British Columbia History

BC Historical News Mar 31, 1977

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 historical
MARCH  1977
\jJ.H-   T3UK<=.^3'<=:,'^>4&.       0^4.   -\Wjl     ^Ot>1S\i^H'        1 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL NEWS
Vol. 10 No. 3 ISSN 0045-2963 April 1977
Published November, February, April and June each year by the
British Columbia Historical Association, and distributed free to
members of all affiliated societies by the secretaries of their
respective societies.  Subscription rate to non-members $5.00
Can. per year, including postage, directly from the Editor, P.A.
Yandle, 3450 West 20th Avenue, Vancouver, B.C. V6S 1E4.
EXECUTIVE 1976-77
Hon.Patron:  Lieut.Gov.W. Owen Hon. Pres.: Dr M. Ormsby
Pres.:       Mr A.Slocomb,     1st V.Pres: l£r Rex Tweed
1564 Oakcrest Dr. 2nd V.Pres: Mrs W. Weir
 ' Victoria.B.C.     Sec: Mrs Ruth Barnett,
Rec.Sec:     Mrs Arlene Bramhall 680 Pinecrest Rd.,
Editors:     P & A Yandle Campbell River,B.C.
Treas.:      Mr M. Halleran
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page
Editorial 2
Society notes and comments 3
Jottings 5
B.C. Books of interest 7
Book Reviews:
The rebirth of Canada's Indians, H.Cardinal 8
Mankind's future in the Pacific, R.Scagel, ed. 10
The Bad and the Lonely, M.Robin 11
Book Notes 12
Women of the West Kootenay, by Clare McAllister 13
History of the Van. Public Library, 1869-1900, G.Hayball 17
Part I
**** CONVENTION 1977 and Registration form 28 *******
This volume of the News is featuring ships of British Columbia
interest.  In this issue, our artist, Robert Genn, has drawn the
Sudbury I, a tug that gained international fame for its many
heroic deep sea rescues.  One of considerable note was the rescue
of the Greek freighter Glafkos, bound from Japan to Vancouver in
ballast, which ran aground off Amphrite Point in fog on the night
of Jan. 1, 1962.
**********************************
***** NOTE  The Editors have available a limited number of back copies
of most issues cf the News.  Members may obtain copies at 25c each;
non-member institutions and other subscribers may obtain copies at
$1.00 each.  Packaging and mailing included.
THIS OFFER GOOD UNTIL JULY 1st, 1977. EDITORIAL
"Then you should say what you mean" the March Hare went on.
"I do", Alice hastily replied; "at least - at least I mean what
I say - that's the same thing, you fanow".  "Not the same thing
a bit!"said the Hatter, "why you might just as well say that'I
see what I eat' is the same thing as 'I eat what I see'".
Alice in Wonderland - Lewis Carroll.
"There's nothing like eating hay when you're faint" ....
"I didn't say there was nothing better' the King replied, 'I said
there was nothing like it".
_Al^i^e_Thr^u^h_the_L£oking_Glias.s_-_Le.wis_CArioJ.lJ.
A voyage of discovery into the world of journalism via the
daily papers is a rather unnerving experience.  Without a glossary
of the very bad puns contained in the headlines, it would be totally
impossible to hazard a guess what the report that followed would
be all about.
The outbursts from our world of politicians can leave the
reader with but one thought - that the education system must be in
a far worse state than we thought.  The basic principles of
general knowledge were never taught them, and, if they were, they
were as quickly forgotten.  The old adages are never observed
that "Silence is golden" or "a little learning is a dangerous
thing", for the fatuous statements purporting to emanate from
them do little to inspire confidence.
A recent example from the Vancouver Province of April 6th
with the headline "Good enough for Cook but what about the Socreds"
startles the imagination.  Where have these politicians been?
From the Minutes of our Council Meeting in November 1974,
"The Secretary said that he felt that these celebrations
should be something beyond the ordinary and should involve
others in the Province in addition to the Association.
Mr Turner added to the Secretary's remarks and reported in
general terms on a meeting held with the Deputy Provincial
Secretary who had received the idea of a province-wide
celebration favourably."
The symposium to be held at Simon Fraser University for the
Bicentenary of Captain James Cook has been under way for two years!
Now the Cabinet Ministers, with less than one year to go, are
planning a film for "world-wide consumption and the B.C. schools".
What price glory?  It is mooted that Pierre Berton is to write the
script, to be produced in Ontario with Ontario actors!  May
heaven preserve us from another airing of Pierre's wardrobe as
seen in the C.B.C. television series - The Great Canadian Dream.
Just imagine that dramatic figure in "buckskins"overlooking the
Indians greeting the intrepid mariner on the shore of Bligh
Island,at the same time making suitable platitudinous background
remarks.
We have the talent here to write the script, and the movie
producers too, and for actors, what about the recent coast to
coast performance on C.B.C. of an unknown cast from the East Vancouver Cultural Centre that gave us a magnificent performance
of The Merchant of Venice? Captain C°ok was no ordinary explorer; his expeditions
compare scientifically with the recent American achievement in
placing a man on the moon.  It is significant that, although
Britain and the United States were at war, Benjamin Franklin,
American Minister to the Court of France, issued his famous
request to every ship of the line that "  you would treat
the said Captain Cook and his people with all civility and
kindness, affording them as common friends to mankind all the
assistance in your power..."
One last thought:  Once again it's too little and too late.
***********
SOCIETY NOTES AND COMMENTS
ALBERNI  February:  As Canada has extended her territorial
boundaries to the 200 mile limit, the Society was keenly interested in the address of Dr Robin LeBrasseur, of the PACific Biological Station at Nanaimo..  He showed graphs and slides on the
Great Central Lake experiment to increase the supply of sockeye
salmon for both sport and commercial fishermen.  March:  The
Society was pleased and privileged to award a Life Membership to
a Charter Member, Dr George Clutesi.  He was honoured as author
of   two books (one of which is used as a textbook in the schools),
as a painter, orator, and actor.  He has revived and preserved
the history of his people, and built a bridge between two
cultures.  Mrs Alice Riley presented him with coloured pictures
she had taken of his Indian dancers and his painting exhibits.
CAMPBELL RIVER  In December the Society was saddened by the d<iath
of member Helen Mitchell, author of Diamond in the Rough.  At
their annual meeting new officers elected were Pres: John Ackroyd;
Vice-Pres. Jim Thomas; Sec-Treas. Helen McLoughlin, Museum Trustee
Barry Henshall.
At its March meeting the executive, in reference to a proposed convention being held in Campbell River decided that even a
"no-host" gathering would not be feasible without the society
becoming totally involved, and that it was not prepared to commit
next year's executive for this "Mammoth Job".
The Society has been fortunate to obtain another LIP grant
of $22,100 for the project Genesis III.  Genesis I and II were
involved with the collection of historic materials and pictures
of the Campbell River area.  Genesis III will try and fill in the
gaps.  To help in this area, Derek Reimer, Provincial Archives,
conducted a workshop for the society on March 14th.  Five workers
under the direction of Ruth Barnett are concerning themselves with
History of sports fishing (Tyee Club), commercial fishing and
logging, Sisters of St. Ann, Cape Mudge Village, aviation history,
photographing historic buildings, and oral history of pioneers.
When all of this material is catalogued it will be made available
to students and others doing research on the Campbell River area.
GOLDEN  During October and November of 1976, members held sessions
relating to the early history of the area.  The first session was
conducted by Mr Fred Netherton from Fort Steele.  With the help of many excellent slides he presented a review of Baillie-Grohman
and his proposed canal linking the Kootenay and Columbia Rivers.
The second session consisted of gleanings from the lives of Captain
Armstrong, Walter Moberly and James Hector.  Many interesting
details of the Steamboat Era on the Columbia River were revealed
in the study of Captain Armstrong.  His home, now occupied by
Fred Franson and his family., remains a historic landmark in this
town.  Those who attended this session learned that James Hector
spent much of his time in "The Cache" (as Golden was then named)
trying to locate a suitable route through the Rockies.  The third
session was a panel discussion among nine men who had been employed
on the construction of the Big Bend Highway.  This proved very
delightful as many personal experiences were recorded.  The fourth
session was on "Education in the Columbia Valley" and followed
a similar pattern to that of the Construction of the Big Bend.  The
panel consisted of some of the first teachers in the Valley - one
of whom was Caroline Soles.  The last session tvas on "Indians of
the Columbia Valley".  This was presented by Mrs Ellen Cameron.
We learned that it was Chief Kinbasket who led Walter Moberley
through on his survey for the C.P.R. - so how fitting it would
seem to have the lake created from Mica Dam - called Kinbasket Lake,
as he was the first man to see the former lake of that name.
All the sessions were recorded on tape by Gordon Ambrose.  Some
articles have be«_n typed and arranged in book form.  Plans are in
the making to establish a reading area in our Golden museum where
such material can be read and tapes can be played.
NANAIMO  At its Annual General Meeting in March, the following
officers were alecteC:  Pres. Mr W.J. Ince; 1st Vice-Pres. Mrs
Barbara Stannard; 2nd Vice-Pres. Mrs Pamela Mar; Treas. Mrs Emily
Kneen; Recording Sec. Mrs Dorothy Lawrence; Corresp. Sec. Mr J.Roff.
The Society followed its survey of some of the heritage buildings
in Nanaimo in January with a slide presentation and talk in February by Martin Segg'er on conservation areas across Canada.  This is
the time of the year when the Society, which is an active supporter
of Heritage Canada, likes ,_o give particular attention to this theme.
A number of members were able to attend the Vancouver conference on
"New Life for Old Buildings" and received there the Heritage Canada
Communication Award it won last year.  The cheque which accompanied
the award will no doubt be well used as the Society is contemplating
the publication of its archival material.  In March, retiring
President Mr J, Len NichoUs recounted for members the history of
his family and its long association with Nanaimo.  Len confesses to
having been born between the horse and buggy and the automobile eras
and carried the audience back even further in time with stories of
his grandfathers and many of the Nanaimo old-timers.
VANCOUVER  Dr Philip Akrigg addressed the Society at its February
meeting on the geld rush days.  Two things gave his talk freshness:
many of the events and developmen1' s were told in the words of the
participants; and instead of giving gold statistics in ounces or
American dollars of the time, Dr Akrigg translated them into present
monetary values, which made them more realistic  At the March
meeting Mr Dan Gallacher of the Provincial Museum gave a talk on
"Interesting Personalities in the Vancouver Island Coal Industry of
the Nineteenth Century".  At. the Incorporation Day Dinner, held on
April 6th, Garry Colchester spoke on "Houses and History". VICTORIA   The Victoria section has enjoyed speakers on a wide
variety of subjects.  In November Elwood White spoke on "One
Hundred Years of Aviation in B.C." and showed a remarkable collection of pictures of pioneer aircraft.  At the Christmas dinner
in December, Dr Jacques Mar of Nanaimo, whose father, Rev. Ma
Seung, was a pioneer of the Chinese Church in Victoria, spoke on
the contribution to Western Canadian development made by Chinese.
He noted that little credit was given in histories to Chinese as
the men who did so much to build the Canadian Pacific Railway in
B.C.; he commented that the photograph shewing the last spike of
the C.P.R. being driven in did not show a single Chinese.  In
January Mrs Avis Walton, Victoria, recalled the days of Chautauqua
and with the assistance of models, singers and speakers described
the excitement of the big tent entertainment and instruction given
once a year by the Chautauqua visitors.  In February the society
did honour to the memory of an almost forgotten best sellini»
author who made his home in British Columbia more than 50 years
ago.  He was Bertrand W. Sinclair, and one of his books, "Poor
Man's Rock" sold about 80,000 copies.  Professor Gordon Elliott
of Simon Fraser University led a discussion of Sinclair and his
wor'i, assisted by the author's daughter, Mrs Cherry Whitaker and
three friends, John Daly, Reg Payne and George North, who knew
Sinclair when he fished among the Gulf Islands and helped develop
a fishermen's organization.  In March, the history of the temperance
movement in B.C. was described by Rev. Harold T. Allen, long active
in the social service work of the United Church.
***************
JOTTINGS
Vancouver Sun  Feb 23rd.  "The provincial government will begin
this summer to catalogue and list all known shipwrecks on the
West Coast.  Bjorn Simonsen, head archeologist of the Provincial
Museum said., he expects the program to last two to three years.
The program, Simonsen said, stems from the need for better protection of shipwreck sites from scuba-diving souvenir hunters
who illegally remove artifacts.  "We're going to have to consider
stricter enforcement, ... possibly calling on the RCMP to help
keep an eye on the sites.  We would ask them to be on the lookout
for people diving on the sites.".... The idea for the "classification program grew cut of a meeting that Simonsen had with the
B.C. Underwater Archeological Society Feb.10.  The archeological
society asked for the meeting after surveying a 105-year old
wreck discovered off Mayne Island in December.  The Zephyr, a
three-masted bark that went down in 1872, was discovered d_ring the
Christmas holidays....All West Coast wrecks are protected under the
Archeological and Historic Sites Protection Act of 1972,  Any
wreck designated as a historic site, as the Zephyr is, provides
the site with special safeguards.
Vancouver Su.<. Feb. 2nd.  "Shady Deal brought False Creek Land into
Vancouver".  The new $35 million B.C. Central Credit Union headquarters planned for construction this fall, is being built on more
than just a few acres of scrub land on the south shore of False
Creek.... The story of how the lands passed from Indian hands into
the provincial government's possession in 1913 marked one of Vancouver's murkiest property deals.  As early as 1901, the
government proposed that the Squamish Kitsilano Reserve No. 6,
approximately 90 acres on the southern shore of the mouth of
False Creek, be surrendered and the Indians relocated.  The
Squamish band, however, decided not to sell to the provincial
government.  In 1913, the government reopened negotiations and
W.J. Bowser, then Attorney General offered 20 heads of families
$11,250 each plus relocating costs to vacate the land.  Unknown
to the Indians, however, a railway consortium was preparing to
offer the Squamish band $2 million for the same property.  The
provincial government was aware of this offer, but said nothing.
So the 20 heads of families, without consulting the rest of the
Squamish band, and unaware of the $2 million offer, accepted the
provincial government's bid.  The total package - including relocation of the band members to Squamish and removal of the burial
ground remnants - came to $219,750.  The Attorney General, anxious
to complete the sale, forgot one thing: Land transactions involving
Indian land can only be conducted and approved by the federal
Department of Indian Affairs.  To make matters worse, it was disclosed that the provincial government had actually spent $300,000
for the land, and while the Indians collectively received $219,750,
an unnamed politician received $80,000 for a "commission"....  "
(Just recently a tragic accident occurred at the site in which a
construction crane that was being erected collapsed, killing one
man and injuring several others.  Perhaps there is such a thing
as a "hex".)
Vancouver Sun April 1  "Vernon gets Historic Ranch"  "The historic
O'Keefe ranch near here has been turned over to the city of Vernon
to operate on a non-profit basis as part of Canada's heritage.  The
move followed the purchase of the ranch, including the original
ranch house and a tiny old church and graveyard, by the Calgary-based
Devonian group of charitable foundations for an estimated $600,000.
From the Letters to the Editor of the Vancouver Sun  David R.
Williams, Q.C. objects to the choice of "Robson Square" for the
name of the new Provincial Government buildings now being built
in Vancouver.  His main reason was that "since the central
function of the building was the administration of justice, a name
more suitable to that concept could have been chosen".  (It is
to be regretted that we as an Association did not get behind Peggy
Imredy who suggested that the square be named in honour of the
memory of Charles Marega who left his works of art for all to see
and beautify not only Vancouver, but also Victoria - see the News.
Vol. 8:4, June 1975, Charles Marega, by Doreen Imredy.
The Benjamin Franklin quotation in the Editorial is taken from
a keepsake published in 1975 by the Washington State American
Revolution Bicentennial Commission, entitled "Passport to Glory;
Benjamin Franklin and Captain Cook".  This publication contains a
facsimile reproduction, as well as a transcription of a letter
written by Benjamin Franklin to all captains and commanders of
American armed ships in 1779.  Copies are available for $2.50 from
the Washington State Historical Society, 315 No. Stadium Way,
Tacoma, Wash. 98403. OBITUARY
Is is with deep regret that the News notes the passing of
Kathleen Sarah Gibbard at Vancouver on February 24th, 1977.
Mrs Gibbard was a long time member of the Vancouver Historical
Society and a very faithful and devoted member.  To her surviving
family we wish to express our deepest sympathy in their bereavement
and in particular, her husband, John, and daughter, Ida, who
have been long time members of our Association.
BRITISH COLUMBIA BOOKS OF INTEREST
ERITISH COLUMBIA. B.C. Forest Service.  Wilderness survival.
Victoria, 1976.  152 pp., illus.
BRITISH COLUMBIA. Provincial Museum. A selected list of publications
on the Indians of B.C., compiled by Alan L. Hoover and Grant R.
Keddie, Victoria, 1976. 30 pp.
BROWN, Brian. The burning bush; a reformed ethic for the north.
Dawson Creek, Echo Pub., 1976. 165 pp., illus. $7.95;
BROWN, Brian. Separatism; a positive response from English Canada.
Dawson Creek, Echo Pub., 1976. 200 pp., illus. $9.95.
BURI, Thomas. A preliminary annotated bibliography of the Stikine
River country and its people. Telegraph Creek, Author, 1976. 35 p.
CANADA. Canadian Habitat Secretariat. Two weeks in Vancouver. A
selective guide to Vancouver... prepared by Chuck Davis and
John Ewing, Vancouver, B.C. Vancouver, 1976. 106 pp., illus.
CANADA. Ministry of State, Urban Affairs. Profile; Vancouver; the
political and administrative structures of the metropolitan
region of Vancouver. Ottawa, 1975. 131 pp. illus. $2.
DAVIS, Lenwood G. Blacks in the Pacific Northwest, 1788-1974; Mary
Vance, ed. Monticelli, 111. Council of Planning Librarians, 1975.
74 pp. $9.
DORCEY, Anthony H.J. ed. The uncertain future of the Lower Fraser.
Vancouver, Westwater Research Centre, U.B.C. 1976. $4.95.
FISHER, Robin. Contact and conflict; Indian European relations in
British Columbia, 1774-1890. Vancouver, U.B.C. Press, 1977.
268 pp., illus. $18.
FIVEHOUSE, Dan. The diamond drilling industry. Saanichton, Hancock House, 1976. 199 pp. illus.$9.95.
GOULD, Ed. The lighthouse philosopher; the adventures of Bill Scott.
Saanichton, Hancock House, 1976. 262 pp. illus. $9.95.
GOULD, Ed. Oil: the history of Canada's oil and gas industry.
Saanichton, Hancock House, 1976. 256 pp. illus. $17.95.
HARRIS, Lorraine. Halfway to the goldfields. Vancouver, J.J. Douglas,
1976. $6.95.
HAY, John E. and Timothy R. Oke. The climate of Vancouver. Vancouver, Tantalus Research, 1976. 50 p. $2.50.
HITCHCOCK, Sharon. Illustrated legends of the northwest coast
Indiana. Vancouver, Joint project of the B.C. Native Indian
Teachers' Association & Indian Resources Centre. 16 pp. illus$ 1;?V
KIRK, Ruth. Hunters of the whale; an adventure in northwest coast
archeology. N.Y. Morrow, 1974. 160 pp. illus. $5.95.
KLASSEN, Agatha E. Yarrow; a portrait in mosaic Yarrow, B.C. 1975.
$10.95. 8
LAMB, W. Kaye. History of the Canadian Pacific Railway.  New York,
Macmillan, 1977.  491 pp., illus. $17.95.
LARGE, R. Geddes.  History of the Prince Rupert General Hospital.
(Prince Rupert) 1971. 28 pp., 75c
McTAVISH, George Simpson. Behind the palisades; memoirs of the
north.  Sidney, B.C. Gray, 1976. 249 pp., illus. $4.95. Reprint.
OBERLANDER, H. Peter, ed. Improving human settlements; up with
people; a series of lectures delivered at the University of B.C.
in preparation for the U.N. Conference on Human Settlements:
Habitat '76. Vancouver, U.B.C. Press, .1976. 198 pp. illus.$6.95.
OUTDOOR RECREATION COUNCIL OF B.C. British Columbia trails, rivers
and shorelines; a status report... Vancouver, 159 p. $5.00.maps
PIRIE, Peter F. The stump ranch. (Victoria) The author, 1975. $7.25
STACEY, E.C. The Monkman Pass Highway. Beaverlodge & Dist. Hist.
Assoc 1976. 44 pp. illus. $2.
TOWNSEND, Arthur H. Tall tales that are true. Beaverlodge, Alta.,
Horizon Books, 1975.  93 p. $1.50.
25th ANNIVERSARY of Mt. St. Joseph Hospital; 50th anniversary of
the arrival... of the Missionary Sisters of the Immaculate Conception. Vancouver, Mt.St. Joseph Hospital, 1971. 14 pp. illus.
VOSS, John. Venturesome voyages of Voss. Sidney, Gray, 1976.
326 pp. illus. $4.95. Reprint.
WAITE, Don. The Langley story illustrated. Langley, Don Waite
Photography, 1976. 240 pp. illus. $15; C8 paper.
WILLIAMSON, Joe and Jim Gibbs. Maritime memories of Puget Sound
in photographs and text. Seattle, Superior, 1975. 184 p. illus$12,
************
BOOK REVIEWS
THE REBIRTH 01' CANADA'S INDIANS, by Harold Cardinal. Edmonton,
Hurtig, 1977. 222 pp. $4.95 paper; $9.95 cloth.
Hurtig Publishers are to be commended for continuing to bring
to the public controversial books on Canadian sibjscts.  These do
not make for soothing reading; and those familiar with Mr
Cardinal's previous book "The Unjust Society" will not be surprised to find that time has not mellowed Harold Cardinal.  He
still has scathing words for government departments and government
officials, notably the Department of Indian Affairs, and former
Minister of Indian Affairs, Jean Chretien.
In essence, this book is a chronicle of the Indian struggle for
survival, physical and cultural.  "The Rebirth of Canada's Indians"
begins where "The Unjust Society" ends, just after the 1969
appearance of the government white paper on Indian policy.  Some
progress is reported: adoption of the proposals contained in the
white paper has been blocked; funding has been obtained for
Indian organizations to research and present their position on
aboriginal rights.  Progress in this direction is more than counterbalanced, however, by government inertia in the matters of housing
and education.
As the author freely aduits, he is a politician; this is a
political document, dealing on the surface with the political manoeuvres of the Indian Affairs Department and the intricate
countermanoeuvres of Indian groups.  We are provided, incidentally,
and perhaps unintentionally, with some interesting insight into the
political jostling taking place between opposing native factions.
Cardinal's political base is a provincial organization, the
Indian Association of Alberta.  Such organizations are a relatively
new phenomenon, cutting across the widely differing structures
which must have existed originally, as well as across the structures
imposed for management purposes by various levels of the Canadian
government.  The developing strength of the provincial and national
organizations of native people is a major new factor in a complex
situation.  Policies of native leaders must have strong support in
order to make any impact on government decisions.  Unanimous support
ir almost impossible to obtain, given the enormously varying opinions
of the provincial/national organizations, the elected band councils
and chiefs, and the supporters of radical action broups.  Mr Cardinal
sees the provincial/national organizations as a bulwark against
radicalism on the one hand, and on the other against what he terms
the corruption and disloyalty of the councillors and chiefs.
The author provides an excellent outline of the serious problems
the native people face - problems toward which the indifference and
ignorance of most of the rest of the people of Canada is truly shocking.  His account is flawed, however, by being repetitive; and too
often his illustrative examples are vague, as are his suggested
solutions.
Perhaps the least persuasive part of his argument is his tendency to regard all government officials as involved in a malignant
conspiracy to suppress native people.  Charges of callousness and
neglect may be well founded - conspiracy is unlikely.  Furthermore
nothing Cardinal says can justify the active intervention of the
Native Indian Brotherhood, a national organization, against the
cases of Mrs Bedard and Mrs Laval - victims of political manipulation
by the very group which should have protected them; these women join
Mrs Irene Murdoch in a second class status under Canada's Bill of
Ri ghts .
In spite of flaws, this book contains a great deal of important
material for those who seek to understand the present dilemma of
native people in Canada.  One cannot doubt Mr Cardinal's genuine
concern, nor help but admire his tenacity.  Perhaps the most provocative new idea in the whole text is his introduction of ancient
native religious concepts as an integral part of aboriginal land
claims.  A whole new dimension thus opens: the implications for the
continuing debate on aboriginal rights are extremely serious.
Audrey Shane
Mrs Shane is a member of the staff of the Museum of Anthropology,UBC. 10
MANKIND'S FUTURE IN THE PACIFIC, edited by Robert F. Scagel. Vancouver, University of B.C. Press, 1976. 206 pp. $6.95.
"Mankind's Future in the Pacific" consists of the papers presented at the 13th Pacific Science Congress held in Vancouver in 1975.
Generally, the lectures, which were given by experts in the social
and natural sciences, deal with world problems.  Although the Pacific
region is emphasized, facts about other areas are included and the
subjects have world wide significance.
The book is difficult to characterize because the papers are so
varied in subject and style.  Three papers analyze human population
growth.  N. Keyfitz contrasts Malthusian and Marxian views of the
population problem.  He makes some penetrating observations abou'. the
social and environmental aspects of the American consumer lifestyle.
He also discusses the political effects in Asia of rapid urbanization
due to growing populations.  G. Piel stresses the menacing division
of the world into rich and poor nations and the importance of technology transfer in bridging the gap.  F.J. Fenner presents a biolo-
*..v s view of population growth and reviews historical aspects.
Although other authors have written more dramatically on the subject,
the=e authors present a balanced, constructive view of the present
population momentum.
In contrast to the human species, other animal species have
declined drastically.  In a systematic and succinct fashion, I.
McTaggart Cowan reports on the extinction of animal species throughout
the Pacific.  His brief, matter-of-fact warnings about future
economic development of the Pacific Islands have considerable
political impact.
Two authors discuss world food shortages.  M. Behar reminds us
of the drastic effects of malnutrition in perpetuating ill-health
e.nd poverty.  L.H. Shebeski compares world food requirements and
agricultural resources.  He stresses Canada's small but critical role
in t*»e food equation.-and presents a convincing argument for Canadian
financing of agricultural developments in countries such as India.
Two other papers concern the role of scientists in government.
In a sombre paper on the arms race, W. Epstein explains the signi-
licance of MTRV's, the SALT agreements, and other military acronyms
that appear in newspapers. He expresses strong views on the moral
duty of sciencists involved in weapons research. P.A- Larkin, in a
light, veil-written account, discusses the complexities and difficulties of formulating science policy, but urges Canadian scientists
to become involved.
In a class all its own is the scholarly and interesting essay on
primitive navigation by the famous author and anthropologist. T.
Heyerdahl.  He summarizes the diverse data which suggest that the
Coastal Indians of British Columbia settled Polynesia.
From i*he four remaining papers, I gained a minimum of information
and understanding.  None has reference lists and probably ware aimed
at listeners rather than readers.  Although one of the paper? deals
with energy sources, alternative sources such as wave energy of the
ocean and new applications of solar energy are barely mentioned.
iwr? on the Pacific Ocean itself would also have been desirable.
Because of its diverse and timely subject content, I tend to 11
liken this book to a newspaper.  The book, however, is more informative and costs less than a two months' subscription to a daily
newspaper.  Another advantage of the book is that the authors not
only report the facts, but try to offer solutions to present
world problems and anticipate future problems.
Helen Mayoh
Dr Mayoh is a science reference librarian at the University of B.C,
THE BAD AND THEIONELY, by Martin Robin.  Toronto, James Lorimer
& Co., 1976.  222 pp., illus. $12.95.
Stories about villains are irresistable.  Best-selling fiction
has always been liberally salted with bad guys who committed
highly romanticized misdeeds before they met their doom.  The lives
oS 'such characters are usually depicted as exciting drama played
against a rich backgrouna.
Martin Robin's villains are all real people who actually lived.
His seven stories of Canadian outlaws are carefully documented,
scrupulously detailed, and the result - for once - is a chronicle
of crime shorn of romanticism.
There is the story of Simon Gun-a-noot, who lived like a hunted
animal in the forest for thirteen years, accused of murder, until
he wearily gave himself up, stood trial and was acquitted.  Donald
Morrison, a young Scot whose Quebec farm was lost to a scheming
mortgage lender, shot and killed (apparently in self-defence) a
special constable who had volunteered to bring him in.  The jury's
subsequent recommendation of mercy cut no ice with the judge,
who sentenced Morrison to eighteen years' hard labour: he was dead
within five.
Almighty Voice, a Cree Indian who killed a government-owned cow
to feed his ailing wife, was so fearful of the consequences that
he shot a Mountie to avoid arrest, and was later cornered by a
force of more than one hundred men.  He died, riddled with shrapnel,
under heavy cannon fire.
The author handles their stories and others with a minimum of
heartstring-tugging, but his message comes through clearly.  People
like these donYt plan careers of crime, they blunder into bad
situations and then panic.  They end up backed up into a corner,
and their next decision proves fatal not only to other people but
to themselves.
This perceptive book is also something of a cure for false
nostalgia.  The "good old days" of the outlaw were, at least for
some, an era of mindless cruelty and indifference to human suffering.
If Simon Gun-a-noot and his fellow fugitives were alive today,
they might think Canada had turned into Utopia.
On a lighter note, there is the tale of Bill Miner, a train
robber who Won the hearts of children and oil ladies.  His other
hobby was stealing bags of money from the railroad.  "Oh, Bill
Miner's not so bad," one local resident remarked at the time. "He
only robs the CPR once every two years, but they rob us every day".
June Franklin
Mrs Fran'-lxn is Publicity Officer at the Van. Centennial Museum. 12
BOOK NOTES
OUR HOMES ARE BLEEDING: A SHORT HISTORY OF INDIAN RESERVES, by
Reuben Ware. Victoria, Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs, 1975. 26 pp.
For our members who wish to learn what our native people are
talking about when they speak of the "Cut off lands", the Union
of B.C. Indian Chiefs has put out a most interesting and illuminating booklet dealing with this subject, entitled "Our Homes are
Bleeding".  The table of contents has such headings as "What is
an Indian Reserve", "1865, the new Land Policy", "The Indian
Reserves Commission, 1876-1910", "The McKenna-McBride Commission,
19i3-1916" and this is just a sampling, together with maps of the
reserves and the resultant disputed lands.  Copies may be
obtained at $2.00 each from Stalo History Project, Coqualeetza
Education Centre, Box 370, Sardis, B.C.VOX 1Y0.
STORIES FROM PANGNIRTUNG. Illustrated by Germaine Arnaktauyok,
foreword by Stuart Hodgson. Edmonton, Hurtig. 100 pp., $5.95.
This is an artistically prepared series of stories told by the
old people of the area recalling their young days.  The Inuit
people of this region of Baffin Island had no contact with white
people until the turn of the century.  As many of the story tellers
are aged from the early 60's to age 75 it gives a glimpse of life
in an entirely different world and way of life from today.  There
is no controversy, no hostility, just regret that maybe the old
harsh ways had a more interesting and fulfilling experience than
all the new methods that have not fitted either the land cr the
people.  An ideal children's book, with beautiful coloured illustrations .
DICTIONARY OF CANADIAN BIOGRAPHY, ED. BY Francess Halpenny. Vol. IX,
Toronto; University of Toronto Press, 1976. $25.
Volume IX of the Dictionary of Canadian Biography is the most
recent volume of this series to be published.  This volume is
devoted to persons of Canadian interest who died between the years
1861 and 1870.  It has a lot of material on the fur trade and
Hudson's Bay Company empire, as well as explorers to the Pacific
coast.  A few examples of names appearing in this volume are
Peter Warren Dease, Simon Fraser, Klatassin, Leonard McClure,
Donald McLean, Thomas McMicking, David Thompson, Mervin Vavasour
and John Work.
THE GULF ISLANDERS, compiled and edited by Derek Reimer. SOUND
HERITAGE Vol. 5 No. 4. Victoria, Aural History, Provincial Archives
of B.C., 1976. 70 pp. $1.75.
These are excerpts from the interviews made by Imbert Orchard
for the C.B.C. in 1965-66.  This edition of Sound Heritage  is
entirely devoted to the Gulf Islands and has many interesting
pioneer pictures of places and people on the Islands in the early
days of settlement. 13
Fortunately, for those interested, it is possible to obtain
cassette copies of the original sound programme by producer Orchard
(by permission of the C.B.C.) for an additional $2.50.  To order
write Aural History, Provincial Archives, Victoria, B.C. V8V 1X4.
*************
WOMEN OF THE WEST KOOTENAY        Clare McAllister
(text of a talk given to the Gulf Islands Society in spring 1975)
A child in the mining camps or the towns of the Kootenay was
well aware that there were "women" and "ladies".  Some, overly
loud and gay, one avoided.  In a "city" with a business district or
perhaps two streets, each some five or six blocks long, a child did
not go on to the lower street.  The early newspapers excelled in
references which still record the differing degrees of respect
which women were perceived as deserving in the community.  In 1891
Nelson was, as for many years after, celebrating a four-day festival which ranged through from Canadian Dominion Day, July 1st to
American Independence Day, July 4th.  On this first recorded steamboat excursioi from Nelson to Ainsworth, there were 110 persons
willing to pay for the trip.  The Nelson Miner recorded that the
brass band 'played all the pieces they knew", and further boasted
that "the boys proved, though far from home influences, worthy to
associate with good women".  The paper gave an account of sports
and games; greasy pole, rowboat and shell races, horse races, slow
mule races, steeplechase and tugs of war, and went on to state
"there vas not a disorderly scene".  Further, to honour the ladies,
these festive days w>re crowned by two balls, one under the sponsorship of the Miners' Union "over Lemon's Store", and one under the
auspices of the Band.
Where there were men and women, there certainly were those who
wanted to marry.  A newspaper commentator remarked early in the
T90's "There are a number of young men and maidens sojourning at
Nelson.  Among them are two or three who would willingly join hands
in wedlock could they find a person authorized to celebrate the
marriages.  One of the great natural industries of the country is
being retarded - while orators at Victoria are so busy on export
duty, or nickel, or reciprocity'.  Some of the principals were
obliged to journey to Bonner's Ferry in Idaho to be married by a
Justice cf the Peace; or to Spokane, Washington, where the ceremony
was performed by a Presbyterian or other minister.  On their return
to the mining camps, a surprise reception, gift giving, or toasts,
might meet the celebrants.
The daughter of a pioneer of the Boundary and Kootenay country
recalls her mother's often repeated story of a wedding near Rock
Creek.  People had assembled from far and wide, a minister being
available to perform the ceremony, and festivities were not all that
common.  When the minister, ready to officiate, asked the groom for
his.lieence, it was produced with a flourish.  However, the minister,
to the consternation of all present said, "My good man, I can't marry
you with this.  This is a free miner's licence",  To this the groom 14
thundered: "Well, I'm a miner!"  Further enquiry disclosed that the
groom had ridden a day and a half, going in to get his licence, and,
when asked his occupation, had said "miner".  As he had not specified
that he was prepared to enter the state of matrimony (thinking perhaps that all the world knew he had been accepted), it was assumed
that he wanted a miner's licence and that is what he was given.  It
was necessary, on the minister's indication, for him to ride a day
and a half again to secure the proper licence, and to return, consuming another day and a half.  While some of the wedding guests
necesssarily had had to leave to attend to their animals and their
work, a sufficiency of them remained to honour the proceedings.
That there were those who found a simpler means of getting
around the problem of entering the state of matrimony is heralded
in a headline of the Nelson Miner of August 1890: "Wedded Under the
Good Old Common Law".  A lively account is given (the parties being
named) of \  man aged 61 and a woman aged 19 who "were, by their own
sweet wills, joined in the bonds of holy wedlock".  No reference
was made to Gretna Green (perhaps as ;tfe groom himself was a blacksmith and h~d no need to journey to a forge).  It is noted that the
man and woman received their friends in the adjoining blacksmith's
shop.  Ir continuing its account of the occasion, the newspaper
maintained its somewhat special tone, remarking "It was with
feelings akin to parting with a lost love that some of the boys bid
the bride a last farewell.... The bride is a piquant brunette and
well known in the gay social circles of Revelstoke and this city".
There were also ladies who played the numerous "opera houses"
and theatres of the burgeoning settlements, and with whom a man
might hope to have "a bit of fun".  Word went round the settlements
near Kaslo of a quarrel between the driver of an ore-sleigh and a
young man who was out merely for a sleigh-ride "with a consignment
of the youth and beauty of the Theatre Comique bound for New Denver".
An 82-year old pioneer in Kaslo, still full of lively memories,
said in 1966 "It is only about 25 years ago that a Nelson jeweller
received a letter from a Kaslo woman asking him to come and value
some jewellery for her and to loan her $400.  She enclosed $10 for
his travelling expenses.  When he saw the jewellery, which he considered worth more than $2,000, he was only too glad to loan her
the $400, which she wanted to help an old friend develop his mining
claim.  She was probably the last of the Opera Comique Company".
We can see that giving pleasure was not without its enduring rewards.
At the same time worthy ladies were busy preparing worthy
dinners for various worthy causes.  They gave a New England Dinner
for the benefit of the Fire Hall, or put on a Parlour Social.  Presbyterian ladies were known to give an "Experience Social", an occasion
when the guests turned in money and gave an account of how they had
earned it, their method of earning being by the exercise of other
than their usual skills.  This added a spice of novelty to the
occasion.  Such ladies were organizing "Reading Rooms" (a prePursor
of libraries), or buying silver-mounted shaving mugs and brushes for
their spouses.
While in Rossland in 1900 the famous Peri Troupe of French
dancers were entertaining in the International Music Hall, while other
entertainment was under way in the Opera House and the Palace Grand.
For an approaching Ball, ladies might purchase "Gauze; fans; gloves; 15
art muslin; cream ^.nd coloured silk or lisle hose".  Those
interested in charitable enterprises could attend a meeting of
the Provincial Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children,
which had 101 children in care and was buying a new property
"On Hastings Road east of Vancouver".  The gentleman speaker told
the ladies of his audience "I fear I shall have to take more
children into care this trip".  He was grateful for the ladies'
money to assist in his gocd work.
That there were other women, t.he early newspapers did not
hesitate to record, and their references turn up at various times.
In 1899 Nelson newspapers abounded in letters protesting  "The
incessant pounding on a score or more pianos all night long" in
"the east-end houses".  There seems never to have been any objection? to the houses of prostitution in themselves, although suggestions were made "Why could they not be moved down by the Chinese
Gardens?" or "out to Bogustown?"  The objections were made on the
basis of the sounds of revelry at night and "the maudlin condition
of these women" in the daytime, since they were allowed to
"frequent certain saloons of the 'tenderloin' district, where
boxes are kept for their entertainment".  The letter writers also
made objection on the basis of the women returning home who "so
flauntingly paraded vice before children of a tender age".  The
Civil Liberties Union of today presumably did not exist in 1897,
when a controveroy arose because of a charge of conducting a house
of ill repute, the defence being that the owner had a receipt
from the City Clerk for $20.  This defence was cut to ribbons by
the testimony of the City Clerk that this was not a licence, but
that "all the girls who kept houses had his receipt".  It was "not
a licence, but money paid more in the nature of fines, so as to
save the trouble of arresting and fining them.
The newspapers of the period were not above an effort to
endeavour to extract entertainment valuo for the community for
some of the episodes connected with these women.  In August of
1897 the Nelson papers named a woman who was not murdered, oecause
the shot directed at her heart was deflected by a corset steel.
The man who had thought tc bring her to her end was more successful
in taking his own life.  Another episode in the same year recounted in a humorous vein, was the case of the quarrel between
Porcupine Billy Cowgill and one of the community's constables.
The constable, courting a widow, had put a flask of whisky under
her mattress as a tender token.  Porcupine Billy, finding the gift
and taking exception to it. assaulted the constable, saying
proudly that the woman in question could get lots of whisky elsewhere, and didn't need the constable's gift.  It is recorded that
the widow's son opposed her espousing either of the combatants.
Apart from those who did not at all mind, perhaps even
rejoiced in being thought of as "common"; apart from those who
thought of themselves (and were probably thought of by others) as
ladies; apart from these, there were women who were just women -
good women perhaps.  In a pioneer situation, these were often tough.
Now this was not tough in the sense  roughly synonymous with bad,
or potentially bad.  This was tough in the sense that the root of
a windswept pine on a mountain ledge is tough; searching, seeking,
durable, useful, sharing in productivity. 16
So pioneers, now aged, recall tales that a child heard when
young.  It could be stories about Maud Haley, who came to Kaslo
from Howser and helped her father run pack-trains.  One old timer
thinks she is probably the only human being who ever got a horse to
stand to face a large bear.  She roped the bear!  She roped the
bear from her saddle on her standing quaking horse.   To be a girl
just helping her father on a pack outfit was not enough!
A certain Susie told me as a child how she went into the Rock
Creek Boundary and West Kootenay country when she too was a young
girl.  Alone in the cookshack of some small mining operation, one
day she heard a noise at the door.  When she opened it, one of the
miners who worked the hoist was at the door with his hands cupped
into a loose fist.  "What have you got?" she asked, thinking he
had picked up a fledgling bird, or some hillside treasure.  Then his
blanching face told her there was no offering of pleasure in his
stance at the door.  There was no-one but Susan to deal with his
mangled hand and further, to have to deal with the hoist when he
could not.
Women were respected for being able to cope, to pitch in.
Although pioneer women could not only cope, they were also vigorous
in the pursuit of pleasure (they could snow-shoe 14 miles downhill
from Rossland to Trail and back again for a Sunday's diversion, or
could walk several miles carrying their dancing slippers in a gay
silk bag to attend a winter ball).  It was, therefore, not without
some implied criticism for "heathen" ways that an early newspaper
recorded an incident from Ainsworth on Kootenay Lake, when "Kootenai"
(an Indian who would apparently have been well-known to readers)
had contracted with some miners to do a job of packing.  When he
saw what was to be carried, he took from his wife a 20-lb papoose,
although a child was a burden which ordinarily a man would have
scorned, and left his wife to carry an 80-lb load of drill steel.
The newspaper writer, like his readers, referred to the burden
bearer as Kootenai's "Klutch", in the Chinook jargon that was then
in frequent use.
While a child in the mining camps would not necessarily read
such tales in the papers, it was easy to see that there were women
who were not spared other kinds of burden bearing.  When a husband
simply vanished, a woman took in washing, or undertook home nursing
to earn a living for her children.  She was not categorized in her
own mind, or in the minds of the community as a "deserted wife" -
she simply got on with what she had to do.  One of a family of five
Rossland children can still recall the time of the strike when
father went elsewhere to look for work.  When father died, mother
took in boarders.  There was a lot of coal and wood to pack to the
stoves in the bedrooms, for boarders must be kept warm and must find
a warm room after leaving the warmth of the underground mines for
the cold of the outside winter world.  Mother straightforwardly
carried her burden of work and the children straightforwardly
carried it with her.
All of the women had the sorrows inherent in the human condition, sometimes sooner or oftener, due to rough living conditions,
in the early days of the settlements.  Down at the edge of the dark
woods, at the bottom of Rossland's vertical mountain cemetery, one
mother, who was in the town before the railway stood by the grave of 17
her blue-eyed baby girl, dead on her first birthday; was she
thinking of water at $1.00 a barrel? - the lack of sanitation? -
the quality of the milk?  A town starting out saw enough of
death to give an undertaker a good livliehood.  It is hard to
forget the undertaker, not quite sober, who had come to the home
to get the baby into a coffin not quite long enough.  "She was a
dear baby", the mother remembered, speaking to a remaining child;
that child still remembers.
*************
A HISTORY OF THE VANCOUVER PUBLIC LIBRARY 1869-1900
by Gwen Hayball
This article in two parts traces the early beginnings of the
City of Vancouver and its early pioneers who strove to provide a
place of peace and comfort, where men far from home and family
could find solace in a book or at least get word of local interest
through newspapers and periodicals.  Those who have lived through
times and similar circumstances related in this historical background will appreciate the worth of the "reading room" cum library,
and the unappreciated, unrewarded (and often reviled) unselfish
people who made it all possible.
Part I. THE BIRTH OF A "MENTAL OASIS" IN A WILDERNESS SETTLEMENT.
While the settlement of Victoria was consolidating its good
fortune, brought about by the rush to the Fraser and Cariboo gold
mirfeL,   the vast wealth of timber which forested the shores of
Burrard Inlet remained undisturbed.  The government had some idea
of the potential of this deep inlet, and in 1860-61 created a reserve for a townsite in the area of the present Second Narrows,
but the sale of lots did not take place until 1869   The first
clearing on the Inlet took place on the North Shore, to establish
the Pioneer Mills, in 1863; two years later it was renamed Burrard
Inlet Mill.  Sewell P. Moody, the owner, was a patriarchal type of
man who maintained.strict control of his employees and ran the
community as a company town.  Alcohol was forbidden on company property.  To "Sew" Moody must go the credit for opening the first
library on the Inlet; it was called the Mechanics' Institute, and
in recognition of his personal donation to the library he was made
an honorary member, and his guidance was sought in selecting the
first hundred books purchased in San Francisco for the library.  It
was well organized from the beginning, with by-laws and well defined
Constitution.  The British Colonist of Feb. 8, 1869, described the
opening: "The Mechanics' Institute at Moody's and Company's Mill,
Burrard Inlet, was opened on the 23rd inst. with appropriate ceremonies.  The Rev. A. Browning, of the Wesleyan Mission delivered a
very entertaining lecture, the subject being "Woman"."
The second commercial enterprise on Burrard Inlet was the
British Columbia and Vancouver Island Spar, Lumber and Sawmill 18
Company, situated on the South Shore.  Incorporated in England, it
started production in 1867.  For the first two years it was under
the management of Captain Edward Stamp, and 'Stamp's Mill' as it was
called, was situated on 243 acres along the shore from what is now
Main Street eastward.  Stamp was a quarrelsome and most difficult man
to deal with.  Coming from Victoria, he adopted a superior attitude
towards the locals of Burrard Inlet.  Unlike Moody who encouraged
his married employees to build homes and settle, Stamp cared nothing
for the welfare of his men.  Consequently the north shore mill was a
neat, orderly community, while Stamp's mill on the south shore was an
untidy collection of shacks inhabited by the riff-raff of the waterfront, deserters from sailing ships, and unsuccessful gold seekers.
In spite of the fact that Stamp produced and shipped an impressive
quantity of lumber and shingles, the company went bankrupt and he
returned to England January 2, 1869.  In February of the following
year the mill was sold by auction to a Californian firm and Captain
Raymur was appointed manager, a position he held until his death in
1882.  Vancouver had its birth here and grew up around the mill.
Early paintings and photographs depict the simple wooden buildings
against a background of dense forest.  Transportation was by boat;
four to five miles eastward along the shore was the New Brighton
hotel, built by Oliver Hocking, and the summer cottages of the New
Westminster elite, who came from the Fraser to the Inlet by boat or
by horse drawn vehicle along the trail which became the Douglas Road.
Three miles westward of the mill was 'Gastown', later Granville, an
isolated community which earned a bad reputation for its brawls,
murders and lawlessness.  At first there were no connecting trails
between the three separate clearings along the south shore.
An historic change took place when Captain James A. Raymur
became manager of the mill as successor to Stamp.  He was a complete
contrast to his predecessor in every respect.  Handsome, rigorously
self-disciplined, dignified and 'every inch a gentleman', the ex-
sea captain set about making the mill a civilized, decent place in  '
which to live and work.  On first seeing the settlement he is •
supposed to have exclaimed, "What is the meaning of this aggregation
of filth?".  On being told that it was a by-product of the mill and
would come within the sphere of his influence, he answered, "Aye,
aye, and I'll make the beggars mind me.  I'll not permit a running
sore to fasten itself on an industry entrusted to my care".*
Captain Raymur was also a local magistrate and therefore had
authority over the settlement to the west of the mill, where Gassy
Jack's saloon was situated.  The latter had built a plank walkway
from his saloon to the mill.  It was Gassy Jack, with Raymur and
Moody who appealed to Governor Seymour for a resident policeman to
establish law and order in the community.
Victoria was home to Captain Raymur and because his wife shose
not to leave the pleasures and comforts of civilization, a modest
cottage at the mill site was sufficient for his needs.  Joe Mannion,
who later owned the Granville Hotel, gives us this delightful insight
to his character:
"He had the pallor of an ascetic which could be mistaken for
intellect, nobody would believe that he had sailed the seven seas •
1.  Native Sons of B.C. Romance of Vancouver. Vancouver, 1926. 19
well educated, well dressed, with a ready business manner.  The
captain dearly loved a bit of display and on court days his
coming was Gilbertian, lacking but costume to give it a Mikado
setting.  He was accompanied by his clerk, who labored under a
great tome large enough to contain all the statutes from William
and Mary down.... But the court had a saving grace in the brains
of the clerk who wisely directed proceedingsand gave it a measure
of legality."2
This rousing ex-sea captain was determined to match his mill
with Moody's.  In addition to erecting bunk houses for the single
men there was a separate building used as a sitting-room for the
mill hands.  "Bummer's Hall", as it was originally called, was
where the Vancouver Public Library really had its beginnings.  The
library which Raymur founded was housed in this building and was
named "The New London Institute".  The date of the official opening
does not seem to have been recorded, but it was before March 18,1869
since the British Columbian of that date made the following
announcement: "Change of name".  "As a compliment to Admiral Hastings, the name of the New London Institute, at Burrard Inlet, has
been changed to that of the Hastings Institute".  Soon after, the
mill itself became Hastings Mill, and to further honour the admiral
a public notice appeared in the B.C. Gazette, May 15, 1869, stating
that a public auction would be held at New Westminster on 10th July,
offering for sale lots laid out in the Town Site at the terminus of
the Douglas Road.  "The town will be called "Hastings".  Signed,
Joseph Trutch, Lands and Works Office, May 14, 1869.
The. name Hastings is even more dominant today; what could be
the reason for so marked an honour?  No one single act, it seems,
but rather that Admiral Hastings was of a generous nature, a very
likeable man, and Raymur, his friend, very much the master on the
south side of Burrard Inlet.3  Finally a piece in the British Columbian, March 1869, speaks of Admiral Hastings as "a good friend to
this colony", suggesting public recognition of his approaching
departure. **
For Admiral the Hon. George Fowler Hastings had arrived with
his family at Esquimalt on board the Zealous. 12 July 1867, to take
up his duties as Commander in Chief of Her Majesty's North Pacific
Squadron.--"  For the next twenty-one months they entertained from
Maplebank, a house overlooking the harbour.  Victoria society was
charmed and the Hastings' became favourite guests.
The Navy, by custom, had become an integral part of community
life in Victoria and other settlements on the Coast.  As Captain
Raymur and the admiral were friends, it seems probable that just
before the latter returned to England in April 1869, he gave the
ship's books to the library at the Mill, as is suggested by a typewritten memo in the Vancouver City Archives, Hastings Library Docket
"Rear Admiral the Hon. George Fowler Hastings, C.B., left on his
return trip, 15 April 1869 from Esquimalt after giving the books,
2. Matthews, J.S. Eatly Vancouver, Vol. Ill p. 114.
3. B.C. Provincial Archives. Raymur folder. Letter from Geo.
Ditchman to Miss Wolfenden. 9/2/34
4. Howay, F.W, Early settlement on Burrard Inlet. B.C. Historical
Quarterly, Vol. 1, 1937.
5. Nesbitt, J. Old houses and families. Colonist, Aug.27,1950. 20
which his officers and crew had read over and over until they were
tired of them - no use taking them back to England".  This may
have been a fairly common practice as, similarly, Captain Gilpin of
the barque Virgil had donated books to the Mechanics' Institute at
Moody's Mill.
Unfortunately no official records of the Hastings Literary
Institute have survived, but it is known that membership was by
subscription.  Mr Calvert Simson, who was the third store keeper
at the mill, quotes from a source n t given, that the rate was 50c
per month."  Certain outsiders also enjoyed the benefit of the
library as none other than the well known Jeremiah (Jerry) Rogers,
associated with logging at Jerry's Cove, low Jeric'uO Beach, subscribed from September 1870 to October 1872.  An employee subscriber
was Mr C.B. S'.eney, who was probably related to the school teachfr
at the mill, Miss Georgia Sweney.  By January 1374 the fee had been
raised to one dollar per month.  Among the half dozen Hastings Literary Institute books which the Vancouver Public Library possesses
is "Memoir of the Reverend Sydney Smith", which is inscribed,
"presented by Thomas Saueville, M.A. Jan.-', 1869".  I*- is extremely
interesting on account of tlie date, which suggests that the Hastings
Mill Library may have been opened before Moody's Mill Library and
that it was probably the very first volume to appear on the shelves.
It also poset; a question: who was the donor?  Obviously an educated
person but as far as can be traced, not a resident of the Inlet or
Victoria.  He might have been a ^riend of Raymur on a freighter or
naval vessel.  The other five -volumes are, George Eliot's
"Middlemarch" Vol. 2; Marion's "The wonders of optics"; Waterton's
"Wanderings in South America"; an:1 Bunyan's two works "The Holy War"
and "Pilgriin's Progress11.  Two further volumes, "Tales from Blackwood"
and Byron's ''Works" are in the City's archive collection, "i
Until the greatest event iri the history of the Inlet, the coming of the Canadian Pacific Railway to Port Moody in 1886 and to
Vancouver in the following year, the population increase was very
gradual.  In 1871 the two mills employed approximately 114 men, and
the number of white people on thr Inlet altogether w .s only about
378.  The passing of time was marked by such events as the opening
of the school at Hastings Mill in lc72, due to Captain Raymur's
efforts.  There was already a post office, a gaol and customs house.
In October cf that year an announcement in the Mainland Guardian,
New Westminster, stated that the names of three gentlemen had been
added to the present Board of Pilots, and Captain Raymur was among
them.8  Determined to maintain an atmosphere of restraint and
decency along the shores of the Inlet, in 1873 there appeared a notice in the paper signed by t!;rec. J.P.'s, J.A. Raymur, C.M. Chambers,
and J. Rogers.  "The undersigned hereby give notice that, at the
next granting of licences, we will oppose all houses at Burrard
Inlet, that keep open after 12 o'clock at night, or allow cards to
be played on Sunday.9  However, the situation was each the same
several years later when W.C  Van Horne, President of the C.P.R.
6. City Archives  Hastings Inst-tute Docket. Letter from Calvert
Simson to Major Matthews, April 23,    1945.
7. City Archives. Hastings Institute Docket. Letter to Mrs Barker
from Major Matthews.
8. Mainland Guardian, New Westminster. Oct. 2, 1872.
9. Mainland Guardian, New Westminster. Aug, 20, 1873. 21
arrived in Granville to change the name to Vancouver; he remarked
on it being 'a hard boiled, hard drinking, hard living town'.  At
another level among the civilized citizens, the usual social events
were taking place: a wedding such as that of Abbie Patterson in 1874
to Capt. William Jordan of the ship Marmion.  The ceremony was performed in the parlour of the Patterson's home, and after refreshments
served in the kitchen, the company 'all went down to the library and
danced, sang songs and recited',  This was the Hastings Literary
Institute.  Gassy Jack's present to the newly-weds was a case of
wine and whisky.  The B.C. Directory, 1882-83 records the fact that
the A.O.U.W.10 Granville Lodge No. 29 meets every Thursday at 8 p.m.
Literary Institute, Hastings Mill.  In fact the Hastings Mill was
looked upon to fulfil many functions, and under its good management,
rose to the occasion splendidly.  Until the railway arrived it kept
a boarding-horse, where people walking the trail from Hastings
Townsite could put up overnight.
It was Captain Raymur's responsibility to receive dignitaries
and deliver addresses of welcome on such memorable occasions as the
visit to the Mill of Governor Musgrave and the Marquis and Marchioness of Dufferin.  As a contrast he was referee at the most impressive Dominion Day celebrations in 1876.  The programme included a
wide variety of races in all kinds of boats and canoes, and included
a duck hunt.
Among the officials was Richard Henry Alexander, who had been
working at the mill as an accountant since 1870.  When Captain
Raymur died in 1882 he became manager of Hastings Mill.  An energetic
public spirited man, he became a J.P. and was the first secretary to
the School Board.  Mrs Alexander who had sung so sweetly at Abbie
Patterson's wedding had arrived in Victoria on a bride-ship and is
supposed to have been the first white woman to live in Gastown or
Granville.  In the B.C. Directory, 1882-83 it is noted that R.H.
Alexander was president of the Hastings Literary Institute, C.E.
Renouf secretary and A.O. Campbell librarian, the latter a clerk at
the store.
The great Vancouver fire in 1886 was another occasion when the
ever open door of Hastings Mill proved a blessing to hundreds of
fleeing settlers of Granville.  Miraculously the frames did not
jump the clearing to the Mill.  The Rev, H.G. Fiennes Clinton, who
had arrived in 1885 and who was the rector of St, James Anglican
Church (or St. James on the Beach), with true Christian spirit
worked with Mrs Alexander attending the injured in a temporary
hospital at the Mill. ' More pertinent to this history is the fact
that he was leader of a group of men in Vancouver who decided to
start a library and reading room in Vancouver itself.
The railway and the fire seemed to have suddenly created the
spark which woke the early Vancouverites from their somewhat 'Sleepy
Hollow' existence.  The incessant rattle of machinery and clouds of
escaping steam of the Mill were no longer conspicuous as buildings
went up at a tremendous rate.  The employees at the Mill were
attracted by the life of the new city and less and less time was
devoted to reading.  The library had fulfilled its purpose.
 It was Mr Alexander who set the ball rolling by offering the
10.  A Masonic Lodge. 22
ex-library books at the Mill to Rev. Clinton who lost no time in
consulting with two other prominent citizens: these were Mr H.P.
McCraney, a contractor and alderman and Mr Francis Carter-Cotton,
owner and editor of the News-Advertiser.  They decided to form a
temporary committee and use the gift of some 400 odd books as the
nucleus for a public reading room and library.  With enterprise and
drive they begged more books and cash from all who were willing to
support the idea.  Premises were found on the upper floor of 136
Cordova St. West, above Thos. Dunn's hardware store.H  The library
opened its doors early in December 1887.  The exact date is not
known but it was probably about December 19th, as George Pollay,
who became the first librarian, gave a lecture in aid of the
Reading Room .on this date.
It is interesting to note that a condition of the gift w<_s
that all members of the Hastings Literary Institute in gooa standing on June 1, 1887, be made life members of the Vancouver Reading
Room.i2  This strengthened the link of continuity and also indicates
that the Hastings Library was a going concern up to that date.
At a meeting held shortly after, the following officers were
elected: President, Rev. H.G. Fiennes Clinton; Treasurer, E.V. Bodwell; Secretary, Dr Bodington; Librarian, George Pcllay.  Two of
the trustees were R.H. Alexander and F. Carter-Cotton.  The newly
appointed librarian, Mr G. Pollay, arrived with his wife in 1886.
and witnessed the awesome spectacle of the city burning.  By trade,
Mr Pollay was a cooper.  Rather a studious man who read a great de^.1
he turned from Methodism to the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg.
Although described as a man of pious disposition, George Pollay
had a passionate interest in 'labour' and its conditions, and this
is borne out by a request to the City Council on February 14, 1887
asking for the use of the Council Chamber for the purpose of holding an Anti-Chinese meeting.  The request was granted.  This was
after a mass meeting held in the City Hall protested "he employment
of Chinese and also the horrifying raids on Chinese labour camps.
The subject of a lecture which Pollay gave -'n aid of the Vancouver
Reading Room, Dec. 19th of the same year might hsve beer dull but
for its subject and timing "Labour problems - past and present".
Mr & Mrs Pollay very generously agreed to work as librarians without payment and continued to do so until his resignation in 1890.
Mr Carter-Cotton was an ardent advocate for the establishment
of a reading room and library.  As the owner and editor of the News-
Advertiser, he was in a favourable position to persuade others to
agree to the necessity of such an institution.  In an editorial of
January 18, 1888 he writes at length on the importance of a well
founded library to any city "which has any claim to enlightenment
and progress..."  But just as important is the statement here
quoted, "The manner in which the Council on Monday night, received
the deputation from the managers of the Reading Room and Library
which waited upon it to solicit a donation from the City Treasury
towards the funds of that institution, will we think, meet the
approval of the citizens".  Later in the same article he says,
"....and the City Council in making such a liberal donation as in
their judgement the present resources of the city will permit of,
'11. Vancouver City Directory, 1888,
12. Walker, Elizabeth. Vancouver Public Library before Carnegie.
B.C. Library Quarterly, Oct. 1966. 23
should consider that the money now voted will .... be returned '
many fold in the course of a few years..."
The donation referred to was a grant from the City Council of
$250; an important first step towards acknowledging that a library
was an essential part of a civilized community. *■"$     Prior to this
first grant a fee was being charged to users of the library but it
was not being patronized by those for whom it was founded.  The
Committee then relied on voluntary subscriptions, but this did not
meet the cost of maintaining the Reading Room and Library.  A letter
of March 22, 1889 refers to the grant made the previous year, and
after stating the case for such an institution continues, "...the
Committee therefore now venture to hope that they may again look lo
the Council for aid this year.  The Committee are now of opinion
that they can carry on the Reading Room in a thoroughly efficient
manner for the sum of about $1000 a year, half of which sum they
feel confident can be raised by voluntary subscriptions.  If, therefore, City Council will give them $500 they see their way greatly
to improve the present condition of the institution, and to develop
it to such extent that it will be worthy of this rapidly progressing
City and be a source of general pleasure and usefulness.  The Committee beg me to respectfully represent their case in the hope and
expectation that the Council will be good enough to make a grant
this year of )500 for the support of an institution which is for the
benefit of all the inhabitants of the City of Vancouver.^  Such
zeal and altruism is moving.  Alas, four months later the Committee
of the Free Reading Room had to admit defeat.  The following letter
addressed to His Worship the Mayor and Council of the City of Vancouver was sent 22 July, 1889:
"Gentlemen! At the last committee meeting of the Vancouver Read-
L . "ing Room it was resolved owing to insufficiency of funds to
close this institution, but on considering the importance of the
step about to be taken I was requested to communicate with your
honorable body before carrying out the said resolution.
The Reading Room being free and open to resident (sic) of the
city has been and still is growing daily in favor with the
public, the class of people making use of it comprising merchants
clerks, professional men, as well .as some of our most respectable
mechanics and working men.
Our library is a free circulating library and many of our
citizens avail themselves of this boon to the fullest extent,
and for these and other ceasons the committee would consider it
a disgrace to the city should they be forced to take the step
resolved upon.  Up to this time the work and expense in connection with the institution (with the exception of $500 granted
by the City), has been dependent on the exertions of a few
individuals who in spite of every effort now find themselves
compelled reluctantly to wind up the affairs of the  institution.
Under these circumstances I am instructed by the Managing Committee to suggest that considering that the Reading Room and
Library is a free and a public institution and has, we firmly
 believe, been a credit to our city, that the council should take
i.3.  Letter from A.J. Mouat, Sec. Van, Free Reading Room to the
Mayor and City Council, 22 March, 1889.
14.  Letter book of the Free Reading Rcom, March 22, 1889. 24
into consideration the advisability of taking  he institution out
of the hands of the present management and placing it under their
own control.  I am further instructed to state that the Committee
of the Reading Room if desired will meet the representatives of
the Council at any place or time approved."
During the first year of operation, December 1887-1888 an
appeal had been made for public donations and a fee of 50c per month
was charged.  The number of subscribing members was 63 and honorary
members numbered 17. ^  The population of the city was 6,085.16
A point of interest though not directly related is the fact
that Moody's Mechanics' Institute had had their 'government' allowance of $125 stopped ten years earlier.*'
February 2, 1888 marked another important step forward in the
history of the Vancouver Public Library; on this day the bylaw of the
Vancouver Reading Room and Library restricting membership to men only
was repealed.  In future ladies too could enjoy the facilities of
'"he library on payment of the usual fees.
It might have been the lure of gold or the zeal of his religious beliefs that compelled George Pollay to go north to the Atlin
area.  In any case he did not cut himself off from the library completely; we are told by Mr Carter-Cotton that 'he continued to take
a deep interest in the library and was for many years a member of
the Board.*°  It is probable that he would be allowed to take up his
position on the Board when he came south in the winter as was the
custom with miners.  But in July 1912 he was killed by a mining blast.
Having been chaplain to the Arctic Brotherhood, it was this organization which bore the responsibility of transporting the body from
Discovery, where the accident occurred, to Atlin for the funeral
service and burial.*"
Mr McCraney, in his account of these early days says that minute books were kept and he wonders what happened to them.2"  No
trace has been found of any records such as minute books, of the
Hastings Literary Institute nor the Vancouver Reading Room and Library
covering the period 1869-1890.  The only documents of thj.s period
are the two letters to the City Council mentioned above which were
recently discovered by Mr Grossman, late Director of the Vancouver
Public Library.
James Edwin Machin succeeded Mr George Pollay as librarian.  He
was a lawyer by profession and had arrived in Canada from England in
November 1889, accompanied by his wife and daughter.  A retiring
s;cholarly man with fluent French and German, he had been a frequent
user of the library during the Pollays' time.  Machin's daughter,
Elsie, who later married Herbert Beeman, clerk of the municipality
of Point Grey, said that her father 'took long walks daily', which
must have been difficult since the hours at the library were from
9 a.m. to 13 p.m.  However, when Mrs Machin and their daughter joined
him at the library as unpaid assistants, there would be more oppor-
15. Vancouver City Directory/ 1888.
16. Henderson's B.C. Gazetteer and Directory, 1889.
17. Minutes of Mechanics' Institute, Moody's Mill, Jan. 21, 18N79. V.P.L.
18. Forsyth, J. The library movement in B.C. Washington Historical
Quarterly, Vol. 17, 1926 p.2/4-277.
19. Pollay Docket, Vancouver City Archives.
20. Matthews, J.S. Early Vancouver.Vol. 1, article 167. 25
tunity for this pursuit.  As Mr Carter-Cotton saya a great deal of
credit must be given to the Machins for their devotion and years of
hard work in the early and struggling days of the library.  The editor
of the News Advertiser also states that the librarian's salary 'was
only a miserable pittance of $65 per month'.  Although it was increased to $100 in June 1893, it remained at that figure until 1898.  In
that year he meekly accepted an adjustment - there is nothing to
suggest that he asked for a raise at any time.
It appears that Mr Machin must have been a very submissive man
to have accepted deductions from his salary in order to put. the
assistant on the payroll and to engage a caretaker; their respective
yearly salaries were $780, $300 and $120.
The Machins were indeed a generous, self-sacrificing and uevout-
ly Christian family.  While actively associated with church work and
Christ Church Cathedral, their annual Christmas dinner and entertainment given to the 'down and outs' in the library, was an outstanding
example of their depth of feeling for those worse off than themselves.
It It- difficult to believe that a lawyer would prefer to work as
an employee, with long hours and little pay.  One can't help wondering why he did not practise law in order to do even more work for the
poor and also to improve his own position.  The reason for not taking
the necessary examination in order to practise in Canada sounds unconvincing,  "...he would have to pass an examination on Canadian lav/,
which would take some time, he was glad to accept the position of
librarian...."2 1
One of the first things the Machins did was to increase the number of books and nagazines available to the readers by appealing to
their friends in England to donate reading material.  Mrs Beeman also
a dedicated worker, assisted her parents on a part-time voluntary
basis for a period of twelve years.  in an article in the Province in
1945 she descrioes the Vancouver Public Library of 76 years ago.  It
was one fairly large room equipped with a packing case, small desk,
1-rge table, chairs and a few hundred books; the library was open from
9 a.m. until 10 p.m.  There were no official breaks tor meals.  The
borrowers had to make requests for specific titles which the librarian handed to them from the shelves which were not open to the public.
For a while a.  primitive system was used to indicate if a book was in
or out.  It was a board with rows of numbered, small holes in it and
pegs placed in the holes when books were available.  It proved
impracticable and was removed.
Not all the habitues' were readers.  Some came just to sit there
because it was warmer and more cheerful than the rooms where they
lived.  Some of the regular borrowers were remittance men,  Mrs Beeman
recalls that the mother of one of these men used to forward his allowance in care of her mother, Mrs Machin.  When she discovered that the
recipient was too lazy to let his mother know he had received the
allowance she insisted that he write a letter and give it to her to
post.  Thus, the Machins,good hearted that they were, were ever ready
with help and advice for anyone who came to the library with a problem.
It is evident that more and more time was spent in counselling and
lending a sympathetic ear.  In fact ic was a si all social centre in
addition to b ing a reading room and library.  The first of the Christmas dinners and entertainments for che poor, particularly men, w-s
held in the Reading Room, 1892.	
21. Beaman, Elsie. Newspaper article, np date. Beaman docket # X 26
Mrs Hamilton, sister of Dr G.F. Bodington, who was secretary
of the Reading Room and Library, says that body odours were something one could not be squeamish about.  On wet days the atmosphere
worsened with steam from the dampness of coats.
Fortunately the minute and letter books of the Machin period
have been preserved.  The hand and style of the scholarly librarian-
secretary are evident.  It is interesting to note that the library
Committee, as the board was originally called, and the librarian
were alert to the fact that the rules and by-laws might need revising,
With this in mind three different libraries x^ere asked for copies of
their regulations and any suggestions which might assist.22  Another
early letter was w"itt,?n by the Treasurer, Mr M.H. Hirschberg, to a
local bookseller, Mr Diplock, who had gained the contract to supply
books to the value of $1000, giving a discount of 30% plus 2%% for
cash.  Rather rashly he had promised to obtain the books within 5-7
weeks.  The books were overdue and he was asked 'to act promptly or
the order must be cancelled*.  In the Committee's endeavour to obtain
donations with which to buy more books they met with a rebuff from
the Secretary of the Trades and Labour Council.  This organization
would not contribute to the purchase cf technical books because they
considered that they were already contributing to the Library through
taxes.23
Inexperience of the Committee of the Free Library in those
early days led to such incidents as having to return some rebound
books to the binder to have their titles endorsed on the back, and
not being aware cf the fact that the whole of the year's grant of
$2000 had to be used within the year, they stood to lose $159.74
from the 1892 grant.
Soon alter Edwin Machin became librarian a letter was sent to
the Mayor and Council drawing to their attention the inadequacy of
the space occupied by the Free Public Library.,  also naming three
committee membe-s who would attend the next council meeting to discuss the needs of the library.  The city fathers were sympathetic
and by 22nd November 1892 were able to report that a resolution had
been passed in favour of the Library Committee securing larger premises.  In the meantime a special meeting of the Committee had taken
place to discuss a proposed lease of part of the new YMCA building
whinh was at 169 Hastings St. West,  Having received the 'go ahead'
a committee of three was named to'wait upon the YMCA directors and
obtain the precise terms of the proposed lease and report at the next
meeting.'  At the meeting of January 13, 1893, a letter requesting a
draft of the proposed lease for perusal and approval was requested
from the Directors of the YMCA..  To be included in it were the
clauses, that the time for occupation must not be later than 1 April,
that the apparatus for lighting and heating the building be first
supplied at the expense of the YMCA, and that the lease could be
terminated by a year's notice on either side.
Notice was sent to Messrs Rand Bros, managers of the Cordova St
Building, 9 March, 1893, advising them of the Committee's decision to
move.  But two months later a letter of apology was sent to Messrs
Rand saying that they were unable to move out on the date arranged
as the move into the YMCA had been delayed and were therefore obliged
to continue in the present premises until the end of May.  In the
meantime new furniture and appliances w~.re being ordered for the new
22. New Westminster Pub.Lib. were also ccnsulted.--
23. Minute Book, Free Reading Room, V.P.L. May 10, 1892. 27
quarters and it was agreed that lighting and other interior arrangements should be carried out in order to make it thoroughly comfortable.  The delay in producing the proposed draft of the lease caused
Mr Machin to write a second letter to the YMCA, rather sharply demanding that it be forwarded without delay, as'the Board are anxious to
have the matter settled before possession of the new building is
given.  I need hardly add that such a course is the one that should
be adopted'.
The Board finally received the draft lease from the YMCA.  It-
was carefully examined and several alterations made.  A clause was
introduced dealing with the control of noise from other parts of the
building.  It prohibited the YMCA from holding concerts,entertainments
or assemblies.  However, YMCA representatives could not make a
decision on so important a point on the spot.  Five days later the
YMCA offered a modified version which read in part "And lastly it is
expressly agreed that no undue noise or disturbance which will tend '
to distract the necessary quiet of a reading room shall be created or
allowed".  The Board agreed to this but questioned the YMCA as to the
exact meaning of what constituted 'undue noise or disturbance.'   It
was ultimately arranged that in order to obviate noise as much as
possible, 'that sashes should (if found necessary) be affixed to the
room overhead to deaden the sound and double doors made in the other
rooms with the same object in view'.
But a much more annoying aspect of the lease came about through
the disagreement between the Committee of the Free Library and the
City Council; neither would accept the responsibility for signing the
lease.  The following letter addressed to Thomas McGuigan, City Clerk
concerning the lease is a good example of Edwin Machin's style.
"At the monthly meeting of the Free Library Board held yesterday
you,, letter to the Chairman informing him that the City Council
had refused to allow the Mayor to execute the Lease of the new
building on Hastings St. from the YMCA on the ground that it was
within the province of this Board to take the lease themselves,
was read and discussed and on motion it was unanimously resolved
that this Board had no power vested in them to execute such a
lease on behalf of the City and that the secretary do write to the
City Clerk informing him of such a resolution and return lease.
The Board will be glad to know that the Council have, on reconsidering the matter, admitted that the Mayor and City Council were
the proper parties to take and execute the Lease and I therefore
enclose same for that purpose.'- 24
Still the City Council would not sign the lease and returned
it with comments from the City Solicitor to back up the stand taken.
The Library Board 'adhered to the contention that it had no power to
deal with same'.  It was not until Jan. 10, 1894 that the Chairman of
the Library Board was able to announce at the monthly meeting that
the lease of the new library had been signed by the YMCA and also by
City Council.  The Free Reading Room and Library had been operating
for one year at the new premises before agreement was reached.
24.  Letter Book, Free Reading Room, V.P.L. 16 Aug. 1893.
To be Continued.
This article is published with the permission of Mr M. Jordan,
Director, Vancouver Public Library 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
ANNUAL CONVENTION, BURNABY, B.C. May 26-28, 1977
GENERAL INFORMATION
A detailed printed programme will be included in your
registration package, and a map of the area of the Conference.
COUNCIL MEETINGS
Thursday May 26th, 3.00 p.m.
YM/YWCA, 180 6th St. New Westminster.
Sunday May 29th, 10.00 a.m.
SEMINAR
Friday May 26th, 9.00 a.m. - 12 noon - James Cowan Theatre
Moderator:  Dr Blythe Eagles, Dean Emeritus, Agriculture, U.B.C.
Speakers:   Dr W.H. Mathews, Dept. of Geological Sciences, U.B.C.
'Geological history of the Fraser River - glaciers
to the present.'
Dr C.E. Borden, Professor Emeritus, Archaeology, U.B.C
'Archaeological history of the Fraser River/
Dr G.P.V. Akrigg, Dept. of English, U.B.C.
'The Fraser River gold rush'
Mr Gordon Gilroy, Director, Fort Langley Hist.Park.
'The history of Fort Langley'
REGISTRATION  Registration will be open Thursday evening,
May 26th, at the B.C. Institute of Technology, 6.30 to 7.30 p.m.
and Friday morning, in the foyer of the James Cowan Theatre,
8.30 a.m. to 9.00 a.m.
TRANSPORTATION  It is expected that cars will be available to
transport out-of-town guests from the Y. to the various Conference functions.  Mrs Gladys MacLeod (426-6613) is co-ordinator
of the car pool.  Should you have any difficulties please call
Mrs MacLeod, or Information Chairman, Frank Street (521-4529),
or check the bulletin board.  Members of the hosting Burnaby
Historical Society will be wearing "Host" ribbons.  Feel free
Co ask for any assistance you may need.
Bus schedules will be posted on the bulletin board for
anyone wishing to travel to Vancouver or New Westminster.
BRITISH COLUMBIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, 3700 Willingdon, Burnaby,
JAMES COWAN THEATRE, 4949 Canada Way, Burnaby. BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
ANNUAL CONVENTION, BURNABY B.C. MAY 26-28, 1977.
REGISTRATION
NAME: (please print) 	
HOME ADDRESS:  	
From which local society? 	
Addresss while attending Convention   Phone 	
PLEASE CHECK THE EVENTS YOU PLAN TO ATTEND
   Registration fee (all delegates)    $3.50
   Wine & cheese party (BCIT) Thursday 7-9 p.m.. .   $3.50
Transportation requested 	
   Seminar "The Fraser" (James Cowan Theatre)Fri 9a.m  no charge
Transportation requested  	
   Luncheon (James Cowan Centre) Friday      $3.00
   Tour of Heritage Village, Friday 2.30 p.m. ...    no charge
   Bus tour of Simon Fraser University. Fri. 7 p.m.  $1.50
(Bus fare included)
   Garden party, Saturday 3 p.m        no charge
Transportation requested 	
   Banquet Burnaby Lake Pavilion, Saturday 6.30 p.m. $7.50
ON SUNDAY
Post-Convention Cruise to Fort Langley,1.00 - 5.00$10.00
p.m.
TOTAL FEE ENCLOSED .... $	
REGISTRATION FORM AND FEE must be received by May 1, 1977.  Please
make cheques payable to BURNABY HISTORICAL SOCIETY AND MAIL TO:
Mrs Nancy Peter, 5928 Baffin Place, Burnaby, B.C. V5H 3S8.
The members of the Burnaby Historical Society will provide transportation from Howard Chadwick Lodge (New West.) to Convention
functions, if you indicate that you would like this service.
RECOMMENDED ACCOMMODATION
Howard Chadwick Lodge, YM/YWCA, 180 - 6th St., New Westminster,
Single or double rooms are available to Convention guests at a
special rate of $6.00 per person. Cafeteria.
This is good accommodation;, next to the New Westminster Bus Depot,
and just a few minutes by car from the Burnaby Arts Centre.
Write immediately to the Lodge for reservations.

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