitchen, so
for the time that Ah Sam was in prison they had tea once a week
there. During that autumn and winter the late Sir Matthew Begbie,
the Chief Justice of British Columbia, came to lunch with us every
Sunday. As soon as his duties in the choir of S-^. John's Church
were over, he would stroll on to our cottage, which was near by,
would knock the ashes of his pipe out on the doorstep, would put
this dear friend of his, from whom he was never separated, into his
waistcoat Docket, so that the bowl stuck out as a reminder to all
that it must be filled again at the very earliest opportunity.
After a few Sundays his appearance would be preceded by a Chinaman
or two, who would go round and gain entry by the kitchen door;
these were not Chinamen of the ordinary domestic class, but such
whose rank entitled them to wear a black silk cap, with a blach or
coral topknot to it, instead, of the ordinary soft felt wide-awake
adopted by those of meaner degree. More Chinamen would hang by
twos and threes outside the gate. Just before lunch was ready,
Gee would come and call me out of the room, and beg me to come
into the kitchen. I soon found that I was expected to interview
these Chinamen, who had come on behalf of Lam Sam. They suggested
that as the Chief Justice lunched at our house, I was a good, friend
of his, I could talk to him, and. tell him how wrong it was to keep
Lam Sam in prison; they wanted me to introduce them to Judge
Begbie, and say they were honest men; they would take their affidavits that the incriminating letter was not in Lam Sam's handwriting,
they would prove this to me, then I could take my affidavit. It
was hard to convince them that I could see no difference in Chinese
hieroglyphics  I was to take my affidavit that Lam Sam was a very
good man, and. Judge Begbie would believe me if he would not believe
a Chinaman, and, beyond everything, I was to get plenty of presents
if I could induce Judge Begbie to let him out on bail. It was no
use explaining that I would not be bribed, that I could not possibly
mention the subject to Judge Begbie. I only made my escape on one
Sunday to receive the same amplication the next Sunday. Gee would,
or could, not keep them out of tho kitchen, and there they would sit
for hours till I uent in and peremptorily dismissed them, when they
would sieze the opportunity and eagerly offer me papers and proofs
and affidavits. Having at their request told, them which lawyer to
go to for their defence, they acted upon my advice. At last Lam
Sam was brought up for trial, and his case dismissed at once, as
nothing could be proved against him. But Sam and his friends persisted in being grateful to me, .ind did. not seem to believe that
it was the absolute lack of proof of any kind against Lam Sam that
let him off so easily, but tfcpt it was because the lawyers and
judges were "velly good friends of yours, Missus Gloman." - 15 -
The very day he was released Lam Sam hired a hack and pair of
horses and drove up with his wife and little girl and one of the
friends who had besieged me on.Sam's behalf on many Sundays, and they
were ushered, into the drawing-room. Lim Sam preceded them all, and
with beaming smiles came forward to shake hands, and then made way
for bis wife and child, who '"'"ere laden with pots of ginger, cumquets,
packets of special tea, huge parcels of lychee nuts, and a pair of
Chinese shoes, a little red flannel wadded waistcoat, a green silk
overcoat, and. a curious lit.tle Chinese headdress. All these garments,
excepting the shoes, having been made by Mrs Lam Sam for my baby.
"We thank you velly much, you velly good, friend, we have brought- you
little presents, if you like any more will you say so?" Gee then
handed round sherry and cake, and suggested that I should bring in
the baby. The visitors all stood solemnly round gazing at it, then
Lam Sam, raising his glass, said, "Good luck to son, I' hope one day
he will be a big judgeV. The sequence was not clear, but the judgeship was evidently considered, the result of success to which .any
profession might lead."
In the winter my husband came down from Kootenay where the
work was going on well. They '.ere digging a canal which was to drain
part of the Upper Kootenay River into the Columbia - part of the
reclamation scheme they had in view....
In the Spring of '88 as soon as the country was open, he went
uocountry again, and said if things were pretty quiet he hoped I
could go up later on in the summer. The previous summer I could not
have gone, as a white man had shot an Indian who was supposed to'be
cittle stealing, and then some Indians we;r- for some white men.
After this the few settlers in the country who wanted to do trade
with their produce sent, up a cry of danger from the Indians, and
asked for'a troop .of mounted-police to be sent. Of course it was
good for the country to have the mounted police there, wanting hay
and oats for their horses, but as far as the Indians were concerned,
my husband said it was perfectly safe. He said, he would get a little
shack built where I could, stay for a few months, as he would be busy
there all the summer, so in June, we gave up the Tighe's house, and
as we thought it was rather dangerous to take the baby, although he
was a nice strong boy, up into tho wilds where we were three days
from a railway, I a dked Clare Drake if she would come up and stay
with me in Kootenay, her mother taking nurse and baby in exchange.
Pa and Ma Drake willingly agreed to this.
On this first journey upcountry I landed at Golden (1888)
where my husband met rae, and where we had to stay the night, as the
little flat bottomed steamer to take us up the Columbia did not move
until morning. At that time there were two shacks and one saloon
in Golden, and the house where the C.P.R. depot'man lived. He offered to vacate his bedroom for us, e.nd said he would sleep in the kitchen.
. The next day •"e went on the little steamer run by a man called
Captain Armstrong. The engine burned wood, and there wore piles of
wood along the banks of the river -t intervals, and everybody got
out and helped throw some of it on the steamer. There was a party - 16 -
of gold prospectors going up on the boat - three or four rough
looking men; there were Mr Tom Cochrane and Lady Adela Cochrane,
and Mr and Mrs Tom St. Maur, who were afterwards the Duke and
Duchess of Somerset; and Lord Norbury. They were all going up to
some placer mining at Findlay Creek which belonged to Tom Cochrane.
The cabins on the steamer were all occupied, so I curled up on
deck with my Mexican saddle as a pillow. At breakfast my husband,
and I were alone for a moment at the table, when in came the very
dirty engineer of the ship. We asked if he was not going to have
breakfast. "Not until the toffs come down," he said, "I want to
have breakfast vrith them." I was glad he had chosen, the toffs
instead of us.
We arrived at Brewer's Landing the day after we boarded the
boat. This place consisted of one large shack with a bar in it
and some benches; two little lean-to rooms next to it for Mr and Mrs
Brewer, and their son Hope, otherwise called 'Opey, and a sort of
chicken ladder lot up to the roof from the bar, the ceiling of
which was composed of a few loose beams over rafters. We were not
going to sleep there, but as Mrs Brewer felt sure I should feel
f"ull sometimes at Canal Flat, she said I was to be sure and come
and spend a day or two with her. She said there was no 'lady' in
the valley for 60 miles below Co.nal Flat, and as she was 60 miles
beyond, she said she reckoned only two white 'ladies' in 120
miles. She much impressed me. She was a plain woman with gnarled
hands and a weatherworn face. She was dressed entirely in black
cretonne with pink roses on it; evidently intended for curtains.
She was Irish by descent, and still had. a pleasant brogue. Mr
Brewer was -a weakly looking man with a long beard; a pair of blue ■
overalls, and a black cretonne shirt with pink roses on it. Hope
was dressed in the same costume and I discovered the short blinds
in her bedroom and the bed covers "7ere all of the same pattern.
She told me a man had come down with a piece of material, and she
had taken the whole lot. I too' a photograph of Hope, which will
be found in my collection, with what they called, his right side
on, because the poor little boy had been left once near a kitchen
stove, and vdshing to grab at the coffee on the stove, he had
fallen on to it, and. one side of his face was burnt and scarred.
Mrs Brewer confided in rae that he was very bright and very cute,
and had a better vocabulary of swear words than his father! They
were hoping to be able to send him to school, and make a lawyer
of him! I often wondered what became of them. She said I had only
to write her a note and she would come down and stay with me at
once, if I felt lonesome  I never felt lonesome enough to accept
this kind offer.
We had a great deal of luggage to unload, as my husband, had
had lots of cases sent from the East: he was opening a store for
the workmen at the Canal, and was getting in provisions. I think
there were about 200 Chinamen and. a good many white men. There
was no railway nearer than Golden, and at that time of the.year one
could not get any higher than Brewer's Landing on account of the
salmon shoals. Our luggage was put on the express cart, and my
husband and I rode along the west ban1: of the lake, making a halt - 17 -
at Mr William Hardy's ranch.
A few days after our arrival at Canal Flat, this man came
with a large sackful of potatoes and onions grown on his place for
which he would take no payment, saying he knew we should be short
down here and he could always give us as many as we wanted. I am
glad to say we were able to give him a square meal, as I had brought
up a good Chinese cook from Victoria,
On our arrival at Canal Flat, I found that my husband had had
a nice little shack put up for us, consisting of one central room,
a bedroom each side leading out of it, and a kind of tiny lean-to
for a kitchen. This had been built by a Dr Elliott who had come up
to Kootenay looking for a job, and his friend Sucksmith, a Cockney.
Sucksmith was handy, and with a true London accent, and no aitches
in his composition. Besides these two up there, there were the two
Owens, brothers-in-law of the Mr Bates who was in the Kootenay
Syndicate. The younger one, ,rho from his love of putting a flower
behind his ear, or carrying one in his mouth, we called Ophelia,
looked after tha team that was hauling the large logs to the saw .
mill, and Tom Owens did general superintendence and clerical work,
I believe. Then there was young Hugonin, whose father was a General,
and he had failed for the army. He had. the reputation of going on
the 'bust' when he had occasional remittances from home, and had a
rather ruddy character, but he behaved very nicely when up there,
and played the banjo and sang songs with Clare Drake  We used to
have a camp fire, and all the college songs, including the famous
Clementine, were sung night after night.
Hugonin, who was a hefty fellow, was packing slabs at the
sawmill - pretty hard work - and Tom Caine used many strong oaths
when the5^ were not packed quick enough, I thought he was an unpleasant man; he was sent out with the machinery from Canada, and
was called by the Englishmen, "that damned Cannuck."
On the Canal Flat, which was about a mile square - besides
ourselves, the saw mill, and 200 Chinese workers, there was a cook
shack for the Chinamen, and tents and another cook shack for the
white men, and a little'wooden inn. Adjoining our house, one of
the sub-engineers had out up two tents, and. had installed his wife
in them. Seeing her outside the tent the day of my arrival, I
called out a greeting to her, and the next day seeing her again, I
said if on a wet day she found it very disagreeable, she must come
and. sit on our verandah. To my surprise, it was reported, to me
later that she had resented my talking to her before she called,
because she had been there ^irst! However, she accepted my invitation, and sat many a long -afternoon on the verandah, far oftener
than I really cared to have her there.
After some weeks, ray Chinaman suddenly came to me and said:
"I go." I asked him why, and he replied that he had won some money
at cards and was going to fish next day. I told him I would not
pay his wages for the last three weeks, as it had cost a lot of
money to bring him up (here), Ke said: "No want." I then said:
"Won't you stop until another Chinaman comes from Victoria?" He - 18 -
said: "No, I go fish tomorrow." Sc I did the cooking - quite easy
in an ordinary household but a great deal of ingenuity was required
to make a variation in the meals,. There was no store except our
own, and one on the C.P.R, but this was certainly not less than 100
miles away. I had to bake the bread in a very tiny oven, so it had
to be done three times a day for the very hungry people who came to
eat, as besides our party of three, I had. told Hugonin and the Owens
that they could meal with us, as it was pretty rough down in the
white men's shack. There was breakfast at 7 - and. a hearty breakfast it was, too! - to be got ready; at 4 they rushed in for tea,
or it was sent out to them, and at 7, supper. I did not mind a bit
doing the cooking, but as it was sometimes 80° or 90° in the shade,
I got rather tired by the end of the day. I told the men I did not
mind what I did, but the boys must wash up after supper in the
evening  They readily consented, but the change in them was wonderful; they would use the same spoon for soup, curry, and pudding;
the one tin plate did for any amount of courses, and they refused
gravy because it made such a mess, so I soon had to give that up,
and. the washing up was again done by me. During this rather harassing time between Chinamen, when I had had a heavy day's cooking, to
refresh ourselves Clare Drake and I would ride over to the Lake and
bathe, returning in time to make tea "
(The engineer's wife mentioned, before who lived in the tent)
pretended to be rather surprised that we went out riding without a
man with us. She told me you could not do that in Goderich, from
whence she hailed, and she said she always understood that English
ladies rode with a groom behind them, whereupon I said, that some
did, and some didn't. She never aapeared on my verandah without
gloves: she had a long dress which she held up, and walked up and
down the bank of tho Canal with a parasol overhead, to the intense
amusement of everyone except herself  Of course we were in short
tailormades, or riding kit most of the day. It is wonderful how
some people who have always roughed it, like to pretend they never
have. I think Mrs St. Maur and Lady Adela, when they came down to
buy bacon at my husband's store, must have been, a revelation to her,
for these - as she called them - peeresses of the realm, had at that
period very short skirts, only half way up their calves, nice
crocodile belts mounted with silver, at their waists, and small
six-shooters, cowboy hats, and lonely jewelled brooches!
We.had all kinds of visitors who used to come upon us un-'
expected^, but we were anything but Starvation Rqnch. Sir Matthew
Begbie, the Chief Justice, was one of our guests when he was on his
x-ounds; Captain Herkomer (Herchmer) of the Mounted Police, who was
later on to take some of his scouts to the Boer War; young Manor
Sutton; French Sisters of Mercy, and one of the most interesting of
all - Pere Coquelin of the Kootenay Mission, He was a young and
energetic man who had done wonders since he had taken over the very
derelict district of Pere Fouquet, He got some French Sisters of
Mercy to come and start a school for the girls, teaching them needlework. Two Sisters came, and had a very bumpy ride from Brewer's
Landing. Just before they got to Canal Flat, on a steep hill, the
pole of the express car came away, and pushed the whole of the freight - 19 -
into the bush, so they walked on and fetched up at our house, where
we put them up for the night. "Putting them up for the night" sounds
very easy in England: we ourselves had camp beds, but I made a sofa
in the sitting room of sacks filled with pine needles, pushing one
sack against another along the floor, and putting other sacks against
the wall; these I covered with rugs and buffalo skins, and it made
a very large comfortable bed, which everybody appreciated. The only
disadvantage was that they had to turn out before breakfast at 7,
but as most people performed their ablutions In the river at the
back of the house, this was quite easy.
Those sisters and the priest told me they had been at work
among the men, and the sick in the different C.P.R. camps, when it
was being built  They had seen the roughest crowds, but never by
word or deed had any of them been offended by what the men had said
or done, which speaks well for humanity I think. The Mission was
50 or 60 miles south of us near Cranbrook, now a large town, but at
this time the only building was a small log hut erected by Colonel
Baker, who had come out to British Columbia on my husband's advice.
He ind his two sons were living there then. A man called Galbraith,
of whom I heard Q great deal but never saw, lived a little way down
the river 	
One day Clare and I went bathing in the Lake.... On our
return, to my intense astonishment a cablegram was brought from
my father, which he had sent from California saying he wqs arriving
in about a week's time at Victoria. There was a nice dilemma! We
had given up our house in Victoria, so there ms  nowhere I could go
back and receive him, besides being a rather long and expensive
journey, so v.ie decided that we must- make the best of matters, and
he must come to Kootenay, although how we were to make him comfortable I did not know, especially as the cablegram said: "Arriving
with Nina, Hugh, and Geneva Campbell." I said I could do with Hugh
and father and Nina, but why bring another girl? I had to wire him
that we were in Kootenay, and I was very nervous of what he would
say at finding us in a wooden shack in the wilds, instead of in a
comfortable house in which we had. been hitherto in Victoria. We
then got another wire, saying they were arriving on a certain day
it Golden ..... I sent word down to Golden that they were to come
up on the steamer, and we would, meet them at the Landing. We rode
down to the Landing, taking three horses for them and also the
express cart for any luggage they might have. I soon spotted my
party on board, but I could not see Geneva, and presently an old
military man came on shore with my father, and was introduced as
General, not Geneva, Campbell! This was a great relief! The Owens
who had built a little wooden shack for themselves, had offered
to turn out into a tent, and leave the shack for my father and
brother, and now we found we could, out all the three men in there
together, and rry sister (Nina) turned in with Clare Drake. I had
made the shack look as pleasant as possible, with some flowers,
and had nailed up some little white butter muslin curtains 	
Father had a good view of everything . . . Hugh was very
anxious to get some shooting but it was not quite the right season,
and as I was intending to go to England a little later on father - 20 -
suggested th*t Hugh should stay on, and come home with me, while he
and Nina went on ahead as he had to hurry back. He stayed about
ten days. General Campbell got a couple of horses and journeyed off
south down the valley, and Nina and father went off, citching their
train at Golden.
As my husband anyway had to go home to consult the Company'
on business in the autumn, as soon as the works closed down, we
wrote to nurse and arranged for her to bring Tom Up to the Field
Hntel to meet us. Willie (my husband.) went as far as this with
us - we had found nurse in the train at Golden, and Tom looked at
me in enquiring surprise, refusing to come to me, although I had
been away from him only three months  Not until we got to Field did
he suddenly make up his mind that he had known me before, and it ?:as
at this hotel that he' first performed the marvellous trick of standing alone. Ue stayed -here two days, and then Willie said good-bye
to us and returned to his works. Hugh, Nurse and. I went on (back
to England), Tom was then nine months old 	
I very much wanted to build, a little house on the Esquimalt
road (when I returned to Victoria) on a plot near the sea, I had
had an estimate, and found I could build just' what I wanted for
about £1,090, "'e could have always let a little house like that
to one of the Naval officers' wives who came out to join their
husbands. While I was in England, my husband, wrote to me that he
was thinking of buying Laviyer Jac'-son's house, Swallowfield Cottage,
for £2,000 so that '-re should have a home for the rest of the time
he was on the works in Kootenay. I knew the house well, as Mrs
Jackson was a most hospitable hostess and. gave nice tennis parties,
having two good tennis lawns, but it was the last kind of house I
wanted, and in the last kind, of position. It was one of the very
early settlers' lumber houses, and. although it was covered with
roses and wisteria,' it was more picturesque than solid. I felt it-
was not a good purchase at that price, and I cabled out: "On no
account buy.  If bought, sell" but it was too late: the deal was
already done. My husband had really hoped to please me vastly '.'•y
getting this romantic creeper-clad, cottage, which he thought would
look rather like an English home, but he had not looked at it as a
woman would, and had'not seen its drawbacks. As one of my. visitors
said when we got in: Everyone was much surprised that we had bought
it, as the price was enormous - it could not have cost more than a
counle of hundred to put up, and. they thought it was only-held, up
by the creepers on each side of it! When the wind blew, the carpets
were absolutely lifted, off the floor; they waved about in billows', '
and made one feel seasick. My husband also bought a great deal of
ugly furniture with it, but I quickly transformed' this by raiding
the Hudson Bay Stores and searching out a very large piece of
white dimity with coloured roses and green leaves on it (there were
no cretonnes there in those days) ind draped the ottomans and sofas-
with this. It had four small sittingrooms and a kitchen and storeroom, and four rooms uostiirs  0 course we sold this house at a
loss ©hen we left 	 - 21 -
We went out for that summer, and finding we should not be home
for the winter, we thought the children had better come out, so old
Jane Griffiths brought them over, and made no more fuss about it than
if she had taken them for a short trip on the Underground ....
She took them for long walks in the afternoons, on Beacon Hill, and up to
the Cemetery where the great thing was to see the Chinese funerals.
My husband had to go over to England, and I remained with the children
in Victoria. He meant to be away for about six weeks, in which time
he thought he would be able to finish up things, but as a matter of
fact he did not return for nine months. He went over in the Spring
of '02..,.
In the summer of 1892 there was an outbreak of smallpox in
Victoria and yellow flags -'ere hung out of a good many windows - some
quite close to us. All those people who could, were rushing away
from Victoria, and we heard that the hotels in Vancouver, Banff and
Seattle were full of refugees. I had very little cash at the time;
too little for us to go to one of these expensive places, and so
was remaining at home with ray family. Our doctor came to see us one
day, and advised me to cle^r out as two houses near us were infected.
He asked me why I did not camp.  In the first place I knew nothing
about camping, and then I had. no tents, and did. not know where to
camp, but that afternoon I met an old English Colonel - MacCullum
by name, who had a house near the Esquimalt docks, ind I told him
my dilemma. He kindly said he knew just the place: he o-'ned a large
plot of ground where there had been a settler's hut, on the far side
of Esquimalt Harbour. It was a fenced-in field with forest all round
it except for one side vhich faced the sea. He offered to go with
me to buy some tents, and he and his Chinaman would put them up for
us, as he had. been doing that kind of thing for a great part of his'
life! He said we should only go out to the camp when all was ready.
I bought two "A" tents and a diningroora fly.  A friend of mine,
hearing I was going to camp, asked if his sisters might join my camp,
and. of course I consented readily, on the condition that we each
went our own ways ind did. as we liked	
Some people held up their hands in dismay when they heard I
was camping without a man - so dnngerous! To one old lady who was a
tremendous gossip, I said: "I should hate an old. man in the camp; he
would be a nuisance, ind if I took a young one, with my husband in
England, what would you say?" She was quite non-plussed, and had to
laugh, and say it was quit a true!
My two friends, Ada and Susie Pemberton, had a pony chaise in
which they drove out to the camp, which vras about 15 miles from
Victoria. Nurse and I ant* the t--o children rowed over in a boat, and
we hired a flat bottomed bo-t so that ro co-Id row across the harbour
or row in the lagoon, close at hand . . . We took, a Chinaman out with
us, who left the second night, as he was too frightened to stay alone,
so I had to go back to Victoria to get another. I brought him. out,
and he. seemed very frightened, about sleeping in a tent and we.could
not persuade him he would be alright.  As he was threatening t°
depart, I produced -in unloaded six shooter, and told him that if he
went, I should shoot him - he had much better stay! He looked at
the six shooter for a moment, and asked if I could kill the wild animals. - 22 -
On my assuring him I could, he thought better of it and stayed with
us for the three months, and seemed perfectly happy.
There was i beautiful spring on tho place, where we got our
water, and during the three months we spent there, we had only one
afternoon's rain. We took a cold dip in the sea each day and it is
very, very cold, in those parts - there seems to be no Gulf Stream to-
warm it up! We had large camp fires at night, and Kitte Bevan, the
third girl who had joined us, used to play the banjo and sing.
Sometimes her brothers ^■nc'-  the Pemberton's brother would come over
and join us, and many other friends."
Florence goes on at some length about their life in camp, all
extremely interesting, but I feel I have taken enough of your time, so
I shall just read her concluding remarks about British Columbia:
"After considering all the oros and cons which exercised our
minds all that (last) winter, we decided to return to Europe. My
husband was really heartbroken at the idea of leaving British Columbia,
but there was no reason for us to stay now (as) he was no longer connected with the Kootenay Company . . . My husband, returned to Europe
a very depressed man.
One great blow in leaving British Columbia was that our dear
nurse who had been our stand-by for six years, had made up her mind to
marry in Victoria. The f"ithful wo^an, however, insisted on first
accompanying us to England, and handing Lovey and Dovey (our two children) safely over, and I thin)" '"o all cried when she waved good-bye to
us at Dover. She was going back at her own expense, to marry Mr Oakes.
She was one of the really good old-fashioned servants that one hears
of but so seldom meets."
Neither Florence nor her husband ever returned to B.n., but son
Tom did, first in 1904 "hen he was stationed at Esquimalt for three
months with the Royal Navy onH.'",S. Grafton, a flagship cruiser. He
told me that on leave in Victoria he stayed at the home of his mother's
friend, Ada Bevan, nee Drake, at Oak Bay, and took time to find Swallow-
field Cottage. He again called, on her in 1931 when ho was on his way to
his naval station in China. Florence's husband died at their castle in
Austria in 1.921, exhausted from doing relief work in Tyrol to help those
suffering the after-effects of the First World War and. the British blockade.
Florence carried on the work, particularly with infants, often travelling for miles, sometimes alone, in the Alps, to assist one isolated child
or family. For this work she was awarded the Order of the Golden Cross
by.the Austrian Government, the citation readin ; "For her Infant Welfare
work in Tyrol during 1918-1926 after the great war." This was 1927 and
she was the first ^oman to receive this Order and the first foreigner.
Florence died in Edmonton, Essex, just outside London'in 1945.
Her sedond child, Olga, died in Nairobi in 1947. The son survives in England,
A. unique memorial ceremony to honour Florence was held, in the village
of Brandenberg, in the valley of the same name where she had done so much
work. There, a sculptured plaque of this Protestant woman on a Roman Catholic Church was unveiled by a British admiral (her son) in German territory;
wreathes were placed and three volleys were fired in her honour." A photograph of this event is among others here for any Who wish to see them, all
loaned for this occasion by her son.
Ladies and gentlemen, I thank you.

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