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 HISTORY
Journal of the British Columbia Historical Federation  | Vol.39 No. 2  |  $5.00
This Issue: Iby Koener | Gambier Island History | Too Much Rain | Books | and More British Columbia History
Journal of the British Columbia Historical
Federation Published four times a year.
ISSN: print 1710-7881 online 1710-792X
British Columbia History welcomes stories, studies,
and news items dealing with any aspect of the
history of British Columbia, and British Columbians.
Please submit manuscripts for publication to the
Editor, British Columbia History,
John Atkin,
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e-mail: johnatkin(§shaw.ca
Book reviews for British Columbia History,
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HISTORY AND LIFE
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British Columbia Historical Federation
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PO Box 5254, Station B., Victoria BC V8R 6N4
Under the Distinguished Patronage of Her Honour
The Honourable lana Campagnolo. PC, CM, OBC
Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia
Honourary President
Naomi Miller
Officers
President
Patricia Roy - 602-139 Clarence St., Victoria, BC, V8V 2J1
proy@uvic.ca
First Vice President
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www.bchistorv.ca the Federation's web site is hosted by Selkirk College in Cast/egar, BC BCHF Prizes | Awards | Scholarships
"Any country worthy of a future should
be interested in its past"
W. Kaye Lamb, 1937
w. KAYb LAMb bssay scholarships
Deadline 15 May 2007
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Federation awards two scholarships
annually for essays written by students
atBC colleges or universities on a topic
relating to British Columbia history.
One scholarship ($500) is for an essay
written by a student in a first-or
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is for an essay written by a student in
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To apply tor the scholarship,
candidates must submit (1) a letter of
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words on a topic relating to the history
of British Columbia: (3) a letter of
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for whom the essay was written.
Applications should be submitted to:
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third or fourth year student will be
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bchistorylannouncements.html
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will be awarded annually to the
author of the article, published in BC
History, that best enhances knowledge
ot British Columbia's history and
provides reading enjoyment. Judging
will be based on subject development,
writing skill, freshness of material,
and appeal to a general readership
interested in all aspects of BC history.
HISTORY
The Journal of the British Columbia Historical Federation | Volume 39 Number 2 2006
First Vancouver Island legislature
Maureen Duffus 2
When The Rains Came Early: The fatal, freak summer freshet of 1891
Dirk Septer 4
The Orchard Project: Seedlings of Hope on Gambier Island, B.C.
Sherry Cooper 7
A Debt Acknowledged: Iby Koerner's Contribution to Vancouver
Rosemary Cunningham 12
The Vancouver Poetry Society
Victoria Baker 21
John Cort and the Standard Theatre in Victoria
Ronald Greene  23
Why Tokens?
Ronald Greene  25
Archives and Archivists 26
Book Reviews 27
BC History Index from 38:1, 2005 to 38:4, 2005 34
Miscellany 40
From the Editor
In the next issue we expect to have some detailed
news about the 2007 B.C. Historical Federation
Conference which will be held in Victoria, 10-13 May
2007. Mark the dates on your calendars. All members
of the BCHF and their friends are welcome to attend.
Please note our subscription coordinator
Alic Marwood has a new address:
8056 168A Street
Surrey B C
V4N 4Y6
Phone 604-576-1548
Email amarwood@telus.net
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 First Vancouver Island legislature
By Maureen Duffus
Maureen Duffus is
the author of A
Most Unusual Colony,
which was reviewed
in BC Historical
News, Fall 1997. Her
website is
www.maureenduffus.com.
The first election in what is now British
Columbia was held in the then colony of
Vancouver Island early in July 1856. On
August 12, the Island's first House of
Assembly met within the palisades of Fort Victoria.
Dr. John Sebastian Helmcken, one of that little group
of legislators who first brought representative
government to the colony of fewer than 1000 settlers,
described the scene:
The "House of Assembly" Hall was a room therein [part of
"Bachelors' Hall] about twenty feet in length by about a
dozen in breadth, lined with upright plank unpainted,
unadorned, save perhaps with a few "cedar mats" to cover
fissures In the center stood a large dilapidated
rectangular stove, its sides made of sheet iron, beautifully
and picturesquely bulging. At its end was a wooden home
manufactured table, upon which stood a hundred paged
ledger, an inkstand, pens and a small supply of "foolscap,"
but without a" mace," penknife or postage stamps...Around
the Speaker's table stood half a dozen very ordinary wooden
chairs, for the use of the members, and at a respectful
distance a couple of benches, without backs for the
audience. This furniture really belonged to Bachelors' Hall,
and therefore the House of Assembly and country were
not put to any unnecessary expense. At the end of the
year accounts indicated that this august body had cost
about twenty-five dollars, which occasioned some ironical
remarks from the London Times.'
The existence of the elected assembly was
welcomed by the settlers. They had been grumbling
and petitioning the British government since the
Hudson's Bay Company brought out its "first
shipload of immigrants" in 1849. Fur trade
management style did not sit well with mid-19th
century settlers, especially the Scots.*
If Governor James Douglas had had his way
there would never have been an election in the Island
colony 150 years ago. As governor of the colony and
chief factor in charge of the western district of the
Hudson's Bay Company, he felt entirely capable of
running the place without help or interference from
elected settlers. He told the Colonial Secretary that
he was "utterly averse to universal suffrage."2
Queen Victoria's ministers, however, felt
differently. Aware that all was not serene under the
Company's rule, they felt there was something
unseemly about a British colony run by, and primarily
for the benefit of, commercial interests. Douglas was
not pleased when he received a letter, dated 28
February, 1856, from Colonial Secretary Henry
Labouchere, who began by praising the Governor for
his admirable management of Vancouver Island. He
continued at length about the principles of Colonial
law, then dropped his bombshell:
It appears to Her Majesty's Government that steps should
be taken at once for the establishment of the only
legislature authorized by the present constitution of the
Island. I have, accordingly to instruct you to call together
an Assembly in the terms of your Commission and
Instructions.3
In his reply of May 22,1856, Douglas noted:
It is, I confess, not without a feeling of dismay that I
contemplate the nature and amount of labour and
responsibility which will be imposed upon me, in the
process of carrying out the instructions conveyed in your
despatch ... I approach the subject with diffidence; feeling,
however, all the encouragement which the kindly promised
assistance and support of Her Majesty's Government is
calculated to inspire.
Nevertheless, in spite of being "utterly averse
to universal suffrage, or making population the basis
of representation," he promised to make "every
exertion ... to give effect to your said instruction at
as early a period as possible."4
Douglas divided his domain into four electoral
districts. Victoria would have three members,
Esquimalt two members; Sooke and Metchosin one
member each. According to the terms of his
commission, the only eligible voters were British
citizens who owned 20 or more acres of freehold land,
apparently excluding householders or owners of town
property. This narrowed the field considerably in a
colony where nearly all British males were still
employed by the Hudson's Bay Company, with land
prices high and wages low. The choice of candidates
was even more restricted, as fewer than a dozen men
met the property requirement of land worth £300 or
more. There were so few candidates that Victoria
district, with five eligible males, was the only district
contested. (Even so, one successful candidate, Captain
Langford of Colwood Farm, was later disqualified
because of suspicions of fiddling with a proposed land
purchase.) The landmark election was completed by
July 22. A few days later, Douglas reported to the
colonial secretary that the election had passed "quietly
and did not appear to excite much interest among the
lower orders," and that he had convened the
Assembly for 12 August.5
Governor Douglas was at his statesmanlike best
that August day in the little Island Colony.
Foreshadowing many more glowing Throne Speeches
through the years, he added a message from the
Crown: "Gentlemen, I am happy to inform you that
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 Members of the first legislature 1856 by Hall and Lowe
BC Archives photo: 06678
Her Majesty's government continues to express the
most lively interest in the progress and welfare of this
colony"6 Yet, the old HBC fur traders scoffed. Retired
Chief Factor John Work, a member of Douglas's
appointed Council with HBC officers John Tod and
Roderick Finlayson, wrote to his friend Edward
Ermatinger: "I have always considered such a Colony
& such a government where there are so few people
to govern as little better than a farce and this last scene
of the House of representatives the most absurd of
the whole.... there are too few people and nobody to
pay taxes to cover expenses." 7
Members of the first house of assembly proved
to be considerably more independent than the
compliant appointed Council. But like many British
Columbia legislatures to come, the little group split
into pro-and anti-establishment. Colonial Surveyor
Joseph Pemberton and Company man Joseph McKay
(who replaced the disqualified Captain Langford)
voted with almost everything Douglas suggested.
James Yates, the publican, and Thomas Skinner,
manager of a large Company farm in Esquimalt, fell
naturally into the role of unofficial opposition; and
House speaker Dr. John Helmcken, the Governor's
son-in-law, successfully walked a tightrope
throughout the four-year life of the first elected
legislature west of Ontario.8 •
* Sources for the dissatisfaction of the settlers include many letters,
diaries and reminiscences held in the BC Archives, as referred to in my
book, A Most Unusual Colony. Specific references include the Robert
Melrose Diary, Captain James Cooper's memoirs, and Annie Deans'
letters (See February 29,1854). All refer to complaints and petitions
to the House of Commons regarding Hudson's Bay Company rule By
Governor Douglas and his appointed council.
Sources:
1 The Reminiscences of Doctor
John Sebastian Helmcken, ed. by
Dorothy Blakey Smith,
(Vancouver: University of British
Columbia Press, 1975), 333-34.
2 Governor James Douglas to
Henry Labouchere, 22 May 1856
in Archives of British Columbia,
Minutes of the House of
Assembly of Vancouver Island,
August 12, 1856, to
September25, 1858, (Victoria:
King's Printer, 1918), 7.
3 Henry Labouchere to James
Douglas, 28 February 1856, in
Minutes, 6.
4 Douglas to Labouchere, 22 May
1856, in Minutes, 7
5 Douglas to Labouchere,
undated letter quoted in E.O.S.
Scholefield, British Columbia:
From the Earliest Times to the
Present (Vancouver: S.J. Clarke,
[1914], vol. I, 542.
6 Speech by Governor James
Douglas, 12 August 1856 in James
E. Hendrickson, ed. Journals of
the Colonial Legislatures of the
Colonies of Vancouver Island and
British Columbia, 1851-1871
(Victoria: Provincial Archives of
British Columbia, 1980), vol. II, 5.
7 John Work to Edward
Ermatinger, 8 August 1846
quoted in Scholefield British
Columbia, Vol. 1,555-6,
8 Dr. Helmcken vividly describes
some of the proceedings of the
first Assembly in Reminiscences,
334-340.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 When The Rains Came Early
The fatal, freak summer freshet of 1891
By Dirk Septer
Dirk Septer has
written a number of
articles on BC
history, his last piece
in BC History
appeared in issue
38.3
In early July 1891, a freak summer rainstorm hit
the area around present-day Prince Rupert. The
North Pacific and Inverness salmon canneries,
two of the 19 such canneries operating at the
mouth of the Skeena River were hit by mud and debris
slides. Though the reports on fatalities differ, as many
as 50 people may have perished as a result of these
slides.1
Around the turn of the last century, the first of
many salmon canneries were built along the North
Pacific coast. Prior to the invention of the canning
process, the salmon had to be salt cured and smoked.
But the tin can, which originally had to be made by
hand, changed all that. In the late 1800s and early
1900s, approximately 225 of these remote canneries
dotted the Pacific coast from Vancouver to the Alaska
Panhandle. They generally operated only during the
summer and early fall. Unlike today's fish packing
plants that are located along deep water in or near
major settlements, the old canneries were in fact self-
contained cannery villages far away from whatever
civilization there was at the time. In its heyday, a
cannery like North Pacific would employ and house
as many as 400 people. The canneries had their own
general store, school, post office and sometimes even
small church. Most of them were partially built upon
pilings in the tidal water. The canneries' large net lofts
were used for the Saturday night dances, which were
open to everybody including people from other nearby canneries. When the North Pacific and Inverness
canneries were built there were no road or rail
connections; the Skeena River was their only lifeline.
Everything and everyone came and went by small
boat, paddle wheeler or steam ship. Groceries arrived
once a week on a scheduled steamer.
The cannery workers were segregated along
distinct ethnic lines. There were Native Indians,
Japanese and Chinese workers and those of European
descent. Each ethnic group in turn became a small self-
contained community. The Native Indian men and
women from the nearby villages were housed in small
huts at the other side of the cannery. The men were
employed as fishermen, while the women worked in
fish processing or making and mending nets. White
people served in management and other key positions
such as net boss, store manager, timekeeper and office
personnel. Others operated the power plant, cold
storage, reduction plant (where fishmeal and oil were
produced), and did blacksmithing and boat repairs. The
Chinese can makers would arrive first, usually around
early March to start making the cans for the coming
season by hand. At the North Pacific cannery can-
making machinery was not installed until 1918. These
Chinese workers stayed for the summer, living in their
separate bunkhouse community. The Japanese men
worked as fishermen and as shore workers, and their
women were employed in the cannery.
During the early summer of 1891 the weather
had been warm and dry for some time but a sudden
change took place on July 4 around midnight when a
The North Pacific Cannery
in the 1930s.
BC Archives photo C-08008
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 steady downpour started. During the three days of
steady rain between July 5-7, Port Simpson, the only
nearby location that kept weather records,, rainfall
measured 194.8 mm in 72 hours. An even larger
amount of rain may have fallen in the Inverness
Channel area, southwest of Prince Rupert where,
according to one account, some 12 inches (over 300
mm) of rain fell in 24 hours alone.
Not surprisingly, a weather event of such
magnitude could cause landslides in the mountainous
terrain above Inverness Channel, the northern outlet
of the Skeena River. The steep mountain ridge above
Inverness Channel has a whole string of deep gullies
and other avalanche paths, and mud and debris slides
are a common occurrence. As most landslides
occurred during late fall and winter rainstorms, they
usually did not cause any fatalities and went
unreported. Unfortunately, the freak July 1891 rain
event was the exception, as it happened during a time
when work in the salmon canneries was in full swing.
On July 6, at about 1 a.m., a large debris slide came
down heading straight for the Inverness Cannery and
the building occupied by plant manager Stapledon,
his bookkeeper, and other white employees of the
cannery. Within 15 yards (13.5 m) of this building it
deflected slightly to the left and passed the house
within 6 feet (2 m), leaving the yard jammed with
boulders and large logs. A few hours later at 5:45 a.m.,
a loud, rushing noise was heard from the direction of
the mountain behind the cannery. Within moments
the debris was upon the doomed settlement, carrying
everything before it into the nearby slough. The
occupants of one house got out of the building, but
were caught by the debris slide rushing down. In all,
nine houses, including the mess house and the
cannery foreman's residence, were destroyed and
their occupants lost. The foreman's Swedish wife, who
was in the mess room at the time, was carried along
with the mass of debris. The Native Indians claimed
that about 40 members of the Port Simpson, Sitka,
Metlakahtla and Nitinat tribes were surely killed.
The destruction caused by the slide was
immense, with mud and debris nearly filling the
slough. The slide just missed the cannery building by
about 2 feet (0.6 m), but some of the loose earth
scraped the corner. Inside the building, the foreman
and about 60 Natives were awaiting the arrival of the
boats that were expected during the slack tide. The
boats and their crews were fortunate enough to be
out of reach of the slide. Had the slide struck the
cannery, or occurred half an hour earlier, when all the
people would have been in the mess house, the death
toll here could have reached 100.
Debris slides also hit the North Pacific Cannery,
just upstream along the 7-km strip in Inverness
Passage known as cannery row. Built in 1889 by John
Alexander Carthew, this cannery was only two years
old. Through a Crown Grant Carthew had purchased
183 acres for $32. The brand new cannery changed
hands twice in as many years as Carthew sold it to
Notes
1 Victoria Daily Colonist, July 14,
1891.
2 The Daily Columbian, July 13,
1891 and Victoria Daily Colonist,
July 14,1891.
3 The Metlakahtlan, Vol. 1 No. 8,
December 1891.
4 Victoria Daily Colonist, July 14,
1891.
5 Capt. John T. Walbran, British
Columbia Coast Names 1592-
1906 (Ottawa: Government
Printing Bureau, 1909)533.
6 W. Wicks, Memories of the
Skeena, (Saanichton, B.C:
Hancock House, 1976).
7 Fred Sharpe, personal
commumincation.
8 B.C. Ministry of Energy, Mines
and Petroleum Resources,
Landslides in British Columbia.
Geological Survey Branch.
Information circular 1993-7.
9 Walbran, British Columbia
Coast Names, 533.
The North Pacific Cannery
pictured here in the
1930s.
BC Archives photo: C-0S022
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 Henry Ogle Bell-Irving in 1891. The Anglo-British
Columbia Packing Company then purchased it in
1892. On the morning of July 6 at about 2 a.m., a
landslide was heard rumbling in the mountains
above. Native cannery workers, sleeping in a string
of shacks near the cannery, fled in terror to the cannery
building for refuge. Standing out in the river, they
perceived it to be safer than the small cabins on shore.
When the turmoil above ceased and no debris reached
the bottom of the mountain, the workers returned to
their shacks.
As usual at 6 a.m., the majority of the workers
went to their worksites in the cannery. Suddenly,
around 9 a.m. a loud crashing noise was heard up the
hillside and in a few seconds, the Native village at
the cannery was virtually wiped out. In its place a
conglomeration of mud, gravel, boulders and giant
trees, twisted and broken, covered the area to a depth
of 12 to 15 feet (4 to 5 m). Only two cabins, outside of
the path of the slide, remained standing. The slide
heard earlier that morning had filled the gulch
overhead, damming the water until it acquired
sufficient weight to sweep everything in front of it.
As soon as the initial panic died down somewhat,
rescue operations started. Though some wonderful
escapes were recorded, at least nine people died. The
wives and children of the Native cannery workers had
been in and around their living quarters when the
slide came down. In the rush to get out of the way,
four women and four children were killed. Initial
reports in the Daily Columbian and Victoria Daily
Colonist put the number of fatalities at eight.2
About a week after the disaster, news about the
fatal slides reached the lower mainland with the arrival
of the steamer Princess Louise. Though the final count
will never be known as many of the missing victims
were either buried in the mud and debris or swept out
to sea, the slides were definitely the deadliest to hit the
British Columbia north coast. By July 8, only 13 bodies
had been recovered and taken to Port Essington for
burial. The body of the foreman's wife was also still
missing. The foreman, whose name was reported to
be Nelson or Johnson, had formerly been in charge of
the British Columbia Cannery but had moved to the
Inverness Cannery when the syndicate bought out
these canneries. In December 1891, The Metlakahtlan
reported four women and five children killed by the
slide.3 With the exception of one woman from Port
Simpson, the other eight victims were members of
Father William Duncan's New Metlakahtla mission.
One boy had his hip broken and ten others were injured
to some degree. One of the injured, a head of a family,
died two days later. The cannery steamer Winnifred took
the bodies back to Metlakahtla for burial. Most of the
other Native Indian workers belonged to the Fort
Simpson, Sitka and Nitinat tribes.
Though a number of employees were killed and
over 20 families lost everything they owned, H.B.
Cameron, of the North Pacific Cannery, was
apparently more concerned about the cannery and
its operation. He called the disaster a serious blow
for the cannery, "not alone in the value of the houses
destroyed, but in the demoralisation of the Native
Indians in the busiest part of the season." 4
In British Columbia Coast Names 1502-1906, Capt.
John T. Walbran refers to a landslide at Inverness,
previously known as Woodcock Landing, around the
turn of the century. In his account Inverness had a
miraculous escape, but the North Pacific cannery was
hit by another slide the next day that killed eleven
Native Indians.5 No further reference to this accident
has been found, and though the details differ
substantially, this may actually refer to the events that
took place in July 1891.
This was not the last slide to damage the
canneries. In November 1917, another slide hit the
Inverness Cannery and damaged the mess house,
bunkhouses and the accountant's residence.
Fortunately, the cannery was closed for the season.
Some residents had just left by train for Prince Rupert
that same evening. One man, asleep in the caretaker's
cabin, escaped by cutting a hole in the roof.6 In October
1935, a large slide narrowly missed the school building
at Inverness. Schoolteacher Fred Sharpe and a number
of children escaped unharmed as debris passed the
school on two sides.7
In 1993, the Ministry of Energy, Mines and
Petroleum Resources published a pamphlet dealing with
landslides in British Columbia.8 Their detailed list of
historical landslides includes the slides at Jane Camp/
Britannia Mne with 56 fatalities (1915), Britannia Creek/
Howe Sound with 37 fatalities (1921), and Prince Rupert
with seven fatalities (1957) but there is no mention of
the slides at the North Pacific and Inverness canneries.
Though these events there occurred only a little over
100 years ago, with the loss of many lives, they have
already been long forgotten, and the fact that in later
years similar slides occurred at the very same locations,
only shows that history repeats itself. It is also interesting
to note that the local Native name for Inverness was
Willaclough, meaning "Place of slides".9 Maybe this
should have been a clue.... •
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 The Orchard Project:
Seedlings of Hope on Gambier Island, B.C.
by Sherry Cooper
Gambier Island's homesteaders of the 1880s
and '90s expected a bright future. Most
had been enticed by the advertising
campaigns in Europe of the Canadian
government and the Canadian Pacific Railway1 While
some settlers purchased their lands, many had been
lured by promises of promise of freehold title for those
willing to work hard to establish and farm rural
properties and who could meet the strict rules for
eligibility. To qualify for a pre-emption, you had to
be eighteen and a British subject or intend to become
one. In addition, to retain the land you had to live on
the pre-empted land, cultivate it, and not be absent
from it for more than two months (changed in 1894
to six months) or the land would be considered
abandoned.2 After inspection and approval, you
would receive clear title from the Crown. You could
then sell the land or acquire another pre-emption,
including any lands considered abandoned. You could
also purchase land directly from the Crown.3
Motivated, hard working settlers could
accumulate hundreds of acres, as long as land was
available. Those who were intent on expanding their
holdings had to work quickly to acquire adjacent
lands because speculators, with eyes on the protected
waterways in Howe Sound that allowed easy access
to the markets of the lower mainland and the new
city of Vancouver, had begun to invest. Joseph
Mannion, a Vancouver hotel-keeper and alderman,
for example, bought land on the west shore of
Gambier Island in 1884 where Mannion creek bears
his name but he soon sold the lot.4
He was not the first to acquire land on the
Island. According to Doreen Armitage, in the 1870s,
Gambier Island "saw a trickle of miners, loggers,
[responding to the significantly diminished forests of
the Vancouver area,] fishermen and settlers." Between
1874 and 1877, six individuals applied to the
government office in New Westminster to purchase
lots on Howe Sound. One such applicant was A.C.
Fraser, who on 30 October 1875 applied for 80 hectares
(200 acres) on Gambier Island.5
South East Gambier Island
Some of these earlier pre-emptors were loggers
who abandoned the land after clearing it but this
made it easier for later settlers to establish farms. The
land the loggers had cleared on the south-east side of
Gambier Island was desirable farmland because it was
flat, had access to the water and for the most part was
a mix of arable soil (class 1) and soils more suitable
for ranching and orchards (classes 2 and 3).6 Most
early pre-emptors chose the area of Port Graves, no
doubt influenced by Captain George Richards of HMS
Plumper who, in 1859, had "recommended Port
Graves, the most easterly of the three bays on southern
Gambier Island, as the main anchorage in Howe
Sound, although its entrance was not apparent until
passing Hope Point on the bay's eastern shore." By
the latter half of the 1890s, "timber leases dotted Howe
Sound's islands and shores. Gambier Island had a
shingle mill on the south shore, and across the island
to the north, oxen moved logs for a man named
Douglas at what was known as Douglas Bay, northwest
of Brigade Bay"7 The few loggers who actually
remained on the land they cleared, can be identified
through their land purchases. 8 John Funke stayed,
acquired a pre-emption in 1887, and his Crown grant
in 1895 on 70 hectares (175 acres) on what is now
Gambier Estates, between Hope and Halkett Points.
By 1900, logging had diminished around Gambier
Island. Thomas Keeling, for example, was now a
rancher. The 1901 Census shows that there were only a
few loggers, mostly Japanese, working in the area.9
The land records also show the names of other
early settlers. In 1892, Louis Hind purchased 15
hectares, (37 acres), a parcel known today as Camp
Fircom, and James Leithhead purchased lands on the
south side of Mount Artaban. Arthur Davies preempted District Lot 1653 as early as 1887. H.W. Myers
held adjacent land to the east in 1888. In 1888, the
Simpson brothers, John and William, moved from
from Hood Point on Bowen Island where they had
established themselves two years earlier and settled
71 hectares (179 acres) of DL 1259 on Ramillies
Channel, known today as Brigade Bay.10 Fredrick and
Thomas Jr. Keeling and John Sisson pre-empted a
large block of land on Ramillies Channel in 1891 and
received their Crown grant in 1902. Henry E.
Hurcham, the earliest settler at Hope Point, preempted his land in 1890 and after securing his Crown
grant in 1908, sold the property to William Arthur
Bishop. F.W. Wright held a pre-emption on the west
side of Hope Point in 1906 and received a Crown grant
in 1910. In 1905, William Hitchcock pre-empted land
north of Halkett Bay that had access to the water of
Ramillies Channel. Thomas Wickham Davey preempted the adjacent land to the south in 1911.
The desirable farm qualities of these lands also
made them prime property for speculation. The Land
Title entries11 for Gambier Estates illustrate this
frenzied activity. Funke sold his property to Thomas
Sherry Cooper is an
artist in Vancouver
and spends summers
on Gambier Island
where she owns Lot
2, at Richardson's
Cove. Her interest in
the history of the
orchard property
was sparked by
rumors that the
original owner of her
property was Hugo
Hjorthoy. When she
found Lena Hjorthoy
and her son Robert
listed in the phone
book, she was able
to meet them and
learn that most of
the tales she had
heard were false.
Her desire to learn
about the property
and its history
motivated her to
further research,
which she kindly
shared with Elaine
M. Davies, Daphne
Dawson and Billy
Errico, Jr. toward
Miramar: The
History of Gambier
Island, published in
2005.
The author wishes to
acknowledge Lena Hjorthoy
for sharing her reminiscences
of Gambier Island with me,
Michael Payne, a property
owner, Lot 1, Gambier
Island, for his assistance in
providing me with many land
title documents and Rick
Cooper, a property owner,
Lot 2, Gambier Island and
Mary Blaze, artist, for their
help in research and in editing.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 Notes
1 Dominion Land Grants 1894,
Handbook, p. 95. British Columbia
Archives (hereafter BCA). This
handbook was translated into the
Scandinavian languages and would
have been available to Hugo
Hjorthoy in Christiania, (Oslo)
Norway. References to CPR
advertising may be found at http:/
/www.cic.gc.ca/english/
department/legacy/chap-2.html
2 1870 Land Ordinance Act. British
Columbia Archives.
3 Dominion Land Grants,
Handbook, 1894.
4 Doreen Armitage, Around the
Sound: A History of Howe Sound-
Whistler, (Madeira Park, BC: Harbour
Publishing, 1997), 58 and 59.
5 Armitage, Around the Sound, 66.
6 Survey of Hugo Hjorthoy's
Preemption Claim. New
Westminster District. Surveyed by
W.A. Bauer, Sept. 12,1895. Those
who preempted had to have their
land surveyed. Each survey
contained classifications of the
land as the pre-emptor was
charged a different fee for each
class of soil. For example, Hugo
Hjorthoy had 60 acres of class one
soil, and 101.3 acres of class three
soil.
7 Armitage, Around the Sound, 44.
8 Surveys and Lands Records 1877 -
1980 (Pre-emptions, Crown Grants,
Abandoned Pre-emptions) GR 1088
Box 7 File #15, BCA. Original
records for early settlers such as
Hind, Leithead, Funke, Hjorthoy,
Bishop, Keeling, Sisson, Wright,
Hurcham, Davey, and the Simpson
brothers on Gambier Island.
9 Census of Canada 1901: Province
Territory: British Columbia District
Name: Burrard, District Number: 1,
Sub-district Number: d1-3,
Schedule: 1, Notes: Howe Sound,
Reference: RG31, Statistics Canada,
Microfilm Reel Number: T-6428,
Finding Aid Number: 31-40.
10 Major Mathews (private record).
Notes on Charles Wiegand and his
daughter Elsa, 1946. City of
Vancouver Archives. #Add Mss.54
(505-c-file 140). Micro #AM0054.
013.04188.
11 Surveys and Lands Records 1877
-1980.
12 Chuck Davis, ed., The Vancouver
Book, (North Vancouver: JJ Douglas
Ltd., 1976). 24-25.
13 T.K. Derry, History of Modern
Norway 1814- 1972. (Oxford:
Cyrs in 1895 who sold it
to Thomas Roberts later
that year. Thomas Roberts
sold it back to Cyrs in 1896
who sold it to Margaret
Robertson in 1897.
Robertson sold it to
George Elliot and George
Deighton (thought to be a
relative of "Gassy" Jack
Deighton)12 in 1902.
George Elliot sold his half
interest to John McPhee in
1903 and then in 1905,
George Deighton sold
McPhee the other half
interest.
The nationalities
attracted to the island
were diverse, as reflected
in the 1901 census. On the
south-east side, settlers
came from Scotland,
Ireland, France, England,
Japan, China and
Norway. The story of one
of the Norwegian
immigrants, Hugo
Hjorthoy illustrates the
struggles endured by
settlers as they tried hard
to fulfill dreams born out
of Canadian promises and
promotions that had
captured their
imaginations. Hjorthoy's
story began in Christiania,
(Oslo) Norway where depressed economic conditions,
especially in the 1880s, encouraged over three-
quarters of a million working class and professional
people to emigrate between 1866 and 1915.13
Moreover, owning land in Norway was prestigious
because it was difficult to obtain farm land. Canada's
offer of what seemed to be land for an immense farm,
must have exerted enormous influence over
Hjorthoy's decision to emigrate to Gambier Island.
Perhaps, too, owning land gave Hugo the opportunity
to envision himself as a gentleman farmer and rancher
with many acres to call his own. As well, "it was a
desire for a healthy life," recounted Lena (Gudze)
Hjorthoy, his daughter-in-law.M
Hugo's financial status is unknown but he had
enjoyed success as a lawyer and District Court Judge,
he spoke and read seven languages, at forty-five years
of age he would have been in mid-career and was
intent on becoming a rich farmer.15 At least one and
possibly several years before setting foot on Gambier
Island, Hugo began to make plans for his new life. In
later years, he told Lena that he had bought District
Lot 1588, now Gambier Estates, while still living in
Christiania. He also had arranged from Norway to
have a farmhouse built on the property. Additionally,
in 1895, a year before he emigrated, he held a preemption on 64 hectares (160 acres) on DL 1654, just
west of Gambier Estates on Hope Point.16
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 Lena Hjorthoy and daughter
Bernice at Gambier (left)
Lena Hjorthoy examines a meet
grinder at Gambier Island - in
the 1940s she used it to grind
deer meat for canning, (above)
Hugo Hjorthoy, along with Anna
Dahlen, aged 23, and his son Christian, 13,
from his first marriage, arrived at Gambier
Island in July, 1896, with dreams of
developing a ranch and orchard and
raising his family in a healthy
environment. In trying to settle on DL
1588, he learned immediately, Lena recalls,
that "the land belonged to the Crown and
was not for sale." A land title search has
revealed that the registered owner in 1895
was John Funke.17 Hjorthoy had been a
victim of fraud!
Lena understands that Hugo
went to Ottawa to challenge the Crown
over what he thought were his rights to
the land, and won his case. However, there
is no record of his owning DL 1588 until
1908, after he purchased it from John
McPhee in 1905. In 1909 he had it
surveyed, and then sub-divided part of it
into building lots 1 - 25. Because he could
not pay the taxes, the sub-division was
never registered and that portion of the
property reverted to the Crown.18
In the meantime, the Hjorthoy
family settled on DL 1654. Anna bore a son
around 1896 who did not survive infancy
and was buried on the property19 In 1898
Hugo Jr. was born. Hugo Sr. continued to
clear stumps and fence two acres, raised
chickens and pigs, built several barns and
a road to the shore. He partially cleared
another four acres where he planted thirty
fruit trees. He earned a certificate of
improvement and obtained his first
Crown grant in 1903. The Hjorthoys
enjoyed the help of a Japanese family who lived on
his property, worked the land and acted as domestic
help. With the farm was established, Hugo harvested
apples and rowed them to Horseshoe Bay, from where
they were transported to Vancouver and sold. The
revenue from such sales enabled him to purchase
more land. He purchased DLsl565 and 1566, 44
hectares (110 acres) to the north of his original preemption. Each time he acquired more land, and is
reported to have planted an amazing 1200 fruit trees
on the southeast side of Gambier Island.20
The years 1900 - 1909 were Hjorthoy's best
years on Gambier Island, a time of expansion, growth
and optimism. His orchards were starting to produce
Clarendon Press, 1973), 207, 213.
14 Lena Hjorthoy (nee Gudze),the
daughter-in-law of Hugo Hjorthoy,
Sr„ lived on the Orchard from 1940
to 1946.1 conducted numerous
interviews with her from 2000
through 2004, in Vancouver, North
Vancouver, and on Gambier Island.
15 Internet Notes: Genealogy
research by Inger Johnson in
Norwegian. Her research tells of
Hugo as a lawyer and that he
immigrated to Canada, July 1896
but there is much confusion
around the date of his entry. Lena
Hjorthoy, Hugo's daughter-in-law,
is certain he established his preemption while in Norway. His preemption is dated 1895. Leiani
Anthony (October 2003 interview
with author) remembered having
tea with Anna Hjorthoy and her
grandmother, Mary Brimacombe
(Smythe) in Grace Harbour (renamed Gambier Harbour) in 1949
and that her grandmother
indicated that Anna Hjorthoy had
told her that she had come to
Gambier Island on October 16,
1895 (private reminiscences
written in 1988). To add to the
confusion, the 1901 Census records
that Hugo Hjorthoy and Anna
Dolen came to Canada in 1891.
Two attempts to find his name on
a ship's manifest have so far not
turned up an entry under his
name.
16 Surveys and Lands Records 1877
-1980; Plan of Division S.E.
Portion of Lot 1588. Plan 2258 DL
99783, August 1909. BCA, GR 2614
Vol 4 DL 1595-2371 contains Hugo
Hjorthoy's pre-emption DL 1654 in
1895. Crown Grant Certificate No.
1711-136, Feb. 8,1903. Land
Titles Office, New Westminster,
B.C.
17 Transfer of Title. DL 1588.
Available from Land Titles Office,
New Westminster. Documents cited
include: C of T no. 40412E; 942-
016316C; 10974C; 10601C; 35359 I;
212431; 40412E; 942-0. In 1941 the
registered owner of DL 1588
(except lots 1 - 25) was the Roman
Catholic Archbishop of Vancouver
who owned it until 1959. Yet, it
was Rev. J.R. Craig ofthe First
Presbyterian Church who
established Fircom Camp in 1923.
18 Plan of Division S.E. Portion of
Lot 1588.
19 Neither the birth nor the death
of the child was registered. Lena
confirms, however, that a baby
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 was born and there is a burial
marker for an infant on DL 1654,
Lot 2. The birth of Hugo Jr. also
was not registered. Hugo Jr.
remained on the farm.
20 Hugo Hjorthoy's Pre-emption
Information; information from
Lena Hjorthoy (nee Gudze).
21 Bishop's Summer Homes; Being
the Subdivision of Lot 1639,
Gambier Island, District of New
Westminster Records. Survey by
A.I. Hill in 1901. From the Land
Titles Office, New Westminster.
Plan 1986, DL 1639.
22 "First School District Organized
Back in 1890," Coast News, 26
February 1959); Les Peterson
interview of Hugo Hjorthoy Jr.,
Sunshine Coast Museum and
Archives, Gibsons B.C.; Armitage,
Around the Sound, 82.
Conversation with Bill Toppings,
editor of The British Columbia
Postal History Newsletter.
December, 2003. Mr. Toppings said
that three boats, The Britannia,
owned by Terminal Navigation Co.,
The Marine Explorer, owned by
Marine Navigation and Engineer
Co., and in 1913, The Busker B, a
small tug, were designated as
floating post offices. Farmers like
the Hjorthoys rowed out and
flagged the boat down. Library and
Archives Canada; RG3. Series D3.
Vol 10, reel C-72229, File 11891-
942.
23 Hugo transferred half of his
property (Lot 2) to Anna Dahlin
(spinster). Land Title Office
document Fr52671, dated
September 1920. Interview with
Lena Hjorthoy.
24Document* 1391. New
Westminster Land Title's Office.
December 1917; Christian
Hjorthoy pre-emption and Crown
Grants. BCA clipping file. D-19,
reel 51, file Gambier Island (pp
1527-1544) p. 1539.
25 Christian's Marriage Certificate.
British Columbia Vital Statistics
Reg. #1917-09-087141; Land Title
Office, New Westminster.
Certificate of Title Document #
397671, October, 1918. Eric died
1933, age 6. Lawrence died in
1949, age 31. Henderson's British
Columbia Gazetteer and Directory,
1924-1939. Death Certificate.
British Columbia Vital Statistics
Reg. #1936-09-510893 in Vancouver,
B.C.
By 1942, title to the land was held
and he was expanding his properties in an attempt to
capitalize on Vancouver's land boom, which peaked
in 1912. With a vision suited to these optimistic times,
Hjorthoy and William Bishop speculated. They had
their lands surveyed into city size lots with roadways.
Bishop succeeded in sub-dividing his land into 151
summer lots; Hjorthoy did not and lost the money he
should have used to pay taxes.21
Nevertheless, the buzz of land development
in the early twentieth century on the southeast side
of Gambier produced social benefits. There was a
sufficient settlement at Hope Point by 1907, to warrant
a school because "a rural school... could open with
a minimum of ten students, but needed a minimum
of six to remain open," which it did for three years.
Near Hope Point, William Arthur Bishop ran the post
offce from June 1908 to 1910. James Kelly followed
from 1910 to 1914, with William Horsburgh holding
the position until 1917 when the post-office closed.22
By 1915, Hugo Sr. and his son Christian
collectively owned most of Gambier's southeast
peninsula, from Long Bay to Camp Fircom. However,
following a complex combination of world events, his
own bad judgment and personal bad luck, Hjorthoy
failed to fulfill his dreams. Economic recession
beginning in 1912 was followed by a World War in
which 31 year-old Christian enlisted leaving only
Anna and 16 year-old Hugo Jr. to help manage the
farm. In addition, the collapse of his speculative
investments left him with neither money nor property,
and on two occasions, his farm houses burned to the
ground. To compound the problem, fruit from the
Okanagan replaced local produce in the Lower
Mainland market and stifled any hope Hugo had of
building a thriving orchard business on his island
property.
By 1917, Hugo Hjorthoy had sold all of his
properties except for the original DL 1654. He also
sold Parcel B, the remainder after his 1917 re-survey
to pay taxes. Hugo and Anna continued to subsist on
DL 1654, and even this land, now only forty-four
hectares (110 acres), was sub-divided in 1920 into Lots
1 and 2. Anna received Lot 2 for the sum of one dollar.
This division probably helped Hugo qualify for a
pension in 1927. Hjorthoy rarely left Gambier Island
after 1917.23
Meanwhile, his son Christian had been
increasing his holdings. At age 21 in 1905, he preempted DL 2706 and acquired a Crown Grant for it in
1915. In 1910 he purchased DL 2705 which borders
on Long Bay, a property which had originally been
pre-empted by his father, but abandoned. Christian's
DL 2706 acreage was land locked. In 1917 Hugo Sr.
had his own adjacent water-front land re-surveyed,
to create Parcel A, a strip of 9 hectares (twenty-two
acres) which he conveyed to his son for water access.
That parcel continues to be known as "Christian's
Corridor."24 By February, 1918, with his land holdings
solidly in place and with title being held solely by his
wife of two months, Marguerite (Madge) Marten,
Christian enlisted with the Canadian Expeditionary
Force in the First Depot Battalion, B.C. Regiment. He
arrived in England in August that year and by
September, he was seriously ill with bronchitis, a
chronic condition from which he had suffered for
fifteen years, and laryngitis in Connaught Hospital
in Aldershot. He was also hospitalized later for
measles and influenza. His hospital stays kept him
from front line duty but he was not discharged until
June 1919, when his battalion was demobilized. With
Marguerite and their four children - Eric, Lawrence,
Rita and Lena - however, he did not stay long on
Gambier Island either because the land could not
support them or because his recurrent illnesses
required him to be near medical attention. By 1928,
he was living in Vancouver, employed as a janitor at
the Vancouver General Hospital. In 1936, he died of
lung cancer at the age of fifty-three. However, the
family had held on to some land. By 1945 ownership
of the family's holdings on Gambier Island was listed
under the names of Christian and Marguerite's three
surviving children.25
Christian's younger brother, Hugo Hjorthoy,
Jr. grew up on the family farm and spent his youth
there. In 1907 at nine years of age, with other island
children he enrolled in the small, new, one-room
school at Hope Point. In 1910 the school was relocated
to Long Bay when the large Bishop family moved
away, so, while other children traveled by boat to
Gibson's Landing for their education, Hugo took
correspondence courses at home. After Christian
returned from the war, Hugo moved to Vancouver,
possibly because the farm could not support the full
family.
It is difficult to know how prosperous the
Hjorthoy farm was. Dave Roddan, who lived with
his family at Camp Fircom in the 1930s, recalls visiting
the Hjorthoys as a boy. He said that the farm was not
self-sufficient and that Hugo Jr. worked at times
during the Depression years at Camp Fircom and in
Vancouver repairing pianos for Ward's Music, where
he met and married Florence (Florrie) Pearson. After
10
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 Florrie's death in 1937, he married Lena Gudze in 1938
and returned to the farm.26
To house Lena and what became a family of
three children, including one born on Gambier Island,
Hugo Jr. had had a three-bedroom log cabin towed
to, and situated at the foot of his parents' property.
The cabin had a large verandah where Lena would
sit in a rocking chair nursing her babies in what she
recalled as "a perfect place to watch the whales going
by." She washed diapers in the adjacent creek with
soap that she had made herself, and hung them to
dry under the house at low tide.27
To support the family, Hugo Jr. had a boat
building and repair yard at the foot of that same creek.
He fitted it out with forges, gears, winches and a
steamer for bending wood. He winched boats up into
the boathouse from the shore, along tracks or ways,
for repairs. He bought and rebuilt an old fishing boat,
replaced the gas engine, then used it as a camp tender
when he worked in logging camps around Howe
Sound. In co-operation with Reverend Andrew
Roddan of Camp Fircom, he would ferry hunters from
Horseshoe Bay to the Hjorthoy property, where Hugo
Jr. would guide them for a week's hunting while Lena
provided bed and breakfast in the old farmhouse. In
1946, they sold the farm to Fred and Harry Jones for
$3,500.00.28 They then moved to Gambier Harbour for
a time before settling in Gibsons.
An elderly and deaf Hugo Sr. spent most of
his final days living a secluded life in his cabin, which
was set apart from the old farm house on Lot 1, while
Anna lived on Lot 2. He enjoyed reading his books
but no longer worked the farm. Dave Roddan
remembers that Hugo Sr. was known as "the Judge"
among island residents because of the "strong
mystique about him as he walked through the
orchards with a regal deportment." He died in
December 1942, and is buried on the property, now
known as Hjorthoy's Orchard.29 Even after Hugo's
death, Anna, who was much younger, chopped her
own wood, managed the farm and tended the goats,
chickens and pigs. She remained in the farmhouse for
several more years, at the invitation of the new
owners, before joining Lena and Hugo Jr. at Gambier
Harbour.
The new owners, the Jones brothers, intended
to develop the property as a summer lodge with
riding trails throughout the remaining fifty-three
apple tree orchard and the back woods. Their father,
Harry, and his wife Anne, were going to live in the
farmhouse most of the year, but when Anna told
"Pop," Harry Sr., that Hugo Sr. was buried near the
foot of the stairs of the old farm house, the elderly
Welshman, who had strong superstitions, would not
live there. The forty-four hectares, now reduced to
thirty-six hectares (110/88 acres) property was then
sold in 1952 to Louis Zacks for $8,000.00. The Zacks
planned to build a house but Mrs. Zacks died
suddenly, and the property was sold in 1958 to John
Edwards and Maynard Richardson for $12,000.00.30
The property known both as Hjorthoy's
Orchard and Gambier Acres, has gone through many
transformations over the intervening years. Today the
two lots that make up the property are co-owned by
over twenty-two families. Of the 1200 fruit trees that
Hugo Hjorthoy planted, only 38 apple trees remain
on Lot 2 of DL 1654, in addition to remnants of old
fruit trees scattered over his original holdings.
Conclusion:
Although the Canadian Government's lure of
freehold land for industrious immigrants did not
bring Hugo and Anna Hjorthoy the prosperity they
had hoped for, their land on Gambier Island sustained
them and their family for nearly fifty years. As they
made their lives together amidst many set backs, they
contributed their pioneering spirit, their sense of
adventure, their hard work and their determination
to the development of the country. At seventy-three
years, Anna was the last full-time resident on the east
side of Gambier when she left the orchard to live in
Gambier Harbour. She died in Burnaby in 1966. Hugo
Jr. died in 1974, also at seventy-three years, after
retiring from B.C. Ferries as Captain of the Dogwood,
a ferry that serviced Gambier and Keats Islands from
Langdale. Lena Hjorthoy lives in North Vancouver
where she celebrated her ninety-first birthday
in 2005.*
by Marguerite Howarth. (Madge
remarried to Stephen Howarth) In
1945, Christian and Madge's
children, Lawrence, Marguerite
"Rita" Wild, wife of Cecil Wild, and
Lena Schultheis, wife of Frank
Schultheis, held title to the
property. In 1956, Marguerite "Rita"
Turner of Creston, B.C., held title
and sold the property to George and
Blanche Gordon in 1958. Lena died
in 1980, age 59. New Westminster
Land Title Office. Certificate of
Titles #74282 Land 134069 L.The
vital statistics for Rita are unknown.
26 Interview with Dave Roddan,
April 2001. Dave Roddan, son of Rev.
Andrew Roddan, lived with his
family at Camp Fircom on Gambier
Island from 1935 for many years.
Marriage Certificate: Florence
Pearson. British Columbia Vital
Statistics marriage reg. # 1924-09-
271225 in Vancouver, B.C.; Florrie's
Death Certificate. British Columbia
Vital Statistics 1937-09-001420,
Vancouver, B.C.
27 Lena Hjorthoy Interviews, 2000-
2004. Lena and Hugo Jr. had three
children. Robert was born in 1941
and lived on the Hjorthoy farm until
he was three years old. Sonja was
born in 1942 and in 2004) was living
in Merritt. Bernice was born in 1944
on Gambier Island and in 2004 was
living in Lynn Valley, North
Vancouver.
28 Document # 144498L. New
Westminster Land Titles Office,
March 1946.
29 Hugo Hjorthoy Sr. Death
Certificate, 1942. British Columbia
Vital Statistics Reg. #1942-09-616248.
He is buried on the orchard property,
DL 1654, Gambier Island. Interview
with Dave Roddan, April 2001.
30 Interview with Fred and Ethel
Jones, December 18, 2000. They live
in Willodale, B.C., where they were
interviewed. Document # 287784 L,
New Westminster Land Titles Office,
February 1953; Document #395124
L, New Westminster Land Titles
Office. November 1958.
31 Anna Dahlin's Death Certificate.
British Columbia Vital Statistics #
1966-09-013103; Hugo Hjorthoy Jr.,
Death Certificate. British Columbia
Vital Statistics #1973-09-001420.
Lena Hjorthoy was born in May,
1914, at Foam Lake, Saskatchewan.
She revisited the Gambier Island
property in 2002 after nearly 60
years' absence and provided much
of the information in this history.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2
11 A Debt Acknowledged:
Iby Koerner's Contribution to Vancouver
by Rosemary Cunningham
Rosemary
Cunningham is a
retired librarian with
a MLS degree from
UBC. Her article
"The History of the
Leon and Thea
Koerner Foundation:
1955-2005",
appeared in The
Fiftieth Anniversary
Report of the Leon
and Thea Koerner
Foundation.
Rosemary has served
as a Governor of the
Foundation from
1989-97, its
Chairperson 1996-7
and is now an
Honorary Governor.
Ibolya (Iby) Ida Molnar was born in Budapest,
Hungary, on 28 July 1899 to Dr. Eugene Molnar
and his wife, Vilma.1 The Molnars were a
prominent Jewish family; Dr. Molnar was
elected to the Hungarian parliament in 1900, and
represented the Party of Independence until the
collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after the end
of World War One. During that period, the Molnars
and their four daughters enjoyed the benefits of a rich
cultural and social life in what has been called a
Golden Age in the history of the empire, and in their
home the arts, particularly music, were not only
appreciated, but also actively encouraged. Iby studied
singing and the violin at the Conservatory of
Budapest, and became a competent musician and a
devotee of art history. She finished high school and
had secretarial training, but her real interests lay in
the arts and in artistic people. During her musical
studies she made many friends and acquaintances
who had similar interests and talents.
In 1919, Iby's beauty and vivacious personality
attracted the attention of Otto Koerner, who met her
while he was in Budapest on business. Four years
Iby's senior, Otto was the third son of a prominent
and wealthy Czech Jewish family who owned and
operated a very successful lumber business, with mills
and offices throughout Europe. Otto courted Iby over
the next two years, and they were married in 1921 in
Vienna, which was to be the couple's home, since Otto
was based there.
Unlike the Koerners, the Molnars were not
wealthy. Iby's match was seen to be a good one; it
was also to be a very happy one. Although Otto did
not share his wife's interests, he indulged them by
providing her with a lifestyle that enabled her to enter
the milieu she loved. The couple moved into a large,
beautiful apartment, which very quickly became the
scene of much entertaining; their guests were artists,
musicians, and actors, many of whom became Iby's
lifelong friends. Guided by Iby's eye for good art,
which she had developed under her father's
influence, she and Otto began to acquire paintings,
sculpture, and other objets d'art, and became known
as serious collectors.
Life in Vienna for the Koerners was very
pleasant until pre-World War Two developments in
Germany became a cause for great concern, especially
for Jews.2 When the alarm bells were sounding in
earnest, Iby, Otto, and their fourteen year old
daughter, Beatrice, moved to safety in Amsterdam just
before the Anschluss in 1938. In September 1938, it
became imperative that the entire Koerner family
leave Europe. In various stages, and by various routes,
Otto's three brothers and their families emigrated to
Canada, choosing Vancouver as their new home,
because they considered B.C. to be the most
opportune place to reestablish their lumber business.3
Otto, Iby, and Beatrice arrived in the city in late
April 1939. Iby loved nature, and her first impressions
of Vancouver were positive: " 'The natural beauty of
the city was so overwhelming, you knew you were in
a new land, where all life was so different from
Europe".4 They moved into a spacious house at 1838
Matthews Avenue, which suitably accommodated their
large pieces of European furniture and decorative
objects. It was to be Iby's home for the rest of her life,
and in later years became the scene of many social
events, meetings, and other activities associated with
Iby's growing involvement in the city's cultural life.
Otto went to work at once alongside his elder
brother, Leon, at their newly established mill, Alaska
Pine, in New Westminster. Iby concentrated on
creating a home, improving her English, and getting
their daughter settled in her new school. As soon as
they were able after the outbreak of World War II, Iby
and Otto took two English evacuee children into their
home for the duration of the war.5 As other members
of the Koerner and Molnar families, and European
friends and associates, arrived in Vancouver, Iby was
always quick to help them with the resettling process.
Mari Horvath, Iby's niece, recalls a typical example
of Iby's kindness to fellow immigrants:" I will never
forget that Iby gave [the family] a trousseau, linen,
towels, and so on, when they arrived. They had
nothing.'6 Iby's kindness toward newcomers
continued well into the post-war years. Eugene
Horvath was himself a recipient of her kindness when
he arrived in Vancouver in 1957: "She was a lovely
person. I had to start all over again here. Iby
encouraged and helped me, I am very thankful for
that. I have always admired her."7 Iby was
instrumental in helping to bring most of the professors
and many of the students, some 300 in all, from the
Faculty of Forestry of the Sopron University in Sopron,
Hungary, to the University ofBritish Columbia during
the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, reports Mari
Horvath. Iby also housed some of the refugees in her
home for a time.
Christmas of 1939 must have been an emotional
one for the Koerners. They had much to be thankful
for: not only had they found sanctuary in a free and
democratic country, but also they had the opportunity
12
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 Iby Koerner photographed
in Vienna c. 1923
Photo courtesy of George
Shindler
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2        13 Notes
1 The "I" in Iby is pronounced as
in "sit."
2 Although Iby had converted to
Roman Catholicism, she was still
considered a Jew according to
the Nuremberg Laws passed by
the Third Reich in 1935.
3 Three of Otto's six sisters could
not be persuaded to leave. They
ultimately perished in Nazi
concentration camps. The other
three sisters eventually ended up
in Vancouver after the end of
World War Two.
4 Ian Docherty, "Honors at the
symbol oflby's triumph,"
Vancouver Courier, 26 June 1979.
5 A letter to Iby from the great
Hungarian composer, Bela
Bartok, commending her for this
generosity was found among her
papers after her death. Bartok
was the head of an international
organization active in relocating
children imperiled by the war.
6 Mari Horvath, interview by
author, tape recording,
Vancouver, B.C., 10 May, 27 May
1999.
7 Eugene Horvath, interview by
author, Vancouver, B.C., 10 and
27 May, 1999.
8 Bruce Macdonald, Vancouver: A
Visual History (Vancouver, B. C:
Talonbooks, 1992), 43.
9 Vancouver's First Century: A
City Album 1860-1960, eds. Anne
Kloppenborg et al (Vancouver: J.
J. Douglas, Ltd., 1977), 101.
10 Mary Roaf, interview by Alice
Macaulay, Vancouver, B.C., 18
November 2001.
11 "Cultural Arts Stimulated,"
Vancouver Sun, I June 1946, 8.
12 Geoff Hancock, "There's more
to Patrons Than Meets the
Ledgers," Music Magazine 2:3
(May/June
1979),12.
to make a fresh start in the business for which Otto
and his brothers were admirably suited. However, by
then they had discovered what kind of city Vancouver
was, and it could not have been more different from
what they had left behind in Europe. Despite its
spectacularly beautiful setting, the city was little more
than a provincial town. Irish, Scottish, and English
ethnic groups made up the largest segment of the
population of 250,000. The Anglican and United
churches dominated the entire west side and the west
end. In 1938:
residents in Dunbar complained to city council about a
neighbour who kept three dogs, a bull, twenty cattle,
fifty pigs and hundreds of chickens. Another resident at
2880 West 29m kept five hundred chickens; in 1941 the
average home in Vancouver was worth $3,100 and the
average rent paid was $25 ... four out of five homes did
not have all of the following: a car, a telephone, a radio
and a vacuum cleaner.8
Downtown Vancouver boasted only three tall
buildings: the Marine Building (1930), the Royal Bank
skyscraper (1931), and the Hotel Vancouver, started
in 1928, but, because of the depression, not completed
until 1939. Most ofthe downtown core was residential.
Long lines of unemployed, destitute men on the
downtown streets were evidence that the depression
was not yet over. Numerous bawdy houses and
Chinese gambling dens gave the city a frontier town
character. False Creek was ringed by industry, mainly
sawmills and shipbuilding enterprises, all spewing
out noxious smoke and fumes which, together with
the emissions from sawdust burners and coal furnaces
used to heat city homes, contributed to the dense fogs
the city experienced in the winter months.
The average citizen's leisure time was spent on
the city's beaches and in the parks during the
summertime. The Vancouver Public Library and the
Art Gallery of Vancouver provided intellectual
stimulation for those so inclined. The Kitsilano
Showboat and the Pacific National Exhibition at
Hastings Park offered ordinary folk more diversion.
There were a number of vaudeville and movie theatres
downtown, as well as eleven uptown for those who
had the price of admission, although attendance had
dropped markedly by 1938-39.
Wealthy and influential Vancouverites - the
lumber, mining, liquor, and sugar barons - had many
more sophisticated ways to amuse themselves.
Membership in the Royal Vancouver Yacht Club, the
Vancouver Lawn Tennis and Badminton Club,
Shaughnessy Golf Club, the Vancouver Club, and the
Terminal City Club was both exclusive and restrictive:
in 1939, and for many years afterwards, Jews and
Orientals were denied membership. Women of social
prominence belonged to the Georgian Club, the Junior
League, the Vancouver Symphony Society, or the
Women's Auxiliary Committee to the Vancouver Art
Gallery. The Vancouver Horse Show of 22 November
1938, brought out the "creme de la creme" attired in top
hats and tails and formal evening gowns and furs.9 The
Commodore Ballroom was a frequent choice for
debutante parties; the Palomar Supper Club and the
newly opened Panorama Roof atop the Hotel Vancouver
provided members of the younger monied set with a
place to kick up their heels. BYOB (bring your own
bottle) was the custom at the Palomar, since liquor could
not be served legally in Vancouver's nightclubs. The
older set entertained in their grand homes at dinner
parties, bridge parties, and private dances, in those few
homes having ballrooms, private dances.
The city appeared a cultural wasteland to
European immigrants, who were accustomed to a rich
and varied artistic menu, even in small towns, because
in Europe the arts were supported financially by the
state, and thus not dependent upon individual
patronage for their survival. Vancouver had pitifully
few choices: the Vancouver Symphony Orchestra,
the newly formed CBC Vancouver Orchestra, and
occasional concerts by visiting artists sponsored by
the Vancouver Women's Musical Club. Outdoor
theatre took place on summer evenings on the stage
of the Malkin Bowl in Stanley Park, but there was no
professional resident theatre company. Two amateur
groups, the Vancouver Little Theatre Association and
the University of B. C. Players' Club, staged
productions from time to time. Training in dance was
available, but employment with a professional
company had to be sought elsewhere.
Disappointed as she was to find such a dearth,
Iby was undaunted. She made up her mind to do
something about it as soon as she could by putting to
good use those talents and connections she had
brought from her old life. But first of all she had to
get out and meet local people. World War II was the
impetus for volunteer organizations to turn their
attention to support for the war effort. It was into this
world of volunteerism that Iby made her first modest
entry into public service. Who introduced her to the
Women's Auxiliary to the Seaforth Highlanders
Regiment is not known, but her appearance at an
Auxiliary meeting caused at least one of the members,
Mary Roaf, whose husband was a colonel in the
14
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 Regiment, to wonder what such an obvious outsider
was doing there. Roaf remembers her first meeting
with this "foreign woman": she found Iby very
attractive, her English was good, but her manner,
appearance, and name showed her to be "not one of
US."10 Although the two women eventually became
close friends, Roaf recalls she was very stiff with Iby
at first. Iby, determined not to be bothered by such
things, enthusiastically joined the other women
painting children's furniture and making dogwood
lapel pins out of small pieces of white leather to be
sold at the Auxiliary's annual fund raising bazaar.
Before long, Iby's charm overcame any reserve among
the members, and won her many other good friends.
Iby was also a regular volunteer during the war
years at the Shaughnessy Hospital Red Cross Lodge,
but when she joined the Vancouver Art Gallery
Women's Auxiliary Committee in 1942, she was
moving in the direction of her main interests: the arts.
By the end of the war, Iby was leading an active
life in the community, and had made many new
friends and acquaintances. She was comfortable and
happy, though not satisfied with the lack of progress
toward a richer cultural life. She had already begun
to bring together people who didn't know one
another, but who had similar goals, and gradually a
circle emerged which became a highly effective lobby
for the development of the arts in Vancouver.
Then came the shocking death of her husband,
Otto, on 30 August 1946, at the age of fifty-one. Iby
was deeply affected by her loss. As she began to
emerge from her grieving, she was faced with the
decision as to how to carry on as a relatively young
widow. Although she became a director of those
companies that Otto had been involved in within the
family firm, and was asked to attend various company
functions in a social capacity, she did not envision
spending the rest of her life that way. When her
daughter announced her intention to live
permanently in London, England, it would have been
easy for Iby to allow herself to be looked after by her
brothers-in-law. She chose instead to be independent
of Otto's family, and to live her life on her own terms,
according to her own interests. Nevertheless, she was
always associated with the Koerner family, and was
usually referred to in the media by the name she bore
for her entire adult life: Mrs. Otto Koerner.
As she began to take up her activities again,
other developments in the city were taking it in the
same direction as she wanted it to go. In 1945, Virginia
Lee Coomer, a consultant on community arts, was
hired by the Junior League of Vancouver to conduct a
survey on the state of the arts in the city. She produced
a report, published under the title, The Arts and Our
Town, which was presented to civic leaders at a public
meeting in the Vancouver Hotel on 31 May 1946. The
Coomer report, "the first such report ever presented
to any city in North America," recommended, among
other things, the establishment of a cultural arts
council.11 The report was so well received that a
nominating committee was struck, and the first Board
of the new Community Arts Council was formed the
same year. Its founding objective was to increase and
broaden the opportunities for Vancouver citizens to
enjoy and participate in cultural activities, but its
dream was for civic betterment on a much larger scale.
Iby was nominated to the Board in 1950, and served
on it until 1982, when she became an Honorary
Director. She also sat on the Music Committee of the
Board for several years. The Community Arts Council,
arguably the most influential cultural organization
ever formed in Vancouver, was to be a most important
association for Iby, because it gave her the base and
prestige she needed to emerge as a leader in the major
projects she became deeply involved in: the
Vancouver International Festival and the Community
Music School, now know as the Vancouver Academy
of Music.
The genesis of the Vancouver International
Festival was in an idea for a summer festival of the
arts first conceived by Nicholas (Niki) Goldschmidt,
a talented musician and impresario extraordinaire
who had come to Vancouver from Toronto in the early
1950s to develop an experimental Summer School of
the Arts at the University of British Columbia. He
discussed his idea with his friend, Iby, who was most
enthusiastic. She in turn enlisted the support of her
friend, Mary Roaf, and the two introduced the idea
to a meeting of the Community Arts Council Board
sometime early in 1954.
The Community Arts Council was interested
enough to arrange two meetings, inviting
representatives of the local arts organizations to one
and community minded men and women to the other.
As a result of the positive response of both groups,
the Council delegated Iby to set up and head a Festival
Committee, which she had accomplished by the fall
of 1954. The next step was to set up a permanent
organization to be known as The Vancouver Festival
Society, and incorporate it under the Societies Act of
British Columbia. Although Iby could have had the
top job, President of the Board, she declined in favour
13 Report to the Vancouver
Festival Society, 20 July 1955,8.
Community Arts Council
Papers.City of Vancouver
Archives.
14 Ibid., 1.
15 Ibid.
16 Tby was on the site-finding
committee, but she favoured a
site closer to the centre ofthe
downtown core.
17 First Vancouver International
Festival, Programme Notes 1958,
Special Collections, Vancouver
Public Library.
18 Vancouver Festival Society,
Souvenir Anniversary Book (
n.p.,1969),
19 Ibid.
20 Audrey Down, "Festival for
the People, Vancouver Sun, 25
June 1968,28.
21 Leon Koerner was Iby's
brother-in-law. Both he and his
wife were patrons of the arts.
22 Down. "Festival."
23 Ibid.
24 "There's more to Patrons."
25 "Festivals," The Greater
Vancouver Book.An Urban
Encyclopaedia, ed. Chuck Davis
(Surrey, B. C:
Linkman Press, 1997), 754.
26 "Opera," The Greater
Vancouver Book, 688.
27 "Honors."
28 Ibid.
29 "Vancouver Academy of Music
1969-1994," Academy of Music
(April 1994), 18. Besides Robert
Creech, other founding members
were Frank Low-Beer, Donald
Moir, Murray Schafer, Campbell
Trowsdale, Josephine Walton,
and Eric Wilson.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2
15 30 The Leon and Thea Koerner
Foundation, Annual Report 1969.
Between 1969 and 1983, the
Foundation
awarded annual grants totaling
$24,250 to the school.
31 Community Arts Council
papers, City of Vancouver
Archives. These records are the
source of much of
the infonnation in this paper
about the Community Music
School.
32 Hancock, 13.
33 Jerold Gerbrecht, interview
by Alice Macaulay, 15 May 2002.
34 Hancock, 13.
35 "Honors."
36 Ibid.
37 Ibid.
38 Vol. X, 1964-66 (Toronto:
Trans-Canada Press, 1966),588.
39 Hancock, 13.
40 Interview by author,
Vancouver, B.C., tape recording,
10 May, 27 May, 1955,
41 Hancock, 12. Volunteerism did
not exist in Hungary; all workers
in the arts were paid.
42 Vancouver Festival Society,
Press release, 4 May 1961, Iby
Koerner papers, Box 5-12,
Special Collections, Vancouver
Public Library.
43 Office of the Governor-
General, Rideau Hall, Ottawa.
44 Ray Chatelin, "City loses
major art force," Province, 29
Dec.1983, 29.
45 Probate file no. 166955, GR-
2992, 83-0407-201, B.C.
Provincial Archives, Victoria, B.c.
of W C. Mainwaring, giving her reasons many years
later in an interview: "I did not think a woman should
head [the Board]. It's a man's job to approach
government if you need money."
Iby's original idea was to hold the Festival in
Malkin Bowl, Stanley Park, but Tyrone Guthrie, who
had been brought from London, England, to conduct
a feasibility study for the Festival Society, squelched
that in no uncertain tenns: "I visited Theatre Under
the Stars and thought the setting extremely makeshift
and tatty .... "13 Nevertheless, Guthrie's report
obviously convinced the Board that the time was ripe
to proceed with the festival project. He wrote:
"[Vancouver] is still a frontier city where material
needs have hitherto, and needfully taken priority of
spiritual. As such it owes itself and to posterity the
expression of something besides material
prosperity."14 The clincher came on page 8: "As I see
it, this should be a Coming of Age Party of a
phenomenally [sic] rich and potentially powerful
heir.15 These words could not have been sweeter to
Iby's ears.
A coming of age party is an appropriate
metaphor for the first Vancouver International
Festival. Iby and her Board worked with Artistic
Director and General Manager Niki Goldschmidt to
put together an inaugural programme that would
launch Vancouver as a culturally mature city. Iby
organized a corps of dedicated volunteers who
ensured that the behind-the-scenes arrangements
would be equal to the demands of the artists and the
artistic programme. Some of those volunteers are alive
today, and still recall the strong sense of purpose and
commitment Iby's enthusiasm instilled in them.
The Festival was scheduled for the summer of
1958 to coincide with B.C.'s Centennial celebrations.
The opening gala on 19 July 1958, was a symphony
concert in the Orpheum Theatre, conducted by the
famous maestro, Bruno Walter, who had come out of
retirement for the premiere, lured by the excitement
of the new venture and the involvement of his long
time friend, Iby. The concert was a glittering occasion,
made especially so by the presence ofH. R. H. Princess
Margaret.
There were twenty-eight events in all in the ten
days following the opening. Although a site had been
chosen for the Queen Elizabeth Theatre and
construction had begun, the only suitable venues
available were the Orpheum Theatre, the Georgia
Auditorium, and the Hotel Vancouver ballroom.16 The
ambitious and diverse festival programme employed
local musicians, singers, and actors, as well as the
finest international artists available: conductors Irwin
Hoffman and William Steinberg; pianists Andre
Previn and Glenn Gould; singers Maureen Forrester
and Lois Marshall; the Oscar Peterson Trio; jazz
musician Jack Teagarden and his sextet; the National
Dancers of Ceylon; and the great mime artist, Marcel
Marceau. The opera offering was Mozart's Don
Giovanni, for which the Australian soprano, Joan
Sutherland, was brought from London to sing the role
of Donna Anna. A new play, The World of the
Wonderful Dark, by Canadian playwright, Lister
Sinclair, was commissioned for the festival, and
starred fellow Canadians Barry Morse and John
Drainie. To round out the programme, there was the
first International Film Festival, an exhibition of Dutch
art, and a book exhibition.17
The first Vancouver International Festival's take
resulted in a surplus of $97,000, but by the beginning
of the second season this had dwindled to $2000;
obviously some vigorous fundraising had to be
undertaken. Grants were sought and obtained from
the federal, provincial, and civic governments, and
many organizations, corporations, and individuals
confirmed their belief in the value of the Festival by
contributing.
Despite being strapped for funds, the second
Vancouver International Festival presented "the most
ambitious programme ever seen in Vancouver - a total
of eight Symphony concerts, five chamber concerts,
plus solo recitals, choral recitals, and wind ensemble
concerts in addition to the major international
attractions."18 Famous artists such as Herbert Von
Karajan, Walter Susskind, Bruno Walter, Ernst and
Marie Friedlander, Harry Belafonte, Rudolph
Firkusny Mary Costa, Ernst Haefliger, Maria Stader,
and Anna Russell provided the international
component, and Their Royal Highnesses Queen
Elizabeth and Prince Philip graced the Festival with
their presence at a gala performance given in their
honour. The newly completed Queen Elizabeth
Theatre was the venue for most of the performances,
and henceforth became the Festival's permanent
home. However, "by the close of the season, the
Festival again required financial assistance and an
additional generous grant was forthcoming from the
City of Vancouver." 19
The Festival Society Board sought to rectify the
financial situation by broadening the programme for
the third Festival, shortening the run by one day, using
more local productions at lower prices, and including
16
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 for the first time a children's programme. It was
criticized in the press for a lack of international
flavour, but it ended in the black. Iby responded
defensively to the criticism: "This word 'international'
was misunderstood .... The idea of an international
festival included keeping it up to international
standards, regardless of whether the participants
came from Chilliwack, Timbuktu or Peking.20
Encouraged, the Board became more ambitious
in mounting a programme for the fourth Festival, but
despite recording the largest attendance of all
previous Festivals, the season ended with a deficit of
$52,000. The Board retained Goldschmidt as Artistic
Diretor, but replaced him as General Manager with
Gordon Hilker. Radio station CHQM launched a Save-
the-Festival campaign, and the City of Vancouver and
the Province of B. C. each gave $20,000 to reduce the
deficit. By early 1962 enough money was on hand to
allow the fifth annual Festival plans to proceed. Iby's
influence in fundraising was apparent during these
years. Partly because of her name and involvement,
the Leon and Thea Koerner Foundation gave annual
grants to the Festival Society totaling $22,000 during
the years 1955_65.21 These were substantial grants for
the Foundation at the time.
Imported productions dominated the fifth
Festival programme; only the opera and two plays
were locally produced. Goldschmidt resigned in mid-
season as Artistic Director, and was replaced by Dino
Yannopoulos. The season ended with a large deficit,
and the future looked very uncertain.
The sixth, seventh, and eighth annual Festivals
continued without incurring financial disaster, but
without finding the magic programme to satisfy the
critics or the public palate. Although Iby was not on
the Board, she was in her seat for the first night
performance of every event, and was indignant about
the reviews: "One lesson Mrs. Koerner has learned...
is that you can't please a critic. 'We were blamed in
the beginning that we were too highbrow and too
ambitious,' she said. 'On the other hand, now they
are complaining we are not as good as we were in the
beginning'." n
By 1966, when Iby returned to the Board as a
member~at-Iarge, a much diminished ninth annual
Festival was almost devoid of international talent.
Although it ended with the largest deficit reduction
in the Festival's history, a deficit remained, and the
tenth and last Festival was programmed with the goal
of reducing the deficit altogether. Regrettably, this did
not happen, and the Vancouver Festival Society was
forced to declare bankruptcy at the conclusion of the
season.
Thus, Iby was present at the demise of a dream
that had occupied her imagination and energy for
many years:" 'If it hadn't been for Mrs. Otto Koerner
there would have been no Vancouver Festival in the
first place ...,' " Hugh Pickett, General Manager of
the Festival is quoted as saying.23
Talking to Geoff Hancock in 1979 about the
Festival, Iby said:
People have forgotten those exciting times. Vancouver
didn't expect the pioneering we were doing and was
unprepared for such large events. Imagine, we had major
opera here - not the small pieces like The Barber of Seville
.... We planned the program and tried to sell the idea to
the public, although there was never enough money for
publicity .... They [Vancouverites] were too cautious, or
maybe we were too advanced .... 24
Others viewed the long term effect more
HRH Princess Margaret
receiving Iby Koerner at
the first International
festival, 19, July 1958. Lt.
Gov. R.G. Rogers and Mrs.
and Mr. W.C. Mainwaring
are in the background.
Photograph by Artray, used with
permission.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2
17 positively. Ernie Fladell wrote: "After the elegant
Vancouver International Festival died ... in 1969,
conventional wisdom decreed that there would never
be another performing arts festival produced in
Vancouver. Currently there are 33."25 In the same book,
Ray Chatelin wrote: "Its [the Festival's] most visible
outgrowth was the fledgling opera company"26 Ian
Docherty wrote: "Only those who knew Vancouver
and its musical and theatrical life before, during and
after the VIF can really appreciate how much it did
for the city."27 Iby's vision has been fulfilled, and,
despite what she thought and said in 1979, those who
were alive during the Festivals, and still are now, have
not forgotten those heady times. Before the end of the
Festival decade, Iby had taken up a new cause: " ...
the schooling of musicians, since that's where it all
starts.'" 28
In 1966 members of the Community Arts
Council decided that Vancouver's lack of an
institution that provided music training for the young
was a situation that should be neglected no longer.
The Council's Music Committee, of which Iby was a
member, had already been an effective lobby for the
establishment in 1956 of a Faculty of Music at the
University of British Columbia. However, music
instruction for children was still a private affair,
dependent upon a family's ability to pay for
instruments and lessons. By 1968 the Community Arts
Council had formed a Committee on Music Schools,
headed up by musician and music educator Robert
Creech, who was the originator of the idea for the
project. The Committee's preparatory work had
reached the stage where the support of the music
community and other interested parties warranted
formalizing its goal: establishment of a Community
Music School.
The Community Music School of Greater
Vancouver was incorporated on 28 February 1969 as
a non-profit institution. The founding members
recruited the first Board of Trustees, and Iby was
elected chairman, a position she held until her death
in 1983.29
The Trustees and founding members had a
great deal of work ahead of them, not only planning
the programme for the school's first intake of students
that year, but also, and most pressing, raising the
money to get things going. As a start, it was decided
to hold a benefit symphony concert under the auspices
of the Community Arts Council. To the Council's
surprise and delight, and thanks to Iby's close
personal friendship with William Steinberg, the
eminent conductor of the Boston and Philadelphia
symphony orchestras, Steinberg arranged at short
notice to come to Vancouver to conduct the orchestra.
Internationally known violinist Esther Glazer was
obtained to appear as soloist. Both Steinberg and
Glazer waived their fees. Members of the Vancouver
Symphony Orchestra and the CBC Chamber
Orchestra, and VBC musicians agreed to donate their
services for four rehearsals and the concert itself, and
a grant of $600 was obtained from the City of
Vancouver to cover the rental of the Queen Elizabeth
Theatre. The concert took place at 8 p. m. on 24 June
1969, but was not the sellout hoped for. According to
one of the volunteers, the house had to be "papered"
by giving away hundreds of tickets.
Next, the Trustees applied to the Leon and Thea
Koerner Foundation for a grant of $3000 as seed
money; Iby's name was on the application as a contact
person. The Foundation gave $2000, a large grant at
the time.30 Private donations began to come in,
including cheques made out to the school in honour
of Iby's seventieth birthday, 28 July
Fifty students were enrolled in the first year of
operation, 1969-70, in quarters at several locations:
UBC, the Burnaby Art Centre, and the basement of a
downtown Vancouver church. All services were
donated or paid for from the proceeds of the benefit
concert, grants and donations. Cameron Trowsdale,
of UBC's Faculty of Music, donated his services as
Acting Director. Iby's talent for assembling a group
of dedicated volunteers proved essential during this
first year in attending to the many tasks associated
with the new venture.
In 1970 the Trustees applied to Canada Council
for a grant, the receipt of which enabled the school to
be moved to more suitable quarters in the Old Model
School at Twelfth Avenue and Cambie Street. Jerold
Gerbrecht, principal trumpet of the Vancouver
Symphony Orchestra, was hired as the first salaried
Music Director, and the services of most of the
principal players of the VSO were secured for the
instrument music faculty. The school could now offer,
in addition to its pilot programmes in Orff, Kodaly
and Suzuki, complete instruction in all instruments
of the orchestra, supplemented by classes in theory,
history, and chamber music.
The school grew and prospered, but in 1973,
when the Old Model School was condemned by the
fire department, a move to new premises was
necessary. In September 1973, Mayor Art Phillips and
Vancouver City Council approved the use of the Royal
18
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 Canadian Air Force warehouse in Vanier Park as a
possible site if the Trustees could prove their ability
to finance the renovation of the building, Iby, Board
President Elsje deRidder Armstrong, and other Board
members moved into high gear, and launched a
vigorous fund-raising campaign. They went again to
the Leon and Thea Koerner Foundation, and received
a special grant of $100,000 designated for the
construction and furnishing of a space within the
building to be named the Koerner Recital Hall. The
campaign was so successful that by 1976 the new
premises were ready for occupancy. At the grand
opening ceremonies on 9 May 1976, Iby was able to
announce that $1.9 million had been collected, which
covered in full the costs of renovation.
By 1979 the school had "1450 students, and a
waiting list of 650 students from the Vancouver area
alone, including some children who are registered
before they are even born!" 32
Iby attended every Board meeting as a voting
member, and was a constant presence at the school.
Jerold Gerbrecht remembers that at the end of each
school year, Iby would come to his office for a chat.
"Well, Jerold, what will we do that is new next year?"
she would ask, and when he told her that there were
no funds to contemplate a new programme, Iby would
say, "Don't worry, Jerold, we'll get the money " M
Iby's role in the success of the Community
Music School was also recognized by its Business
Manager, Stanley Sadgrove, quoted in 1979: " 'She's
been chairman from the start and a guiding light for
the entire operation. Her influence and enthusiasm
has kept the school together and given it direction'."34
Iby herself regarded the school as "My main love affair
in Vancouver."35
Faculty and students honoured Iby on 22 June
1979, with a concert and reception to celebrate her
forthcoming eightieth birthday on 28 July. Ian
Docherty of The Vancouver Courier covered the event,
and wrote:
"It was the happiest, most tuneful of birthday parties,
Saturday afternoon in the Koerner Recital Hall 	
Congratulations are flooding in from all points of the globe,
but I'm certain none will mean more to Iby Koerner than
the music she heard last weekend, from the school that
stands as a triumphant symbol of her contributions to our
culturallife."36
The school continued to develop and expand.
A proposal to develop a College Division to meet the
needs of outstanding students was approved by the
Trustees, and a new name - The Vancouver Academy
of Music - was chosen to reflect the expansion.
Eventually the curriculum included, in addition to
the two year College Programme, a two year Diploma
Programme in Performance, and a full four year
Bachelor of Music Programme in collaboration with
the Open University of the Open Learning Agency.
Iby's "love affair" had come to full flower, but
she did not live to see her small local school grow to
an internationally recognized institution. She was
happy with what she did live to see, however: "The
school has a wonderful spirit.... The board, staff and
students click together. Without this dedication, I say
no organization can survive."37
Iby gave her time and expertise to many other
organizations. The Canadian Who's Who lists her major
associations and affiliations: member of the Senate of
Simon Fraser University; trustee for the National
Gallery of Canada; President of the Canadian
Handicraft Guild in Montreal; member of the Arts
Selection Committee for the Charlottetown
Confederation Memorial Art Gallery; Governor of the
Canadian National Theatre School; Director of the
Canadian Conference of the Arts; Vice-President of
Jeunesses Musicales; member of the Advisory
Council, Vancouver Opera Association.38
Other volunteer positions she held include
President of the Vancouver Art Gallery Women's
Auxiliary Committee, and Honorary Vice-President
of the Gallery Board from 1963 on; Director, Society
Incorporated for the Welfare of the Arts, Sciences and
Health, now called Endeavor; member, Advisory
Committee, Vancouver School of Art; member,
Cultural Advisory Committee to the Vancouver
Foundation from 1980. Towards the end of her long,
productive life, Iby reflected on her achievements:
"/ feel that I did enough, but I'm still on several
committees, and it's nice to feel I'm needed. I was ready
to help, and I did my share, but of course with the help of
colleagues who shared the responsibility, struggle and joys
of success. I hope I have no enemies in this city - the
difference between satisfaction and ambition can be
misconstrued. It has been my ambition to do well and find
that personal satisfaction" 39
Iby was not given to public utterances of her
devotion to and love for her adopted country, but her
niece, Mari Horvath, recalls: "Iby was very happy in
Vancouver. She said they were the luckiest people to
be here. 'Vancouver is a gemstone in a brilliant
setting," she said."40 The personal fulfillment Iby
experienced in Vancouver was the result of a
symbiotic relationship: she was good for the city, and
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2
19 the city was equally good for her. She knew it,
acknowledged it many times in conversation, and at
least once in print: "Koerner will admit she would
never have had the same opportunity to support the
arts in her native Austria [sic] ... 'The opportunity
never existed for my family' she [said] simply."
Public recognition came to Iby in the form of
several honours. In 1961, she was invited to Toronto
to receive the Diplome d'Honneur, the annual award
of the Canadian Conference of the Arts: "Mrs. Koerner
is the first woman, and the first B.C. resident to receive
this annual award which is given to the layman in
Canada whose services to the arts has been judged
most outstanding."42 On 12 April, 1972, she received
the country's highest civilian honour at her investiture
as an Officer in the Order of Canada. Her citation
reads: "For her devoted services in a large number of
voluntary organizations, more especially those related
to the arts and education."43 Simon Fraser University
conferred on Iby its highest honour, L.L.D., Honoris
Causa, at its annual convocation ceremonies in May
1980. Her supporting citation begins by paying tribute
to Iby's dedication to the arts, and goes on to cite her
contribution to the university as a Convocation
Founder and member of the original SFU Senate. After
her death, she was honoured by being inducted
posthumously as a patron into the B.C. Entertainment
Hall of Fame on 6 March 1986. Her star can be seen
on the Starwalk on the east side of Granville Street
between Smithe and Robson Streets in downtown
Vancouver.
Iby died on 27 December 1983, at the age of 84.
A private service was held, and she was buried beside
Otto at Ocean View Cemetery; a large public memorial
service was held on 4 January 1984, at the Vancouver
Academy of Music. She is still remembered by many
in the arts community. Her energy, charm, and ability
to inspire people to work together toward a common
cause, when combined with her knowledge of the arts
and the people involved in them, made her a "force
majeure," and earned her great affection and respect.
Eulogized in a newspaper article that appeared only
two days after her death, Iby was described as:
... the gentle, soft-spoken women[sic] who gave Vancouver
a soul through her life-long support of the arts ...she was
the financial pillar and inspirational force behind the
creation and maintenance of virtually every major arts
organization in Vancouver and many others throughout
North America. She had a generous heart and an unflinching
belief in the essential goodness of mankind - an attribute
that she believed was at its best in the creation of great
art. The 44 years she spent in this country were devoted
to the pursuit of that belief.44
Iby did not have the means to be a philanthropist of
the magnitude of her brothers-in-law, Leon and Walter
Koerner. Her financial contributions during her life
were mainly entertaining and putting up visiting
artists and dignitaries as house guests, offering her
home for countless meetings and receptions after
important cultural events, and numerous other acts
of generosity paid for out of her own purse. However,
if one were able to add up the money she raised for
the arts in Vancouver, it is certain the amount would
be staggering. Her estate would be considered that
of a moderately well-to do person in today's terms.
Most of the residue was bequeathed to family
members, but, as her last gesture of love and
dedication to the arts community, she bequeathed a
generous amount to the Vancouver Academy of Music
Endowment Fund at the Vancouver Foundation.45
Vancouver today is unrecognizable as the
sleepy little cultural backwater that Iby came to in
1939. While we are not comparable to New York or
London or one of the great continental European cities
in the depth and breadth of our cultural choices, we
have come a very long way in offering our citizens an
artistic menu of considerable diversity and excellence.
One cannot make the claim that this transformation
is the result of the influence or work of anyone person;
Iby would be the first to agree. Many developments
in addition to those discussed above were taking place
during the early years of Iby's life in Vancouver, partly
as a result of the influx of other like-minded
Europeans. During the 1950s, the Massey Commission
Report (1951), and the subsequent formation of the
Canada Council for the Arts (1957) were of great
importance in fostering artistic vitality throughout the
entire nation. The claim that can be made for Iby is
that she was a very powerful catalyst, speeding up
the process of creating a mature artistic climate in
Vancouver that likely would have taken much longer
without her vision and involvement. She belongs
firmly and rightly among the top ranks of those
luminaries whose reach does not exceed their grasp.
The city's debt to her is a permanent one. •
20
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 The Vancouver Poetry Society
By Victoria Baker
The first known Canadian group formally
devoted to poetry initially came together in
the year of 1916, on the night of October 21.
On that autumn evening, six people were
invited by Dr. Ernest Fewster to his office on Granville
Street in Vancouver. One of the invitees, May Percival
Judge, recalls this first gathering:
[S]ix people arrived at Dr. Fewster's office, and sat stiffly
on six chairs, while waiting for him to put in an appearance
. . .and eyed each other with a certain amount of quiet
curiosity. They carried an air of solemn, detached
aloofness, as if they were buttoned up tightly in little
worlds of their own. None was prepared to undo a single
button of their thoughts until they had listened to the
why and wherefore of the doctor's proposition. . . Hardly
a word was spoken, and the time dragged on. At last, after
what seemed hours instead of minutes, when the doctor
did appear he seemed almost as reserved and ill at ease as
his guests. Can you picture that frigid little assembly of
strangers, and the poor doctor trying to make them see
through the limitation of words his wonderful, far-off
vision, which he hoped later on to turn into something
alive and tangible? (Book of Days 2-3)
This "frigid little assembly of strangers" soon
warmed to each other and began eagerly working
towards making Fewster's vision a reality. First, they
chose a name. They considered "The Coterie," "The
Lucky Seven," and even simply "The Poetry
Club"(Book of Days 3), and finally agreed on "The
Vancouver Poetry Society."
The Vancouver Poetry Society (VPS) was not
merely open to writers, but also to admirers of poetry.
"The doctor's desire was to form a society which
would cultivate, not for the few but for the many, a
broader interest and deeper insight into the varied
aspects of life"(Book of Days 3). At first, members
would meet every fortnight at a member's home. They
would gather around the fireside and hear their
poems read aloud and discussed. "None of the
members escaped criticism"(Book of Days 5). As the
society progressed, this became a monthly practice,
while the other monthly meeting was dedicated to a
lecture or critical paper on an "important poetic form
or famous poet"(Book of Days 7).
The VPS often invited guests to speak, and thus
established themselves within the local arts
community. Professors from UBC would often share
their knowledge, while poets, such as Isabel
Ecclestone Mackay, who was the first president of the
Canadian Women's Press Club, would give readings.
The VPS developed a children's poetry contest, invited
children to read their submissions, and presented the
winner with a bronze medal. The society members
also intermingled with both the New Westminster
Fellowship of Arts as well as the Poetry Club of
Seattle.
Before the VPS had a local identity, it held a
larger, national objective: "the encouragement of
poetic talent in Canada"(Constitution 1). At a time
when "few books on Canadian literature had been
published" and "the Canadian Authors' Association
was not yet in existence"(Book of Days 20), the VPS
promoted Canadian poets. Two poets who allied with
the VPS were Bliss Carman and Sir Charles G.D.
Roberts. Carman was elected Honorary President of
the Society in 1922. He and Fewster held an extensive
correspondence; their letters have culminated into a
"Bliss Canadiana without parallel"(McIntyre 1). After
Carman's death in 1928, his Honorary Presidency was
passed on to his cousin Sir Charles G.D. Roberts, who
felt entirely at ease with the VPS. At a Soiree in his
honour guests appeared in stiff boiled shirts, and the
night was warm. Sir Charles, cool in palm beach suit,
eyeglass and broad black ribbon, rose to speak, "Do
you mind if I unbutton my weskit?" (Mclntyre 1).
A number of events assisted the VPS in fulfilling
its national objective. In 1922, the VPS published
Canada's first chapbook, styled after those that were
enjoying a "revival, through the Poetry Bookshop of
London."(Mclntyre 2). A member, Mr. Charles
Bradbury, an amateur printer with a hand press,
initiated the Society "into the joys of the Van Gelder
handmade paper and showed what could be done
with the balanced beauty of antique type"(McIntyre
2). 250 were printed. Lome Pierce, friend of the VPS,
was inspired enough by this innovation to adopt its
form in the popular series of Ryerson Press
chapbooks. Soon members of the Society were being
published, not only in magazines, but in books of their
own, including their president, Ernest Fewster, whose
book, entitled My Garden of Dreams, appeared in 1926,
to the delight of the VPS.
In 1924, the VPS held "An Evening with British
Columbia Poets" in the Blue Room of the Hotel
Vancouver, an event covered by the Vancouver
Province:
[Ernest Fewster] said that it was customary to think that
Eastern Canada had almost a monopoly of intellectual
culture. While no doubt, the treasures of art and literature
were chiefly deposited there, it was evident that the West,
and particularly British Columbia, was waking up to a
consciousness of its advantages and it was the ambition of
the Poetry Society to help in the work of equalizing in
that respect the West with the East. (Book of Days 23).
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2
21 References
City of Vancouver Archives.
Vancouver Poetry Society Fonds.
2000. Vancouver. 2003 October
29.
Coleman, Michael G. [Letter to
Doris Brown, Corresponding
Secretary to the Vancouver
Poetry Society]. December 3,
1970. Vancouver Poetry Society
Fonds. Vancouver: City of
Vancouver Archives.
Fewster, Ernest. 'The 25th
Annual Meeting - Vancouver
Poetry Society: May 31,1941."
Vancouver Poetry Society Fonds.
Vancouver: City of Vancouver
Archives.
Fewster, Ernest. 'Vancouver
Poetry Society: President's
Address, May 17th, 1947."
Vancouver Poetry Society Fonds.
Vancouver: City of Vancouver
Archives.
Mclntyre, Mabel Thorburn. The
Vancouver Poetry Society.
19[52?]. Vancouver Poetry
Society Fonds. Vancouver: City of
Vancouver Archives.
Summers, Robert. Letter to
Members. January 30,1974.
Vancouver Poetry Society Fonds.
Vancouver: City of Vancouver
Archives.
Vancouver Poetry Society.
Catalogue. Vancouver, 19[6-?].
Canadiana Collection. Vancouver:
Vancouver Public Library.
Vancouver Poetry Society.
Constitution. Vancouver, 19[36?].
Canadiana Collection. Vancouver:
Vancouver Public Library.
Vancouver Poetry Society. The
Vancouver Poetry Society, 1916-
1946: A Book of Days. Toronto:
The Ryerson Press, 1946.
By 1926, the VPS had gained national
recognition. The Canadian Authors' Association held
a convention on the West Coast for the first time,
bringing many notable writers. The VPS managed to
arrange a reception in their honour. "From that night
the Vancouver Poetry Society emerged from the
obscurity of a small, unpublicized, local club and took
its due place as one of the vital forces working towards
the creation of a Canadian culture and a Canadian
vision"(Book of Days 30).
Soon membership grew to such a point that
meetings could no longer be held in homes. Space had
to be rented. Meetings grew more formal. Printed
programs were issued at the beginning of the season
outlining the schedule of performers and topics to be
discussed. There was less time for appraising members'
own poetry, so a Working Group formed, where those
who wanted to work on poetry met separately.
Eventually, the Group parted from the VPS all together
and formed an alliance with the British Poetry Society.
Despite, the parting of the Working Group, VPS
members' had always been encouraged to write. In
1936, Full Tide, the Society's mimeographed magazine
was launched. Composed of members' works not
previously published, the magazine first consisted of
eight pages, and later extended to twelve pages.
In 1944 and 1945, the Society gained a voice on
the airwaves, with a weekly 15-minute program,
entitled Lyric West. The first broadcast included a
history of the VPS. Later, members read poems or
discussed Canadian poets. These broadcasts, which
reached as far as Vancouver Island and the Interior of
British Columbia, "greatly increased the Society's
sphere of inf luence"(McIntyre 3). Then in 1946, A Book
of Days, a history of the VPS' 30 years, was published
with Lome Pierce's blessing.
The book, radio program, magazine, chapbook,
growing membership and various gala evenings all
amount to what in retrospect must have been the
Society's golden days. But then, in 1947, Ernest
Fewster missed his first annual season's end meeting.
He wrote a speech for the evening of May 17th that
year knowing he would not be able to deliver it. He
died later that year. Often described as the glue that
"held the club together"(Book of Days 31), Fewster
regularly expressed his high ideals, especially when
it came to poetry. On May 31st of 1941, Fewster
delivered an especially inspiring speech. Despite the
fact that 1941 marked the 25-year anniversary of the
VPS, Fewster's mood is not celebratory. A week earlier,
the pride of Britain's fleet, the HMS Hood, fell to the
Bismarck, Germany's largest ship. Amidst the
uncertainty of war, Fewster envisioned the Vancouver
Poetry Society as a an expression of "Divine Light,"
as the "ship of literature" trying to "steer clear" of the
surrounding low standards and darkness:
/ do not think the coming year will be easy; the portents
look dark. Many hearts are already trembling with fear;
this we must expect; this we must fight. For no matter
how things look, or even are, we must ever keep the poetic
Flame near burning on the altar of our hearts and write
poetry, read poetry and test poetry or recite poetry, only
by the white light of that Flame. The coming months will
test our loyalty to our King and Country, our love of
freedom, justice, truth and to all things good and great.
They will also test our loyalty to the Spiritual Powers of
the Universe, which is expressed in steadfastness to the
works we have laid our hands to, for the betterment, or
pure pleasure, for our fellow beings, as well as for
ourselves. To this the work our Society is pledged, and it
demands our loyalty and highest service.
Fewster was missed but the VPS continued for
26 years without him. From a researchers' perspective,
though, there is a sense of something lost, as the records
of presidential speeches suddenly end and other
records grow sparse. John R. Barret was the president
from 1948 to 1959. Following him, Mabel Mclntyre
presided from 1959 to 1961, Ken Symes from 1961 to
1970, and finally Robert Summers to 1974. As early as
1962, the VPS was arranging the dispersal of its library
to the Vancouver Public Library(Catalogue). In 1967,
the Canadian Authors' Association presented an award
to the VPS for its contribution to Canadian writing.
Correspondence reflects some discussion in 1970 of a
sequel to A Book o/Days(Coleman), but to no avail.
In 1974, VPS members received a letter
announcing the dissolution of the Society along with
the discontinuation of Full Tide: "It is with regret that
we must report that at a special meeting of the VPS.
on Nov. 29th. 1973, the decision was made to dissolve
the Society"(Summers). The reason given for
dissolution was that "the number of attending
members had dwindled to an average of six,"
ironically the same number of people that had first
gathered 58 years previously in Dr. Fewster's office.
Throughout the Society's life, a substantial collection
of records had amassed. These records were directly
deposited in the City of Vancouver Archives, where
the VPS quietly resides today. •
22
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 John Cort and the Standard Theatre in Victoria
Token History
by Ronald Greene
According to E.C. Elliott's, A History of
Variety-Vaudeville in Seattle from the
Beginning to 1914, John Cort came to
Seattle in 1887. He was born in New York
City in 1861 and at the age of 18 became an actor,
although not a good one. He very quickly turned his
talents to management and in 1880 became the
manager of the Grand Opera House in Cairo, Illinois.
For some years following this he was associated with
travelling shows. When Cort arrived in Seattle he
found the Standard Theater available. It was a good
house from the standpoint of equipment and he very
quickly made it into a good house in the quality of
entertainment. From the day that he took over, the
Standard Theater was a success. He at once began to
make plans for his own theater, newer and better.
Cort's new theater [1] was lit by incandescent
light, steam heated and had a capacity of eight
hundred. "The bar was one of the finest in the city,
purchased in Chicago, and electric bells throughout
the house brought instant service." At this point we
should note that theatres of the day commonly were
saloons with entertainment. From time to time Cort
and others tried to run their theatres as "family
theatres," i.e. without liquor, so ladies and children
could come to the theatre but Seattle was not ready
for a "family theatre." Some of the worst theatres,
referred to as "box houses" hired girls to push drinks.
His close associations with other houses in
Tacoma, Spokane and Butte allowed Cort to offer acts
a circuit with weeks of guaranteed appearances. He
was a fierce competitor and had much of the business
sewn up in Seattle. When one of his competitors, a
man named Smith, tried to post play bills on telephone
poles, he was promptly served with a permanent
injunction restraining him from doing so. That was a
privilege leased by the Seattle Bill Posting Company,
which was, of course, John Cort.
In 1889 a fire that destroyed twenty blocks of
Seattle left the Standard Theater in ruins. However,
the ever resourceful Cort had a large tent erected and
opened his third Standard Theater in just over two
weeks. By November, the fourth, and final Standard
Theater was open. Furthermore, by now Cort's circuit
could offer sixteen weeks' booking for acts in Seattle,
Spokane, Butte, Portland, San Francisco, and several
smaller centres.
In the summer of 1890 Cort built a pavilion at
Leschi Park for a seasonal theater. "Acts were drawn
from the shows at the Standard, and John Cort's
Standard Theater Band played a number of programs
»  '     \      * •    * V.M   1
€» ^>U'i.V
f
CORT'S
STANDARD THEATRE
Owlnjj to tho KjiI re ordinary nmouuiof
Alterations  thin Theatre  will not  open  until
MONDAY EVENING, APRIL 13th
On which occ&alon it will open with th«
Largest and Best Vaudeville Coopaoy
apll
KVKK HKKN IN  THIS CITY.
through July." Criticisms of Cort and a competitor
about the sale of liquor in their respective pavilions
indicated changing mores and growth of the
temperance movement. After the summer of 1890,
when he was perhaps enjoying some of his most
successful times, a series of events set John Cort back.
In December 1890 John F. Cordray opened a "family
house." His programs which featured an hour of
variety before the plays proved keen competition. A
suit in 1891 over matters dating from 1889 and 1890
brought judgment against him. Domestic troubles led
to a struggle for custody of his two sons.
Nevertheless, while maintaining his interest
in the Standard Theater in Seattle, Cort ventured into
Victoria. In April 1891 he opened Cort's Standard
Theatre in the former Club Theatre, located at the
south-east corner of Douglas and Yates streets, on the
site now occupied by the Bank of Montreal. It had
been built as a beer hall and billiard room, then
became the Concordia Theatre. About 1889 it became
the Club Theatre. When the manager, Carl Louis
Roller, died at the end of January 1890, Mrs. Roller
took over. However, when Cort took it over he put it
under the management of E.J. Perry and made
extensive improvements. The stage was raised by
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2
23 Notes
1 The spelling Theatre is used in
Canada and Theater in the U.S.
and I have tried as much as
possible to use the appropriate
spelling in each locality, probably
without much success.
2 Daily Colonist, September 29,
1892, p. 8. The newspaper gives
her name has Mrs. Flynd, but the
Marriage Registration, 92-09-
005136 (microfilm B11367) gives
the name as Flynn. However, the
groom's name is given as John
Lindsley White, probably an error
made by Rev. James H. White
who performed the ceremony.
Lindsley is a Cort family name
borne by at least one
descendant. Thus searching the
index for either Cort or Flynd
will not find the certificate. Rev.
White was minister of the
Methodist Church at Gorge Road
and David, now the Centennial
United Church, from 1890 until
1893.
3 Daily Colonist, January 23,
1892, p.3
4 Chad Evans, Frontier Theatre,
A History of Nineteenth-Century
Theatrical Entertainment in the
Canadian Far West and Alaska,
Sono Nis Press, Victoria, B.C.
1983.
5 Daily Colonist, November 12,
1892, p. 1 and November 13,
1892, p.7. The 1894 B.C.
Directory does not mention Cort.
The Liquor Licence Registers of
the City of Victoria give the
Licence Holder for the Delmonico
Restaurant as Ernest Escalet from
1889 until May 1,1894, when the
licence passed to W.G.
Stevenson. However, Escalet was
managing the Driard Hotel dining
room when the hotel's new
addition was opened in
November 1892. Daily Colonist,
November 10,1892, p. 4
6 Internet Broadway Database,
www.ibdb.com/
person.asp;?ID=22590
7 http:/www.foe.com/history/
history.html and also in Eugene
Clinton Elliott's work
three feet and sixteen private and two proscenium
boxes were added. About 300 people could be seated.
The opening troupe was to be sixteen players from
the Orpheum Theatre of San Francisco, but the
renovations delayed the opening and no mention has
been found of the actual opening.
The opening delay was just the beginning of
Cort's problems. The Standard Theatre in Victoria
appears to have been a box house of a fairly
disreputable nature. Perry had not obtained a liquor
licence in a proper manner - he claimed to have
obtained the Roller licence by a transfer, but the Board
of Commissioners cancelled that licence about the
time, December 9,1891, that he obtained it. He was
given a temporary licence, but didn't pay for a
renewal by the end of December when it expired. A
visit by the police in early January 1892 resulted in
charges being laid and a conviction obtained. The
headline read, "Found Guilty. The Standard Theatre
must close its doors at last."2 Sometime that year John
Cort moved to Victoria where he lived at the Pritchard
House and in September 1892 he re-married, his new
bride being Mrs. Ida May Flynn, of Portland, Oregon.3
Despite the newspaper report, the theatre did
not close immediately. It carried on without the bar,
but for how long has not been discovered as the
Standard Theatre did not advertise and seems to have
escaped the close scrutiny of the newspapers. The B.C.
Directory, published in January 1893, shows McMillan
& Campbell, grocers, on the site. Chad Evans4 says
that John Cort closed down the Standard Theatre by
the spring of 1892 and then opened the Delmonico
Restaurant and Music Hall at 109 Government Street.
The November 1892 advertisements of a grand reopening of the Delmonico Restaurant as a restaurant
and music hall did not mention Cort but the 1893 B.C.
Directory associated him with the Delmonico. Other
sources provide conflicting information.5
The final event that set back Cort was the
depression of 1893 which saw banks fail and
businesses collapse. One by one, John Cort had to give
up his theatres and interests. In 1894 he abandoned
his last Pacific coast business and moved to Chicago
to weather out the depression. He returned to Seattle
in 1898, opening a vaudeville house called the "Palm
Garden." Cort proclaimed that no liquor would be
allowed in the theatre so that any lady might visit,
but he had insufficient capital to continue and
apparently reverted to his former ways. Other
managers believed "he was giving the public too
much for their money. He had only high priced acts
and was trying to support them on free admission
and five-cent beer." In 1900 he obtained new backing
and built the "Grand Opera House," thereafter
devoting his interests to the legitimate theatre. In 1912
he moved his headquarters to the east. In New York
he became a very successful producer and is credited
with producing 36 plays between 1906 and 1925 when
he appears to have retired.6 In 1929, John Cort died
in his home at Larchmont, New York. When I was in
New York City in 2002,1 saw his 1912 Cort Theater in
the theater district but it was closed.
John Cort left another legacy. In 1898, theatre
operators in Seattle met in a response to a strike and
decided to stand together, to abolish their bands and
cut the orchestras to a single piano player. They
formed a society, called the Independent Order of
Good Things. Shortly thereafter they adopted the bald
eagle as their official emblem and changed the name
to the Fraternal Order of Eagles. It was said that Cort
chose the permanent name of the society, suggested
by a theatre backdrop. He became the first president
of the Grand Aerie.7
Cort also had a connection with tokens. In
Victoria John Cort and his Standard Theatre issued
brass tokens good for 10, 15, 20 and 25 cents when
used to purchase refreshments from the bar. •
24
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 Why Tokens?
By Ronald Greene
One of our readers has asked me
why tokens were used.
Responding to that
question, I offer the following
explanation. Many of the early tokens were
issued in the years between 1895 and 1910
because small coins were not generally
available. While coins under 25 cents may
have been provided in major cities such as
Victoria and Vancouver they were a distinct
rarity in such interior points as Nelson,
Sandon and Cranbrook. A great fuss was
made in the newspapers during World War
I when cents were released in Nelson,
"Nelson has joined the Cent Belt!"
In 1899 when the B.C. government
passed legislation limiting miners to an eight
hour day, the mine owners proposed
reducing the daily pay from $3.50 (for ten
hours) to $3.00 (for eight hours). The miners
naturally objected to the reduction in total
pay, and the mines objected to an increase
in wages from 35 cents per hour to what
might become almost 43 cents per hour.
Room and board was $1.00 per day, and
dinner 25 cents. Cigars were 2 for 25 cents,
or for finer grades, 3 for 50 cents, drinks were
12_ cents, later reduced to 10 cents.
Essentially, most daily transactions were
small. To facilitate these small transactions
in the absence of coins merchants were often
forced into providing tokens. For the cigar
smoker it was better to receive a token in
change that could be used for a cigar the next
day rather than take two cigars and find that
one had dried out by the next day. For the
merchant, the token was less likely to be
used at a competitor's store than a coin.
There was another advantage for the
merchant, at least those who kept a "nickel-
in-the-slot machine" in that the customer
might be tempted to have a go on the
machine. These machines were made in the
United States and called for a 5 cent coin.
The United States' 5 cent coin was called a
"nickel" — originating from the use of a
cupro-nickel alloy - and the pieces were just
over 21 mm in diameter, the size our five
cent pieces of today. The Canadian 5 cent
piece of the day was a small silver coin only
15   mm in diameter - sometimes referred
to as a "fish scale" from its diminutive size.
Thus, to operate the slot machine the
merchant either had to have a stock of U.S.
5 cent pieces, or a stock of suitable tokens.
Since the tokens cost about one third the cost
of the coin there was an incentive to use the
tokens. Attempts to ban slot machines were
made in many of the interior towns around
the turn of the 20* century.
General merchants often purchased
such farm produce as eggs and butter from
area residents. If these could be paid for by
tokens then the merchant could offer a
higher price knowing that he would recover
the money eventually and wasn't depleting
his supply of coins. The general merchants
who did this often had a series of tokens
denominated as 5,10,25,50 cents and $1.00.
Bakeries and dairies were also great
users of tokens. Both of these businesses
required little capital and many people took
them up during the depression when other
jobs disappeared. Even into the 1930's small
coin was scarce and so bakeries would offer
11 tokens for $1.00 when bread was selling
at 10 cents a loaf, and dairies would offer a
similar deal. By being paid in advance, the
baker could buy the flour to bake the bread,
something he might not have had the capital
to do otherwise. With most of the milk sold
by home delivery the use of tokens had
advantages over monthly accounts or paper
tickets. Collecting on monthly accounts was
not assured and came after the fact whereas
the sale of tokens was a form of prepayment.
Tickets were a recurring expense, new ones
had to be printed regularly, compared to the
one time cost of tokens, and tickets had a
habit of becoming stuck inside bottles,
difficult to remove. Tokens could be washed
out of the bottles much more easily. One
added advantage for the home customer
was that tokens were less likely than coins
to be stolen from waiting milk bottles.
Some of the early transportation
companies such as the Nelson Street
Railway, the Gorge Bus and Saanich
Municipal Bus (both in Greater Victoria) also
used tokens. Again prepayment of the fare
was an advantage and there was less
employee theft possible with tokens than
with coins.
In more recent years, fund-raising
sales of souvenir tokens, referred to as
"Trade Dollars" by many collectors, became
a popular means of fund-raising. The
Victoria Kiwanis club started in 1960 selling
a piece good for 50 cents at participating
merchants. Only a very small percentage of
the tokens were ever redeemed. The Loyal
Nanaimo Bathtub Society started selling
souvenir dollar pieces in 1969 and has
continued to do so to this day. The pieces
now have a "face value" of $3 but no one
ever expects to be able to redeem them.
Over the past twenty years casinos
have evolved into a large business in British
Columbia andthey have issued many slot
machine tokens and table pieces commonly
referred to as "chips." Many car wash
businesses have started selling tokens,
usually at a discount such as six tokens for
$5. They find that a car owner is more likely
to wash his / her car more often using a token
than using coins, so these pieces are good
for business promotion.
This has not been an exhaustive study
of the use of tokens, merely a survey to
acquaint our readers. If the reader has access
to the old B.C. Historical Quarterly you might
find Robie L. Reid's article, Why 'Bits' which
appeared in Volume IV, January 1940, pp.
21- 28, to be interesting and informative. •
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2
25 Archives and Archivists
By Gary Mitchell
Edited by Sylvia Stopforth,
Librarian and Archivist, Norma Marian Alloway Library,
Trinity Western University
A Word from our
Provincial Archivist...
Greetings from sunny Victoria.
Several new initiatives at the
Royal British Columbia
Museum Corporation will
improve our stewardship over the
provincial archival record. They are:an
integrated collections management system,
and a new look and feel to our website. In
addition, we have worked on a new
collections plan which identifies how we
will move into the future.
The integrated collections
management system project will integrate
the management of curatorial (museum)
and archival records holdings into one
searchable system. Staff are documenting
the current processes, forms and
procedures. Archivists are documenting the
current archives accessioning system as well
as the legacy systems (dating back to the
early decades of our existence) as well as
reviewing the processes to ensure the Rules
for Archival Description (a national
standard for records descriptions) are
incorporated into the new system. By the
fall there will be a fuller picture of where
and how the new system will be rolled out.
The website overhaul is a welcome
initiative as it will bring the previously
separated provincial museum and provincial
archives sites together into an integrated site
so that searches will encompass all of the
publicly accessible information holdings of
the corporation. In the future, researchers will
be able to conduct a single search to survey
the curatorial holdings for artifacts and
reports, as well as the archival holdings for
primary documents - a major "one stop"
shopping (or searching) development. While
the impact of the internet on archives remains
undetermined, it is clear from our reference
room statistics that fewer researchers are
coming to us, and those that do are accessing
more materials. Today's youth are using the
internet is ways that we never imagined and
we must modernize our web approach.
Changes should begin to appear in the fall
as we convert function by function onto the
new look and feel.
The new collections plan clearly states
our collection mandate, outlines our
stewardship responsibilities and identifies
the twelve collection categories of the
Corporation. We will be changing how we
identify our archival holdings. For many
years, we have described them by using the
terms "public archives" and "private
archives". The former are primarily the
records of the provincial government, its
agencies and boards, etc. as well as federal
records relating to B.C. and local
governments; the latter covered the archival
records of private persons, companies,
societies and non-government agencies, etc.
In our review of the collections plan,
several program heads mentioned that the
public vs. private approach was confusing in
today's world, where privacy and
information rights are now commonplace
societal values. Therefore, instead of referring
to "public archives" and "private archives"
we will refer now speak about public sector
and private sector archives. The former
covers all public sector agencies from local
government to provincial, and the latter
covers all private sector organizations and
private individuals. We hope that the
confusion over inaccessible "public" archives
vs. accessible "private" archives will abate.
While these initiatives are providing a
stronger framework in which we can manage
our heritage, a more exciting part for me is
the preparation for the 150th anniversary of
British Columbia! As a Langley native,
Douglas Day (November 19th) has always
been a special event, and I remember being
at the Fort Langley Historic Site's Big House
for the meeting of the provincial cabinet. I
will not tell you the year!
In fact, the excitement may be
catching on! The Honourable Olga Ilich,
Minister of Tourism, Sport and the Arts, in
her estimates debate on 27 April 2006 stated:
The year 2008 will mark the 150th
anniversary since our founding as a colony.
It's a time to celebrate 150 years of progress
and positive change. It's a time to celebrate
150 years of hard work, vision and personal
sacrifice. In every part of this province it's a
time to showcase our rich arts and culture,
to share our cultural diversity, to explore our
cultural roots and heritage, and to come
together in a renewed spirit of inclusiveness
and tolerance.
Our ministry will lead our
government's initiatives to bring together
the resources, the community spirit and the
creative energy to make this upcoming
birthday an event to remember. This year's
budget provides a $1 million lift to our
heritage branch to support our 2008
celebration planning activities. We will work
with all of our government ministries and
agencies, we will involve our first nations
communities, and we'll engage our
community organizations in arts, culture,
heritage and sport. Together, we'll develop
the celebratory activities and legacies to
mark this event in a way that invites every
individual to share in the excitement.
The 2008 celebrations will identify
undiscovered potential and new and creative
ways to showcase our province. It will also
provide an opportunity to focus on the
heritage resources for which my ministry has
responsibility. It will serve to celebrate the
Cariboo Trail and Barkerville, which played
such a vital role in our province's
establishment as a colony. It will provide a
basis for engaging British Columbians in their
own rich history and heritage. From historic
Hat Creek in the Cariboo to Fort Steele in the
East Kootenays, we can work to enrich the
exciting rediscovery of our pioneering days
and make these heritage resources an even
bigger part of our tourism product."1
I await with eager anticipation the
program announcement from BC Heritage on
the extent and nature of the BC 2008 program
so we can create an anniversary to remember.
My best wishes for a prosperous
summer, and may all your records be
archival. •
1http:/1 www.leqis.qov.bc.cal hansardl
38th2ndlH60427p.htm
For more information about the BC Archives,
visit online at:
http: 11 www.bcarchives.qov.bc.cal index.htm
26 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 Book Reviews
Note: Royalties
from this book have
been generously
donated to the
Friends of the
British Columbia
Archives.
The BC Almanac Book of Greatest British
Columbians.
Mark Forsythe & Greg Dickson. Madeira Park, Harbour
Publishing, 2005. 158p., illus. $39.95 hardcover.
As the multitude of photographs on
this book's jacket suggests, The BC Almanac
Book of Greatest British Columbians is a wide-
ranging and fascinating compilation.
Included are more than 110 individuals from
a variety of categories: political leaders,
conservationists, crusaders and reformers,
scientists and inventors, adventurers,
writers, visual artists, musicians, performing
artists, entrepreneurs and executives, sports
figures, rogues and rascals, and one chef.
Critics might quibble
over why some
individuals were not
included in this book
(e.g., composer Jean
Coulthard and author
Malcolm Lowry), but
nominations were
selected from those
who listen to the CBC Vancouver radio
programme BC Almanac. Experts who are
regular contributors to the radio show were
also consulted: historian Jean Barman, art
curator Ian Thorn, Chief Ed John, and writer
and publisher Alan Twigg, to name a few.
Some profiles also came from the Friends of
the BC Archives. The result is an
entertaining collection of thumbnail
sketches of memorable BC individuals,
including Luna "the lonely killer whale".
Authors, Mark Forsythe and Greg Dickson
(the host and director of BC Almanac,
respectively) call this book "an appetizer for
all the amateur history buffs out there."
Moreover, the profiles may also serve as an
introduction to notable persons whose
names are not commonplace (e.g.,
psychiatrist Tibor Bezeredi, Kootenay music
teacher Amy Ferguson, skier and
mountaineer Trevor Peterson, and Josip and
Maria Katalinic, Croatian immigrants and
community leaders).
Sidebars add extra or enlightening
information or comments; for example, the
province's (and the country's) first black
female MLA, Rosemary Brown, is quoted as
saying, "Until all of us have made it, none
Books for review and book reviews should be sent to:
Anne Yandle, Book Review Editor BC Historical News,
3450 West 20th Avenue, Vancouver BC V6S 1E4
of us have made it." The book's entries come
to life with a wonderful array of black-and-
white photographs culled from the British
Columbia Archives. These historic images
"chronicle the life of our province as it
changed from an age-old dwelling place of
First Nations to a rough-and-tumble colony
to the diverse, intriguing, splendid place it
is today." This book is a wonderful
assemblage of personages, past and present,
integral to BC history.
Sheryl Salloum writes for Vancouver magazines.
A Brush with Life, John Koerner. Vancouver,
Ronsdale Press, 2005. 146p., illus. $39.95
hard cover.
Most visual artists are content to let
their work speak for itself and not verbalize
about themselves or their work. John
Koerner is a wonderful exception and his
autobiography is a delight to read. He was
born into a wealthy Czech family in the
lumber business. John enjoyed a marvellous
childhood and realized early in life that he
was visually perceptive. His parents sent
him to Paris when he was 15, to learn French,
study art and complete his high school
education. In his late teens, he started to
think about the meaning of life and began
to read voluminously and extensively
religious texts and the works of many
philosophers. Ultimately, he felt that Bo Yin
Ra's writings (J. A. Schneiderfranken) had
the most meaning for his spiritual life and
this has been the guiding focus of his life,
although his later understanding of
Japanese culture and art has become infused
into his outlook. He summarizes "never
paint anything you cannot feel, never paint
anything without emotion, never paint
anything without passion".
His family left Czechoslovakia in late
1937 because they had Jewish roots although
they were known to be free thinkers. They
went first to Paris and then, via England, to
Canada and Vancouver in the summer of 1939.
The Koerner family reestablished its
wealth in the following years by renaming
western hemlock as Alaska pine so it could
be marketed in Europe.
Jack Koerner worked in the family
business and appeared to be a very
conventional person, married, with a
family. However, he never stopped painting
and was fortunate, eventually, to be able to
spend a large part of his life doing what he
loved, free from economic constraints.His
autobiography covers his life from his birth
in 1913 until 2004. It describes his personal
and artistic lives integrated together into a
marvellous voyage of discovery and
expression of self. The book has an
excellent layout and includes some sixty
colour beautiful illustrations of his work that
cover his creative lifespan. Small
illustrations in monotone are integrated into
the text. This book is a must read for anyone
interested in west coast BC art as it provides
fresh insights on how a talented person
could go against the flow of fashion in the
visual arts and remain a respected,
influential artistic contributor to the
community in which he has lived most of
his adult life. The text is valuable as the artist
has provided many insights into how he was
motivated to produce his various series of
paintings. His art has a strong lyrical quality
that derives from the wonderful sense of
colour that infuses his paintings with
feeling, emotion and passion. Hopefully, this
book will introduce many Canadians to the
works of John Koerner who will be
stimulated by his life's journey.
Harvey Buckmaster is a member of the Victoria Historical
Society and researches the history of the BC interior.
Country Fairs in Canada.
Guy Scott. Markham, Ont., Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 2006.
218p., illus. $34.95paperback.
Once the author leaves the obligatory
introduction his enthusiasm bursts through.
The recounting of the evolution of fairs, with
the exhibitors, volunteers and audience
provides many a chuckle or smile. The
pictures were well chosen to illustrate early
informality, then approved and convenient
fair grounds, buildings and changing
programmes.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2        27 Agricultural societies appeared early
in settlement years with the objective of
assisting farmers and organizing an annual
fair. These were modelled on European fairs
but adapted to local specifics. Prize winners
at small fairs aimed to compete later in a
larger fair or fairs. Judges were originally
recruited in impromptu fashion but finally
governments set up courses to train
prospective judges. Livestock judging
required familiarity with various breeds of
cattle or horses. Diplomacy was an asset for
those judging women's sewing, baking or
handicraft and "the Best Baby Contest. "
World fairs were presented in Europe
starting in the 1700s. The 1851 Crystal Palace
Exhibition in London, England opened for
5 months and attracted 6 million visitors.
Ambitious communities in North America
seized upon the many windowed Crystal
Palace design for their first major Fair Hall.
Entertainment soon went hand in
hand with agricultural fairs. Midways,
carnivals, daring stunt men, circuses and big
name entertainers became commonplace.
The agricultural component continued,
optimistic that they were serving farmers
and educating urban visitors. In 1872 PT
Barnum's circus started following fairs in its
own fifteen unit train to communities served
by the railway.
An early crowd pleaser included the
horse races. Every household had a horse,
and that nag might be entered in a friendly
race. In some communities there were turf
clubs for the owners of thoroughbred racers.
Race prizes may not have been big purses,
but betting on the sidelines were.
Transportation to the fair dictated
what animals might be shown. Big animals
walked behind the horse drawn buggy. A
detailed description of a farm youth's day
at a fair written by Grant MacEwen presents
a word picture of those days before the
railway, then trucks, came into the
countryside. Those improved the feasibility
of travel but not the disposition of a balky
cow or squealing pig.
During wartime the armed forces
commandeered suitable fair grounds across
the country. However, those same grounds,
including the CNE in Toronto, would be
temporarily evacuated by the military to
allow the annual fair to operate.
In the chapter Children and Fairs, the
author's descriptions invoke the smell of
popcorn and cotton candy, or the sound of
midway barkers or a carousel. He then tells
of special programmes for children, which
encouraged participation from schools.
During the Depression Boys and Girls
Camps were the highlight of a farm kid's
summer holiday. Later 4H clubs were
created to encourage farming and
homemaking skills.
The conclusion? This book illustrates
250 years of fair tradition in a nutshell. But
to truly appreciate a fair, it is necessary to
be there in person.
Naomi Miller, former Editor of the B.C. Historical News.
Enderby; an illustrated history.
Robert and Joan Cowan. Enderby & District Museum
Society, 2005. 289p., illus. $25paperback.
To the current list of the many fine
histories of British Columbia's cities, towns
and villages, now add Robert and Joan
Cowan's exemplary account of Enderby's
evolution. An Enderby centennial project,
the book ranges from a well-researched
overview of the earliest known history of
the area and its first peoples to the
pioneering efforts of its first settlers, then to
its "Golden Years" starting with its
incorporation on March 1, 1905 and the
election of George Bell as the first mayor,
then on to the middle years of its municipal
development and finally to the period of
post-war expansion culminating in the 1972
closure of the city's sawmill. Numerous
black and white archival photographs from
the museum's collection have been
supplemented with others from private
collections and facilities in Vancouver,
Vernon and Salmon Arm. In all it's a
rollercoaster ride of good times and
depressions buoyed by the spirit of the
people who have made Enderby the close-
knit community it is today.
Well-written,   easily   read   and
meticulously researched, the book, although
"not an academic study," will appeal to
descendants and friends of the individuals
and families referred to as the city's movers
and shakers, to professional historians and
archivists wishing to enhance the details of
their knowledge of BC's rural development;
and to members of the general public
interested in amusing anecdotes and
dramatic stories of the people and events
that helped shape the history of the area and
by extension the history of the province. The
Cowans' passion for their project and for
presenting their subjects in as human a light
as possible is readily evident in their
recounting of such episodes as teacher
Mabel Violet Beattie's after-school
"conference" with an obstreperous young
lad and "a third member of the conference
... an efficient strap, skilfully wielded by a
determined Miss Beattie." Or in some of first
policeman Bill Gardom's escapades,
including his chase with five of his deputies
to pursue the elusive Bill Miner and his
gang. Numerous "firsts" are duly recorded
and mills, brickyards, schools, churches,
theatres, hockey teams, girls basketball
teams, curlers, libraries, service clubs and
hospitals and icons such as Alexander Leslie
Fortune, the Lambly brothers, Mayor Bell,
Henry Milton Walker, Dr. Harry Wishart
Keith, Sam Poison, Bob Bailey, the Dill
Brothers, George Rands, Eleanor
MacPherson, Hedley Stevenson, Harry
Danforth, Ruby Lidstone, Ben Carlson, John
Pritchard, Tom and Olive Malpass, George
Macleod, the Baird Brothers, and Jack Smith
are all noted for their contributions to
Enderby's life and times. The chapter on the
tug of war over Enderby's status as a village
or a city is a moving tribute to the foresight
and courage of the ratepayers who refused
to relinquish the city status once won,
especially when the going got tough. The
maps, population table and several page
bibliography in the appendices all enhance
the book's interest and utility as well.
For twenty-five of the last thirty years
of their residency in Enderby, the Cowans
have been connected to the Enderby &
District Museum, he as Chair of the Society
28 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 for several terms and she as the Curator/
Administrator of the museum since its
inception in 1988. Their life-long
commitment to the Society has paid off
handsomely in this centennial volume
celebrating Enderby's history.
M. Wayne Cunnin%ham, Kamloops, BC
Gold Below the Canyon; the life and times of
William Barker, Gold Miner, 1817-1894.
Branwen C. Patenaude. Victoria: Trafford Publishing.
2005. 141 p., illus. $20.95 paperback
To set the record straight for "the true
biography of the gold miner William Barker,
after whom the historic town of Barkerville
was named," and to rectify the errors she
has found on Billy's memorial plaque,
Quesnel historian Branwen C. Patenaude
has self-published this "creative non-fiction
account" of Barker's life, times and
achievements. With her comprehensive
research, commitment to her objective and
imaginative re-creation of scenes and
dialogue she has profiled an 1800's gold
mining icon as he panned through
California and then struck it rich in the
Cariboo. It, along with the other books she
has written provides a comprehensively
realistic picture of life during the province's
hectic gold rush days.
Patenaude anchors Billy's story as an
individual in the hurly burly of the times
through references to established historical
facts and events and known personalities.
Thus, woven around Billy are mentions of
the San Francisco of 1852; of Jenny Lind and
PT Barnum; of the lengthy journey across
the continent and over the sea to get to
England; of the Cariboo gold fields, various
Gold Commissioners and the Gold Field
Act; of the greed, murder and mayhem in
the fields; of Governor Douglas, Judge
Begbie, and of John Cameron and the sad
story of his trek to bring his dead wife's body
back to Ontario. The settings in the mining
camps and mines are factually portrayed
with the mentions of the mining equipment
and processes, and the tragedy of a broken
ladder and a resultant death helps to
dramatize Billy's story. In the settings, Billy
springs to life. We sympathize with him over
his failed marriages, admire his unwavering
loyalty to his friends, become exasperated
with his spendthrift ways, are glad for him
when times are good and sad for him when
they aren't. Thanks to Patenaude's research
we also learn the true extent of Billy's
ventures, especially in his later years when
he had fallen on hard times before fatally
contracting cancer and dying a pauper in
Victoria's Old Men's Home on July 11,1894.
And from the judicious selection of
photographs she has included we learn
where Billy travelled, lived and worked.
(Thanks to her research as well, she now
owns an authenticated original photograph
of Barker as a young man.) Her Endnotes
section is also a worthwhile resource for
further research about the man for whom
Barkerville was named.
Although its copy editing is not
perfect, and the numerous citations to
validate the authenticity of various factual
statements are sometimes distracting,
Patenaude's volume is a valuable addition
to the lore of the California and Cariboo gold
rushes and in particular to the memory of
Billy Barker "as a prospector [whose]
independent life-style epitomizes the spirit
of many men and women who came to
British Columbia to better their lot in life,
and remained to help build a province."
M. Wayne Cunnin%ham, Kamloops, BC
fohn Muir, West Coast Pioneer.
Daryl Ashby, Vancouver, BC, Ronsdale Press, 2005, 237 p.,
illus. $21.95 paperback
John Muir and his family arrived on
Vancouver Island on the Norman Morison as
Hudson's Bay Company sponsored settlers
in 1850. Their story in this book starts with
their journey out from London, and follows
their brief and unsuccessful stay at Fort
Rupert and their later development of land,
sawmills and a sailing fleet on southern
Vancouver Island, and ends with Muir's
death in 1883.
The publisher's term "biography" is
perhaps a misnomer for, after an
introduction and overview in the author's
voice, the story is spoken entirely through
the voice of John Muir and our insight into
Muir himself is largely inferential. On the
other hand, we learn a lot about other
people. We see the immigrant view of an
imperious James Douglas. Captain Walter
Colquhoun Grant, the misplaced penniless
independent settler, comes across as a
misguided but sympathetic, even likeable
character who leaves defeated after a few
months. We find he tried to teach the natives
Gaelic in an effort to effect a Scottish
settlement. We also learn that Dr. John
Sebastian Helmcken, as Speaker of the
House, was endlessly deferential to
Douglas. These are the little gems only a
diary can produce. We also learn about the
journey of various family members within
the Sooke area.
On the other hand, using a diary
without footnoting or the author's
advantage of hindsight is a potential
minefield and can allow for the introduction
of misleading information. Although based
on Muir's own diary and a variety of other
sources, not a single reference appears for
verification. Unfortunately, errors do creep
in. For example, the Hudson's Bay
Company (HBC) was not at the mouth of
the Columbia in 1811, but 1821. Douglas
chose the Fort Victoria site in the summer
of 1842, not 1843. Wrong names slipped in.
HBC vessel Columbia is left as the Columbus,
the Tory, the Troy. The 85 immigrant
passengers from the Norman Morison did not
disembark at Fort Rupert in August 1860 but
months earlier at Fort Victoria where they
were re-deployed. As well, a firmer author's
hand was needed to balance out statements,
for clearly Muir was the central character of
his own life and some objectivity was
needed. His statement upon his arrival that
he was "the first outsider that those about
the fort had seen in a decade..." does not
hold up to scrutiny when one considers the
crews of the many HBC and other vessels
that had visited Fort Victoria for the
previous six years. Muir's misperception
could have been corrected with a footnote.
In the end, we know something about
Muir and his family and their lives in the
Sooke area. Nonetheless, in spite of its
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2        29 shortcomings, there is a story that is being
told here, of a pioneering family who faced
the elements and carved out a new life for
themselves on Vancouver Island.
Bruce M. Watson is a retired college instructor of English
and history
Once upon a Time in the West: the making of
the Western Canadian Philosophical
Association, 1963-2004.
Beta Szabados. Kelowna, B.C., Academic Printing and
Publishing, 2005.143 p., illus. $18.95. Available from
Academic Printing & Publishing, #9, 3151 Lakeshore Road,
Ste 403, Kelowna, BCV1W3S9
Bela Szabados, a long time member
of the Western Canadian Philosophical
Association, has produced a documentary
history of his organization based on letters
exchanged with founding members,
programmes of the annual conferences,
short biographies and portraits of key
members and his own observations of the
developing interests of the group.
Szabados' small volume is a 'for the
record' history - of interest primarily to
Association members and practitioners of
related academic pursuits. It joins scores of
other B.C. institutional and association
histories by members of such organizations
as the Geological Association of Canada,
Pacific Section; the Association of
Professional Foresters; the B.C. Golf
Association; the B.C. Honey Producers
Association; the Pharmaceutical Association
of the Province of British Columbia and the
British Columbia Badminton Association.
Micro-histories documenting the
development of these and many other local
organizations are available through the
libraries of B.C. and can serve as information
bases for future researchers.
Ross Carter
Pioneers of the Pacific; voyages of
exploration, 1787-1810.
Nigel Rigby, Pieter van der Merwe and Glyn Williams. 144
p., illus., maps. Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska
Press, 2005. $US 26.95
This is a production from a team of
experts gathered together at the National
Maritime Museum, Greenwich, and the book
can be regarded as a sequel to Captain Cook
in the Pacific, published by the National
Maritime Museum in 2002. The literary,
documentary and illustration holdings of that
great repository of sea and port knowledge,
naval and merchant, are indisputably
famous. The authors in question - experts all
- must have faced numerous difficulties in
choosing what to include in this survey. This
is not a short book, and its handsome, larger
format provides lots of room for the
illustrations. Readers will want to acquire this
book for the illustrations alone. The quality
of reproduction coupled with the quality of
the glossy stock make for as fine a replication
as one might find at this cost.
Two of the illustrations come
immediately to our attention: a profile or
elevation of George Vancouver's Discovery, a
watercolour that is the only known original
drawing of this exploration vessel other than
the Admiralty plan. The artist is not known.
The watercolour shows Discovery being fitted
out at Deptford. This illustration was
acquired in late 2005 by the National
Maritime Museum, and this premier
showing - in this book - is as welcome as it
is delightful. Ship modellers will find this of
real value, too. The second prize illustration,
to my way of thinking, is the familiar
"Caneing in Conduit Street - Dedicated to
the Flag Officers of the British Navy." This
was executed by James Gillray in 1796, and
shows poor George Vancouver being
attacked by that terrible, irascible and volatile
upstart - nowadays he might be called a
spoiled brat with family connections -
Thomas Pitt, now Lord Camelford.
Vancouver had punished Midshipman Pitt,
then sent him home from the Pacific on
grounds of bad behavior (in fact he was
stealing king's property to acquire sexual
favour ashore at Pacific islands). It is less than
a fanciful story and is full of pathos even
tragedy. Gillray loved to poke fun at the Navy
in this instance. Two years later George
Vancouver was dead, and he did not see his
famous book of discoveries in print. There's
another illustration here of personal interest:
William Broughton, by an unidentified artist.
Broughton commanded HM Brig Chatham,
the consort of Vancouver's Discovery. There
is more to tell of Broughton's voyage to the
North Pacific in succession to Vancouver's
four year ordeal, and by the end of the
century British mariners on official business
had completed the general survey of the great
waters of the Pacific, from Antarctica to Arctic
ice, and opened a new world to commerce
and cultural interchange, meanwhile
botanizing, introducing plants and domestic
breeds, founding colonies and convict
stations, working up alliances with island
and coastal groups, invading and
withdrawing as required.
The pioneers described in this book
came with noble purposes. Most were on
scientific purposes or on missions of
hydrographic inquiry for purpose of
facilitating safe navigation. Their intentions
were not the sort that latter day critics claim
were imperialistic. Like many other
individuals in the course of history they could
make history but they could not determine
the future or even shape their own present
worlds. Doubtless they were part of imperial
tides lapping on distant reefs and islets even
continents. Fortunately the authors do not fall
into the mistake of having to deal with these
misguided notions. They have employed
their chief characters - be it Bligh, Flinders,
Phillip, Malaspina or Laperouse - to present
a clear and basic narrative of events that
developed at that time and place.
A wonderful comparative chronology
accompanies this book. The volume's
research value is further enhanced by its
bibliography of essential works and its
serviceable index. The authors and the
publishers - and the enlightened leadership
of the National Maritime Museum's research
department headed by Dr Rigby - are to be
congratulated for this fine book. This is an
excellent review of the subject using
individual key actors as factors in change and
exploration; it is also a fine introduction to
larger themes for future researchers who
want to explore the depths of Pacific history
and to do so in serious and definitive fashion.
Barry Gough
30
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 Royal City; a photographic history of New
Westminster, 1858-1960.
Jim Wolf. Surrey, Heritage House, 2005. 191 p., illus.
$39.95 hard cover.
Surely few British Columbia
communities have been so vigorously
documented by photographers throughout
their lives as the remarkable city of New
Westminster; and finally, from Heritage
House, a book which indeed celebrates both
New Westminster and its photographers.
Jim Wolf's first book satisfies with brio the
need for a volume about a unique city which
has been shamefully ignored by historians.
Even were this not the case, this new work
would surely take its place at the head of
any listing of books on the Royal City.
Its 190 pages display 250
photographs, most never having previously
seen the light of day. Especially powerfully
moving among these is the rich panoply of
photos in chapter 4 "A Hell of Roaring
Flame, 1898-1899", which brings the reader
as near to the horrors of the destruction by
fire of the city's centre as one could
reasonably wish.
However, from the first chapter, "The
Imperial Stumpfield, 1858-1868", through to
the last, the eighth, "The Golden Mile, 1945-
1960", the photographs, most rare and all
richly informative, delight the senses,
revealing New Westminster as it fully
deserves. Full-page biographies of nine of
New Westminster's major photographers -
two are paired - find their places strategically
at the end of each chapter. Fortunately, the
quality of photo reproduction and printing
ranks with the best.
Fronted by Michael Kluckner's
insightful "Forward", Wolf's meticulous
and illuminating text cannot, even
momentarily, conceal his delighted
enthusiasm for New Westminster. His is a
New Westminster keenly observed, a love
affair shared with pride and some swagger.
(Wolf, heritage planner for the City of
Burnaby, is a founding director of the New
Westminster Heritage Foundation.)
An appendix detals New
Westminster's photography studios during
the book's time period, followed by
endnotes, a bibliography, and an index of
photographs, as well as an unusually
accurate index.
Wolf guides the reader with finesse
through New Westminster's first century,
telling us numerous stories, with a host of
newly-revealed images, withal augmented
by salutes to many of the photographers
who captured a richly-textured city for our
pleasure. This is surely the New
Westminster book we've been waiting for.
Henry Ewert is author of The Perfect Little Street Car
System, North Vancouver, 2000.
Stanley Park's Secret: The Forgotten Families
of Whoi Whoi, Kanada Ranch and Brockton
Point.
Jean Barman. Maderia Park, Harbour
Publishing, 2005. 279p. illus., maps, . $36.95
hard cover.
Vancouver's world-famous Stanley
Park has an infamous background. When
the Council of the new, booming city of
Vancouver proposed dedicating its northern
peninsula, jutting into Burrard Inlet, as a
park in 1886, this lovely piece of land had
for generations been used and settled by
local First Nations peoples. Settlements
existed at six locations around the peninsula,
with a large, traditional First Nations
graveyard at Brockton Point. As well, a large
farm just outside the park boundaries, called
Kanaka Ranch, had been established by a
group of Hawaiian families employed in one
of the local sawmills. Portugese immigrants,
many of them with First Nations wives, also
settled in the area, built small houses, and
established gardens. These were not slum
areas, although most of the homes were
small, and the communities housed workers
for many of Vancouver's businesses.
With little regard for the rights of the
families, the Council and its Parks Board
proceeded to dedicate the area as Stanley
Park and made plans to evict the "squatters"
whose family rights to the area went back
for at least more than a century. Despite
eviction orders, some First Nations families
successfully fought for their rights to
remain, although the Parks Board was
almost immediately successful in clearing a
Chinese community from the area where the
Royal Vancouver Yacht Club now stands. In
1923, the City of Vancouver began a long
court battle to dispossess the remaining
families; the settlers lost, but some families
were allowed to live in their homes "until
their deaths." The last remaining Brockton
Point settler, Tim Cummings, died in 1958,
having lived most of his 77 years in his tiny
home there. Once news of the court battles
disappeared from the local press, the stories
gradually vanished from history.
Now, the accounts of these
"forgotten families" are told in a brilliant
new book by historian Jean Barman, whose
earlier histories of B.C. and Vancouver have
become classic best-sellers. Stanley Park's
Secret was short-listed for the Roderick Haig-
Brown B.C. Book Prize. After providing
solid historical background in Chapter 1,
Barman drew heavily on wonderful
interviews with some settlers done by Major
J.S. Matthews, Vancouver's first City
Archivist, in the 1940s and 1950s. As well,
Barman tracked down and interviewed
more than 40 family descendants, unearthed
more information and memories, and
gathered a virtual trove of delightful and
revealing family photographs. As with
Barman's other books, this one is thoroughly
and beautifully researched, well written and
delightfully interesting.
Because of the heavy-handed actions
of the Council and Parks Board, the book is
not always a "comfortable read"; it does not
deal with a golden, glorious past but with
dark, shameful secrets. But it is real - and
indispensable - history.
Glennis Zilm is member of the B. C History of Nursing
Group and of the Surrey Historical Society.
Stella; Unrepentant Madam.
Linda J. Eversole. Victoria, TouchWood Editions, 2005. 198
p. illus. $19.95paperback.
Rockwood seemed to be a typical
Victoria mansion, twelve acres on The
Gorge, graced by a handsome Queen Anne-
style house built in 1892 for pioneer brewer
Joseph Loewen. In 1908 Rockwood's second
owner, Stella Carroll, tastefully and
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2        31 elegantly redecorated the interior and
opened her premier parlour house, i.e. a
high-class brothel.
Stella had demonstrated her business
acumen in more ways than one, and was
well-known to real estate investors, as well
as to police and politicians, including Mayor
Alfred Morley, who was himself less than
squeaky clean . Born in Missouri, she
followed her "fortune" westward and up the
coast from San Francisco to Victoria. Her
most serious judgment errors derived from
her execrable taste in men. One of her least
savoury lovers shot her in the leg, wounding
her badly enough to necessitate amputation.
Heritage researcher Linda Eversole
followed clues and pursued elusive links for
twenty years in order to achieve her
biography of this feisty, intelligent, alluring
and doomed heroine with a heart of gold
and a devotion to family. And this rags-to-
riches-to-rags tale has the novel twist of
being part of British Columbia history, a
peek behind the Tweed (or Velvet) Curtain
of Victoria a century ago.
Yet, in spite of her admiration for her
subject and her lively writing style, Eversole
tells a sad story of hypocrisy and wasted
talent. Stella's history differs from the
movies which, if they don't always provide
a happy ending for the good-hearted
prostitute, often earn an Oscar for the actress
who plays her. Nor have we come such a
long way, Baby. Our ladylike capital city,
where Stella briefly flourished, still has need
for an organization such as PEERS, the
Prostitutes Empowerment Education and
Resource Society, whose mission statement
rings with such words as "respect", "safety",
and "understanding". Stella could have
used all of these.
Phyllis Reeve
World Tea Party
Victoria; an exhibit of tea wares and tea-related art
curated by Bryan Mulvihill and Judith Patt with Sheila
Connelly; catalogue edited by Judith Patt with essays by
Judith Patt, Sheila Connelly, Eve Millar. Art Gallery of
Greater Victoria, 2004. 96 p., illlus. $10 paperback.
This charming little book documents
an exhibition hosted by the Art Gallery of
Greater Victoria throughout the summer of
2004, making the most of Victoria's
undisputed reputation as the tea-party
capital of Canada.
A series of essays review the history
of tea, tea arts and tea rituals in China, Japan,
India, and especially Britain, with
discussions of Early Female Patronage of
Tea in Britain, Women Silversmiths in
Britain, British Porcelains and Tea Wares,
and British Tea Equipage and Manners. The
concluding essays focus on "Tea in Victoria,
1850s-1950s" and "Bernard Leach and
Contemporary potters of British Columbia."
Bernard Leach, a British potter profoundly
influenced by Asian arts, in turn taught and
influenced some of our own major potters,
such as John Reeve, Glen Lewis and
Charmian Johnson.
Twenty pages of fine photographs, more
than half in colour, range from Chinese tea
bowls from the Song dynasty (960-1279) to the
expected and beloved ware of Worcester,
Wedgwood and Coalport, to imaginative
variations from the kilns of twenty-first century
British Columbia artists Robin Hopper, Pat
Webber, Judy Weeden, Harumi Ota, and an
encouraging number of others.
A happy bonus gives us quirky self-
portraits-at-tea by Emily Carr and
photographer Hannah Maynard.
Phyllis Reeve pours Murchie's tea from a Wade pot.
Keeping it Living; traditions of plant use and
cultivation on the Northwest Coast of North
America.
Edited by Douglas Deur and Nancy J. Turner. Vancouver,
UBC Press; Seattle, University of Washington Press, 2005.
404 p., illus. $44.95 hard cover.
This book is edited by two very
distinguished scholars and research
scientists. Douglas Deur is Research
Coordinator with the Pacific Northwest
Cooperative Ecosystem Studies Unit at the
University of Washington as well as Adjunct
Professor of Geography at the University of
Reno, Nevada. Nancy J. Turner is
Distinguished Professor in Environmental
Studies and Geography at the University of
Victoria, BC.
Their combined Northwest Coast
studies, plus exhaustive literature searches,
brought out many discrepancies in earlier
studies. Franz Boas and many other first
visitors left written records, usually
classified coastal cultures as almost
exclusively hunter-gatherer societies. The
intent of the editors was to have this volume
address this gap in our written knowledge
base and to document their actual expanded
societal control and management of other
food sources.
Anthropologists, archaeologists,
ethnobotanists, ecologists, geographers,
together with elders and scholars from
indigenous peoples whose clans and
ancestral roots go back for thousands of
years along the Northwest Coast have all
contributed. The combined expertise of
these selected specialists becomes obvious
in their scientific papers within this book,
and provide comprehensive insights about
how Native Americans managed and
nurtured plant communities essential for
their sustenance, health and also for
bartering with other communities in
essential commerce trading for needed
goods. It describes how regional
communities used and cared for over 300
different species of plants, from wetlands
and estuarial sites to higher slopes of the
mountains where red cedar and berry crops
were harvested and encouraged to produce
better results.
The editors and their selected
authors are all highly qualified scientists.
Therefore this volume should be viewed as
a major reference source for scholars, rather
than a light easy 'read' for the average lay
person. What markets are the publishers
wishing to satisfy? The introduction, in
particular, is a challenging and intimidating
piece of journalism, even to one trained in
reading heavy scientific terminology. As the
following example of a long sentence shows:
"Cultivation, despite continued terminological
ambiguities, is now commonly associated with
such activities as the seeding or transplanting
of propagules [i.e., the parts of plants such as
seeds, bulbs, or fragments of rhizome, capable of
regnerating into individual new plants], the
intentional fertilization of modification of soils,
32 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 improvements of irrigation or drainage, and the
clearing or 'weeding' of competing plants." A
constant review of these long loaded
sentences is needed to gain understanding.
Perhaps the editors should have been
"edited". Mercifully the authors (including
the two editors) in their papers on supporting
studies in this volume are much more
understandable. The reader is not so much
bludgeoned by scientific nomenclature. Now
they have got me doing it!
So, if you, the reader are in search of
serious documentation to fill gaps in
Northwest Coast knowledge of pre-
European plant use and cultivation, then
this volume will be an excellent reference
for your library. But if your desire is to enjoy
a good read as a relaxing displacement
activity, as I do, then buyer beware.
W. Grant Hazelwood, a graduate of UBC in the Earth
Sciences, lives in Terrace.
Raincoast Chronicles Fourth Five
edited by Howard White, Harbour Publishing,
2005. 420 pp. $42.95 ■ Hard cover
Thirty four years ago Harbour
Publishing editor publisher Howard White
sat at his kitchen table in Pender Harbour
looking for a 'likely fantasy' to plug into a
LIP grant form he was completing. Thus,
Raincoast Chronicles was born. The magazine
he envisaged 'would not merely detail the
stages of local settlement... it would drive
through that easy chronicle for the flavour,
the spirit of the BC coast story." So wrote
Howard White in the first compilation -
Raincoast Chronicles First Five.
Raincoast Chronicles Fourth Five is now
at hand. It's hardback and no longer sepia
printed - still a "no-bullshit book that opens
up the past in a way that no other magazine
has ever succeeded" as Bob Hunter stated
in the foreword to the First Five. The Fourth
Five collects the complete Raincoast
Chronicles 16,17,18,19, and 20. Among the
thirty or more articles and stories appear
settlers, aboriginal villages and villagers,
loggers and logging equipment, cannery
workers, squatters, architects, and ships and
their crews. It's full of first person narratives,
told with the verve of having been there.
Two book length features from Raincoast
Chronicles 16 and 20 - Time and Tide: a History
of Telegraph Cove by Pat Wastell Norris and
Stephen Hume's Lilies & Fireweed: Frontier
Women of British Columbia make up the
half the volume. All in all, it's an attractive
book that carries forward wonderful
illustrations of the original issues.
Raincoast Chronicles is very much a
product of its era. 'Consensus history' that
told the stories of the power that the
powerful had seized was under fire in the
sixties. The 'new history' saw consensus
history as exclusionary especially of
aboriginals, women and workers. But for all
its strengths of inclusion and popular appeal
the focus of the new history can be narrow,
lack narrative sweep and a sense of the
broad trends of change. Howard White's
kitchen table endeavor had and has all of
those strengths and all of those weaknesses.
Nevertheless, putting aside those issues of
historiography, Raincoast Chronicles Fourth
Five is another good read for West Coast
history buffs and the casual reader.
Ross Carter.
24th Annual BCHF Book Writing
Competition - Lieutenant
Governor's Award as the Top Prize
Deadline: December 31, 2006
The British Columbia Historical
Federation invites submissions for the 2#r
Annual Book Competition for Writers of
British Columbia History.
Non-fiction books representing any
facet of BC history, published in 2006, are
eligible. The judges are looking for quality
presentations and fresh material. Reprints or
revisions of books or articles are not eligible.
Lieutenant Governor's Award & Prizes
The BC Lieutenant Governor's Award
for Historical Writing will be awarded
together with $600 to the author whose book
makes the most significant contribution to
the history of British Columbia. The 2nd and
3rd place winners will receive $400 and $200
respectively.
Certificates of Honourable Mention
may be awarded to other books as
recommended by the judges.
Publicity
All winners will receive publicity and
an invitation to the BCHF Award's Banquet
at the Federation's annual conference which
will be in Victoria, May 10-13, 2007.
Submission Requirements:
• By submitting books for this
competition, the authors agree that the
British Columbia Historical Federation
(BCHF) may use their name(s) in press
releases and in its publications.
• Books entered become property ofthe
BCHF.
• Authors and/or Publishers are
required to send/mail one copy of their
book to each of the three Judges.
• Submission Deadline is December 31,2006
For mailing instructions please contact:
Barb Hynek,
Chair/Judge of the BCHF Book Competition
2477 140th Street, Surrey, B.C. V4P 2C5
Email: bhynek@telus.net
Phone:604.535.9090
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2        33 British  ColUmbld  HlStOry Journal of the British Columbia Historical Federation
INDEX   from 38:1, 2005 tO 38:4, 2005 Compiled byMelva J Dwyer
1 an article without illustrations
AUTHORS
ATKIN, JOHN. From the Editor. 38:1 (2005):
1; 38:2 (2005): 1; 38:3 (2005): 1; 38:4
(2005): 1.
—, —. The Moti Prize: Local History Writing
Competition for Elementary Students.
38:2 (2005): 27; 38:3 (2005): 29.*
BARMAN, JEAN. Lost Nanaimo - Taking Back
Our Past. 38:3 (2005): 16-22.
BINKERT, JUNE AND BRINK, V.C.(BERT). The Use
of Saltings on the BC Coast.38:4 (2005): 17.
BRINK, V.C. (BERT) AND JUNE BINKERT. The Use
of Saltings on the BC Coast. 38:4 (2005): 17.
CATHRO, ROBERT J. James Cooper Keith:
Business Pioneer and Treasure Hunter. 38:4
(2005): 6-9.
FITCH, JOHN. Black Pioneer Fielding Spotts:
School Trustee, Church Founder, Farmer.
38:2 (2005): 4-7.
FOX, TOM. Up Coast Adventures Continue.
38:3 (2005): 9-12.
GARRISH, CHRISTOPHER. Web Site Forays: All
Aboard ! 38:2 (2005): 36.
 . Graveyards of the Pacific: Shipwrecks
of Vancouver Island. 38:1 (2005): 31.*
GREENE, RONALD. Token History: Albert
Traunweiser and the Alberta Hotel, Grand
Forks B.C. 38:1 (2005): 20-21.
—, —. Token History: Armour Et Kennedy of
Cranbrook, B.C./Armour of Cranbrook, B.C.
38:3 (2005): 27-28.
—, —. Token History: Fernridge Lumber
Company Limited, of New Westminster, B.C.
38:2 (2005): 25-26.
—, —. Token History: W.T.Beadtes &
Company, of Salmo, B.C. 38:4 (2005): 24.
HOOPER, TRISTIN. Victoria's Birdman: The
Forgotten Story of William Wallace Gibson.
38:2(2005):8-11.
HUGHES, VALENTINE. Alberni District
Historical Society Celebrates 40 Years of
Service. 38:1 (2005): 34.*
KLAN, YVONNE & PETER TROWER. Chala-oo-
Chick: The First Fort George. 38:2 (2005):
19-20.*
KOSIANCIC, RAY. The Kosiancic Farm in
Crescent Valley: 100 Years in the Life of a
FanilyFarm. 38:4 (2005):14-16.
LAUX, BILL. The Great Le Roi Hoax: Buying
Back a Canadian Mine. 38:2 (2005): 12-18.
LYMBERY, TOM. Gray Creek Hall. 38:3 (2005):
13-15.
—, —. More on the Crowsnest Railway.
38:1 (2005): 30.
MILLER, BILL. The Stikine-Teslin Route to the
Klondike Gold Fields. 38:1 (2005): 12-19.
PARENT, MILTON. Halcyon Hotsprings Note.
38:3 (2005): 40.*
PATENAUDE, BRANWEN C. The Rise and Fall of
Cinema, B.C.: Hollywood North Ahead of Its
Time. 38:2 (2005): 2-3.
PATENAUDE, VAL. Archives and Archivists:
Interactive Community Archives. 38:1
(2005): 32.
ROGERS, RATA. Doctors Edward Charles Et
Isabella Delange Arthur: Nelson Pioneers.
38:4(2005): 10-13.
SANBORN, ANDREA. Archives and Archivists:
U'mista:The Return of Something
Important. 38:3 (2005): 38-39.
SCOTTB., JO. Smith's Iron Chink: One
Hundred Years of the Mechanical Fish
Butcher. 38:2 (2005): 21-24.
SEDGWICK, KENT. Chala-oo-Chick Revisited.
38:3 (2005): 26.
SEPTER,DIRK. The Sullivan Diamond Drill of
Coal Creek. 38:3 (2005): 23-25.
SIDHU, MARINA. History of Pride and
Challenges: Abbotsford Sikh Temple,
National Historic Site. 38:3 (2005): 29.*
STEPHENS, DOREEN. Archives & Archivists: Two
Singles and a Double — Archives in the
Bedroom ! 38:2 (2005): 37.*
STOREY, VERNON J. A Woman of Stature: Dr.
Henrietta Anderson and the Victoria
Provincial Normal School. 38:1 (2005): 3-6.
TROWER, PETER & YVONNE KLAN. Chala-oo-
Chick: The First Fort George. 38:2 (2005):
19-20.*
WARE, REUBEN. Archives & Archivists:
Vancouver City Archives Acquires L.D. Taylor
Fonds. 38:4 (2005): 25.
WATKINS, DAGMAR. William Charles Heaton-
Armstrong, 1853-1917: His History and His
Connection to the Okanagan. 38:4 (2005): 2-5.
WELWOOD, FRANCES. Vancouver's Pioneer Art
Gallery Et Early Art Associations. 38:3
(2005): 2-5.
WOLF, JIM. Through Japanese Eyes: The
Portrait Studio of Paul Louis Okamura. 38:4
(2005): 18-23.
WOOD, CAROLANN C.E. Axe Murder in the
Okanagan: A Forensic Case Study.
38:1 (2005): 7-11.
WONG, LARRY. The Life and Times of Foon
Sien. 38:3 (2005): 6-8.
TITLES
22nd Annual BCHF Book Competition: Books
Submitted. 38:2 (2005): 38.*
Alberni District Historical Society Celebrates
40 Years of Service by Valentine Hughes.
38:1 (2005): 34.*
Archives and Archivists: Interactive
Community Archives by Val Patenaude. 38:1
(2005): 32.
 : Two Singles and a Double — Archives
in the Bedroom ! by Doreen Stephens. 38:2
(2005): 37.*
 : U'mista: The Return of Something
Important by Andrea Sanborn. 38:3 (2005):
38-39.
 : Vancouver City Archives Acquires L. D.
Taylor Fonds by Reuben Ware. 38:4 (2005): 25.
Axe Murder in the Okanagan: A Forensic Case
Study by Carolann C.E. Wood. 38:1
(2005): 7-11.
Black Pioneer Fielding Spotts: School Trustee,
Church Founder, Farmer by John Fitch.
38:2 (2005): 4-7.
British Columbia Historical News Index, vol.
37:1, winter 2003 to vol. 37:4, winter 2004.
38:1 (2005): 36-40.*
Chala-oo-Chick: The First Fort George by Peter
Trower & Yvonne Klan. 38:2 (2005): 19-20.*
Chala-oo-Chick Revisited by Kent Sedgwick.
38:3 (2005): 26.
Doctors Edward Charles Et Isabella Delange
Arthur: Nelson Pioneers by Pat A. Rogers.
38:4 (2005): 10-13.
From the Editor by John Atkin. 38:1 (2005 ): 1;
38:2 (2005): 1; 38:3 (2005): 1; 38:4 (2005):1.
Gerald Smedley Andrews, December 12, 1903 -
December 5, 2005. 38:4 (2005): 34.
Gray Creek Hall by Tom Lymbery. 38:3 (2005):
13-15.
The Great Le Roi Hoax: Buying Back a
Canadian Mine by Bill Laux. 38:2 (2005): 12-18.
Halcyon Hotsprings Note by Milton Parent.
38:3 (2005): 40.*
History of Pride and Challenges: Abbotsford
Sikh Temple, National Historic Site by
Marina Sidhu. 38:3 (2005): 29.*
James Cooper Keith: Business Pioneer and
Treasure Hunter by Robert J. Cathro. 38:4
(2005): 6-9.
John Alexander Bovey 1934-2005. 38:1 (2005): 2.
The Kosiancic Farm in Crescent Valley: 100
Years in the Life of a Family Farm by Ray
Kosiancic. 38:4 (2005): 14-16.
Le Roi Mine Tour, Rossland Museum. 38:2
(2005): 18.
The Life and Times of Foon Sien by Larry
Wong. 38:3 (2005): 6-8.
Lost Nanaimo - Taking Back Our Past by Jean
Barman. 38:3 (2005): 16-22.
More on the Crowsnest Railway by Tom
Lymbery. 38:1 (2005): 30.
The Moti Prize: Local History Writing Prize for
Elementary Students by John Atkin. 38:2
(2005): 27.
The Rise and Fall of Cinema, B.C.: Hollywood
North Ahead of Its Time by Branwen C.
Patenaude. 38:2 (2005): 2-3.
Smith's Iron Chink: One Hundred Years of the
Mechanical Fish Butcher by Jo Scott B.
38:2 (2005): 21-24.
The Stikine-Teslin Route to the Klondike Gold
Fields by Bill Miller. 38:1 (2005): 12-19.
The Sullivan Diamond Drill of Coal Creek by
Dirk Septer. 38:3 (2005): 23-25.
Through Japanese Eyes: The Portrait Studio of
Paul Louis Okamura by Jim Wolf. 38:4
(2005): 18-23.
34 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 Token History: Albert Traunweiser and the
Alberta Hotel, Grand Forks, B.C. by Ronald
Greene. 38:1 (2005): 20-21.
 : Armour Et Kennedy of Cranbrook, I
Armour of Cranbook, B.C. by Ronald
Greene. 38:3 (2005): 27-28.
 : Fernridge Lumber Company, Limited
of New Westminster, B.C. by Ronald
Greene. 38:2 (2005): 25-26.
 : W.T.Beadtes Et Company, of Salmo,
B.C by Ronald Greene. 38:4 (2005): 24.
U'mista: The Return of Something Important
by Andrea Sanborn. 38:3 (2005): 38-39.
Up Coast Advenmtures Continue by Tom Fox.
38:3 (2005): 9-12.
The Use of Saltings on the BC Coast by V.C.
(Bert) Brink and June Binkert. 38:4 (2005): 17.
Vancouver's Pioneer Art Gallery Et Early Art
Associations by Frances Welwood. 38:3
(2005): 2-5.
Victoria's Birdman: The Forgotten Story of
William Wallace Gibson by Tristin Hooper.
38:2(2005): 8-11.
Web Site Forays: All Aboard ! by Christopher
Garrish. 38:2 (2005): 36.
 -.Graveyards of the Pacific:
Shipwrecks of Vancouver Island by
Christopher Garrish. 38:1 (2005): 31.*
What's in a Name: Captain Courtenay and
Vancouver Island Exploration: The Missing
Foot Notes. 38:1 (2005): 35.*
William Charles Heaton-Armstrong, 1853-1917:
His Story and His Connection to the
Okanagan by Dagmar Watkins. 38:4 (2005): 2-5.
A Woman of Stature: Dr. Henrietta Anderson
and the Victoria Provincial Normal School by
Vernon J. Storey. 38:1 (2005): 3-6.
SUBJECTS
ABC GLENDALE COVE CANNERY
Fox, Tom. Up Coast Adventures Continue.
38:3 (2005): 9-12.
ABBOTSFORD
Sidhu, Marina. History of Pride and
Challenges: Abbotsford Sikh Temple,
National Historic Site. 38:3 (2005): 29.*
AEROPLANES
Hooper, Tristin. Victoria's Birdman: The
Forgotten Story of William Wallace Gibson.
38:2(2005): 8-11.
AFRO-AMERICANS
Fitch, John. Black Pioneer Fielding Spotts:
School Trustee, Church Founder, Farmer.
38:2 (2005): 4-7.
AGRICULTURE
Kosniancic, Ray. The Kosniancic Farm in the
Crescent Valley: 100 Years in the Life of a
Family Farm. 38:4 (2005): 14-16.
ANGLICAN CHURCH ARCHIVES
Stephens, Doreen. Archives Et Archivists:
Two Singles and a Double — Archives in the
Bedroom ! 38:2 (2005): 37.*
ANDERSON, HENRIETTA
Storey, Vernon J. A Woman of Stature: Dr.
Henrietta Anderson and the Victoria
Provincial Normal School. 38:1 (2005): 3-6.
ARCHIVES
Patenaude, Val. Archives Et Archivists:
Interactiive Community Archives. 38:1
(2005): 32.
Sanborn, Andrea. Archives Et Archivists:
U'mista: The Return of Something
Important. 38:3 (2005): 38-39.
Stephens, Doreen. Archives Et Archivists:
Two Singles and a Double — Archives in
the Bedroom ! 38:2 (2005): 37.*
Ware, Reuben. Archives Et Archivists:
Vancouver City Archives Acquires L. D.
Taylor Fonds. 38:4 (2005): 25.
ARCHIVISTS
John Alexander Bovey 1934-2005. 38:1
(2005): 2.
ARMOUR, JOHN
Greene, Ronald. Token History: Armour Et
Kennedy of Cranbrook, B.C./Armour of
Cranbrook,B.C. 38:3 (2005): 27-28.
ARMSTRONG, B.C.
Watkins, Dagmar. Charles William Heaton-
Armstrong, 1853-1917: His Story and His
Connection to the Okanagan. 38:4 (2005): 2-5.
ART GALLERIES
Welwood, Frances. Vancouver's Pioneer Art
Gallery Et Early Art Associations. 38:3
(2005): 2-5.
THE ART UNION
Welwood, Frances. Vancouver's Pioneer Art
Gallery Et Early Art Associations. 38:3
(2005): 2-5.
ARTHUR, ISABELLA DELANGE
Rogers, Pat A. Doctors Edward Charles Et
Isabella Delange Arthur: Nelson Pioneers.
38:4(2005): 10-13.
ARTISTS
Wolf, Jim. Through Japanese Eyes: The
Portrait Studio of Paul Louis Okamura. 38:4
(2005): 18-23.
AVIATION HISTORY
Hooper, Tristin. Victoria's Birdman: The
Forgotten Story of William Wallace Gibson.
38:2(2005): 8-11.
BANK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Cathro, Robert J. James Cooper Keith:
Business Pioneer and Treasure Hunter. 38:4
(2005): 6-9.
BATE, MARK
Barman, Jean. Lost Nanaimo - Taking Back
Our Past. 38:3 (2005): 16-22.
BAPTIST CHURCH
Fitch, John. Black Pioneer Fielding Spotts:
School Trustee, Church Founder, Farmer.
38:2 (2005): 4-7.
BEADLES, WILLIAM THOMAS
Greene, Ronald. Token History: W.T.Beadtes
Et Company, of Salmo, B.C. 38:4 (2005): 24.
BIOGRAPHIES
Cathro, Robert J. James Cooper Keith:
Business Pioneer and Treasure Hunter.
38:4 (2005): 6-9.
Fitch, John. Black Pioneer Fielding Spotts:
School Trustee, Church Founder, Farmer.
38:2 (2005): 4-7.
Kosniancic, Ray. The Kosniancic Farm in
Crescent Valley: 100 Years in the Life of a
Family Farm. 38:4 (2005): 14-16.
Rogers, Pat A. Doctors Edwad Charles Et
Isabella Delange Arthur: Nelson Pioneers.
38:4(2005): 10-13.
Watkins, Dagmar. Charles William Heaton-
Armstrong, 1853-1917: His Story and His
Connection to the Okanagan. 38:4 (2005): 2-5.
Wolf, Jim. Through Japanese Eyes: The
Portrait Studio of Paul Louis Okamura.
38:4 (2005): 18-23.
BLACKS see AFRO-AMERICANS
BOWEN ISLAND
Cathro, Robert J. James Cooper Keith:
Business Pioneer and Treasure Hunter.
38:4 (2005): 6-9.
BRITISH AMERICA CORPORATION (B.A.C.)
Laux, Bill. The Great Le Roi Hoax: Buying
Back a Canadian Mine. 38:2 (2005): 12-18.
BRUNSWICK BOWLING ALLEYS
Greene, Ronald. Token History: Armour Et
Kennedy of Cranbrook, B. C. /Armour of
Cranbrook, B.C. 38:3 (2005): 27-28.
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
Kosniancic, Ray. The Kosnancic Farm in
Crescent Valley: 100 Years in the Life of a
Family Farm. 38:4 (2005): 14-16.
CANNERIES
Fox, Tom. Up Coast Adventures Continue.
38:3 (2005): 9-12.
Scott, Jo B. Smith's Iron Chink: One
Hundred Years of the Mechanical Fish
Butcher. 38:2 (2005): 21-24.
THE CARIBOO
Patenaude, Branwen C. The Rise and Fall of
Cinema, B.C.: Hollywood North Ahead of
Its Time. 38:2 (2005): 2-3.
Sedgwick, Kent. Chala-oo-Chick Revisited.
38:3 (2005): 26.
Trower, Peter Et Yvonne Klan. Chala -oo-
Chick: The First Fort George. 38:2 (2005):
19-20.*
CHALA-oo-CHICK
Sedgwick, Kent. Chala-oo-Chick Revisited.
38:3 (2005): 26.
Trower, Peter Et Yvonne Klan. Chala-oo-
Chick: The First Fort George. 38:2 (2005):
19-20.*
CHAMPLAIN, LLOYD
Patenaude, Branwen C. The Rise and Fall of
Cinema, B.C.: Hollywood North Ahead of Its
Time. 38:2 (2005): 2-3.
CHARLES, EDWARD
Rogers, Pat A. Edward Charles Et Isabella
Delange Arthur: Nelson Pioneers. 38:4
(2005): 10-13.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2        35 CHERRYVILLE, B.C.
Wood, Carolann C.E. Axe Murder in the
Okanagan: A Forensic Case Study. 38:1
(2005): 7-11.
CHINESE CANADIANS
Wong, Larry. The Life and Times of Foon
Sien. 38:3 (2005): 6-8.
CINEMA, B.C.
Patenaude, Branwen C. The Rise and Fall of
Cinema, B.C.: Hollywood North Ahead of Its
Time. 38:2 (2005): 2-3.
COAL CREEK, BULKLEY VALLEY
Septer, Dirk. The Sullivan Diamond Drill of
Coal Creek. 38:3 (2005): 23-25.
COAL MINING
Barman, Jean. Lost Nanaimo - Taking Back
Our Past. 38:3 (2005): 16-22.
COMMUNITY HALLS
Lymbery, Tom. Gray Creek Hall. 38:3 (2005):
13-15.
COMPETITIONS
22nd Annual BCHF Book Competition: Books
Submitted. 38:2 (2005): 38.*
Atkin, John. From the Editor. 38:1 (2005): 1.
—, —. The Moti Prize: Local History
Writing Competition for Elementary
Students. 38:2 (2005): 27; 38:3 (2005): 29.*;
38:4 (2005): 35.*
CRANBROOK
Greene, Ronald. Token History: Armour Et
Kennedy of Cranbrook, B. C. I Armour of
Cranbrook B.C. 38:3 (2005) 27-28.
CRESCENT VALLEY
Kosniancic, Ray. The Kosniancic Farm in
Crescent Valley: 100 Years in the Life of a
Family Farm. 38:4 (2005): 14-16.
CROWSNEST RAILWAY
Lymbery, Tom More on the Crowsnest
Railway. 38:1 (2005): 30.
CULTURAL ACTIVITIES
Welwood, Frances. Vancouver's Pioneer Art
Gallery Et Early Art Associations. 38:3
(2005): 2-5.
CULTURAL ARTIFACTS
Sanborn, Andrea. Archives Et
Archivists:U'mista the Return of Something
Important. 38:3 (2005): 38-39.
CULTURAL DIVERSITY
Barman, Jean. Lost Nanaimo - Taking Back
Our Past. 38:3 (2005): 16-22.
DAWSON CITY
Miller, Bill. The Stikine-Teslin Route to the
Klondike Gold Fields. 38:1 (2005): 12-19.
DEWAR, AENEAS
Wood, Carolann C.E. Axe Murder in the
Okanagan: A Forensic Case Study. 38:1
(2005): 7-11.
DIAMOND DRILLS
Septer, Dirk. The Sullivan Diamond Drill of
Coal Creek. 38:3 (2005): 23-25.
DOCTORS
Rogers, Pat A. Doctors Edwrad Charles Et
Isabella Delange Arthur: Nelson Pioneers.
38:4(2005): 10-13.
DOMINION SHINGLE & LUMBER
MANUFACTURING COMPANY
Greene, Ronald. Token History: Fernridge
Lumber Compamy, Limited of New
Westminster, B.C. 38:2 (2005): 25-26.
DOUGLAS, JAMES
Fitch, John. Black Pioneer Fielding Spotts:
School Trustee, Church Founder, Farmer.
38:2 (2005): 4-7.
EDITORIALS
Atkin, John. From the Editor. 38:1 (2005): 1;
38:2 (2005): 1; 38:3 (2005): 1; 38: (2005): 1.
EDUCATION
Barman, Jean. Lost Nanaimo - Taking Back
Our Past. 38:3 (2005): 16-22.
Fitch, John. Black Pioneer Fielding Spotts:
School Trustee, Church Founder, Farmer.
38:2 (2005): 4-7.
Rogers, Pat A. Doctors Edward Charles Et
Isabella Delange Arthur: Nelson Pioneers.
38:4(2005): 10-13.
Storey, Vernon J. A Woman of Stature: Dr.
Henrietta Anderson and the Victoria
Provincial Normal School. 38:1 (2005): 3-6.
FARMS
Brink, V.C. (Bert) and June Binkert. The Use
of Saltings on the BC Coast. 38:4 (2005): 17.
Kosniancic, Ray. The Kosniancic Farm in
Crescent Valley: 100 Years in the Life of a
Family Farm. 38:4 (2005): 14-16.
FERNRIDGE LUMBER COMPANY LTD.
Greene, Ronald. Token History: Fernridge
Lumber Company, Limited of New
Westminster, B.C. 38:2 (2005): 25-26.
FINLAYSON, RODERICK
Cathro, Robert J. James Cooper Keith:
Business Pioneer and Treasure Hunter. 38:4
(2005): 6-9.
FIRST NATIONS PEOPLE
Sanborn, Andrea. Archives Et Archivists:
U'mista: The Return of Something
Important. 38:3 (2005): 38-39.
FISHING INDUSTRY
Scott, Jo B. Smith's Iron Chink: One
Hundred Years of the Mechanical Fish
Butcher. 38:2 (2005): 21-24.
FOON SIEN
Wong, Larry. The Life and Tmes of Foon
Sien. 38:3 (2005): 6-8.
FORENSIC MEDICINE
Wood, Carolann C.E. Axe Murder in the
Okanagan: A Forensic Case Study. 38:1
(2005): 7-11.
FORT GEORGE
Sedgwick, Kent. Chala-oo-Chick Revisited.
38:3 (2005): 26.
Trower, Peter Et Yvonne Klan. Chala-oo-
Chick: The First Fort George. 38:2 (2005):
19-20.*
FRASER RIVER DELTA
Brink, V.C. (Bert) and June Binkert. The Use
of Saltings on the BC Coast. 38:4 (2005): 17.
FREETO, ELLA MAUDE
Patenaude, Branwen C. The Rise and Fall of
Cinema, B.C.: Holllywood North Ahead of
Its Time. 38:2 (2005): 2-3.
GIBSON, WILLIAM WALLACE
Hooper, Tristin. Victoria's Birdman: The
Forgotten Story of William Wallace Gibson.
38:2 (2005): 8-11.
GOLD RUSHES
Miller, Bill. The Stikine -Teslin Route to the
Klondike Gold Fields. 38:1 (2005): 12-19.
GRANDFORKS, B.C.
Greene, Ronald. Token History: Albert
Traunweiser and the Alberta Hotel, Grand
Forks, B.C. 38:1 (2005): 20-21.
GRAND TRUNK PACIFIC RAILWAY
Septer, Dirk. The Sullivan Diamond Drill of
Coal Creek. 38:3 (2005): 23-25.
GRAY CREEK
Lymbery, Tom. Gray Creek Hall. 38:3 (2005):
13-15.
HALCYON HOTSPRINGS
Parent, Milton. Halcyon Hotsprings Note.
38:3 (2005): 40.*
HARDMAN FAMILY
Welwood, Frances. Vancouver's Pioneer Art
Gallery Et Early Art Associations. 38:3
(2005): 2-5.
HEATON-ARMSTRONG, CHARLES WILLIAM
Watkins, Dagmar. Charles William Heaton-
Armstrong, 1853-1917: His Story and His
Connection to the Okanagan. 38:4 (2005): 2-5.
HERITAGE BUILDINGS
Lymbery, Tom. Gray Creek Hall. 38:3 (2005):
13-15.
Sidhu, Marina. History of Pride and
Challenges: Abbotsford Sikh Temple,
National Historic Site. 38:3 (2005): 29.*
HOTELS
Greene, Ronald. Token History: Albert
Traunweiser and the Alberta Hotel, Grand
Forks, B.C. 38:1 (2005): 20-21.
—, —. Token History: W.T.Beadtes Et
Company, of Salmo, B.C. 38:4 (2005): 24.
HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY
Barman, Jean. Lost Nanaimo - Taking Back
Our Past. 38:3 (2005): 16-22.
Cathro, Robert J. James Cooper Keith:
Business Pioneer and Treasure Hunter.
38:4 (2005): 6-9.
Trower, Peter Et Yvonne Klan. Chala-oo-
Chick: The First Fort George. 38:2 (2005):
19-20.*
ILLUSTRATIONS, COVER
38:1 (2005): Members of the Yukon Field
Force on the Teslin Trail, 1898; 38:2
(2005): All That Remains of Cinema, BC. in
the Fall of 2003; 38:3 (2005): Wong Foon
Sien Writing at His Desk; 38:4 (2005), Paul
Louis Okamura.
IMMIGRATION LAWS
Wong, Larrry. The Life and Times of Foon
Sien. 38:3 (2005): 6-8.
36 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 INDEXES
British Columbia Historical News Index, vol.
37:1, winter 2003 to vol. 37:4, winter 2004.
38:1 (2005): 36-40.*
INSERTS
British Columbia Historical Federation
Newsletter no. 10, December 2004, between
pp. 20-21, 38:1 (2005); Newsletter no. 13,
August 2005, between pp. 20-21, 38:3
(2005); Members' Advertisements, between
pp. 20-21, 38:2 (2005; BCHF Conference
Information, after p. 36, 38:4 (2005).
IRON CHINK
Scott, Jo B. Smith's Iron Chink: One
Hundred Years of the Mechanical Fish
Butcher. 38:2 (2005): 21-24.
JAPANESE CANADIANS
Wolf, Jim. Through Japanese Eyes: The
Portrait Studio of Paul Louis Okamura. 38:4
(2005): 18-23.
KEITH, JAMES COOPER
Cathro, Robert J. James Cooper Keith:
Business Pioneer and Treasure Hunter. 38:4
(2005): 6-9.
KENNEDY, JOHN EGAN
Greene, Ronald. Token History: Armour Et
Kennedy of Cranbrook, B.C./Armour of
Cranbrook, B.C. 38:3 (2005): 27-28.
THE KLONDIKE
Miller, Bill. The Stikine-Teslin Route to the
Klondike Gold Fields. 38:1 (2005): 12-19.
KOSNIANCIC FAMILY
Kosniancic, Ray. The Kosniancic Farm in
Crescent Valley: 100 Years in the Life of a
Family Farm. 38:4 (2005): 14-16.
KOOTENAY AREA
Greene, Ronald. Token History: W.T.Beadtes
Et Company, of Salmo, B.C. 38:4 (2005): 24.
Kosniancic, Ray. The Kosniancic Farm in
Crescent Valley: 100 Years in the Life of a
Family Farm. 38:4 (2005): 14-16.
Lymbery, Tom. Gray Creek Hall. 38:3 (2005): 13-15.
KWAKIUTL MUSEUM
Sanborn, Andrea. Archives Et Archivists:
U'mista: The Return of Something Important.
38:3 (2005): 38-39.
LAND SPECULATION
Cathro, Robert J. James Cooper Keith:
Business Pioneer and Treasure Hunter. 38:4
(2005): 6-9.
LE ROI GOLD AND COPPER MINE
Laux,Bill. The Great Le Roi Hoax: Buying
Back a Canadian Mine. 38:2 (2005): 12-18.
LUMBER INDUSTRY
Greene, Ronald. Token History: Fernidge
Lumber Company, Limited of New
Westminster, B.C. 38:2 (2005): 25-26.
Mcintosh, charles
Laux, Bill. The Great Le Roi Hoax: Buying
Back a Canadian Mine. 38:2 (2005): 12-18.
MACHINES
Scott, Jo B. Smith's Iron Chink: One Hundred
Years of the Mechanical Fish Butcher. 38:2
(2005): 21-24.
Septer, Dirk. The Sullivan Diamond Drill of
Coal Creek. 38:3 (2005): 23-25.
MAPLE RIDGE DISTRICT
Patenaude, Val. Archives and Archivists:
Interactive Community Archives. 38:1
(2005) :32.
MAPS
Miller, Bill. The Stikine -Teslin Route to the
Klondike Gold Fields. 38:1 (2005): 12-19.
MARSH LANDS
Brink, V.C. (Bert) and June Binkert. The Use
of Saltings on the BC Coast. 38:4 (2005): 17.
MAYORS
Ware, Reuben. Archives Et Archivists:
Vancouver City Archives Acquires L. D.
Taylor Fonds. 38:4 (2005): 25.
MINING
Laux, Bill. The Great Le Roi Hoax: Buying
Back a Canadian Mine. 38:2 (2005): 12-18.
Miller, Bill. The Stikine-Teslin Route to the
Klondike Gold Fields. 38:1 (2005): 12-19.
Septer, Dirk. The Sullivan Diamond Drill of
Coal Creek. 38:3 (2005): 23-25.
MISCELLANY
38:1 (2005): 33-34.*; 38:2 (2005): 39-40.*;
38:3 (2005): 40.*; 38:4 (2005): 35-36.*
MOTI PRIZE
Atkin, John. From the Editor. 38:1 (2005): 1.
—, —. The Moti Prize: Local History
Writing Competition for Elementary
Students. 38:2 (2005): 27; 38:4 (2005): 35.
Sidhu, Marina. History of Pride and
Challenges: Abbotsford Sikh Temple,
National Historic Site. 38:3 (2005): 29.*
MOTION PICTURE STUDIOS
Patenaude, Branwen C. The Rise and Fall of
Cinema, B.C.: Hollywood North Ahead of Its
Time. 38:2 (2005): 2-3.
MURDERS
Wood, Carolann C.E. Axe Murder in the
Okanagan: A Forensic Case Study. 38:1
(2005): 7-11.
NANAIMO
Barman, Jean. Lost Nanaimo - Taking Back
Our Past. 38:3 (2005): 16-22.
NELSON
Kosniancic, Ray. The Kosniancic Farm in
Crescent Valley: 100 Years in the Life of a
Family Farm. 38:4 (2005): 14-16.
Rogers. Pat A. Doctors Edward Charles Et
Isabella Delange Arthur: Nelson Pioneers.
38:4 (2005): 10-13.
NELSON Et FORT SHEPPARD RAILWAY
Greene, Ronald. Token History: W. T
Beadles Et Company, of Salmo, B. C. 38:4
(2005): 24.
NEW WESTMINSTER
Greene, Ronald. Token History: Fernridge
Lumber Company, Limited of New
Westminster, B.C. 38:2 (2005): 25-26.
Wolf, Jim. Through Japanese Eyes: The
Portrait Studio of Paul Louis Okamura.
38:4 (2005): 18-23.
NORMAL SCHOOLS
Storey, Vernon J. A Woman of Stature: Dr.
Henrietta Anderson and the Victoria
Provincial Normal School. 38:1 (2005): 3-6.
NORTH VANCOUVER
Cathro, Robert J. James Cooper Keith:
Business Pioneer and Treasure Hunter. 38:4
(2005): 6-9.
NORTH WEST COMPANY
Trower, Peter Et Yvonne Klan. Chala-oo-
Chick: The First Fort George. 38:2 (2005):
19-20.*
NORTHERN HOTEL, SALMO
Greene. Ronald. Token History: W. T Beadles
Et Company, of Salmo, B.C. 38:4 (2005): 24.
NORTHPORT, WASH.
Laux, Bill. The Great Le Roi Hoax: Buying
Back a Canadian Mine. 38:2 (2005): 12-18.
OBITUARIES
Andrews, Gerald Smedley (December 12,
1903 - December 5, 2005). 38:4 (2005): 34.
Baraclough, Edward. 38:3 (2005): 40.*
Bovey, John Alexander (1934-2005). 38:1
(2005): 2
Humphries, Charles W. 38:3 (2005): 40.*
Laux, Bill. 38:1 (2005): 33.*
Stewart, Bob.B.C. Conference Archivist,
died November 2005. 38:4 (2005): 35.
OKANAGAN AREA
Wood, Carolann C.E. Axe Murder in the
Okanagan: A Forensic Case Study. 38:1
(2005): 7-11.
OKAMURA, PAUL LOUIS
Wolf, Jim. Through Japanese Eyes: The
Portrait Studio of Paul Louis Okamura. 38:4
(2005): 18-23.
PACIFIC GREAT EASTERN RAILWAY
Patenaude, Branwen C. The Rise and Fall of
Cinema, B.C.: Hollywood North Ahead of Its
Time. 38:2 (2005): 2-3.
PACIFIC OCEAN
Garrish, Christopher. Web Site Forays:
Graveyards of the Pacific: Shipwrecks of
Vancouver Island. 38:1 (2005): 31.*
PACIFIC WEST COAST
Fox,Tom. Up Coast Adventures Continue.
38:3 (2005): 9-12.
PEYTON, I.N. (COLONEL)
Laux, Bill. The Great Le Roi Hoax: Buying
Back a Canadian Mine. 38:2 (2005): 12-18.
PHOTOGRAPH STUDIOS
Wolf, Jim. Through Japanese Eyes: The
Portrait Studio of Paul Louis Okamura. 38:4
(2005): 18-23.
PIONEER ART GALLERY
Welwood, Frances. Vancouver's Pioneer Art
Gallery Et Early Art Associations. 38:3
(2005): 2-5.
PORTRAITS
Wolf, Jim. Through Japanese Eyes: The
Portrait Studio of Paul Louis Okamura. 38:4
(2005): 18-23.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2        37 PRINCESS ROYAL
Barman, Jean. Lost Nanaimo - Taking Back
Our Past. 38:3 (2005): 16-22.
RAILWAYS
Garrish, Christopher. Web Site Forays: All
Aboard ! 38:2 (2005): 36.
Greene, Ronald. Token History: W. T Beadles
Et Company, of Salmo, B.C. 38:4 (2005): 24.
Kosniancic, Ray. The Kosniancic Farm in
Crescent Valley: 100 Years in the Life of a
Family Farm. 38:4 (2005): 14-16.
Lymbery, Tom. More on the Crowsnest
Railway. 38:1 (2005): 30.
Patenaude, Branwen C. The Rise and Fall of
Cinema, B.C.: Hollywood North Ahead of
Its Time. 38:2 (2005): 2-3.
Septer, Dirk. The Sullivan Diamond Drill of
Coal Creek. 38:3 (2005): 23-25.
Watkins, Dagmar. Charles William Heaton-
Armstrong, 1853-1917: His Story and His
Connection to the Okanagan. 38:4 (2005): 2-5.
REMINISCENCES
Fox, Tom. Up Coast Adventures Continue.
38:3 (2005): 9-12.
ROSSLAND
Laux, Bill. The Great Le Roi Hoax: Buying
Back a Canadian Mine. 38:2 (2005): 12-18.
ROYAL HUDSON
Garrish, Christopher. Web Site Forays: All
Aboard ! 38:2 (2005): 36.
SALMO
Greene, Ronald. Token History: W. T Beadles
Et Company, of Salmo, B.C. 38:4 (2005): 24.
SALMON
Scott, Jo B. Smith's Iron Chink: One
Hundred Years of the Mechanical Fish
Butcher. 38:2 (2005): 21-24.
SALTINGS
Brink, V.C. (Bert) and June Binkert. The Use
of Saltings on the BC Coast. 38:4 (2005): 17.
SAN FRANCISCO
Fitch, John. Black Pioneer Fielding Spotts:
School Trustee, Church Founder, Farrmer.
38:2 (2005): 4-7.
SCAMS
Laux, Bill. The Great Le Roi Hoax: Buying
Back a Canadian Mine. 38:2 (2005): 12-18.
SCHOOLS
Lymbery, Tom. Gray Creek Hall. 38:3 (2005):
13-15.
SHIPWRECKS
Garrish, Christopher. Web Site Forays:
Graveyards of the Pacific: Shipwrecks of
Vancouver Island. 38:1 (2005): 31.*
SHUSWAP AND OKANAGAN RAILWAY
Watkins, Dagmar. Charles William Heaton-
Armstrong, 1853-1917: His Story and His
Connection to the Okanagan. 38:4 (2005): 2-5.
SIFTON, CLIFFORD
Miiller, Bill. The Stikine-Teslin Route to the
Klondike Gold Fields. 38:1 (2005): 12-19.
SIKHS TAYLOR, LOUIS DENISON
Sidhu, Marina. History of Pride and Ware, Reuben. Archives Et Archivists:
Challenges: Abbotsford Sikh Temple, Vancouver City Archives Acquires L..D.
National Historic Site. 38:3 (2005): 29.* Taylor Fonds. 38:4 (2005): 25.
SLOCAN VALLEY TEACHERS TRAINING
Kosniancic, Ray. The Kosniancic Farm in the Storey, Vernon J. A Woman of Stature: Dr.
Crescent Valley: 100 Years in the Life of a Henrietta Anderson and the Victoria
Family Farm. 38:4 (2005): 14-16. Provincial Normal School. 38:1 (2005): 3-6.
SMELTERS TEMPLES
Laux, Bill. The Great Le Roi Hoax: Buying Sidhu, Marina. History of Pride and
Back a Canadian Mine. 38:2 (2005): 12-18. Challenges: Abbotsford Sikh Temple,
SMITH, EDMUND AUGUSTINE National Historic Site. 38:3 (2005): 29.*
Scott, Jo B. Smith's Iron Chink: One TESLIN LAKE
Hundred Years of the Mechanical Fish Miller, Bill. The Stikine-Teslin Route to the
Butcher. 38:2 (2005): 21-24. Klondike Gold Fields. 38:1 (2005): 12-19.
SOCIAL LIFE Et CUSTOMS TOKENS
Barman, Jean. Lost Nanaimo - Taking Back Greene, Ronald. Token History: Albert
Our Past. 38:3 (2005): 16-22. Traunweiser and the Alberta Hotel, Grand
Fitch, John. Black Pioneer Fielding Spotts: Forks, B.C. 38:1 (2005): 20-21.
School Trustee, Church Founder, Farmer. —, —. : Armour Et Kennedy of
38:2 (2005): 4-7. Cranbrook, B.C./Armour of Cranbrook, B.C.
Fox, Tom. Up Coast Adventures Continue. 38:3 (2005): 27-28.
38:3 (2005): 9-12. —, —. : Fernridge Lumber Company,
Kosniancic, Ray. The Kosniancic Farm in Limited of New Westminster, B.C. 38:2
Crescent Valley: 100 Years in the Life of a (2005): 25-26.
Family Farm. 38:4 (2005): 14-16. —, —. : W.TBeadles Et Company, of
Lymbery, Tom. Gray Creek Hall. 38:3 (2005): Salmo, B.C. 38:4 (2005): 24.
13-15. TOURS
Rogers, Pat A. Doctors Edward Charles Et Le Roi Mine Tour, Rossland Museum. 38:2
Isabella Delange Arthur: Nelson Pioneers. (2005): 18.
38:4 (2005): 10-13. TRAUNWEISER, ALBERT
Watkins, Dagmar. Charles William Heaton- Greene, Ronald. Token History: Albert
Armstrong, 1853-1917: His Story and His Traunweiser and the Alberta Hotel, Grand
Connection to the Okanagan. 38:4 (2005): 2-5. Forks, B.C. 38:1 (2005): 20-21.
SOCIETIES U'MISTA CULTURAL CENTRE
Hughes, Valentine. Alberni District Sanborn, Andrea. Archives Et Archivists:
Historical Society Celebrates 40 Years of U'mista: The Return of Something
Service. 38:1 (2005): 34.* Important. 38:3 (2005): 38-39.
SPANISH FLU PANDEMIC VANCOUVER
Rogers, Pat A. Doctors Edward Charles Et Wong, Larry. Life and Times of Foon Sien.
Isabella Delange Arthur: Nelson Pioneers. 38:3 (2005): 6-8.
38:4 (2005): 10-13. VANCOUVER ART ASSOCIATION
SPOKANE COLONELS Welwood, Frances. Vancouver's Pioneer Art
Laux, Bill. The Great Le Roi Hoax: Buying Gallery Et Early Art Associations. 38:3
Back a Canadian Mine. 38:2 (2005): 12-18. (2005): 2-5.
SPOTTS, FIELDING VANCOUVER ISLAND
Fitch, John. Black Pioneer Fielding Spotts: Garrish, Christopher. Web Site Forays:
School Trustee, Church Founder, Farmer. Graveyards of the Pacific: Shipwrecks of
38:2 (2005): 4-7. Vancouver Island. 38:1 (2005): 31.*
STEVESTON VANCOUVER SCHOOL OF THEOLOGY
Scott, Jo B. Smith's Iron Chink: One Stephens, Doreen. Archives Et Archivists:
Hundred Years of the Mechanical Fish Two Singles and a Double — Archives in the
Butcher. 38:2 (2005): 21-24. Bedroom ! 38:2 (2005): 37.*
STIKINE RIVER VICTORIA
Miller, Bill. The Stikine-Teslin Route to the Fitch, John. Black Pioneer Fielding Spotts:
Klondike Gold Fields. 38:1 (2005): 12-19. School Trustee, Church Founder, Farmer.
TAIT, CHARLES WILLIAM 38:2 (2005): 4-7.
Greene, Ronald. Token History: Fernridge Hooper, Tristin. Victoria's Birdman: The
Lumber Company, Limited of New Forgotten Story of William Wallace
Westminster, B.C. 38:2 (2005): 25-26. Gibson. 38:2 (2005): 8-11.
TASHIKO, R.Z. Storey, Vernon J. A Woman of Stature: Dr.
Wolf, Jim. Through Japanese Eyes: The Henrietta Anderson and the Victoria
Portrait Studio of Paul Louis Okamura. 38:4 Provincial Normal School. 38:1 (2005): 3-6.
(2005): 18-23.
38 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 WEB SITES
Garrish, Cristopher. Web Site Forays: All
Aboard ! 38:2 (2005): 36.
—, —. Graveyards of the Pacific:
Shipwrecks of Vancouver Island. 38:1 (2005) :31.*
WEBSTER, ANNIE
Welwood, Frances. Vancouver's Pioneer Art
Gallery Et Early Art Associations. 38:3
(2005): 2-5.
WONG FOON SIEN see FOON SIEN
WORK, JOHN
Cathro, Robert J. James Cooper Keith:
Business Pioneer and Treasure Hunter. 38:4
(2005): 6-9.
WRIGHT, WHITAKER
Laux, Bill. The Great Le Roi Hoax: Buying
Back a Canadian Mine. 38:2 (2005):12-18.
YALE, JAMES MURRAY
Trower, Peter Et Yvonne Klan. Chala-oo-
Chick: The First Fort George. 38:2 (2005):
19-20.*
YUKON RIVER
Miller, Bill. The Stikine-Teslin Route to the
Klondike Gold Fields. 38:1 (2005): 12-19.
BOOK REVIEWS
AMYOT, Chantal and John Willis. Country Post:
Rural Postal Services in Canada, 1880-1945.
Reviewed by William Topping. 38:1 (2005): 26-27.
BARMAN, Jean. Maria Mahoi of the Islands.
Reviewed by Phyllis Reeve. 38:2 (2005): 29.
BROWN, Atholl Sutherland. A Canadian Patriot
and Imperialist: The Life and Times of
James Sutherland Brown. Reviewed by
Arthur Sager. 38:3 (2005): 32.
BRUNEAU, William and David Gordon Duke.
Jean Coulthard: A Life in Music. Reviewed
by Laurenda Daniells. 38:3 (2005): 36-37.
BURROUGHS, Bob. Healing in the Wilderness, a
History of the United Church Mission
Hospitals. Reviewed by Dr. V.C.Brink. 38:2
(2005): 28-29.
COLE, Jean Murray, ed. This Blessed
Wilderness: Archibald McDonald's Letters
from the Columbia, 1822-44. Reviewed by
Morag Maclachlan. 38:1 (2005): 40.
CROSS, Rosemary James. The Life and Times
of Victoria Architect P. Leonard James.
Reviewed by Jill Wade. 38:4 (2005): 29.
DAMER, Eric and Caroline Astell. No Ordinary
Mike: Michael Smith Nobel Laureate.
Reviewed by Phyllis Reeve. 38:2 (2005): 29-30.
DAWSON, Michael. Selling British Columbia:
Tourism and Consumer Culture, 1890-1970.
Reviewed by Kirk Salloum. 38:4 (2005): 30-31.
DENNY, Sir Cecil. Denny's Trek: A Mountie's
Memoir of the March West. Reviewed by
Esther Darlington. 38:4 (2005): 27-28.
DUFFUS, Maureen. Old Langford: An
Illustrated History, 1850-1950. Reviewed by
Dave Parker. 38:2 (2005): 30.
DUNCAN, Sandy Frances. Gold Rush Orphan.
Reviewed by Sheryl Salloum. 38:2 (2005): 28.
FADER, Sunny and Edward (Ted) Huntly. Land
Here? You Bet! The True Adventures of a
Fledgling Bush Pilot in Alaska and British
Columbia in the Early 1950s. Reviewed by
Mike Higgs. 38:4 (2005): 30.
FINLAY, K.A., ed. "A Wonan's: Place": Art and
the Role of Women in the Cultural
Formation of Victoria, BC 1850s- 1820s.
Reviewed by Anne Edwards. 38:3 (2005): 35-36.
FRANCIS, Daniel. L.D.: Mayor Louis Taylor and
the Rise of Vancouver. Reviewed by Mary
Rawson. 38:1 (2005): 27-28.
FRASER, Esther. The Canadian Rockies - Early
Travels and Explorations. Reviewed by
Harvey Buckmaster. 38:1 (2005): 23.
GALLAHER, Bill. Deadly Innocent: Tragedy on
the Trail to Gold. Reviewed by Philip Teece.
38:2 (2005): 28.
GRANT, Peter. Wish You Were Here: Life on
Vancouver Island in Historical Photographs.
Reviewed by Tim Percival. 38:2 (2005): 33.
GUPPY, Anthony. The Tofino Kid: From India to
This Wild West Coast. Reviewed by Philip
Teece. 38:2 (2005): 32-33.
HAMILTON, Douglas. Sobering Dilemma, a
History of Prohibition in British Columbia.
Reviewed by Gordon Elliott. 38:2 (2005): 32.
HANEN, Edythe Anstey. Bowen Island
Reflections. Reviewed by Riichard
Littlemore. 38:3 (2005): 30.
HAYNES, Sterling. Bloody Practice: Doctoring
in the Cariboo and Around the World.
Reviewed by Helen Shore. 38:1 (2005): 25.
HILL, Beth and Cathy Converse. The
Remarkable World of Frances Barkley.
Reviewed by Marie Elliott. 38:2 (2005): 31.
HUGHES, Douglas. The Old Bow Fort. Reviewed
by Brian Gobbett. 38:1 (2005): 22.
HULLAND, Susan Et Terry Turner. Remember
When ...: Celebrating 100 Years of Crawford
Bay on Kootenay Lake, British Columbia.
Reviewed by Ron Welwood. 38:3 (2005): 32-33.
HUME, Stephen. Lillies Et Fireweed: Frontier
Women of British Columbia. Reviewed by
Sharron Simpson. 38:3 (2005): 33.
IREDALE, Jennifer, ed. Enduring Threads:
Ecclesiastical Textiles of St. John the Divine
Church, Yale, British Columbia, Canada.
Reviewed by Phyllis Reeve. 38:4 (2005): 28.
KLAN, Yvonne Mearns. The Old Red Shirt:
Pioneer Poets of British Columbia. Reviewed
by Sheryl Salloum. 38:2 (2005): 30-31.
KLUCKNER, Michael. Vanishing British
Columbia. Reviewed by Arnold Ranneris.
38:4 (2005): 32.
KOPAS, Leslie. Bella Coola Country. Reviewed
by Susan Stacey. 38:1 (2005): 24-25.
KYLLO, M.A. The Story of Hudson's Hope to
1945. Reviewed by Jonathan Swainger. 38:4
(2005): 31.
LAMB, Bruce. Outposts and Bushplanes.
Reviewed by Mike Higgs. 38:4 (2005): 30.
MARSHALL, Denis. Sawdust Caesars and Family
Ties in the Southern Interior Forests.
Reviewed by Gordon Hak. 38:3 (2005): 34.
MILLER, Bill. Wires in the Wilderness: The
Story of the Yukon Telegraph. Reviewed by
George Newell. 38:2 (2005): 33.
MULLEN, Tom. Trailing the Waterways of Lewis
and Clark. Reviewed by Susan Stacey.
38:2 (2005): 31.
NORRIS, Pat Wastell. High Seas, High Risk: The
Story of the Sudburys. Reviewed by
Doreen Armitage. 38:4 (2005): 28-29.
NORTON, Wayne and Tom Langford, eds. A
World Apart: The Crowsnest Communities of
Alberta and British Columbia. Reviewed by
Tom Lymbery. 38:1 (2005): 25.
O'KEEFE, Betty and Ian MacDonald. Dr. Fred
and the Spanish Lady: Fighting the Killer
Flu. Reviewed by Sheryl Salloum. 38:3
(2005): 36.
PATENAUDE, Branwen C. Ruby Red and Gold
Rush Yellow: An Early Cariboo Adventure.
Reviewed by M. Wayne Cunningham. 38:3
(2005): 33-34.
RAUSCH, V.L and D.L. Baldwin, eds. The
Yukon Relief Expedition and the Journal of
Carl Johan Sakariassen. Reviewed by Lewis
Green. 38:1 (2005): 228-29.
RAYMENT, Hugh and Patrick Sherlock. Camp
Vernon, a Century of Canadian Military
History. Reviewed by Peter Russell. 38:3
(2005): 31-32.
REID, Martine, ed. Trans.by Daisy Sewid-Smith.
Paddling to Where I Stand: Agnes Alfred,
Qwiqwasutinuxw Noblewoman . Reviewed
by Phyllis Reeve. 38:2 (2005): 34.
ROBERTS, W.R. (Bill). The Best Miners in the
World Stories from Canada's Sullivan Mine.
Reviewed by Alistair Drysdale. 38:4 (2005):
31-32.
ROSE, Alex. Spirit Dance at Meziadin: Chief
Joseph Gosnell and the Nisga'a Treaty.
Reviewed by Phyllis Reeve. 38:1 (2005): 28.
ROY, Patricia E. and John Herd Thompson.
British Columbia, Land of Promises.
Reviewed by Eric Jamieson. 38:4 (2005): 26.
SHERWOOD, Jay. Surveying Northern British
Columbia: A Photojournal of Frank
Swannell. Reviewed by W. Grant Hazelwood.
38:2 (2005): 34-35.
SIM, Gary. Art Et Artists in Exhibition
Vancouver: 1890-1950. [electronic resource].
Reviewed by Cheryl Siegel. 38:4 (2005):26.
SIMPSON, Sharron. Boards, Boxes, and Bins:
Stanley M. Simpson and the Okanagan
Lumber Industry. Reviewed by Denis
Marshall. 38:1 (2005): 25-26.
SLEIGH, Daphne. Walter Moberly and the
Northwest Passage by Rail. Reviewed by
Frank Leonard. 38:1 (2005): 29.
TURNER, Nancy J. Plants of the Haida Gwaii.
Reviewed by Elizabeth Walker. 38:3 (2005): 35.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2        39 TWIGG, Alan. First Invaders: The Literary
Origins of British Columbia. Reviewed by
Peter Mitham. 38:2 (2005): 35.
WAISER, Bill. All Hell Can't Stop Us: The On-
to-Ottawa Trek and Regina Riot Reviewed by
Duff Sutherland. 38:1 (2005): 22-23.
WEICHT, Chris. North by Northwest: An
Aviation History. Reviewed by Mike Higgs.
38:3 (2005)): 31.
WELLS, Oliver. Edenbank - the History of a
Canadian Pioneer Farm. Reviewed by
John Cherrington. 38:1 (2005): 24.
WHITE, Patricia. Mountie in Mukluks: The
Arctic Adventures of Billl White. Reviewed
by Carol Lowes. 38:3 (2005): 30.
WILLIAMS, Judith. Dynamite Stories. Reviewed
by Arnold Ranneris. 38:1 (2005): 22.
WINDH, Jacqueline. The Wild Edge: Clayoquot,
Long Beach Et Barkley Sound. Reviewed by
Philip Teece. 38:3 (2005): 34-35.
WINTERS, Barbara, ed. Legh Mullhall Kilpin -
Teacher, Painter, Printmaker. Reviewed by
Harvey Buckmaster. 38:4 (2005): 29.
WUEST, Donna Yoshitake. Coldstream: The
Ranch Where It All Began. Reviewed by M.
Wayne Cunningham. 38:4 (2005): 26-27.
YESAKI, Mitsuo. Watari-Dori (Birds of Passage).
Reviewed by Sheryl Salloum. 38:4 (2005): 32.
NOTEWORTHY BOOKS
Includes books not reviewed but that are of
interest and may be reviewed at a later date.
38:1 (2005): 40; 38:2 ((2005): 35; 38:3 (2005):
37; 38:4 (2005): 33.
Miscellany
The BC Historical Federation is
pleased to announce their 23rd
Annual Book Competition Prizes.
The Lieutenant Governor's Award and First
Prize ($600.00) for the top 2005 British
Columbia Historical Book:
HISTORICAL ATLAS OF VANCOUVER
AND THE LOWER FRASER VALLEY by
Derek Hayes, Publisher Douglas & Mclntyre
Second Prize ($400.00):
VANISHING BRITISH COLUMBIA by
Michael Kluckner, Publisher UBC Press
Third Prize ($200.00):
ISLANDS IN THE SALISH SEA - A
Community Atlas edited by Sheila
Harrington and Judi Stevenson, Publisher
Heritage House
Honourable Mention:
HOMEFRONT & BATTLEFRONT: NELSON
BC IN WORLD WAR II by Sylvia Crooks,
Publisher Granville Island Publishing
STELLA - UNREPENTANT MADAM
by Linda Eversole, Publisher Heritage House
THE LIFE AND TIMES OF VICTORIA
ARCHITECT, P. LEONARD JAMES by
Rosemary J. Cross, Publisher Dear Brutus
Publishing
The BC Historical Federation Book
Prizes Ceremony took place at their annual
BCHF Conference Banquet which was held
in Kimberley, BC, on May 6*, 2006, 6pm at
the Marriott Residence Inn.
Thank you to the Judges of the Book
Competition: Diane Rogers, Alice Marwood
and Barb Hynek
Submitted by Bob Mukai, Chair of the BCHF
Book Writing Competition
The University of Victoria announced in
July, 2006 that Pat Roy, President of the
BC Historical Associaton has been made a
fellow of the Royal Society of Canada.
Best Article Award for 2005
Dr. Jean Barman, is the winner of the
best article award for 2005 for her article
"Lost Nanaimo — taking back our past"
which appeared in BC History, Vol 38:3.
Salt Spring Island Historical
Society
Key personality at a recent meeting
of the society was John Patton Booth, first
elected to the B.C. Legislature in 1871. He
failed to gain a seat in subsequent elections
until in 1900 he held the office of Speaker of
the House, which lasted until his death in
February 1902. Booth was also a farmer on
Salt Spring Island.
He was of course played by an actor
but the grandchildren and greatgrandchildren of the early pioneers were
real. He introduced several who gave
interesting stories of their forbears at a time
when logging and farming were the
principal activities, deer hunting supplied
meat for the table, and cougars were a pest.
The organizers were lucky to find
some half-dozen direct descendants of the
pioneer settlers of Salt Spring Island still
living on the island. Their ages rangedrim
20 to 80.
The event was co-sponsored by the
Farmers' Institute, which was celebrating its
110th anniversary and offered its spacious
hall for the performance. Aarund 200 people
from both organizations attended.
The Land Conservancy
Purchases Historic Property
The Land Conservancy of BC are
official owners of the Historic Joy Kogawa
House in Marpole. Thanks to 550 donors
from around the globe and one last minute
donation of about $500,000 dollars from an
anonymous corporate donor, the cultural
landmark will be saved as part of Canada's
history for future generations.
40 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 39 No. 2 The British Columbia Historical
Federation is an umbrella
organization embracing regional
societies.
LOCAL HISTORICAL SOCIETIES are
entitled to become Member
Societies of the BC Historical
Federation. All members of these
local historical societies shall by
that very fact be members of the
Federation.
AFFIUATED GROUPS are
organizations with specialized
interests or objects of a historical
nature.
MEMBERSHIP FEES for both classes
of membership are one dollar per
member of a Member Society or
Affiliated Group with a minimum
membership fee of $25 and a
maximum of 575.
Question regarding membership
should be sent to;
Ron Hyde, Secretary #2012880
Railway Ave., Richmond BC VIE
6G2
Phone 604.277.2627 Fax
604.277.2657 rbhy-de@shaw.ca Return Undeliverable Canadian Addresses to Circulation Department.
British Columbia Historical News
Alice Marwood, #311 - 45520 Knight Road Cnilliwack, BC V2R 3Z2
Canadian Publications Mail Product Sales Agreement No. 40025793
Publications Mail registration No. 09835
We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada, through the Publications Assistance program (PAP), toward our mailing cost
Contact Us:
British Columbia History welcomes stories,
studies, and news items dealing with any aspect of
the history of British Columbia, and British
Columbians.
Please submit manuscripts for publication to
the Editor, British Columbia History,
John Atkin,
921 Princess Avenue,
Vancouver BC V6A 3E8
e-mail: iohnatkin@shaw.ca
Book reviews for British Columbia History,
AnneYandle,
3450 West 20th Avenue,
Vancouver BC V6S 1 E4,
604.733.6484
e-mail: vandle@interchange.ubc.ca
Subscription & subscription information:
Alice Marwood,
8056 168A Street,
Surrey B C V4N 4Y6
Phone 604-576-1548
e-mail amarwood@telus.net
Subscriptions: $18.00 per year
For addresses outside Canada add $10.00
2006
23nd Annual Competition for Writers of BC
History Lieutenant-Governor's Medal for
Historical Writing Deadline: 31 December 2006
The British Columbia Historical Federation invites book
submissions for the twenty-third annual Competition
for Writers of BC History. Books representing any facet
of BC history, published in 2006 will be considered by
the judges who are looking for quality presentations
and fresh material. Community histories, biographies,
records of a project or organization as well as personal
reflections, etc. are eligible for consideration.
Reprints or revisions of books are not eligible.
Lieutenant-Governor's Medal
The Lieutenant-Governor's Medal for Historical Writing
will be awarded to an individual writer whose book
contributes significantly to the history of British
Columbia. Additional prizes may be awarded to other
books at the discretion of the judges.
Publicity
All entries receive considerable publicity, Winners will
receive a Certificate of Merit, a monetary award and
an invitation to the Awards Banquet of the Federation's
annual conference.
Submissions
For information about making submissions contact:
Bob Mukai, Chair of Competition Committee 4100
Lancelot Drive
Richmond, B. C. V7C 4S3
phone 604-274-6449 email robert mukai@telus.net
Books entered become property of the BC
Historical Federation.
By submitting books for this competition, authors agree that
the British Columbia Historical Federation may use their names
in press releases and Federation publications regarding the
book competition.

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