British Columbia History

BC Historical News Jun 30, 1973

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 historical
NEWS
JUNE 1973
fcjtfeffc Ii IT ? 12
B.C. BOOKS OF INTEREST, compiled by Frances Woodward, Vancouver Hist. Soc
BRITISH COLUMBIA CENTENNIAL '71 COMMITTEE. The celebration of the century
1.871-1971; the report of the British Columbia Centennial '71 Committee.
Victoria, 1.973. 92 pp., illus.
CLUTTON-BROCK, Elizabeth. Woman of the paddle-song. Toronto, Copp Clark,
1.972. I.76 pp. (fictionalized life of David Thompson's wife)
COMMUNITY ARTS COUNCIL OF VANCOUVER. Directory of B.C. arts 1973. Vancouver,
Community Arts Council, 1973. 43 pp. $1.00.
COOK. Warren L. Flood tide of empire: Spain and the Pacific Northwest,
I543-I8I9. New Haven & London, Yale University Press, 1.973. xi, 620 pp.,
illus. $17.50. Distributed in Canada by McGill-Queens University Press.
DAKIN, Jean L. Kinbasket country; the story of Golden and the Columbia
Valley, Golden, Golden & Dist. Historical Society, 1.973. 88 pp. illus. $3.
DICTIONARY OF THE CHINOOK JARGON: OR, INDIAN TRADE LANGUAGE OF THE NORTH
PACIFIC COAST. Seattle, Shorey Book Store (1.971) 42 pp. $2.00 Reprint.
EVANS, Lynette and George Burley. Roche Harbor: a saga of the San Juans.
Everett, Wash., B # E Enterprises, 1.972. 95 PP«, illus.
FIENNES, Ranulph. The Headless valley. London, Musson, 1973. 207 Pp.,
illus. $8.95.
FLADMARK, Knut R. A summary of Queen Charlotte Island prehistory. (Burnaby)
Dept. of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, 1973. 4 pp.
GREEN, John. The Sasquatch file. Agassiz, Cheam Publishing, 1973- 80 pp.,
illus. $4.00.
HERVEY, Sheila. Some Canadian ghosts. Richmond Hill, Ont., Simon & Schuster
: of Canada (1.973) 208 pp., illus. $1.50..
HODGES, Lawrence Kaye ed. Mining in southern British Columbia. Seattle,
Shorey Book Store, 1970. 1.0, 117-192, xxvi-lii pp., illus. $1.0. Reprint.
HUNGRY WOLF, Adolf. Good medicine in Glacier National Park; inspirational
photos and stories from the days of the Blackfoot people. (Good medicine
series no. 4) (Golden, Good Medicine Books, 1.971) 32 pp., illus. $1.50.
LIVERSEDGE, Ronald. Recollections of the On to Ottawa trek; ed. by Victor
' Hoare. (Carleton Library # 66) Toronto, McClelland & Stewart, 1973.
300 pp. $4.50.
LOBBAN, Chris, Bamfield Marine Station 1972: a very good year for smalltown marine biologists, Bamfield, Western Canadian Universities Marine
Biological Station, 1.973. 50 pp., illus. $2.50.
LOUDON, Peter. The town that got lost (Anyox) Sidney, Gray's Publishing,
1973. Ill PP., illus. $7.50.
MORTON, ArthusrS. A history of the Canadian West to 1870-71. 2nd ed.
Toronto, U. of Toronto Press, 1.973. 1.039 pp. $25.00.
NAPIER, John. The Yeti and Sasquatch in myth and reality. London, Cape,
1972. 252 pp., illus. 2.95.
PAGE FACING: A few reminders of the 1.973 Convention.
1. "Sir, would you give food to a poor man that's starving?" "Under the
circumstances that'would be the correct diagnosis. - $25.00 please"
2. "Actually I'm going to Spain but a ride down town will do for a start,"
3. "There's too much competition in this alley."
4. Looks like Women's Lib. is working this one!
5. "There's more competition here than Hastings Street."
6. 'You think I'm paying, don't you. Wait till I bring out my 'six-shooter'"
7. "I suppose a white hat wasn't such a bright idea after all."
8. "These Conventions are fine - it's the long trip home." 11
appear to be. the first and last few chapters, where the motives for
Spanish expansion and contraction are explored in some detail. The author
has made extensive use of Canadian, United States, British, Mexican, and
particularly Spanish archives. His lengthy bibliography, though somewhat
disorganized, is a testament to the author's diligence in tracking down
the last item, of information. Many of the entries are of marginal interest
or use, and could well have been dispensed with. The index, of which one
hundred entries were checked, is accurate, and the sixty-one illustrations
and two maps add to the fine printing quality of this weighty tome.
This book brings out a number of historical items that deserve to be
better known. First, that it was the Spanish and not the Americans who
first sighted the mouth of the great Columbia River (p.78): the honour
belongs to Hezeta, not Captain Gray. Second, that one outcome of the
Nootka crisis was that it was the lever by which Britain gained access
to Spanish American markets in the Caribbean, Central America and South
America (p.240). Third, that Maquinna and other Nootka Sound Indians
probably engaged in cannibalism (anthropophagy) before White pressures
ended the practice (p.1.90 and 1.90 n.1.07). The last point is made more
powerfully owing to Professor Cook's expertise as an anthropologist.
This book is not without its faults. The narrative is long and
frequently tedious, and it could have profitted from editorial priming of
redundancies and overstatements - but these are matters of taste and open
to debate. Professor Cook likes to classify historians according to
nationality, as if nationality might determine historical perspective:
A.L. Burt (p.21.1.) is a Canadian (although after his move to the University
of Minnesota he took out United States citizenship). Professor John
Norris (p.210) is an English historian; and by that perhaps Professor Cook
meant that Norris is an historian of England, a not to&lly correct
assumption considering Dr Norris 's recent and. .important study on the
ethnic composition of British Columbia. A more substantive complaint is
that Professor Cook has not made use (apparently) of volume 2, chapter 7
of Vincent Harlow's Founding of the Second British Empire, which is the
best source presently available on British maritime activity on the Northwest Coast in the late eighteenth century and its relationship to the
China trade. Nor does the author deal much with Canadian and British
westward expansion that brought Mackenzie ultimately to the Pacific coast
and threatened Spanish interests from yet another quarter.
These matters aside, this is a very important book. For all too
long we have depended un Henry R, Wagner's investigation of Spanish
voyages along the Pacific coast. For too long also we have had' to use
William R-i Manning's unbalanced and uneven treatment of the Nootka Sound
controversy. Professor Cook's book, with its breadth and depth, is now
the standard treatment of Iberian participation in the international
rivalry for the Pacific Northwest. Accordingly, this ia a publication
event of the first magnitude for British Columbians and others with an
interest in the rise and fall of Spanish interests in northwestern North
America,
Barry M. Gough
Nanoose Bay, B.C
Dr Gough is a member of the History Department at Waterloo Lutheran University. 10
present but for the future some of the many picture collections that many
of your members know should be copied."
This is a golden opportunity that our members should not overlook.
Get in touch with Mr Lang, if you know of any such collections. They will
travel throughout the Province if there is enough material available.
This is a piece of whimsy for the older members of our Association,
that appeared in a trade journal, AB Bookman's Weekly, in a letter to the
editor. The letter states that Peter Rabbit's Briar Patch in Sandwich, Mass,
(Cape Cod) immortalized by Thornton W. Eurgess, has been saved from the
developer's bulldozer. A local committee was launched in a campaign to save
"dear old Briar Patch". Despite the proposal being turned down by the
town's finance committee, and the half hearted support of the town fathers,
the voters overwhelmingly agreed to buy the Briar Patch, 52 acres at
$200,000. They now have a small statue of Peter Rabbit in the Town Hall
to remind them that even old timers ware young once and that Peter Rabbit
and his Briar Patch are a part of youth that citizens aren't ready to give
up. There's hope for us all yet, and a thousand blessings to those of us
who have the guts to fight and retain a childhood memory dear to millions.
ste    9&c    >Jc    sk    "sic    bic    **Sc    *>Sc    ^k    A
BOOK REVIEW
Flood Tide of Empire: Spain and the Pacific Northwest, 1543-1.819, by
Warren L. Cook. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1973-
pp. xi + 620, illus. $17,50. Distributed in Canada by McGill-Queen's
University Press, Montreal,
This is a superior book, one of the best to appear on Pacific Northwest history in the past decade. Its scope both in time and space, is
immense: in time, the book begins with the first tentative, exploration of
the Spamish by sea north of Point Reyes, just south of the Golden Gate,
and ends with the abandonment of Spanish claims to northwestern North
America in 1819 by the signing of the Adams Onis Treaty with the United
States. In the sense of space, this volume is similarly comprehensive:
it focuses naturally on the western edge of North America north of Cape
Mendocino "the last temperate zone coastline to withhold its secrets from
European explorers" but it also considers the relationship of Spanish
interests on the Northwest Coast to the development of Spanish imperial
concerns elsewhere, in central America, in Mexico, in Louisiana and also
in Europe. Both in time and scope then, the author has set himself a huge
task.
It is often said that each generation must write its own history. It
can now safely be said that our generation has its history of Spanish
imperial developments in northwestern North America, and this reader would
venture to say that future generations will have to consider the issues
raised in this book. It is unlikely that they will be able to go beyond
Professor Cook's in supplying an even coverage of the subject. Professor
Cook of Castleton State College, Vermont, is a trained historian and
anthropologist. In thirteen lengthy chapters, the author traces the rise
and fall of Spanish interests on the coast. While one finds little new
here in the treatment of the Nootka Sound crisis, the most valuable sections an oral history programme with an enthusiastic group participating. The
Society records all its speakers on tape.
The 1973-74 Executive consists of the following: Pres.: Mr A.G. Slocomb;
1st Vice-Pres.: Mr K.L. Leeming; 2nd Vice-Pres.:- Mrs A.D. Turnbull;
Recording Sec: Mr G.A. Turner; Corresponding Sec: Mrs E.F. Stewart;
Treasurer: Mr L.G. Toms.
**************
OBITUARY
The Nanaimo Historical Society regretfully announces the death of Mr
Alan Burdock, one of its most devoted members and a Past President of the
Society. Born in England, Mr Burdock emigrated to Canada in 1920 and after
1 iving in the prairies for some years he came to Nanaimo in 1936, He was
shop foreman for General Auto Sales until failing eyesight led him to his
work, in Wardell's Bicycle Shop and later his ownership, until his retirement
in 1.965. Mr Burdock's hobby was collecting and restoring historical objects
and he was always very happy to show visitors his great collection of
Edison phonograph machines and his hundreds of Edison cylinder and disc
records. Many of Mr Burdock's recordings have heen played on different
occasions to the Nanaimo Historical Society. For his devoted attention as
guide for visitors at the Museum, Mr Burdock was awarded a life membership.
"We pass this way but once, and as a tribute to Alan, he left the world a
little better for having lived amongst us,"
***********
JOTTINGS
The National Film Board has advised the Association that it has a
considerable number of films available for the use of any of our member
societies, These films have been group•ed under specific headings, and
it would seem that the following groups should be of particular iriterest
to our members. The History Makers-1.7 films on the men who made history
in Canada's half of North America, e.g. Cabot. Struggle for a Border -
9 one hour length films showing the historical interplay that produced
the two great North American nations. Eskimos and Indians - a wide
variety of films and quite a numerous selection. Here are a few of the
titles, "The Ballad of Crowfoot", "The Loon's Necklace", "The Dirys of
Whisky Gap", Regional history - Here are some titles:"Legendary Judge" "
the story of Matthew Baillie Begbie, "Gold Seekers" "City of Gold^l Yukon
gold fever recalled by Pierre Berton, and many more.
These films are free of charge to any of us, the only stipulation
being that admission to performances must be free. However, this does riot
present taking a collection. For further information write to Mr Joe
Brumec, National Film Board Representative, 11.55 West Georgia Street,
Vancouver 5, B.C.,. or the. Editor.
In a letter from Mr K. Lang, Ste 4, 995 West 7th Avenue, Vancouver 9,
B.C., comes this information. "We are four people and are funded for 3t
months. We are available to make copy negatives from family albums,
private collections, small museums etc. The negatives would be given to
idie large collections, Provincial Archives, Vancouver City Archives,
Vancouver Public Library, etc. We wish to preserve not only for the 8
of the Programme Committee. Officers are: Pres. Mr Steve Saprunoff, Sec.
Mrs Alta Weir, Executive members Ethel Mcintosh, Helen Peachey, Craig
Weir, Tom Weir, Fred Edwards; Erica D. Johnson is Corresponding Secretary to
B.C. Historical News and chairman of phone committee.
The April meeting was addressed by Wm Sloan of Selkirk College on the
history of the West Kootenay. He traced the economic development from the
time when the Kootenai and Salish Indians came into the area to fish and
hunt; the impact of the fur trade and early gold discoveries had on the
Indians and their environment.... to the present time through the advent
of rail and the impact of two world wars.
In May a talk was given by Russell McArthur, a teacher at Selkirk
College, on modern China. The speaker first visited China in 1.945 while
serving with a Friends' Ambulance Unit, and revisited the country in I.965
while in Singapore on Colombo Plan duties, and made another visit recently
with a group representing the Canada-China Friendship Association.
Mr Wm Merrilees of Selkirk College has offered space to st ore the
Society's collections,for a future museum. President Steve Saprunoff has
already removed to his own garage four filing cabinets which had been
stored in the Fanderlik's basement and now they are awaiting a better home.
As a money making venture Miss Letty Schofield has suggested going into
the china business - having, for example,a china plate made with a picture
of old Fort Shepherd, to be sold commercially. Plans are in progress,
NANAIMO At their April meeting the Society had a book sale to which members
brought along unwanted books. A drawing of one of Mr Hardcasile's paintings
was also sold, all in aid of the Society's centennial project.
At the May meeting the guest speaker was Mrs Ellen White, who spoke on
"History, leadership and legends of rry people".
At the opening of the 1972-73 season the Nanaimo Society had 40 individual members and one organizational member. They are sorry to report four
deaths - Mr W.W.S. Kennedy, Mr J.J. Johnson, Mr Jack Green and Mr A. Burdock.
They gained ten new members during the year.
VANCOUVER At the last meeting of the year, in April, the Society's Secretary,
Michael Halleran, gave a talk on The Forgotten Pioneers: the Hawaiian
settlers in B.C. The usual May meeting was cancelled since the Society was
fully occupied in hosting theConvention.
Incidentally, some readers might like to know the names of the participants in the Round Table Panel Discussion on Friday May 25th, chaired
by Jackie Gresko. They were: Mrs Joan Mackie, Membership Secretary,
Heritage Canada (Canada's National Trust) Box 1.358, Station B, Ottawa KIP 5R4.
Mr Peter Holtshousen, Head, Sanadian Inventory of Historic Buildings,
National and Historic Parks Branch, Department of Indian and Northwen
Affairs, Ottawa. Dr E. Gibson, Geography Dept., Simon Fraser University,
Burnaby 2,. B.C, Dr Gibson has been studying historic landscapes and
buildings in Vancouver, Coquitlam, and Greenwood. Mr Harold Kalman, Fine
Arts Dept. University of B.C. See the spring B.C. Motorist for his article
on saving old buildings. Alderman Darlene Marzari, who is alert to the
needs of Vancouver for revision of by-laws on zoning and development.
VICTORIA At the April meeting Col. G.S. Andrews spoke on his "South American Safari", after returning from a 3-month teaching assignment there.
In May Col. J.W.D. Symons, Curator of Victoria's Maritime Museum talked on
the subject "Maritime Museum - Past and Future".
Under- the direction of Mr Ian L. Sutherland, a start has been made on ■The following dates were selected for the next convention to be held
at Cranbrook and hosted by the Historical Association of East Kootenay:
May 23rd, 24th and 25th, 1974,
NEW BUSINESS The matter of a future convention being held in the vicinity
of Nootka was referred to the next Council Meeting to take action.
The revision of the Constitution was discussed inasmuch as several
amendments have been made but have not been incorporated in a new draft
and officially accepted by the Association. This has been a recurring
situation and the majority of delegates felt that each affiliate should
have a copy of the constitution. A committee was appointed of Mr Brammall
and Mr K. Leeming with powers to add and this committee would prepare
and print sufficient copies to cover adequately the needs of the Association and all its affiliates.
Mr New proposed that Council should go on record of officially
thanking the retiring Treasurer, Mrs P. Brammall, for her four years of
hard work managing the financial affairs of the Association. This
proposal was unanimously accepted.
Moved Leeming, seconded German that the meeting adjourn. Carried.
8,00 p.m.
P. Yandle
************
SOCIETY NOTES AND COMMENTS
ALBERNI The Museum opening on April 7th 1.973 was the highlight of the
year. Mr Laurie Wallace, Deputy Provincial Secretary, performed the
opening ceremony. At the Society's regular April meeting Mr Sendey, the
Curator, gave a tour of the Museum to members and guests who had all
contributed in some way to the success of the Museum. The Society is
working closely with Mr Sendey, and a group meets each week to collect,
catgalogue and file photographs. Another group is working on an oral
history project.
GULF ISLANDS At the February meeting on Pender Island, President Donald
New showed slides of English cathedrals taken on a recent trip. The
March meeting on Saturna Island heard Miss K. Cronin speak on "The Oblate
Fathers in B.C.", subject of her well known book. Miss Cronin traced the
movement of Father Pandosy from Walla Walla to the Okanagan. The first
Oblate community was set up in Esquimalt in 1.858, with later developments
at Mission, Hope, near Williams Lake and Fort St. James.
A presentation was made to Miss Gwen Hayball who is retttimg to England. Members enjoyed her recent article in the Canadian Geographical
Journal on Lobsticks in B.C.
At the Annual Meeting in April, Donald New was reelected as President.
Members had a preview of a historical marker to be erected where a bridge
now stands between North and South Pender Islands.. At that point, native
people and the earliest white settlers used to portage their canoes.
"The Society is considering a fifth printing of its perennial best
seller "Gulf Islands Patchwork". ,
WEST KOOTENAY At the Annual Meeting in March the existing slate of officers
was returned, with the addition of Wm Cant as Vice President and Chairman The President introduced the Members of Council. Branch, reports were
presented as follows: Alberni and Dist., Mrs Ford; Gulf Islands, Mrs
McAllister; Burnaby, Mr Street; Victoria, Mr Slocomb; Vancouver, Mrs Gresko;
Nanaimo. Miss Norcross; West Kootenay, Miss Johnson; East Kootenay, Mr
Hunter who explained that the prepared report had been delayed by a car
accident,
NEW Business The President made the presentation of a certificate of Honorary Life Membership to Mr Barraclough. The Secretary read a letter of
invitation from East Kootenay for the 1.974 Convention. Mr Yandle moved,
seconded by Mr Slocomb that the invitation be accepted with thanks. Carried.
Mrs Ford (Alberni) asked about a mooted visit to Nootka. In the coursa of
discussion it was suggested that this visit might take place in 1.975, the
bicentenary of the Spanish exploration of the West Coast, or if this was
not feasible, in 1978, the bicentenary of Captain Cook's visit to Nootka.
It was agreed to leave the matter for further study by the incoming Gouncil.
The Secretary drew attention to the many excellent films available
to the Branches free of charge from the National Film Board, and to the
photographic services available through Kurt Lang, operating with a federal
grant. Mr Slocomb asked about new copies of the Constitution%and
recommended that the Council be asked to revise or edit, print and distribute
it to Branches. This was also referred to the incoming Council. There
being no further business, Mr Slocomb moved adjournment at 1.1.45 a.m.
J.E. Gibbard.
************
Minutes of First Council Meeting of the 1.973-74 season, held in Vancouver
May 25th, 1.973.
The meeting was called to order at 6.45 p.m. by President G.S. Andrews
and the following delegates were present: Victoria - Mr H.B. Nash, Mr
K. Leeming, Mr A. Slocombe, Mr G. German; Vancouver - Mr J. Roff, Mr P.
Yandle, Mrs A. Yandle (Co-Ed.) Mr R. Brammall (Past Pres.); Gulf Islands -
Mr D. New; Burnaby - Mr F. Street; Nanaimo - Miss E, Norcross; East Kootenay -
Mr A. Hunter; West Kootenay - Miss Erica Johnson; Alberni - Mrs H. Ford;
Also present: Mrs Claire McAllister, Gulf Islands; Mrs T.S. Barnett, Campbell
River.
The first order of business was the election of officers for the
forthcoming year. Mr R. Brammall in the role of immediate Past President
conducted the election according to the Constitution, and the following
delegates were elected. Pres; Mr G. Andrews; 1st Vice Pres,Mr F. Street;
2nd Vice Pres. Mr J, Roff; Treas. Miss J. Rowland^(in absentia) Sec. Mr
P. Yandle; Editor Mr P. Yandle; Co-Ed. Mrs A. Yandle; Rec. Sec. Mr R, Watt
(in absentia); Exec, members: Mrs Claire McAllister, Mr H.B. Nash. (Both
members elected in absentia have since agreed to stand as elected.)
Under business referred to New Council discussion took place on the
Association's proposed representation on the Historic Sites Advisory Board
as suggested by Provincial Secretary, Mr Ernest Hall. The following names
were selected to be forwarded to Mr Hall: Mr G. Andrews, Mr R. Brammall
and Mrs Ann Stevenson. Should Mrs Stevenson decline to have her name
submi+ted. then Mrs Anne Yandle would be included. 5
Arising from further correspondence Mr Leeming raised, the question
as to whether there was any hope- of reviving the British Columbia Historical
Quarterly. Mr Yandle said that-even if it were, the News would still have
to be published to hold the Association together, since Mr Ireland had
indicated that a future Quarterly would be strictly a scholarly publication
with no Association connection. Further discussion of this question was
held in abeyance pending further outcome of the study.
A letter from the East Kootenay Historical Society asked the privilege
of hosting the 1974 Convention. F, Street moved, seconded by C. McAllister,
that acceptance of the offer be recommended to the Annual Meeting. Carried.
The Secretary summarized a letter from Mr Glen Adams, the printer
working on Champness. To Cflriboo and Back, saying that a mild heart attack
had delayed the work but that he hoped to have the book ready for distribution in the. Fall.
NEW BUSINESS It was announced that the new Membership Cards are nc^j
ready to be sent to the member societies on application. It was also
announced that the Editor has purchased two new electric staplers for
the News. The meeting was shown a framed certificate of Honorary Life
Membership to be presented to Mr Wm Barraclough at the Annual General
Meeting. This life membership had been previously approved at the first
Council Meeting in Alberni on May 25, 1972 and this was now a tangible
expression of the high regard the Association felt for Mr Barraclough.
Mr Slocomb inquired whether there is a fixed membership term. The
Secretary stated that the working year of the Association was considered
to be from Convention to Convention, and accordingly council meetings were
held with the same delegates taking part during that period. Approved
delegates forming first Council meeting would have a term of office running
to the fourth Council meeting just prior to the next Convention.
The meeting adjourned on motion at 9.50 a.m,    J.E. Gibbard.
*************
Minutes of the Annual General Meeting of the B.C Historical Association held in Vancouver on 25th May, 1973.
The meeting was called to order at 10.1.5 a.m. by President G.S.
Andrews. The announcement of three new member societies was greeted with
applause, the three being Atlin, Campbell River and Windermere. Attention
was drawn to numerous photographs posted in the convention hall by Mr
Ronald D'Altroy of the Vancouver Public Library at the request of Mr
Brammall, for which both gentlemen were thanked; Minutes of the last
Annual General Meeting, held in Port Alberni on May 26, 1972, were then
read and adopted on motion of Messrs Yandle and Street.
The Treasurer next presented her report which was adopted on motion,
seconded by Mr Leeming who took the occasion to compliment Mrs Brammall
on her concise and clear explanation of the financial condition of the
Association. The Secretary's"and Editor's reports were read and adopted
along with a formal motion, of acceptance of the applications of the three
new member societies, as moved by Messrs Yandle and Slocomb. feet to announce another presentation, this time to our Speaker of the
evening. In our midst were tWo holdouts from the last century who had been
overlooked by time - a burly Scot and a bowler-hatted Englishman, together
with a female companion reputedly of the Allison elan. It seemed that
these two employees of the Hudson's Bay Company at Fort Langley had drifted
in time down tho Fraser to attend our gathering and wished to present a
can of worms to Mr Sampson. Did he in his talk open a can of worms, and
was this to be a replacement? Read his text and judge for yourselves.
..... And then it was time to close proceedings, for another year and hope
to meet again next year in Cranbrook.
There were still those who hadn't had enough. They had dutifully
arranged to be escorted by Gordon Elliot on a tour of Gastown. Having by
this time reached a saturation point, it was the editor's privilege to lie
in bed and take a well earned rest, knowing full well what was to be seen
and knowing that the tour conductor would play his part to the full. The
pictures will give some idea of the "faithful" who took in a tour of
Vancouver's umbilical cord - Gastown. And so, my friends, that was
Convention '73«
**************
MINUTES
Minutes of the Fourth Meeting of the Council of the B.C. Historical
Association for 1972-1973, held at the University of British Columbia,
Friday, May 25th, 1.973.
Present: G.S. Andrews (Pres.); H.R. Brammall (Past Pres.); F. Street
(1st Vice-Pres.); J.Roff (2nd Vice-Pres.); P.A. Yandle (Sec); P. Brammall
(Treas,); A. Yandle (Co-Ed.); C McAllister and H.B•< Nash (Exec Members);
H. Ford (Alberni); J.E. Gibbard (Vancouver), ;..;.E« Johnson (W. Kootenay);
K. Leeming and A. Slocomb (Victoria) ;.,p. New (Gu£f Islands); E,.B.. Norcross (Nanaimo); K. Haworth (Prov. Archives).; Mf. Southwell. and Mrs F.
Street (Visitors).'
The meeting was convened in the Walter Gage Centre at. 9*00 a.m. with
President G.S. Andrews in the chair. Minutes of the previous meeting were
adopted as circulated. The Secretary reported correspondence involving
the application for affiliation with the B.C. Historical Association from
Atlin, Campbell River and Windermere, and that Campbell River would have a
representative at the Convention* It was moved Yandle, seconded Brammall
that Council recommend to the General Meeting the acceptance of the three
societies. The Secretary read a letter from Mr W.E. Ireland, Provincial
Archivist, apologising for his inability to be present at the Convention,
but he had sent a representative from his staff who would be acting on his
behalf, as previously arranged should ]Lr Ireland be unable to attend.
This was acceptable to Council. The Secretary reported further correspondence
from Mr E. Hall, Provincial Secretary, stating that the problems concerning
both the Provincial Archives and Library as put forward in the brief sub-
•mitted by the B.C Historical Association were still-under study. However
he was prepared to accept representation by the Association on the Historic
Sites Advisory Board on the basis that he suggested in his letter, namely
that we submit three names, from which he would pick one. Moved Yandle,
seconded Leeming that this be referred to the new Council. By 4.15 p.m. the "faithful" were being shepherded across to the
Centennial Museum for a Planetarium show commencing at 4.30 p.m. sharp.
To those who have never seen such a show, and. there must have been
several, this is a great levelling experience, and provides an insight
Into how infinitesimally small man becomes in relation to his universe.
At the completion of this show it was back to the Campus,, have dinner,
hold our second Council Meeting, because at 8,00 p.m. there was a Round
Table Panel Discussion, that had Jackie Gresko for Referee in charge.
Gamely we heeded the call and moved in shortly after 8-00 p.m. to
see what was brewing among such an assembly of expert opinion. After
all the infighting and the dust had settled we discovered that we have
some pretty'-s'har'p people in our backyard and that Ottawa should prepare
their emissaries to the ''savage West" with, -a deeper knowledge of our
province and a better understanding of its people. In all fairness to
the representative of Canada's Inventory of Historic Buildings, he not
only "hit into a double play" bu't he allowed himself to be upstaged not
only by his audience but by other members of his panel. And that, my.
friends, was Friday.
Saturday was to be fun day and we all presented ourselves at 10.30 a.m.
to board the M.V. Edgewater Fortune (a converted minesweeper) for a tour
of the harbour, (it is of some significance that two unattached members
of different sex missed the boat by finding themselves conveniently
parked at the Bayshore Inn instead of the dock. A lost lady's scarf
produced at the banquet'did nothing to dispel conjecture.) It was a
type of day well known to Vancouverites, when you. could gaze aloft and
be prepared for anything - rain, hail, snow, and possibly sunshine. Well
bundled in "clothing we set off with a nasty cold wind chasing a number
of the "hbt-hoUse'' variety1 to. .take cover. Our commentator and historian,
John Gibbard,: bravely. Stayed at his post and gave us a most interesting
account of the development of the harbour facilities from Stanley Park
to. Port Moody.- As  he was being revived with hot. coffee for the umpteenth
time' the weather1 took a. turn for the worse and it started into rain halfway back on the return journey. No matter, we'd had a splendid cruise
and all hands were in good form, for as we returned to the dock the sun
was taking over the rest of the day.
What a glorious evening and a magnificent setting for our banquet.
The Graduate Centre with its background of sea and. mountains was bathed
in early evening sunshine as we assembled in pur finest plumage. What
a contrast to the "motley crew" that had. dashed off to their "digs" after
the boat cruise.
The "good humour" session at the bar had built up, to a peak by the
time Grace was said and the moment of feeding was at hand. The head table
was intrdduced by the President and a lot of nice things were aaid about
various members of the Association who had worked to build it to its
present status. Meanwhile the delegates sat-back in gorged content,
blissfully sipping coffee. Bill Sampson, the speaker of the evening, was
rudely made aware that we British Columbia natives expect transient guests
from Alberta to fulfill speaking: engagements. And so it was that he
unfolded the story of Kenneth MacKenzie and the beginnings of agriculture
in British Columbia, interspersed: with enough anecdotes to assure himself
of an attentive audience. Hardly had our thanks been proffered and duly
accepted when a commotion among the guests brought the President to his What Happened at the Convention 1973?
From the opinions expressed by letter and by word, Convention '73
was a resounding success. For those who couldn't make it here is a short
"run down" of what transpired. The Walter Gage Convention Centre at
the University of B.C. was our headquarters and was "home" to most of the
visiting delegates.
Thursday evening was spent at the old MacRae home in Shaughnessy
(Vancouver's high rent district), which is now the home of the University
Women's Club. We gathered together on a beautiful May evening and spent
an hour getting acquainted and imbibing a little sherry. We were given
a brief history of the house and the various uses to which it has been put
since the MacRae's turned it over to the Government during the Second
World War to be used as a Veterans' Convalescence Home. It became vacant
and remained empty for a considerable length of time until it was purchased
by the University Women's Club hoping to restore it to its former
splendour. By this time both house and grounds had become badly run
down and it was a slow and costly project that the ladies began some ten
years or more ago. The ladies provided guides and we broke up into
small groups to see what can be done to restore and keep for us a part of
our heritage. It was thoroughly enjoyed and our congratulations and
thanks are small praise indeed for such a splendid contribution to the
history of our city.
Friday started a long day of meetings which will show up on various
pages of this issue of the News as minutes - two Council meetings and our
Annual General Meeting. Everything had to flow smoothly as so much had
to be crammed into such a short space of time. At 12.00 noon we headed
for the Royal Vancouver Yacht Club at Jericho for lunch and President
Andrews' address to the Convention. It is worthy of note for the historical significance of this club-house to quote from a brief history of
the Yacht Club
" It was perhaps prophetic that in 1904, when the club chose the foot
of Bute Street as its headquarters, H.O. Alexander proposed that the
club room and yacht moorings be at Jericho in English Bay, several
miles from the city. He argued "the anchorage is fine and the
position sheltered and far from the turmoil of city life". But it
was considered much too far from city life for the majority of
members, and it was not until 1927 that the Jericho clubhouse was
officially opened, close to the lbcation favoured by Mr Alexander
23 years previously."
Col. Andrews gave us a most interesting and personally involved history
of aerial surveying in Canada and what a large part it played in the
detailed mapping of our country. This will be the feature article in the
November issue of the News, so until November we will all have to be
content to wait.
We pushed on to the City Archives in Vanier Park, and Lynn Ogden -
City ARchivist - was polished and beaming to show off, what is probably the
finest city archives building in Canada. Again we had the "red carpet"
treatment with a grand tour of all the facilities and a series of experts
along the way to answer a barrage of questions. Incidentally, we've all
heard about "not letting the grass grow under your fee*fc" - well in this
building they let the grass grow over their heads2 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL NEWS
Vol. 6 No. 4
June 1973
Published November, February, April and June each year by the
British Columbia Historical Association, and distributed free to
members of all affiliated societies by the secretaries of their
respective societies. Subscription rate to non-members: $3.50 per
year, including postage, directly from the Editor, Mr P.A. Yandle,
3450 West 20th Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.
Executive
1973-1974
Hon. Patron:
Lieut-Gov. Walter Owen
Hon. President:
■<■■■   Dr Margaret Ormsby
President:
Col. G.S. Andrews
Past President:
Mr H.R. Brammall
1st Vice-President:
Mr F. Street
2nd Vice-President:
Mr J. Roff
Secretary:
Mr P.A. Yandle
.^Recording.- v ■.-.-.  Secretary:
Mr R. Watt
Editors:
Mr & Mrs P.A. Yandle
Treasurer:
Miss J. Rowlands
Executive members:
Mrs Clare McAllister
Mr H.B. Nash
TABLE OF CONTENTS
What happened at Convention'73
Minutes
Society Notes & Comments
Obituary
Jottings
Book Review: Flood Tide of Empire '
B.C. Books of Interest
Pictorial Reminders of Convention '73
Bountiful Apples, by Madge Wolfenden
Kenneth McKenzie and the Origins of B.C
Agriculture, by W.R. Sampson
List of Affiliated Societies
Page
2
4
7
9
9
1.0
12
Facing pp 12 & 13
1.4
16
26
The cover series for Vol. 6 Nos. 1.-4, drawn by Robert Genn,
consists of sketches of buildings throughout the province that
are of historic significance. They may be still standing or
they may be only a memory. The deadline for entries will be
October 1st, 1973. Please send your entry to the Editor before
that date. A prize will be awarded to -the winner. '
***********   13
OSGOOD, Wilfred H. Natural history of Queen Charlotte Islands, B.C.,
natural history of the Cook Inlet region, Alaska: prepared under the
direction of Dr C. Hart Merriam. Washington, G.P.C, 1901. (North American fauna, no. 21) Seattle, Shorey Book Store, 1972. 87 pp., illus. $5.00.
REYNOLDSTON RESEARCH AND STUDIES, Oral History Programmes. Catalogue of oral
history phonotapes in University of British Columbia Libraries. Vancouver,
1973. 30 pp.
ROSMAN, Abraham and Paula G. Rubel. Feasting with mine enemy: rank and
exchange among Northwest Coast societies. New Y0rk, Columbia University,
1971. 221 pp. $10.00..
SCHAFER, D. Paul. A cultural survey of British Columbia; presented to the
B.C. Centennial Culture fund, Jan 1972. (Victoria?) 1.972. 77, 15 pp.
SCOTT, R. Bruce. Barkley Sound, a history of the Pacific Rim National Park
area. Victoria, Printed by Fleming-Review Printing Ltd., 1973. 278 pp.,
illus. $5.00.
TALES FROM THE LONG HOUSE, by Indian children of British Columbia. Sidney,
Gray's Publishing, 1973. 112 pp. $4.50.
UNION COLLEGE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, Board of Governors. The stoisy of Union
College. (Vancouver, 1971?) 46 pp., illus.
VANCOUVER URBAN RENEWAL STUDY. Attitudes of Vancouver city residents
towards their surroundings. (Technical reports 6) Vancouver, 1.970. 29 pp,
WALKER, Russell R. Bacon, beans 'n brave hearts. (Prince George). Lillooet,
Lillooet Pub., 1972. 1.62 pp.
****************
Procedures and techniques for recording a historic structure through
various media are described in the newly published Historic American Building
Survey book Recording Historic'Buildings, compiled by Harley J. McKee.
Historical societies contemplating restoration projects should order the
$3.50 book from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendend of
Documents, Washington, D.C, 20402.
***************
PAGE FACING - A few more reminders of the 1973 Convention.
9. "Mmh. I wonder if' she does look like her picture."
10, "......and then the vision appeared...." .
1.1. "If my  coffee doean't get here soon, I'm going to holler 'Women and
children first - man the lifeboats."
12. "I think I'll go back to my  old tailors - Jones Tent & Awning."
13. "Did you see my mommy? ?I'm lost."
1.4. "I'm not quite sure if I'm prepared to make a statement at this time."
15. 'You'd never believe what nice people they are."
1.6. "I knew I'd get my parole .today."
17. "There's no truth in the rumour that I'm going to defend Nixon."
18. "Come back soon. Me and Maw will always take care of you."
19. "We never thought we'd have to travel steerage." ... 1.4
BOUNTIFUL APPLES
A small island in Nootka Sound and a celebrated sailor of the eighteenth century link Vancouver Island to Tahiti and to Tasmania by their
connection, not with forest trees, but with fruit trees, in a curious and
interesting series of circumstances.
Resolution Cove on Bligh Island was the scene of the refitting of
Captain James Cook's ship H.M.S. Resolution; William Bligh was the
Resolution's sailing master; and the year was 1.778. Many years later,
Hydrographer George Henry Richards of the Royal Navy, gave prominence to
these names on his Chart of Nootka Sound.
William Bligh, his ship, H.M.S, Bounty, and the breadfruit expedition
to Tahiti which developed into one of the most disastrous mutinies in
history, are well-known. How many people, however, have heard of the
doughty seaman's interest in apples, plums and peaches?
There's an old saying: "An apple a day keeps the doctor away" and
those responsible for the storage of the apple crop in this part of western
Canada do their best to cater to the health of the community on the lines
of the old maxim by supplying fresh apples to consumers for as long a
season as possible. But, if there were no "Granny Smith" apples available
from south of the Equator during April, May and June, it is certain that
British Columbians would be short of this wholesome fruit until their
own "Early Transparents" are ready for marketing in July.
And what have apples to do with "Bread Fruit Bligh" of H.M.S, Bounty?
And who was Granny Smith anyway? •""Almost unbelieveably there is quite a
connection between the two.
Captain William Bligh was sent from England to Tahiti to collect plants
of the Bread-Fruit tree (Artocarpus incisa) in order to introduce them to
the British West India Islands; the fruit of which was to be used as a
foodstuff for the natives. H.M.S. Bounty sailed from the shores of the
British Isles in the autumn of 1.787, and amongst the crew were two professional
gardeners, one of whom was David Nelson.
During the Bounty's stay at the Cape of Good Hope, on the outward voyage,
various plants and seeds were collected, both fruit and vegetable; and
when the ship came to anchor; in Adventure Bay, Van Diemen's Land (actually
the Island of Bruni, off Tasmania), these were planted with much care. The
details of this operation are worth quoting:
Some of the fruit-trees which the captain brought from the Cape
of Good Hope were planted on the east-side of the bay, as'Mr
Nelson deemed t -hat the more eligible spot, being .freer from
wood than any other spot, clear of underwood, and less liable ito
be consumed by the fires which are made by the natives. They
1. John T. Walbran. British Columbia Coast Names, 1592-1906. 1909. p.53,54,420.
2. George William Anderson. A new, complete and universal collection of ...
voyages and travels to all parts of the world. 1794. p.188. David
Nelson had accompanied Captain James Cook on his last voyage. 15
planted three fine young apple-trees, nine vines, six plantain-
trees, a number of orange and lemon seed, cherry-stones, plumb
(sic), peach, pumpkins, apricot-stones, apple and pear kernels,
with two kinds of Indian corn. They likewise planted on a flat
near the watering-place, which seemed a promising situation, some
potatoes, cabbage-roots, onions, &c. ^
From the mention of orange and lemon seed, chrry stones, apricot stones,
apple and pear kernels, it would appear that from the fruit consumed en
route, the pips and stones were saved with a view to utilizing them later
on. How welcome all this fruit and the fresh vegetables must have been
after a diet of salt pork and beef on board the ship.
T--e Bounty sailors planted well, they then proceeded on to their
ultimate port of destination and the primary object of the expedition at
Tahiti where grew the sought-after Bread-Fruit trees. Little did any one
of them dream that tragedy and disaster lay before them.
Meanwhile the apple-trees flourished, the seeds germinated, and in
course of time was developed, by chance, a hybrid apple, best suited to
climatic and other conditions on that small island. Eventually some of
these sturdy Tasmanian seedlings found their way to a small market garden
in Eastwood, near Sydney, New South Wales, which was kept by Maria Ann
Smith, a settler from Britain in the middle of the 19th century. So popular
were the pale green apples of unnamed variety, and such was the demand for
them by reason of their flavour, and their cooking and. keeping qualities,
that Maria Ann labelled her boxes "From Granny Smith".
One wonders if, in the course of his governorship of New South Wales,
William Bligh ever revisited the scene of his fruit and vegetable plantation on Bruni Island, or the parent island, Tasmania. Whatever other
unhappy associations have accompanied Bligh through the pages of history,
it is refreshing to think of him as the originator, on that August day in
1788, of Tasmania's fruit and field crop industry which to-day is an
important factor in the Australian economy.
On account of its temperate climate, average moderate rainfall, and
freedom from hot winds (so prevalent in most of the Australian states),
Tasmania appears to be somewhat similar to Southern Vancouver Island.
One Encyclopedia describes it thus: "The winter is cold .enough to
produce thin ice in the lowlands and snow in the m(oun)t(ai)ns and
plateaux". All of which sounds advantageous for the annual production
of its more than 5,000,000 bushels of apples. No wonder that a
reported more than 8,000,000 apples a day were consumed in Britain during
the year 1962. Well done Bligh!
Victoria, B.C.
Madge Wolfenden.
3. Anderson, loc,cit., p.1.92
4. Port of London Authority, The P.L.A. monthly (Australian number),
February, I.963, P»39. 16
KENNETH McKENZIE AND THE ORIGINS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AGRICULTURE
In these days of concern about the future of the family farm and the
increasing role of the corporation in agriculture, it should be of interest
to reflect upon the origins of commercial agriculture in this province,
for those origins are directly linked to the pre-gold rush monopoly of the
Hudson's Bay Company and its important role in the opening of and early
developments within British Columbia.
Agriculture had long been an important adjunct of the fur trade of
the Hudson's Bay Company, for post managers were encouraged to provide as much
of their foodstuffs as possible, and particularly was this true of the Red
River Valley where Lord Selkirk, a major shareholder in the Hudson's Bay
Company, attempted to establish an agricultural colony of displaced Scottish
crofters in 181.1 with the double pu rpose of providing foodstuffs for the
fur trade and embarking on a re-settlement scheme for the. poor of England,
some twenty-eight years in advance of the concepts of Edward Gibbon
Wakefield.
When the. Hudson's Bay Company acquired the exclusive license to trade
west of the Rooky Mountains following its absorption of the Northwest
Company in 1.821, the long and expensive supply lines either by land from
Fort Edmonton to the Columbia River or by sea around Cape Horn were a
constant drain on the profits of the Columbia Department which included the
lower Fraser Valley and, after 1.825, New Caledonia on the upper Fraser,
In his inspection tour of 1.824-25, Governor George Simpson declared that
the establishments west of the Rocky Mountains were conducted on an altogether too lavish scale, and he not only instructed John McLoughlin, the
new Chief Factor for the Columbia Department, to economize; but he ordered
McLoughlin to make the region as self-sufficient as possible.
To secure its claim to the north bank of the Columbia, the Company
moved its headquarters from Fort Astoria in 1.825, and the site of Fort
Vancouver, across the mouth of the Willamette River, was chosen because
of the broad tablelands which would be suitable for farming. During the
ensuing years, McLoughlin was able to raise crops of potatoes, wheat, peas,
beans, barley, and timothy until by 1.829 the Department was nearly self-
sufficient in those foodstuffs. But corn would not grow in the sandy soil
and the damp climate, and the herds of cattle increased so slowly that it
was not until I.836 that McLoughlin permitted any to be slaughtered for meat.
Although the chief concern of the Hudson's Bay Company was the fur
trade, it was after all a commercial company seeking the greatest possible
profits from its trading monopoly on the west coast. As early as 1.829,
the agricultural produce of the Columbia Department was large enough for
Governor Simpson to propose supplying the Russian American Company at Sitka.
But the Russian American Company was reluctant to become dependent on a
single, uncertain source of supply, particularly if that source were under
the control of its chief fur trade rival, and Simpson's overtures fell
through. Besides, the Russians had invested heavily in the establishment
of Fort Ross on Bodega Bay north of San Franciscd for the-purpose of providing their own supplies of wheat and other foodstuffs. However, in
another decade the situation for both companies haa changed. Fort Ross had
proved to be an expensive and abortive enterprise, and the Russians at
Sitka came increasingly to rely on provisions supplied by American traders. 17
The Hudson's Bay Company was increasingly alarmed by the infiltration
of Americans into the Pacific Northwest, particularly in the Willamette
Valley. Boston traders had opened supply lines to the Russians at Sitka
with the consequent threat of becoming competitors of the Hudson's Bay
Company for the trade in furs farther south, and the continued ability of
the Hudson's Bay Company to hold the Northwest and particularly the Columbia
River highway seemed doubtful. In the renewal of its twenty-one year
license for exclusive trading privileges west of the Rocky Mountains in
1.838, the Company had asserted that it planned to become the agents of stock
raising and colonization north of the Columbia in an effort to forestall
the American threat and secure the area for Great Britain, To fulfill
its promises, negotiations were successfully reopened with the Russian
American Company for supplying foodstuffs and the Columbia Department was
reorganized. In 1.839, the Puget's Sound Agricultural Company was formed as
a wholly owned subsidiary of the Hudson's Bay Company with a capital of
L200,00C The Hudson's Bay Company was to transfer its farms at Cowlitz
Prairie and Fort Nisqually to the new company which would settle farming
families on one thousand acre leaseholds and provide them with cows, a bull,
sheep, oxen, pigs, and horses as well as provisions for the first year.
The land and buildings were to revert to the company at the end of the
lease, and the company was to have the exclusive right to market the farmers'
produce, and half the increase of the stock was to belong to the company...
Working on half shares, the farmers thus were not to become free agents;
while south of the Columbia, free enterprise and individual initiative
prevailed. In addition, the Pacific Northwest had to compete with the
blaze of publicity surrounding the Wakefieldian settlement schemes for
South Australia and New Zealand, and the company was unable to attract
colonists from the British Isles. The company thus turned to the Red River
Settlement for settlers, and in l,84l. James Sinclair le£ one hundred
twenty-one people comprising twenty-three families from Red River to the
Columbia. Settled originally at Cowlitz Prairie and Fort Nisqually, all
had removed to the freer conditions prevailing on the Willamette by 1.845-
The Puget's Sound Agricultural Company thus failed in both its settlement
and in its agricultural schemes for the Oregon Country. Agriculture and
the fur trade could not be successfully combined, for settlement by its
very nature drove the shy and wily beaver into hiding if not into extinction.
In June 1.846, Great Britain and the United States signed the Oregon Treaty,
thus ending the efforts of the Hudson's Bay Company to secure the region
north of the Columbia for Britain. Commercial monopoly interest and
international diplomacy did not always walk hand in hand.
With the loss of the Columbia River, the protection of its rights
' north of the 49th parallel assumed increasing importance for the Hudson's
Bay Company. In an era of 'Reluctant Empire' when Wakefieldian schemes
for privately sponsored and funded colonization were capturing the
imagination of the English and appealing to a penurious and hard-pressed
government, the Hudson's Bay Company applied for a grant to Vancouver Island.
In return for an annptal rent of seven shillings, the Company was given
proprietary rights to Vancouver Island in January 1849 on condition that
it introduce colonists within five years. While the Hudson's Bay'Company,
with its western headquarters now located at Fort Victoria, was to continue
monopolizing the Indian trade and the fur trade, the Puget's Sound Agricultural Company was to become the vehicle for colonization. The company was
to sell its land to colonists for fcl.0.0 an acre witn the minimum holding 1.8
being twenty acres, • and nine-tenths of the proceeds were to be allocated
to a Development Fund for the establishment of schools and the construction
of roads, bridges, and other public services. Between them, the Hudson's
Bay Company and the Puget's Sound Agricultural Company allotted to themselves some thirty square miles of land (later reduced to six square miles,
the remainder having to be purchased), and the first private settler,
Captain Walter Colquhoun Grant, who reached the island in 1.849, had to
select, lands some thirty miles north of Victoria. But agriculture on
Vancouver Island, the first area other than the fur posts (notably Fort
Langley and Fort St. James) on the mainland to be farmed in modern British
Columbia, was not to be carried on in the early years by a stout, enterprising, thrifty yeomanry. It was to be established under the aegis of the
Puget's Sound Agricultural Company.---
In 1.850, the Hudson's Bay Company sent out two bailiffs, Edward Edwards
Langford and Thomas Blinkhorn, and seventy-four farm labourers; and in
1853 Kenneth McKenzie and Thomas Skinner arrived with an additional twenty-
two farmers. It is to Kenneth McKenzie's career that I would now turn.
Born in Edinburgh in October 181.1, McKenzie was the son of a surgeon
and the grandson of a druggist of that city. Following his mother's untimely
death in 1.820, he lived with his paternal grandparents while attending the
High School and College of Edinburgh. But the professions held no attraction
for him, and after leaving school in the late 1.820's he became the manager
of his father's estate, known as Rentonhall, in the Parish of Morham,
Haddingtonshire,in the East Lothian district.-' Scotland in those years
was undergoing a technological revolution in agriculture with the introduction
of farm macninery, scientific manuring of fields, and the selective breeding
of livestock, especially sheep. Of greatest importance was the introduction
of tiling to drain the wet marsh lands. Young McKenzie thus gained
invaluable experience in the management of his father's farms and sheep runs,
and he established a tile works, utilizing local clays, to bring more of ■
1. At this time, lands in Oregon Territory could be claimed under the Donation
Land Law of 1.850, by which lands were granted free of charge to settlers
who had occupied and cultivated their lands for four years, or title would
be granted after two years upon the payment of $1.25 per acre,
2. For this sketch of the early history of the Puget's Sound Agricultural
Company in the Pacific Northwest, the following accounts have been most
useful: John S. Galbraith. The Hudson's Bay Company as an Imperial Factor,
1.821-1.869 (Berkeley, 1957), pp. 192-217, 283-307; Margaret A. Ormsby.
British Columbia: a History (Toronto, 1964) pp. 99-102, 1.26-27; E.E. Rich.
The History of the Hudson's Bay Company, 1.670-1870, Vol.11: 1763-1870,
The Hudson's Bay Record Society, Vol.XXII (London, 1959), pp. 686-87, 689-785;
W.R, Sampson. "Farming Operations of the Hudson's Bay Company in the
Columbia District prior to 1.840" (unpublished ms).
3. Photostat of vital statistics page from McKenzie family Bible in vertical
file "Kenneth McKenzie", Archives of British Columbia; Kenneth McKenzie,
Sr. (Druggist) to Kenneth McKenzie, Junior (Surgeon), 19 Sept 1.823; and
Kenneth McKenzie to John and James Hope, Rentonhall, 1.9 Dec 1.848, in
Kenneth McKenzie Collection, Archives of British Columbia; and James
Deans, "Rustic Rhymes by a Rural Rhymaster," 1845, 1.901, ms. ARchives
of British Columbia, p. 1.0. 19
his father's lands into production. Although I have found no direct
reference to this latter aspect of his experience in Ms correspondence .
with the Hudson's Bay Company, it is tantalizing to speculate- as to whether
his application to the Company was successful in part because of the
supposed need for tiling and drainage on Vancouver Island where precipitation is not dissimilar from that of eastern Scotland, but where soil
conditions are vastly different.
Despite his attested abilities in the management of the estate,
McKenzie was unable to cope with the encumbrances left by his father, who
died in 1.844; debts which mounted to L4,200 or about $21,000. In 1.848,
McKenzie was finally forced to put the lands and estate of Rentonhall up
for auction, but no buyer could be found in. that period of depression, and
from 1.848 to 1.851 McKenzie answered several advertisements for positions
as factor, bailiff, or land steward on estates in Scotland, Cornwall,
northern England, and northern Ireland, all of which were unsuccessful.
Finally, in 1851, McKenzie was able to sell Rentonhall and its comfortable
stone manor house for L4925, and through his friendship with John Haldane
he was granted an interview in London by the Governor and Committee■of the
Hudson's Bay Company for the position of bailiff or overseer of one of the
four farms they projected under the auspices of the Puget's Sound Agricultural Company in the Esquimalt district near Fort Victoria. The interview was successful, and McKenzie's contract with the Puget's Sound
Agricultural Company was signed on 16 August 1.852. McKenzie was to serve
as bailiff of a company farm at a salary of L60 per annum and share 1./3
of the profit or loss of the farm beginning at the expiration of three years.
The company agreed to provide passage and McKenzie's five year term was to
commence upon his landing on Vancouver Island. The company was to provide
a farm of 600 acres, livestock, seeds, and implements; and all improvements
were to be at company expense. The position of bailiff had precedence
in the Company's farming establishments at Red Eiver, and it was stipulated
that the relationship of the bailiff to the farm labourers was to be that
of master and servant.  In effect the company was seeking to establish a
landed gentry or squirearchy surrounded by small landholders, a paternalistic form which proved as incompatible with conditions on the frontiers
of the British Empire as it had proved incompatible with the attempts of
the French to establish an attractive and flourishing settlement colony .
on the St. Lawrence by means of the seigneurial system.
McKenzie spent the spring and summer of 1.852 recruiting labourers,
blacksmiths, carpenters, and a schoolteacher for his new venture. Ploughmen
and labourers were to be paid LI7 per annum with board and lodging during
a contract period of five years, after which they would be permitted to
claim- twenty or twenty-five acres, valued at LI per acre,, in their own name
to be acquired in instalments of L4or L5 per year as a premium for their
r
?f.    ^Testimonials;" "List of claims lodged on the-Sequestrated. Estate of
Kenneth McKenzie of Rentonhall, 27 October ,1.837;>" Frederick'and Neilson
to Kenneth McKenzie, Haddington, 1.4 January. 1851'; .'State, of. Affairs of
Kenneth McKenzie of Rentonhall as at ^January- 18-51 j." Archibald Barclay
to John Haldane, London 6 January 1852;. in "Archibald Barclay, Correspondence Outward, 1.852;" Agreement between John Henry Pelly, Andrew Colvile
and Sir George Simpson on behalf of the Puget's Sound Agricultural
Company and Kenneth McKenzie, 1.6 August 1.852, in "Miscellaneous Contracts,
Agreements," McKenzie Collection, Archives of British Columbia, 20
work for the company. Smiths and carpenters were to be paid L25-30 per
year and were to receive the option on forty to fifty acres at the end of
their contract period.^
McKenzie with his wife Agnes whom he had married in 1.841, and six
children (the youngest, Wilhelmina Blair, was only three months old) and
twenty-two men, three servant girls, plus wives and children totalling
seventy-three persons embarked on the fifty-six ton barque Norman Morison
which sailed from Gravesend on 20 August 1.8.52, Among the passengers were
Thomas Skinner, also appointed a bailiff for the Puget's Sound Agricultural
Company, Mrs McKenzie's brother Thomas Russell, and Robert Melrose who
kept a trenchant diary of his career with the company. The little ship
anchored at Royal Roads, Vancouver Island on 1.6 January 1.853 after a stormy
passage during which little Wilhelmina Blair's behaviour earned her the
life-long nickname "Goodie". The weary passengers were given temporary
accommodation in makeshift quarters at Fort Victoria and by January 24th
McKenzie had moved the carpenters and blacksmiths to the farm allotted to
him at Maple Point between Esquimalt Harbour and the Gorge. By April first,
preparations at Craigflower, named for the Fifeshire home of Governor Andrew
Colvile of the Hudson's Bay Company, were sufficiently advanced for McKenzie
to move his family out to a temporary dwelling which they occupied until
the large manor house resembling Rentonhall was ready for occupancy on 1st
May I.856. During the spring and summer of 1.853 McKenzie and his men built
additional houses, planted gardens and fields, set up the seven horsepower
engine brought from England to run a sawmill and grind grain, and work was
begun on a brick works and a lime kiln to produce plaster and whitewash.
McKenzie had brought Robert Barr to serve as a schoolmaster for the
children of his farm, but Governor James Douglas diverted Barr to Fort
Victoria and Governor Colvile refused to intervene on McKenzie's behalf.
Finally, in N0vember 1.854, Charles Clarke arrived to start the school
at Craigflower; although the schoolhouse, begun in August 1.854 across the
inlet from the farm, was not completed until February 1.855 • Clarke held
the island's first school examination on a "royal scale" in July 1.855
with triumphal arches bearing the royal cipher erected at each end of the
5. "Puget Sound Agricultural Company - Agreements with Employees," and
Andrew Colvile to Kenneth McKenzie, London, 5 March 1.852 and 29 April
1.852 in "Andrew Colvile, Correspondence Outward, I852-I.856", both in
McKenzie Collection, Archives of British Columbia,
6. "Founders of Craigflower", (typescript dated. 4 February 1931) in
vertical file "Craigflower Farm", Archives of British Columbia; and
"List of Men, Women, and Children engaged to go to Vancouver's Island
with Mr K. McKenzie, August 1852", in Kenneth McKenzie Daybook, 1867-68,
McKenzie Collection, Archives of British Columbia; Robert Melrose,
"Diary, August 1.852-July 1857", ms, Archives of British Columbia, entries
for 1.6 Jan., 22 Jan., 24 Jan., 1 April, 7 April, 9 April, 5 May,
1.0 May, 8 June, 1.5 June, 4 July, 23 August, 25 August 1.853 and 1 May I.856
(reprinted in W. Kaye Lamb, ed. "The Diary of Robert Melrose", in
British Columbia Historical Quarterly, VII , April, July, October 1943,
pp. 119-134, 199-218, 283-295). 21
bridge and a twenty-one gun salute.'
McKenzie's men proved to be fractious, with frequent instances of drunkenness and desertion. Several men deserted for the United States, and
those who were apprehended were jailed for thirty days. To augment his
labour force, McKenzie used men from H.M.S. Trincomalee, then at Esquimalt,
and he hired several groups of Indians, but these too proved to be unsteady
hands. So unsteady were they in fact that "one of Neptune's sons, belonging to the Trincomalee, got himself hurt by falling from a tree, after
drinking a bottle of Grog on the top of it".° Finally, in March 1.853,
Governor Douglas appointed McKenzie and the three other bailiffs to be
Magistrates and Justices of the Peace in the District of Victoria, evidently
in an attempt to provide a measure of authority and justice on the four
farms of the Puget's Sound Agricultural Company."
During the early months at Craigflower, McKenzie feared the neighbouring bands of Indians. Morning roll call and drill, followed in the evening
by the firing of the one small cannon and the men's muskets in Which Mrs
McKenzie joined with her horse pistol insured the safety of the colony, and
this practice was continued even after they realized that the natives were
not going to attack them.--0
The four bailiffs of Craigflower, Constance Cove, Viewfield, and
Colwood Farms operated independently and sometimes extravagantly until
February ,1854 when the Hudson's Bay Company appointed McKenzie as agent and
superintendent for the Puget's Sound Agricultural Company on Vancouver
Island with a commission of ten percent on the net profits of the farms in
addition to his regular salary from Craigflower.   Wage disputes and unauthorized salmon trading with the Indians along the Fraser River led to
the intervention of Governor Douglas, and on McKenzie's appeal to London
the Governor and Committee sided with Douglas, instructing McKenzie to be
guided by Douglas' advice. For the salmon trade, McKenzie had refitted a
7. Robert Melrose, "Diary, August 1.852-July 1.857", entries for 21 August,
23 September and 8 December 1.854, 23 February, 2 March and 28 July 1.855;
Andrew Colvile to Kenneth McKenzie, London, 18 November 1.853, 13 Jan. and
20 Jan. .1.854 in "Andrew Colvile, Correspondence Outward, 1852-1856",
McKenzie,-.Collection, Archives of British Columbia. For a description of
the school examination, see John Work to William F. Tolmie, Victoria,
3Q/.July 1855, quoted in B.A. McKelvie "Victoria's Spinster Starts Another
Century", in" The Province (Varicouver, B.C.) 1.7 January 1953.
8. Robert Melrose, "Diary, August 1852-;July 1.857", entries for 3 July,
26 July, 1.2 October,'M7 October, and 1.9 October 1.853. The quotation
is from the entry for 3 July 1.853.
9. James Douglas, to Kenneth McKenzie, Victoria, 31 March 1.853, in
"Appointments - Magistrate and Justice of the Peace, 1.853", McKenzie
Collection, Archives of British Columbia; and W.T Kaye Lamb, ed. "The
Diary of Robert Melrose", in B.C.H.Q. VII (July 1943), 204, note 1.0.
1.0.  N. de Bertrand Lugrin (Mrs E. Brunswick Shaw), The Pioneer Women of
Vancouver Island, 1.843-1866 (Victoria, 1928), pp. 77-78.
11, Andrew Colvile and Henry Hulse Berens to Kenneth McKenzie, London,
3 February 1.854, in "Andrew Colvile, Correspondence Outward, 1.852-
1856", McKenzie Collection, Archives of British Columbia. 22
company bateau as the Agnes and he purchased the Black Duck which he renamed
the Jessie. Douglas considered such trading to be an infringement on the
exclusive rights of trade with the Indians which was held by- the Hudson's
Bay Company, and McKenzie was ordered to cease his trading venture.^
The Company found it necessary to complain to McKenzie about his
delinquent and inadequate accounts, the expense of his establishment and
its buildings, and in response to his proposals for constructing saw mills,
flour mills, and a brewery, Governor Colvile reminded McKenzie that the
bailiffs should devote their efforts to raising crops and making the farms
self -sufficient,. Colvile added that he could not "submit to this state
of things much longer", and McKenzie was to be prepared for a precise
limitation on his expenditures J-3
In addition to the problems of developing Craigflower, McKenzie as
.Company Agent was instructed to deal with the luxury-loving, lavish, and
intractable bailiff of Colwood Farm at Esquimalt, Edward E. Langford. In
1.854, McKenzie was instructed to terminate Langford's contract, but Langford
refused to give up quietly, and McKenzie was chastised for not taking "more
active and effective measures for the protection of their property".l^
Langford was not amenable to being evicted from his farm, and he seems to
have reformed sufficiently to stay on until his final dismissal in 1.860; but
the troubles with Langford put McKenzie in an embarrassing position between
Company officials and the bailiffs, and he was further discredited in the
eyes of the Company. Consequently, in 1.857 Alexander Grant Dallas was sent
to Fort Victoria with instructions to assume the administrative supervision
of the farms J-5
The Crimean War put a stop to agricultural exports to the Russian
American Company, but the war also brought new incentives to the development
of agriculture on Vancouver Island. During the war, hospital huts had been
12. Andrew Colvile to Kenneth McKenzie, London, 10 February 1.854 and
1 Oct. 1.855 in "Andrew Colvile, Correspondence Outward, 1.852-1&56";
James Douglas to Kenneth McKenzie, Victoria, 17 April 1.855, in "James
Douglas, Correspondence Outward"; Kenneth McKenzie to Andrew Colvile,
Craigflower, 5 Aug., 1.5 Dec and 1.8 Dec. 1.855, in "Kenneth McKenzie
-Letter Book, 1.854-1.856"; Andrew Colvile and Henry Hulse Berens to
Kenneth McKenzie, London, 1 Oct. 1.855, in "Andrew Colvile, Correspondence
Outward, I852-I856", and Henry Hulse Berens to Kenneth McKenzie, London,
1.3 March I.856 and 4 February 1.857, in "H.H. Berens ■,  Correspondence
Outward", all in McKenzie Collection, Archives of British Columbia.
13. Andrew Colvile to Kenneth McKenzie, London, 1.4 December 1.855 (Private),
in "Andrew Colvile, Correspondence Outward, 1.852-1.856", McKenzie
Collection, Archives of British Columbia.
1.4.  James Douglas to Kenneth McKenzie, Victoria, 29 December I856, in
"James Douglas, Correspondence Outward", McKenzie Collection, Archives
of British Columbia.
15.  Andrew Colvile and Henry Hulse Berens to Kenneth McKenzie, London,
13 November 1.854, in "Andrew Colvile, Correspondence Outward, 1.852-1856^;
Kenneth McKenzie to Andrew Colvile, Craigflower, 2.5 December 1.854, 21 May,
7 June and 22 September I.856, in "Kenneth IicKenzie Letter Book, 1854-1.856",
McKenzie Collection, Archives of British Columbia; and Sydney G. Pettit,
"The Trials and Tribulations of Edward Edwards Langford", in British
Columbia Historical Quarterly, XVII (Jan-Apr 1953), 8-1.2. 23
erected at Esquimalt to receive the wounded from the Battle of Petropavlovsk,
and thereafter ships of the Pacific Squadron increasingly used Esquimalt
Harbour as a base, particularly during the San Juan Island dispute. Craigflower Farm, located as it was between Esquimalt and the Gorge, was ideally
situated to supply the naval squadron, and in September 1.856, McKenzie ?.
reported that he had supplied the squadron with nearly 1,000 pounds of meat
and 400 pounds of vegetables per day. Despite the opposition of the
Hudson's Bay Company, McKenzie erected mills at Craigflower to provide
flour to the navy's bakers, who frequently used McKenzie's ovens. While
continuing to supply the Royal Navy with meat and vegetables from the
company farms, McKenzie undertook to supply bread and biscuit in 1.858, and
in i860 he entered into a regular contract with the Commander-in-Chief,
Pacific Squadron, to supply 10,000 pounds of biscuit within twenty-four
hours of demand and an unlimited quantity within fourteen days of demand,
the biscuit being guaranteed to keep "good and fit" for nine months.
The Navy's demand for breadstuffs was so great, in fact, that McKenzie
was unable to supply enough wheat from his own farms, and he was forced to
import wheat from Oregon farmers, the successors to those who had defeated
the Puget's Sound Agricultural Company's efforts to establish a viable
agrarian society south of the 49th parallel. Despite oft repeated protests
printed in the anti-Company-Family Victoria Colonist that the contract had
not been open to free and competitive bidding, and that local bakers could
meet the navy's demands more cheaply than could McKenzie who was accused of
hiring naval personnel at ship's pay, McKenzie continued to hold the navy's
bread contract until his death in 1.874 except for a brief period in the
mid-1.860's. He installed an engine and biscuit machines at Dallas Bank on
Esquimlt ..arbour, valued at $2600 and during the first quarter of 1.863
he supplied the Navy with 6l,000 pounds of biscuit and 65,000 pounds of
soft bread. He also supplied breadstuffs to Hudson's Bay Company ships,
and during the Fraser River gold rush he advertised breads and crackers for
sale at San Francisco prices where a loaf of bread sometimes sold for as
much as $3.00, It is a sad reflection on the failure of the Puget's Sound
Agricultural Company to bring sufficient lands under cultivation rapidly
enough, that while Oregon shippers such as John McLoughlin and Francis
Pettygrove were making small fortunes supplying wheat to California during
the gold rush, McKenzie was having to import wheat from Oregon to meet the
local demands, 1.6
During this period, manorial Craigflower became a social centre for
naval and colonial officials, and the McKenzie girls, particularly the
beautiful<,  tight-laced 'Goodie', were much courted by visiting officers.
i6~.    Kenneth McKenzie to Henry Hulse Berens, Craigflower, 22 Sept. I856,
in "Kenneth McKenzie Letter Book, 1.856-1.859"; Kenneth McKenzie to J.L.
Southey, Craigflower, 1.1 July 1.860, in "Kenneth McKenzie, Correspondence
Outward, File Copies"; Contract between Kenneth McKenzie and Rear-Admiral
Sir Robert Lambert Baynes, K.C.B. dated 30 August i860, in "Contracts
with the Royal Navy"; "Accounts re Craigflower Bakery"; Alexander Grant
Dallas to Kenneth McKenzie, Victoria, undated (probably July I858), in
"Alexander G. Dallas, Correspondence Outward"; and Thomas Lett
Stahlschmidt to Kenneth McKenzie, Victoria, 27 July, 2 August I.869,
and 10 January 1.870, in "Thomas Lett Stahlschmidt, Correspondence
Outward", all in McKenzie Collection, Archives of British Columbia. 24
I am reminded that in these days when Britain is bemused by the second round
of sex scandals in the past thirteen years that such are not new. One of
the officers who was captivated by the charms and beauty of 'Goodie'
McKenzie was Edmund Hope Verney, who came to Victoria in the early l86u's
as a Lieutenant in the Royal Navy, serving on H.M.S. Grappler. Visiting
Salt Lake City in 1.865, he telegraphed 'Goodie' that he was "well and frisky",
and it appears that even after his return to England the two corresponded.
In Victoria, the tradition lingers that the McKenzie family hoped for a
marriage into the well-placed Verney family. However, in I.878 when Kenneth
McKenzie's heirs were seeking to salvage the estate they requested financial
aid from Verney with apparently no response, and in the early 1.890's the
Colonist titillated Victoria's citizens with the news, headlined "A LONDON
SCANDAL", that Verney, by then a member of the House of Commons, had been
sentenced to one year in prison and expelled from Parliament for attempting
to procure a governess for immoral purposes.  'Goodie' McKenzie's reaction
to that bit of news has not been recorded, but she died a spinster, "The
Lady of the Camellias', in 1928.' A happier social event occurred in I86l
when Lady Jane Franklin, widow of the noted Arctic explorer Sir John
Franklin, visited Victoria. The season's gayest and most colourful social
event was the picnic held in her honour at Craigflower to which.-.whe was
rowed by men effecting a bright semblance of voyageur costume.
The farm at Craigflower was not large enough for both cropland and
pasturage for the sheep from which McKenzie hoped to get a profitable wool
clip, so in 1855 he established a sheep station at Lakehill, near Christmas
Hill, north of Victoria; and in I.856 and 1.857 he acquired lands there in his
own name along with 825 acres for the Puget's Sound Agricultural Company's
new Lake District farm known as 'Broadmead'. Under McKenzie's management,
Craigflower began to show small and intermittent profits after 1.857, but the
company remained concerned by the "confused and incorrect" accounts submitted
by McKenzie. Despite the fact that Craigflower was the only profitable
company farm, the Puget's Sound Agricultural Company became increasingly
critical of the large capital debt charged against its operations, and in
I86l McKenzie's second five-year contract as bailiff for the company was
cancelled and he was given a two-year lease, renewable on a year to year
basis for a total of five years, on the cultivated acreage of the farm with
the rent set at £500 per annum so long as he held the naval bread contract.
If McKenzie were to lose the contract with the Navy, the rent was to be
halved. The livestock and implements of husbandry at Craigflower xrere to
be sold, and McKenzie's Lakehill farm was used as security for his purchase
of the stocks of flour, biscuit, growing crops, and equipment at Craigflower.
At-the termination of this five-year contract, McKenzie was to quit his
occupancy of Craigflower. McKenzie was unable to reduce the debt against
his farms satisfactorily, and he was unable to sell the house and land at
Dallas Bank to the Navy for continued use as the Admiral's residence. In
1864, McKenzie was notified that his lease of Craigflower Farm would
terminate on 31 October I.865, and on that date he mortgaged his Lakehill and
Dallas Bank properties to the company to secure his indebtedness to them
Vf.        Edmund Hope Verney to Miss Goody McKenzie, Salt Lake City, 1.5 July I.865
(telegram), in miscellaneous McKenzie materials at Craigflower Manor,
Victoria; Kenneth McKenzie (son) to Edmund Hope Verney, Lakehill, 9 Feb.
I.878, in "Kenneth McKenzie, Correspondence Outward", McKenzie Collection,
Archives of British Columbia; Victoria Colonist 1.4 July 1.860, April 14
andi_7 May 1891.
18.   British Colonist (Victoria) 21 March, 22 March l86l. 25
which totalled L3376 or about $17,000. During 1.866 McKenzie moved his
family from Craigflower to a new home at Lakehill, which still stands; but
the burdensome debt plagued him for the remainder of his life, although the
company was very patient.J-?    The failure of McKenzie and concomitantly the
failure of the Puget's Sound Agricultural Company illustrate graphically
the fact that the interests of commercial enterprise do not always coincide
with political ends, nor is an attempt at commercial monopoly always conducive to the settlement and expansion of the economy in newly opened lands.
Kenneth McKenzie was primarily a farmer, farm manager, and supplier
of breadstuffs, but his position and experience led him to accept minor
legal positions and to assume a position of leadership in the agricultural
community of Vancouver Island. He served as Justice of the Peace from
1.853 to 1.855 and again from 186? until about the time of his death. During
the 1.860's he served as a Road' Commissioner for the Esquimalt District and
for Victoria, and in 1.871 he was appointed to the Court of Appeal for the
Esquimalt and Metchosin Road District. In 1.861. he was a founding member of
the Vancouver Island Agricultural and Horticultural Association, serving
first as a director and later as president, the office he held at the time
of the Association's collapse in I.865. When the society was reorganized
in I.869, he was again made a director. In I.865, McKenzie was considered to
be a protectionist candidate for the legislature, but he stepped aside in
favour of John Ash, a free trader. Again in I.869, he supported protection
and opposed confederation with Canada in seconding the nomination of James
Lowe as a candidate for the Legislative Council.
Kenneth McKenzie died at his Lakehill farm on 1.0 April 1.874 of heart
disease and lies buried in Ross Bay Cemetery, Victoria, not far from the
1.9."Craigflower Accounts, 1.854 to l857-Oct.31", pp.5-6;;. J:oseph..Despard
Pemberton to Kenneth McKenzie, Fort Victoria, 18 August '1.856,- in "Joseph
Despard" Pemberton, Correspondence Outward"; "Craigflower Farm Stock
Account", 31 May 1.858; Henry Hulse Berens to KennetHJMcKenzie, London,
1.6 January 1.857, in "Henry Hulse Berens, Correspondence Outward"; "Miscellaneous Contracts, Agreements"; Alexander Grant Dallas to Kenneth
McKenzie, Victoria, 9 March 1.861., in "Alexander Grant Dallas,-Correspondence
Outward"; Kenneth McKenzie to William F. Tolmie and Alexander Munro,
Craigflower, 31 October 1.864; Kenneth McKenzie to Admiral Joseph Denman,
5 July and 1.1 July 1.866; McKenzie to John Henry Ethbridge, Lakehill,
10 April 1867; McKenzie to William F. Tolmie and Alexander Munro, Lakehill, 28 May 1.867;'and McKenzie to James Allan Grahame,- Lakehill, 22 Aug.
1.872, in"Kenneth McKenzie, Correspondence Outward, File Copies"; and James
Allan Grahame to Kenneth McKenzie, Victoria, 26 Aug. 1.872, in "James Allan
Grahame, Correspondence Inward", McKenzie Collection, Archives of B.C.
20. James Douglas to Kenneth McKenzie, Victoria, 31 March 1.853, minuted by
Douglas on 1.6 November 1.855 accepting McKenzie's resignation, in "Appointments - Magistrate and Justice of the Peace, 1.853"; Philip J. Hankin,
Colonial Secretary, to Kenneth McKenzie, Victoria, 27 Jan. and 8 March
J.87I, in "British Columbia, Colonial Secretary, Correspondence Outward";
McKenzie Collection, Archives of British Columbia; Kenneth McKenzie to
Colonial Secretary, Lakehill, 31 January 1.871, in British Columbia, Colonial
Correspondence Inward - Kenneth McKenzie, Archives of British Columbia;
The Government Gazette, British Columbia, 12 January I.867, p.l and 4 Feb.1.871,
p.l; The Daily British Colonist (Victoria), 8 June l86l; 6 June, 29 Sept.,
2 October, 21 October 1.865; 6 June 1866; 29 July, 30 November I869. 26
imposing memorial to Sir James Douglas. Beset by the results of overcapitalization in a primitive economy, McKenzie had nevertheless done a great
deal to encourage agriculture and milling on Vancouver Island as the tenuous
colony moved from the restrictions of the fur trade to become the entrepot
for the mining rush and the base for Great Britain's Pacific naval operations.
So far as the company was concerned, their agricultural enterprise on Vancouver
Island was, in the apt phrases of John Sebastian Helmcken, a "mistake"
conducted at "fearful expense", but fami lies such as the McKenzies "did much
good to the colony in the shape of keeping it at a high standard of
civilization. "*--l
.21 The Daily British Colonist (Victoria), 1.1, 1.4 April 1.874. The quotations
are from John Sebastian Helmcken, "Reminiscences", 1.892, typescript
in the Archives of British Columbia, pp. 139-1.40.
William R. Sampson
University of Alberta
Banquet Address
Annual Meeting of the
British Columbia Historical Association
26 May 1973.
************************
List of Societies Affiliated with the B.C. Historical Association
Alberni & District. Mrs E. Adams, 845 River Road, Port Alberni.
Atlin. Mrs T.0. Connolly, Box 111, Atlin, B.C.
Burnaby. Mrs F. Street, 61.76 Walker Ave., Burnaby.
Campbell River. Mrs Rose McKay, P.O. Box 101, Campbell River.
Creston. Mrs A.G. Tronningsdal, P,C Box 1.123, Creston.
Golden. Mrs Jean L. Dakin, Eox 992, Golden.
Gujf Islands. Mrs Clare McAllister, R.R.I.', Galiano Island.
East Kootenay. Mir D. Kay, 921 S. 4th St., Cranbrook.
West Kootenay. Miss Erica D. Johnson, 975 Portland Ave. Apt. 1, Trail.
Nanaimo. Mrs A. Isobel Rowe, 24-654 Bruce Ave., Nanaimo.
Vancouver. Mr Michael Halleran, Box 3071, Vancouver.
Victoria, Mr A.G. Slocomb, 1.564 Oakcrest Drive, Victoria.
Windermere. Mrs B.G. Walker, Box 354, Invermere, B.C.

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