British Columbia History

British Columbia Historical Quarterly Jan 31, 1944

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 THE
BRITISH
COLUMBIA
HISTORICAL
QUARTERLY
JANUARY, 1944 We
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
Published by the Archives of British Columbia
in co-operation with the
British Columbia Historical Associai
EDITOR.
W. Kaye Lamb.
Th ' British Colli couver, B.C.
ASSOCIATE EDITOR.
Willard E. Ireland.
Provincial Archi>
(On active service, R.C.A.'
TSORY BOARD.
W. N. Sage. w.
Editorial communications should be addressed to the Editor.
Subscriptions should icial  Archives, Parliament
Buil«; ;oria, B.C.    V . or $2 the year.    Members
of the Br: nbia Historical As jod standing receive the
Neither the Provincial  Archr rical
Association assumes any respona; statements made by contributors
to the magazine.
The : We
BRITISH COLUMBIA
HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
" Any country worthy of a future
should be interested in its past."
Vol. VIII. Victoria, B.C., January, 1944. No. 1
CONTENTS.
Frederic William Howay (1867-19A3): Page.
Scholar and Friend.
By Henry R. Wagner    1
An Appreciation.
By W. Stewart Wallace :    3
Historian of British Columbia.
By W. N. Sage	
An Intimate Portrait.
By Noel Robinson	
William Sturgis: The Northwest Fur Trade.
Edited, with an introduction and notes, by F. W. Howay  11
A Bibliography of the Printed Writings of Frederic William
Howay.
Compiled, with a biographical introduction, by W. Kaye Lamb 27
John Nugent: The Impertinent Envoy.
By Robie L. Reid  53
Notes and Comments.
Some Archives Accessions in 1943.
By Madge Wolfenden  77
British Columbia Historical Association  82
Victoria Cavalcade 84
Contributors to this Issue  85
The Northwest Bookshelf:
Tenth Report of the Okanagan Historical Society.
By W. Kaye Lamb 87
VanMale: Resources of Pacific Northwest Libraries.
By Eleanor B. Mercer  88
Kemble:  The Panama Route, 1848-1869.
By W. Kaye Lamb  89 Judge F. W. Howay.
From a photograph taken in 1923. FREDERIC WILLIAM HOWAY (1867-1943):
SCHOLAR AND FRIEND.
A distinguished scholar, a genial companion, and a dear
friend has passed on, leaving us to mourn his untimely departure. Nearly fifteen years have gone by since on a visit to
Victoria I crossed to the mainland to call on His Honour F. W.
Howay, familiarly known to his friends as Judge Howay, at his
home in New Westminster. I was engaged at the time in investigating the voyages of the Spaniards to the Strait of Juan de
Fuca in 1790 and the next few years, and, knowing that the
Judge was interested in the history of Vancouver Island, I
wished to compare a few notes with him. We talked for two
hours while my wife sat alone in the car. That was the beginning of our friendship, cultivated by continual correspondence
and occasional meetings. In the summers up to 1938 my wife
and I visited British Columbia every year, and after that the
Judge came to California nearly as often. He always had some
project brewing, as he had a multitude of interests. As a sample
of this I quote a few sentences from his last letter to me, dated
June 19: " As to what I am doing—well, I am keeping busy.
I had to prepare an address to the members of the board [the
Historic Sites and Monuments Board] on my taking office [as
Chairman], and another for the dedication, at a public gathering, of three tablets to the explorers of the Canadian Arctic,
and another on assuming the Presidency of the Champlain
Society. Then I have also prepared, with an Introduction and
Notes, that sketch of the Maritime Fur Trade which appeared
in Hunt's Merchants' Magazine for 1846. This was enough to
keep a lazy chap like myself extremely busy." It may have been
true that there was a lazy streak in him, but he kept pegging
away persistently and I never saw any laziness about him. He
did not drive himself, but did what he loved to do.
He had no patience with superficial scholarship, nor the
products of it which occasionally drew his attention. He thought
no man should publish anything on a subject which he had not
probed to the bottom. This was his ideal of scholarship, and
he carried its banner high to the very end.    His editing of the
British Columbia Historical Quarterly, Vol. VIIL, No. 1.
1 2 Frederic William Howay. January
Voyages of the " Columbia," published in 1941 by the Massachusetts Historical Society, will stand as a monument to the
fulfilment of his ideals.
One of the Judge's pet schemes was to arrange a meeting
between me and Mr. T. C. Elliott, of Walla Walla, his long-time
friend. Somehow something always came up to interfere, latterly Mr. Elliott's illness. He was greatly moved by Elliott's
death last May. In his last letter to me, in speaking of him, he
said: " I shall miss him much. He was a fine man, God rest
his soul." So I say of the Judge. He was a fine, lovable man.
God rest his soul.
Henry R. Wagner.
San Marino, California. 1944 Frederic William Howay.
AN APPRECIATION.
I am grateful for the opportunity of paying my tribute, such
as it is, to the memory of my old friend Judge Howay.
It is now over thirty years since I first made Judge Howay's
acquaintance, and though in that period I have seen him only
occasionally, when he made his annual trips to the East, I had
come to regard him as a friend whose friendship was as tried
and true as steel.
When in the dim ages before the last war I became assistant
to Professor Wrong and Mr. Langton, on the editorial staff of
the old Review of Historical Publications relating to Canada,
I was given to understand that if I wanted a sound review of
a book on British Columbia and the Pacific Coast, I should send
the book to a County Court Judge in New Westminster, named
Howay. From that day to this, in my frequent applications to
Judge Howay for help of one sort and another, he never failed
me. Not only was his knowledge inexhaustible, but his good
will and helpfulness were inexhaustible too. I had for him not
only a great respect, but a great affection, based on a long association unbroken by a single disagreement. It was to me a
source of great pleasure that the Royal Society of Canada
crowned his labours two years ago with election to the Presidency of the Society; and it was also a matter of congratulation
with me that the following year Judge Howay allowed me to
nominate him as President of the Champlain Society. We on
the Council of the Champlain Society will greatly miss the wise
counsel and great knowledge which he placed at the Council's
disposal.
So he passed over, and all the Trumpets
sounded for him on the other side.
W. Stewart Wallace.
University of Toronto. 4 Frederic William Howay. January
HISTORIAN OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Although our loss is so recent and so real, it is nonetheless
already possible to begin to appreciate the position which Judge
Howay occupies in the history of historical writing in British
Columbia. He was one of the last great pioneers of our Province. He lived through the first seventy-five years of Canadian
federation, and spent nearly all that time within the confines of'
British Columbia. Although he was born in Ontario, practically
his whole life was connected with our Province, and most of it
with the City of New Westminster.
In his boyhood the Judge learned much of the early history
of British Columbia by listening to the stories of the Royal
Engineers and the men of Cariboo. His father-in-law, William
H. Ladner, had come in with the gold-seekers and had later
taken up land at Ladner's Landing, now Ladner, B.C. The
Judge knew the old Cariboo Road intimately. He witnessed
the coming of the railway, and remembered well the " battle of
the terminals." It was he who later sketched the political battle
between " Mainland " and " Island," and it must be confessed
that his sympathies lay with the Mainland. Nonetheless he
knew the early history of Vancouver Island thoroughly. He
had read and digested not only the printed voyages of Cook,
Meares, Portlock, Dixon, and Vancouver, but he had sought out
and discovered manuscripts of the early voyages, previously
unknown.
Sometime about 1908 he began to write about British Columbia history, and he kept up his researches until his death.
Learned in the law and accustomed to rendering legal decisions,
he scrutinized his sources with the greatest care. In 1926
Professor Samuel Eliot Morison, of Harvard, playfully remarked
in his address at the unveiling of the monument at Astoria:
" I have learned that when Judge Howay says a thing ain't so,'
well, it ain't so."
When the Judge began to write the history of this Province
much had already been accomplished, but the fringe of the subject had hardly been touched. H. H. Bancroft had produced
his History of British Columbia in 1887, and Alexander Begg,
CC, had published his well-known compilation on the same subject in 1894. Reverend A. G. Morice had published his History
of the Northern Interior of British Columbia in 1904.    R. E. 1944 Frederic William Howay. 5
Gosnell had already founded the Provincial Archives and had
produced his valuable series of Year Books of British Columbia,
commencing in 1897. There were other minor works dealing
with the history of the region, and, in addition, a series of travel
books, some of them dating back to the 1860's. But it was
Judge Howay who, with his friend and collaborator, E. 0. S.
Scholefield, really took up the serious writing of British Columbia history. British Columbia from the Earliest Times to the
Present, which appeared in 1914 under the joint authorship of
Scholefield and Howay, was, and is, the most complete work in
the field. In 1928 the Judge published his British Columbia,
the Making of a Province. These volumes marked a real advance in the history of British Columbia.
It was, however, as the gatherer, interpreter, and narrator
of the story of the maritime fur trade from 1785 to 1830 that
Judge Howay reigned supreme. The extent and thoroughness
of his labours may best be judged by the series of papers presented to Section II. of the Royal Society of Canada during the
early 1930's. In these papers he lists and discusses all the
trading-ships to the Northwest Coast which he had been able to
trace. His researches were widespread and took him to Hawaii
and to Massachusetts. His work in this field is unrivalled and
will stand the test of time.
Judge Howay was also important for the stimulus and
encouragement he gave to others interested in the history of
British Columbia. His reputation was international, but he
was always ready to assist and criticize the work of younger
historians. As Western Canadian member, and later as Chairman, of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
he " made history," not only by presiding at many dedicatory
ceremonies, but by the scrupulous care he bestowed upon the
research necessary for the obtaining of the facts regarding the
historic events commemorated by each monument.
His was a busy life and he lived it to the full. He has left
this Province and Canada the richer because he loved our history, spoke eloquently about it, preserved its records, wrote its
story, and was, without doubt, the outstanding historian of
British Columbia. .ir ,_  „
W. N. Sage.
The University op British Columbia,
Vancouver, B.C. 6 Frederic William Howay. January
AN INTIMATE PORTRAIT.
In paying tribute to the memory of my old friend Judge
Howay I do so with the feeling that anything I may write will
fall short of what I should like to write, for he occupied a unique
niche in my esteem and affection for a period of about thirty
years.
Widely known though he was in Canada, and particularly
British Columbia, as jurist, historian, and lecturer, there will
be many, even among the readers of this Quarterly, who did not
know him intimately. It is for these, particularly, that I would
endeavour to paint a little pen-picture of one who was not only
an outstanding Canadian, but a very lovable and intensely interesting and versatile man.
It is as I knew him during the innumerable afternoons and
evenings I have spent with him in the delightful study of his
home in New Westminster that I shall always remember him
best. Many walls of his home were hidden with shelves of books
from floor to ceiling, but it was in this sanctum, the windows of
which afforded a spacious view of the great Fraser River far
below, where he was surrounded by the pick of his priceless
collection of British Columbiana, as well as his more intimately
prized volumes of prose and poetry, that he always seemed most
at home. There, and in his summer home up the North Arm
of Burrard Inlet, where he was an equally happy host, and where
I was able to appreciate his talent in backwoods lore—yes, and
as a cook and very practical skipper of his motor-launch.
In that room, less than two weeks before he died—and after
he had suffered the stroke the effects of which were to prove
fatal—he played me two games of chess upon the old chessboard that showed signs of its immersion when, upon one occasion, his launch shipped a sea which poured into the cabin while
he was playing a game. That afternoon we " boxed the compass " in conversation for the last time upon those literary
matters that were so dear to him. His mentality was unimpaired, but we were both aware that he had, in all human
probability, received an intimation of the approaching end. It
was characteristic of him that this knowledge made no difference
to the zest with which he engaged in those games—both of which 1944 Frederic William Howay. 7
he won—or in the discussion that followed. He may be said to
have died, as he would have wished, almost with his boots on.
He was at that time preparing a programme for the New
Westminster Fellowship of Arts, of which he had been the moving spirit for a quarter of a century, and the interests of which,
together with those of the Vancouver Dickens Fellowship, of
which he was life Honorary President as well as a Vice-President
of the parent Fellowship in England, were very close to his heart.
This winter the subject of study of the Fellowship of Arts is
the Scandinavian countries, their peoples and history, and the
Judge had saturated himself in the lore of the Vikings and the
prose and poetry of their descendants.
He had an almost phenomenal memory for prose and verse,
and this was never more apparent than upon that afternoon,
when he quoted to me from memory stanza after stanza of
ballad poetry dealing with early Viking history and feats of
arms. In the midst of one of these quotations he was reminded
of Napoleon's connection with Scandinavia (Bernadotte). He
had a whole shelf of his library devoted to Napoleon, and a picture of the Little Corporal stood upon his mantelshelf. Apropos
of this digression he recited a rolling Napoleonic ballad.
Judge Howay, as his friends well knew, and as befitted an
historian, had a passion for accuracy. There was hardly one
among his historical books dealing with British Columbia and
Northwest America that was not profusely annotated. His mind
was so well stored, too, with general historical data that, no
matter what knotty problem came up for discussion, he would
get up from his chair, remove his pipe from between his lips,
with the remark: " I think we can find something on that," and,
walking to his shelves, would take down a book, turn the pages,
and with: " Yes, here it is," read an extract bearing upon the
point at issue.
Though a man of less than medium height, Judge Howay
was possessed of a cast of countenance, a dignity, and a mode
of expression that, in some indefinable way, seemed to add to
his stature and impressiveness upon occasion. At other times
his fresh complexion, the snow-white curl upon his head, his
keen, sometimes quizzical eyes, and the pipe between his teeth,
would give him quite a Dickensian air.    I can see him now at 8 Frederic William Howay. January
the annual Twelfth Night revels of the Fellowship of Arts
(which are always in the costume of the period being studied),
made up as Mr. Pickwick, or dancing Sir Roger de Coverley, his
ermine robe flying, his crown awry, when he had impersonated
King Henry the Eighth.
In my mind's eye I can see him, too, very vividly, in tall silk
hat and frock coat year after year among the worthies of New
Westminster at the historic crowning of the May Queen of the
Royal City, a ceremony that has taken place for seventy years.
For years he wrote the addresses to be spoken by the May
Queen and the May Queen-elects—right down to the last year of
his life, when he happened to be away in Eastern Canada, and
delegated that pleasurable duty to me.
He was so saturated in the literature and lore of England,
from Chaucer, through the Elizabethan era, the prolific age of
Anne and onwards; so familiar with the atmosphere of the
countryside there, its castles, cathedrals, abbeys, and manor-
houses, that it was sometimes difficult to realize that, though
he had travelled widely upon the American continent and in
Hawaii, he had never visited the Old Country. His intimate
acquaintance, through reading, with all the places Dickens has
made familiar to his readers and peopled with his characters
was encyclopaedic, and he was heard at his best in those little
cameo-like talks, so full of acute judgment and wit, which he
delivered annually to the members of the Vancouver Dickens
Fellowship.
Many years ago, as a youth, I found myself reporting a case
in court at Worcester, on the Oxford Circuit, when Sir Henry
Fielding Dickens, notable son of Charles Dickens, was either
counsel for the prosecution or the defence. If I remember correctly he, too, was a comparatively small man, and his mode of
expression and witticisms were recalled to me many years later
by similar characteristics in Judge Howay.
By way of contrast with the foregoing, I recall an incident
that took place four years ago, when I heard the Judge deliver
one of the most eloquent impromptu addresses I ever heard from
his lips. He and I had motored 80 miles from Red Deer to the
pioneer fur-trading and lumbering settlement of Rocky Mountain House, where are situated the remains of the fort erected 1944 Frederic William Howay. 9
by David Thompson nearly 140 years ago, the site being marked
by a commemorative cairn. As an explorer, and on account of
■his fine personal qualities and rectitude, the Judge ranked
Thompson very high.
Upon this occasion a dinner was given by the mayor and
aldermen of Rocky Mountain House in Judge Howay's honour,
and it was preceded by a cocktail party at the mayor's home.
At that party the Judge was greatly attracted by a small statuette of a Kentucky colonel. The mayor pressed him to accept
it as a memento of his visit, but the Judge demurred. Thereupon His Worship whipped off the head of the " colonel" and
took from the interior a bottle of whisky, with the remark:
" Well, Judge, if you won't accept the gentleman as a whole you
shall certainly sample part of him." But Judge Howay was a
teetotaler!
' His love of the sea and ships, and his knowledge of the latter,
their construction, and their rigging in the days of sail, was
particularly intimate for a landsman. I like to remember how
he revelled in recalling the days of Drake and the Spanish Main,
and the voyages and explorations of Captains Cook and Vancouver. In connection with the two latter, much valuable
material was published from his pen as a result of his researches.
For many years he visited Boston annually to dig into the archives
of the Massachusetts Historical Society for data regarding the
early fur-trading on the North American coast.
This is a reminder that he was as well known in historical
circles of the Northwest on the other side of the border as he
was in Canada, and that he was the recipient of several honours
from historical bodies there. In a recent issue of this Quarterly
he paid tribute to the memory of a distinguished historian on
the American side of the line, Mr. T. C. Elliott, one of his oldest
and closest friends, whose work he admired greatly.
Let me carry the reader back half a century or more in the
life of Judge Howay. I have before me as I write a paragraph,
yellow with age, which was found among his newspaper cuttings. It is from the columns of the British Columbian of New
Westminster of about 1890 and was written when the Judge, as
a very young man, was about to enter upon his professional
career in the Royal City.    It is worth printing in full:— 10 Frederic William Howay.
Mr. F. W. Howay, a graduate of Dalhousie Law School, who has recently
returned home after making a very creditable record in his examinations,
has opened a law office in McKenzie St. No. 17, near to Mr. Whiteside's
office, and intends to practise his profession in the city, upon which, in
common with Ruskin and Dockrill, he has reflected an appreciable honor in
his college career. Mr. Howay is only a boy in appearance, but he has
shown that there is the right sort of material there. He is on the first
round of the legal ladder but hopes to climb to fame through perseverance.
And he will probably do it.
How right the author of that paragraph proved to be in his
forecast.
In closing this tribute may I add that I have never known
a man who possessed in quite so marked a degree the judicial
capacity combined with so strong a vein of sentiment—his emotions were very near the surface, especially in later years —
pronounced sense of humour, and genius for friendship as Judge
Howay. To quote his favourite author, Charles Dickens—it will
be easy to keep his memory green.
Noel Robinson.
Vancouver, B.C. WILLIAM STURGIS:  THE NORTHWEST
FUR TRADE.
The appended summary of a lecture by William Sturgis, a
prominent merchant of Boston, Mass., appeared in Hunt's Merchant's Magazine in 1846 (Vol. XIV., pp. 532-38). Although it
contains many errors (probably of the reporter, Elliot C. Cow-
din) it has been so frequently cited and referred to in studies
of the maritime fur-trade that it has been considered advisable
to republish it, especially as sets of Hunt's Merchant's Magazine
are not easily accessible, except in large libraries. Parts of the
article were reproduced in Old South Leaflet No. 219, under the
editorial supervision of Dr. S. E. Morison, with the title The
Northwest Fur Trade.
The Hon. William Sturgis was born at Barnstable, Mass., on
February 25, 1782, the son of a ship-master. At fourteen years
of age he began life as a clerk in the counting-house of his
kinsman, Russell Sturgis. Eighteen months later he entered
the employ of J. & T. H. Perkins, merchants and large shipowners, who were prominent in the trade from Boston to the
Northwest Coast and China. In his leisure hours young Sturgis
gave much attention to the study of navigation. On the death
of his father, in 1797, he decided, as was natural for a Cape Cod
boy, to follow the sea, and in 1798 shipped as a green foremast
hand in the Eliza, a small vessel of 159 35/95 tons. At Kaigahnee, in southern Alaska, the Eliza encountered the Ulysses, and
by reason of a mutiny that had occurred on the latter ship,
young Sturgis was transformed from a foremast hand on the
Eliza into the first mate of the Ulysses. The two ships met
again in China, and Sturgis returned to his ship as third mate,
occupying that post on the homeward voyage, which ended in
the spring of 1800. The owners of the Ulysses, J. & T. Lamb,
were so taken with the lad's ability that they at once engaged
him as mate of their ship Caroline, and in her he sailed late in
1800 on his second voyage to the Northwest Coast and China.'
The master, Captain Charles Derby, was so ill with tuberculosis,
that in the second year of the voyage he resigned the command
to his mate, and, leaving the ship at Honolulu, died there in
British Columbia Historical Quarterly, Vol. VIII., No. 1.
11 12 William Sturgis. January
1802. Thus young Sturgis, at the early age of 19, with less
than four years' sea experience, became master of a fine ship
of 150 tons, with the entire management of her trade on the
coast and in China. He proved worthy of the trust and brought
the Caroline with her valuable cargo safe to Boston Harbour;
115 days from Canton. His next voyage was in command of
the same ship, the Caroline. Leaving Boston in July, 1803, and
calling at the Hawaiian Islands, he reached the Northwest Coast
in January, 1804. There he traded (amongst other things) the
ermine skins of which he speaks in his lecture, at the gainful
rate of five ermine for one sea-otter skin ;* in his trading goods,
though he does not mention the fact, were twenty barrels of
New England rum, say 650 gallons. In justification of this comparatively small amount it may be explained that the use of
intoxicating liquor as a trade medium was comparatively recent,
and that later the Boston ships became notorious for the great
quantities of liquor they carried. On this voyage the Caroline
collected 2,500 sea-otter skins, covering the whole space from
the Columbia River (where she was in May, 1804) to Kaigahnee,
where she completed her trading, and sailed homeward by the
Hawaiian Islands and China. The net proceeds of this voyage
were $73,034.32. Sturgis now took the command of Theodore
Lyman's ship Atahualpa, of 209 tons. Leaving Boston on October 23, 1806, he traded on the Northwest Coast in 1807, and
returning by Hawaii and China was back in Boston in June,
1808. This ended his contact with the natives of the Northwest
Coast.    He sailed again in command of the Atahualpa in April,
1809, but direct for China. His vessel carried $300,000 in specie
for the purchase of the return cargo. In the neighbourhood of
Macao the Atahualpa was attacked by sixteen ladrone junks
(Chinese pirates).   Sturgis had only a few cannon for defence
* It has been stated that Sturgis's owners, J. & T. Lamb, were not
favourable to the scheme of carrying out furs to trade for furs and that
in consequence Sturgis undertook the venture on his own account. This
seems very doubtful, for in the first place it is unlikely that the captain
would be allowed to trade for himself—a thing forbidden to the crew at all
times; in the second place, Sturgis makes no such claim in his lecture; and
thirdly, in the list of the Caroline's trade cargo on the voyage of 1803-6, is
included " 3 boxes Ermine Skins." The cargo is stated to have been supplied by many different firms, including J. & T. H. Perkins, R. B. Forbes,
and J. & T. Lamb, and totalled $43,325.12. 1944 The Northwest Fur Trade. 13
of his vessel, and at one time the pirates were so close that they
succeeded in throwing combustibles aboard; but Sturgis and his
crew extinguished the flames, drove the pirates off, and reached
the shelter of the guns of the Portuguese fort. On her passage
up the river, in company with four other American ships, the
Atahualpa was again attacked, but finally arrived at Canton in
safety. This voyage, like its predecessor, was productive of
great profit to the ship's owner.
After twelve years at sea, Sturgis retired with a considerable
fortune, for those days, and formed the partnership of Bryant
& Sturgis, engaged as merchants and ship-owners in foreign
trade, that lasted for half a century. He was elected to the
Massachusetts Legislature in 1814, and from that time until
1845 was almost continuously a member of either the House or
the Senate. Naturally he took a great interest in the dispute
between Great Britain and the United States regarding the
division of Old Oregon. He pooh-poohed the Jingo cry of
" Fifty-four-forty or fight" and, urging that each party had
some claims to a part of the territory, suggested a line of
demarcation which would have definitely settled the boundary
and saved the San Juan trouble. The line proposed by Sturgis
was:—
A continuation of the parallel of forty-nine degrees across the Rocky Mountains to tide-water, say to the middle of the Gulf of Georgia; thence by the
northernmost navigable passage (not north of forty-nine degrees) to the
Straits of Juan de Fuca, and down the middle of these straits to the Pacific
Ocean; the navigation of the Gulf of Georgia and the Straits of Juan de
Fuca to be for ever free to both parties; all the islands and other territory
lying south and east of this line to belong to the United States, and all north
and west to Great Britain.
His pamphlet urging this line was widely circulated both in the
United States and in England, and probably had much to do
with the ultimate acceptance of the Treaty of Washington, in
1846.    How unfortunate that his wording was not accepted as
well as his principle!
The Hon. William Sturgis died in October, 1863.   When one
considers his life:  a clerk at fourteen;  a green foremast hand
at sixteen;  first mate at seventeen;  master of a ship and its
management at nineteen; prominent merchant at twenty-eight;
member of the state legislature at thirty-two;  thirty years in 14 William Sturgis. January
House and Senate;  one can only recall the words of Napoleon,
" ' Impossible ' c'est le mot d'un fou."
F. W. HOWAY.
New Westminster, B.C.
[532] THE NoRTHWEST FUR TRADE.*
We are indebted to Elliot C. Cowdin, Esq., the president of the
Mercantile Library Association of Boston, for the somewhat extended
sketch of the Hon. William Sturgis's valuable lecture upon the " Northwest Fur Trade," delivered before that association, on Wednesday
evening, January 21st, 1846. The report was prepared by Mr. Cowdin,
with much care, from the original manuscript, and can, therefore, be
relied upon for its entire accuracy. Mr. Sturgis, the author of the
lecture, [533] is well known as one of the most eminent merchants of-
Boston; and his reputation in that city, for practical intelligence and
sterling good sense, stands very high.
In commencing, the lecturer observed that, at this present moment,
when the public attention is anxiously directed to the partition, or
other disposition, of a large portion of the northwestern part of our
continent, as a question seriously affecting both our domestic and
foreign relations,1 anything respecting that country, or its native
population, assumes a more than ordinary interest.
Mr. Sturgis said that, in early life, he made several successful
voyages,2 to what was then deemed a remote and unexplored region,
and passed a number of years among a people, at that time, just
becoming known to the civilized world. His first visit to Nootka
Sound was made in the last century, about twenty years after it was
discovered by Captain Cook.
Though not one of the first, he was amongst those who early engaged
in the Northwest trade, so called, and continued to carry it on, either
personally or otherwise, until it ceased to be valuable.8 He thus witnessed the growth, maximum, decrease, and, finally, its abandonment
by Americans. These early visits afforded him an opportunity, too,
of observing changes in the habits and manners of the Indians, effected
by intercourse with a more civilized race; and, he regretted to add,
brought to his knowledge the injustice, violence, and bloodshed, which
has marked the progress of this intercourse.4
* Hunt's Merchant's Magazine, XIV. (1846), pp. 532-38. The pagination
of the original is indicated in square brackets.
(1) The Oregon question, which was a burning one in 1845 and 1846.
(2) Four voyages: 1799 in Eliza; 1801-2 and 1803-6 in Caroline; 1807
in Atahualpa.
(3) Bryant & Sturgis, between 1818 and 1825, owned or operated the
following vessels in the trade to the Northwest Coast: Volunteer, Cordelia,
Ann, Griffon, Becket, Lascar, Mentor, Rob Roy, and Llama.
(4) Sturgis was a sturdy champion of the Indians, claiming that their
so-called " unprovoked attacks " upon the trading vessels resulted from the
inhuman conduct of the traders themselves. 1944 The Northwest Fur Trade. 15
Mr. Sturgis did not expect others would feel the same interest in
the reminiscences that he felt," but he thought they might engage the
attention of his hearers, and perhaps awaken a sympathy for the
remnant of a race fast disappearing from the earth—victims of injustice, cruelty, and oppression—and of a policy that seems to recognize
power as the sole standard of right.
The hour, this evening, the lecturer proposed to devote principally
to the fur trade, and some matters connected with it; and, in the next
lecture, he should speak of the habits, peculiarities, language, and
some features in the general character of the Indians. But that
branch of the subject most deeply interesting to them, occurrences
upon the coast within his own knowledge, of treatment which the
Indians had received from the white men, must be postponed to some
future occasion.
The Northwest trade, as far as we are concerned, has ceased to be
of importance in a commercial view; but a branch of commerce, (said
Mr. Sturgis,) in which a number of American vessels, and many seamen and others were constantly and profitably employed, for more
than.forty years5—which brought wealth to those engaged in it, and
was probably as beneficial to the country as any commercial use of an
equal amount of capital has ever been—cannot be without interest as
matter of unwritten history, and may, perhaps, illustrate some principles of commerce deserving our notice and consideration.
This trade, in which our citizens largely participated, and at one
period nearly monopolized, was principally limited to the sea-coast
between the mouth of the Columbia river, in latitude 46°, and Cook's
Inlet, in latitude 60°, to the numerous islands bordering this whole
extent of coast, and the sounds, bays, and inlets, within these limits.
Trade was always carried on along-side, or on board the ship, usually
anchored near the shore, the Indians coming off in their canoes.6 It
was seldom safe to admit many of the natives into the ship at the same
time, and a departure from this prudent course, has, in numerous
instances, been followed by the most disastrous and tragical results.
The vessels usually employed were from one hundred to two
hundred and fifty tons burthen, each. The time occupied for a voyage
by vessels that remained upon the coast only a single season, was from
twenty-two months to two years, but they generally remained out two
seasons, and were absent from home nearly three years. The principal
object of the voyages was to procure the skins of the sea-otter, which
were obtained from the natives by barter, carried to Canton, and there
exchanged for the productions of the Celestial Empire, to be brought
(5) The Americans were in the trade from 1787 until at least 1836,
though it ceased for all practical purposes by about 1825. Thereafter the
trading vessels sought land furs, for the sea-otter had been practically
exterminated.
(6) At first the trade was always from the canoes alongside; but later
the Indians were allowed on board when trading. 16 William Sturgis. January
home or taken to Europe, thus completing what may be called a trading voyage.1
[534] Beaver and common otter skins, and other small furs, were
occasionally procured in considerable quantities, but in the early period
of the trade, they were deemed unimportant, and little attention was
given to collecting them. The sea-otter skins have ever been held in
high estimation by the Chinese and Russians, as an ornamental fur;
but its great scarcity and consequent cost, limits the wear to the
wealthy and higher classes only. A full grown prime skin, which has
been stretched before drying, is about five feet long,8 and twenty-four
to thirty inches wide, covered with very fine fur, about three-fourths
of an inch in length, having a rich jet black, glossy surface, and
exhibiting a silver color when blown open. Those are esteemed the
finest skins which have some white hairs interspersed and scattered
over the whole surface, and a perfectly white head. Mr. Sturgis said
that it would now give him more pleasure to look at a splendid sea-
otter skin, than to examine half the pictures that are stuck up for
exhibition, and puffed up by pretended connoisseurs. In fact, excepting a beautiful woman and a lovely infant, he regarded them as among
the most attractive natural objects that can be placed before him.
The sea-otter has been found only in the North Pacific. The earliest
efforts on record to collect furs in that region, were made by Russians
from Kamschatka,9 who, in the early part of the last century, visited,
for this purpose, the Kurile and other islands that lie near the northern coasts of Asia. After the expedition of Behring & Co., in 1741,
these excursions were slowly extended to other groups between the
two continents, and when Cook, in 1778, explored these northern
regions, he met with Russian adventurers upon several of the islands
in proximity with the American shore. It was, however, the publication of Cook's northern voyages in 1785,10 that gave the great impulse
to the Northwest fur trade, and drew adventurers from several nations
to that quarter.
The published journal of Captain King, who succeeded to the command of one of the ships after the death of Captains Cook and Clark,11
and his remarks, setting forth the favorable prospects for this trade,
doubtless roused the spirit of adventure. Between the time of the
publication referred to, in 1785,12 and the close of 1787, expeditions
(7) The trade with the Indians was a means to an end—to secure a
medium of exchange for Chinese goods.
(8) Jewitt (Brown ed., p. 121) says a prime skin was one that would
reach from a man's chin to his feet. For the most recent description of
the sea-otter see Adele Ogden, The California Sea Otter Trade, Berkeley,
1941, p. 4.
(9) Bering and Chirikov.
(10) Cook's Third Voyage was published in 1784. It is in three volumes; the first two are by Captain Cook—the third, by Captain King, is
not a journal, but a narrative.
(11) Captain Charles Clerke.
(12) 1784. James Hanna, the first maritime fur-trader, sailed from
Macao, April 15, 1785. 1944 The Northwest Fur Trade. 17
were fitted out from Canton, Macao, Calcutta and Bombay, in the
East, London and Ostend in Europe, and from Boston in the United
States. In 1787, the first American expedition was fitted out, and
sailed from Boston. It consisted of the ship Columbia, of two hundred and twenty, and the sloop Washington, of ninety tons burthen—
the former commanded by John Kenrick, the latter by Robert Gray.13
Mr. Sturgis deemed it scarcely possible, in the present age, when
the departure or return of ships engaged in distant voyages is an
every-day occurrence, to appreciate the magnitude of this undertaking,
or the obstacles and difficulties that had to be surmounted in carrying
it out.14
He said, were he required to select any particular event in the
commercial history of our country, to establish our reputation for
bold enterprise and persevering energy, in commercial pursuits, he
should point to this expedition of the Columbia and Washington.
Many of the obstacles and dangers were clearly pointed out, showing
that it was then viewed as an extraordinary undertaking. A medal
was struck upon the occasion, and some impressions taken out in the
vessels for distribution. The lecturer briefly described it, and exhibited
to the audience a fac simile of one preserved in the Department of
State at Washington. On one side of this medal was engraved " Columbia and Washington: commanded by J. Kenrick," with a representation of the two vessels; on the reverse was the following inscription:
" Fitted at Boston, N. America, for the Pacific Ocean, by J. Burrell,
C. Brown, C. Bulfinch, J. Darby, C. Hatch, J. M. Pintard, 1787."1B
Captain Kenrick, who was entrusted with the command of the expedition, was a bold, energetic, experienced seaman. His management
justified the confidence reposed in him, but he was fated never to
return.16
The project of engaging in the fur trade of the North Pacific, from
this country, was first brought forward by the celebrated American
traveller, Ledyard.17 In his erratic wanderings, he entered on board
the ship Resolution, as corporal of marines, with Captain Cook, upon
his last voyage.   After his return, he made repeated attempts to get
£13)  The Columbia was of 212 8/95 tons.    Kendrick not Kenrick.
■(14) The expedition failed financially not so much on account of the
unknown and inherent difficulties as by reason of the incapacity or worse
of its commander, Captain John Kendrick.
(15) One of these medals in silver is in the possession of the Massachusetts Historical Society. A photograph of it is to be found in F. W.
Howay, Voyages of the " Columbia," Boston, 1941, p. 162. Again, Kenrick
should be Kendrick; Burrell should be Barrell; and C. Brown should be
S. Brown.
(16) Kendrick does not by any means measure up to this laudation;
and his owners found that their confidence was misplaced. In plain English
he stole the Washington, one of the vessels entrusted to his care.
(17) Ledyard was only a dreamer of impracticable dreams. The impetus
that set the maritime fur-trade in motion came from the reading of Captain
Cook's Third Voyage. 18 William Sturgis. January
an outfit for a voyage to the Northwest Coast. In 1784, [535] three
years previous to Kenrick's expedition, he induced Robert Morris to
engage in the undertaking. But for some cause, now unknown, the
enterprise was abandoned, as were similar ones in France and England.
The unfortunate Ledyard seemed doomed to disappointment in whatever he undertook. The life of this remarkable man shows that
respectable talents, united with great energy and perseverance of
character, may be comparatively valueless to the possessor, and useless
to the world, from the want of a well-balanced mind, which, unfortunately, was the fatal deficiency in Ledyard.
Nearly all the early and distinguished navigators, who discovered
and explored the northern regions of the Pacific, met the fate that too
often awaits the pioneers in bold and hazardous undertakings, and
found a premature death, by violence or disaster, or disease brought
on by incessant toil and exposure.18
Behring, a Danish navigator in the service of Russia, who commanded the expedition just mentioned, was wrecked in 1741, upon an
island that bears his name, and perished miserably in the course of
the winter. He was the first navigator known to have passed through
the strait that separates Asia from America; and Cook, who was the
next to sail through it, in a commendable spirit of justice, gave to this
.strait the name of the unfortunate Behring. The fate of Cook is well
known. He was killed by the natives of the Sandwich Islands, of
which group he was the discoverer.
Mr. Sturgis said he had stood upon the spot where Cook fell, in
Karakakooa Bay, and conversed with the natives who were present
at the time of the massacre. They uniformly expressed regret and
sorrow for his death, but insisted that it was caused by his own
imprudence.
The lecturer next gave an interesting account of the loss of two
French vessels fitted out in 1785,19 on a voyage of discovery and
exploration, which, after visiting the northwest coast of America,
departed from Sydney, in New South Wales, early in 1788, and nothing more was heard from them until 1826, when a wreck and some
articles were found at the island of Malicolo, in the South Pacific, that
left no doubt but the unfortunate Frenchmen perished there.20
(18) Bering died of scurvy on Bering Isle, in 1741; Captain Cook was
killed at Kealekekua Bay, Hawaii, by the natives in February, 1779; Captain Charles Clerke died of tuberculosis in Bering Sea in 1779; Captain
John Kendrick was accidentally killed at Honolulu on December 12, 1795;
Solomon, his second son, was killed by the Haidas when they captured the
Resolution, tender of the Jefferson, in 1793; Captain Simon Metcalfe and
his son, Robert, were murdered by the Haidas when they captured the
Eleanora, in 1794, and his eldest son, Thomas H. Metcalfe, was killed by
the Hawaiians at Kawaihae, Hawaii, when they captured the Fair American.
(19) La Boussole and L'Astrolabe, under the command of La Perouse.
(20) In September, 1827, Captain P. Dillon found on the island of Vani-
koro, now Mallicolo, iron, copper, and silver relics of La Perouse's vessels,
and heard from the natives the story of their wrecks. 1944 The Northwest Fur Trade. 19
Vancouver, an able British navigator, was sent out by his government in 1790, to receive Nootka Sound from the Spaniards, and
explore the whole western coast of North America. The chart prepared by him is the most accurate of any at the present day. With
a constitution shattered by devotion to his arduous duties, he returned
to England in 1794, and sunk into an early grave.21
Mr. Sturgis said he had already remarked that Kenrick was fated
never to return. After remaining with both vessels two seasons on
the northwest coast, he sent the Columbia home, in charge of Captain
Gray, and remained himself in the sloop Washington.22 He continued
in her several years, trading on the coast and at the Sandwich Islands.23
In 1792, while lying in the harbor of Honolulu, at one of these
islands, and receiving, upon his birthday, a complimentary salute from
the captain of an English trading vessel anchored near, he was,
instantly killed by a shot carelessly left in one of the guns fired on
the occasion.24
Captain Gray reached home in the Columbia, in the summer of
1790,25 and thus completed the first circumnavigation of the globe
under the American flag. He was immediately fitted out for a second
voyage in the same ship, and it was during this voyage that he discovered, entered, and gave the name to the Columbia river, a circumstance now relied upon as one of the strongest grounds to maintain
our claim to the Oregon Territory.    He died abroad some years ago.
Mr. Sturgis here observed that it would bring some of the events
of which he had spoken quite near our own time, to mention that in
the street in which we are, (Federal-street,) the name of " Gray"
may be seen upon the door of a house nearly opposite Milton Place,26
(21) Vancouver was sent out to, amongst other duties, receive the
restoration of the lands on the Northwest Coast of which Spain had dispossessed Meares and his associates. Vancouver returned to England in
September, 1795, and died May 18, 1798, aged 40.
(22) The slippery conduct of Kendrick after 1790 accounts for his nonreturn to Boston. The fates had no hand in it. For light on this matter
see Voyages of the "Columbia," pp. 470, 485, 490, 494f. On the first
voyage, 1787-90, Kendrick spent only one season on the coast; the Columbia
and Washington arrived at the end of the season of 1788 and Kendrick left
the coast at the end of the season of 1789.
(23) Sturgis might have added:   "treating the Washington as his own'
property and steadily going further into debt."
(24) This paragraph is quite wrong. Kendrick was accidentally killed
on December 12, 1795, as stated; but it was not his birthday; the occasion
of the salute was the victory which had been won by the army of Oahu over
the invaders from Kauai.
(25) August 8, 1790.
(26) 83 Federal Street, Boston, where lived Mrs. Martha Gray, the
widow of Captain Robert Gray. See Washington Historical Quarterly,
XXI. (1930), p. 11. The date and place of Captain Gray's death are uncertain. E. G. Porter says he died in 1806 at Charleston, S.C. (New England
Magazine, June, 1892, p. 488); Mrs. Martha Gray, in her petition of January 17, 1846, states that she " was left a widow nearly forty years ago ";
and the Committee of the House reporting thereon find that Captain Gray
" died in the summer of 1806." Intensive search has not revealed any more
definite information. 20 William Sturgis. January
which house is now occupied by the widow and daughters of Captain
Gray, the discoverer of the Columbia river, and the first circumnavigator who bore the flag of our country in triumph round the world.
The voyage of the Columbia was not profitable to her owners, in
a pecuniary view, but it opened the way for other adventures, which
were commenced on her return. In 1791, there were seven vessels
from the United States in the North Pacific, in pursuit of furs.27 For
various reasons, the American traders so far gain-[536 ]ed the ascendancy, that at the close of the last century, with the exception of the
Russian establishments on the northern part of the coast, the whole
trade was in our hands, and so remained until the close of the war
with Great Britain, in 1815. This trade was confined almost exclusively
to Boston. It was attempted, unsuccessfully, from Philadelphia and
New York, and from Providence and Bristol, in Rhode Island. Even
the intelligent and enterprising merchants of Salem, failed of success;28 some of them, however, were interested in several of the most
successful northwestern voyages carried on from Boston. So many
of the vessels engaged in this trade belonged here, the Indians had the
impression that Boston was our whole country. Had any one spoken
to them of American ships, or American people, he would not have
been understood. We were only known as Boston ships, and Boston
people.280
In 1801, the trade was most extensively, though not most profitably
prosecuted; that year, there were 15 vessels on the coast,29 and in 1802
more than 15,000 sea-otter skins were collected, and carried to Canton.
But the competition was so great, that few of the voyages were then
profitable, and some were ruinous. Subsequently, the war with Great
Britain interrupted the trade for a time; but after the peace in 1815,
it was resumed, and flourished for some years. The difficulties and
uncertainty in procuring furs became so serious, that in 1829 the business north of California was abandoned.30
Besides the 15,000 skins collected by American traders in 1802,
probably the Russians obtained 10,000 the same year within their
hunting limits, making an aggregate of 25,000 in one season.    Mr.
(27) Columbia, Eleanora, Grace, Hancock, Hope, and Washington. Perhaps Sturgis included the Adventure, which was built in the winter of
1791-92.
(28) It is scarcely correct to say that the Salem merchants " failed of
success" in the maritime fur trade; they did not enter it. The New
Hazard in 1811-12 was the solitary exception.
(28a)  In the Chinook jargon anything American is called " Boston."
(29) Atahualpa, Betsy, Catherine, Caroline, Charlotte, Despatch, Enterprise, Globe, Guatimozin, Hazard, Lavinia, Litteler, Lucy, Mary, Manchester, Polly, and Three Sisters.
(30) After about 1825 the American vessels sought land furs—the sea-
otter had been practically exterminated. But when these vessels entered
the land trade they met the energetic opposition of the Hudson's Bay Company, and quickly disappeared. 1944 The Northwest Fur Trade. 21
Sturgis said he had personally collected 6000 in a single voyage,31 and
he once purchased 560 of prime quality in half a day. At the present
time, the whole amount collected annually within the same limits does
not exceed 200, and those of very ordinary quality.
The commercial value of the sea-otter skin, like other commodities,
has varied with the changes in the relation of supply and demand.
The narrative of Cook's voyage shows the value of a prime skin to
have been, at the time of that voyage, $120. In 1802, when the largest
collection was made, the average price of large arid small skins, at
Canton, was only about $20 each. At the present time, those of first
quality would sell readily at $150. Some seventy or eighty ordinary
California skins, brought home a few months ago, were sold here at
nearly $60 each, to send to the north of Europe.32
Mr. Sturgis said the trade on the coast was altogether a barter
trade. It consisted in part of blankets, coarse cloths, great-coats, firearms and ammunition, rice, molasses, and biscuit, coarse cottons, cutlery, and hard-ware, a great variety of trinkets, &c; in fact, everything that one can imagine.33 Copper has long been known, and highly
prized by the Indians. The lecturer observed that he had seen pieces
of virgin copper among the different tribes, that weighed 50 or 60
pounds each. It was put to no use, but still was considered very
valuable, and a person having a few pieces was deemed a wealthy
man.84
The natives had no currency.86 But the skin of the ermine, found
•in limited numbers upon the northern part of the continent, was held
in such universal estimation, and of such uniform value, among many
tribes, that it in a measure supplied the place of currency.   The skin
(31) This is probably an error of the reporter. Sturgis's best voyage
—that of the Caroline, in 1803-4, when he made the successful venture with
the ermine skins—produced 2,500 sea-otter skins. The reference is to the
voyage of the Pearl, Captain John Suter, in 1808-9; in two seasons on the
coast that ship obtained 6,000 sea-otter skins, the high-water mark.
(32) In 1792 John Hoskins wrote: " The very best Skins at retail will
not fetch more than thirty dollars and at wholesale from six to twenty-five
dollars." In 1795 Kendrick's 1,063 skins and 640 tails only brought $16,756
—about $15 each: The Voyages of the "Columbia," pp. 480, 488. The
Californian sea-otter skins were usually obtained by poaching or by surreptitious trade (see Ogden, The California Sea Otter Trade).
(33) Sturgis has omitted rum from his list of trading goods. When the
Boston was captured in 1803, she had twenty puncheons of rum, about 2,000
gallons, on board for trade, besides a miscellaneous assortment of other
intoxicating liquors. See on this and the trade generally, F. W. Howay,
" The Introduction of Intoxicating Liquor amongst the Indians of the
Northwest Coast, in this Quarterly, VI. (1942), pp. 157-69.
(34) The native copper came from Copper River, Alaska; it was made
into knives, swords, whistles, and rattles, and sometimes beaten out into
a sheet to form an ornamental breast-plate highly esteemed as a symbol of
wealth and distinction. A representation of one of these " coppers" is
given in George M. Dawson, Report on the Queen Charlotte Islands, Montreal, 1880, p. 135.
(35) Amongst the Haidas, Nootkans, and Chinooks at any rate, the
dentalium shell served as a sort of currency. 22 William Sturgis. January
of this little slender animal is from eight to twelve inches in length,
perfectly white, except the tip of the tail, which is jet black.
Urged by some Indian friends, in 1802, Mr. Sturgis obtained and
sent home a fine specimen, with a request that a quantity should be
ordered at the annual Leipsic fair, where he supposed they might be
obtained. About 5,000 were procured, which he took out with him on
the next voyage, and arrived at Kigarnee, one of the principal trading
places on the coast, early in 1804. Having previously encouraged the
Indians to expect them, the first question was, if he had " clicks," (the
Indian name for the ermine skin) for sale, and being answered in the
affirmative, great earnestness was manifested to obtain them, and it
was on that occasion that he purchased 560 prime sea-otter skins, at
that time worth $50 apiece at Canton, in a single forenoon, giving for
each five ermine skins, that cost less than thirty cents each in Boston.
He succeeded in disposing of all his ermines [537] at the same rate,
before others carried them out—but in less than two years from that
time, one hundred of them would not bring a sea-otter skin.
Among a portion of the Indians, the management of trade is
entrusted to the women. The reason given by the men was, that
women could talk with the white men better than they could, and were
willing to talk more.36
When the natives had a number of skins for sale, it was usual to
fix a price for those of the first quality as a standard, which required
a great deal of haggling. In addition to the staple articles of blankets,
or cloth, or muskets, &c, that constituted this price, several smaller
articles were given as presents, nominally, but in reality formed part
of the price. Of these small articles, different individuals would
require a different assortment: a system of equivalents was accordingly established. For instance, an iron pot and an axe were held to
be of equal vaMie—so of a knife and a file, a pocket looking-glass and
a pair of scissors.
Mr. Sturgis next alluded to the various efforts made by the Indians
to obtain a more valuable article than the established equivalent. To
avoid trouble, which would certainly follow if he yielded in a single
instance, he said he had found it necessary to waste hours in a contest
with a woman about articles of no greater value than a skein of thread
or a sewing-needle. From various causes, the northwest trade was
liable to great fluctuations. The laws of supply and demand were frequently disregarded, and prices consequently often unsettled. He had
seen prime sea-otter skins obtained for articles that did not cost fifty
cents at home, and had seen given for them articles that cost here
nearly twice as much as the skins would sell for in China.
To secure success with any branch of business, it must be undertaken with intelligence, and steadily prosecuted. Men of sanguine
temperaments are often led by reports of great profits made by others,
(36)  Amongst the Haidas the women had the management of the trade
with the vessels. 1944 The Northwest Fur Trade. 23
to engage in a business of which they are ignorant, or have not adequate means to carry it on, and thus involve themselves in loss or ruin.
These truths Mr. Sturgis deemed strikingly illustrated by the northwest trade.
While most of those who have rushed into this trade without knowledge, experience, or sufficient capital to carry it on, have been subjected to such serious losses, they were compelled to abandon it; to
all who pursued it systematically and perseveringly, for a series of
years, it proved highly lucrative. Among those who were the most
successful in this trade, were the late firm of J. & T. H. Perkins, J. &
Thos. Lamb, Edward Dorr & Sons, Boardman & Pope, Geo. W. Lyman,
Wm. H. Boardman, the late Theodore Lyman, and several others, each
of whom acquired a very ample fortune.
These fortunes were not acquired, as individual wealth not unfre-
quently is, at the expense of our own community, by a tax upon the
whole body of consumers, in the form of enhanced prices, often from
adventitious causes. They were obtained abroad by giving to the
Indians articles which they valued more than their furs, and then
selling those furs to the Chinese for such prices as they are willing to
pay; thus adding to the wealth of the country, at the expense of
foreigners, all that was acquired by individuals beyond the usual
return for the use of capital, and suitable compensation for the services of those employed. This excess was sometimes very large.
Mr. Sturgis said that more than once he had known a capital of
$40,000, employed in a northwest voyage, yield a return exceeding
$150,000. In one instance, an outfit not exceeding $50,000, gave a
gross return of $284,000. The individual who conducted the voyage
is now a prominent merchant of Boston.37
In conclusion, the lecturer gave a brief account of the two great
fur companies. In 1785 an association of merchants was formed in
Siberia for the purpose of collecting furs in the North Pacific. In 1799
they were chartered under the name of the " Russian American Company," with the exclusive privilege of procuring furs within the Russian limits, (54° 40') for a period of twenty years, which has since
been extended.38
The furs collected are sent across Siberia to Kiatska, the great
mart for peltries in the northern part of China, or to St. Petersburg.
For a number of years the company obtained a large portion of their
supplies from American vessels, giving in return seal-skins and other
furs, and latterly, bills on St. Petersburg.
(37) Probably the reference is to the voyage of the Pearl, in 1808-9.
The value of ship, outfit, and cargo was about $40,000, and the return cargo
sold at auction in 1810 for $261,343.18, gross.
(38) The United American Company, which was a fusion of the
Shelekof-Golikof Company and the Muilnikof Company, was founded in
1798, and in 1799 obtained a charter as the Russian American Company.
See Clarence L. Andrews, The Story of Alaska, Caldwell, Idaho, 1938, p. 69. 24 William Sturgis. January
[538] The treatment of the agents and servants of the company,
to the Indians, has been of the most atrocious and revolting character.
The British Hudson Bay Company was chartered by Charles II.,
in 1669,39 with the grant of the exclusive use and control of a very
extensive though not well-defined country, north and west of Canada.
This uncertainty as to limits, led to the formation of an association
of merchants in Canada in 1787, called the " Northwest Company,"
for carrying on the fur trade without the supposed boundaries of the
Hudson Bay Company.
Those in the service of these concerns soon came in collision.
Disputes and personal violence followed. At length, in June, 1816,
a pitched battle was fought near a settlement that had been made by
Lork Selkirk, upon the Red river, under a grant from the Hudson Bay
Company, between the settlers and a party in the service of the Northwest Company, in which Governor Semple and seventeen of his men
were killed. This roused the attention of the British government, and
in 1821, the two companies were united, or rather, the Northwest
Company was merged into the Hudson Bay Company. Previous to
this, however, the Northwest Company had, in 1806, established trading posts beyond the Rocky Mountains.40 During the last war with
Great Britain, they got possession of Mr. Astor's settlement at the
mouth of the Columbia, and extended their posts on several branches
of that river. These establishments being united, it infused new life,
and their operations have since been conducted with increased vigor.
They have now, practically, a monopoly of the fur trade, from 42° to
54°40', on the western sea-board, and from 49° to the Northern Ocean,
upon the rest of the American continent.
With the exception of the British East India Company, the Hudson
Bay Company is the most extensive and powerful association of individuals for private emolument, now in existence, and their influence
has hitherto prevented an adjustment of the Oregon question. Mr.
Sturgis said he did not speak from mere conjecture, when he affirmed
that it would have been settled months ago, upon the line suggested
by him in a previous lecture before this association, and to the satisfaction of the people of both countries, but for the selfish interference
of this company. Should disastrous consequences follow the delay in
settling this question, it will add another to the numerous evils that
have already resulted from great commercial monopolies.
The whole business of collecting furs upon our western continent, without the acknowledged limits of the United States, is now
(39) The Hudson's Bay charter is dated May 2, 1670. The North West
Company, a combination of persons already in the fur trade, is usually said
to have been formed in 1783. It traded within and without the chartered
limits of the Hudson's Bay Company, utterly oblivious of the " uncertainty^"
thereof.
(40) Fort McLeod was founded in 1805; three other posts were constructed in 1806-7. 1944 The Northwest Fur Trade. 25
monopolized by two great corporations, the Russian and British Fur
Companies.
After the peace in 1815, the British Northwest Company—partly
in consequence of the monopoly of the East India Company—were
compelled to seek the aid of American merchants and American vessels,
in carrying on an important branch of their business. For a number
of years, all the supplies for British establishments, west of the Rocky
Mountains, were brought from London to Boston, and carried hence
to the mouth of the Columbia in American ships, and all their collections of furs sent to Canton, consigned to an American house, and the
proceeds shipped to England or the United States, in the same vessels;
a fact which speaks loudly in favor of the freedom of our institutions
and the enterprise of our merchants. Our respected fellow citizens,
Messrs. Perkins & Co., furnished the ships, and transacted the
business.41
We may state, on the authority of Mr. Cowdin, that the lecture was
listened to with unbroken attention and merited approbation, by a
numerous and highly intelligent audience. Very many of the most
prominent merchants and distinguished citizens of Boston were in
attendance, among whom was the venerable Thomas H. Perkins. As
a matter of " unwritten history," the lecture is indeed very valuable—
inasmuch as it imparts a knowledge of the commercial enterprises of
by-gone days, interesting in a high degree, and not accessible in any
other form. In fact, it was just what a lecture should be—the result
of large experience and practical wisdom, set forth in a clear, methodical, and comprehensive manner.
[539] It is to be regretted that more of our prominent merchants
are not brought forward in this capacity, for it is from them that the
younger branches of the mercantile community derive their best lessons of the duties and responsibilities of commercial life.
(41) Under this arrangement (see Correspondence of Foreign Office
and Hudson's Bay Company . . . Confidential . . . Ottawa, 1899, pp.
10-11), the North West Company sent furs to Canton in the following
ships of J. & T. H. Perkins: Alexander, 1817; Levant, 1818; Nautilus,
1819; Levant, 1820; Alexander, 1821; Houqua, 1822. See F. W. Howay,
" A List of Trading Vessels in the Maritime Fur Trade," in Transactions
of the Royal Society of Canada, Section II., 1933, pp. 133, 141; ibid., 1934,
pp. 18, 22, 36. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE PRINTED WRITINGS OF FREDERIC WILLIAM HOWAY.
INTRODUCTION.
Frederic William Howay was born near London, Ontario,
on November 25, 1867, the son of William and Jane (Rogers)
Howay. The family moved to British Columbia while he was
yet a small child. William Howay preceded his wife and children, leaving Ontario about May, 1869, and travelling to the
Pacific Coast by way of the Isthmus of Panama. " My mother,"
Judge Howay noted years later, " with my two elder sisters and
.myself remained in Ontario for about a year and a half after
my father left. Then we came out by way of the Union Pacific
to San Francisco, &c, reaching Clinton B.C. late in the fall of
1870. We remained at Clinton until September 1874, when we
all removed to New Westminster."1
In New Westminster Frederic attended the public and high
schools. Then in July, 1884, he travelled to Victoria, where he
wrote the Provincial teachers' examinations. He passed easily,
but, being under age, could be granted only a temporary teaching
permit. A year later he was one of two candidates to write and
pass the examinations for a permanent first-class teacher's certificate. Quite as important as the certificate was the fact that
he made the acquaintance of the other candidate, Robie L. Reid
(now Dr. Robie L. Reid, K.C, F.R.S.C), a Nova Scotian, whose
friendship he was to enjoy for nearly sixty years.
Meanwhile in December, 1884, young Howay had been
appointed teacher of the newly-opened school at Canoe Pass,
near Ladner. He remained there until October, 1886, when he
moved to the Boundary Bay school. He would probably have
continued to teach indefinitely had it not been for his friendship
with Robie Reid. In 1887 Mr. Reid was preparing to leave for
Halifax, where he intended to study law at Dalhousie University,
and he urged Howay to accompany him.    The financial difficul-
(1) From a memorandum in Judge Howay's handwriting, dated April
25, 1911. Several words abbreviated in the original have been expanded for
printing.
British Columbia Historical Quarterly, Vol. VIII., No. 1.
27 28 F. W. Howay: A Bibliography. January
ties in the way seemed insuperable at first, but the assistance of
a well-to-do uncle resolved them in the end. Howay left his
school in June, 1887, and the friends entered Dalhousie together
in the autumn as members of the Law School class of 1890. It
' is interesting to note that this class included two future premiers
of British Columbia—Richard (later Sir Richard) McBride and
W. J. Bowser.
As soon as he arrived in Halifax, Howay began corresponding with the New Westminster papers. His news-letters, written about twice a month, at first appeared alternatively in the
British Columbian and the Mainland Guardian. Later they seem
to have been published in the Guardian only. The law, politics,
temperance, and the doings of persons known locally in British
Columbia were the subjects chiefly dealt with. So far as is
known, this was his first appearance in print.2 Later he occasionally contributed articles and letters to newspapers in Halifax
and Kentville.
At the commencement of his second year, in the fall of 1888,
Howay was appointed a member of the Board of Editors of the
Dalhousie Gazette, the magazine published ten or a dozen times
each session by the student body of the university. He was
again a member of the Board during the session of 1889-90, his
last at Dalhousie. The notes, editorials, etc., that he contributed
to the Gazette were anonymous,3 but their authorship is indicated
in his own bound file of the magazine. His most important contribution was a paper in two instalments entitled The Humorous
Side of Law that appeared in the issues of November 28, 1889
(pp. 38-40), and March 20, 1890 (pp. 121-124).
Howay did very well in his studies, and graduated from Dalhousie with the degree of LL.B. in the spring of 1890. While at
the university he had been reading law with Barclay Webster
(later Judge Webster), of Kentville, and in the fall of 1890 he
passed the examinations and was called to the Nova Scotia Bar.
He left for New Westminster in November, and on the 9th of
May the following year was admitted to the British Columbia
Bar.
(2) Clippings of most of the letters are preserved in a scrap-book in
Judge Howay's library. The first of the series, clipped from the Columbian,
is dated October 8, 1887.
(3) One or two are signed " H." 1944 F. W. Howay: A Bibliography. 29
He first hung out his shingle in a little office on McKenzie
Street. Later he entered into partnership with W. J. Whiteside,
but this lasted only about two years. By that time Robie Reid,
who had been practising in Fairhaven (now Bellingham, Wash.),
had returned to New Westminster, and in 1893 the friends joined
forces in the firm of Howay & Reid. This partnership continued
for thirteen years, and was not dissolved until 1906.
F. W. Howay was the first paid secretary of the New Westminster School Board. He was appointed October 9, 1891, and
continued in office until 1902. In 1906 he served a term as
Alderman. In December of the same year the Provincial Legislature was dissolved, and Howay received the Liberal nomination
in New Westminster riding. In the ensuing election, held on
February 2, 1907, he was defeated by the narrow margin of 128
votes.
On October 14, 1907, upon the retirement of His Honour
Judge Bole, he was appointed Judge of the County Court of New
Westminster.
Judge Howay became interested in the history of British
Columbia at an early age, but his more serious study of the
subject began in the later nineties. The modest nucleus from
which his superb historical library grew was acquired at that
time. The earliest known historical paper from his pen was
printed in 1902, in the second and last issue of an ill-fated little
magazine, The British Pacific, published in Cumberland, B.C.
This paper, however, might well be described as a fugitive item,
for six years passed before a successor appeared. It was the
celebration in New Westminster in 1908 of the centenary of
Simon Fraser's descent of the Fraser River, and of the fiftieth
anniversary of the arrival of the Royal Engineers, that finally
brought Judge Howay before the public as a speaker and writer
on historical subjects. Within a few years he was becoming
known as an authority, and in 1914, in collaboration with the
late E. O. S. Scholefield, he published the two-volume work that
is still the standard history of British Columbia. The progress
of his career from that point can best be followed by reference
to the checklist of his printed writings that follows.
Few historical scholars whose work has been primarily
regional in scope have received as wide and spontaneous recogni- 30 F. W. Howay: A Bibliography. January
tion as Judge Howay. One of the first honours conferred upon
him was the Presidency of the Art, Historical and Scientific
Association of Vancouver, to which he was elected in 1910.
After serving six terms (1910-15) as President, he was elected
Honorary President in 1916, a position he continued to hold until
his death. On June 1,1917, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal
Society of Canada. Six years later, in May, 1923, he was elected
President of Section II. of the Royal Society, for the year
1923-24. In 1920 he was appointed Western representative on
the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada. On October 27, 1922, he was elected an Honorary Member of the Oregon
Historical Society. The same month he was elected President
of the newly-organized British Columbia Historical Association,
a post he continued to hold until 1926. In 1923 he became a
member of the Council of the Champlain Society. On December
8, 1927, he was elected a Corresponding Member of the Massachusetts Historical Society. The following year he was elected
a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society. On June 16, 1930, he
was elected a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. In May,
1931, he was elected President of the Canadian Historical Association for the year 1931-32. On April 20, 1932, he was elected
a member of the American Antiquarian Society. On February
25, 1933, he was elected an Honorary Member of the Hawaiian
Historical Society. Three months later, on May 11, the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws was conferred upon Judge Howay
by the University of British Columbia. On November 15 of
the same year he was named a Corresponding Member by the
Institut Historique & Heraldique de France. A year later, on
November 1, 1934, the Institut awarded him its silver medal.
On November 15, 1934, an honorary membership was conferred
upon him by the Societe Academique d'Histoire Internationale,
of Paris.
Judge Howay's career reached a fitting climax in 1941-42.
In May, 1941, he was elected President of the Royal Society of
Canada, while in 1942 he was elected President of the Champlain
Society, and Chairman of the Historic Sites and Monuments
Board of Canada.
Notification of his election as a Fellow of the American Geographical Society was received a week or two after his death. 1944 F. W. Howay: A Bibliography. 31
Judge Howay's interests were by no means confined to the
field of history. He was for a generation the moving spirit in
the New Westminster Fellowship of Arts, for which he served
no less than twenty-two terms as President. His amazing
knowledge of the life and works of Charles Dickens was recognized in September, 1932, when he was elected Honorary President for life by the Vancouver branch of the Dickens Fellowship.
In 1939 he was elected a Vice-President by the parent Fellowship
in Great Britain. For twenty-seven years—from 1915 until
1942—he served as a member of the Senate of the University of
British Columbia. In 1921 and again in 1922 he was a School
Trustee in New Westminster. He was appointed to the New
Westminster Public Library Board and chosen as its first Chairman on February 4, 1928. He served as Chairman until June,
1931, and was still a member of the Board at the time of his
death. On November 19, 1934, the Native Sons of British
Columbia, Post No. 4, presented to Judge Howay their Good
Citizenship Medal, and an illuminated address. He was one of
the recipients of the King's Silver Jubilee Medal in May, 1935.
It is easy to forget that, despite these manifold activities,
Judge Howay devoted the most meticulous attention to his judicial duties. The esteem in which he was held in legal circles was
fittingly expressed on October 31, 1932, when he was presented
with an illuminated address by the members of the New Westminster Bar upon the completion of his twenty-fifth year on the
bench. He continued to serve for another five years, and finally
retired on November 30, 1937, a few days after his seventieth
birthday.
After his retirement Judge Howay devoted himself to his
literary and historical pursuits with undiminished energy, and
the closing years of his life were amongst the most fruitful of
his whole career. He died in New Westminster, after a brief
illness, on October 4, 1943, in his seventy-sixth year.
A few months before his death, in response to much persuasion, Judge Howay compiled a list of his principal writings.
This list, although it consisted of less than a hundred items, and
was therefore far from complete, proved of great assistance in
the compilation of the bibliography'that follows. Judge Howay
had included none of his book reviews, but so many of these con- 32 F. W. Howay: A Bibliography. January
tain comments and corrections of the first importance to students
that every known review from his pen has been listed.
Every effort has been made to make the checklist complete,
but it is nonetheless certain that this ideal has not been attained.
Readers noticing errors or omissions are asked to draw them to
the attention of the writer, in order that they may be noted in
a supplement at a later date.
W. Kaye Lamb.
The University op British Columbia,
Vancouver, B.C. 1944 F. W. Howay: A Bibliography. 33
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE PRINTED WRITINGS
OF FREDERIC WILLIAM HOWAY.
ABBREVIATIONS.
BCHQ British Columbia historical quarterly.
CHR Canadian historical review.
HHS Hawaiian historical society.
OHQ Oregon historical quarterly.
PNQ Pacific northwest quarterly.
RHP Review of historical publications relating to Canada.
WHQ Washington historical quarterly.
1902
1. The rebellion at Hill's bar. An episode of the Fraser river gold
excitement.   British Pacific 1:47-51 July 1902.
1908
2. The search for the Fraser by sea and land. Art, historical and
scientific association of Vancouver. Historical papers session
1907-8:15-24.
An address delivered before the association on March 9, 1908.
3. May-day souvenir.   New Westminster, B.C. 1870-1908.    15 pp'.
Bears legend: " With the compliments of His Honour Judge Howay."
Introductory note dated May 1, 1908.
In great part reprinted in New Westminster Daily news special
May-day number, May 1, 1908:2-3.
4. Life and adventures of Simon Fraser. New Westminster Daily
news Fraser centennial number, September 30, 1908:9-11.
1909
■ 5. [The story of the Royal engineers.]    New Westminster Daily
Columbian, April 14, 1909:1, 8.
Verbatim report of an address delivered in New Westminster on
April 13, 1909.
1910
6. The work of the Royal engineers in British Columbia 1858 to
1863.   Victoria, King's Printer, 1910.    17 pp.
An address delivered before the Art, historical and scientific association of Vancouver on February 9, 1909.
Reviews:—
7. W. D. Lyman, The Columbia river.   RHP 14:113-5 1910.
8. J. T. Walbran, British Columbia coast names.   RHP 14:115-8 1910.
9. J. T. Bealby, Fruit ranching in British Columbia. RHP 14:121-2
1910.
All unsigned. Authorship shown by correspondence files of the
RHP. 34 F. W. Howay: A Bibliography. January
1911
10. Early navigation of the straits of Fuca.    OHQ 12:1-32 March
1911.
Paper read before the Oregon historical society December 17, 1910.
Reviews:—
11. E. S. Meany, History of the state of Washington.   RHP 15:116-8
1911.
12. S. A. Clarke, Pioneer days of Oregon history.   RHP 15:118-9 1911.
*13. Joseph Shafer  (ed.), Documents relative to Warre and Vavasour's
military reconnaisance in Oregon, 1845-6.   RHP 15:119-20 1911.
*14. T. C. Elliott, Peter Skene Ogden.   RHP 15:120-1 1911.
15. A. G. Morice, History of the Catholic church in western Canada.
RHP 15:192-4 1911.
*16. J. T. Lee, A bibliography of Carver's Travels.    RHP 15:208-9 1911.
All  unsigned.    Authorship  noted  in  Judge  Howay's  copy  of  the
RHP.
1912
17. British Columbia, a historical sketch. Fruit magazine 5:291-3
September 1912.
18. History of British Columbia (supplement). In I. Gammell,
Elementary history of Canada. Toronto, Educational Book Co.
[1912?], pp. 297-319.
Unsigned. Authorship ascertained from Judge Howay's correspondence files.
Review:—
19. W. I. Marshall, The acquisition of Oregon.   RHP 16:101-4 1912.
The first signed review contributed by Judge Howay to the RHP.
Only the longer reviews in the RHP were ever signed, and it is known
that Judge Howay contributed many shorter comments that appeared
anonymously. For example, his correspondence shows that in the 1912
volume, in addition to the signed review here noted, he contributed the
shorter notices printed on pp. 96-9 and 105-7.
1913
Reviews:—
20. E. V. O'Hara, Pioneer Catholic history of Oregon. RHP 17:119-21
1913.
*21. Journals of John Work, November and December, 1824.   Journal of
William Fraser Tolmie.   RHP 17:121-2 1913.
*22. L. M. Scott, John Fiske's change of attitude on the Whitman legend.
J. C. Strong, The Whitman controversy.   RHP 17:123-4 1913.
*23. F. V. Holman, A brief history of the Oregon provisional government.
R. C. Clark, How British and American subjects unite in a common
government for Oregon territory in 1844.   RHP 17:124-6 1913.
* In addition to reviewing books, Judge Howay made it his practice, for
a dozen years or more, to comment upon articles and papers printed in
American publications that were of special interest to students of Western
Canadian history.    Reviews of this nature are indicated by an asterisk. 1944 F. W. Howay; A Bibliography. 35
1914
24. British Columbia from the earliest times to the present. 2 vols.
Vancouver, S. J. Clarke publishing company, 1914. Pp. xlvi., 688;
xiv., 727.
Written in collaboration with E. 0. S. Scholefield. Mr. Scholefield's
name appears on the title-page of vol. 1 only; Judge Howay's on the
title-page of vol. 2 only, but it is known that Judge Howay contributed
part of vol. 1 as well as the whole of vol. 2. Two biographical volumes
(pp. 1161, 1208) were added to the set by the publishers.
25. [The Pacific province.] Political history, 1871-1913. In Canada
and its provinces. Toronto, Publishers' association of Canada,
1914, 21:177-237.
26. Preface to Frances E. Herring, The gold miners. London, Francis Griffiths, 1914, pp. 9-12.
Reviews:—
27. Katharine Coman, Economic beginnings of the far west. RHP
18:35-8 1914.
28. J. B. Thornhill, British Columbia in the making. RHP 18:131-3
1914.
*29. 0. B. Sperlin, The exploration of the upper Columbia. RHP 18:134-5
1914.
1915
30. Some remarks upon the new Vancouver journal. WHQ 6:83-9
April 1915.
31. The fur trade as a factor in the development of the Northwest
coast. British Columbia school trustees association. Proceedings, 1915:74-81.
An address delivered to the association at Chilliwack on September
15, 1915. This was a slightly revised version of the address delivered
by Judge Howay before the Panama-Pacific historical congress, San
Francisco, July 21, 191i>.   See item 41, below.
Reviews:—
32. E. 0. S. Scholefield, Report of the Provincial archives department of
British Columbia.   RHP 19:144-6 1915.
33. C. F. Newcombe, The first circumnavigation of Vancouver island.
RHP 19:148-50 1915.
*34. The journal of John Work, from June 21, 1825, to June 12, 1826.
The journal of David Thompson, from July 3 to August 13, 1811.
RHP 19:153-6 1915.
35. R. M. McElroy, The winning of the far west.   RHP 19:157-9 1915.
36. W. J. Trimble, The mining advance into the inland empire. RHP
19:161-4 1915.
* See item 13, footnote. 36 F. W. Howay: A Bibliography. January
1916
Reviews:—
37. Agnes Laut, Pioneers of the Pacific coast.   RHP 20:127-9 1916.
38. Journal kept by David Douglas during his travels in North America,
1828-27.   RHP 20:132-4 1916.
*39. The Journal of John Work, July 5 to September 15, 1826.    Journal
of occurrences at Nisqually house, 1833-1834.   RHP 20:134-6 1916.
40. Katharine Judson, Early days in old Oregon. WHQ 7:324-6 October
1916.
1917
41. The fur trade in northwestern development. In The Pacific
ocean in history: papers and addresses presented at the Panama-
Pacific historical congress held at San Francisco, Berkeley and
Palo Alto, California July 19-23, 1915. New York, Macmillan,
1917, pp. 276-86.
The address was delivered in San Francisco on July 21, 1915.   See
item 31, above.
42. The story of the straits of San Juan de Fuca. Art, historical
and scientific association of Vancouver.   Journal, 1917:32-52.
An address delivered to the association in January, 1911.
43. The Spanish settlement at Nootka.    WHQ 8:163-71 July 1917.
44. Angus McDonald: A few items of the west. WHQ 8:188-229
July 1917.
Edited by Judge Howay in collaboration with William S. Lewis and
Jacob A. Meyers.
Reviews:—
45. J. B. Tyrrell (ed.), David Thompson's Narrative. RHP 21:120-3
1917.
46. Katharine Judson, Early days in old Oregon.   RHP 21:125-6 1917.
*47. Journal of occurrences at Nisqually House, 1834-35.   RHP 21:129-31
1917.
48. Agnes Laut, The Cariboo trail.   RHP 21:132-5 1917.
49. W. H. Collison, In the wake of the war canoe.   RHP 21:135-7 1917.
1918
50. The dog's hair blankets of the coast Salish. WHQ 9:83-92
April 1918.
1919
51. The overland journey of the argonauts of 1862. Royal society
of Canada.   Transactions ser 3, 13, sec. 2:37-55 1919.
Reviews:—
52. H. M. Stephens and H. E. Bolton, The Pacific ocean in history. RHP
22:115-7 1919.
: See item 13, footnote. 1944 F. W. Howay: A Bibliography. 37
53. Joseph Shafer, A history of the Pacific northwest. RHP 22:117-8
1919.
54. W. H. Munro, Tales of an old sea port.   RHP 22:119-21 1919.
*55. T. C. Elliott, David Thompson's journeys in the Spokane country.
RHP 22:121-3 1919.
56. J. W. Bashford, The Oregon missions.   RHP 22:126-8 1919.
*57. Howard Palmer, Early explorations in British Columbia for the
Canadian Pacific railway.   RHP 22:131-2 1919.
1920
58. The attitude of Governor Seymour towards confederation. Royal
society of Canada.   Transactions ser 3, 14, sec. 2:31-49 1920.
59. The voyage of the Hope: 1790-1792. WHQ 11:3-28 January
1920.
Reviews:—
*60. Katharine Judson, The British side of the restoration of Fort Astoria.
CHR 1:216-7 June 1920.
61. House of Assembly correspondence book, August 12th, 1856, to July
6th, 1859.    CHR 1:217-8 June 1920.
*62. F. G. Young, Spain and England's quarrel over the Oregon country.
H. I. Priestley, The log of the Princesa, by Estevan Martinez. CHR
1:405-6 December 1920.
*63. T. C. Elliott, David Thompson's journeys in Idaho. CHR 1:411-2
December 1920.
*64. W. S. Lewis and J. A. Meyers (eds.), Journal of a trip from Fort
Colvile to Fort Vancouver and return in 1828, by John Work. CHR
1:412 December 1920.
♦65. Victor Farrar (ed.), The Nisqually journal. CHR 1:413 December
1920.
1921
66. Governor Musgrave and confederation. Royal society of Canada.
Transactions ser 3, 15, sec. 2:15-31 1921.
67. Two memorable landmarks of British Columbia. Historic landmarks association of Canada.   Annual report 1921:28-30.
68. Fort Langley, historic H.B.C. post in British Columbia. Beaver
2:2-6 November 1921.
69. Authorship of the anonymous account of Captain Cook's last
voyage.   WHQ 12:51-8 January 1921.
70. Captains Gray and Kendrick: the Barrell letters. WHQ 12:
243-71 October 1921.
* See item 13, footnote. 38 F. W. Howay: A Bibliography. January
71. [Historical memorandum on the story of the settlement of the
boundary line between British and American territory west of
the Lake of the Woods.]    WHQ 12:285-7 October 1921.
This memorandum was prepared by Judge Howay (representing
Canada), approved by Prof. E. S. Meany (representing the United
States), and deposited in a receptacle in the Peace portal near Blaine,
Wash., during the dedication ceremonies on September 6, 1921.
72. John Boit's log of the Columbia—1790-1793. OHQ 22:265-351
December 1921.
Edited by Judge Howay in collaboration with T. C. Elliott.
Reviews:—
*73. John Boit, Log of the Columbia, 1790-1792.    John Boit, A new log
of the Columbia.    CHR 2:281-4 September 1921.
*74. J. E. Rees, Oregon—its meaning, origin, and application.   W. H. Gal-
vani, The early explorations and the origin of the name of the Oregon
country.    T. C. Elliott, The strange case of Jonathan Carver and the
name Oregon.    T. C. Elliott, The origin of the name Oregon.    CHR
2:377-8 December 1921.
*75. S. E. Morison, Boston traders in Hawaiian islands, 1789-1823.   CHR
2:378-9 December 1921.
76. C. W. Smith, Pacific northwest Americana: a checklist of books and
pamphlets relating to the history of the Pacific northwest. CHR
2:379-82 December 1921.
77. International boundary commission, Joint report upon the survey and
demarcation of the boundary between the United States and Canada
... through Georgia, Haro, and Juan de Fuca straits to the Pacific
ocean.    CHR 2:382-3 December 1921.
1922
78. The raison d'etre of Forts Yale and Hope. Royal society of
Canada.   Transactions ser 3, 16, sec. 2:49-64 1922.
79. The loss of the Tonquin.   WHQ 13:83-92 April 1922.
80. John Kendrick and his sons.   OHQ 23:277-302 December 1922.
Reviews:—
81. S. E. Morison, Maritime history of Massachusetts, 1783-1860. CHR
3:285-6 September 1922.
*82. Andrew Fish, The last phase of the Oregon boundary question. CHR
3:286-8 September 1922.
83. Alfred Carmichael, Indian legends of Vancouver island. CHR 3:377
December 1922.
1923
84. The earliest pages of the history of British Columbia. British
Columbia historical association. First annual report and proceedings 1923:16-22.
Presidential address delivered October 12, 1923.
' See item 13, footnote. 1944 F. W. Howay: A Bibliography. 39
85. Letters relating to the second voyage of the Columbia. OHQ
24:132-52 June 1923.
Reviews:—
86. C. H. Carey, History of Oregon.    CHR 4:65-7 March 1923.
87. C. L. Andrews, The story of Sitka.    CHR 4:177 June 1923.
88. C. F. Newcombe (ed.), Menzies' journal of Vancouver's voyage, April
to October 1792.    CHR 4:270-2 September 1923.
89. W. S. Lewis and N. Murakami (eds.), Ranald MacDonald. CHR
4:349-50 December 1923.
*90. J. N. Wallace, Early fur trading posts in Alberta.    CHR 4:350-1
December 1923.
1924
91. The early literature of the northwest coast. Royal society of
Canada.   Transactions ser 3, 18, sec. 2:1-31 1924.
Presidential address to Section II., May 1924.   See item 94, below.
92. [Nootka sound.] British Columbia historical association. Second
annual report and proceedings 1924:22-25.
Address delivered at Nootka sound on August 13, 1924, upon the
occasion of the unveiling of the tablet erected by the Historic sites and
monuments board of Canada.
93. The Royal engineers in British Columbia. Corporation of British
Columbia land surveyors. Report of the proceedings of the nineteenth annual general meeting 1924:18-24.
An address delivered before the annual meeting on January 8, 1924.
94. The literature of the early American and English voyages to the
northwest coast. Pacific northwest library association. Proceedings 1924:104-22.
An address delivered before the association on August 27, 1924.
A reprint of item 91, omitting the sections on the literature of the
Spanish and French voyages.
Review:—
95. W. S. Lewis and P. C. Phillips (eds.), The journal of John Work.
CHR 5:66-8 March 1924.
1925
96. A narrative of events in the life of John Bartlett of Boston,
Massachusetts, in the years 1790-1793, during voyages to Canton and the northwest coast of North America. In The sea, the
ship and the sailor. Salem, Mass., Marine research society, 1925,
pp. 287-343.
Notes (pp. 338-43) by Judge Howay.
* See item 13, footnote. 40 F. W. Howay: A Bibliography. January
97. Sir Alexander Mackenzie. British Columbia historical association.   Third annual report and proceedings, 1925:16—9.
Address delivered at Prince George, June 13, 1925, upon the occasion of the unveiling of monument erected by the Historic sites and
monuments board of Canada.
98. [The strait of Juan de Fuca.] British Columbia historical association.   Third annual report and proceedings, 1925:22-8.
Presidential address delivered November 20, 1925.
99. The Royal engineers in British Columbia. Association of professional engineers of the province of British Columbia. Minutes
of the sixth annual general meeting 1925: [11-16].
An address delivered before the association on December 5, 1925.
100. Some additional notes upon Captain Colnett and the Princess
Royal.   OHQ 26:12-22 March 1925.
101. Captain Simon Metcalfe and the brig Eleanora. WHQ 16:114-
21 April 1925.
See item 115, below.
102. Introduction and notes in R. P. Bishop, Mackenzie's rock. Ottawa,
Department of the interior, n.d. [1925]. (Historic site series
no. 6.)   31 pp.
Introduction pp. 5-9.
103. Indian attacks upon maritime traders of the north-west coast,
1785-1805.   CHR 6:287-309 December 1925.
Reviews:—
104. W. W. Woollen, The inside passage to Alaska, 1792-1920. CHR
6:81-4 March 1925.
105. V. L. Denton, The far west coast.   CHR 6:84-5 March 1925.
106. G. H. Anderson, Vancouver and his great voyage. CHR 6:85-6
March 1925.
107. E. I. McCormac, James K. Polk: a political biography. CHR 6:256-7
September 1925.
108. The sea, the ship, and the sailor. Edward Fanning, Voyages and
discoveries in the south seas, 1792-1882. CHR 6:258-9 September
1925.
109. H. B. Restarick, Hawaii, 1778-1920, from the view-point of a bishop.
CHR 6:259 September 1925.
110. C. N. Cochrane, David Thompson.    WHQ 16:62-3 January 1925.
111. C. N. Cochrane, David Thompson.    OHQ 26:52-3 March 1925.
1926
112. The early history of the Fraser river mines. Victoria, King's
Printer, 1926. (Archives of British Columbia, memoir no. VI.)
Pp. xvii, 126. 1944 F. W. Howay: A Bibliography. 41
113. Discovery of the north west coast.   Canadian historical association.   Report of the annual meeting 1926:88-94.
114. An early account of the loss of the Boston in 1803.    WHQ
17:280-88 October 1926.
115. Captain Simon Metcalfe and the brig Eleanora.   HHS Thirty-
fourth annual report 1925:33-9 1926.
For a revised version   (written later, though printed earlier)  see
item 101, above.
Reviews:—
116. H. Glynn-Ward, The glamour of British Columbia.    CHR 7:259-60
September 1926.
117. B. A. McKelvie, Early history of the province of British Columbia.
CHR 7:352-3 December 1926.
118. Agnes Laut, The blazed trail of the old frontier.   CHR 7:353—4
December 1926.
119. R. L. Reid, The assay office and proposed mint at New Westminster.
CHR 7:354-5 December 1926.
1927
120. British Columbia's entry into confederation.   Canadian historical
association.   Report of the annual meeting 1927:67-73.
121. Early followers of Captain Gray.   WHQ 18:11-20 January 1927.
Reviews:—
122. J. W. Robertson, The harbor of St. Francis.    CHR 8:66-7 March
1927.
123. George Gilbert, The death of Captain Cook.    CHR 8:70 March 1927.
124. W. B. Cameron, The war trail of Big Bear.    CHR 8:76-6 March
1927.
125. N.  L.  Ward,  Oriental missions in  British  Columbia.    CHR  8:82
March 1927.
126. Charles Moser, Reminiscences of the west coast of Vancouver island.
CHR 8:168-9 June 1927.
127. J. N. Wallace, The passes of the Rocky mountains along the Alberta
boundary.    CHR 8:341-2 December 1927.
128. Denys Nelson, Fort Langley, 1827-1927.    CHR 8:342-3 December
1927.
129. Arthur  Anstey,  The  romance  of  British  Columbia.    CHR  8:343
December 1927.
♦130. W. F. Wilson and W. A. Wall, The place of Captain Cook's death.
T. G. Thrum, The paehumu of heiaus non-sacred. S. W. Phillips,
The death of Captain Cook. George Gilbert, Captain Cook's first
visit to the Hawaiian islands. CHR 8:356-7 December 1927.
131. George Gilbert, The death of Captain James Cook. WHQ 18:66
January 1927.
* See item 13, footnote. 42 F. W. Howay: A Bibliography. January
132. W. B. Cameron, The war trail of Big Bear. WHQ 18:68-9 January.
1927.
133. Walter Moberley, The rocks and rivers of British Columbia. WHQ
18:69-70 January 1927.
134. Twenty years of York Factory, 1694-1714: Jeremie's account of
Hudson strait and bay.    WHQ 18:70-1 January 1927.
135. Charles Moser, Reminiscences of the west coast of Vancouver island.
WHQ 18:141 April 1927.
1928
136. British Columbia, the making of a province. Toronto, Ryerson
press, 1928.   Pp. ix, 289.
137. An identification of Sir Alexander Mackenzie's Fort Fork. Royal
society of Canada.   Transactions ser 3, 22, sec. 2:165-74 1928.
138. [Sir George Simpson's westward journey in 1828.] In Sir
George Simpson centennial celebration, 1928:15-8.
Bears legend: "Published by the Hudson's Bay Company, November, 1928." An address delivered at Fort St. James on September 17,
1928.
139. [Sir George Simpson.] In Sir George Simpson centennial celebration, 1928:39-47.
Bears legend: "Published by the Hudson's Bay Company, November, 1928." An address delivered at the unveiling of a tablet erected
by the Historic sites and monuments board of Canada, Simpson pass,
September 20, 1928.
140. The trading voyages of the Atahualpa. WHQ 19:3-12 January
1928.
141. A ballad of the northwest fur trade. New England quarterly
1:71-9 January 1928.
For another version see item 152, below.
Reviews:—
142. Carl Wheat, Ned, the ubiquitous: soldier of fortune, par excellence:
being the further narrative of Edward McGowan. CHR 9:77-8
March 1928.
143. Tom McInnes, Oriental occupation of British Columbia. CHR 9:80-1
March 1928.
*144. W. F. Wilson and W. A. Wall, The place of Captain Cook's death.
T. G. Thrum, The paehumu of heiaus non-sacred. S. W. Phillips,
The death of Captain Cook. George Gilbert, Captain Cook's first
visit to the Hawaiian islands.    WHQ 19:64 January 1928.
145. J. N. Wallace, The passes of the Rocky mountains along the Alberta
boundary.    WHQ 19:66 January 1928.
146. Arthur Anstey, The romance of British Columbia. WHQ 19:66-7
January 1928.
147. C. N. Bell, The old forts of Winnipeg, 1788-1927. WHQ 19:68-9
January 1928.
' See item 13, footnote. 1944 F. W. Howay: A Bibliography. 43
1929
148. Builders of the west, a book of heroes. Toronto, Ryerson press,
1929.    Pp. v, 251.
149. The Dixon-Meares controversy. Toronto, Ryerson press, 1929.
(Canadian historical studies series.)    Pp. xv, 156.
The text of the various statements by John Meares and George
Dixon, edited with an introduction and notes by Judge Howay. Issued
in an edition limited to 500 numbered copies.
150. Potatoes. Records of some early transactions at Fort Simpson,
B.C. Beaver outfit 259:155-6 March 1929.
151. A short historical sketch of Jasper park region. Sierra club
bulletin 14:28-33 February 1929.
152. The ballad of the bold northwestman: an incident in the life of
Captain John Kendrick.   WHQ 20:114-23 April 1929.
For another version see item 141, above.
153. Voyages of Kendrick and Gray in 1787-90. OHQ 30:89-94 June
1929.
154. Voyages of the Jenny to Oregon, 1792-94. OHQ 30:197-206
September 1929.
155. Hawaii and the Pacific northwest. In A. P. Taylor, Sesquicen-
tennial celebration of Captain Cook's discovery of Hawaii (1778-
1928), Honolulu, 1929, pp. 30-1.
Summary of an address delivered on August 17, 1928. For the
complete text see item 175, below. Judge Howay attended the celebration as the representative of the Government of Canada.
Reviews:—
156. H. E. Bolton, Fray Juan Crespi.    CHR 10:60 March 1929.
157. A. S. Deaville, The colonial postal systems and postage stamps of
Vancouver island and British Columbia, 1849-1871. CHR 10:77-8
March 1929.
158. James Wickersham, A bibliography of Alaskan literature, 1724-1924.
CHR 10:79-80 March 1929.
159. James Strange's journal and narrative.    CHR 10:166-7 June 1929.
160.' E. Laveille, Le P. De Smet.    CHR 10:167-8 June 1929.
161. N. de B. Lugrin, The pioneer women of Vancouver island, 1843-1866.
CHR 10:168-9 June 1929.
162. Bernice Judd, Voyages to Hawaii before 1860. CHR 10:169 June
1929.
163. Lewis McArthur, Oregon geographic names. CHR 10:169-70 June
1929.
164. Bibliography of Captain James Cook. CHR 10:264-5 September
1929.
165. Lukin Johnston, Beyond the Rockies. CHR 10:269-70 September
1929. 44 F. W. Howay: A Bibliography. January
1930
166. Zimmermann's Captain Cook . . . translated by Elsa Michaelis
and Cecil French. Toronto, Ryerson press, 1930. (Canadian
historical studies series.)    Pp. xvii, 120.
Edited with an introduction and notes by Judge Howay. Introduction, pp. 1-15. Foreword (pp. xi-xiv) by Lome Pierce. Issued in an
edition limited to 500 numbered copies.
167. The settlement and progress of British Columbia, 1871-1914.
In The Cambridge History of the British Empire, Cambridge,
1930, 6:548-65.
168. A list of trading vessels in maritime fur trade, 1785-1794. Royal
society of Canada.    Transactions ser 3, 24, sec. 2:111-34 1930.
The first of a series of five papers in which Judge Howay listed
trading vessels known to have participated in the maritime fur trade
between 1785 and 1825.   See items 184, 195, 207 and 217 below.
169. Crowfoot: the great chief of the Blackfeet. Canadian historical
association.   Report of the annual meeting 1930:107-11.
170. Some notes upon Captain Robert Gray. WHQ 21:8-12 January
1930.
Written in collaboration with Albert Matthews.
171. A Yankee trader on the northwest coast, 1791-1795. WHQ
21:83-94 April 1930.
172. The attempt to capture the brig Otter. WHQ 21:179-88 July
1930.
173. Some notes on Cook's and Vancouver's ships, 1776-80, 1791-95.
WHQ 21:268-70 October 1930.
174. The ship Margaret: her history and historian. HHS Thirty-
eighth annual report 1929:34-40 1930.
175. Early relations between the Hawaiian islands and the northwest
coast. In A. P. Taylor and R. S. Kuykendall (eds.), The
Hawaiian islands, Honolulu, 1930, pp. 11-21. (Publications of
the archives of Hawaii no. 5.)
See item 155, above.
Reviews:—
176. G. E. Nunn, Origin of the strait of Anian concept. CHR 11:158-9
June 1930.
177. A. P. Taylor, Sesquicentennial celebration of Captain Cook's discovery
of Hawaii (1778-1928).    CHR 11:159-60 June 1930.
178. Barrett Willoughby, Sitka: portal of romance. CHR 11:171 June
1930.
179. British Columbia historical association, Fourth report and proceedings.    CHR 11:178-9 June 1930.
180. H. R. Wagner, Spanish voyages to the northwest coast of America in
the sixteenth century.    CHR 11:256-7 September 1930.
181. H. W. Clark, History of Alaska.    CHR 11:354-5 December 1930. 1944 F. W. Howay: A Bibliography. 45
182. J. N. Wallace, The wintering partners on Peace river. WHQ 21:62-3
January 1930.
183. H. R. Wagner, Spanish voyages to the northwest coast of America in
the sixteenth century.    WHQ 21:142-3 April 1930.
1931
184. A list of trading vessels in the maritime fur trade, 1795-1804.
Royal society of Canada. Transactions ser 3, 25, sec. 2:117-49
1931.
See item 168, above, and items 195, 207, and 217 below.
185. Dictionary of American biography. New York, Scribner, 20
vols., 1928-36. Articles: Robert Gray 7:522-3 1931; Joseph
Ingraham 9:478-9 1932;  John Kendrick 10:329 1933.
Reviews:—
186. Joseph Carruthers, Captain James Cook.    CHR 12:72-3 March 1931.
187. W. N. Sage, Sir James Douglas and British Columbia. CHR 12:73-5
March 1931.
188. I. E. Mackay, Indian nights.    CHR 12:100 March 1931.
♦189. H. R. Wagner (ed.), Fray Benito de la Sierra's account of the Hezeta
expedition to the northwest coast in 1775.    CHR 12:198-9 June 1931.
190. Cecil Jane (ed.), A Spanish voyage to Vancouver and the north-west
coast of America.    CHR 12:200-1 June 1931.
191. George Godwin, Vancouver, a life, 1757-1798. CHR 12:310-12 September 1931.
192. A. A. Gray, F. P. Farquhar, and W. S. Lewis, Camels in western
America.   CHR 12:334-6 September 1931.
193. W. N. Sage, Sir James Douglas and British Columbia. WHQ 22:146-7
April 1931.
1932
194. Captain George Vancouver. Toronto, Ryerson press, 1932. 32
pp.    (The Ryerson Canadian history readers.)
195. A list of trading vessels in the maritime fur trade, 1805-1814.
Royal society of Canada. Transactions ser 3, 26, sec. 2:43-86
1932.
See items 168, 184 above, and items 207 and 217 below.
196. An outline sketch of the maritime fur trade. Canadian historical association.   Report of the annual meeting 1932:5-14.
Presidential address  delivered before the association  on  May 24,
1932.
197. Important Hudson's Bay company document. WHQ 23:35-6
January 1932.
198. Maclauries' Travels through America: a pirated account of Sir
Alexander Mackenzie's Voyages.    WHQ 23:83-7 April 1932.
* See item 13, footnote. 46 F. W. Howay: A Bibliography. January
199. To the Fraser river! The diary and letters of Cyrus Olin Phillips, 1858-1859. California historical society quarterly 11:150-
56 June 1932.
Edited with an introduction and notes by Judge Howay.
Reviews:—
200. M. S. Wade, The overlanders of '62.    CHR 13:81 March 1932.
*201. J. F. G. Stokes, Iron with the early Hawaiians.    Japanese account of
the first recorded visit of shipwrecked Japanese to Hawaii. H. B.
Restarick, Delano's account of the shipwrecked Japanese and comments on the Japanese narrative.    CHR 13: 82 March 1932.
202. C. W. Smith, A union list of manuscripts in libraries of the Pacific
northwest.    CHR 13:82-3 March 1932.
203. Frederick Merk (ed.), Fur trade and empire: George Simpson's
journal.    CHR 13:208-9 June 1932.
204. H. R. Wagner, The last Spanish exploration of the northwest coast,
and the attempt to colonize Bodega bay.    CHR 13:214 June 1932.
205. G. W. Fuller, A history of the Pacific northwest. CHR 13:326-7
September 1932.
206. M. M. Quaife (ed.), Alexander Mackenzie's voyage to the Pacific
ocean in 1793.    WHQ 23:154 April 1932.
1933
207. A list of trading vessels in the maritime fur trade, 1815-1819.
Royal society of Canada. Transactions ser 3, 27, sec. 2:119-47
1933.
See items 168, 184, 195 above, and item 217 below.
208. David Thompson's account of his first attempt to cross the
Rockies.    Queen's quarterly 40:333-56 August 1933.
209. About that "valuable manuscript." WHQ 24:25-7 January
1933.
210. A short account of Robert Haswell.    WHQ 24:83-90 April 1933.
211. Captain Cornelius Sowle on the Pacific ocean. WHQ 24:243-9
October 1933.
212. The Resolution on the Oregon coast, 1793-94. OHQ 34:207-15
September 1933.
213. Brig Owhyhee in the Columbia, 1827. OHQ 34:324-9 December
1933.
214. The last days of the Atahualpa, alias Behring. HHS Forty-first
annual report 1932:70-80 1933.
Reviews:—
215. E. W. Gilbert, The exploration of western America, 1800-1850. CHR
14:341-2 September 1933.
216. Charles Nordhoff and J. N. Hall, The mutiny on the " Bounty." CHR
14:450 December 1933.
* See item 13, footnote. 1944 F. W. Howay: A Bibliography. 47
1934
217. A list of trading vessels in the maritime fur trade, 1820-1825.
Royal society of Canada. Transactions ser 3, 28, sec. 2:11-49
1934.
The last of the series of five papers listing trading vessels known
to have participated in the maritime fur trade between 1785 and 1825.
See items 168, 184, 195, and 207, above.
218. The brig Owhyhee in the Columbia, 1829-30. OHQ 35:10-21
March 1934.
•219. Authorship of Traits of Indian life.    OHQ 35:42-9 March 1934.
220. The ship Eliza at Hawaii in 1799.    HHS Forty-second annual
report 1933:103-13 1934.
Reviews:—
221. H. R. Wagner, Spanish explorations in the strait of Juan de Fuca.
CHR 15:74-5 March 1934.
222. Traits of American Indian life and character. (Grabhorn press edition.)    CHR 15:88-9 March 1934.
223. W. W. Spinks, Tales of the British Columbia frontier. CHR 15:89
March 1934.
224. H. E. Bolton (ed.), Font's complete diary. CHR 15:310-11 September 1934.
225. Nellie Pipes (ed.), The Memorial of John Meares to the House of
Commons respecting the capture of vessels in Nootka sound. CHR
15:311-2 September 1934.
226. E. O. Essig, Adele Ogden, and C. J. DuFour, The Russians in California.    CHR 15:426 December 1934.
227. Charles Nordhoff and J. N. Hall, Mutiny on the "Bounty." WHQ
35:65-7 January 1934.
1935
228. The Encyclopedia of Canada. Toronto, University associates of
Canada, 6 vols., 1935-37. Articles: British Columbia 1:286-91
1935;  Salish 5:341-2 1937;  Sekani 5:371 1937.
229. The negro immigration into Vancouver island in 1858. Royal
society of Canada.    Transactions ser 3, 29, sec. 2:145-56 1935.
See item 250, below.
Review:—
230. M. S. Sullivan, The travels of Jedediah Smith. CHR 16:85-6 March
1935.
1936
Reviews:—
231. William Shaler, Journal of a voyage between China and the north
western coast of America made in 1804.    CHR 17:206-7 June 1936.
232. W. S. Wallace (ed.), Documents relating to the North West company.
PNQ 27:78-80 January 1936. 48 F. W. How ay: A Bibliography. January
233. M. Q. Innis, An economic history of Canada.   PNQ 27:272-3 July
1936.
234. E. A. Cruickshank, The political adventures of John Henry.   PNQ
27:397-8 October 1936.
1937
235. Early  shipping  in  Burrard  inlet  1863-1870.   BCHQ  1:3-20
January 1937.
236. Early settlement on Burrard inlet.    BCHQ 1:101-14 April 1937.
237. The Royal engineers in British Columbia—1858-1863.   Engineering journal 20:17-23 January 1937.
An address delivered at the Western professional meeting of the
Engineering institute of Canada, July 11, 1934.
238. The Caroline and the Hancock at Hawaii in 1799.   HHS Forty-
fifth annual report 1936:25-9 1937.
Reviews:—
239. Douglas MacKay, The honourable company.    BCHQ 1: 62-3 January
1937.
240. Gordon Campbell, Captain James Cook.    CHR 18:440-41 December
1937.
1938
241. Stephen Reynolds, The voyage of the "New Hazard."   Salem,
Mass., Peabody Museum, 1938.    Pp. xxii, 158.
Edited with an introduction and notes by Judge Howay.
242. British Columbia brigade trails.    Beaver outfit 269:48-51 June
1938.
243. The ship Pearl in Hawaii in 1805 and 1806.. HHS Forty-sixth
annual report 1937:27-38 1938.
244. Letters concerning voyages of British vessels to the northwest
coast of America, 1787-1809.    OHQ 39:307-13 September 1938.
Reviews:—
245. H. R. Wagner, The cartography of the northwest coast of America
to the year 1800.    BCHQ 2:223-30 July 1938.
246. V. J.  Farrar, The annexation of Russian America to the  United
States.    CHR 19:76 March 1938.
247. H. R. Wagner, The cartography of the northwest coast of America
to the year 1800.    CHR 19:320-22 September 1938.
1939
248. The journal of Captain James Colnett, 1789.    Royal society of
Canada.    Transactions ser 3, 33, sec. 2:91-102 1939.
249. An   early  colonization   scheme   in   British   Columbia.    BCHQ
3:51-63 January 1939. 1944 F. W. Howay: A Bibliography. 49
250. The negro immigration into Vancouver island in 1858. BCHQ
3:101-13 April 1939.
Item 229, above, reprinted.
251. Building the big canoes. Beaver outfit 270:38-42 December
1939.
252. Captain Henry Barber of Barber's point. HHS Forty-seventh
annual report 1938:39-49 1939.
253. A great boat voyage across the Pacific. Paradise of the Pacific
51:7, 30 February 1939.
Reviews:—
254. E. E. Rich (ed.), Journal of occurrences in the Athabasca department
by George Simpson.    BCHQ 3:143-6 April 1939.
255. Alexander Laing (ed.), The life and adventures of John Nicol, mariner.    CHR 20:220 June 1939.
256. C. L. Andrews, The story of Alaska.    CHR 20:227-8 June 1939.
257. Archie Shiels, The San Juan islands.    CHR 20:335 September 1939.
1940
258. The journal of Captain James Colnett aboard the "Argonaut"
from April 26, 1789 to Nov. 3, 1791. Toronto, The Champlain
society, 1940.    Pp. xxxi, 328.
259. Coal-mining on Burrard inlet, 1865-66. BCHQ 4:1-20 January
1940.
260. The discovery of the Fraser river: the second phase. BCHQ
4:245-51 October 1940.
261. Some national historic sites in western Canada. Canadian geographical journal 21:206-11 October 1940.
Offprints of this article, with cover, were issued as a separate publication by the Department of mines and resources, National parks
bureau, Ottawa, in 1941.
262. Some notes on Robert Haswell. Massachusetts historical society.
Proceedings 65:592-600 1940.
A paper read before the society on May 14, 1936.
Review:—
263. J. R. Muir, The life and achievements of Captain James Cook. Hugh
Carrington, Life of Captain Cook.    CHR 21:325-7 September 1940.
1941
264. Voyages of the "Columbia" to the northwest coast 1787-1790
and 1790-1793. Boston, Massachusetts historical society, 1941.
Pp. xxxiv, 518. (Massachusetts historical society Collections,
79.)
Edited with an introduction and notes by Judge Howay. 50 F. W. Howay: A Bibliography. January
265. The case of the Moneta. An incident in the story of Burrard
inlet.    BCHQ 5:185-90 July 1941.
266. The voyage of the Captain Cook and the Experiment, 1785-86.
BCHQ 5:285-96 October 1941.
267. The first use of the sail by the Indians of the northwest coast.
American Neptune 1:374-80 October 1941.
268. Douglas day, the birthday of British Columbia.   4 pp.
Leaflet written for the Native sons of British Columbia, post no. 4,
New Westminster, and distributed in the schools of the city on November 19, 1941.
Reviews:—
269. W. P. Morrell, The gold rushes.    CHR 22:205-6 June 1941.
270. J. J. Woods, History and development of the Agassiz-Harrison valley.
BCHQ 5:240 July 1941.
1942
271. British Columbia and the United States. The north Pacific slope
from fur trade to aviation. Toronto, Ryerson press, 1942. Pp.
xv, 408.    (The relations of Canada and the United States.)
Written in collaboration with W. N. Sage and H. F. Angus; edited
by H. F. Angus.
272. International aspects of the maritime fur-trade. Royal society
of Canada.    Transactions ser 3, 36:59-78 1942.
Presidential address read before the general session of the Soyal
society of Canada on May 28, 1942.
273. Four letters from Richard Cadman Etches to Sir Joseph Banks,
1788-92.    BCHQ 6:125-39 April 1942.
274. The introduction of intoxicating liquors amongst the Indians of
the northwest coast.    BCHQ 6:157-69 July 1942.
A paper read before section II. of the Royal society of Canada,
May 1942.
275. The origin of the Chinook jargon. BCHQ 6:225-50 October
1942.
See item 281, below.
276. Vancouver's brig Chatham in the Columbia. OHQ 43:318-27
December 1942.
Written in collaboration with T. C. Elliott.
Reviews:—
277. Hunter Miller (ed.), Northwest water boundary. BCHQ 6:152-3
April 1942.
278. H. R. Wagner, Bullion to books.   BCHQ 6:215 July 1942.
279. H. R. Wagner, Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo. American Neptune 2:258-9
July 1942. 1944 F. W. Howay: A Bibliography. 51
1943
280. Thompson Coit Elliott (1862-1943): a tribute.    BCHQ 7:197-8
July 1943.
281. Origin of the Chinook jargon on the north west coast.    OHQ
44:27-55 March 1943.
A reprinting of item 275, above.
282. Thompson Coit Elliott, 1862-1943:   a tribute.    OHQ 44:229-31
September 1943.
Reviews:—
283. Hunter  Miller, San Juan archipelago.    CHR  24:316-7  September
1943.
284. J. A. James, The first scientific exploration of Russian America and
the purchase of Alaska.    CHR 24:317-8 September 1943.
1944
285. William  Sturgis,  The  northwest  fur  trade.    BCHQ  8:11-25
January 1944.
Edited with an introduction and notes by Judge Howay.
286. Some lengthy open-boat voyages in the Pacific ocean.    American
Neptune 4:53-7 January 1944. JOHN NUGENT:  THE IMPERTINENT
ENVOY.*
"Meddling with what is beyond one's province; intrusive,
presumptuous; insolent or saucy in speech or behaviour "—such
is the meaning; of the word " impertinent," according to the
Oxford English Dictionary. So aptly does this describe the attitude and activities of John Nugent, Special Agent of the United
States Government to Vancouver Island and British Columbia,
that the compilers might well have had him in mind when writing the definition.
Nugent's mission arose out of the gold-rush of 1858. Nothing
in Canadian history quite parallels the condition in which British
Columbia found itself in the course of that memorable year, and
the background of Nugent's visit was therefore as unusual as his
conception of the proper conduct of a special envoy.
Vancouver Island had for some years been organized as a
Crown Colony, complete with governor, council, legislature, and
judiciary; but all of these were connected in one way or another
with the Hudson's Bay Company. It could scarcely be otherwise, for the island itself had been handed over to the Company,
James Douglas was both Governor of the Colony and Chief Factor of the Company, and practically all the residents, whether
in the capital, Victoria, or in the little coal-mining town of
Nanaimo, were employees of the Company. As for the mainland, the outside world knew little about it except that it had
become British territory under the terms of the boundary settlement of 1846. On maps of the day it was named—if it was
named at all—" New Caledonia." In it there was not even the
shadow of a government. The Hudson's Bay Company enjoyed
the exclusive right to trade with the Indians within its boundaries, and no other trade existed within the area. The only settlements were the Company's trading-posts, and even these were
few and far between.    This state of affairs had continued for so
* I am greatly indebted to Mr. Willard E. Ireland for his kindness in
placing at my disposal extensive notes based upon documents in the Archives
of the Department of Statef, Washington, D.C, and upon the files of British
and American newspapers.
British Columbia Historical Quarterly, Vol. VIII., No. 1.
53 54 Robie L. Reid. January
long that the very officers of the Company had come to believe
that all trade, whether or not it concerned the Indians, was
exclusively theirs.
Suddenly word came to the world that gold had been discovered on the mainland, in the bars of the Fraser River. The first
adventurers to come in search of it were mostly from near-by
Washington Territory and Oregon, but they were few in number
compared with those who came from farther south. Miners in
California were particularly attracted, for the rich goldfields in
that State were becoming exhausted and they were looking for
new deposits elsewhere. The vanguard of the California miners
left San Francisco, 450 strong, in the steamer Commodore, on
April 20, 1858. By the middle of August some twenty-five to
thirty thousand persons had followed them. Many of these had
to remain for a time in Victoria, until the flood-waters of the
Fraser subsided. With few exceptions the newcomers were
orderly and law-abiding; those who were not were dealt with
promptly by the officials of the little Crown Colony of Vancouver
Island. The good behaviour of the majority has been attributed
to the Californians; but it must always be remembered that
many of the latter had come originally from the British Isles,
or from British colonies in America, Australia, or elsewhere.
They had been brought up to recognize the meaning of the words,
" The King's Peace," or, as it was in 1858, " The Queen's Peace."
On Vancouver Island, where an organized government existed, the task of maintaining law and order thus proved relatively simple. The great problem was how to preserve it on the
mainland. With the coming of the gold-seekers it became ap-
< parent that steps must be taken, and taken without delay, to
administer this hitherto derelict land and police it in the interests both of the miners themselves and the British Crown.
Equally obvious was the fact that this could not be done without
money; yet how was revenue to be raised in an unorganized
territory?
The task of wrestling with these problems fell to the lot of
James Douglas. As Governor of Vancouver Island he was the
only representative of the Crown within several thousand miles
of the Fraser River, and he felt duty bound to do his utmost to
safeguard British interests.    True, his jurisdiction as Governor 1944 John Nugent. 55
did not extend to the mainland; but his position as Chief Factor
gave him control of the Hudson's Bay Company's posts and
activities there.1 By judicious exaggeration of his authority
both as Governor and Chief Factor, Douglas hoped to gain the
upper hand and retain control until such time as news of the
gold-rush could reach London and the British Government could
take suitable steps in the matter. This the Government did with
all dispatch; but owing to the slowness of communication and
other causes the measure establishing the new Colony of British
Columbia, on the mainland, did not receive the Royal Assent
until August 2, and the Colony was not actually proclaimed at
Fort Langley until November 19, 1858. For the better part of
six months Douglas was thus left largely to his own devices.
He had the backing of the Hudson's Bay Company and its employees, and could count upon the support of the few ships of
the Royal Navy that were stationed at Esquimalt. Boldly exceeding his powers, he appointed Justices of the Peace, Revenue
Officers, Gold Commissioners, and Commissioners of Crown
Lands for the mainland. To raise money he compelled would-be
miners to purchase licences, and required every vessel entering
the Fraser to secure a " sufference," for which a fee was charged.
In many instances, either for convenience or from necessity, he
made use of the Hudson's Bay Company to collect these levies.
Inevitably, many of the miners jumped to the conclusion that
the Company was pocketing the fees. The records make it quite
clear, however, that at no time did Douglas personally or the
Company benefit financially. On July 1, 1858, for example,
Douglas reported to the Colonial Secretary that a total of 2,525
miners' licences had been issued to date, and added:—
. . . We have thereby collected the sum of 12,625 dollars on account of
the territorial Revenue, which I hold subject to your instructions.2
In other important respects, however, Douglas did overstep
the mark, due to his belief that all trade on the mainland, and
not merely trade with the Indians, had been handed over to
(1) Douglas may have had in mind the fact that the Company had been
granted its charter by the Crown, and that recognition of its authority
would therefore constitute, to some degree, recognition of the authority of
the Crown itself.
(2) Papers Relative to the Affairs of British Columbia. Part I., London, 1859, p. 19.    (Douglas to Stanley, July 1, 1858.) 56 Robie L. Reid. January
the Hudson's Bay Company by the Crown. Acting upon that
assumption, he attempted at first to limit imports to goods controlled by the Company; to make vessels purchase a licence
from the Company in addition to the official sufferance before
mentioned; and to compel miners to pay head-money to the
Company. These measures were disallowed by the Colonial
Secretary as soon as he heard of them; and even before word
of his action had been received, Douglas had found that the
regulations were impracticable and had cancelled or greatly
modified them. In their place he had substituted an ad valorem
duty of 10 per cent, upon all foreign goods destined for the mainland. The proceeds, he informed the Colonial Secretary, went
not to the Hudson's Bay Company, but were " to be exclusively
applied to the service of Her Majesty's Government, and to meet
the expenses of governing Fraser's River."8
Douglas's comment upon the action of the Colonial Secretary
in repudiating his policy deserves quotation in part:—
I observe . . . from your Despatch [of July 16, 1858], that the rights
of trade made over to the Hudson's Bay Company are limited to the trade
with the Indian tribes.
We have always hitherto given a more extended application to those
rights, believing, from the circumstance of the country being inhabited by
Indians alone, and from its not being open for settlement to white men,
that the intention of Parliament in granting the licence was to make over
the whole trade of the country to the Hudson's Bay Company.*
No doubt many will be suspicious of Douglas's motives; the
writer, for one, believes that he acted in good faith. But whether
he did or not, the clamour to which his policy had given rise
spread far and wide. The majority of the miners came from
the United States, and most of them had been forced to pay a,
levy of some kind which they suspected had found its way into
the coffers of the Hudson's Bay Company. No amount of explanation (and Douglas was not adept at explaining matters to
the populace) could change their opinion that they had been
mulcted of their money for the Company's benefit. Nor did the
new ad valorem duty meet with greater favour. In November,
1858, a correspondent whose name we do not know warned Doug-
(3) Ibid., p. 35.    (Douglas to Lytton, September 9, 1858.)
(4) Ibid., p. 36.    (Douglas to Lytton, September 30, 1858.) 1944 John Nugent. 57
las that elaborate briefs against the duty were being prepared
amongst the miners on the Fraser:—
They contain a list of the names of the principal payers of this tax, together
with the total amount collected up to the 1st November, states [sic] that a
subordinate official proclaimed the 10 per cent to be a crown duty but that
they (the petitioners) are well informed to the contrary. That it is collected by and for the Hudson's Bay Company and in proof of this it is
asserted that it is collected at the Company's office, and not at the Custom
House.B
On the margin of this letter Douglas noted that the duty
" was, when first levied, received by the agent of the Hudson's
Bay Company, but simply for the reason that there was no other
person, whom I chose to trust with the money." This was perfectly true; but the facts, even if they could have been widely
publicized, would have made little impression in view of the
temper of the time. Douglas's attempt to monopolize trade on
behalf of the Company, though quickly abandoned, had made too
deep and unfavourable an impression. Months after they had
been cancelled his/ regulations were being reprinted and discussed
in the American press.
On the whole, however, the more responsible newspapers in
both Washington Territory and California took a surprisingly
lenient view of the situation. Thus in June, 1858, the Steilacoom
Puget Sound Herald advised the miners to take a conciliatory
attitude until the doubts about the rights of the Hudson's Bay
Company could be cleared up, and went so far as to remark that
the Company could not be blamed for defending its rights, if
such they were.6 The Olympia Pioneer and Democrat took much
the same attitude.7 The San Francisco Evening Bulletin stated
that it was not prepared to say whether or not Douglas was exceeding his powers; the question was one between the British
Government and the Hudson's Bay Company, and would be settled in due course. It was confident that any exactions found
to have been wrongfully imposed would be made good. Taking
a longer-term view, the Bulletin continued:—
American individuals going abroad should carefully respect the authority
that exists de facto wherever they may happen to sojourn.   .   .   .   Let us
(5) Douglas to Lytton, January 5, 1859, enclosure No. 1. Copy in
Public Record Office transcripts, Provincial Archives.
(6) Puget Sound Herald, June 18, 1858.
(7) See the issue of July 2, 1858. 58 Robie L. Redd. January
rather submit to the temporary annoyance of Governor Douglas' restrictive
policy, than awaken prejudices against ourselves which may permanently
injure us, by attempts to evade or resist it.8
The Bulletin's faith that the British Government would put
things right was shared by the Alta California. While convinced
that the " exactions " were illegal and unauthorized, it counselled
obedience, and was confident that the authorities in London
would act when they were in possession of the facts.9
A much more extreme view of the situation was taken in
official circles. As early as May 18, 1858, Governor Isaac
Stevens, of the Territory of Washington, protested hotly to the
United States Government against the " impositions" that
Douglas was trying to enforce against American citizens bound
for the Fraser River mines. He challenged Douglas's authority
in the matter, pointing out (quite correctly) that, so far as he
knew, Douglas had no jurisdiction " over the country in question, called New Caledonia, save that derived from his position
as Chief Factor in the Hudson's Bay Company."10 Stevens
pressed his point in letter after letter, and on July 21 forwarded
to Washington a twenty-nine-page dispatch intended
to exhibit . . . the enormity and absolute illegality of the impositions
placed upon the citizens of the United States by the British authorities
assuming to exercise jurisdiction over the whole Territory in which the
late gold discoveries have been made, and to ask the interposition of the
Government on behalf of our citizens seeking to enter that Territory.il
Stevens's conception of the facts of the matter was as exaggerated as his feelings, for he went on to estimate that the revenue
that Douglas would derive from miners' licences would amount
to $2,400,000 a year, and that the Hudson's Bay Company would
receive $14,000,000 per annum from its exclusive trade in supplies. These " exactions," he insisted, " had been imposed without any legal authority which should be respected by the citizens
or government of the United  States."12    Ten  days  later he
(8) Evening Bulletin, San Francisco, June 3, 1858.
(9) Alta California, San Francisco, July 7, 1858.
(10) Stevens to Hon. Lewis Cass, Secretary of State, May 18, 1858.
In Miscellaneous Letters to the Department of State; Archives, Department
of State, Washington.
(11) Stevens to Cass, July 21, 1858.    Ibid.
(12) See Hazard Stevens, The Life of Isaac Ingalls Stevens, Boston,
1900, I., pp. 281-82. 1944 John Nugent. 59
returned again to the charge, and urged that the United States
Government should
interpose with the British authorities for the removal of the restrictions
above referred to. And I further request that this government demand the
repayment of all sums collected by the Governor of Vancouver Island for
licenses to dig gold, and that it make reclamation for the value of all
cargoes and vessels confiscated.13
A plea of a different sort came from Governor Weiler, of
California, who not only questioned Douglas's authority, but was
fearful that his policy would lead to serious trouble. In June,
1858, he wrote to President Buchanan:—
As there is no Government in that Territory, other than that established
by the Hudson's Bay Company, I fear very much that the extraordinary
powers assumed by Governor Douglas will involve us in difficulties. The
citizens of California who are now emigrating to that Territory have lost
none of their hatred of tyrannic rule which characterized their ancestors,
and it is therefore probable, his exactions will meet with determined
resistance.!*
As a result of these and other urgings, the United States
Government decided to send a Special Agent to the Fraser River
mines to investigate the state of affairs there, and to report to
the President. The man selected for this important mission was
John Nugent, of San Francisco, an Irish-born journalist who had
been personally known to President Buchanan years before,
when the one had been Secretary of State during the Polk administration and the other the Washington correspondent of the
New York Herald. Nugent had subsequently gone to California,
where he had been Clerk of the first State Legislature and later
publisher and editor of the highly successful San Francisco
Herald. He was a supporter of the first Vigilance Committee
in 1851 and joined the special police in 1852. Some years later,
however, he began to associate with the celebrated Ned McGowan.
Completely misjudging public opinion, he opposed the revival
of the Vigilance Committee in 1856, following the murder of
James King of William. This caused the business-men of San
Francisco to withdraw their advertising from the Herald, which
entered upon a decline from which it never recovered.
(13) Pioneer and Democrat, Olympia, September 24, 1858.
(14) Governor M. B. Weiler to President Buchanan, June 6, 1858. In
Miscellaneous Letters to the Department of State; Archives, Department
of State, Washington. 60 Robie L. Reid. January
Nugent had a singular ability to acquire both friends and
enemies, a trait that was commented upon in an article published
some time after his death:—
Impatient of opposition and imperious in controversy, he was led into personal difficulties which three times brought him on the " field of honor "—
with John Cotter, who seriously wounded him in the left thigh, with Edward
Gilbert, who retracted the offensive article on the field, and with Thomas
Hayes, who shot him in the upper right arm . . . And yet he was the
most genial of friends, the truest and firmest in his friendships. As a foe
he was exasperating, but also was he on some occasions magnanimous, as
the afterward warm friendship between himself and Tom Hayes demonstrated.15
The historian Bancroft speaks of Nugent in the following
terms:—
Seldom have I met a man toward whom my sympathy went out as
toward Mr. Nugent. Small, of light complexion and delicate features, soft
and slow of speech, modest and sensitive, yet lion-hearted and intellectually
great withal, he deserved a better fate. This one great mistake [the stand
taken by the Herald in 1856] hovered like a spectre over all his after-life.16
Neither writer mentions the lively dislike of all things British
that made Nugent a curious choice for the office of Special
Agent; but doubtless President Buchanan knew of the financial
difficulties in which the decline of the Herald had involved him,
and gave him the post for friendship's sake.
The appointment was promptly condemned by the New York
Times, which on August 2, 1858, printed this pen picture of the
" Ambassador to Frazer's River ":—
If it had been President Buchanan's design to create an imbroglio at the
New Caledonia gold-diggings, his choice of Nugent, the late editor of the
San Francisco Herald, might be pronounced not only unexceptionable but-
singularly judicious. A man better calculated to stir up broils could not
be found or one who could command, in a measure more diminutive, the
respect of the California miners.
A month later, when Nugent was in San Francisco awaiting the
departure of the steamer Northerner, which was to carry him to
Victoria, Thomas Rowlandson, a British resident of the city, felt
(15) Daily Bee, Sacramento, December 24, 1884. I am indebted for this
quotation to Miss Mabel R. Gillis, State Librarian, California State Library,
Sacramento.
(16) Hubert Howe Bancroft, Popular Tribunals, San Francisco, 1887,
II., p. 224. 1944 John Nugent. 61
compelled, " on public grounds," to write privately to the Colonial
Secretary regarding the appointment:—
The " On Dit" here is that it was simply a place carved out for a clamourous expectant of official patronage. ... To sum up his character concisely I may state that he is an Irishman with an inveterate and rabid
hatred of England & will doubtless stir up difficulties if he can, unless he
thinks his present interests will be greatly injured by such conduct.
Whilst I do not anticipate any serious disturbance from the appointment,
I considered it an act of duty to apprise the Colonial office as to the sort of
Agent sent out by the United States, so that his conduct might be carefully
watched.   .   .   .^
The instructions given by the United States Government to
the Special Agent18 were reasonable and fair. They asked for
a description of the mines, the means of working them, the
restrictions imposed by the authorities, the supply of provisions,
and any other features of interest. Certain specific matters
were to be investigated, including the laws and regulations to
which the miners were subject, the duties levied on supplies,
and the licences required. The American Government was specially anxious to know if any distinction was made between
British subjects and foreigners with respect to entrance into
the country and to rights and privileges after arrival there.
It was also anxious to know the approximate number of British
subjects and American citizens in New Caledonia.
Nugent landed in Victoria on September 20, 1858. Five days
later he embodied his first impressions in a letter to the Hon.
Lewis Cass, the American Secretary of State. He reported that
the local officials were conciliatory, and that he hoped that he
would be able to secure the removal of the restrictions about
(17) Rowlandson to Lytton, September 6, 1858. Original in Public
Record Office, London. Transcript in the possession of the writer. Nugent
was known to Alfred Waddington, who had this to say of him in The Fraser
Mines Vindicated, published in November, 1858: " For the benefit of the
old residents and English population unacquainted with Mr. Nugent . . .
I will explain that he was editor of the San Francisco Herald; that he is
a British born subject, and has been running down his country for years on
every occasion . . ." Having referred to the 1856 episode, Waddington
continued: " His name since then has been a reprobation to most Cali-
fornians, and the government in Washington could hardly have made a
more unsuitable choice for all parties."
(18) Nugent's instructions will be found in the appendix to this article. 62 Robie L. Reid. January
which there had been so many complaints. There was, in his
opinion, no longer any danger of a collision between the Americans and the people and authorities of Vancouver Island. He
was pessimistic about the mines, which were far below expectations. " Hundreds consequently leave by every steamer for San
Francisco. It is quite safe to predict that the great majority of
the miners will have left before the first of November."19
After spending a few days in Victoria, Nugent went to the
mainland and visited the mines on the Fraser River. On this
trip he did some good work. He searched for all Americans who
were in difficulties, gathered up over a hundred derelicts, and
made arrangements for them to return to California. He found
a number of Americans with grievances to air. Some complained
of having been ill-treated by Hudson's Bay Company employees;
others were dissatisfied with decisions of Government, officials.
On the whole, considering the conditions existing at the time,
these complaints were very few.
After his return from the mines Nugent remained for a time
in Victoria. Several matters were discussed by him with Governor Douglas, both verbally and by correspondence. One concerned criminal trials in the Courts. Nugent pointed out that
there was only one lawyer, George Pearkes, who was entitled to
plead in the Vancouver Island Courts. As Pearkes was legal
adviser to the Governor, and had the duty of prosecuting in
criminal cases, the accused were of necessity left without legal
counsel. There were a number of Americans awaiting trial at
the time, and Nugent therefore asked Douglas to allow attorneys
from the United States, several of whom were in the city, to
act as defence counsel in these cases. Douglas was inclined to
give the desired permission, but, being uncertain of his powers
in the matter, referred the question to Pearkes, who advised him
that he had no authority to permit foreigners to practise in the
Courts. Pearkes added that Judge Begbie, who had been appointed Judge of the Supreme Court of British Columbia and
was then on his way out from England, would have the right
to do so, but that a decision on the point would have to await his
arrival.   Later in his report Nugent inveighed bitterly against
(19)  Nugent to Cass, September 25, 1858.   In Territorial Papers, Washington and Oregon, Vol. I.; Archives, Department of State, Washington. 1944 John Nugent. 63
Douglas for having acted on the advice of his legal adviser. The
passage reads in part:—
Afterwards I was informed by a note from his excellency that the application could not be granted, as the rules of the court forbade anybody practicing before it who was not a subject of the British crown. I regret to be
obliged to characterize this as a mere subterfuge; that it was such will
appear from the fact that the gentleman who then held the office of crown
solicitor [Pearkes] had been a member of the San Francisco bar for two"
years.2o
Nugent was correct in stating that Pearkes was a member of
the California Bar; but he neglected to add that he was a member of the English Bar as well. It seems incredible that he did
not know this, and the implication is that the ambiguity of his
statement was deliberate.
Actually, American citizens seem to have had no reason to
complain of their treatment in the Courts, in spite of the conditions Nugent denounced. American attorneys were permitted
to visit and advise the accused, though they could not actually
appear at the trial; and in view of the fact that they had no
counsel, Pearkes did not exercise his right to address the jury
after the evidence was taken.
That Douglas's reason for refusing Nugent's request was not
a " mere subterfuge" soon became apparent. Judge Begbie
assumed office two days after Nugent left Victoria, and one of
his first acts was to make the order that the Special Agent had
demanded. Ironically enough, not a single American attorney
ever took advantage of it.
Nugent's next activity was to attempt to give Douglas a lesson in etiquette. He received a letter signed not by the Governor himself, but by his secretary—a circumstance that Nugent
regarded as a direct affront and insult both to himself and to
the Government he represented. When the offence was repeated,
he added a postscript to his reply:—
The last two notes received from your excellency were signed by your secretary, I presume, through inadvertence. I beg to call your attention to this
mistake, in order to prevent its recurrence.2!
(20) Message of the President of the United States, communicating, in
compliance with a resolution of the Senate, the report of the special agent
of the United States, recently sent to Vancouver's Island and British Columbia, Washington, 1859, p. 16. (35th Congress, 2nd session, Ex. Doc. No. 29,
Senate.    Cited hereafter as Nugent, Report.)
(21) Ibid., p. 24.
6 64 Robie L. Red). January
If this thrust angered Douglas, he did not show it. He
replied in the usual way, in a letter signed by his secretary,
which explained his conduct as follows:—
His excellency desires me to inform you that the two last letters which he
had the honor to address to you by his private secretary, alluded to in the
postscript to your letter, were not signed by the secretary by inadvertence,
as you presume; that the usual medium of official communications is the
colonial secretary, and in the absence of that functionary, the governor's
private secretary was deputed to sign the letters referred to in behalf of
his excellency; a course which was not adopted from any disrespect to you,
but in conformity with diplomatic usage, and in which sense his excellency
begs you will accept these and any further official communications which
he may have the honor of making to you in that manner.22
This explanation Nugent flatly refused to accept, and three
days later he addressed to the Governor as insolent a missive as
he could manufacture:—
Hotel de France, Victoria,
Vancouver's Island, Nov. 12, 1858.
Sir:
In my note of third of the present month, I had the honor to call your
attention to what I conceived to be a mistake made by your secretary in
signing your two communications of the 8th and 13th ultimo, respectively,
with his own name. In a verbal conversation had with your excellency on
the day on which you last note was dated, I intimated that I could not
receive communications on matters connected with my agency through the
medium of your private secretary, that gentleman being to me officially
unknown. Since then, I have received another note dated November 9, 1858,
doubtless dictated by your excellency, but signed in the same way as the
two preceding.
Not having been made aware by my government of any circumstance
giving your excellency the prerogative of corresponding with me at second
hand, and only through a third party, I regret to inform you that I cannot
take notice of the contents of your communication of the 9th instant; and
further, that all written correspondence must cease between us with this
note. I am urged to this step by a sense of duty alone; and although I
would be undoubtedly justified by the rules of that diplomatic etiquette to
which you appeal, in returning your last communication, I refrain from so
doing, because it is my desire to attribute your excellency's course to a want
of conversancy with such matters, rather than to uncivil intention; and
because, in obedience to the spirit of my instructions, I am anxious to maintain, to the end, the amicable relations that have hitherto subsisted between
your excellency and myself.
(22) Ibid., pp. 26-27. 1944 John Nugent. 65
Lest my official duties should not afford me leisure to call for the purpose of paying my respects to your excellency previous to my departure,
t avail myself of this occasion to bid you farewell.
I have the honor to be your obedient servant,
John Nugent,
Special Agent of the United States.23
His Excellency Governor Douglas.
Nugent did not leave Victoria for a week after this letter was
written, and he might have found time to pay a last call on the
Governor. But perhaps it was as well that he did not. The
" official duties " that took up his time in the last days of his
sojourn included the composition of a farewell address " To the
Citizens of the United States in Vancouver's Island and British
Columbia," which appeared in the Victoria Gazette for November 16, 1858. The complete text of this address is printed in
the appendix to this article, but one or two passages must be
quoted here.
After some pertinent remarks on the duties of American
citizens in foreign countries, Nugent turned his attention to the
local administration. Having admitted that " it was scarcely
to be expected that a well-regulated Government could be at
once built up, out of the chaotic elements suddenly thrown
together in such confusion," he went on to pay his respects to
Douglas, the Hudson's Bay Company, and the Courts, in these
words:—
Much was to be pardoned to the inexperience of an Executive hitherto dealing for the most part with savages, and, possibly unprepared by previous
training for the more refined exigencies imposed by governmental relations
with a white population:—much of the cause of complaints that have arisen
was to some extent excusable, because due to the unlicensed rudeness of the
subordinate officers of the Hudson's Bay Company and the Colonial Government, who, by reason of their long isolation from civilized society and their
habitual intercourse with Indians, had unlearned most of the finer traits of
humanity, and were scarcely accountable for a grossness of conduct that
iad become to them a second nature:—and, lastly, much was to be excused
in the ignorance and want of tone of courts organized out of such crude
and unfit materials as those, the only ones that were at hand on the sudden
influx of the strangers. In some instances, no doubt, these courts have
fallen short of even the limited expectations justified by the peculiar circumstances of their construction, and the strange constituents of which
they were composed.
(23) Ibid., pp. 28-29. 66 Robie L. Reid. January
In a later paragraph he expressed the hope that the British
Government would provide remedies for these evils and abuses
without unnecessary delay, and advised American citizens, if
Oppressed or wronged, to apply to the- local Courts for redress.
It is to be hoped they will obtain justice [Nugent continued]: but should
those tribunals, unfortunately, be too impotent, too ignorant, or too corrupt
to administer the law with impartiality and firmness, our citizens may
reckon with certainty upon the prompt and efficient interference of their
own Government in their behalf.
This was followed by a reference to the strong stand the United
States had taken when dealing with an upstart government in
Nicaragua, the inference being that similar action could be expected in British Columbia under circumstances that Nugent
chose to regard as parallel.
It is noteworthy that although the Victoria Gazette was
owned and edited by American citizens from San Francisco,
Nugent's address appeared as a paid advertisement, and strong
exception to its contents was taken by the Gazette in an editorial :—
We need hardly say that we dissent from the conclusions of the document,
and disapprove its tone.   .   .   .
The allusion to the acquired or natural unfitness of the authorities of
British Columbia and this Colony [Vancouver Island], for the positions
they occupy, is as glaring an exhibition of bad taste as diplomatic records
contain; and the quotation from Gen. Cass's letter of instructions, in the
case of an ephemeral, irresponsible Spanish-American government, as
indicative of the manner in which the relations of the United States with
Great Britain would be carried out, is not only sophistical but insulting to
the latter power. It is also noteworthy that the early training of the
statesman whose language is thus misused, was amid such associations as
the Special Agent declares to have unfitted the authorities of British
Columbia and Vancouver Island for the administration of civilized government—the Hon. Lewis Cass having long had the management of Indian
affairs in the then Northwestern portion of the American Union.   .   »   M
Some months later the Gazette returned to the subject, and made
this interesting comment:—
That the officers of Her Majesty's Government in British Columbia have
fallen into grave errors at times, we have no disposition to dispute; but
that generally they are gentlemen in every sense of the word, and at least
the peers of their official villifier [sicl, no just man who has had any intercourse with them will question.    If evidence were needed to establish the
(24)  Victoria Gazette, November 16, 1858   (the same issue in which
Nugent's address was printed). 1944 John Nugent. 67
fact, it might be found in the dignified forbearance and stinging contempt
with which they passed over the gravely fantastic antics of the Special
Agent, in his attempts to " promote subordination."2^
Victoria's other newspaper, the British Colonist, though
edited by Amor de Cosmos, and bitterly opposed to the Douglas
regime, had this to say concerning Nugent's statement:—
Had a similar address been issued by the British Consul at San Francisco,
though warranted through the corruption of officials, and the abuse of
British subjects, he would probably have been insulted or shot before night,
and the California press would have blazed with indignation. ... If
officially authorized to speak in behalf of his countrymen, we believe Mr.
Nugent should have communicated the abuses—which Americans in common with Englishmen have suffered—to the authorities, and if redress was
not given, then quietly to his government. That he told some truths, in our
opinion does not justify him as an official agent.26
Possibly to the surprise of Amor de Cosmos, some of the San
Francisco papers were highly indignant at the publication of
Nugent's address. The Evening Bulletin considered that he had
" gratuitously offered gross insults to the local government," and
referred to the " ungenerous, undignified, illiberal and malicious
sentiment expressed in Mr. Nugent's address."27 When copies
of the document reached London, The Times quoted from it at
length, and made this stinging comment:—
This language is insolent and offensive without being innocuous. . . . But
nothing can be more disgraceful in any one who pretends to rank as an
educated man than to scatter mischief in a society such as this, and to teach
a population to despise the legal authority of the officers of the Government
upon whose territory they dwell. Such a man as this is a public nuisance.
Happily we believe his evil desires will not be gratified. . . . There is no
reason to believe that the American settlers will follow Mr. Nugent's evil
counsels. But this is no fault of Mr. Nugent's. He has done all in his
power to throw the colony into confusion and to bring disgrace upon the
service to which he was attached."28
One further comment from nearer home is worth quoting
because it refers to the vexed question of the Courts. It comes
from the Puget Sound Herald, of Steilacoom, and is concerned
chiefly with Chief Justice Cameron, of Vancouver Island, the
only Judge in the whole region at the time of Nugent's visit:—
(25) Ibid., April 19, 1859.    This comment was prompted by the publication of Nugent's report.
(26) British Colonist, January 22, 1859.
(27) Evening Bulletin, San Francisco, November 23, 1858.
(28) The Times, London, January 19, 1859. 68 Robie L. Reid. January
We have formed a very favourable opinion of his [Judge Cameron's]
ability, integrity, and purity. There seems to be a manifest desire on the
part of the Judge to dispense Justice not only with rigidness and exactness,
but with despatch. The manner in which Justice is meted out to parties
litigant and all of the transactions of the tribunal are apparently very
much at variance with the wholesale denunciations heaped upon the authorities of the colony by Mr. Special Commissioner John Nugent. We make
these remarks on the principle of giving " honour to whom honour is due."29
Nugent left Victoria on November 17, 1858, two days before
the Colony of British Columbia was proclaimed at Fort Langley.
He proceeded to Washington, where he submitted his report to
President Buchanan on January 8, 1859. On the 29th Buchanan
transmitted it to the Senate, which two days later referred it to
the Committee on Foreign Relations. It was ordered to be printed
on February 17, and duly appeared, as a thirty-page Senate
document, later in the spring.
The report need not be considered in any detail. In it Nugent
quotes certain passages from the address printed in the Victoria
Gazette; as the San Francisco Evening Bulletin justly observed
at the time, the report " is conceived in the same spirit . . .
and is in a great measure an elaborate special pleading to support the obnoxious opinions expressed in that document."30 One
or two new topics are introduced. The Hudson's Bay Company
is suspected of having furnished the Indians of Washington and
Oregon with arms and ammunition for use against the white
population of those territories; the San Juan question is dealt
with briefly. More interesting is a reference to the prospects
of annexation. In Nugent's opinion Vancouver Island and
British Columbia
really offered no inducement sufficient to render them worthy of even a
temporary struggle. It is true that, in all probability, both will eventually
cease to be under European control. Their ultimate accession to the American possessions on the Pacific coast is scarcely problematical—but in the
mean time their intrinsic value either of locality, soil, climate, or productions, does not warrant any effort on the part of the American government
or the American people towards their immediate acquisition^1
" Manifest destiny " was a popular doctrine in the United
States in 1858, and the passage may mean no more than that
(29) Puget Sound Herald, February 11, 1859.
(30) Evening Bulletin, San Francisco, April 1, 1859.
(31) Nugent, Report, p. 17. 1944 John Nugent. 69
Nugent was an adherent of that school of thought. Some contend, however, that he had been sent deliberately to spy out the
land, with annexation in view; that the reference to Nicaragua
in his address was not accidental, but came to his mind naturally
because he was considering the possibility of a filibustering
expedition in British Columbia. One scrap of contemporary
evidence supports this point of view. The anonymous correspondent who warned Douglas that briefs were being prepared
against the ad valorem duty on imports warned him also that
Nugent's fundamental purpose was subversive. He contended
that the Special Agent
counted upon at least a hundred thousand Americans being subject to his
control,—that the British Government would be but nominal, and that
though tacitly acknowledging the right of the English Government to make
■laws, yet the united strength and voice of the Americans would control and
influence such laws, and gradually assimilate them to their own views and
interests.32
The Fraser River mines having proven to be much less rich
and extensive than was at first thought, and the wealth of the
Cariboo not having yet been discovered, the assumption is that
Nugent did not think the venture worth while, and so stated in
his report.
One of the remarkable features of the entire episode is the
absence of any outward sign of displeasure from Governor
Douglas. Neither Nugent nor his mission was so much as mentioned in any of his official dispatches to the Colonial Office until
after the Special Agent had left the country. Finally, in January, 1859, Douglas forwarded to London a copy of the letter
which has just been quoted in part. His covering dispatch read
as follows:—
Executive No. 64
Victoria Vancouver's Island
5th January 1859
Sir
I beg to enclose for the information of Her Majesty's Government, copy
of an important communication worthy of confidence though the writer's
name is for obvious reasons withheld.
(32)  Douglas to Lytton, January 5, 1859, enclosure No. 1.    Copy in
Public Record Office transcripts, Provincial Archives. 70 Robie L. Reid. January
The communication refers to Mr. Nugent late Special Agent for the
United States at this place and points out the particular designs which the
writer discovered he had in view.
I forward this document rather as an illustration of the ideas floating
in the mind of the simple American, who talks with confidence of the realization of such visions than with the view of creating alarm.
Mr. Nugent would no doubt have protected to the best of his ability the
interests of his country and countrymen in British Columbia, and he might
have succeeded in exercising a pernicious influence over the latter and have
excited a spirit of dissatisfaction with the established regulations of the
country, but I conceive that nothing more serious could have occurred, as
there are resources at our disposal sufficient to meet any emergency that
may arise, and I feel satisfied that as long as we hold with a firm hand
and superior force the avenues to British Columbia, no other power can
wrest it from our grasp.
I have the honor to be
Sir
Your most obedient
humble servant
JAMES DOUGLAS
Governor British Columbia
The Right Honble. Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton Bart.
Her Majesty's principal Secretary of State
For the Colonial Department.
This dispatch would seem to indicate that Douglas was
inclined to believe the charges against Nugent. Just where the
truth lies it is difficult, at this late date, to determine with much
certainty.
Douglas took one further step in the matter. Feeling that
the treatment accorded to American citizens in British Columbia
compared very favourably with that which had been meted out
to British subjects in California, he prepared a memorandum
on the subject and forwarded it to Lord Napier, the British
ambassador in Washington. Towards the end of January, 1859,
when opportunity offered, Napier submitted this memorandum
to General Cass, the American Secretary of State. A dispatch
from Napier to Lord Malmesbury, the British Foreign Secretary, describes the interview in these words:—
I took occasion in my conversation with General Cass this morning to
advert to the conduct of Mr. Nugent who was lately employed by the Government of the United States as Agent on the Pacific Frontier. I stated
that I did not ask what the nature of his Reports had been; they were
probably more or less conformable to the strictures formerly published by 1944 John Nugent. 71
Governor Stevens and to the sense of Mr. Nugent's own manifesto and
correspondence at Vancouver's Island, but I thought myself justified in
placing unofficially in the possession of the department of State a memorandum on the State legislation of California respecting the rights of
foreign miners, as the particulars contained in that document might be
useful in correcting or completing information emanating from sources
unfriendly to Governor Douglas.
General Cass did not seem to regard the document with much favor,
but he accepted it and is now in possession of proofs that the regulations
prescribed in British Columbia are more liberal than those in force in the
neighbouring territory of the United States.
The memorandum compiled by Governor Douglas is enclosed herewith.
I must do General Cass the justice to say that he expressed himself in
complimentary terms respecting the character and conduct of Governor.
Douglas.33
After his excursion into power politics, very little more was
heard of John Nugent. In 1869 an attempt was made to resuscitate the San Francisco Herald, but within a few months the paper
failed.34 In 1878 he contributed " Scraps of Early History," in
six instalments, to the Argonaut,35 but these contain little autobiographical information. He died at San Leandro, Alameda
County, California, on March 29, 1880. Referring next day to
his career the Sacramento Daily Record-Union remarked:—
Mr. Nugent had some very exalted ideas in regard to the external trappings
of journalism, but he lived to learn that no matter how fine the furniture of
a printing office, if it is not well supplied with practical sense it cannot be
made to succeed.
The same principle applies to the exercise of ambassadorial
functions.
Robie L. Reid.
Vancouver, B.C.
(33) Napier to Malmesbury, January 21, 1859; enclosure in Lytton to
Douglas, February 21, 1859.
(34) The original San Francisco Herald was published from June 1,
1850, to July 14, 1863. The revived journal first appeared on January 19,
1869;  the last issue was dated October 6, 1869.
(35) These appear in the issues dated February 23, March 9, 16, 23, and
30, and April 13, 1878. 72 Robie L. Reid. January
APPENDIX.
1. INSTRUCTIONS OF THE HON. LEWIS CASS
TO JOHN NUGENT.86
Department of State,
Washington, Aug. 2, 1858.
John Nugent, Esq.,
&c, &c, &c.
Sir:
You are hereby appointed a special agent of the U. S. and will proceed
without unnecessary delay to the vicinity of Frazer River on the North
Pacific Ocean, where it is understood that valuable discoveries of gold have
recently been made, which are likely to exert an important influence upon
emigration and commerce.
The President desires to be accurately informed with respect both to the
locality and extent of these discoveries, the mode in which they are improved,
the restrictions, if any, under which their work is pursued, the quality of
the gold discovered, the means of access to the gold-region, the supply and
kind of provisions, from what places and at what prices furnished, and
generally all information on the subject, of a reliable character, which you
may be able to give. It is impossible to mention in detail every point to
which your attention is likely to be directed. Much must be left to your
own judgment in this respect, upon which, I am glad to say, the President
relies with confidence.
A few questions, however, may be suggested as of much importance.
These refer in part to the laws and regulations which you may find in force
within the British Possessions with reference to the occupation and working
of the mines, and the importation of supplies for the miners. Is there any
duty upon provisions imported, and if so, how much? Is any license required
to enable the miners to enter and work in the gold region? If there is, by
what authority is it issued, and what charge is made for it? Is there any,
and what, distinction made, within the British Possessions, between British
subjects and foreigners, in respect either to their entrance into the country
or their rights and privileges afterwards? What is the number of British
subjects there, and of American citizens? How many of each class are
engaged in mining? Are their relations friendly, or is there any ill-feeling
between them?
The position and number of the Indians in the neighborhood of the gold
region are also important subjects of inquiry. To what extent are they
hostile to the miners? What injuries have they committed? Are their
hostilities extending? What military or naval force have the British
authorities in the vicinity of the river? What voluntary arrangements, if
any, have been made by the miners for their own protection?    Any facts
(36) In Records of the Department of State, Domestic Letters, July 1,
1858-January 18, 1859. Printed from a photostat of the original official
record copy, supplied to the Provincial Archives by the National Archives
of the United States. 1944 John Nugent. 73
with which you may be able to furnish the Dep't on this subject will be
highly acceptable.
In connection with your inquiries as to the extent of the gold country in
the United States, it is desirable that you should inform yourself, as well
as you can, with respect to the course of overland emigration to that region.
Have any and what trails been opened from our own country to the British
Possessions? Are there any traveled routes from Minnesota and Washington Territories? Can you hear of any new settlements formed, within
our possessions, in the neighborhood of the gold-region, which are likely to
become important? I will thank you to make your inquiries on these points
as full as possible. You can readily understand their bearing upon the
great interests of our North Western territories.
With these instructions you will receive copies of several communications
on the subject of the Frazer River discoveries, and the authority and conduct of the Hudson's Bay Company, which you may find of interest. You
will find, also, a copy of a note of Lord Malmesbury, the British Minister
of Foreign Affairs to Mr. Dallas,37 dated June 17, 1858, which refers to the
probable policy of Great Britain in the region of the gold discoveries.
Since the date of this note, a communication has been published by the
British Minister for the Colonies, Sir Edward Lytton, to Gov. Douglass of
the Hudson's Bay Company, which still further explains what the policy
may be expected to be. These communications taken in connection with-
a recent debate on the same subject in the British Parliament, and with
repeated conversation which I have had concerning it with the British
Minister at Washington, Lord Napier, lead to the confident hope, that the
proceedings of the British Government and its officer with reference to the
gold discoveries within its N[orth]. A[merican]. possessions will be characterised by a liberal spirit, and will be of such nature as will prevent any
reasonable cause of complaint on the part of our citizens. If any abuses
have already occurred, it is probable that due remedies will be found for
them, and any existing hardship will be removed, it is hoped, by the prompt
action of the British authorities.
At all events, the unremitted attention of this government will be given
to accomplish these results, and ensure to our citizens in that quarter the
most fair and liberal treatment. Of this you may give them the most full
assurances. But you will take care to remind them also, that they have
duties as well as rights, and that while they expect the latter to be maintained, they must not hesitate to discharge the former. So long as they
reside in a foreign country, they must remember that they are subject to
its laws and to all the lawful regulations of its authorities. Whenever
these regulations are onerous and oppressive, their own Government, you
will renewedly assure them, will not fail to take the necessary steps to
procure their modification or repeal. In order to ascertain whether such
instances of hardship exist is one of the objects of your agency.
You will, of course, call upon Governor Douglass, and you may explain
to him the purposes of your journey.    A letter of introduction to that gen-
(37)  Alexander Grant Dallas, of the Hudson's Bay Company. 74 Robie L. Reid. January
tleman will be furnished you by Lord Napier, and it is hoped that your
intercourse with him may be of the most free and friendly character.
It is an object of the first importance to preserve the peace among the
excited population who will occupy the region of gold, and it is hoped that
Governor Douglass will endeavor to secure this object by every means in
his power. I do not doubt that your visit may tend to accomplish the same
good purpose.
Enclosed you will find an extract from a communication to this Dept.
of A. Campbell, Esq., U. S. Commissioner, &c, &c.,38 by which you will see
that in order to prevent as far as possible any dispute with respect to the
boundary between the American and British possessions on the Pacific, he
proposes to cut a line through the forest to the Cascade range of mountains.
This suggestion of Mr. Campbell has been approved by the Department.
Your compensation, at the rate of $8 per day, will commence from the
date of these instructions and will continue until you return to your home
in California. Your traveling expenses will also be paid. For these, as
far as possible, you will furnish vouchers. You will report as early and
as often as you can, to the Department. No definite time can be assigned
for the continuance of your agency, but it is expected that you will be able
to make your final report in time to be communicated to Congress at the
opening of the next session.
I am, Sir, &c,
Lewis Cass.
2. NUGENT'S FAREWELL ADDRESS, NOVEMBER 13, 1858.39
To the Citizens of the United States in Vancouver's Island
and British Columbia.
Having received from citizens of the United States, mining and trading
on Fraser's River and in its vicinity, a number of letters complaining of
acts of injustice and oppression at the hands of the Colonial authorities,—
and being on the eve of my departure to lay my report before the Government at Washington, I take this public method of apprizing American
citizens sojourning in Vancouver's Island and British Columbia, of the
views of our Government in regard to their rights and standing in these
Colonies.
I need scarcely say that the Government of the United States expects
of its own citizens abroad, a decent conformity with local regulations, obedience to the laws of the countries they visit, and a proper show of respect
for the authorities by whom those laws are administered. This is exacted
of strangers visiting the different States of the Union, who are amenable
to punishment for a violation of the laws of those States, or of the United
(38) Archibald Campbell, United States boundary commissioner, who,
after failing to come to an agreement with the British commissioners
regarding the boundary through the San Juan archipelago, was at this time
engaged in determining the line between Point Roberts and the Cascades.
(39) Here reprinted from the Victoria Gazette, November 16, 1858.
The address also appears in Nugent, Report, pp. 11-13. 1944 John Nugent. 75
States, as are American citizens for infraction of the laws of such foreign
countries as they may enter in pursuit of pleasure, or of business. Such of
our citizens, therefore, as have taken up their temporary residence in
British Columbia and Vancouver's Island, are subject, like all other residents, to the laws of the Colonies and of Great Britain, and are liable, like
all others, to the penalties meted out by those laws to persons properly convicted of their violation.
I am aware that an elaborate attempt to impress these facts upon my
fellow citizens in these Colonies, would be superfluous. Their sobriety of
deportment, their decent observance of all the proprieties of life, in the
midst of privations and annoyances of no common degree, and their obedience to the law under very trying provocations to its infringement,—
although they may not have gained for them such liberal treatment as was
due to that forbearance and good conduct,—have, nevertheless, commanded
the respect of the strangers among whom they are cast, and cannot fail to
be subjects of pride and gratulation to their own Government.
Considering the circumstances attending the recent settlement of these'
Colonies, it was scarcely to be expected that a well-regulated Government
could be at once built up, out of the chaotic elements suddenly thrown
together in such confusion. Much was to be pardoned to the inexperience
of an Executive hitherto dealing for the most part with savages, and, possibly unprepared by previous training for the more refined exigencies
imposed by governmental relations with a white population:—much of the
cause of complaints that have arisen was to some extent excusable, because
due to the unlicensed rudeness of the subordinate officers of the Hudson's
Bay Company and the Colonial Government, who, by reason of their long
isolation from civilized society and their habitual intercourse with Indians,
had unlearned most of the finer traits of humanity, and were scarcely
accountable for a grossness of conduct that had become to them a second
nature:—and, lastly, much was to be excused in the ignorance and want
of tone of courts organized out of such crude and unfit materials as those,
the only ones that were at hand on the sudden influx of the strangers.
In some instances, no doubt, these courts have fallen short of even the
limited expectations justified by the peculiar circumstances of their construction, and the strange constituents of which they were composed. But
it is not to be doubted that the British Government will, without unnecessary delay, provide remedies for the evils and abuses arising from this condition of things—evils and abuses affecting not alone the prosperity of its
own subjects, but the rights of citizens of a foreign and a friendly power.
The forbearance, in the meantime, of the citizens of the United States:
their quiet observance of the laws, under any aggressions on their rights
of which they may have to complain, will not alone have its reward in the
consciousness of having done credit to their country—a country whose
institutions are based upon that all-pervading love of order, and that spirit
of obedience to the law which distinguishes its citizens,—but it will, moreover, entitle them to the active intervention of their own government for
the redress of their grievances, and for the protection of their rights.    That 76 Robie L. Reid.
the Government of the United States, upon proper cause being shown—
after recourse shall have been had in vain to the tribunals, against acts of
oppression or injustice—will so intervene for the redress and protection of
its citizens in British Columbia and Vancouver's Island, I am authorized
and instructed to give them the most emphatic assurance. If wrong be
done them, let them appeal to the courts. It is to be hoped they will obtain
justice: but should those tribunals, unfortunately, be too impotent, too
ignorant, or too corrupt to administer the law with impartiality and firmness, our citizens may reckon with certainty upon the prompt and efficient
interference of their own Government in their behalf. The best guaranty
I can furnish them of the certainty of such interposition, will be found in
the subjoined declaration by the Hon. Lewis Cass, Secretary of State of the
United States, in a recent dispatch to our Minister in Nicaragua, enunciating clearly and vigorously the views of our Government in respect to the
rights of our citizens visiting foreign countries:
" The United States believe it to be their duty—and they mean to execute
it—to watch over the persons and property of their citizens visiting foreign
countries, and to'intervene for their protection when such action is justified
by existing circumstances and by the law of nations. Wherever their
citizens may go through the habitable globe, when they encounter injustice
they may appeal to the Government of their country, and the appeal will
be examined into, with a view to such action on their behalf as it may be
proper to take. It is impossible to define in advance and with precision
those cases in which the national power may be exerted for their relief, or
to what extent relief shall be afforded. Circumstances as they arise must
prescribe the rule of action. In countries where well-defined and established laws are in operation, and where their administration is committed
to able and independent judges, cases will rarely occur where such intervention will be necessary. But these elements of confidence and security
are not everywhere found; and where that is unfortunately the case, the'
United States are called upon to be more vigilant in watching over their
citizens, and to interpose efficiently for their protection, when they are
subjected to tortuous proceedings by the direct action of the Government,
or by its indisposition or inability to discharge its duties.""
It is unnecessary, for me to make any further or more pointed application of this declaration to the circumstances of American citizens in these
Colonies. Their own intelligence and prudence will enable them so to guard
their conduct that they shall never forfeit that provident and fatherly care
and protection which it promises, and which the Government of the United
States has both the ability and the will to exercise over all its children, in
whatever part of the world they may be.
JOHN NUGENT,
Special Agent of the United States.
Victoria, Vancouver's Island
November 13th, 1858. NOTES AND COMMENTS.
SOME ARCHIVES ACCESSIONS IN 1943.
Manuscripts.
Since the last list of new accessions was printed in the October, 1942,
issue of the Quarterly a number of important files of departmental records
have been transferred to the Archives. The extensive collection of Judges'
trial note-books acquired in the last few years was again amplified by the
transfer of sixty-two note-books from the Vancouver Court-house. These
were kept by Chief Justice Gordon Hunter, Chief Justice Auley Macaulay
Morrison, and Judges Gregory, Ellis, Grant, Schultz, Ruggles, Bole, and
Cane. They were secured through the kindness of the Hon. R. L. Maitland,
K.C, Attorney-General of British Columbia, and Mr. J. F. Mather, District
Registrar in Vancouver.
From the Department of Mines the Archives received twenty-nine Record
and Letter Books of the Cassiar Mining District, covering the years 1874-
1906. They throw new light on mining operations at Glenora, Telegraph
Creek, and Laketon, particularly during the gold-rush of 1874 and ensuing
years. For this valuable addition to the collection of mining records the
Archives is indebted to Dr. J. F. Walker, Provincial Mineralogist and
Deputy Minister of Mines.
A third transfer included a quantity of outward correspondence from the
Premier's office, covering dates up to and including 1901. These papers are
of special interest, for relatively few of the records relating to the early
Premiers of the Province seem to have survived, possibly because the incumbents regarded their correspondence as a personal affair, and removed the
files when they resigned office. This transfer was effected through the kind
offices of the Hon. John Hart, Premier of British Columbia.
From Mr. Hart the Archives also received a photostat copy of Colonel
C. S. Bulkley's letter-book for 1865-67, which had been presented to him by
Brigadier-General J. A. O'Connor, U.S.A., and the Hon. Ian Mackenzie,
Canadian Minister of Pensions and National Health. Colonel Bulkley was,
in 1865, engineer in charge of the construction of the celebrated Collins
Overland Telegraph line, which was intended to link the telegraph systems
of the United States and Russia by means of a wire extending through
British Columbia, Alaska, and Siberia. The original letter-book is in the
Public Library of Portland, Oregon, and portions of it were of much interest
to the engineers in charge of the building of the Alaska Highway, construction of which was supervised by General O'Connor.
Shortly after acquiring the Bulkley papers, the Archives became the
happy possessor of a collection of original letters and diaries of Edmund
Conway, one of Colonel Bulkley's engineers in British Columbia in 1865-67.
The documents were the gift of Edmund Conway's daughter, Miss E. M.
Conway, of Montreal, and form a most interesting comDanion-piece to the
Bulkley letter-book.
British Columbia Historical Quarterly, Vol. VIII., No. 1.
77 78 Notes and Comments. January
Two further accessions, though not in manuscript form, may most fittingly be mentioned at this point. From Mr. Isaac Burpee, of Portland,
Oregon, the Archives received an original page from the issue of Harper's
Weekly, dated August 12, 1865, containing an article on the Collins Overland Telegraph and reproducing two interesting contemporary sketches of
New Westminster. By a curious coincidence, Dr. James J. Talman, of the
University of Western Ontario, presented a photostat of one side of the
same page at almost the same time.
The outstanding event of the year was the receipt, through the kindness
of Lieut.-Colonel F. R. S. Balfour, of Stobo, Scotland, of a number of original letters and documents relating to Archibald Menzies, surgeon and naturalist with Captain Vancouver's expedition in 1791-95. Among these is
Menzies' farewell letter, addressed jointly to his brother James and to his
mother, written in H.M.S. Discovery at Falmouth on March 31, 1791, and
Sir Joseph Banks' instructions to Menzies for his guidance in carrying out
his mission during the expedition. Other documents are Menzies' diploma
from the University of Aberdeen, which granted him his M.D. degree in
1799; diplomas from the Edinburgh and Leipzig Natural History and
Research societies; and the probate of his will, to which is attached an
extract from the will itself. In addition, there are six sixteenth century
documents in Latin, pertaining to the Menzies estates in Scotland.
With the documents came two beautiful miniatures of Archibald Menzies
and his wife, Janet, a gold watch, and a seal. The latter accompanied the
naturalist on his expedition to North-west America.
The Archives is greatly indebted to Colonel Balfour for this magnificent
gift, and to Mr. W. A. McAdam, Agent-General for British Columbia in
London, by whose kindly and interested co-operation special arrangements
were made to safeguard the relics while they were in transit from London
to Victoria.
From the University of Washington Library the department received a
number of typewritten translations of French, Spanish, and Russian narratives of expeditions to the North Pacific Coast. These were particularly
welcome, as the narratives are, for the most part, new to the Archives
collection. The translations were made by W.P.A. workers employed by the
University of Washington Library during the depression.
To Mrs. William Henderson, of Victoria, the Archives is indebted for
a series of diaries kept by her late husband during the years 1916-19.
William Henderson was a civil engineer employed by the Public Works
Department of Canada, and participated in the building of the famous
Astrophysical Observatory on Little Saanich Mountain. Mrs. Henderson's
gift included a number of photographs taken while the Observatory was
under construction.
Mr. John T. Gawthrop, of the Post-war Rehabilitation Council, was kind
enough to write and present a short memorandum describing the Mining
Training Project of 1935-39, of which he was one of the directors.    This-
project, which was designed by the Provincial Government to help relieve
unemployment during the depression and to train young men in placer- 1944 Notes and Comments. 79
mining, will in time attain historic value. Mr. Gawthrop very kindly
loaned his photograph album to the Archives, in order that a selection of
pictures illustrating the Training Project might be copied and filed with
the memorandum.
An unusual document was received from Dr. Robie L. Reid, who presented the original of the sworn statement of Captain John R. Fleming
concerning the negro slave-boy Charles, whose arrival at Victoria in Captain Fleming's ship, the Eliza Anderson, caused such excitement in 1860.
It will be recalled that Dr. Reid told the story of the boy and his release in
the October, 1942, number of this Quarterly.
An item of much interest to students of the life and achievements of John
Work was the acquisition, through the kindness of Mr. Isaac Burpee, of a
copy of the fur-trader's will, hitherto unavailable to the general public.
Museum Exhibits.
An unusually large number of beautiful and rare exhibits have been
received during the past year, including the Menzies miniatures and relics
to which reference has already been made. Another outstanding item was
a collection of mementoes of the late Dr. J. S. Plaskett, for many years
Director of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, and one of the most
active members of the British Columbia Historical Association. Amongst
these are the insignia of the Order of the British Empire, received by Dr.
Plaskett when he was made a Companion of the Order in 1935, and the
interesting letter to Dr. Plaskett from the Hon. R. B. Bennett, then Prime
Minister of Canada, in which he asked Dr. Plaskett's permission to recommend him for the Order. Other items in the collection, which was presented
by Mrs. Plaskett, include replicas of the Henry Draper and Rumford gold
medals awarded to Dr. Plaskett, and an ambrotype of the Doctor as a child.
Mrs. David Doig presented a small portable organ which had been used
in Dawson during the Klondike gold-rush by her late husband, who was
manager of the Bank of British North America in the Yukon Territory, and
who was well known in both banking and musical circles in Victoria.
Through the kindness of Mrs. Oscar Bass, several barristers' wigs were
presented to the Archives. These were once the property of P. A. Irving,
H. D. Helmcken, and E. V. Bodwell.
Mrs. John Hart was kind enough to present some pieces from a dinner
set once used by Hudson's Bay Company families at Fort Victoria. They
are decorated with the Company's coat of arms and are a most welcome
addition to the Fort Victoria relics.
The Misses Lovell presented a beautiful set of gold scales, complete with
weights, once used by their father, the late J. B. Lovell, at Glenora during
the Cassiar rush, and later. They also presented some quaint Victorian
wax and seaweed framed posies.
From Dr. Robie L. Reid, of Vancouver, came a small crucible once used
in the minting of gold coins at the historic mint in New Westminster.
Shortly after its arrival the Archives was able to acquire two similar crucibles of larger size that were also originally in the New Westminster mint. 80 Notes and Comments. January
Mr. James Ogden Grahame presented his original contract with the
Hudson's Bay Company, dated 1866, as well as his junior Chief Trader's
and Chief Trader's commissions, which are dated 1877 and 1879 respectively.
Documents of this description are now becoming rare, and their old-fashioned
wording and faultless penmanship make them of unusual interest and value.
A staff such as those formerly presented to Indian chiefs by colonial
governors, and a small totem-pole carved by the Indian Charlie James, of
Alert Bay, were received through the kindness of His Honour W. C. Wood-
. ward, Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia.
From Mr. A. N. Mouat came two illuminated addresses, one of which
was presented to him on the occasion of his retirement from the Edmonton
City Council and the other at the time of his retirement from the British
Columbia Provincial Civil Service. A third illuminated address, presented
to the late Joseph Randle by his co-workers at the Nanaimo mines when he
retired in 1904, was given to the department by Mrs. Randle.
Another interesting memento was a horseshoe made of copper from the
pioneer steamer Beaver; this came from the estate of the late J. E. Jeffcott.
Numerous other exhibits, including bank books, indentures, marriage certificates, etc., were gratefully received from Mr. A. C. Pitts, Mrs. W. A. Harper,
and Mr. B. A. McKelvie.
Picture Collection.
Mention has already been made of the Menzies miniatures, and of the
very interesting pictures received with the Plaskett collection, the Henderson diaries, and Mr. Gawthrop's memorandum on the Mining Training
Project. Of the many other items received, perhaps the outstanding accession was a splendid framed copy of The Caning in Conduit Street, a cartoon
depicting the episode of the contretemps between Captain George Vancouver
and Thomas Pitt, 2d Baron Camelford, in 1795. This was presented by
Mr. Isaac Burpee.
Old group photographs are frequently both useful and popular exhibits,
and a number of interesting examples were received during the year. Mr.
J. C. Bridgman presented a framed group of British Columbia senators and
parliamentary representatives at Ottawa in 1871; Mr. C. G. White gave a
photograph of a group of pioneer civil servants standing on the steps of
one of the old " Birdcages "; from Miss Becker came an interesting framed
group of masters and boys taken outside the old Collegiate School on Church
Hill in the middle eighties; Mr. A. N. Mouat presented a photograph of the
last meeting of the commissioned officers of the Hudson's Bay Company,
held in Winnipeg in 1887; and from Mrs. Joseph Randle came a photograph
of prize-winners taken after a rifle match at Clover Point, her late husband
and Captain James Harvey being included in the group.
A further gift from Mr. Mouat included portraits of Sir Harry and Lady
Smith, after whom the city of Ladysmith, Vancouver Island, is named.
Four beautiful old albums were received, three of which came through
the kindness of Senator G.' H. Barnard. These all contain photographs of
pioneer residents of Victoria. The fourth album was presented by Mr.
Robert Mist, of Honolulu, and is devoted chiefly to photographs collected at 1944 Notes and Comments. 81
Esquimalt by Mr. Mist's father, Captain Henry Wentworth Mist, R.N., who
was in command of H.M.S. Sparrowhawk on this station from 1868 to
1872. In addition to the photographs the album contains a number of small
water-colour sketches.
The largest collection of photographs taken by any one person was
received from the estate of the late C. C. Pemberton, through the kindness
of his sister, Miss Evaline Pemberton. The photographs are mostly views
of old Victoria homes, and were taken with great care by Mr. Pemberton
himself. They are accompanied by detailed explanatory notes, giving the
history of the houses and much information regarding the different families
that occupied them.
Several albums were loaned to the Archives during the year in order
that certain pictures might be copied for the department's collection. Among
them was a valuable album kindly made available by Colonel G. H. Ogilvie
that illustrates the story of " C " battery and the beginnings of Work Point
barracks during the years 1887-93. Equally interesting was the album
loaned by Mr. A. C. Pitts, most of which was devoted to views of H.M.C.S.
Rainbow and the historic submarines CCl and CC2, as well as to groups of
officers of the R.N.C.V.R. who served in the Great War of 1914-18. In addition to loaning his album, Mr. Pitts presented several excellent photographs
of pioneer business establishments on Yates Street in the seventies, and a
striking likeness of his father, the late S. J. Pitts, a prominent merchant in
former times.
The Archives is indebted to Commissioner T. W. S. Parsons, of the
British Columbia Provincial Police, for a set of photographs of the Alaska
Highway; to the estate of'the late J. E. Jeffcott for a dozen valuable marine
photographs and a portrait of Mr. Jeffcott himself; to Mrs. George Phillips
for more Esquimalt photographs; to Mr. E. T. Kenney for photographs of
freighting along the route of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway between the
Rockies and Prince Rupert; and to Mr. Herbert Kent for a number of
photographs of theatrical groups, ranging from the late nineties to the
period of the first Great War. Mr. Kent was kind enough to identify most
of the persons in these groups.
The collection of lantern-slides was enriched by the gift of nearly 100
slides from Mrs. A. W. McCurdy. Some of these are views of Victoria
taken about forty years ago, whilst others depict native flowers and plants.
An added attraction is that many of the slides are in colour.
Mention should also be made of a beautifully drawn map prepared by
Rev. R. J. McGuinness, S.J., of Banff, tracing the journeys of Father De
Smet through British Columbia in the years 1845-46. Father McGuinness
has a remarkable knowledge of De Smet and his work, and has personally
followed his footsteps over long stretches of his travels.
Other maps received included tracings and blue-prints of the telegraph
trails in the seventies and eighties, presented by Mr. 0. Leigh Spencer, of
the Vancouver Daily Province. 82 Notes and Comments. January
i
Printed Books.
The most interesting accession of the year was the second volume of the
Edmonton Bulletin, the first newspaper published in the little town destined
later to become the capital of the Province of Alberta. The volume consists
of twenty-seven numbers, published between October 29, 1881, and April 29,
1882. It was presented by Mrs. W. A. Harper, whose father, the late T. A.
Dunlop, was one of the founders of the Bulletin.
To Major F. V. Longstaff the Archives is again indebted for the gift of
various pamphlets. Master R. W. Parsons presented a copy of Plutarch's
Lives autographed by Amor De Cosmos. Last, but by no means least, from
Mr. H. D. R. Stewart, of Calgary, came a copy of a rare early imprint—
Sparshott's Military Manual of Infantry Drill, which was printed in New
Westminster in 1861.
Madge Wolfenden.
Provincial Archives.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION.
Victoria Section.
A meeting of the Section was held in the Provincial Library on the
evening of December 10. Mr. F. C. Green, the Vice-President, was in the
chair. The programme was in charge of the Native Sons of British Columbia, Post No. 1, and was designed to honour the memory of the late C. C.
Pemberton, who was one of the most active and interested members of both
the Native Sons and the British Columbia Historical Association. The
speaker of the evening was Mr. L. W. Westendale, who first spoke on Mr.
Pemberton's life and then quoted at length from a paper by Mr. Pemberton,
part of which was devoted to a history of the Native Sons.
Chartres Cecil Pemberton was born in Victoria on May 18, 1864. His
father, the Hon. Augustus F. Pemberton, was successively Commissioner of
Police, Magistrate, and County Court Judge. His mother was a sister of
Chartres Brew, an officer of the Royal Irish Constabulary who was sent out
by the British Government in 1858 to organize a police force on the mainland of British Columbia. Young Chartres was educated in the public
schools of Victoria, in the grammar school of the Reformed Episcopal
Church, and by a private tutor. Later he was articled to the firm of Drake"
& Jackson, and was called to the Bar in July, 1889. After practising law in
Victoria for a decade, he went to the Yukon in 1899, and while there served
as postmaster at Lake Bennett. Returning to Victoria in 1900, he was soon
appointed Law Clerk to the Legislature, a post he held for many years.
About the same time he entered the real-estate business, in which he was
engaged until shortly before his death. Mr. Pemberton served overseas
with the Forestry Corps during the first Great War. His death occurred
in Victoria on January 26, 1943, in his seventy-ninth year.
His interests were legion, but he will probably be longest remembered as
an historian and a botanist.   He was recognized as an arboriculturist of out-
• standing ability, and a few years ago circumstances enabled him to indulge 1944 Notes and Comments. 83
his interest in both history and trees simultaneously. After much effort he
succeeded in transplanting a small arbutus tree, a species first described by
Archibald Menzies, the naturalist who accompanied Captain Vancouver.
When opportunity offered the little tree was shipped to England by sea, and
there planted beside Vancouver's grave in Petersham churchyard. According to latest reports it is flourishing in its new surroundings; and in the
years to come it will form, as Mr. Pemberton hoped and intended it should,
a living link between the coast of British Columbia and the explorer who
first charted its intricacies.
In recalling the early history of the Native Sons of British Columbia, of
which Mr. Pemberton was a charter member, Mr. Westendale related a
curious experience that befell Lieutenant H. Bole during the Great War.
When charging up Vimy Ridge he suddenly heard the distress call of the
Native Sons. Searching about, he discovered a wounded Victorian who, in
his delirium, had voiced the call he had learned at his initiation on the
Pacific Coast. It saved his life, for Lieutenant Bole was able to have the
wounded man taken back of the lines to a dressing-station.
Vancouver Section.
The Section met in the Grosvenor Hotel on the evening of October 26; the
President, Mr. A. G. Harvey, presided. The speaker was Dr. Sylvia Thrupp,
of the Department of History, the University of British Columbia, whose
subject was The Historian—a Detective. Dr. Thrupp first pointed out that
the mission of the historian must not be taken too lightly, for, amongst
other things, it was the historian who in great part shaped the " collective
memory " of the community. A thorough search for every scrap of available source material was therefore a matter of some importance; and this
aspect of the subject led naturally to an interesting discussion of the similarities and contrasts between the historian's search for material and the
detective's quest for evidence. Just as a detective sometimes feels instinctively that clues are lurking near if he could only see them, so the historian
at times feels convinced that more material on his subject is hidden away
somewhere, despite all appearances to the contrary. Dr. Thrupp quoted
instance after instance in which some student, urged on by curiosity and
enthusiasm, continued his search in the face of apparently conclusive evidence that the documents sought after had been destroyed. The usual story
is that the papers were destroyed in a fire. " In the course of centuries,"
Dr. Thrupp remarked, " almost every mansion and public building has suffered at least one serious fire, and this provides a ready explanation for the
disappearance of documents, and a most welcome excuse to lazy or ignorant
custodians who do not wish to be put to the trouble of finding out whether
or not, in actual fact, the papers wanted are still in existence." In one
instance a student succeeded in bringing to light a most valuable file of
documents that every one had taken for granted had been burned almost
400 years before. Likely hiding-places include cellars, garrets, and outhouses, in which old papers are frequently piled and quickly forgotten. In
such places rats and mice usually have found them before the historian, but 84 Notes and Comments. January
fortunately neither their appetites nor their curiosity is apt to extend far
beyond the edges of the outer layers of papers.
The annual meeting of the Section was held in the Grosvenor Hotel on
the evening of Thursday, November 18. More than eighty members and
friends attended. The speaker was the Hon. E. C. Carson, Minister of
Mines; his subject was The Early History of Lillooet. Mr. Carson's family
pioneered in the Lillooet district many years ago, and his personal knowledge of the area and his familiarity with its every physical feature enabled
him to describe the travels and activities of the early explorers, fur-traders,
miners, and settlers in a most interesting and enlightening manner. He
spoke first of Simon Fraser, who travelled down the Fraser River, past the
present site of Lillooet, in 1808, and then briefly sketched the work of the
traders sent into the district first by the North West Company and later by
the Hudson's Bay Company. Finally, in 1858-59, came the gold-miners,
whose arrival brought the town of Lillooet into existence. Transportation
was the key problem of the time, and Mr. Carson pointed out the great
emphasis rightly placed upon it by Governor Douglas, and the ingenuity
and success with which he overcame the difficulties in the way of the construction of much-needed roads and bridges. Amongst other episodes Mr.
Carson told the amusing and heartening story of the famous volunteer corps
that opened the road-and-water route from Port Douglas, at the head of
Harrison Lake, to the Fraser River at Lillooet. During the discussion that
followed the address some one remarked that Mr. Carson had ended his
story about the time his own family arrived in the Lillooet district, and the
hope was expressed that he would consent to return at a later date and tell
the second instalment of its history.
The election of officers for the year 1944 was held, and resulted in the
re-election of most of the executive, and the addition of several new members
to the Council.    Officers for 1944 are as follows:—
Honorary President    -     -     -     - '   Dr. Robie L. Reid.
President -      Mr. A. G. Harvey.
Vice-President      -----      Miss Helen Boutilier.
Honorary Secretary    - Miss Audrey Reid.
Honorary Treasurer   - Mr. G. B. White.
Members of the Council—
Mr. E. G. Baynes. Mr. E. M. Cotton.
Mr. J. R. V. Dunlop. Mr. F. H. Johnson.
Dr. W. Kaye Lamb. Mr. D. A. McGregor.
Mr. A. De B. McPhillips.       Miss Eleanor Mercer.
Dr. W. N. Sage. Dr. Sylvia Thrupp.
Mr. K. A. Waites.
The thanks of the Section were expressed to Miss Lillian Cope, who had
kindly acted as Secretary during the latter part of 1943.
VICTORIA CAVALCADE.
An elaborate play-pageant entitled Victoria Cavalcade, designed as part
of the celebration of the centenary of the city, was presented at the Royal 1944 Notes and Comments. 85
Victoria Theatre on December 17 and 18, 1943. The play was written by
Mr. A. M. D. Fairbairn and produced by the Victoria Little Theatre and
Dramatic School. The main portion of the drama consisted of three one-
act plays, which were preceded by several introductory scenes and followed
by an epilogue. The whole pageant was linked together by a commentary
spoken by the author.
The first scene represented Vancouver Island before the coming of the
white man. This was followed by a scene depicting the choice of the site
of Fort Victoria by James Douglas. Next came the erection of the fort,
and, concluding the preliminary scenes, a representation of the arrival of
Richard Blanshard, first Governor of Vancouver Island, in 1850.
Of the three plays the first, His Excellency Requests the Pleasure, told
the amusing story of a reception held by Governor Blanshard in the first
Government House. (This play, it will be recalled, was presented with
great success some years ago at a Blanshard Day celebration held in the
ball-room of the present Government House.) The second play was entitled
Grand Ball in the Fart, and depicted the Christmas Eve party given by
Governor Douglas in old Fort Victoria in 1854. Lastly came Cargo of
Crinolines, an episode built around the arrival of one of the famous " bride
ships " in 1862. The epilogue—Sovereignty, May 30, 1989—concerned the
visit to Victoria of Their Majesties the King and Queen, and introduced the
ghost of Governor Blanshard, which surveyed the spectacle with interest
and satisfaction.
Excellent scenery and colourful costumes, many of them authentic relics
of the period represented, contributed to the success of the pageant.
CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS ISSUE.
Six of Judge Howay's friends have united to pay him tribute in this
memorial issue of the Quarterly.
Henry R. Wagner, A.B., LL.B. (Yale), D.Litt. (Pomona), of San Marino,
California, shared to the full Judge Howay's interest in early voyages to
the Northwest Coast. But whereas the Judge was most concerned with the
maritime fur trade, Dr. Wagner gave first place to exploration and cartography. Each became the acknowledged authority in his particular field,
and owing to the division of their interests the work of one complemented
that of the other. Of Dr. Wagner's many publications the best known are
probably Sir Francis Drake's Voyage Around the World, Spanish Explorations in the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and his monumental two-volume work,
The Cartography of the Northwest Coast of America To the Year 1800.
W. Stewart Wallace, B.A. (Toronto), M.A. (Oxford), is Librarian of
the University of Toronto. He was virtually the founder and was for ten
years editor of the Canadian Historical Review. He was formerly the
Secretary and is now President of the Champlain Society, for which he
edited McLean's Notes of a Twenty-five Years' Service in the Hudson's Bay
Territory and a volume of Documents Relating to the North West Company. In 1926 he published a Dictionary of Canadian Biography, and in
•1935-37 acted as general editor of the Encyclopedia of Canada. 86 Notes and Comments.
Walter N. Sage, M.A. (Oxford), Ph.D. (Toronto), is Head of the
Department of History in the University of British Columbia. He has
published many papers and articles relating to the history of the Province,
and is the author of the standard life of Douglas, Sir James Douglas and
British Columbia. In 1942 he published, in collaboration with Judge Howay
and Professor H. F. Angus, British Columbia and the United States, a volume in the " Relations of Canada and the United States " series.
Noel Robinson is well known throughout the West as a writer and
journalist. Students of British Columbia history will recall that it was
he who secured from the late Walter Moberley his amazing story, Blazing
the Trail through the Rockies, which appeared first in the old News-
Advertiser, and was later rewritten and issued in book form. Mr. Robinson and Judge Howay had a host of literary interests in common, and he is
therefore peculiarly well qualified to write of the Judge from that point
of view.
It is fitting that an article by Robie L. Reid, LL.D. (British Columbia),
should appear in this issue. Dr. Reid and Judge Howay first met in 1885,
and thus were friends for nearly sixty years. Both developed a keen interest in the history of British Columbia, and, in addition to a volume entitled
The Assay Office and the Proposed Mint at New Westminster, Dr. Reid has
contributed many papers to the Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada
and to various historical periodicals.
W. Kaye Lamb, M.A. (British Columbia), Ph.D. (London), formerly
Provincial Librarian and Archivist, is now Librarian of the University of
British Columbia. THE NORTHWEST BOOKSHELF.
The Tenth Report of the Okanagan Historical Society of Vernon, British
Columbia.    [Vernon, B.C., 1943.]    Pp. xiv., 132.   $1.
The besetting sin of most regional historical societies is an undue preoccupation with matters of purely local concern. This Tenth Report indicates that no such charge can be levelled against the Okanagan Historical
Society. More than half the report is devoted to topics of interest to all
Canadians, and the import of some of the articles is wider still. Typical of
this part of the report is the first paper, A Plea for the French Language,
in which Miss Marjorie M. Jenkins presents a point of view that all English-
speaking Canadians would do well to ponder. For Miss Jenkins regards
Canada's bi-lingual heritage as a blessing, not a curse. She points out some
of the cultural and practical advantages that would come to us if we recognized this fact and acted accordingly; and she points out further that the
sooner we admit to ourselves that both languages are here to stay the
better, "because there is not the slightest probability that either one will
ever be abandoned." This paper is followed by a brief note on the Statute
of Westminster, a discussion of the necessity for a Canadian flag, and some
remarks upon Canada's foreign relations.
Mr. Leonard Norris contributes several papers, including an interesting
thirty-page essay on Some Aspects of the Carnarvon Terms. After sketching in the characters of the three principal persons involved—Lord Carnarvon, Prime Minister Mackenzie, and Premier Walkem—Mr. Norris first
shows how unorthodox and extraordinary the episode was in many respects,
and then proceeds to search for motives. In his opinion the key lies in the
arbitration award which in 1871 gave the San Juan archipelago to the
United States. In military terms the effect of this award was to isolate
Victoria from the rest of Vancouver Island, and cut off Burrard Inlet from
the sea. A railway between Esquimalt and Nanaimo—which in 1874 was
not in the least necessary for any peace-time purpose—would to some extent
rectify the situation; and Mr. Norris contends that it was the desire of
the British Government to see this strategic line constructed that accounted
for Lord Carnarvon's strange excursion into Canada's domestic affairs.
Mr. Burt R. Campbell tells the story of the Inland Sentinel, now the
Kamloops Sentinel, the oldest newspaper in the Interior of British Columbia.
Founded originally at Emory Bar in 1880, the Sentinel first migrated to
Yale, and then in 1884 moved on to Kamloops, where it has been published
for almost sixty years. Mr. L. A. Hayman writes a history of the Kelowna-
Westbank ferry, which he himself operated for many years. Mr. G. C.
Tassie explains the origin of a number of well-known place-names. An
up-to-the-minute note is struck by the sketch and photograph of Alexis
Smith, the young Penticton-born screen star, who is rapidly climbing to
the top of the tree in Hollywood.
British Columbia Historical Quarterly. Vol. VIII., No. 1.
87 88 The Northwest Bookshelf. January
In addition to more than a dozen articles, the Tenth Report contains
a number of reviews and comments on topics raised in various books and
articles. The publications noticed include British Columbia and the United
States, by F. W. Howay, W. N. Sage, and H. F. Angus, and several articles
that have appeared in this Quarterly.
The new Report is well printed and presented, and the Okanagan Historical Society is to be congratulated upon the appearance of so substantial
a publication under present conditions. That the Society continues to enjoy
widespread support is shown by the membership list, which includes more
than 400 names. Copies of the Tenth Report may be obtained from the
Society's Secretary-Treasurer, Mr. Leonard Norris (address: P.O. Box 897,
Vernon, B.C.), who is once again chiefly responsible for the new addition to
the Report series.
W. Kaye Lamb.
Resources of Pacific Northwest Libraries: A Survey of Facilities for Study
and Research. By John VanMale. Seattle: Pacific Northwest Library
Association, 1943.    Pp. xv., 404.    $4.
Readers of an historical publication may wonder why this book, which
deals with library problems, should be reviewed here. But the sub-title
indicates that historians, who are dependent on books and on librarians,
will here find help in their research.
Resources of Pacific Northwest Libraries grew out of the activities of
the Committee on Bibliography of the Pacific Northwest Library Association, and its establishment of the Pacific Northwest Bibliographic Centre in
Seattle. Before an actual centralized library service for this region could
be put into effect, a knowledge of the materials available was necessary;
and this book is the report of such a survey. The individual libraries (and
the list is surprisingly long, for a region so young and so scattered) surveyed their own collections, and Dr. VanMale, after visiting each institution,
evaluated and compiled the returns. The result is a comprehensive over-all
picture of scholarly materials in the Pacific Northwest.
The book is conveniently arranged so that the research worker can turn
immediately to the subject-field in which he is interested. History is treated
in the chapter on " Social Sciences." Dr. VanMale reports that, despite
their brief life-span and the lack of large endowment funds, many local
libraries have assembled remarkably good collections. In Pacific Northwest
history they " have managed to acquire and preserve practically the entire
printed record of the region " in newspapers and books. Current ephemeral
printed matter, however, is not stressed in our institutions, a fact which
future historians will greatly regret. A systematic scheme for specialization in' the preservation of church, business, labour, and other reports is
most necessary in this area.
The survey shows that the larger Pacific Northwest history collections
at the Provincial Library, the Universities of Washington and Oregon, and
at the historical societies of Montana and Oregon, differ greatly in scope. 1944 The Northwest Bookshelf. 89
Some stress manuscripts and atlases of early explorations; others later
periods and different districts.
In his " Program for the Future " Dr. VanMale points out that local
libraries have tended to buy books with a brief life expectancy rather than
those which will " become a part of the cultural wealth of the institution,
city, state, and region in which they are held." After the war, if the
expected economic expansion of the Pacific Northwest occurs, our collections will prove inadequate to meet the increased demands for research
materials. Few local libraries will have sufficient funds to build up suitable
new collections, and we must undertake some sort of regional planning for
library, as well as for natural resources. Important preliminary steps
toward this end have already been taken with the establishment of a Union
Catalogue at the Pacific Northwest Bibliographic Centre—a catalogue which
lists the complete holdings of the principal libraries of the region. The
author suggests that librarians search out, through organized community
groups, the people's library needs, both present and future. They should
plan to meet these needs by each agreeing to concentrate on certain fields,
to refer certain reference questions to specialized libraries, and to facilitate
if possible the existing system of inter-library loans.
Historians will, therefore, find much help and many new suggestions in
this book. But readers must bear in mind the foreword's caution that
" titles credited to one library may be held in other libraries even though
not so recorded." It is all too easy to get the impression that certain titles
are held only by the specific library mentioned. Perhaps the listing of
representative titles need not have been so detailed—it would be sufficient
for the reader (and the librarian) to know what is in the region, and how
he may obtain it through his local library.
Type and format are pleasing, and every reader will appreciate the ease
of reference which is afforded by the exhaustive index.
Eleanor B. Mercer.
The Panama Route 1848-1869. By John Haskell Kemble. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1943. Pp. xii., 316. $3. (University of
California Publications in History, vol. 29.)
For twenty eventful years—from the discovery of gold in California
until the completion of the first transcontinental railway—the Panama route
was " the best way of travel and communication between the Atlantic and
Pacific coasts of the United States." Doubtless because it was superseded
so completely by the railway, its importance has been overlooked by historians, and this is the first volume in which trade and travel via the isthmus
have been described in detail. Nor is it a small-scale story. Between 1848
and 1869 no less than 110 steamers were employed at one time or another
on the Atlantic or the Pacific; over 800,000 passengers travelled over the
route, and the vessels transported over $750,000,000 in treasure.
The story opens quietly, in the years before the gold-rush, when the
Panama route was attracting attention in the United States chiefly because 90 The Northwest Bookshelf. January
it afforded the best means of establishing regular communication with the
newly-acquired Oregon territory. Eventually the United States Mail Steamship Company undertook to provide a steamer service between New York
and the isthmus, and the Pacific Mail Steamship Company was organized
to operate a line from Panama to California and Oregon. Both companies
received liberal subsidies in the form of mail contracts. Just as they were
about to commence operations on the modest scale circumstances seemed to
justify, news of the gold discovery in California gave rise to a tremendous
demand for transportation. The mail companies, and in particular the
Pacific Mail Company, did their best to handle the enormous traffic, but
inevitably rival lines were attracted to the scene. A period of frenzied
competition followed. The figure that loomed largest in the opposition
ranks was Cornelius Vanderbilt, and the most interesting episode was his
determined effort to defeat the Pacific Mail and its Atlantic counterpart
by developing a new and shorter trans-isthmian route through Nicaragua.
For a few months in 1853 the volume of traffic actually swung in Vander-
bilt's favour, but the completion of the Panama Railroad, early in 1855,
won the battle for the Panama lines. Vanderbilt, however, who was nothing
if not astute, was by that time receiving a bonus of $40,000 a month simply
for keeping out of the isthmian trade. Later he returned to the fray, and
when peace of a sort was made in 1860, he emerged as an important shareholder in the Pacific Mail.
Having devoted four chapters to a chronological account of these events,
Dr. Kemble next treats at length several topics the details of which would
have impeded the general narrative. These include the characteristics of
the steamers employed on both oceans; the nature of the journey, from the
passenger's point of view, together with some interesting and revealing
descriptions of its joys and sorrows; the transit across the isthmus, and
the construction of the railroad. Appendix I., which follows, is virtually
a supplement to this part of the book. Consisting of forty compactly-
printed pages, it describes in detail 108 of the steamers employed on the
Atlantic or the Pacific, and tabulates many particulars of their careers.
The amount and completeness of the information given is amazing, and this
appendix will at once take rank as a standard reference in its field.
The story of the Panama route is, of course, closely related to British
Columbia as well as to California. It was for years the best route to the
one as well as to the other. With the discovery of gold in British Columbia
in 1858 many of the steamers hitherto used in the San Francisco—Panama
service were employed on the northern run to Victoria and Puget Sound.
The list of steamers above referred to therefore includes such familiar
names as Brother Jonathan, Northerner, Oregon, Orizaba, and Sierra
Nevada, as well as the Pacific, of unhappy memory. As an illustration of
the unexpected and interesting facts hidden away in the appendix, it may
be mentioned that one entry discloses that the United States survey ship
Active, after which Active Pass was named, was originally the steamer
Gold Hunter. Built in New York, she was brought around the Horn to run
on the Sacramento River.   After serving as a survey ship she was sold and 1944 The Northwest Bookshelf. 91
placed in the coastal trade. She ended her days in 1870, when she crashed
ashore near Cape Mendocino, while en route from San Francisco to Victoria.
Any doubt that this may not be a definitive study will be quickly dispelled by a glance through the fourteen-page bibliography. The search for
material has been exceptionally widespread and thorough, and except for
an occasional detail nothing in the volume is drawn from other than a primary or contemporary source.
The maps and illustrations, sixteen in number, are well chosen and well
reproduced. Readers will be interested to note that the view of the steamer
Dakota in Victoria harbour is from a photograph in the Provincial Archives.
The book is attractively printed and there is a good index. Unfortunately
the University of California Press has insisted upon keeping the' pages of
the text free from footnotes, and any one interested in the references must
therefore follow the tedious practice of hunting them up in the back pages.
W. Kaye Lamb. We
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
Organized October 31st, 1922.
PATRON.
His Honour W. C. Woodward, Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia.
OFFICERS, 1944.
Hon. H. G. T. Perry     - Honorary President.
B. A. M ....       . President.
J. C. Go   Past President.
A. G. Harvey  1st Vice-President.
Mrs. Curtis SAMrsoN    ...       . &nd Vice-Presid-
Madge Wolfenden     .... Honorary Treasurer.
H. T. Nation  Honorary Secretary.
MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL.
Helen R. Boutilier.      F. C. Green.      Robie L. Reid.
T. rd.       E. G. Ba,
Willard E. Ireland Kaye Lamb
(Provincial Archive ror, Quarterly).
A. G. Harvey H. B. Robert
(Vancouver Section). (Victoria Section.)
OBJECTS.
To enco die interest in history;
to promote tin- wildings, relics,
cal interest, and to
MEMBERSHIP.
Ordinary members pay a fee o: in advance.    The fiscal year
s on the All members in good standing
ut further charge.
Correspondence and I ivincial Archives,
Pari

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