British Columbia History

British Columbia Historical News 2000

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 British Columbia
Historical News
Journal of the British Columbia Historical Federation
Volume 33, No. 3
Summer 2000
ISSN iigs-8294
Photo James Marshall collection.Courtesy Ron Greene
Interior of the bar of the second Brooklyn Hotel, once the most
prestigious hotel in Phoenix, BC. After a fire destroyed the previous
Brooklyn Hotel in 1905, George Rumberger and James Marshall
built this new Brooklyn Hotel. James Marshall, who managed the
hotel until early 1918, is standing on the right.
More in Ron Greene's regular contribution on tokens on page 25.
Phoenix's Centennial
Rebel Life
Antler Creek
Hunting in Sooke
Port Alberni AGM
Index Volume 32 British Columbia Historical News
Journal ofthe
British Columbia Historical Federation
Published Winter, Spring, Summer, and Fall.
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ttas pubucation is indexed in the cbca. pubushed by
ISSN 1195-8294
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The British Columbia Heritage Trust has provided financial assistance to this project to support
conservation of our heritage resources, gain further
knowledge and increase public understanding ofthe
complete history of British Columbia.
British Columbia Historical Federation
PO Box 5254, Station B., Victoria BC V8R 6N4
Honorary Patron: His Honour, the Honorable Garde B. Gardom, Q.C.
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British Columbia Historical News
Publishing Committee see column on left side
Visit our website: http^/bchf/bcca British Columbia
Historical News
Journal of the British Columbia Historical Federation
Volume 33, No. 3
Summer 2000
ISSN 1195-8294
The Life and Times of Robert Raglan Gosden:
Anarchist, Saboteur, Mystic, and Labour Spy
by Mark Leier
Dr. Moss's Second Bear Hunt
by Paul C.Appleton
Phoenix -The Vanished City
by N.L. Barlee
Phoenix Remembers
by Earl Kelly (ed.Jim Glanville)
WiUiam H. Bambury: Phoenix's Last Resident
by Alice Glanville
Token History: The Hotel Brooklyn of Phoenix, BC
by Ron Greene
The Gold Rush Pack Trail of 1861
by Marie Elliott
Archives & Archivists
by Bill Purver
Report: Pynelogs
by Winnifred Ariel Weir
Letters to the Editor
Book Reviews
News and Notes
PORT ALBERNI 2000 by Roy J. V Pallant and Irene Alexander
Federation News
President's Annual Report
Minutes of Annual General Meeting 1999/2000
Index Volume 32
Any country worthy of a future should be interested in its past.
W. Kaye Lamb, 1937
Writing British Columbia History
I am concerned about the present
upsurge of books being written
and published about various aspects
of British Columbia history. It is not
that I think that there should be less
of such pubUcations but I believe that
there are occasions when the books
are not well enough researched or
thought through to warrant pubUcation.
It is enjoyable to see a book about
one of our small communities that
has not had its story told previously.
Many of these stories are being written by individuals who have arrived
in the area fairly recendy and see that
there is a need to record its history.
This is wonderful! However, what I
am concerned about is that too often
the books are not weU written and
not even weU researched. Those who
know many ofthe stories and have
Uved in the area for years are not always consulted. Archival materials,
such as newspapers and other records,
are either not used or not identified
properly. These omissions can lead to
a somewhat sUght pubUcation and
sometimes an inaccurate one.
Therefore my plea for those wishing to write about our British Columbia history is: please do so, but be
aware of all the resources available
and use them as efEciendy and accurately as possible. If care is taken by
our authors to produce as accurate
and weU-researched work as possible
we shall not only have a wealth of Uterature on the history of our province, but also a wonderful source of
information for present and future
students and scholars.
Melva J. Dwyer
Bibliographer, BC Studies
BC HISTORICAL NEWS - SUMMER 2000 The Life and Times of Robert Raglan Gosden:
Anarchist, Saboteur, Mystic, and Labour Spy
by Mark Leier
Mark Leier, born in
Ladner, BC, is a labour
historian at Simon
Fraser University. His
book. Rebel Life: The Life
and Times of Robert
Gosden, Revolutionary,
Mystic, Labour Spy
(Vancouver: New Star
Books, 1999) is his third
one on BC labour
The 18th of April 1961 was much like
any other spring day in Vancouver. It was
overcast and damp; the temperature,
measured on the Fahrenheit scale in those years
before Canada adopted the metric system, was
about 50 degrees.There were, of course, weightier
concerns than the weather. Unemployment was
high, with over 700,000 Canadians looking for
work. The Cold War simmered and threatened
to boil over.The Soviet Union had launched the
first human into space six days before, and the
United States was still reeling from the shock.
More alarming, the US had launched the ill-fated
invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs the day before. Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev warned
that Cuba would be defended from American
aggression, and the world watched anxiously as
the two nuclear superpowers faced off.
Unnoticed by a world worried with larger issues, a small group of mourners gathered at theT.
Edwards Chapel on Granville Street in Vancouver to mark the passing of a 78-year old man.
The death of Robert Raglan Gosden was just
one of many, and it did not warrant a story in the
metropolitan dailies, only a few short lines buried in the back page ofthe obituary column. No
reporter bore witness, no crowd gathered to pay
respects on that damp, grey day. To those few at
the memorial service, Robert Raglan Gosden was
a husband, a friend, and a relative, remembered
warmly for his loyalty, his ideas, even his eccentricities, but nothing more.
But forty-five years before, he had shocked a
province with his speeches and actions. He raised
headlines in the BC daily newspapers, and even
pushed the First World War from the front pages.
His name was synonymous with radicalism, revolution, political scandal, and violence, and he inspired and outraged thousands. Robert Gosden
had taken part in labour strikes from Prince
Rupert to San Diego and in newspapers and
public meetings and picket lines, preached sabotage and assassination. He had helped topple a
BC Attorney-General, and claimed to have ridden with the Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa.
He attacked the Socialist Party of Canada as cow
ardly and conservative, and boldly declared that
capitalism was "a system based on theft" that
should be "sabotaged at every conceivable opportunity."
Some at his funeral knew some of this, though
the details were sparse and conflicting. None of
them knew Gosden's final secret.Yes, he had been
a fiery radical. He had been a revolutionary, an
anarchist, even a saboteur. But the real secret of
his past was that he had been a labour spy for the
Royal Canadian Mounted Police. However ordinary his death, there was nothing ordinary about
Bob Gosden's life.
Who was this contradictory, shadowy man? In
many ways, he was typical ofthe migrant workers who did much of the rough work on the
industrial frontiers of North America. Robert
Raglan Gosden was born in Surrey, England in
1882 and left England around 1896. He travelled
throughout Canada and the United States. He
worked at a variety of jobs: he was a miner, logger, painter, seaman, janitor, garbage man, labourer,
mason, and gardener. In BC by 1906, he later
told people that he befriended Jack London and
Robert Service in the Canadian north.
By December 1910, Gosden was working in
construction in Prince Rupert. There he joined
the Prince Rupert Industrial Association (PRIA),
a local organization of construction labourers that
was affiliated with the radical union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), or the
Wobblies.The men faced terrible conditions. Life
in Prince Rupert was cold and wet, the food
poor and the pay worse. In March 1911, the PRIA
went on strike for higher wages. The employers
responded by importing scabs, and called in the
police to break the picket Une. Several union
members were arrested, including the local's secretary. Gosden was then appointed to take his
On 6 April, the angry strikers held a march
through the city streets. Several hundred strong,
the marchers urged others to down tools andjoin
the strike. When they reached a section of roadway known as Kelly's Cut, a fight broke out between the strikers, scabs, and police. Several on
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 3 Courtesy Mark Leier
both sides were injured, and a number of unionists were arrested on charges ranging from attempted murder, to rioting and assault. Bob
Gosden was among the
arrested. Charged with
counselling assault, he
spent three months in
His sentence strengthened Gosden's belief that
capitalism was a cruel and
exploitative system. Many
of the arrested were kept
in a hastily-built bullpen
until their trials, and
prison fare was two servings of "shadow soup" a
day. One man, it was said,
was driven mad by the
prison conditions.
After his release,
Gosden made his way
down to San Diego. In
later years, he said he had
ridden with PanchoVilla,
and "expropriated" horses owned by newspaper
baron WiUiam Hearst from his San Simeon ranch
to aid the Mexican revolutionaries. He may well
have. In 1912, he took part in the IWW's San
Diego free speech fight. In several cities throughout North America, including Vancouver and
Victoria, city officials banned the union from
holding meetings and speaking in the streets. Since
these meetings were a crucial tactic for organizing, the IWW fought back, usually by calling upon
its members to flock to the city and get arrested
for defying the ban. The resulting pubUcity, unruly demonstrations, and strain on the city's jaUs
and coffers were designed to force the municipal
authorities to relax their assault on the right to
free speech and to allow the union to continue
its organizing drives. This at least was the theory.
In San Diego, however, it was proved tragically
In December 1911 the city councU voted to
ban street meetings from the entire downtown
core, ostensibly to avoid the blocking of traffic.
The IWW joined with sociaUsts, civU Ubertar-
ians, reUgious groups, and trade unions to maintain the right to free speech. In February 1912,
police swooped down and arrested the speakers.
In short time nearly three hundred were imprisoned in the city jaU. Fire hoses were turned on
crowds, and vigUante groups were organized to
purge the city ofthe activists. At least two IWW
members were killed by mobs during the several
months ofthe free speech
struggle; others were kidnapped, beaten, even
burned with tar and cigar
One of the Wobblies
picked up in the police
dragnets was Bob Gosden.
Arrested and charged
with violating the city ordinance forbidding gatherings, Gosden was held
in county jaU without trial
for nine months. From his
ceU, he wrote to the Industrial Worker, the IWW
newspaper. In his articles,
he insisted that a proletarian revolution was necessary, and that the most effective tools for revolutionaries were direct action and sabotage. By destroying capitaUst machinery and factories, the IWW could "tie up
every industry at any time" and "by such action
alone wiU we have the liberty to organize in the
industries so that we can feed and clothe the
world's workers when the class war has ceased."
In November 1912, Gosden and sixteen other
defendants finally went to trial on charges of violating the street speaking ordinance and assault
with a deadly weapon. He was found guUty but
was released on probation and deported to BC.
Certainly his stay in jaU had not dampened
Gosden's enthusiasm for class war. On his return
to British Columbia, he continued to agitate for
the IWW and to advocate sabotage. At Steveston,
a fishing vUlage outside ofVancouver, Gosden
addressed audiences of native Indian and Chinese cannery workers. Dressed in a black shirt,
bare at the arms and open at the neck, he outlined the principles ofthe IWW, and while careful not to actually advocate violence, he asked
the workers "what it mattered to them if the
machinery was to fall to pieces or the roofs of
the cannery were to fall in."
He took a stronger Une among the striking
miners ofVancouver Island's coalfields. In September 1912, the miners at Canadian Collieries,
formerly Dunsmuir and Sons, began a strike and
Centre: Robert Gosden.
Photo taken in the 1950s.
Liberation League Tag Day
in Vancouver, 20 December
ft?1. 7rj, /
I3S: •ft'*S
m^mm® .-■$*&
;-?! HSSWaitrg
• ****Hewt*UitM
5 W£
t«o   Oft*
Courtesy City of Vancouver Archives. CVA 259-1
lock-out that lasted two years. Led by the United
Mine Workers of America (UMWA), the strike
centred on the demand for coUective bargaining
and union recognition. It was a fierce strike that
saw miners thrown out of company housing and
brought the bayonets and machine guns of the
miUtia to bear on strikers.The Conservative government, headed by Sir Richard McBride, sided
with the company. Beatings, sabotage, and
charivaris were common; riots broke out to protest the use of troops to escort scabs, and miners
and poUce exchanged gunfire in pitched batdes
at the mine heads. Over two hundred miners were
arrested and charged with unlawful assembly and
given harsh sentences of one to two years in
Robert Gosden strode boldly into the fray. He
headed to Vancouver Island and traveUed up and
down the strike region, giving speeches and counselling radical action, including sabotage and violence. When BC unionists and sociaUsts formed
the Miners' Liberation League (MLL) to work
for the release of the arrested miners, Gosden
joined in. Representing the IWW, he spoke at a
mass meeting ofthe MLL at Hastings Park, Vancouver, along with prominent sociaUsts and trade
unionists. The last speaker at the meeting, his
words were calculated to leave the crowd in a
charged mood:
By the end of this month every last peaceful appeal
which is necessary or possible for us to make as
citizens of this Dominion for the release of our
brothers in prison wiU have been made. By the end
of this year all peaceful measures will have been
exhausted. If they are not released by the time the
New Year is ushered in, if [Conservative provincial
premier] Sir Richard McBride, Attorney-General
Bowser, or any of the minions and poUticians go
hunting, they wiU be very fooUsh, for they wiU be
shot dead. These men will also be well advised to
employ some sucker to taste their coffee in the
morning before drinking it if they value their Uves.
His provocative speech, given to a crowd of at
least one thousand, was greeted with "tremendous cheering" and outraged local newspapers
and moderate labour leaders. Nonetheless, despite, or perhaps because of, his miUtancy, Gosden
was elected to the vice-presidency and to the
press committee of the MLL. Asked about his
advocacy of violence later, he repUed, "Tyrants
should be handled a tyrannical way, the same as
they handle others."Those "who tyrannized the
poor should be removed," he continued. "If the
Kaiser had been dealt with in that way thousands
of men would have been saved from slaughter—
slaughter caused by his insatiable thirst for power
and desire for tyranny."
His work with the MLL marked the highpoint
of Gosden's career as a labour organizer and IWW
miUtant. Gosden may have been an extremist, but
his views represented those of a significant
number of North American workers in this period of class violence perpetrated by workers and
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 3 Gosden next surfaced during the First World
War in a very different set of circumstances. By
1916, McBride's Tories had been in power for
thirteen years. His government was tired and
McBride himself was ill and preparing to retire
from active poUtics. The opposition Liberals, led
by Harlan C. Brewster, were positioning themselves as a progressive reform party with a platform that ranged from women's suffrage to workers' compensation. Their success seemed assured
when before the September general election, Liberal candidates M.A. Macdonald and Brewster
won by-elections in February and March.
But shordy after Macdonald's victory in Vancouver, rumours started to circulate, alleging that
the Liberals had rigged his by-election by bringing in men from Seatde to vote for him.This was
the famous "plugging scandal." Finally the government formed a commission to investigate.The
investigation unravelled a complex story, complete with disappearing witnesses and suspects,
bribery, private detectives, and perjury. It was clear
that indeed several people had been paid to come
to Vancouver to cast illegal baUots for Macdonald.
The illegal voters were paid as much as ten dollars—nearly a week's wages for an unskilled labourer^—and suppUed with identification cards
that Usted their new names, addresses, occupations, and poUing stations and instructed them
how to vote.
Robert Gosden played a pivotal role in the
scandal. In May 1916, he was caUed before the
commission and shocked the province with his
revelations. Gosden testified that Macdonald's
campaign manager, John T Scott, had hired him
at twenty doUars a week plus expenses to compile Usts of men who were not entided to vote,
who were absent, or even dead, so their identities could be assumed by the pluggers. Gosden
also passed out money to prospective voters and
made it clear that he would appreciate a vote for
Macdonald in return for his largesse.
Much more damaging, however, was Gosden's
claim Macdonald himself had paid direcdy for
his deeds.This aUegation rocked the province, for
it was the only direct Unk from Macdonald to
the Ulegal plugging. Macdonald immediately denied the charge and had Gosden arrested for perjury. Gosden stuck to his story and summoned a
number of witnesses who corroborated parts of
Because the election scandal was fiercely partisan and hody contested, the press foUowed every
twist and development with zeal. Indeed, at times
Gosden's revelations of poUtical intrigue crowded
the First World War off the front page ofthe daily
newspapers. His perjury trial resulted in a hung
jury; dissatisfied with the result, the crown prosecutor immediately re-tried him. Again the jury
could not agree, and this time the case was
dropped. Macdonald won his seat in the 1916
general election, but was forced to resign over
another poUtical scandal. He continued to be an
important figure in BC poUtics and some years
later was appointed to the province's court of
appeal. His son.Alex Macdonald, would become
a successful MLA for the BC NDP, and would
serve as Attorney-General during Dave Barrett's
government of 1972-1975.
Gosden refused to apologize for his part in
the Ulegal activity. His parents, he claimed, both
in their eighties, needed $100 to prevent the foreclosure of their mortgage. The money went to
save the family home. As Gosden put it, "the end
justifies the means in two ways. It was necessity
for me as there was no other legitimate work in
The second way the end justified the means
was poUtical, for "there was some satisfaction in
seeing the Liberals get in to beat the Conservatives for once. Do you think I don't remember
the troubles up on the Island?" He was "against
the government" on "general principles" and thus
had "no moral conceptions on the question of
party poUtics," especiaUy since "poUtics is based
on a rotten structure."
The work also gave Gosden a chance to apply
talents unused in his labouring jobs. Since his
arrival in Canada, he had worked at a variety of
unskiUed labouring jobs. In the winter of 1915,
he worked as a scavenger, a snow remover, and a
sewer excavator; in January 1916, he was hired to
dig a weU in the miserable wet and snow of the
Victoria area. Engaging in the UlegaUties of the
plugging scandal gave him the chance to make
better money, in better conditions. CompiUng
the Usts, cross-checking them, helping organize
voting, aU required a certain inteUigence and per-
sonaUty. Gosden was proud of the quaUty and
completeness of his work, if not ofthe purposes
to which they were put. His performances at the
commission hearings and his perjury trials even
won him compUments of sorts: the prosecutor
was forced to "give him this credit, that he is one
of the most skillful witnesses I ever saw. He was
the greatest fencer in the witness box I have come
BC HISTORICAL NEWS - SUMMER 2000 Courtesy Mark Leier
Above:Joe Hill, IWW
songwriter and organizer,
murdered for his radical
activities in the 1910s.
in contact with."The judge opined that Gosden
was a "picturesque character," "a man of strong
convictions and with lots of courage."
After the scandal, Gosden moved to Alberta
where he was involved in union organizing. He
later claimed to have aided workers who sought
to avoid conscription during the First World War.
This is possible, as many did take to the bush
rather than fight in what they beUeved was an
unjust and imperiaUst war.The most famous was
Ginger Goodwin, the labour organizer who was
shot and kiUed on Vancouver Island by a special
constable sent out to arrest the conscientious
But something happened to Gosden. Sometime before 1919, he decided to use his radical
past for a different end. Claiming to be an expert
on labour poUtics and left-wing movements,
Gosden went to work as a spy for the Royal Canadian Mounted PoUce, or the Royal North-West
Mounted PoUce (RNWMP), as it was known
until 1920.
The poUce force was keen to have men Uke
Gosden on its payroU. No longer a territorial para-
mUitary force, the RNWP was reorganized and
given the responsibiUty of infiltrating labour unions and poUtical parties. Inflation, the sacrifice
ofthe war, and the desire to fight for democracy
at home as weU as abroad, inspired workers between 1918 and 1920 to strike in greater numbers and with greater frequency than at any time
in Canadian history. The Winnipeg General Strike
of 1919 was merely one part of this larger workers' revolt. Faced with the spectre ofthe Russian
Revolution of 1917 and the demand of Canadian workers for better wages and more control
over how work was organized, business leaders
and poUticians sought to crush the labour movement. As a result, the RNWMP was reconstituted and ordered to target labour and radical
Crucial to this work was the recruitment of
informants. The rate of pay for these casual employees was as much as $5.00 per day—stiU an
exceUent wage for someone Uke Gosden, perhaps double what he might receive for manual
labour. Gosden was in Blairmore, Alberta in January 1919, then in Fernie, BC in February, and in
Macleod, Alberta at the end of February, working for the poUce in each town.
Probably his most significant work was his infiltration of the Western Labor Conference at
Calgary in March 1919.This was the convention
that launched the One Big Union (OBU), a new
industrial union rather Uke the IWW in organization, though more moderate. Sporting a new
moustache, Gosden had joined the miners' union at HiUcrest and had been elected as a delegate to the conference. But he was denounced
by two members ofthe convention as a spy. With
typical bravado, Gosden stood up and asked to
take the floor to explain himself. He was refused
and a motion was made to eject him. The motion failed, however, as several speakers maintained
that since they had nothing to hide and their
actions were legal, the spy might as weU stay.
But his actions were more harmful than the
OBU delegates imagined. For Gosden, known
to the RNWMP as Secret Agent No. 10, did more
than report on the convention. He claimed that
the OBU was not just an industrial union that
wanted to improve wages and conditions. With
SociaUst Party of Canada (SPC) stalwarts at its
head, Gosden wrote, the OBU aimed at "social
revolution ofthe Bolsheviki type."
Secret Agent No. 10 did not stop there. Gosden
advocated kidnapping the most important SPC
leaders and holding them incommunicado. The
terror resulting from having the leaders "automaticaUy disappear" would freeze the others,"be-
cause their ambitions towards leadership and
power is [sic] greater than their wiUingness to
suffer and sacrifice for revolution."
His chiUing suggestion was not acted upon.
Significandy, however, his memo was forwarded
through the poUce hierarchy aU the way up to
the Prime Minister's office. Though regarded as
an expert with inside information on the radical
movement, Gosden's career as a spy for the
RNWMP was a short one. Presumably his utility as a secret agent diminished quickly after his
exposure at the OBU conference. Furthermore,
his handlers were suspicious of him. Gosden often sold them the same information twice, and
reported on meetings he had never attended. Nor
were they always sure what side he was on. Even
in his kidnapping memo he hoped that the kidnapping ofthe SPC leaders would "clear the way
for those types of revolutionists who are sincere
in their convictions and who may be wiUing,
when the acid test of opposition comes, to lead
the hesitating mass to revolution even though it
may mean their own death." Presumably he included himself among those sincere revolutionists.
By 1920, Gosden was nearly forty years old,
with no career, stable job, or home Ufe. He turned
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 3 to spirituaUsm and became particularly interested
in Theosophy. He was back in Vancouver around
1922, when he met the woman who would be
his companion for the next sixteen years. IsabeUa
Bunyan was widowed by the Great War and left
with two young sons. She met Robert Gosden
through another mystical group, the British Israelites, and they took up residence together.
Gosden helped raise her sons John and BUI and
continued to work as a labourer and cement
worker. The couple pre-empted land at Gibson's
Landing, a rural peninsula north ofVancouver
accessible only by water, and Gosden worked to
clear the plot and buUd on it. In 1932, he took
up his spying trade again.This time, he contacted
the BC Provincial PoUce, and infiltrated a reUef
camp in Deroche, BC, near Harrison Hot Springs.
Probably hoping to find regular work with the
poUce, he hinted darkly that "secret, dangerous,
and irreconcilable" agitators were at work, and.
that only his efforts could reveal the men and
their dastardly plots. If his help wasn't rewarded,
he warned, "your camps wiU burn."
It has not been possible to determine if Gosden
subsequendy worked as an informer for the BC
Provincial PoUce. But in 1936, he was singled
out by the Communist writer WUUam Bennett
and attacked for his connection to local poUtical
and radio personality.Tom McInnes. McInnes was
the son of Thomas R. McInnes, a former Lieutenant Governor of BC. Closely aUied with the
right-wing, virulently anti-labour Vancouver
Shipping Federation, McInnes formed the reactionary Nationalist Party of Canada and devoted
newspaper columns and radio broadcasts to attacking the left and the labour movements ofthe
day. According to Bennett, Gosden was "bodyguard to the fascist radio-orator."
IsabeUa Bunyan died in 1938, and Gosden
moved to West Vancouver, again residing with a
widow, C. Mabel Smith, and giving his occupation as gardener. Around 1950, he began a relationship with Helena Hesson, a Vancouver school
teacher keen on Theosophy and the supernatu-
ral.They moved to Gibsons around 1952. Gosden
continued to be attracted to radicalism for the
rest of his Ufe, and often talked ofthe need for a
workers' revolution. Among his possessions were
photographs of IWW martyrs Joe HUl andWesley
Everett, who had been murdered for their radical activities in the 1910s. He remained a local
character, noted for his strong views and eccentric behaviour. This ranged from nudism, to
Courtesy Mark Leier
survivaUsm and a fascina-
tion with the occult. He
died in Gibsons, on 11
AprU 1961, aged 78. He
died in obscurity, loved
by his widow and stepsons, weU regarded by his
friends. Though many
knew of Gosden's love of
intrigue, none knew of
his violent past or of his
secret Ufe as a labour spy.
What is the historical significance of Robert
Raglan Gosden? His story gives us some insight
into the world of the migrant male worker in
the early years ofthe twentieth century. In sharp
contrast to the romanticized notions ofthe hobo
expressed in songs Uke "HaUelujah, I'm a Bum"
his actions and speeches boil with rage and anger
at a system that used up men and tossed them
Gosden also gives us some insight into the
shadowy world of the labour spy. Sometime between 1910 and 1919, Gosden turned fuU circle.
How can we explain this? It may be that Gosden
was a sociopath, devoid ofthe emotions and conscience that kept others from such behaviour.
Surely there were other motives. Certainly the
money was important: the pay was good for work
that was considerably easier than radway construction or ditch-digging. But we must also consider
Gosden's love of the UmeUght, evidenced by his
pleasure in making front-page headUnes during
the plugging scandal. Being a spy certainly required the use of his native inteUigence in ways
that manual labour did not. Involvement in intricate plans, double-dealing, and conspiracy may
have given some higher meaning to his rough
Ufe in much the way mysticism did later.
How should we judge him? Working class hero,
miUtant, mystic, scoundrel, traitor—he was aU
these, and more. Perhaps we no longer need to
judge his actions; perhaps the passage of time
makes our moraUzing useless. Perhaps it is enough
to try to understand him and the conditions that
made him. A man shaped by the brutal conditions of industrialization, his career reminds us
of the struggles and events and moral dUemmas
of an earUer time. If we are to judge him harshly,
we must also judge harshly those who profited
from his exploitation and forged a world in which
radicalism, violence, and treachery could
Above: Photo taken in
the 1950s showing Helena
Gosden nee Hesson, sitting
to the left and Robert
Gosden, third from left, in
dark clothing. It is not
known who the other
people are.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS - SUMMER 2000 Dr. Moss's Second Bear Hunt
by Paul C. Appleton
Paul Appleton is a
retired teacher from
Calgary, now living
with his artist wife in
Victoria. He is a keen
student of nineteenth-
century history and is
researching the life of
Dr. Moss and the story
ofthe Old Royal Navy
Hospital at Esquimalt
in the 1870s.
Centre: Dr. Edward
Lawton Moss, April 1872.
(age 29)
Opposite page: Illustra-
tionfrom The Graphic,
London, fune 1876
In the spring of 1872 Assistant Surgeon
Edward Lawton Moss.M.D, R.N. arrived at
Esquimalt to take charge of the Naval Hospital at Constance Cove, site of present-day
H.M.C.S. Naden at CFB Esquimalt, headquarters of the Pacific fleet. The Esquimalt Hospital
had been closed since 1869 and it was Moss's
task to carry out the repairs, renovations, and administrative changes deemed necessary to reopen the complex as a permanent naval hospital
for the Pacific Station. Six run-down wooden
buildings were on the 10-
acre site, budt fourteen years
earUer as winter quarters and
stores for the Royal Engineers, and used by them until 1862 when they finished
surveying the western section of the US-Canadian
boundary. The site was then
taken over by the Navy and
classified by the Admiralty as
a "temporary" hospital, replacing the "Crimea Huts"
at Duntz Head near the entrance to the Esquimalt Harbour.
Edward Moss was a conscientious and dUigent physician who took his new responsibilities seriously, and
by the time he left Esquimalt
early in 1875 the run-down
buUdings and grounds had
been transformed into a weU-managed and attractive faciUty.The hospital remained in use until the early 1890s when the wooden buUdings
were demoUshed and replaced by more permanent and modern brick structures. Four of the
latter remain at "Museum Square," recendy designated a national heritage site, and home to the
CFB Esquimalt Naval and MiUtary Museum.
Prior to his appointment to Esquimalt, Moss
served briefly on the West Indies Station, spent
about four and one-half years aboard a troopship
traveUing aU over the Empire, and two years ashore
at Pordand sick quarters in southern England.
Courtesy BC Archives G-07634
The diminutive (5' 4", 130 lbs.) doctor was a keen
zoologist, painter, sportsman, and author, as weU
as a competent medical practitioner. He was hand-
picked by the Admiralty for the medical and scientific team on the British Arctic Expedition of
1875-76, and upon his return to England
authored a beautifuUy Ulustrated book, To the
Shores ofthe Polar Sea. One ofthe few copies of
this rare work is among the holdings ofthe British Columbia Archives, donated many years ago
by Robie Louis Reid, one ofthe original members of the British Columbia Historical Association (now Federation) and who is said to
have founded the B. C.
Historical Quarterly.
Edward Lawton Moss
met a tragic and untimely death at the age
of 37 when he was lost,
along with almost 280
men and boys, aboard
the British training frigate H.M.S. Atalanta. His
ship left Bermuda for
England on 31 January
1880 and was never
seen again. A few days
earlier, after two men
had been struck down
with yeUow fever, Moss
had advised the ship's
captain that the training cruise should be cut short,
suggesting that it was necessary to saU north to a
cooler cUmate to avoid a possible epidemic of
the dreaded disease in the overcrowded forty-
year old saUing ship. Around the middle of AprU,
the Atalanta was officiaUy Usted as overdue and
the Admiralty sent the Channel Fleet to do a
wide search of her presumed path. No sign of
the ship or her wreckage was ever found. It was
concluded that she had foundered in one ofthe
savage gales that swept the Adantic in the winter
and spring of 1880, but where, when, and how
wiU Ukely always remain a mystery.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 3 Edward Lawton Moss left his wife,Thomasina,
and two daughters, six and three years of age. A
namesake infant son, born within a month of his
father's death, became a much decorated British
Army medical officer. Thomasina never remarried and Uved weU to the age of 88 at GuUdford,
Surrey. In one of her letters to Robie Louis Reid,
written sometime between 1927 and 1929,
Thomasina Moss wrote:".. .We hoped we might
go back and settle in Vancouver [Island] sometime later in Ufe—we loved it so much..." and in
another letter ". ..The bush around Esquimalt was
very thick, the pine [fir] trees grand, a great deal
of the country was unexplored they said. My
husband was a very keen sportsman. He shot two
rather large bears, & several deer, & 14 racoons,
not far the from the Hospital.They were making
havoc with a farmer's turkeys—two kinds of quad
[sic] were abundant..."
Edward Moss's periodic exploration and hunting trips were a pleasant break in his routine.
WhUe the number of patients at any one time
was small, the surgeon in charge of a small hospital had plenty of administrative tasks to fill his
time, to write repUes to letters (called"returns"),
food and other suppUes to order, staff to oversee
and always a plethora of Admiralty records to keep
meticulously for the bureaucrats of the medical
His second bear hunt is the subject ofthe following letter written by Edward to his brother
Richard on 29 September 1874. Edward had obviously enjoyed his very successful two-day expedition in spite of the rain and the flea-bitten
night atTugweU's cabin. Both TugweU and Muir,
mentioned in the letter, were among the earUest
setders and the latter family were pioneer loggers in the Sooke region, operating the first steam-
driven sawmUl in British Columbia. Edward's
comments about the Indian taking the gaUblad-
der ofthe bear suggests that this traditional Chinese medicinal remedy must have been much in
demand inVictoria, for the price of three to five
doUars was about two days' wages—at least $100
in today's terms—not an inconsiderable sum. Unfortunately the kiUing of bears just for their valuable gaUbladders is today a real threat to the remaining bear population both in Asia, and increasingly in North America. <^!^
Dear Richard,
We heard this morning about Grandpa shooting partridge and I resolved to send him an account of my last performance but came to the
conclusion that my writing is not very clear. I had better send it to you to
read to him—here it is.
My Second Bear Hunt
A week's hard rain early in September looked very Uke the setting in of
an early winter and hunters say we are to have it both early and severe this
year, [18]74, because aU the game is fat about the entrails, berries are unusuaUy numerous, and the duck are coming in already. Monday 14th [September] however turned out fine and counting on the chance of Indian
Summer I made preparations and started on my mare to Sooke at 11 am
next morning reached Muir's farm at 4 pm, left "Miss FUrt" in a very snug
stable and in order to reach TugweU's hemlock bark post before dusk lost
no time getting on the traU. Skupac—the Indian hunter—carried my Utde
packsack containing 1 lb. biscuit, Vi lb. ham, 2 oz. preserved mUk & a Utde
tea, chocolate and sugar as weU as a very small axe, a tin can & cup and a
pencU & paper. He also carried his own rifle and blanket—I had my blanket strapped firmly so as not to interfere with my rifle. A belt carrying
ammunition completed my outfit.
The first trace of game we saw was the track of a large panther in a
swamp two mUes beyond Muir's. He had evidendy been after the maUards
that were quacking in alarm at our intrusion. We did the six mUes in fair
time,and"putup"atTugweU'sbutifI ever go there again I wiUkeep to the
bush for the fleas gave me no rest, never tiU then did I have any idea what
they could do. I was glad to turn out at dayUght to get a cup of coffee and
take the traU for the hUls. Once through the dark thick of the forest that
Ues between the sea and the hUls there was no more traU, and no one who
has not seen the west can form an idea ofthe roughness and wUdness ofthe
land. My object was to push on NW as far as we could in dayUght and then
camp by any water we could find. Passed numerous tracks both of deer and
bear but our heavUy laden tread gave plenty of notice and we saw no Uve
In the afternoon the sky became overcast, a few drops of rain warned us
to be on the lookout for a dry bed before it came down heavUy, and about
BC HISTORICAL NEWS - SUMMER 2000 The three etchings shown
here and the one on the
previous page are from The
Graphic, London, June
1876. They illustrated Dr.
E.L. Moss's article "Sports
in British Columbia."
3 pm we camped in the
hoUow of a huge faUen
tree, so large that I could
easUy stand upright.We
scarce had fern enough
for beds puUed when
down came the rain in
a steady pour.The middle of our tree lay over
a smaU stream, and we
set our fire beside the
water, on the rocks
swept clear by winter
torrents, and under the
shelter of the tree. The
Indian took the axe, and ....
in a few moments came
back with an armful of long broad strips of cedar
bark, which he placed overlapping each other &
resting against either side ofthe tree, so as to make
a splendid wigwam round our fire and there we
sat tiU dusk & and then got a sUght supper ready
and did the best we could to converse but as
Scupac knew no EngUsh and I knew no Chinook
we didn't get on very weU, signs and rough pictures as the Indian could draw diagrams, helped
us out however.
He told me he had shot 8 bears—gave excited
descriptions, or rather acts, ofthe various encounters and by the way of making me more comfortable for the morrow told me that a bear had
kiUed a friend of his close to where we were
camped.We discoursed also about wolves— winter hunting, medicinal plants etc., etc.,and finaUy
retired to our hoUow tree and slept soundly but
then the fire went out & and it began to get cool
"Fido" came in and lay down beside me. It
was quite dark then and stiU raining, but when I
next woke up the tracery ofthe hemlocks was
standing out against the pale Ught of morning
and though the trees stiU dripped, the rain was
gone. A smaU fire—so as not to warn the game—
heated one cup of tea and off we marched regularly on the war traU. A high mountain rose to
our NW and we agreed to separate and take opposite sides, he to the E and I to the W and meet
on the other side in the forenoon. I would have
felt that there was some risk in doing this if I had
not had experience that the Indian could foUow
my track wherever I went. These Sooke mountains are risky to the white man, for they hold so
much iron the compass is not to be trusted.
Of course we were wet through in 5 minutes
but as long as one keeps going it makes no matter, indeed the wet was rather an advantage for
the leaves did not rusde to the tread ofthe moccasin. It is no use trying to hunt in boots for they
sUp on the faUen trees and prevent you feeUng
your footing. With moccasins a man can keep his
eyes on his game, and creep along sUendy as a cat.
Fido is weU accustomed to "stiU hunting" so we
worked steadUy along with the Ught growing
stronger behind us, passing numerous bear tracks
a day old and keeping in their Une. Much to my
surprise, for the country was good and we made
no noise, I saw no game tiU I had got weU round
my side ofthe mountain. Then Fido set—I shot
a blue grouse—and thinking he would make a
good breakfast I sat down on some rocks commanding a good view with the "Winchester repeater" within easy reach commenced plucking
my bird. I was about Vi mUe NW of the top of
the mountain and could see mUe upon mUe of
rock and forest, stretching ridge beyond ridge
away to both North and West.The bird was about
half done when I saw a movement in the bushes
on a ridge 150 yds on my right. Out trotted a
fine large bear, exposing his whole left side. I
wasn't long changing the grouse for the rifle, and
fired for behind his shoulder. Before the round
had time to reach him he started. I bounded off
down the rocks into a ravine fuU of tangled timber that lay between us and the eastward. He was
too active to be badly wounded, so active indeed
that though several times I saw the dark mass
bounding along I could not cover him with my
I didn't half Uke the idea of facing a wounded
bear in such a dense thicket but if I wanted him
there was nothing else for it, so I ran down to get
into the narrow part of the guUy before he did.
Fido didn't see the bear and thinking that a deer
was in the question was very anxious to be off.
When we got down the ravine however, he had
heard the bear crunching towards us through the
fallen trees he changed his mind and fidgeted a
few yards ahead. I had a moment or two to get
my breath and chose a steady standing place, when
Fido howled and backed to my feet and bruin
foUowed him with a roar and a rush. The dog
seeing me standjumped to the right and made a
show of attack. The bear at once struck at him
and in doing so exposed his right shoulder and I
put the third buUet in close behind the blade. He
feU over but staggered to his feet whenever the
dog or I came near him. At last he was unable to
rise and I gave him "coup de Gras" [sic] with
the hunting knife.
As I stood over him wondering if Skupac
would find me I heard a distant shot and then
another and felt confident he must have heard
my four shots, but knew he would not fire
merely to answer me. Thinking a few sign posts
desirable I went to the highest point near and
pUed three sticks with the longest pointing down
my way then set to work and skinned as much
of him as I could reach for he was too heavy for
me to move. Skupac appeared about 10 am carrying the haunch, skin and head of a splendid
fat buck. So our larder was comfortably stocked,
though now that we had the bear we did not
want more than a day's provisions for there was
no use hunting anymore as it would give us aU
we could do to carry the bear's head paws and
skin together with our traps [gear] out of the
When we had finished the skinning the Indian cut the carcase [sic] up and hung the pieces
on trees in the shade, so that his messengers would
get them in good order. He also stowed away the
gaUbladder as Chinamen give from 3 to 5$ for it
to use as medicine. Then we started off for our
camp malting many a halt beside bushes Uke magnified brackens with the true wUd flavour, and
much more palatable than the "salal", a few berries of the (Berberis repens) or "oregon grape"
quenched our thirst tiU we got breakfast ready.
Stewed grouse, boiled venison, & a can of
chocolate made a respectable carte to which we
both did justice, leaving Fido the remains ofthe
deer's head from which I had cut the forehead & horns.
Reading the description it does not seem very hard work packing in a
bear's skin and a bit of venison but the ground was everywhere covered
with fallen timber and was a perfect labyrinth of rocks and ravines. I forgot
to say that every one of my shots had gone through the bear, first through
his stomach just six inches to right (side view) of his heart. 2nd through
heart, Uver, and haunch, and 3rd through lungs between heart and spine.
Skupac had also seen a bear but did not get a shot until he was some way
off—"sia"—and missed him"pootsepie"—my impression is that he would
have been better pleased if I had been unlucky too.
WeU, to make a long story short, we were too tired to leave our camp
that day so we fed and slept in preparation for the morrow, and on Friday
at dayUght started to TugweU's ranch, reached Muir's that night was very
hospitably entertained, and saddling my mare at 10 next morning got home
about 4 pm leaving Skupac to bring the trophies round by canoe.
Your affectionate brother,
Edward L. Moss
11 Phoenix - The Vanished City
by N.L. Barlee
From the manuscript
upcoming book Nuggets of Gold, Boulders of
Silver and Mountains of
Copper, scheduled to
be out in the fall of this
Boundary Country.
There wiU never be another place Uke it.
Its name, Phoenix, was strangely prophetic. It died over three quarters of a
century ago, but for decades it stood as one of
the most fascinating ghost towns west ofthe Continental Divide. The memory of the town stiU
haunts those few people who remember when
Phoenix was an incorporated city.
It had a number of claims to fame, some of
which were weU known, others seldom related
and half forgotten. The renowned "Willie"
WUUams, the string-bean judge in Phoenix, who
caUed himself "The Highest Judge, in the Highest Court, in the Highest City in Canada," earned
some lasting notoriety for his unusual decisions,
his love of wine, stud poker, and women; although
not necessarUy in that order. His towering height
entided him to legitimately lay claim as the "highest" judge in Canada.
Volumes have been written about the Klondike,
and although that was a glorious chapter in the
history ofthe Canadian west, it has perhaps overshadowed other mining stampedes and other
events that took place in the same era. Few people, even historians, are aware that although several hundred miUions in gold came out of the
Yukon, that amount, although impressive, was
matched by the value of the copper and gold
which was shipped out of Phoenix camp during
its brief existence.
At its zenith empty ore trains crawled up the
steep grade into Phoenix twenty-four hours every
day, seven days a week, loaded up, and returned
to Grand Forks with copper ore to be consumed
by the insatiable blast furnaces of the Granby
JWdway    y * | ^^Grand"
British Columbia _*^    CANADA        X _V_„ JE9fkS.
Cathy Chapin - Lakehead University, Thunder Bay
Company smelter.
Yet Phoenix, Uke so many other mining camps
in the west, had an inauspicious beginning. Although placer miners had been active in the
Boundary District since 1859, Utde lode prospecting had taken place. But when Red Mountain was discovered in 1890, the focus ofthe mining fraternity was shifted to the West Kootenay
and Boundary Country. Within months, hundreds
of prospectors were scouring the area, hoping to
locate another Red Mountain. On 25 July 1891,
Matthew Hotter and his partner, Henry White,
came across a large outcrop of copper ore just off
the historic Dewdney TraU, near the 4,500-foot
level. They drove in their claim stakes on two
locations and caUed them Old Ironsides and Knob
HUl. Primarily concerned with gold and sUver,
they let their claims go for a pittance. Unknowingly, they had walked away from claims which
ultimately yielded miUions upon miUions of dollars in profit for their new owners and eventuaUy
made the name Phoenix famous throughout
North America as the greatest copper camp in
In the beginning, the crude camp was caUed
"Greenwood Camp," after the town of Greenwood nearby. In quick succession a number of
promising claims in the immediate vicinity, Uke
the Montezuma, Brooklyn, Standard, Stemwinder,
Idaho, Victoria, Skylark, Tamarack, Monarch,
Rawhide, Grey Eagle, and dozens of others were
By the end of 1897, ten major mining camps
had been estabUshed in the Boundary, Deadwood,
Providence, Summit, Long Lake, Skylark, Copper, and Central. WeU over 500 properties were
staked, many with names which reflected their
owners' past or preferences. Some, Uke Blue Eyed
Jennie, Sue, Marjorie, Jenny May, and Little
Maggie, told of girls remembered. Others Uke
Uncle Sam, Washington, Yankee Girl, Fourth of
July, Montana, and American Boy, mirrored the
American influence in the region. Some, Uke
High Kicker, Hidden Treasure, Bonanza Lode,
Great Hopes, and SUver Cloud, conveyed optimism whUe few, with names Uke Pauper, Last
Chance,WUl-o'-the Wisp, and Blue Monday, in-
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 3 Left: Undated photograph
of a view of Phoenix
Courtesy N.L. Bart«
cheated the opposite side ofthe prospectors' nature.
By the next year the Boundary Country was
recognized far and wide as mining country. The
south central interior was unique as far as geology was concerned. The Slocan, nearly seventy
miles northeast, was rich in sUver, Rossland, barely
forty mUes east, was primarily a gold camp while
the Boundary was, with some exceptions, a copper zone.
That was the era when a number of miUion
doUar properties were discovered in the Bound-
ary.The Cariboo-AmeUa at Camp McKinney, the
Union on the North Fork River, and the Mother
Lode at Deadwood were just a few of many. But
the most Ulustrious of them aU was the Old
Ironsides-Knob HUl Group at Phoenix. It was
this huge, low-grade property that made the camp.
It was the hinge upon which the fortunes ofthe
town would swing for more than two decades.
By the end of 1898, Greenwood Camp
changed its name to Phoenix. Clustered around
the main ore body, a number of crude log cabins,
several makeshift stores and hotels sprung up. FinaUy it dawned on some of the promoters and
mining men that Phoenix could become more
than a lowly mining camp, it could become a
town. In fact, it could become a city!
By 1899 a town site had been surveyed on the
strength of two factors: First that the ore body
was so massive that it would take years to mine it
out and second, that the Columbia & Western
RaUway, a subsidiary ofthe powerful CPR, promised to run a spur Une into Phoenix to tap the
great copper ore reserves.
By 1900, the area was humming with activity
and Phoenix was clearly on the move. For the
first time the population edged past the 1,000
mark and everywhere there were indications that
it would soon chaUenge nearby Greenwood for
supremacy in the Boundary Country. On Old
Ironsides Avenue, Knob HiU Avenue, and Dominion Street, stores and hotels were going up as
fast as the lumber could be shipped in.The speculators and boomers had their choice, as almost a
dozen hotels vied for their business. Between
Greenwood and Phoenix, the Phoenix Stage Line
made two round trips every day.The proprietors,
Mandel and Murphy, prided themselves in their
"good rigs, good stock and fast time." It was a
statement that they made good even going down
the winding mountain road to Greenwood, far
The embeUishments of a city were being added
13 Below:
Phoenix's Cenotaph.
Photo by Jim Glanville
steadUy. Two telephone companies and two telegraph firms were competing for trade.The Phoenix Pioneer suppUed aU the local and outside news
that its enterprising editor, WB. WUcox, could
scrape up. There were almost a hundred businesses in town, and more entrepreneurs arriving
weekly. The Phoenix Brewery advertised lager
beer but quickly reaUzed that, with hundreds of
thirsty miners in town, that was their last worry.
Clarke & Binns, the furniture dealers, found nothing unusual in advertising their usual merchandise and then tagging on a rider "plus undertaking and embalming" for anyone needing their
services for that particular requirement.
As spring wore on, the track-laying toward
Phoenix continued. FinaUy, on 19 May 1900, foreman KeUy and his crew laid down the last raU—
they had reached Phoenix. It was a red-letter day
for the town, now nothing could hold her back.
At last the mines could start shipping their stock-
pUed ore.
Optimism prevaUed. On the Victoria Day hoUday, the streets were jammed with celebrants.
Down in Greenwood the highUght of the day
was a much pubUcized middleweight contest between Jimmie Woods and a tough has-been
named Ad McDonald, while in Midway, almost
eight miles west, the Featherweight Championship of the Province was being staged between
Danny Dean and Andy King. Most of the spectators at the fights later commented, somewhat
ruefuUy, that they had seen better fights on their
way to the championships than they had witnessed between the professional pugUists.
On the 13th of August, the Granby Company's huge smelter at Grand Forks blew in the
first of their blast furnaces.The "copper era" had
begun. Before the year was out, the company had
shipped over 64,000 tons of ore to their smelter
and from that they had extracted nearly 2 per
cent copper with an additional bonus of nearly
30,000 troy ounces of gold and an additional
275,960 ounces of sUver. Phoenix was soon being haUed as "another Butte." A Butte it wasn't,
but a magnificent low-grade copper property, it
was. And the rich Granby Company controUed
both the mines and the smelter.
Two years later there were two more smelters
in the area. One at Greenwood and the other,
three mUes to the west, at Boundary FaUs. But
the big operation was at Phoenix and as the annual output increased, so did the population of
Phoenix. FinaUy, on 11 October 1900, Phoenix
was officiaUy incorporated as a city. Now it was
on an even footing with both Greenwood and
Grand Forks.
There appeared to be no end to the ore. Each
year the Granby Company increased the output
and yet the reserves also continued to increase.
The first decade passed with the production exceeding 1,000,000 tons per annum. By the time
the First World War started, Phoenix had arrived.
It had most of the amenities of a much larger
city. The three-storey opera house catered to the
tastes of both the theatre cUque and the management, and to the less refined miner and labourer.
The elegant Brooklyn Hotel, reputed to be one
of the finest hotels in the Interior, presented
menus on festive occasions that were truly international. A 1,000 seat arena was usuaUy packed
to the rafters, especiaUy when teams from Grand
Forks or Greenwood played the Phoenix squad.
The brand of hockey was so skUled that the Phoenix team, in 1917, challenged for the Stanley Cup.
By 1914, the population was close to 1,500
and business, although generaUy good, was more
sporadic than in other years. In the summer of
that year, several disquieting events occurred. On
August 2nd the Maple Leaf Hotel burned to the
ground, the result of a fire of unknown origin.
Exacdy one week later, the magnificent three-
storey Miners Union Opera House was also destroyed in a raging inferno. And for the first time,
the new Granby Company mine at Anyox, BC
surpassed the production of the Granby operations at Phoenix. The city, unknown to any of its
inhabitants, was slowly approaching the end.
When, in 1917, the production dipped to 677,000
tons—a drop of over 400,000 tons from the year
before—the writing was on the waU. The following year, the output decreased by another
200,000 tons. Although it was now obvious that
the mine was rapidly becoming uneconomical,
most of the townspeople clung on to the hope
that somehow higher-grade ore would be encountered. But it was not to be. By 1919, the
Phoenix operations had become untenable. The
price of copper had plummeted by 30 per cent,
the grade ofthe ore was diminishing with depth
and the once vast reserves were decreasing. The
Granby smelter at Grand Forks, which had cut
costs to the bone under able management, was
operating only four blast furnaces out of eight,
and those only on a part-time basis. Another hit
came when a prolonged strike at the Crow's Nest
Pass coalfields near Fernie, BC, cut off Granby's
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 3 supply of vital coke for smelting. That last blow
simply hastened the final conclusion.
The announcement that aU residents had been
dreading finaUy came in 1919.The Granby Company declared that they were closing down aU of
their operations in Phoenix and in Grand Forks.
Although many had steeled themselves, the end
stiU came as a bitter shock. Some ofthe inhabitants had Uved in the mountaintop city for two
decades; it was almost unbeUevable, but Phoenix
was doomed.
The people who had Uved there, and who remember that period, say that a quietness, almost
a hush, seemed to settle over Phoenix. Then,
slowly, the residents began to leave. Some went
by special train, others left in smaU groups. The
last abandonment of the city has few comparisons in the annals of the Canadian west, before
or since. Most ofthe inhabitants just walked away,
sometimes with only the clothes on their backs.
The majority could not even afford to take their
valued household furniture. A few, still
uncomprehending, as they left looked back at the
deserted town that was once home.
Several weeks later, the city lay virtuaUy deserted; only one or two individuals, Uke old
WUUam Bambury, unable to understand the magnitude of the disaster, stayed on. The remainder
ofthe town was eerUy sUent. Empty hotels waited
in vain for patrons who would never return. Silent houses, stiU furnished and unlocked, stood
forlornly in the autumn sun.
So Phoenix waited patiently. The months
turned into years, and the years into decades, and
stiU her inhabitants didn't return. But the town
hadn't been completely forgotten. The scavengers, the human vultures, saw their chance and
descended on the old city. InitiaUy, the finest furniture was taken away, then other household
goods and other items of value. FinaUy, many of
the buUdings were torn down for their lumber.
By the mid-1940s, much ofthe Phoenix of old
had vanished and a decade later, physicaUy, Utde
except the boardwalks remained. A thousand
hands had dismanded the mining town,
Strangely, this was the period that the Granby
Company, the original mining company, chose
to return to Phoenix, to mine once more the
great ore body, which it had abandoned so many
years before. Today, at the site of historic Phoenix, only a yawning open pit greets the eye. Of
the Phoenix of old, there is not a trace.'<&»'
Phoenix Remembers
by Earl Kelly (Mr. "Good Evening")
The Vancouver Province, 1927. Reprinted in Boundary History # 12,1992, Editor Jim Glanville
There were a great many Memorial celebrations of Armistice Day
this year, in a great many places, but there was surely none which
could match that of Phoenix. In aU the cities in aU the nations who
had their part in the Great War, in many a quiet vUlage of Europe, in many
a lonely setdement of the five continents, men and women and chUdren
met together to keep a sUence and to hear a word of remembrance. There
was a bond and a communion between these celebrants, from the King at
the foot ofthe great Cenotaph in WhitehaU to the Utde group of neighbors
and friends who stood beside a cairn of stones in some remote place. But
they made a pUgrimage to keep the memory of Armistice Day in Phoenix,
and they stood in a sUent city to keep the memorial sUence.
The grass is growing in the streets ofthe Boundary country. The young
pines are creeping up on the weather-beaten shacks of the old mining
camp. The topgear of the copper workings stands dismanded and gaunt
and ghosdy above the shafts, where once the morning and afternoon and
graveyard shifts of hardrock men reUeved each other three times in every
double round of the clock. The glass is broken in the deserted saloons,
where hard workers drank hard and gambled hard. There is a sUence in the
place where the mountain locomotives came and went between the mines
of the mountain and the smelters in the vaUey below, where the hard
panting of the exhaust and the shriek of the whisde woke the echoes
among the steep hUls. And in this deserted place, keeping company with
the ghosts of Phoenix, stands the granite cenotaph, to keep the memory of
miners who went from Phoenix to a grave in the marl of Flanders or the
chalk of France.
They made a pUgrimage from Grand Forks on Armistice Day.The mayor
and a handful of his neighbors cUmbed the mountain from the vaUey and
stood beside the lonely monument, standing sentinel-Uke in the ghosdy
camp. They stood in the name of the hundred thousand men who had
pUed the miner's pick and shovel in the time of Phoenix, and in their own.
They stood to remember the Uvely, busding camp, which had last seen
such days and nights in its time, which had dug a hundred miUion tons of
ore from the deep workings and the "glory holes", and which, in its de-
cUning but stiU cheerful days, had sent its last men to fight in the Kootenay
battaUon.They kept the sUence in memory ofthe men who had not come
back. And they sounded the Last Post, saluting the brave ghosts of Phoenix,
who tread so softly on the broken and mouldering board walks, and who
stand at attention before the granite memorial, where it looks down upon
the place that was Phoenix. '*=*»'
Only the graveyard and the cenotaph remain in Phoenix.
The list of lost veterans on the cenotaph shows the names of:
James Cochrane, Joseph Fleming, Elmo R. Geddes, Oscar Gustafson,
Sidney Jennings, Anton Johnson, James C. Kempston, John Lindsay,
Roy A. MacDonald, Dudley MacMillan, Thomas Monahan, John A.
Parry, O.M. Pittendrich, James Pitpladdy and Fred Wilkinson.
15 William Bambury: Phoenix's Last Resident
by Alice Glanville
Alice Glanville, a former
president ofthe British
Columbia Historical
Federation, and her
husband Jim Glanville
have published numerous books and articles
on the history of the
Boundary country.This
story is a summary of
three articles published in Boundary History, 13,h Report, 1995.
1 The population figures vary
2 Henry White and Mat Hotter
are considered the discoverers
of Phoenix.
1 The Vancouver Sun, 4 November 1933. Letter by Bambury
titled "The Three Bachelors."
4 ibid. The nickname of Adolf
Sercu is spelled in many different ways."Forepaw"is the most
commonly used.The name may
have had a circus connection.
He had it before he severed his
s H.H.E. Bright of Metaline
Falls, Wash., the owner ofthe
letters giving details of this prospecting trip through southern
BC intends to have the letters
6 Grand Forks Gazette, 30 July
7 Bob Forshaw was born in
Phoenix and spent his childhood on a farm between
Greenwood and Phoenix. He
has retired in Grand Forks from
his professorship in Guelph. He
is an interesting source of history because of his very good
"The diary from 10 December
1949 to 31 May 1950 is now
in the Greenwood Museum.
' Grand Forks Gazette, 1 November 1951.
Centre: William H
Opposite page: Adolph
Sercu's (Forpaw's) stage
and stable.
For 23 years, from 1896 to 1919, Phoenix
was a busding city with 1,500 inhabitants,1 but by 1920 Phoenix had become a
ghost town with vacant buUdings and untrodden
It is one of the characteristics of ghost towns
that a few old-timers hang on, Uving on their
memories or on their hopes for the future. In
Phoenix we had three such people: Robert
Denzler, Adolf Sercu ("Forepaw" was the name
by which he was known), and the
last resident, WUUam H. Bambury.
Bob Denzler came to Phoenix in
1891 and is considered one of the
founders of the city. He took over
the SUver King Mine and renamed
it Phoenix, after which the city was
named. He was also involved in the
Rawhide and Gold Drop Mines. After the closure of Phoenix in 1919,
Denzler spent the winters in Spokane
and the summers in Phoenix until
his death on 21 March 1944. Money
from his will made possible the
r Courtesy M.Maclean
Robert Denzler Outpost Hospital
which opened in Greenwood just after World
War Two.
Bambury, a great admirer of Bob Denzler,
wrote in 1933:
Bob Denzler (now 82) can take credit for the
first discovery and subsequent development of
this copper bonanza.2 His arrival in the summer
of 1891 was about two hours after the first white
man ever known to reach here and to his dogged
faith and perseverance was due the subsequent
prosperity of Phoenix. And unUke the huge percentage of prospectors, he became wealthy in the
process. His abiding faith brings him here every
spring from Spokane to work some ofthe properties he owns. He is everywhere Uked and respected.3
Bambury had very different feeUngs about
Forepaw. Although Forepaw and Bambury were
the only permanent residents in Phoenix for many
years, they never spoke to one another. Bambury
writes, "He is a peasant born Belgian of Umited
Uteracy.. .who possesses vaulting ambition and
high executive ideals.'"'
After the closure of Phoenix in 1919, a fund
was estabUshed to appoint a town watchman for
one year and Forepaw was chosen for that duty.
He moved from his cabin to the steepled city
haU where he made his home. He took his role
seriously. Carrying a 30-30 rifle and wearing his
sheriff's star made from a tin can, he would challenge visitors to the city. Every visitor to Phoenix has a story to teU about Forepaw, the man
with the iron hook replacing the hand he lost
whUe puUing a 12-gauge shotgun out of a wagon
by the barrel. It accidentaUy discharged and his hand was blown
off.The iron hook he then wore
was fashioned by a local blacksmith. Forepaw was the self-acclaimed mayor and constable of
Phoenix and zealously guarded
the ghost city for 23 years. This
Belgian caretaker died in August
1942 and was buried in the
Phoenix cemetery beside his
friend Eugene Shea.
That left WUUam Bambury as
the sole resident of Phoenix. Not
too much is known of his Ufe in the heydays of
Phoenix. His soUtary existence in Phoenix for
over 30 years has given him more recognition
then he ever experienced during his working
years.We can find stories of business people, mine
managers, poUticians, and professionals, but Utde
mention of union carpenters.
Born in Portsmouth, England, in 1867 and
educated at Portsea Diocesan School, Bambury
left for Canada on 17 March 1887 on the SS
Parisian. He was apprenticed to the buUding trade
as a carpenter. He made his way across Canada
by raU to Donald, BC, at the head of Arrow Lakes.
After doing some contract work around Donald,
he became attracted by the excitement at Nelson. He buUt a boat and came down the Columbia and then on to Nelson in 1891. It was early
in AprU, yet the boat was nearly cut to pieces by
the ice. He did carpentry work around Nelson
constructing several buUdings, including additions
to the Kootenay Hotel. He bought out
Stevenson's KemphUl Boat House, but boat buUding barely made enough to pay his grocery biU.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 3 Courtesy M.Maclean
He was carpenter foreman at the SUver King
Mine, but quit in July
1894, and went prospecting that fall.5
His diary indicates
that Bambury came to
Greenwood from Nelson in 1899. He located
in Phoenix probably in
1902, and that was his
home until his death in
1951. He came to
Phoenix to buUd spiral
staircases for risers in the mines—a very speciaUzed trade.
Bambury was recognized as "a man of poUshed education and
widely read" and ".. .a delegate for the SociaUst Party for the
purpose of nominating someone to represent the Socialist Party
for the federal House."6
Bambury lived for a short time at what he called
Middlegarth, a few mUes south and west of Phoenix. There he
Uved with a prospector, Jim Cordy. As Bambury was into spir-
ituaUsm and seances, he would have the dream as to where the
mineral was located, and Jim Cordy did the work. It seemed
that once again he had Utde money and would work a few
days on the road to earn some money. He then took up residence in one of the finer homes in Phoenix, Dr. Boucher's
home, and Uved there rent- and tax-free and would send the
repair and tax bills to Mrs. Boucher. That is the place where
most of us remember him with aU his newspapers and magazines pUed to the ceiUng, with only a smaU passageway through
to the kitchen. On his home he naUed a card with "Phoenix,
BC" written on it. The yard was stacked with old lumber,
rusty naUs, and other salvage that the residents of Phoenix had
left behind.
Bob Forshaw7 teUs of maUing many letters for Bambury to
Member of ParUament, Agnes McPhaU, MLA Rupert Haggen,
CM. CampbeU, the former mine manager at Phoenix and
others. An eccentric and opinionated person, Bambury would
put on the stamp of King George VI upside down out of
loyalty to whom he considered the true King of England,
EdwardVIII. He would often visit the Forshaw household on
his way to or from Greenwood. They would feed him, visit
for a whUe, and then leave him reading and making notes and
corrections on the articles he read. Then, around 2 a.m., he
would continue the four-rmle walk to Phoenix.
He was Uving this soUtary existence in Phoenix from the
time the city was closed in 1919 to the early 1940s. At that
time it was becoming increasingly more difficult for him to
remain in Phoenix during the severe winters. In his diary of
1949 he describes very vividly one of his trips to Greenwood
to spend the winter in Room 28 of the Windsor Hotel:
December 10,1949. Kept a fire in the bedroom all night with no
entirely satisfactory results altho' no ice formed in the room. It
was different in the other bedroom where I had to use an axe in
the bathtub before I could take my bath. By this time I decided
that remaining in Phoenix any longer was futile. I cut two lengths
of plank 2" by 10' and selected all the indispensable items, most of
which I packed in my leather grip and the rest in two cotton
sacks which I linked together over my shoulder and set out for
Greenwood at 15:20, arrived in Greenwood at 17:20.
At the age of 82 he walked the five mUes down the hiU. Some
of the indispensable items he took with him were ABS&C
tablets, sal hepatica, dictionary, hymns, ear picker, Roget's Thesaurus, Bible, map, correspondence, Mining Act and McLean's
The mines at Phoenix were reworked at that time and Fred
Mahoney would help Bambury with the move to Greenwood. After the winter, when it was time to return to Phoenix, Fred Mahoney was there again to help him out. In spring
Bambury happUy went back to Phoenix because, as he said:
"After aU it is my home." He Uved on his Old Age Pension of
$50 a month and that paid for his room, his meals, his cigarettes, and his reading material. A careful accounting of his
expenditures is given for each day. For most days the total was
under $1 but it would be over when he bought cigarettes,
reading material, and stamps.
In the spring of 1950, after the winter in Greenwood, Fred
Mahoney, and Albert Lucerne drove him back to Phoenix.
Mahoney told Bambury that they were going right back and
didn't know when they would be seeing him again. They
were not going to pump the mine before leaving. Bambury
reaUzed that it meant a permanent shutdown; however, he felt
he was lucky to have his goods brought up. He died the next
year, 1951, and was buried in the Phoenix cemetery at his
On 11 July 1999, a cavalcade of cars drove the winding,
steep road from Greenwood to Phoenix for the dedication of
the headstone for William Bambury almost 50 years after his
death. The mournful tones of a lone piper could be heard
from the deep vaUey below in recognition ofthe last resident
of Phoenix. «***•
17 A Token History:
The Hotel Brooklyn of Phoenix, BC
by Ronald Greene
The Boundary Tourism
Action Committee is
hosting a celebration
fron 4 to 6 August
2000 on the occasion
ofthe Centennial of
Phoenix, BC. As
Phoenix is one of the
better known ghost
towns in this province
the occasion should
prove interesting.The
city was incorporated
on 11 October 1900.
-I rtix
Above: The Hotel
Brooklyn token is made of
aluminum, 28'A mm in
It was exploration for gold that brought people to
the Greenwood area in the late 1880s, and by 1891
there was activity on the mountain above and to
the east of Greenwood, at what was called Greenwood
Camp. But it was copper that paid the rent—so to
speak. Matthew Hotter and Henry White staked the
Old Ironsides and Knob HUl claims in 1891 and John
Stevens located the Victoria claim in 1894. In 1895
these claims came into the hands of promoter Jay P.
Graves of Spokane. Graves interested S.H.C. Miner of
the Granby Rubber Company of Granby, Quebec in
backing the venture. The resultant company became
the Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting and Power
Company, Limited. A small town sprang up as a mine
was developed from the claims. Because of confusion
between the names Greenwood and Greenwood Camp
there was an application to change the name to
Brooklyn, which was rejected since there was a shortlived raUway boom town with that name. The next
appUcation asked for either Knob HiU or Phoenix and
the post office selected the latter name in 1898. The
city, located at an altitude of almost one mile, was sometimes referred to as the Highest City in Canada. Its
population peaked in 1908 at about 1,700 persons but
the boundaries used by various population reports
varied, and as a result the figures are often quite at
odds from one census or population report to the next
and difficult to compare.Two raUways came into Phoenix, the C.P.R. arriving in May 1900, and the Great
Northern in February 1905.There were other mines
in and around Phoenix, but Granby was the dominant
company. They chose to buUd their smelter at Grand
Forks and it was blown in in August 1900.
The town grew into a "city" to be incorporated on
11 October 1900. At the beginning ofthe same year
WT. Kaake had opened the Columbia Hotel, but when
he leased it out the name was changed to the Metropolitan Hotel.The hotel was located in the Lower Town
section, direcdy in front of what later became the site
ofthe Great Northern station. By the end of 1900, the
hotel was being operated by Hugh McGuire as the
Hotel Brooklyn. The name was taken from the
Brooklyn Mine which was located a short distance
above the hotel. In May 1903 James MarshaU and
Eugene P Shea leased the hotel, and it was not long
before it developed a solid reputation as the pre-eminent hotel in the Boundary Country.
On the morning of 14 February 1905 the Hotel
Brooklyn and the Phoenix Hotel next door were de
stroyed by fire. Following this, George Rumberger, who
owned the Phoenix Hotel, and James Marshall buUt a
new Brooklyn Hotel on the site previously occupied
by the two hotels. Eugene Shea moved over to the
BeUevue Hotel.The new Brooklyn Hotel maintained
its reputation as the most prestigious hotel in the city.
James Marshall managed it until early 1918, with a
short absence around 1914 when he ran the Strathcona
Hotel in Nelson. Rumberger, who had been absent
from Phoenix for a number of years, following his other
interests in a prairie brewery, returned to operate the
hotel when Marshall left forVancouver in January 1918.
The hotel closed in AprU 1918, probably gready affected by prohibition.
FoUowing the end of the First World War conditions conspired against Phoenix. The price of copper
dropped sharply; a strike in the Crows Nest coal mines,
which provided the coke for smelting the ore, and the
fact that the Phoenix mines were high-cost mines due
to the relatively low-grade ore, led the company to
close the mine. The lack of work created an exodus,
and by mid 1919 the city was deserted by all but two
residents. The buUdings were to serve as a source of
windows, doors, and lumber for Boundary area residents for many years after.
Granby returned to Phoenix in the mid 1950s and,
using open-pit methods, which were better suited than
tunnelling to the low-grade ores, removed many thousands of tons of ore until 1978, when the ore was depleted and the mine closed once again. As the ore body
was direcdy underneath the town site all signs ofthe
city have long since vanished.The cenotaph memorial
to those Phoenicians who fell in First World War was
moved to a new site overlooking the open pit. The
cemetery remains on the road down to Greenwood.
In the upper part is the stone monument to Eugene
Shea, who died in 1911. The Boundary Historical
Society has recendy taken significant steps to repair
some of the natural deterioration and results of vandalism in the cemetery. Marshall Lake is named after
James Marshall.
The Hotel Brooklyn token is made of aluminum,
2SVi mm in diameter. Its attractive design and the
ghost-town origin make it one ofthe more desirable
British Columbia tokens, even though it is not rarc*^
See the photograph on front cover showing the interior of
the bar ofthe second Hotel Brooklyn with James Marshall
standing behind the bar on the right.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 3 The Gold Rush Pack Trail of 1861
by Marie Elliott
Born of necessity in the spring of 1861, the gold rush pack traU to Ander Creek and beyond remained a UfeUne for the residents of East Cariboo for over half a century. A joint effort between the merchants and packers in East Cariboo and the colonial government, it was also the
first recorded instance of government funding for pubUc works in the region.
During the first exciting years of the
Cariboo gold rush, 1859 and 1860, volunteer labour quickly opened up the
route from the Hudson's Bay brigade traU to
mining sites at Quesnel Forks, Horsefly River,
and Keithley Creek. The colonial government,
hard-pressed to keep up with the ever-lengthening mining frontier, encouraged private enterprise to buUd bridges and ferries. It granted the
right to charge tolls for two or three years in
return for an annual rent.
In September 1860, four Keithley Creek miners foUowed their hunches and found gold on
Ander Creek, on the north side of the Snow-
shoe Plateau.When word ofthe discoveries leaked
out in mid-winter, the few dozen miners wintering at Quesnel Forks and Keithley Creek immediately set out on snowshoes for the new
Eldorado. They cUmbed two thousand feet out
of Negro VaUey (now Pine VaUey) in order to
cross the 6,000-foot summit ofthe plateau. The
snow reached depths often feet or more. Assistant gold commissioner PhUip Henry Nind arrived at Ander Creek in early March 1861 to
find only one cabin, buUt by the discoverers John
Rose, S.M. Bowen, Benjamin MacDonald, and
James May. The rest ofthe miners were Uving in
caves dug out of the snow banks.
As the Ander Creek excitement grew, Governor James Douglas worried that the miners would
starve if provisions did not reach them soon
enough. Few packers risked taking their horses
over the difficult mountain route covered in fallen
trees, and the mud was too deep for mule trains.
In order to earn money and fill in time until
spring break-up, miners and Native packers (men
and women) backpacked loads of one hundred
pounds each from Quesnel Forks, a distance of
fifty mUes.
The emergency situation created by the extension of the mining frontier to Ander Creek
forced Governor James Douglas to use some of
his Umited financial resources. Douglas approved
a grant of $2,000 for improving the traU, in June
1861. The merchants at Quesnel Forks and
Keithley Creek subscribed a further $800. They
also improved the existing pack traU from Beaver
Lake to Litde Lake and Quesnel Forks at their
own expense. Samuel Adler, Frederick Black,
Thomas Davidson, Thomas Spence, and David
KeUey supervised construction ofthe traU, which
was completed by the end of July. Quesnel Forks
merchants Frederick Black and Thomas Carlyle
took responsibUity for provisioning and paying
the labourers, because gold commisioner Nind
did not have enough money on hand. As more
strikes were made on Grouse, WUUams, Lightning, and other creeks that summer, the miners
and packers extended the traU from Ander on
their own initiative.
The pack trail was well used during the
Cariboo gold rush years, from 1861 to 1865.
Thousands of miners, pack animals, catde, and
Marie Elliott, a former
editor of BC Historical
News, has published
two books on Gulf
Island history. Her
history of Cariboo gold
mining (working title
Cariboo East) will be
released this fall by
Horsdal and Schubart.
See also Marie Elliott's
article on Quesnel
Forks in British
Columbia Historical
News,Volume 25 No. 3.
Below: The two people
most responsible for
retracing the original gold
rush trail are Gary and
Lana Fox of Quesnel. For
the past six years they
have spent every possible
summer weekend trudging
through mud, battling
thickets of wild rhododendrons and climbing over
and under deadfalls.
Photo by Marie Elliott
19 Below: James Jasper May,
native of Missouri, was one
of the first miners to reach
Antler Creek in September
1860. He spent the rest of
his life mining in British
Columbia and died in
Hazelton in 1917, aged
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J         jf^^^flvAtt^fflljflH
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Courtesy BC Archives - G-04489
sheep created ruts more than a foot deep on the
mountainsides. For the same reasons, where animals could spread out on the gende slopes, the
ground has an uneven, washboard feeUng underfoot. Even when the Cariboo Road was completed to Soda Creek, and a less strenuous pack
trail established from Quesnellemouth to
Richfield in 1862, packers stiU preferred the plateau route. There was usuaUy an abundance of
grass and water in late summer, whereas aU the
pasture on the QuesneUemouth-to-Richfield traU
was consumed by that time ofthe year. A number
of stopping houses soon sprung up along the way.
For $1.50 a night a miner could obtain a meal, a
place on the floor to sleep, with an alpine meadow
nearby for his mule or horse to graze.
Over the next fifty years the colonial and provincial governments maintained major portions
ofthe pack traU because it was the vital Unk between residents of East Cariboo and WiUiams
Creek. Judge Matthew BaiUie Begbie used the
traU to hear cases of larceny and murder at Ander
in the faU of 1861, and to reach WUUams Creek
in 1862. Assistant gold commissioners Philip
Nind, Peter O'ReiUy, and Thomas Elwyn depended on the route also to help maintain law
and order. Between 1863 and 1892 aU maU de-
Uvery came from BarkervUle via the traU. And
untU medical faciUties were introduced at the
BuUion Pit mine near Quesnel Forks in 1895,
medical emergencies were handled by the Royal
Cariboo Hospital at MarysviUe, near BarkervUle.
When it was time to have
some fun, miners working
on upper Keithley Creek
found it just as easy to trek
the 25 mUes to Richfield to
register their claims and
spend a night on the town,
than to travel a simUar distance to visit the government agent at Quesnel
Forks—where the choice of
saloons was Umited.
In an effort to develop
the hard rock (quartz) mining possibUities of the region, Amos Bowman and
James McEvoy conducted a
joint geological survey of
the Cariboo for the provincial and federal governments
in 1886 and 1887. They
were fortunate to find many ofthe pioneer miners stiU working claims on Keithley Creek, Litde
Snowshoe Creek, and at BarkervUleThe old-timers pointed out the sites of the discovery claims
and the route ofthe original pack traU. Portions
of the traU had faUen into disuse by this time.
Their information was carefuUy recorded with
the topographical surveys. Bowman and McEvoy's
maps were some of the important sources used
when restoration ofthe pack traU began.
The two people most responsible for reltracing
the original trail are Gary and Lana Fox of
Quesnel. For the past six years they have spent
every possible summer weekend trudging
through mud, batding thickets of wUd rhododendrons and cUmbing over and under deadfalls.
Gary insisted that the traU foUow the original
route exacdy—no shortcuts using new logging
access roads. Robin and Loretta Grady, executive
members of the TraU Committee, Friends of
BarkervUle, have enthusiasticaUy helped with new
mapping and traU marking. Dave Falconer shared
his extensive knowledge of Snowshoe Plateau
traUs, archaeology, and site preservation.
The result is a chaUenging traU for hikers, estabUshed, as was the original route, with volunteer effort and a financial contribution from the
provincial government—the Forest Renewal
fund. Additional support came from West Fraser
Mills, Quesnel, and the BC Forest Service.
The inaugural hike to officiaUy open the traU
took place on Labour Day weekend, 1999. It
started from the traUhead at Weaver Creek. (Logging has damaged the section from Quesnel Forks
to Weaver Creek). We began our trek back in
time with a tough, one hour cUmb out of Pine
VaUey—originaUy caUed Negro VaUey because
two coloured men ran a stopping house here.
One feels sorry for the pack horses that struggled to gain a footing in the thick, damp moss,
and the utmost admiration for the Native men
and women who carried one hundred pounds
of merchandise (for only $10 a trip) on snow-
shoes. From the 6,000 foot summit of Base
Mountain the view of distant mountains and
sweeping vaUeys is breathtaking. During the gold
rush the sight of snow-clad peaks and vast meadows of wUdflowers may have comforted many
homesick young men.
According to his map, Judge Begbie camped
at the edge of the Snowshoe meadows in early
September 1861, before attempting the fifteen-
nule section of the traU to Ander Creek. Once
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 3 he had cUmbed Horseshoe Nail Ridge he
would have enjoyed the
view of Breakneck
Ridge to the west and
noted the importance
of Roundtop Mountain to the east. Its
unique shape is a distinctive marker for traveUers at any location on
the Plateau. Begbie
could have rested at
Leon's Stopping House
before making the two-
mile descent to Ander
Creek valley. The ruins
ofthe rock chimney are
all that remains of
Leon's isolated place.
His rustic cabin must
have been a welcome
sight for packers who
had toUed their way up
the mountain from
Ander, returning in the
opposite direction to
Quesnel Forks.
Ander Creek is deserted now, but when
Begbie arrived in September 1861 there were
sixty to seventy houses.
He was so impressed with the miners' conduct
that on his return to Quesnel Forks he wrote to
the Colonial Secretary:
"I was very glad to see the men so quiet and
orderly; old Downie looked reaUy almost aghast,
he said they told me it was Uke CaUfornia in '49.
Why you would have seen aU those feUows roaring drunk, and pistols and knives in every hand. I
never saw a Mining Town Uke this. There were
some hundreds in Ander, aU sober and quiet. It
was Sunday afternoon—only a few claims were
worked that day. It was as quiet as Victoria."
Besides Begbie, there are other ghosts we might
encounter on the traU. Pioneer Horsefly River
miner Dennis Cain, for one. "You can do better
up here," he wrote to his friend John McLeUan,
"No less than 10 of our Horsefly boys are doing
weU....You know how I was dead broke last fall;
now I have a claim paying from $75 to $100 a
day to the hand, a store on the creek, and a pack
Left: Map ofthe Cariboo
routes showing the 1861
gold rush pack trial.
Cathy Chapln - Lakehead University,Thunder Bay
train carrying goods from QuesneUe City here."
Thomas Glennon was not so lucky. Like Cain,
Glennon had arrived on Ander Creek in the
spring of 1861. But unfortunately his partner,
Jeremiah Bulger was a terrible buUy. After enduring four months of abuse, Glennon fataUy
stabbed Bulger in the abdomen.The sympathetic
miners aUowed Glennon to escape. Begbie issued
a writ for his arrest when he reached Ander in
September, but by that time Glennon was safely
out ofthe country. Although 1,500 to 2,000 men
and a few Native women traveUed over the pack
traU during the summer of 1861, the only death
recorded on Ander Creek was that of Bulger.
The last section ofthe pack traU, extended by
miners and packers from SawmUl Flat on Ander
Creek to WUUams Creek, crosses Racetrack Flat
before ascending the south flank of Bald Mountain.The flat was obviously named because a few
ofthe miners who owned horses raced them here.
Hiking Notes
The trail is well marked.
Day hikes from the
trailheads at Weaver
Creek and Richfield are
easily made. Hikers
should dress for the
vagaries of mountain
weather and bring
mosquito repellent
and bear spray. If you
plan to backpack the
entire 40-kilometre
route you must be
physically fit. For trail
information send a
large, self-addressed
envelope to:
R. Grady, Trail
Committee, Friends of
Barkerville, Airport Site,
RO. Box 28, Quesnel,
B.C.V2J SF6.
21 fy.jittAtw
Above: A section of
Matthew Baillie Begbie's
map of East Cariboo.
Antler is marked.
Nearby are the ruins ofTom Maloney's stopping
house that boasted the first waU clock in the country. A gravel bench behind Maloney's was chosen
as the final resting place for Jack Emmory and
John Ross in 1862. Ross was one ofthe earUest
mailmen, employed by Dan Braley's Pony Express. He died of exhaustion in May, after deUv-
ering the maU to WiUiams Creek. When Jack
Emmory died at Camerontown in August, his
last wish was to be buried at Maloney's also. The
funeral cortege would have left WUUams Creek
at daybreak in order to reach the burial site by
afternoon. No less than three ministers waited to
conduct the service: George HUls, John Sheepshanks and RJ. Dundas. HUls wrote in his diary:
"It was pleasing to see the procession of some
40 miners who had given up their valuable time
and who had borne the corpse 8 mUes over the
rough traU, up precipices and over swamp and
bogs, over the bald mountain 500 feet to do a
kindness and show respect to a departed comrade."
At the end of the service, the words of the
famiUar hymn, "O God, our help in ages past,"
echoed across the valley.
Using the same route taken by Emmory's
friends, we ascend Bald Mountain from Racetrack Flat. The cUmb is steep, but once the summit is reached the rest of the journey to WiUiams
Creek is not difficult. There are interesting feaT
tures to note along the way. More ruins are passed
on Proserpine Mountain, perhaps a shepherd's
cabin.The alpine meadows near WUUams Creek
were used to pasture sheep and catde during the
gold rush years. Quartz outcrops sinular to those
on Base Mountain and Horseshoe NaU Ridge
beg to be checked for signs of gold. AU the various outcrops near the pack traU are located in
the "gold belt", which ranges from Cariboo Lake
to WeUs, just north of BarkervUle. The quartz is
part ofthe formation originaUy mapped by Bowman, but more recendy by Bert Struik of the
Geological Survey of Canada. MiUions of years
ago, glaciers eroded the various mother lodes, ensuring most creeks on both sides of the Snow-
shoe Plateau had placer gold. Quartz mining was
touted as early as 1863 as a way to improve the
Cariboo mining industry, but lack of wagon roads
and raUway connections to foundries in CaUfornia hampered development. Hard-rock gold mining was not successful until Fred WeUs opened
the Cariboo Gold Quartz mine in the 1930s.
The pack traU ends at WUUams Creek. After
the quiet isolation of the mountains, the husde
and busde of BarkervUle reminds us that here
was the miner's idea of civUization in the 1860s:
meeting up with old friends, sharing a drink of
whiskey, and perhaps dancing with a hurdy-gurdy
girl. The reading room and Ubrary offered the
latest in newspapers and a good selection of popular books. If court was in session at Richfield,
Judge Begbie could always be reUed upon to conduct a formal, but entertaining event.
Because ofthe distance involved and the pressure of responsibiUties, Governor James Douglas
never visited the Cariboo during the gold rush.
He reUed on Begbie and others to assure him
that the first government grant for the region
was money weU spent. He also learned that the
miners, merchants, and packers were wiUing to
match any government assistance with personal
subscriptions and physical labour. Their initiative, cooperation, and generosity were carried forward beyond the mining boom, bringing stabU-
ity to the setdement period. <""*»'
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 3 Archives & Archivists
Making the Past Accessible: The British Columbia Archival Network
Since 1993, the archival community in
BC, under the auspices of the Archives
Association of British Columbia (AABC),
has been working towards providing researchers with the ability to use the
Internet to gather information about archival material and archival institutions
throughout the province. The resulting
on-line BC Archival Network, accessible on the World Wide Web at http://, has become a model for the
developing nationwide project, the Canadian Archival Information Network,
and has raised the profile of archives in
BC and the value of archival records as
the documentary evidence of the past.
The Network enables researchers from
every corner of the province and from
around the world to discover what archival material in the province is publicly
avaUable and how it may be accessed.
The BC Network was designed to be
inclusive of archival institutions across the
province, large and small, and now includes information about the availability
of archives in 185 different repositories
in all regions ofBC.The work of the Archives Association of BC has been funded
by the provincial government through the
British Columbia Archives and its Community Archives Advisory and Training
program and by the federal government
through the National Archives of Canada
and the Canadian CouncU of Archives.
The British Columbia Archival
Union List (BCAUL), avaUable on the
web at:
bcaul.html, is the cornerstone ofthe BC
Archival Network and provides researchers with the abiUty to search general descriptions of archival material in 163 archives in BC. The BCAUL acts as a registry of archival records and from these
descriptions, researchers are able to determine where these records are held, how
they can find more detailed information
about them, and how to contact the ar-
Edited by Frances Gundry
chives in which they are presendy situated.
In some cases, Unks from the BCAUL descriptions can be made to entire archival finding aids associated with the records being described, including onhne file Usts and item
descriptions of material.
The BCAUL was also designed to help
archives large and small in the province adapt
to new national standards for describing archival material and to show how these standards could be used as the basis for information exchange across the province. Since that
initial design, the BCAUL system has developed to provide information exchange
among provinces and territories, through the
Canadian North West Archival Network
( Researchers can now search general descriptions
of archives in BC.Alberta and the Yukon in
an integrated fashion in order to locate information about archival material in the three
westernmost provinces/territories of Canada.
TheAABC's Guide to Archival Repositories in British Columbia is another onhne resource created and maintained to provide current information to researchers about
archival institutions in BC. Easy-to-use indexes allow users of archives to find out which
repositories in the province might be of interest for their particular research needs. The
guide provides entries for 183 archival institutions in BC, with contact information and
a summary ofthe kinds of records each archives acquires and makes accessible to the
public.The guide is regularly maintained and
is available at
The Web Sites of Archives in British
Columbia Web page of the AABC site provides annotated Unks to Web sites estabUshed
by individual archival institutions in the province. Over 45 archives in the province now
have their own Web sites, providing researchers with comprehensive information about
their activities and holdings.
The British Columbia Historical Photographs Online page of the AABC Web
site provides Unks to searchable historical
photograph databases created by individual
archives in BC, along with Unks to various gaUeries of photographs mounted on
various archival Web sites in the province.
Other On-line Resources: The
AABC also maintains on its Web site a
variety of other resources to serve researchers and archivists in the province.
A Virtual Exhibits section provides information and Unks to sites where archival material has been displayed and interpreted on-Une. The Archives in the
News section ofthe site provides information about the activities of archives in
the province as pubUshed in newspapers
and press releases. The Other Resources section provides Unks to a variety of other information of interest to
researchers and historians in the province.
The Archives Association of BC has
also actively worked to create on-Une resources for the use of people working
with archival material for historical societies, museums, and smaU community archives. These educational resources have
received international acclaim, and include the on-Une Archivist's Toolkit
(, a
hands-on resource which provides examples of poUcies, procedures, forms, case
studies, and pubUshed material useful for
the person working as a volunteer in a
smatt archives setting. The Toolkit also
provides appropriate Unks to the AABC's
on-line Manual for Small Archives.
AABC Programs and Services: From
the AABC Homepage at http://,Web surfers can also find
comprehensive information about the
many programs and services of the Archives Association of British Columbia,
as weU as read the quarterly issues ofthe
AABC Newsletter. For more information on the many programs, services and
activities of the Association, people are
asked to consult with the appropriate officers of the AABC as Usted on the Organization Page of the site (http://
Bill Purver
Bill Purver is coordinator ofthe BC Archival Network Services Program.
For more information about the Web resources created by the AABC and future, Internet-based projects envisioned by the Association
contact him by e-mail at, or by telephone at (604) 876-9150.
23 Report
By Winnifred Ariel Weir
Pynelogs is one of two heritage buUdings in
Invermere. Last year a rumour started to circulate that Pynelogs, owned and operated by
the ViUage of Invermere since 1977, was to
be demolished. I was aghast! The district
councU had a problem. The buUding needed
repairs beyond the scope of district funds.
One councilor had said: "We'd do better to
burn it down." His words had started the rumour.
The Columbia Valley Arts CouncU used
the buUding as a cultural centre for art displays, small drama and musical performances.
The tearoom was a major fundraiser. The
PubUc Health Inspector declared the bathrooms needed renovations and the tearoom
could not be opened unless the kitchen U-
noleum and counter tops were replaced. The
Arts CouncU faced eviction with nowhere
else to go.
Pynelogs was buUt for Robert Randolph
Bruce as the intended home for his bride,
Lady Elizabeth Northcote (See BC Historical
News 30:3 "Robert Randolf Bruce: 1861-
1942").The home was to have electric Ught,
indoor plumbing, an extensive garden, a sewer
system, and every convenience available.
Pynelogs rose above a bay near the north end
of Lake Windermere with tiny Lake Dorothy
beside it. Bruce and Lady Elizabeth were
married at the church on her parents' estate
at Upton Pynes in England on 6January 1914.
The newlyweds honeymooned in Algeria and
arrived in Invermere on 14 May 1914.Their
home was far from completed so they Uved
on a houseboat, the Isabella, moored in the
bay in front of Pynelogs.By September 1915
the home was still unfinished, when Lady
Elizabeth feU iU and died of a ruptured appendix. The only doctor in the district was
overseas, serving troops in WW I. Her grieving husband arranged for his wife of only
twenty months to be buried in a handsome
rock enclosure within sight of Pynelogs.
When Robert Bruce moved into his new
house he only had his Chinese houseboy for
company. He devoted himself to his Paradise
mine near Wilmer, the promotion ofthe interests of the Columbia Valley Irrigated
Courtesy Winnifred A. Weir
Fruidands Ltd.,and to community concerns.
He was very generous to his church, the
schools, the hospital, and any activity speU-
ing progress in what he called "Happy Valley." In 1926 Robert Bruce was appointed
lieutenant governor of British Columbia. He
held that post until 1931. That year he married Edith Bagley Molson, widow of R.B.
Van Horne of the railway famUy. In 1937
Bruce was appointed as Canada's minister to
Japan. Most of those years Pynelogs lay empty.
Citizens of Invermere approached Robert
Bruce to ask if he would donate Pynelogs so
it could become a hospital. He agreed, paid
for renovations, and renamed the building the
Lady Bruce Memorial Hospital. It was officially opened on Coronation Day in May
1937.The hospital served weU until a larger
one was needed. Then Pynelogs lay empty
In 1958 a meeting ofthe hospital board,
Chamber of Commerce and concerned citizens heard the recommendations of Dr. EE.
Coy that Pynelogs was to become a home
for elderly citizens.TheWindermere District
Social Services was formed and it took over
the property in February 1960 Valley organizations were asked to furnish rooms at about
$200 each. The Women's Institute, Kinnette
Club, Masonic Lodge and other groups assisted.The home was opened in January 1961
with five—and shordy after that eight—
guests comfortably housed. However, more
space was needed soon and in due course the
government buUt a larger faciUty for senior
retirees. Pynelogs was again vacant for some
The Columbia Valley Arts Council recognized Pynelogs' potential as a cultural centre and appUed to village councU for a lease.
The house soon proved invaluable as the
-venue for art displays, small concerts, plays
and community events. Displays were
changed weekly to give exposure to a growing number of local artists. The community
acknowledged the value ofthe cultural centre. Under dedicated volunteer administration the cultural centre thrived, although
under financial stress. The tearoom functioned in summer.
The threat from the Health Board and
the thought that Pynelogs could be demolished moved cultural devotees in the Windermere Valley to lobby for funds. The community clucked and argued and pleaded for
help to restore the building to usefulness .The
Rotary Club upgraded the kitchen, the tearoom reopened, and other renovations and
repairs were completed. Refurbished, and
graced by pleasant gardens and lakeside scenery, the heritage buUding is standing firmly
on beams brought from aThunder HiU concentrator almost a hundred years ago.
Pynelogs attracts hundreds of tourists each
summer. It is an example of preservation and
adaptation of a heritage home. Community
spirit in a small town can work minor miracles. <-^
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 3 Letters to the Editor
Best Article in BC Historical News
As recommended by the judges, this year's annual award for the article, published in British
Columbia Historical News, that best enhances
knowledge of BC's history was conferred to Dr.
Joyce Clearihue for her article "Fort Victoria and
H.B.Co. Doctors,"published in Volume 32 No. 1.
Dr. Clearihue, who received the award in person
in Port Alberni, wrote to the editor:
Through you may I thank the British
Columbia Historical Federation for the wonderful honour of receiving your "Certificate
of Merit" plus the cheque and two dinner
tickets at the recent annual meeting. I felt
quite humble at this "unexpected triumph!"
Joyce Clearihue, Victoria BC
BC Historical News, Volume 33 No. 2
I write to you about the review of my
book, Carving the Western Path by River, Rail,
and Road Through B. C.'s Southern Mountains,
in your Spring 2000 issue.
The reviewer praises my book as a whole,
but complains of mosdy unspecified "inaccuracies," suggesting that the employment of
a "technical editor" would have remedied
that. My comment is that, as the reviewer
must know by experience, technical writers
mosdy sink or swim by their own technical
concepts, and rarely find acceptable assistance
or adequate technical expertise in their
specialty. As aU other authors they rely on as
challenging and first-class editing of a general nauture as I received. As far as the alleged inaccuracies are concerned I would
prefer to personally discuss those with the
reviewer, but I would like to respond to the
only criticisms of substance in the review.
The reviewer suggests that I failed miserably by not sufficiendy emphasizing the "tremendous technological upheaval in highway
construction methods" and a nascent longdistance trucking challenge to the railroad
hegemony that existed already in the decade
prior to the First World War but "gained great
momentum in the post-war years." For those
unfamiliar with the timing of the arrival of
trucks suitable to use a trunk highway system in the interior of BC, I recommend an
excellent book, The Golden Years of Trucking,
published by the Ontario Trucking Association. As this book suggests, prior to the First
World War heavy duty internal combustion
transport vehicles were few even in Ontario.
Adequate trucks did not arrive in any number
until the war years. Even as late as 1922
heavy-duty trucks were described as "heavy
metal monsters with 14-inch sohd tires ."They
were so cumbersome and unsafe that in 1924
the Ontario Government announced that in
1926 they would introduce legislation limiting them to eight tons in weight and a speed
limit of 15 mUes per hour. The operating
speed ofthe trucks was actually about nine
miles per hour, and less on hills because of
the inefficiency in traction and braking power
ofthe solid tires.These were hardly the kind
of vehicles challenging the railways for longdistance transport in the interior of BC.
Given the incapabUity of these vehicles to
operate over long distances I am at a loss to
understand how the reviewer can talk about
faUure to create all-weather trunk highways
in the interior of BC before the last war. In
these years prior to the last war, longer and
lightly settled trunk highway-sections
through the mountains were closed throughout the winter.This included the Fraser Canyon road and the road through Monashee
Pass between Vernon and Edgewood. The
trucks and graders of that period were just
not capable of plowing snow at speed over a
distance. In such areas as the Kootenays and
the Cariboo an effort was made to keep the
roads open through heavy snow areas. The
beloved Cat 60 tractor was a wilUng workhorse (as described in my book The Coast
Connection), but it was too small and underpowered, and it was often weeks before access was restored between centres after a
heavy snowstorm.The suggestion that in the
first quarter ofthe twentieth-century internal combustion vehicles could be used on
any imaginary all-weather highways in BC
is ridiculous for one more reason. It was not
until 1926 that the first anti-freeze was introduced—a wood alcohol solution that occasionaUy blew off the radiator caps.
The trucking industry in Canada took off
in 1926, just in time for the restoration of
access between the lower mainland of BC
and its interior by the re-opening in 1927 of
the Fraser Canyon road from Yale to Spences
Bridge, which had been destroyed by the
Canadian Pacific RaUway. Unfortunately the
Great Depression and the war put an end to
this initial burst in road transportation and
highway construction, and it was not until
after the Second World War that the golden
years of highway building and trucking took
off, as described in my book The Coast Connection. It was then that the raUway went into
decline. However, one can hardly blame the
politicians for not pushing road transportation before then, as the reviewer suggests.
R.G. Harvey, Victoria BC
BC Historical News, Volume 33 No. 2
A comment on Ron Welwood's article
"Big Litde Cherry."
Ron Welwood's report of the Little
Cherry disease doesn't mention that
Kootenay Lake's mild climate had much to
do with the arrival of this virus. The 500-
foot deep lake that never freezes (except the
west arm) produces warmer winter overnight
lows than anywhere else in the interior of
The Japanese flowering cherries were
readUy available from coast nurseries. My father, Arthur Lymbery, the owner of Gray
Creek Store, was an agent for Layritz Nursery ofVictoria from approximately 1920 to
1968. In 1931 he planted one ofthe Hisakura
variety and grafted it to several more seedling cherries, however these were not close
to his cherry orchard.
BC government horticulturist Dr.Wilkes,
stationed in Creston, spent many years researching the disease, and it was he who set
up WiUiam Fraser's Kootenay Bay orchard as
a test plot. Wilkes would come to our orchard to collect buds from trees that were
still producing good-sized fruit. He propagated a "Kootenay Bay Lambert" that he
found was resistant to the virus.
The Gray Creek area was not affected until
about 1943. Soon more and more trees were
producing the small, almost tasteless, cherries. What to do with this fruit? We did ship
some to the processing plant at Harrop,
where they were put into barrels of brine,
then shipped to the coast to be made into
maraschino cherries, but it didn't pay weU.
I can remember Robert Foxall, manager of
Associated Growers in Nelson, explaining the
situation to a Litde Cherry meeting at Gray
Creek Hall, about 1947. He explained that
in Italy for instance, large families would sit
around a table and de-stone the fruit with
smaU spoons, producing a much superior
maraschino than BC's machines.
25 This discussion brought to an end commercial production on Kootenay Lake,
though we did ship a few crates in 1948.We
continued to produce and ship Italian Prune,
Jonathan and Wagner apples until 1968 but
these only gave us a tiny revenue, compared
to the heydays of the big cherries. In the
1930s and early 1940s, through two weeks
in July, we would pick cherries in the morning, pack in the early afternoon, and load the
wooden crates on Nelson Creston Transport's
daUy "Cherry Special" truck. This would
catch the 4.30 p.m. saUing ofthe S.S. Nasookin,
and if the fruit passed weighing and inspection by FoxaU's staff, it would be loaded on a
reefer car ofthe eastbound Medicine Hat and
Nelson CPR passenger train that left Nelson at midnight. Those super cherries could
then be on sale in Prairie cities the next day.
It was a surprise to all of us when Dr.
Wilkes estabUshed that Litde Cherry was a
virus brought by the Japanese flowering varieties. He made a trip to Japan, in the hope
of finding a resistant species. However, he told
me that the Japanese fruiting cherries were
ofthe "Royal Anne" type, a tight coloured
fruit of good size, but too soft for commercial shipment in Canada. He also explained
that the Japanese industry was most labour
intensive. Large famUies would wrap the fruit
in newspaper, after the cherries had "set," in
order to keep off flies and birds.
When Dr. Wilkes was transferred to
Vernon from Creston, he gave me some of
the flowering trees he had been experimenting with saying "they won't survive winters
in Creston."
Tom Lymbery, Gray Creek, BC
Ron Welwood's response: I find that Mr.
Lymberg's comments complement the article. While
[Tom Lymberg's] personal experiences are very
interesting he did not seem to accurately address
the main theme ofthe article.. ..Perhaps the mild
climate assisted in the spread ofthe virus, but the
climate had nothing to do with its "arrival" in the
Kootenays. This invasive disease was introduced
to the Lakewood estate by infected Japanese orna-
mentalflowering cherries in the 1930s... .No claim
was made about where they were grown, other
than the fact that the ornamental cherry trees
planted at the Lakewood estate carried the Little
Cherry disease in symptomless or masked form. It
seems likely that these trees were not obtained
from legitimate nursery stock approved by the
Ministry of Agriculture. Thus the disease was introduced to the Willow Point area and it rapidly
spread from there.
Winners ofthe
British Columbia Historical Federation
writing competition for books on BC history
pubUshed in 1999
Lions Gate
Lilia D'Acres and Donald Luxton
Talon Books
Lieutenant-Governor's Medal for Historical Writing
First Place in BCHF Writing Competition
Historical Atlas of British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest
Derek Hayes
Cavendish Books: (604) 515-8835
Second Prize in BCHF Writing Competition
Cougar Annie's Garden
Margaret Horsfield (for the Boat Basin Foundation)
Salal Books (250) 753-9666
Second Prize in BCHF Writing Competition
Journeys: Down the Alberni Canal to Barkley Sound
Jan Peterson.
Oolichan Books: (250) 390-4839
Honourable mention
A Story as Sharp as a Knife
Robert Bringhurst
Douglas & Mclntyre Publishing Group: (604) 254-7191
Honourable mention
Robert Dunsmuir: Laird ofthe Mines
Lynne Bowen
XYZ PubUshing: (514) 525-2170
Honourable mention
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 3 Book Reviews
Books for review and book reviews should be sent to:
Apne Yandle, Book Review Editor BC Historical News, 3450 West 20th Avenue,Vancouver BC V6S1E4
Walter R. Goldschmidt and
Theodore H. Haas
Haa Aani, Our Land. Tlingit and
Haida Land Rights and Use.
Reviewed by Joy Inglis
John Kendrick
Alejandro Malaspina: Portrait of a
Reviewed by Dr. Barry Gough
Tom Henry
Westcoasters: Boats that Built
British Columbia
Previewed by Gordon Miller
Peter Corley-Smith and
David N. Parker
Helicopters: The British Columbia
Reviewed by Kirk Salloum
Netta Sterne
Fraser Gold 1858! The Founding
of British Columbia
Reviewed by Lewis Green
June Cameron
Destination Cortez Island, A
Sailor's Life Along the BC Coast
Reviewed by Kelsey McLeod
Vera K. Fast
Companions ofthe Peace: Diaries
and letters of Monica Storrs,
Reviewed by Peter J. Mitham
Derek Hayes
Historical Atlas of British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest
Reviewed by J.E. Roberts
Wayne Norton
A Whole Little City by Itself:
Tranquille and Tuberculosis
Reviewed by Naomi Miller
HUary Place
Dog Creek: A Place in the
Reviewed by Sheryl Salloum
Haa Aani, Our Land. Tlingit and
Haida Land Rights and Use.
Walter R. Goldschmidt and Theodore H.
Haas. Edited and introduced by Thomas E.
Thornton. Selaska Heritage Foundation,
Juneau. Seatde and London: University of
Washington Press. 1998.219 pp. IUus. maps.
$52.95 paperback.
Reviewed by Joy Inglis
This work is a republication of a traditional
land use study (TUS) by anthropologist
Walter Goldschmidt and his associate
Theodore H. Haas in 1947. Walter
Goldschmidt is one ofthe greats of twentieth-century anthropology and professor
emeritus at the University of California, Los
Angeles.The quaUty of documentation contained in this cultural land use and occupancy
study made it an important resource in settling the land claims of the Tlingit and Haida
of southeastern Alaska in 1971.
At that time, American poUcy was moving from assimUation and missionary endeavour toward preservation and revitalization of
traditions of First Peoples. Natives in southeast Alaska though threatened by white intrusion, spoke their own language and were
able to give place names, and indicate how
their parents and grandparents moved
through their territories from the winter villages to hunt and fish, build traps and caches,
and gather bark, roots, and berries.They were
aware of historic sites and gravesites, and
awesome places where spirit power was
sought.They were still part of a tradition that
had been underway for thousands of years.
Maps and reports in Haa Aani concern
the traditional territories ofthe Klukwan.the
Chilkat (Haines), Taku, Hoonah, Sitka,
Angoon, Kake, Klawock, Wrangell or
Stickine, Ketchikan, Saxman, Tongas, Cape
Hox or Sanya, and the Haida on Prince of
Wales Archipelago. It is a precious document
not only for aboriginal descendants of the
TUngit and Haida of Alaska, but for aU who
want to have knowledge ofthe past beyond
the thin lens of time represented by Russian
and American occupation.
An exceUent introduction by Thomas F
Thornton, "Who owned southeast Alaska?"
sets the scene for the struggle to compensate
the Native people of southeastern Alaska for
the intrusion of their lands for non-Native
setdement, road buUding, communication
networks, and national and international giant projects. In 1971, the Alaska Native
Claims Setdement based on a court case, in
which Dr. Goldschmidt was caUed to testify,
was haUed in the press as the most generous
of any settlements with aboriginal peoples
anywhere in the world. It was not a record
hard to beat. Like simUar treaties signed by
the United States with Native tribes in the
lower forty-eight states, which were cast in
language of self-determination, it was a treaty
designed to accompUsh assimUation and termination.
This is the rub in treaty negotiations today with the bands of British Columbia.
While negotiators for the government are
focused upon positive economic development, reconciliation, certainty, and finality, the
bands are concerned with protection of their
status as First Nations, compensation and
Aboriginal tide to their land, and a continuing open process.
It was only in 1999 that the first land claim
treaty in BC, negotiated with the Nisga'a of
the Nass VaUey by the Provincial Government went to the House of Commons in
Ottawa for ratification. The claim by the
Nisga'a represents the longest ongoing fight
for a treaty by any band in BC history. It was
in recent years bolstered by a legal decision
ofthe Supreme Court that"equal weight shall
be given to oral traditions" in determining
claims to aboriginal territory. (Delgamuukw
decision). Ofthe 200 bands in BC, some 70
percent have engaged in TUS (Traditional
Use Study) mapping their own territories
on the evidence of their elders. This technique has been usefuUy employed aU over
the world, and the computer has become an
indispensable tool.
Some reasons for difficulties in data collection here: coastal bands have a young
population compared to the general population. Most are educated and acculturated,
and have been engaged in business in the
fishing industry that has been the focus of
family Ufe for over fifty years. There is a re-
27 luctance to give information outside the lineage, and persons with knowledge are generally high-ranking and their position requires discretion with regard to guarding traditional knowledge. The information and
mapping are considered absolutely confidential.
WUl the TUS reports of BC bands become pubUc property in fifty years, to the
benefit of descendants and all who are interested in history? Will access to the maps and
dreams ofthe Native people of BC be a consequence of all the intense work that has gone
into preparation for treaties, as is the case in
the southeastern Alaska report in Haa Aani?
The maps in Haa Aani are disappointing,
especially for one unfamUiar with the landscape of southeastern Alaska. For examples
of marveUous map-making in TUS studies,
see Sami Potatoes. Living with Reindeer and
Perestroika (1998) by Michael Robinson and
Karim-Aly S. Kassam, based on a Russian-
Sami co-management project, initiated in
1955 by the Arctic Institute of North
America, University of Calgary, and pubUshed by Bayeux Arts Inc. Calgary. <^
Reviewer Joy Inglis, formerly ofthe Vancouver
Museum, is now a resident of Quadra Island.
She was head mapper and researcher for the
Kwakiutl Territorial Fisheries Commission
while their land use study was underway.
Alejandro Malaspina:
Portrait of a Visionary.
John Kendrick. Montreal & Kingston:
McGiU University Press, 1999.206 pp.
Ulus. Map. $34.95 hardcover.
Reviewed by Dr. Barry Gough
Alejandro orAlessandro Malaspina, who was
born in Malazzo, Parma, 2 November 1754
and died in PontremoU, Parma, 9 AprU 1810,
is best remembered for his global circumnavigation, for his explorations ofthe Pacific
Ocean, and for his discoveries, for Spain, in
North and South America.
In 1789 Spain launched an ambitious expedition, the intent of which was twofold:
(1) to survey in a comprehensive fashion
South America and to develop comprehensive hydrographical charts to aid in navigation "for the remote regions ofAmerica," and
(2) to assess the poUtical and economic climate ofthe far-flung Spanish Empire. Two
vessels were detaUed for this discovery, the
Descubierta and the Atrevida, with Malaspina
in the former and Bustamante y Guerra in
command ofthe latter. The first port of call
was Rio de Janeiro, and then the ships coasted
south, visiting and surveying Montevideo,
Buenos Aires and the Falklands (Malvinas).
They rounded Cape Horn, and then sailed
along the Chilean coast to Peru, GuayaquU,
the Galapagos, Panama, and Acapulco. In
1791 Malaspina saUed to southeasternAlaska,
returning southwards via Nootka Sound and
Monterey, Alta CaUfornia. The year 1792
found him crossing the Pacific to the PhiUp-
pines, spending the foUowing year in the
southwest Pacific, principaUy at New South
Wales, New Zealand, and Tonga. He returned
to Spain on 21 September 1794. Such are
the basic details of his five-year mammoth
voyage to the Pacific, one of scientific discovery and poUtical inquiry. The achievements were notable, particularly on the scientific side.
But there was a darker, more dangerous
side to this voyage of discovery. Malaspina
was unhappy with what he found in the
Spanish empire. He returned to Spain with
the earnest conviction that Spain should free
her colonies in the New World. A strong Ub-
eralism burned in this nobleman's heart, and
his ideas and writings failed to attract any
sympathy. Indeed, the executive council
deemed his views revolutionary and thus
dangerous. Malaspina was arrested.jaUed and
stripped of his tides. He was six years in confinement, and released on condition that he
not remain in Spain. It was for these poUtical
reasons that Malaspina feU from grace in his
time. He was largely forgotten until, in 1992,
Spanish scholars and others interested in the
history of Pacific exploration took up the
challenge of giving Malaspina a new lease
on Ufe, one long overdue.
John Kendrick has been in the Canadian
lead in the Malaspina resuscitation, and has
been aiding Spanish compadres and EngUsh
editors preparing the forthcoming Hakluyt
Society edition (in EngUsh) in reviving this
notable voyager and leader of a strong scientific team. Spanish research over many years
has been led by Mercedes Palau Banquero.
From her sound foundation of scholarship,
and that of others, Kendrick has built a larger
understanding. His book is a straightforward
and logical narrative which draws together
the vital details from the larger Uterature (all
noted in his useful bibUography). Kendrick's
treatment is the first scholarly book-length
biography, and is a most welcome addition
to the literature. Kendrick does not shy away
from examining the undoubted vanity of
Malaspina. Nor does he dodge a good analysis
ofthe revolutionary tendencies of his hero.
For all its enlightening instincts the Spanish
crown of Malaspina's time was dreadfuUy
worried that what had happened at the
Bastille would soon be seen in the streets of
Madrid. Malaspina had no friends at court,
and the royalist service, in which he was a
distinguished naval captain and brigadier,
held little sympathy for his dangerous
enthusiasms. For aU these reasons John
Kendrick's book opens new vistas on the
plulosophical disposition and the poUtical
reasoning of one of Spain's greatest navigators and discoverers."*''
Reviewer Barry Gough teaches Canadian history at Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON.
Westcoasters: Boats that Built British
Tom Henry. Madeira Park: Harbour Pub-
Ushing, 1998.192 pp. Ulus. $34.95 hardcover.
Reviewed by Gordon Miller.
Tom Henry is one ofBritish Columbia's best-
known historical writers. An earUer book,
The Good Company: an Affectionate History of
the Union Steamships, won the 1995 British
Columbia Historical Federation's Lieutenant Governor's Medal for Historical Writing. This time, he presents us with a book of
stories about fourteen notable BC boats.
Henry has chosen his subjects weU. Each of
his choices represents a unique type of vessel
at a unique period within the last two hundred years.
The fourteen vessels are the Discovery,
Captain George Vancouver's ship during his
exploration ofthe BC coast during the late
eighteenth century; the Beaver, the Hudson's
Bay Company steamer, which on its introduction in 1836, became the first steamer on
the BC coast; the WiUiam Irving, a
sternwheeler which operated on the lower
Fraser River between 1800 and 1894; the
Lome, a sea-going tug buUt by the Dunsmuirs
in 1889; the Thermopylae, an aging tea clipper, which operated out ofVictoria during
the 1890s; the Beatrice, buUt as a sealer in 1891,
which over the next hundred years became
a towboat, freighter, fish packer, and research
vessel; the Columbia, a mission boat during
the first decades of the twentieth century;
the Princess Maquinna, one ofthe Canadian
Pacific Railway's coastal steamships; the
Malahat, a rum-runner of the 1920s, converted to a log carrier in the 1930s; the Lady
Alexandra, one ofthe Union Steamship fer- _
ries and excursion boats; the BCP no. 45, a
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 3 seiner active from 1927 to 1995; the Sudbury,
a post-Second World War deep-sea tug; the
Pices I, a submersible designed and built in
the 1960s; and the Lootaas, a replica of an
pcean-going Haida dugout canoe.
Each vessel is treated in a separate chapter. Henry presents details about the construction, appearance, operational characteristics,
and career of each vessel. The material is interesting, and is presented in an easy, conversational style. The text is accompanied by
good illustrations, which are enhanced by the
book's coffee table format.
Nevertheless, I was disappointed with the
book. I had expected to learn about the boats
that buUt British Columbia, as stated on the
tide page. Instead, I read only about the fourteen boats chosen by the author. I wanted to
learn about the conditions that prompted the
design and construction of each differing
types of boats which Henry's selection represents. I wanted to learn about the role each
of these types of vessels played in British
Columbia economic and social Ufe. I wanted
to learn about the development of maritime
industries in British Columbia.
Regrettably, Henry did not attempt to
provide this type of background information and analysis. In addition, most of the
information presented on each vessel will be
famiUar to knowledgeable readers. Only the
section on the Pisces I contained substantial
amounts of new, unfamUiar material.
In conclusion, this is a weU-written, weU-
LUustrated collection of weU-known stories
about some of BC best-known ships. And
that's all. '<^'
Reviewer Gordon Miller is librarian at the Pacific
Biological Station in Nanaimo.
Helicopters: The British Columbia Story.
Peter Corley-Smith and David N. Parker.
Victoria,BC: Sono Nis Press,1998.226 pp.,
Ulus. $24.95 paperback.
Reviewed by Kirk Salloum
The province's story of heUcopters begins in
1947 when these machines proved themselves
well suited to the BC terrain.They were versatile and extremely valuable for serving lighthouses, as pathfinders for icebreakers, for
transporting passengers to their destinations,
for logging and surveying operations, and as
part ofthe air ambulance service, to name a
few of their multiple applications.
The authors acknowledge that their work
falls short of being definitive history. As an
example, they point to the lack of detail on
the recreational use of heUcopters. However,
Corley-Smith and Parker's weU-researched
book contains a variety of documentation.
Historical data and references are available
for readers requiring them. A treasure of information, accompanied by colour and black-
and-white photographs, is presented.
Oudined are the fundamentals of helicopter maintenance and piloting.The early heUcopters were high-maintenance machines.
The first helicopter pilots had to learn a completely different set of reflexes from those they
developed whUe flying fixed-wing aircraft.
Informative and fascinating, heUcopter incidents keep readers entertained. They learn
about the character of individual pUots and
the unique experiences each encountered.
Excerpts from interviews of people involved
in BC's early helicopter history are incorporated to enrich the text. These recoUections
are from individuals "who were clearly pioneers in a new technology."
Commercial companies were the main
players who introduced the helicopter into
the province; particularly, Okanagan HeUcopters Limited. Two individuals discussed extensively in the book are Carl Agar and
Alf Stringer. Their importance to the development of the helicopter industry is acknowledged in the book's dedication.
Helicopter crews that flew for commercial companies solved many ofthe problems
associated with flying in the mountains. The
military and other government agencies
turned to these crews to learn about this new
knowledge that the authors associated with
"a second era of bush flying." Like the first
era of bush pilots who flew fixed-wing aircraft, helicopter pUots had to carry out manoeuvres that no one else had previously
done. They learned to handle these through
trial and error, sometimes in death-threatening situations. Highlighted are stories
linked to the development of BC.As examples, Corley-Smith and Parker chronicle the
use of helicopters in the Aluminum Company of Canada's Kitimat-Kemano venture
and in the BC Power Commission project
on the Homathko River (interwoven with
anecdotes on the" indestructible" Ted
Henson). Other events described revolve
around a host of forestry, mining, survey, and
search-and-rescue operations throughout the
There is litde need to shy away from this
book if readers think they lack an understanding ofthe evolution of heUcopter technology. An appendix helps to fiU many gaps.
The value of this work is in understanding
how a relatively modern aviation machine,
and key individuals surrounding that technology, assisted with estabUshing industries
and people throughout BC's diverse
terrain. '*^>
Reviewer Kirk Salloum is an educational consultant living in Vancouver, BC.
Fraser Gold 1858! The Founding of British Columbia.
Netta Sterne. Pullman, WAfWashington State
University Press, 1998.187 pp. Ulus., $29.95
Reviewed by Lewis Green.
The book deals with events in 1858 when
James Douglas, then Governor ofthe Colony
ofVancouver Island but without any authority on the mainland, seized the initiative and
moved swiftly to control the Fraser River
gold rush.
The gold rush, predicted by Douglas in
late 1857, reached Victoria on Sunday, 25
AprU 1858, with the arrival ofthe steamer
Commodore from San Francisco. The
stampeders aboard, 450 in aU, outnumbered
the population of Victoria. It was just the
beginning. By June 1st an estimated 10,000
men had started up the Fraser River, and
before the year was out the total would be
close to 25,000.
Douglas was on his own. Requests to the
Colonial Office for assistance or direction
could involve waits of up to six months for a
reply. Already in late 1857 he had issued an
ordinance declaring that all mines of gold in
the Fraser and Thompson districts belonged
to the Crown, and soon after he announced
a system of compulsory miners'licences. Initially, Douglas, still a Hudson's Bay Company
employee as weU as governor, had attempted
to protect the company's interests but the
numbers of miners involved soon made this
impossible.There were still controls inasmuch
as licences had to be purchased inVictoria,
and two Royal Navy survey vessels were stationed off the mouth of the Fraser to prevent smuggling and licence evasion. For the
miners a system of claims for "bar diggings"
was estabUshed and sub-commissioners were
appointed to mark out the claims and collect the duty payable. The potential for conflict between Natives and miners was reduced
by the appointment of Native magistrates.
The most innovative move was a road
construction project begun in midsummer
when high water on the Fraser flooded many
ofthe bars and halted mining operations. A
29 corps of 500 men was enroUed to open a
trail and water route from Port Douglas, at
the north end of Harrison Lake, that would
bypass the Fraser Canyon and return to the
river at today's Lillooet.The men would not
be paid but rather posted a bond of $25 as
security for good conduct which, on completion of the project, would be repaid to
them at Port Douglas in the form of provisions at Victoria prices. The route with its
many bridges and portages was completed
in mid-October.
On 19 November 1858, on his third visit
to the mainland, Douglas was sworn in as
governor ofthe Colony of British Columbia by Judge Matthew Begbie who had arrived inVictoria a few days before. Working
with the resources and people avaUable,
Douglas had overseen the transformation
from fur trading days to the beginning of a
new resource-based economy. In the years
that foUowed the new arrivals, Begbie, Colonel Moody and the Royal Engineers, Chartres Brew, and others would build on the
foundation Douglas had prepared in 1858,
that incredible year in British Columbia's history.
The author's approach to the events in
1858 differs in that coverage ofthe year is
drawn from contemporary accounts in local,
American and British newspapers in addition to official correspondence.The approach
works extremely weU in that it captures the
excitement of a time when would-be miners were bombarded with a mixture of truth,
hearsay, and sheer fantasy.'"5=S"'
Reviewer Lewis Green, a member ofthe Vancouver Historical Society, is a retired mining engineer.
Destination Cortez Island, A Sailor's Life
Along the BC Coast.
June Cameron. Surrey BC: Heritage House,
1999.224 pp. IUus. 17.95 paperback.
Reviewed by Kelsey McLeod
This has to be one of the most informative
books about life up our coast in the past I
have read. While it is the story of the author's family making yearly trips by small boat
from their home in Vancouver to visit grandparents on Cortez Island, that is but one facet.
The others are varied, not the least of which
is giving a vivid picture ofthe daUy life early
on of children up the coast, their interests,
activities, and chores.
When I finished reading, I decided that
the reason I felt it was like old-home week
for me was not only because I grew up on
that coast and knew many of the people
mentioned, but because the author, not having spent the entire year up coast, had a distant vision of life on Cortez, and because of
the distancing, had written much ofthe essence of that life. This is the strength ofthe
account, its charm, and its value to the reader.
But the history ofthe early coastal setdement is there as weU, giving insight into the
challenges, the dangers, and disappointments
early pioneers faced.The time period is from
1930 tiU the present day. Cameron's maternal grandparents came to Cortez in 1917,
lured by the prospect of freedom, opportunity, and land.
However, it is not only the story of her
own family, for she interviewed many people, and their stories; their pictures are included. I was amazed at the extent of the
knowledge of small-boat engines Cameron
displays. I first decided that she must have
had help in her account from some master
boat mechanic, but after talking to a friend,
who sailed the coast with her husband in a
small boat, I discovered that women wizards
with engines were common.
It is all between these pages, the dropping
in on neighbours, dances, details like the
number of students needed for a school, to
how a homestead house was built and digging and preserving clams.
I highly recommend this book. I can't imagine anyone not getting something worth-
whUe from it. It should be a must for all immigrants to this coast, whether they come
from another continent, or from other provinces. We hear about Newfoundland life tiU
it is coming out of our ears. Maybe Destination Cortez Island wUl make Canadians realize there is also an up-the-West-Coast lifestyle. Buy it, read it, enjoy. <"^
Reviewer Kelsey McLeod is a member ofthe Vancouver Historical Society.
Companions of the Peace: Diaries and
Letters of Monica Storrs, tg^i-ig^g.
Vera K. Fast, Ed. Toronto: University ofToronto Press, 1999. 246 pp. IUus. $19.95 paperback.
Reviewed by Peter J. Mitham
Perhaps the most intriguing aspect of Companions of the Peace, an edition of the letters
and diaries of Monica Storrs, an AngUcan lay
worker in the Peace River Block from 1929
to 1950, is its distinct difference from God's
Galloping Girl (Vancouver, 1979). Edited by
the renowned western Canadian historian W
L. Morton, the earlier volume predated the
significant shift that has since occurred in our
attitudes to history and its teUing. Social history and its various manifestations—working class and women's history among them—
have profoundly altered how we interpret the
past, and shape it for contemporary consumption.
This is clear from the outset of Companions ofthe Peace, which begins in 1931, the
year Morton's volume ends. For Morton,
Storrs left a rich record of the conflict between "Christian spirituaUty" and "North
American frontier materialism at its most
barren and its worst." The diaries offered a
compelling account ofthe political and physical geography of contemporary British Columbia. Today, gender is an equally significant element of the geography and the introduction to Fast's book makes this clear.
Fast, who assisted Morton during preparation ofthe first volume, and Mary Kinnear,
a coUaborator on the introduction to the new
volume, cast Storrs as a quiet feminist serving the needs of women in the vicinity of
Fort St. John during the dark days of the
1930s. And truly, Storrs and her community
of female lay workers—the Companions of
the Peace—were a vital support to other
women isolated in a predominandy masculine world. By highlighting this aspect, and
focusing on the opportunities the Peace offered female missionaries, Fast brings a fresh
perspective to Morton's analysis of Storrs's
writings. The introduction makes the reader
conscious of a feminism that Storrs, herself
"no self-conscious feminist" (p. 10),
The variety of detaU Storrs records has
left a vivid narrative that quickly moves the
reader beyond a limited reading ofthe diaries as mere records of women's history, however. Far more than reUgious workers, Storrs
and her Companions enjoyed a position of
privUege that gave them access to every facet
of pioneer life. They fUled the interstices of
local society with clothing, food, and companionship, and through these experiences
and a sense of purpose, left a record fUled
with humane feeling and acute criticism.
They underline the spiritual element that was
part of the frontier experience—an aspect
amply evident throughout Fast's book.
Unfortunately, the principles guiding the
selection of material for this edition are not
as firm as those Morton foUowed. While the
first volume, covering 1929-1931, was a
complete text, the ambitions ofthe editor
and the substantial text of the diaries were
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 3 compromised in the present volume by restrictions that limited the amount of material published to a quarter of what was available. We never read, for instance, ofthe events
leachng to Storrs's decision to head home in
1939. It is a tantalizing omission, but the
reader is at a loss to know whether it was
made by Storrs or Fast. Readers must trust
the editors to have been as even-handed in
selection as they profess, but inclusion or
exclusion ultimately rested on subjective de-
cisions.Time will prove the wisdom of these,
but only consulting the original texts inVictoria or Fort St.John wiU reveal which quarter ofthe diaries Fast selected.
Nevertheless, Fast has rendered scholars—
and other readers—a valuable service in annotating and making available this selection
from the Storrs diaries. She has woven a fascinating narrative that will delight casual and
serious readers alike. Storrs emerges, seventy
years after entering the Peace River Block, a
strong, independent woman. A feminist, yes,
but more generaUy—and for Christ's sake—
a humanist keenly aUve and sympathetic to
the pUght of the setders among whom she
Reviewer Peter Mitham is a freelance writer living in Vancouver. His bibliography of Peter Service will be published this spring.
Historical Atlas of British Columbia and
the Pacific Northwest.
Derek Hayes. Cavendish Books Inc., Unit 23,
1610 DerwentWay, Delta B.C., Canada,V3M
6W1,1999.208 pp. 320 map reprints. $ 48.95
hardcover. Published in the USA as Historical
Atlas of the Pacific Northwest by Sasquatch
Books, Seatde, Wash.
Reviewed by J.E. Roberts.
My first reaction on picking up this magnificent book was one of disappointment,
albeit only concerning its cover with an artist's rendition ofVancouver's Discovery. It is
regrettable that a reference was not made to
one ofthe standards on eighteenth-century
saUing ships before paint hit the canvas, since
the result is the portrayal of a ship that could
never have left harbour. David R.
MacGregor's Merchant Sailing Ships 1115-
1815, their Design and Construction, would
have filled in many ofthe blanks in the artist's knowledge ofVancouver's stout litde vessel.
The subject matter has dictated the size
of the book (25 by 33 centimetres) which
comes in at a hefty one and a half kUograms
and could be a bit awkward to hold for anyone with small hands and arms. The time
frame covered is over 400 years and much
that occurred, cartographically, during that
period is recorded in detaU. This is a work
that wiU not be read in one go and it is suggested that it be digested, a bit at a time, to
maintain the chronology of the history of
map-making by the early Russian, Spanish,
and EngUsh explorers on our coast.With the
book placed in a comfortable reading position and a magnifying glass at hand, many
enjoyable hours could be spent absorbing
knowledge that for many will be in a new
and exciting field.
The author has assembled the finest collection of maps and charts relating to the
Pacific Northwest and has woven their place
in our history. In addition to nautical charts
ofthe seas and coastline, he has included many
maps which bring aUve the history of the
hinterland in a way that makes one wish that
such information were available, in this form,
when one was struggling with history at
school or coUege. The sections dealing with
the Alaska boundary dispute and the finaUz-
ing of the international boundary are weU
presented. This volume wiU have interest for
readers miles from the sea and the smeU of
salt air, thanks to the inclusion of the maps
covering the fur trade and the various gold
rushes that were part ofthe development of
The author has drawn from thousands of
charts and maps in repositories aU over the
world and some are included "... simply because I found them interesting." The reader
would be well advised not to skip reading
the introduction, as often happens, for the
author's comments on "native maps" and on
"exploration and discovery" are most refreshing.
The reproductions are first class and Midas
Printing in Hong Kong is to be congratu-
lated.The reviewer would have Uked to know
the actual size ofthe original map or chart,
which would be of value when comparing
similar plans.The only serious error noted is
that of map 143, on page 87, which has been
iriadvertendy printed upside down. This was
not an easy error to spot,~since on the original, the numbering tide had been put on
upside down which would cause anyone
looking at the chart to turn it over.The numbering of latitude and longitude that could
have correcdy oriented the chart is very small,
requiring a most careful reading. This particular chart shows one of the very few er
rors in the cartography of theVancouver expedition and was the subject of special attention on pp. 214-216 of my book, A Discovery Journal. For this reason, the error
jumped out at your reviewer.
There are a few errors in the text dealing
with Vancouver's survey, and these wiU be
corrected in a second printing; typically, Alexander BeU, on p. 88, is confused with
Edward Bell, clerk ofthe Chatham, and Joseph
Whidbey was master ofthe Discovery, not the
The sections ofthe book deaUng with the
growth of the metropohtan areas of the
northwest illustrate the then state ofthe cartographer's art with a number of birds-eye
views of major ports and cities.The addition
of a few remarks on the later developments
in map-making, such as aerial photography
and satelUte imaging, would possibly make
the work more complete.
Cavendish Books are to be congratulated
for producing a first class publication at a
reasonable price and it is to be hoped that
we see more works on the history of British
Columbia from their presses. <<^>'
Reviewer John E. (Ted) Roberts, a Victoria resident, is an enthusiastic scholar in the field of Pacific Northwest exploration.
A Whole Little City by Itself:
Tranquille and Tuberculosis.
Wayne Norton. Kamloops: Plateau Press,
1999.192 pp. $21.95 paperback.
Reviewed by Naomi Miller.
The subtide, "TranquiUe and Tuberculosis,"
gives the focus of this well researched book.
The author takes Tranquille, and the British
Columbia Anti-Tuberculosis Society, through
the years of estabUshing this western sanatorium, through the First World War when a
veterans' hospital had to be created tempo-
rarUy in Balfour, through the disputes with
soldier patients, to provincial takeover, to
needed and welcome expansions and modernization of facilities (especiaUy the operating room), to impending closure.
The citizens of Kamloops alternated between acceptance and rejection of this institution housing patients with an infectious
disease. There were many changes in public
perception, poUtics, and patient care over the
years. The fears of locals, added to the isolation of the Fortune farm, forced the sponsors operating the site to create "a whole Utde city by itself."
The community ofTranquille had its own
farm to supply meat, milk, fruit, eggs, and
31 vegetables. There was staff housing, a school
for employees' children. In early years access
was by boat but when the Canadian National
Railway pushed a line on the north side of
Kamloops Lake, a station was built with a
spur forTranquille deliveries. Later, as labour
regulations necessitated extra personnel, a bus
ran between Kamloops and the sanatorium.
Some staff commuted regularly. Recovering
patients used the bus for an exciting taste of
civilization with a rare half-day pass..
Initially the patients were working-class
white males. Gradually space was created for
female sufferers. No Natives and no Asians
were accepted as patients or hired as staff until
after the Second World War. Also noted was
the fact that none on staff became infected
with the tubercle baciUus.The nurses or physicians that became patients at Tranquille were
infected in a general hospital or private home
setting when working with patients with illnesses or injury unrelated to TB.
When the Government knew TranquiUe
was about to be abandoned by TB patients,
an advisory committee dithered for two years
before finding a new use for the lovely build-
ings.The period of vacancy hastened the deterioration of the buUdings. From 1958 to
1984 mentaUy disabled citizens were cared
for here, then one scheme after another failed.
What was once a peaceful, beautiful hospital
complex is an unsafe jungle of weeds and
falling structures.The book is a thought-provoking report on a British Columbia institution which served its cUentele so weU that
it became superfluous.'*55''
Reviewer Naomi Miller is a former editor ofBC
Historical News
Dog Creek: A Place in the Cariboo.
HUary Place. Surrey BC: Heritage House
PubUshing Company, 1999. 266 pp. IUus.
$18.95 paperback.
Reviewed by Sheryl Salloum
The pun in the tide is the first indication
that this book, part history, part memoir, is
an entertaining read. The grandson of a
Cariboo pioneer who setded in Dog Creek
in the early 1880s, HUary Place has taken on
the role of raconteur and details the history
ofthe remote setdement, his family's life in
the area, and his personal experiences in the
region up to the 1970s. Place's recoUections
of surviving bitterly cold winters and a world
without "telephones, radios, automobiles,
refrigerators, indoor plumbing, electricity, and
so many other things we take for granted
today," transport us to a bygone era. Reminiscences ofthe people he encountered vividly capture and convey the hardships and
realities of life in the Cariboo. Some of those
individuals "were heroic beyond belief," a few
are now famous, and others "were hoboes
with packs on their backs."
The book's chapters include discussions
of the area's setdement and early days, the
Dog Creek Indian Reserve, the Dog Creek
hockey team, hotel, Mountain Airbase, school,
stage, and store. Interspersed with intriguing
facts about the locale and its inhabitants are
anecdotes of courage and survival. In one,
Place tells of a nine-year-old boy who was
being beaten by his father. One day this chUd
packed a bag and, in spite of his clubfeet,
walked many kilometres from the Gang
Ranch to the Place farm where he asked for
lodgings and a job. The youngster was told
that he could stay as long as he went to school
and fed the chickens. He Uved with the Place
famUy for 21 years.
Stories ofthe First Nations people ofthe
area are particularly intriguing. For example,
Place relates that the Alkali Lake team was
made up of young men Uving on the Alkali
Lake Reserve. To participate in matches, the
team would often travel great distances: this
meant spending 10 to 12 hours in horse-
drawn sleighs in below-zero temperatures. In
towns such as Williams Lake, aboriginal people were not aUowed in the hotels or restaurants. The team would have to "pitch their
tents Supper was some deer meat and
boUed frozen potatoes... .A campfire was the
only source of heat." Not having any extra
players, the men had to play non-stop, but
"they made a team few could beat."
The book's illustrations include maps and
many photographs of interest. Included is one
of historian Marius Barbeau dressed Uke a
cowboy, one of writer Sheila (Doherty)
Watson, who taught school in Dog Creek
for a year in the 1930s, and one of A.Y.
Jackson, who visited Dog Creek in the mid-
1940s—the book's jacket is a Jackson canvas
that was sent to Place's mother.
Without a concluding chapter, the book
ends rather abrupdy. The last line, however,
which discusses Place's love of music, seems
also to sum up the author's life in the Cariboo:
"It's part of me and it probably will be until
the end." HUary Place's recoUections are a
deUghtful and fascinating glimpse of a far-
flung region of BC and another era.'^^'
Reviewer Sheryl Salloum, a member ofthe Vancouver Historical Society, is a freelance writer.
Federation News
Prince George Honoured at
Port Alberni Conference
A panel of five judges selected the Prince
George Oral History Group (Web site
http:/ as the winners
ofthe first BC History Web Site Prize. The
judges particularly noted that the Prince
George Oral History Group explained the
purpose of their Web site and placed the
information in the context of their activities.
The $250 prize, an idea of David Mattison,
is sponsored by the British Columbia
Historical Federation and David Mattison.
The award is intended to recognize aWeb
site contributing to an understanding and
appreciation of British Columbia's past. The
prize honours individual initiative.
Institutional sites are not eUgible.
Richmond Host BCHF
Conference 2001
In May 2001, the Richmond Museum
Society will host the British Columbia
Historical Federation conference. Tentatively
themed "The Land You Pass Through," the
conference wUl focus on ideas of change in
the landscape, of the role of individuals in
history, and of stewardship and conservancy.
With its focus on the land, this theme
naturaUy invokes the agricultural and fishing
history of Richmond, and it also provides an
opening to consider the changing uses of that
land and, for Richmond at least, the evolution
into a suburb ofVancouver. Used metaphor-
icaUy, the theme leads us to think about the
footprints each person leaves on the place
that they Uve. From there we can look at the
individuals who shaped and are shaping the
history of our places, but we can also explore
questions about what we are doing to
preserve our history, the stories, the
documents, the artifacts, the buUdings, and
the landscapes.
The Friday morning plenary session, the
workshops, and the tours of Richmond and
Steveston that we have planned wUl aU take
up some aspect of this theme. We're also
planning a book fair, an optional Chinese
dinner and a visit to the Asian malls in
Richmond, and, of course, the awards
banquet on Saturday evening.
The Richmond Museum Society look
forward to hosting the conference and to
having the Federation delegates visit our city.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 3 News and Notes
Please send information to be published in News and Notes to the editor in Whonnock before 15 August, 15 November, 15 February and 15 May.
From the Branches
Mostly extracted from the reports presented
at the AGM. For more see the minutes ofthe
AGM starting on page 41.
Alberni District Historical Society
The Alberni District Historical Archives,
which is affiliated with the Alberni District
Historical Society, is the repository of the
McLean Mill papers; as such, the opening of
the McLean MUl as a National Historic Site
is the culmination often years offocussed
endeavour by diverse community groups and
representatives who beUeve in preserving and
presenting local history to the pubUc at large.
The Society was fortunate to receive books
and a significant cash donation bequeathed
to it by the late Helen Ford. The funds were
invested in the Alberni Valley Foundation,
which handles local charitable investments.
Arrow Lakes Historical Society
Their next pubUcation wiU be on the Lardeau
region featuring Trout lake, Ferguson, and
Camborne. The most notable archive items
given to the society was an estate including
400 historical sUdes.
Burnaby Historical Society
The society's $1,000 scholarship honouring
Evelyn Salisbury was presented to Benjamin
Bradley of Simon Fraser University. A second Special Bursary Award of $1,000 was
given to Carolyn Webb of Okanagan University CoUege.
Chemainus Valley Historical Society
At the AprU meeting ofthe Chemainus Valley Historical Society, Ray Knight and Len
Piatt were made honorary members and
given a presentation in recognition for their
contributions over the years. Knight, a weU-
known historian, and Piatt, the unofficial
"mayor" of Saltair.have restored and donated
a water-ram pump to the Chemainus Valley
Museum. This unique pump, salvaged from
Stocking Creek, in Saltair, was used to provide Saltair's first water system.
Life members Edith Stephenson and
Audrey Ginn were also special guests at the
AprU meeting. Ginn gave fascinating background information regarding the Anglican
Cemetery at Lamalchi Bay on Kuper Island.
In 1964 Ginn donated the cemetery that had
been part of her family estate to the Society.
Cowichan Historical Society
The society is working on the production of
a CD-ROM on the history of Cowichan.
Gulf Island Branch, BCHF
Volume 1 ofthe local history Gulf Islands
Patchwork has been reprinted, forming a companion to volume 2, MoreTalesfrom the Outer
Gulf Islands.
Kamloops Museum Association
After the Art Gallery moved out ofthe buUding, the KMA finds itself with a lot of space
and the support ofthe city to make major renovations. A new exhibit space is planned for
the museum.
London Heritage Farm
The society has improved accomplishments by
splitting into committees, each committee having co-chairs. Committees meet on a regular
basis and report in writing to the directors.
Trie executive and board of directors are much
more effective and can concentrate on the
larger aspects ofthe operation.
Nanaimo Historical Society
The winner ofthe Ethel Barraclough history
award for 1999 was Barbara Pond for her research paper on the coverage ofthe 1953 polio epidemic in the Nanaimo Free Press.
The Nanaimo Historical Society continues to
support the Nanaimo Community Archives
through donations of money and an active
volunteer program.
Nelson Museum
The former Kootenay Museum and Historical Society wished to be known simply as
Nelson Museum.The society is planning for a
new museum, archives, and art gallery. Nelson
Museum received a Community Archives Assistance Grant to organize the Kootenay School
of Arts records. Volunteers continue work organizing the records ofthe Nelson Daily News,
including many photographs and historic files.
North Shore Historical Society
NorthVancouver Museum and Archives continues providing space for the monthly meetings. The society donated funds to the North
Vancouver Archives to cover the cost of processing photographs of buildings taken in the
mid 1970s by Don Bourdon, North
Vancouver's first achivist.
Salt Spring Island Historical Society
Different from the usual pattern of guest speakers, two of their meetings united panels of old-
timers talking about life on the island in earlier days. Sales ofthe book Saltspring:The Story
of an Island are going well. Much ofthe energy is directed to the operation of the archives.
Silvery Slocan Historical Society
Directors continued with reviewing the
accessioning, archives, and photographs.
Surrey Historical Society
The $750 district historical essay contest was
won last year by Meghan Pritchard, a grade
11 student at Elgin Park Secondary for her
essay that examined the early history of Crescent Beach. Other work includes the Surrey
historical map project and the WW Hastings'
Vancouver Historical Society
The society continues sponsoring regular
speakers' series and providing assistance to
individuals pubUshing original historical research. The society had to resort to professional assistance to produce its newsletter and
book keeping services.
Other News
Regular contributor dies
Noami Miller reports that Dr. Adam C.
Waldie passed away on the 29th of May, just
short of his 80lh birthday. Dr. Waldie practiced
medicine in Casdegar and Vancouver. After
his semi-retirement he devoted his spare time
to history and gardening. He contributed
articles and book reviews to BC Historical
News and medical journals.
Among the names of awardees recognized
for outstanding voluntary contributions to
Washington and Northwest history by the
Washington State Historical Society are two
well-known BC historiansjean Barman and
Bruce Watson, who received the Charles Gate
Award for "outstanding contribution to Pacific Northwest Quarterly magazine; for their
collaboration on the article entided 'Fort
Colville's FurTrade Families'."
33 Photo by Helmi Braches
Photo by Helmi Braches
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 1 Port Alberni 2000
Notes on the BCHF Gonference
2000 at Port Alberni hosted by
the Alberni District Historical
Society, Thursday 4 May - Saturday 6 May 2000.
by Roy J.V. Pallant
and (in italics) by Irene Alexander
The gathering of the clans—The gathering of the delegates (clans) was one of the
most exciting parts of what must have been
one of our most successful annual confer-
ences.We met as good friends and acquaintances on ferries and buses, at service stations,
and in cafes en-route to our mutual destination: Port Alberni. A great feeling of shared
memories and expectations.
Early History— In 1790 the Spanish captain Don Pedro de Alberni and his company of 76 men came to the west coast of
Vancouver Island, with Lieutenant Don
Francisco Eliza assuming command of
Nootka. It is Don Francisco EUza who gave
Alberni Canal (now Alberni Inlet) its name.
On the previous page:
Top Left: Ron Welwood and Shirley
Cuthbertson congratulate Lynne Bowen,
author ofRobert Dunsmuir: Laird ofthe
Top right: RonWelwood and Derek Hayes,
author ofthe Historical Adas of British
Columbia and the Pacific Northwest.
Centre left: Lilia D'Acres proudly shows the
1999 Lieutenant-Governor's Medal for
Historial Writing she and co-author Donald
Luxton reeceivedfor their book Lions Gate.
Centre right: Three award-winning Nanaimo
authors. From left to right: Margaret Horsfield
(Cougar Annie's Garden), Lynne Bowen
(Robert Dunsmuir: Laird ofthe Mines),
and Jan Peterson (Journeys: Down the
Alberni Canal to Barkley Sound).
Bottom left: Dr. Joyce Clearihue, shown here
with editor Fred Braches, won the 1999 prize
for the best article published in Volume 32 of
British Columbia Historical News with
her contribution: "Fort Victoria and H.B. Co.
Doctors." (Volume 32 No. 1)
Bottom Right: Author Margaret Horsfield at
the book fair offering autographed copies of
her book Cougar Annie's Garden.
Don Pedro de Alberni left the reputation as
being the first agriculturist in BC. His rank
and file cultivated fields, excavated wells, constructed aqueducts, and raised poultry, making the Spanish garrison at Nootka less vulnerable to famine. Alberni's wisdom in attracting the goodwUl of the Natives is also
recorded. The Spaniards never reached the
head ofthe inlet, but in 1860 a sawmUl was
estabUshed there and a year later the setdement was given its Spanish name: Alberni.
In the faU of 1859 WilUam Eddy Banfield
(correct spelling), an independent trader, and
the colonial government agent on the west
coast, wrote to the Colonial Secretary at Victoria the foUowing prophetic words: "The
timber will cause Barkley Sound to be noticed and must eventually become an article
of export, an important item in the prosperity and peopling ofthe southern end ofthe
Island." In 1860 the Anderson Company of
London sent Captain Edward Stamp, an EngUsh shipmaster, and G.M. Sproat to locate a
suitable site and to buUd a sawmUl to provide spars and lumber for the fleet of dipper
ships owned by the Anderson Company. As
from that first sawmUl the rich history of
Alberni goes on; the Alberni District Historical Society and the Alberni Valley Museum should be envied for the great abundance of British Columbia history around
them to preserve and enjoy.
The odour is gone—It is not clear why they
kept it a secret, but the bad smell for which
Port Alberni was infamous for years has now
gone. The pulp mUl is idle and the kraft miU
has been closed since November of 1993.
That's great news for many who appreciate
Port Alberni even better this way.
On Thursday and Friday the focus of Conference 2000 was at the Echo Community Centre, built in 1961 to celebrate Canada's centenary.
It houses the archives, museum, public library, and
conference rooms. A sports and fitness centre and
indoor pool were added in 1911 when British
Columbia celebrated its Centennial.
At registration the participants in Conference
2000 received plenty of information and little gifts.
Included were two books, Place Names of the
Alberni Valley and Saw Logs on Steel Rails
written by George McKnight, compliments of
the author. Thank you Mr. McKnight!
A great adjunct to the Conference was a book
fair held at the Echo Community Centre, mainly
featuring books on BC history. One was able to
browse through publishers' displays and to purchase new as well as used books and we had the
pleasure of meeting authors in person.
Spotlight speakers galore. At the centre Ron
Blair ofFriesen's presented a video on preparing
history books for printing. In her writing workshop, Margaret Cadwaladr ofthe Federation
of BC Writers reviewed interviewing skills.
Shirley Cuthbertson spoke about the BCHF's
annual writing competition. T(om) WPaterson,
best known for his series of books on ghost towns,
talked about self-publishing. Alberni District Historical Society's Bob Gray talked about the 1964
Tsunami, and Ken Hutcheson, president ofthe
Maritime Heritage Society, reviewed the building
of a maritime presence. There was also a reading
by Jan Peterson, author of four books pertaining to the history of Alberni Valley.
On Thursday evening our hosts offered Conference 2000 participants and visitors a wonderful reception in the Alberni Valley Museum. The
museum staff catered the reception beautifully.
Mayor GiluanTrumper welcomed us to the City
of Port Alberni, and we were also welcomed by
Jean McIntosh, director of the museum, and
Simo Nurme, president of Alberni District Historical Society It was most enjoyable to walk
around, glass and delicacies in hand, to view the
current exhibit: "A Century of Celebration."
Meeting old and new friends gave one a real sense
of community. During the expansion ofthe museum in the 1980s then curator foHN Mitchell
laid out the exhibits on the open storage concept.
This has to be one ofthe best museums in BC.
Plenary session—On Friday 112 people sat
down to face five well-chosen panellists with
wide-ranging views and occupations within
the discipUne of history, convening around
the conference theme, Reflections and
Renewal of the Heritage VisiON.The panel
was moderated by Jean McIntosh. Each
paneUist was given the usual ten minutes to
share experiences and to explore connections
between their institutions or organizations.
Bob Griffin, curator in the history section of the Royal BC Museum told of his
work on history projects in the regions away
from the museum inVictoria, in partnership
35 Photo by John Spittle
Above: The panellists at the plenary session. From left to right: Patrick Dunae, Jane Turner, Roy
Pallant, Bob Griffin, and Elaine Price. Not shown: moderator Jean Mcintosh.
with the local people in the community.Jane
Turner, archivist at the University ofVic-
toria and president of the Archives Association of British Columbia, spoke ofthe need
of guidelines for electronic storage of archival data. Elaine Price, who teaches EngUsh
and social studies at Timberline Secondary
School in CampbeU River, is of Lekwiltok
ancestry, a branch of Kwagiulth. Her views
were particularly interesting because Elaine
works in both cultures. In her presentation,
Elaine used a sculpture to show that balance
was part of her people's culture. Patrick
Dunae, member of the history department
at Malaspina CoUege, is working in partnership with Nanaimo Community Archives
Society, coUecting heritage information and
data at the coUege. Roy Pallant of the
North Shore Historical Society and a representative of BCHF, presented the role of community volunteers in working partnerships
with various civic councUs, encouraging the
return of past history in the retention and
development of heritage sites, and fish enhancement in populated areas.
There appeared to be a consensus among
the paneUists that the partnerships being fostered between community volunteers, societies, and coUeges are providing a good, soUd
foundation for reflection on and renewal of
the heritage vision. Interesting questions were
presented by the audience, but an additional
30 minutes of informal discussion with the
panellists over a cup of coffee after the session might have been beneficial for the paneUists and the audience.
IndustrialTour—On Friday afternoon we
started out on an Industrial Tour. The bus took us
to the Flying Tanker base on Sproat Lake. The
fleet stationed there includes two Martin Mars, a
Grumman Goose, and four Bell Long Ranger
helicopters. The incredible Martin Mars water
bombers—they have a wingspan the length of a
city block and the tip of the tail is four to five
stories above the ground—were purchased in 1959
from the US Navy at a bargain price to fight
forest fires in the Pacific Northwest. There were
five originally. The remaining two, the Philippine
Mars and the Hawaii Mars, are maintained and
treasured—they don't make them anymore. The
pilot of the Grumman Goose was awaiting our
arrival to give us an air show. This amphibian is
nicknamed "Bird Dog" as it acts as a spotter plane,
radioing back information about fire sites to the
base leading each loaded water bomber directly over
the fire site for its drop. The helicopters are used
for timber cruising, seeding, fertilizing, medical
evacuations as well as fire detection.
At another part of Sproat Lake we were shown
petroglyphs depicting mythical figures going back
many generations. Then the bus took us back to
town to go through Pacifica Papers where newsprint and coated papers are produced from pulp
brought infrom northern parts ofBC and Alaska.
No pulp is produced in Alberni, that is why it
doesn't smell any more. It is fascinating to see
paper being made from the time the pulp slurry is
poured on the screens, the excess water being
squeezed out by felt blankets on rollers, steam-
dried, then air-dried and finally going on rollers
through infrared drying and coming out in huge
rolls over 20 feet wide and approximately 1 to 8
feet in diameter. The "soup kitchen" is equally
interesting. Imagine a huge closed vessel, approximately eight or nine feet in diameter, with about
eight to ten pipes feeding infrom the top. This is
where the clay is prepared for the coated stock used
for magazines. The kettle is also used for mixing
the dyes for colour runs ordered by clients. A brief
walk around the waterfront ended the tour.
Forestry tour—Friday afternoon.The Forestry tour, with a sturdy school bus, a great
tour guide (Neil Malbon ofWeyerhaeuser's
Alberni Forestry Information Centre) and
Fred, our skilful driver, was both highly educational and supremely exciting. We picked
up weU-marked lunch boxes with tasty content at the Echo Centre and collected our
orange safety hats and marker jackets just
prior to boarding the bus. EquaUy important were the red folders containing a carefuUy chosen and copious set of written information.
Even though the pubUc address system in
the bus was immediately found to be out of
action, NeU Malbon's strong voice, good
humour and detailed technical knowledge
and experience set aside the problems. The
first stop on the often rough and steep logging route was close by Sproat Lake at a fine
example of a dry land log-sort. A very interesting display of trailer unloading and log
sorting was put on before us. Not long ago
and since the end ofthe nineteenth century,
examining logs and identification stamping
was done in the water within the booms.
Next we were driven to a hehcopter-log-
ging site where trees were harvested on a
steep incline which would have been inaccessible without the employment of a
Sikorsky Flying Crane.This heUcopter type,
used by the US miUtary to transport items
such as field hospitals and Bailey bridges, has
been adapted here to logging operations. It
is manned by two and sometimes three pilots and usually refuels every hour and
changes pUots. At the rate this aircraft operates, no logging crew could keep up. So the
logging crews walk into the area, log the trees
as required and leave them in place. Later
the heUcopter picks up the logs singly. The
hydrauUc hook is operated from the heUcopter and requires no loaders on the ground.
The heUcopter, looking like a monster grasshopper, drops the logs close to a crane that
loads them onto a waiting truck. The heUcopter moves as much as a thousand cubic
metres of timber per eight-hours shift. It
climbs at a rate of 12,000 feet in two and a
half minutes with log loads up to 25,000 lbs.
It was thrilling and fascinating and indeed a
privilege to watch. The forestry road crew
blowing up rocks nearby added to the excitement.
During our tour on the bus we were further entertained by draws for chainsaw-
crafted miniature chairs, books, and jars of
honey. To show where the honey came from
we stopped at a large clearing in the forest
containing weU-secured beehives, fenced-in
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 3 against the encroachment of bears. As a very
thoughtful end for a great afternoon the
ADHS volunteers shared a large tin of
homemade cookies. Thanks to Fred, our
driver, who must be the fastest changer from
second to first gear on any hiU, we remained
safe and in great spirits to teU the tale.
Cougar Annie's Garden—On Friday
evening Margaret Horsfield presented a free
sUde show and talk of her book Cougar Annie's
Garden. It was difficult to judge which was
the best entertainment, the story of Cougar
Annie (Ada Annie Rae-Arthur, a colourftd -
west coast character) or the humorous manner with which Margaret related the story.
This was a most enjoyable evening in an ideal
setting at the 1930s Capitol Theatre.
The AGM—Saturday morning. Providing a
continental breakfast next to the layout for
the Annual General Meeting was a good idea;
we lost less delegates and fewer than usual
were late for the start ofthe meeting at 8:30
a.m.The meeting was as usual managed well
by President Ron Welwood. We shaU cherish his presence as past president at future
committee meetings. Sincere congratulations
and good wishes to our newly elected officers.
The Rolun Centre—On Saturday afternoon
we enjoyed a lovely buffet-lunch at the Rollin Art
Centre. The Rollin centre is a heritage house left
to the city by the owners. It is now the home ofthe
Community Arts Council of the Alberni Valley.
The centre is used for art exhibitions and functions and it is rented out for weddings and other
occasions. We had the pleasure of meeting Karen
Poirier there, who is currently holding her exhibition "Community Spirit" in the gallery. Everyone enjoyed her lovely watercolours of interesting
houses, agricultural details, and gardens in Port
Our enthusiastic ADHS guides then took us
for a tour around the city, showing us houses, gardens, murals and other points of notice. The mural
that caught everyone's attention was the Tenth
Avenue Automotive Parts and Repairs built by
the owner's grandfather in the late 1940s. It shows
the business's small beginnings complete with the
owner's father's cars in front ofthe old gas pumps.
Of particular appeal were the two oldest remaining houses on Tenth Avenue, one built for Judge
Hannah in 1905 and another for Dr. A.D.
Morgan in 1906. A house that caught our interest was shown on a drawing by Karen Poirier. It
is a house designed by Samuel Maclure and built
in 1914 under the well-known architect's super
vision for Captain Hodgson, then Port Alberni's
harbour master. Unfortunately this private residence can't be seen from the road, but we were told
that it has been saved from years of neglect and is
now kept in excellent condition by its proud owners.
Our tour ended with a stop at Harbour Quay
for refreshments and a look around. Here were the
packet freighters Lady Rose and Frances
Barkley, still serving Barkley Sound, and the
Banfield Coast Guard boat, now out ofthe water
and under cover.
if.* ""     ■•
$m 2000
Port Alberni,\1C.   May 4 -
»5. -v. '"-
'. ''XiX
Photo by Helmi Braches
Above: Port Alberni's Anne Holt proudly passes
on "The Measure" to the 2001 hosts: the Richmond Museum Society.
The McLean Mill—From 1926 till 1965
the R.B. McLean Lumber Company was a
smaU famUy-run business. Located on 13
hectares of forested land, the steam sawmUl,
just outside Port Alberni, was designated a
National Historic Site in 1989. The miU is
now owned and operated by the City of Port
Alberni through the Alberni Valley Museum.
Machinery was donated to the city for the
restoration ofthe miU.There was much work
to do, but now the miU has been restored
and it is in operation. The official opening
for visitors is on 1 July 2000, but participants
in the Conference 2000 were greeted by mUl
manager Dave MacDonald, for a preview.
When we arrived we had the privilege of
being entertained by a hundred-year old
daughter of the McLean family, Muriel
McLean, playing the piano.
We ate an exceUent lunch prepared by students ofthe North Island College in full
chef's regalia.The lunch was neady arranged
in one of the four new replica buildings
which are readied as museum space, gift shop,
and restaurant. The McLean Mill visit was
most interesting. Being the older type of miU
with most of the machinery manufactured
and installed by on-site blacksmiths, the process of moving and cutting the logs is a
straightforward process, easUy understood, yet
weU guarded to be safe for visitors.We looked
around the operating steam sawmUl and asked
questions. We were able to visit workers'
homes and other buUdings and talk to fellow visitors and ADHS volunteers, always
ready to give information. A return visit to
the miU is certainly to be considered. At this
time a raU track is being buUt connecting
Port Alberni station to McLean MUl. This
summer, the 1929 locomotive that currendy
puUs rides along the Port Alberni industrial
waterfront wUl extend its runs to the miU.
Gala Award Banquet—Shortly after six
o'clock the conference participants, organizers and
guests started gathering in the Barclay Hotel ballroom for the Gala Award Banquet. Patricia
Miller directed Port Alberni's renowned community choir Timbre (pronounce "timber!") assisted
by accompanist David Poon. The music included
Canadian composers which made it particularly
interesting and enjoyable.After dinner the BCHF
awards were presented, the highlight being the
awarding ofthe Lieutenant Governor's medal of
the 1999 Writing Competition to Dua D'Acres
and Donald Luxton for their book Lions Gate.
All present had a wonderful time—the best part
was renewing old acquaintances from other historical societies, some of whom we met last year,
some many years before.
We said our goodbyes on Sunday morning in gorgeous sunshine. Situated in a truly beautiful part
ofBC, Port Alberni is a great community. It is the
people who make it that. They have overcome great
obstacles. When something needs doing they roll
up their sleeves and do it. They make the most of
what they have. That is the spirit of Alberni.
Two outstanding points must be mentioned on which all delegates must agree.The
literature provided for all events was excellent with an important part being the Usts of
people we would meet and the tides and affiliations of volunteers. Secondly the charming presence of Meg Scoffield who was everywhere, surely made this most enjoyable visit
possible. Thanks to Meg and thank you to
Port Alberni. ■
37 Afternoon tours: somehow it always kept dry when we needed it.
Top row: Forestry Tour: Left: Ron Greene, Frances Gundry, and Kelsey McLeod listening to guide Neil Malbon as they get a close-up to helicopter-
logging (Photos by Helmi Braches I John Spittle).
Middle row: Tenth Avenue Station, Automotive Parts and Repair, and the Maclure house as drawn by Karen Poirier. (Photos by Irene Alexander).
Bottom Row: The mighty Martin Mars water bomber (under repair), and McLean Mill. (Photos by Leonard McCann I Helmi Braches).
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 3 Clockwise from top left: (1) Meg Scoffield (Alberni District Historical Society), Jean Mcintosh (Alberni Valley Museum) and Mayor Gillian Trumper;
(2) First family: Wayne and Stephanie Desrochers and daughter Emilie; (3) Patricia Brammal and Ann Dodd; (4)Johnina Macaulay and Morag
Maclachlan; (5) BCHF Council meeting early on Sunday morning, 7 May; (6) Joel and Sheila Vmge; (7) Peggy Imredy and Robin Brammal.
(Photos 1,2, 5 and 6 by Helmi Braches. Photos 3, 4 and 7 by John Spittle).
39 Federation News
President's Annual Report
Photo by Helmi Braches
How time flies. This is my third and final
report as President of BC Historical Federation (and just think, only one week ago I
retired as Librarian at Selkirk College!) .Also,
in a way, this is like a homecoming since I
grew up in Port Alberni and I have seldom
returned since I left at the age of 18.
I am grateful for the dedicated work and
commitment of the Table
Officers and other members
ofthe CouncU. By now you
should know who they are:
Len McCann, Honorary
President; Alice GlanviUe,
Past President; Wayne
Desrochers, First Vice President and President-elect;
Melva Dwyer, Second Vice
President; Arnold Ranneris,
Corresponding Secretary;
Betty Brown, Recording
Secretary; Member at Large,
Roy Pallant; and Ron
Greene.Treasurer (who managed to retrieve almost $2,000 from the Federal Government by claiming GST refunds
from the past four years and has made suggestions to estabUsh a BCHF Endowment
Trust Fund).
Our gratitude should also be extended to
Committee Officers: Shirley Cuthbertson,
Writing Competition; Frances Gundry,
Scholarship (Essay) Committee as weU as the
British Columbia History Web Site Prize
Committee; Terry Simpson, Membership
Secretary; John Spitde, Historical TraUs and
Markers; Margaret Stoneberg, Archivist; and
Nancy Stuart-Stubbs, Publications Assistance.
Our editor, Fred Braches, continues to
prod and probe the Federation into change.
He has also applied this philosophy to the
British Columbia Historical News by adding an
"Archives" column and modifying the look
ofthe publication. Tony Farr and the Book
Review Editor, Anne Yandle, complete his
team to make the News a very professional
pubUcation. To top it off our vigUant Subscription Secretary, Joel Vinge, has kept the
subscription Ust up to date and canceUed the
magazine to delinquent subscribers. No more
The British Columbia History Web Site
Prize was the result of a proposal made by
David Mattison of the Provincial Archives.
As far as we know, this is the first annual,
adjudicated cash award honouring individual
initiative in the design and content of a Web
site devoted to history. Not even the Canadian Historical Association can make that
claim! The Council felt this was such an innovative and worthwhile suggestion that both
the British Columbia Historical Federation
and David Mattison sponsor the contest.
Several weeks ago I appUed to Industry
Canada for a simpler, more recognizable Federation web address. Although our web page
is still hosted at Selkirk CoUege in Casdegar,
our new domain address will now be
In February, Canada's National History
Society sponsored the First National Conference of Provincial Historical Societies in
Toronto. Both of your delegates (the two
Ronnies—Ron Greene and myself) were
very impressed with the content, organization and single-mindedness of the various
dedicated historical volunteers and profes-
sionals.The participants resolved to promote
and seek nominations for the Governor General's Medal for Excellence in Teaching Canadian History. Also, the foUowing resolution was unanimously passed by aU ten provinces and two territorial representatives:
"Whereas the provincial and territorial
historical societies and associations of Canada
consider the teaching and understanding of
history vital to Canadian society. Be it resolved, therefore, that we, the undersigned,
call on the provincial and territorial governments of Canada to recognize the value of
history in education, and to develop and implement dedicated history courses in their
curriculum requirements for both pubUc and
private schools."
Both the Premier of BC and the Minister
of Education were informed of this resolution. Fortunately, the teaching of history (or
social studies) in British Columbia has recendy undergone a major revision
and the new curriculum was implemented in all grades as of September 1999. The Ministry of Education has also begun implementation
ofthe recommendations of a recent
Social Studies Task Force.
The British Columbia Historical
Federation presendy has 29 member societies representing almost
3,800 individual members.This is an
impressive number but each one of
us should try to convince those organizations that do not presendy
belong to join our historic fold.The
greater the number, the greater our
impact with the decision makers.
The British Columbia Historical Federation has not yet developed a unique logo—
any suggestions?
We are grateful to our hosts from the
Alberni District Historical Society and, particularly, Meg Scoffield and all her committee workers. I know these people have spent
many hours planning appropriate venues to
educate us about the history and sites located
in the beautiful Alberni Valley. We thank and
applaud them all for this conference.
It has been an honour as weU as a wonderful and rewarding experience to have
served the Federation over the past three
years. Although we have grown into a respectable organization, we should never forget our developing pioneers. Dr. W Kaye
Lamb, who died in 1999, left the country a
massive legacy of scholarly publications as
weU as this inspiring statement: "Any country
worthy of a future should be interested in its past."
RJ. (Ron) Welwood, President
Above: Simo Nurme, president of Alberni
District Historical Society, presenting his
society's report at the AGM. Seated to his left
are from left to right: Ron Welwood, Arnold
Ranneris, Betty Brown, and Ron Greene.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 3 Federation News
Minutes of the Annual General Meeting 1999/2000
Port Alberni 5 May 2000.
President Ron Welwood caUed the meeting to order at 8:45 a.m. and welcomed delegates and guests. Present were 55 registered
delegates representing 18 societies. Regrets
received from Alice Glanville, Margaret
Stoneberg, and Jack Roff.
Minutes of 1999 AGM in Merritt - moved
by Terry Simpson and seconded by Shirley
Cuthbertson for acceptance. Carried.
Treasurer's Report - Ron Greene
— Financial Statement was circulated. High-
lights:Year ended with a very substantial surplus due mainly to GST refunds, postal subsidy reinstalled, extra income accrued from
the consoUdation of the BCHN accounts
with the Federation's administration accounts.
—The Executive approved the estabUshment
of an Endowment Fund. The proposal is to
buUd up a fund that will produce revenue
that can be used to increase our support for
BC history.
— KPMG Chartered Accountants once again
provided their services without charge.
Moved by Myrtle Haslam and seconded by
Shirley Cuthbertson that the secretary write
a letter of thanks to them. Carried.
We thank Ron Greene for his excellent service as Treasurer.
Committee Reports
News Publishing
Tony Farr - encourage more sales of BC
Historical News. Fred Braches - welcomes
ideas and suggestions for the News and especially would like to see more stories about
women and minorities submitted.
Historical Writing Competition - Shirley
Forty-two books were submitted, two returned (one with a copyright date of 2000
and one was a book of poetry). Last year's
book sale brought in over $1,000.
Shirley displayed the new medal (gold wreath
surrounding silk screened logo mounted on
a small black marble slab). A number of medals were ordered for the future. Other costs
associated with the competition included:
cash awards, banquet dinner for winners/
guests, framed certificates and mail-out costs.
Shirley thanked the three judges and in particular Peter Beckley, who is stepping down
and wUl need to be replaced.
Scholarship Committee — Fran Gundry
This year, letters were sent to a number of
professors of BC history. The deadline for
entry is May 15.To date five have been received. The scholarship is for $500.
\uj-'*iiMj&:i  •'■.*" -el
-  '--M
\               \ >£i' 1
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Detail of McLean Mill: Drawing by Karen Poirier
Historical Trails & Markers -John Spittle
Anderson Brigade Trail - Charles Hou has
been advised by Culture Minister Ian Waddell
that the appUcation for designating this as a
"historic trail" is now going "through the
Trans Canada Trail - not actively promoting
it because, for the most part, it is a twentieth-century traU created for recreational use.
Membership — Terry Simpson
Reported 1999 membership: 12 affUiates, 31
members; 2000 membership: 9 affUiates, 30
Dues for member Societies and Affiliated
Groups: Moved by Ron Greene and seconded by Terry Simpson "that the dues for
member societies and affiliated groups be $1°°
per member of a member society or affiU-
ated group with a minimum contribution of
$25 and a maximum of $75 per member society or affiliated group." Carried.
Canada's National History Society
Two delegates (Ron Welwood and Ron
Greene) attended the first annual conference
of provincial historical societies in February
2000. A resolution was unanimously passed
to call on all provincial and territorial governments to recognize the value of history
in Canada and to develop and implement
history courses in their curriculum requirements for both pubUc and private schools.
Ron Welwood has written the BC Premier
and our Minister of Education.
President' s Report - Ron Welwood
As outgoing president, Ron Welwood expressed his gratitude to all who assisted him
over the past three years. Our new Web address is: Also reminded
members that we have not yet developed a
unique logo for the Federation. Extended
special thanks to the Alberni District Historical Society for hosting this Conference.
BC History Web site Prize - Fran Gundry
This year's winner was the Prince George
Oral History Group. Treasurer requested to
forward cheque ($250) to the recipients.
Member Committee Reports:
Alberni District Historical Society - this year's
Conference hosts. One of this year's high-
lights wiU be the opening of the McLean
Arrow Lakes Historical Society - now have a
permanent downtown office and are busy
bringing archive items, pubUcations etc. to
the new premises.
Gulf Islands Branch BCHF - serving the islands of Pender, Mayne, Saturna and Galiano.
Lectures were held throughout the year
among the different islands.
Burnaby Historical Society - various speakers
throughout the year as well as a Christmas
dinner.Their quarterly newsletter keeps their
97 members up to date.
Chemainus Valley Historical Society — forty
members to date with daytime luncheon
meetings. Quilters will be holding a raffle to
raise money.
Cowichan Historical Society - celebrated 25
years of service to the Cowichan Valley in
July 1999. An active society with its area of
service and responsibiUty taking in a museum, archives, maintaining a heritage buUding with speakers at monthly meetings.
House Tour planned on Mother's Day.
East Kootenay Historical Association - Association suppUes maps for the historic trails at
the Wildhorse and Fisherville area. Has offered support to the Wasa Historical Society
for publication of their book.
41 Kamloops - museum attendance was up by
almost 5.5% and archives by 70% over 1998.
Garden and house tours are planned. A major expansion of their museum is underway.
Koksilah School Historical Society —school is
now a designated heritage site. Tom Henry
was chosen to write the history of Duncan.
London Heritage Farm (Richmond) - has been
successful in adding to or improving buildings at the farm. Millennium project is a restoration ofthe old London Farm pond.
Nanaimo Historical Society — Society received
a certificate of recognition for dedicated service to the citizens ofNanaimo. Pamela Mar
was named Citizen of the Year. The Society
lobbied successfuUy to keep Pioneer Cemetery.
Nelson Museum - new name "Nelson Museum, Art Gallery, Archives and Historical
Society."The first five of eight historical interpretive panels along Nelson's Centennial
Pathway have been installed.
North Shore Historical Society - has enjoyed
well-attended monthly meetings. Have undertaken community and school heritage
walks and given several sUde and talk presentations.
District 69 Historical Society Parksville -
fundraising projects in 1999 included annual
bridge luncheon, a raffle, and garage and fiea
market sales. MiUennium project was the
pubUcation of Marjory Leffler's Parksville and
Then Some.
Richmond Museum Society - a new society that
has spent the last year learning how to function in its new role. This year wiU be spent
preparing and organizing next year's BCHF
Salt Spring Island Historical Society - under
direction of a new president, attendance and
membership has increased. Historical map of
Salt Spring Island wiU be available this summer.
Silvery Slocan Historical Society - restoration
ofthe museum buUding has allowed for more
space for exhibits. Award received from BC
Heritage for this restoration.
Surrey Historical Society - sponsors an annual
essay contest. WUl be actively engaged in reminding the decision makers ofthe importance of Surrey's history in the planning of
the new Surrey Museum.
Vancouver Historical Society—sponsored a regular speakers' series, and assistance was provided to individuals publishing original historical research.
Victoria Historical Society — has had a satisfactory year with excellent speakers at monthly
meetings. Members enjoyed several day trips
in 1999.
Election of Officers/Council
Melva Dwyer standing in for Alice Glanville,
chair of Nominating Committee.
President Wayne Desrochers  '
1st Vice President      Roy Pallant
2nd Vice President    Melva Dwyer   '
Members at large     Jacqueline Gresko
Member at large        Ron Hyde
Other officers:Treasurer (Ron Greene), Corresponding Secretary (Arnold Ranneris), Recording Secretary (Betty Brown) remain unchanged.
New Business
Dr. J. Mar reminded us ofthe importance of
May 13 when Captain Meares's ship Nootka
landed on our shores, 215 years ago. His crew
included 50 Chinese. He was pleased that
delegate name tags were in larger print this
year and suggested that a printed list of delegates and locations would be helpful for future conferences.
Our new president, Wayne Desrochers
thanked our outgoing president, Ron
Welwood, for his three years of outstanding
service. Thanks once again were expressed
to the Alberni District Historical Society for
hosting this conference. Meeting adjourned
at 11:45 a.m.
Betty Brown, Recording Secretary
Looking for a New Judge
I would like to thank all past judges, in
particular Peter Beckley, our most recent
The Writing Competition needs a new
judge. If you are willing to devote part of
your year to reading newly published books
on British Columbia history please contact
Shirley Cuthbertson. It is a great advantage
to be familiar with BC history, and useful to
have written and published articles or books.
It is a rewarding volunteer job, one for
people with a real mind for history.
Contact: Shirley Cuthbertson, #306-255
Belleville Street,Victoria BCV8V 4T9
(250) 382-0288
British Columbia Historigal
2000 - 2001 scholarship
Applications should be submitted
before 15 May 2001
The British Columbia Historical Federation annually awards a $500 scholarship to
a student completing third or fourth year at
a British Columbia college or university.
To apply for the scholarship, candidates must
1. A letter of application.
2. An essay of 1500-3000 words on a topic relating to the history of British Columbia. The essay
must be suitable for publication in British Columbia Historical News.
3. A professor's letter of recommendation.
Send submissions before to 15 May 2001 to:
Scholarship Committee,
British Columbia Historical Federation
PO Box 5254, Station B.
Victoria BC V8R 1N4
The winning essay will, and other selected submissions may, be published in British Columbia Historical News.
BC History Web Site Prize
The British Columbia Historical Federation
and David Mattison are jointly sponsoring a
yearly cash award of $250 to recognize Web
sites, longer than one page, that contribute
to the understanding and appreciation of
British Columbia's past.
Judgement will be based on historical content, layout, design, and ease of use.The award
honors individual initiative in writing and
Nominations for the BC History Web Site
Prize for 2000 must be made to the British
Columbia Federation, Web Site Prize Committee, prior to 31 December 2000.Web site
creators and authors may nominate their own
Prize rules and the online nomitation form
can be found on The British Columbia History Website:
A Certificate of Merit and fifty dollars will be
awarded annually to the author ofthe article,
published in BC Historical News, that best enhances knowledge of British Columbia's history and provides reading enjoyment. Judging
will be based on subject development, writing
skill, freshness of material, and appeal to a general readership interested in all aspects of BC
Manuscripts submitted for publication should be sent to the Editor, BC Historical News, PO Box 130, Whonnock BC V2W 1V9. Submission by
e-mail of text and illustrations is welcome. Otherwise please send a hard copy and if possible a disk copy ofthe manuscript by ordinary mail. Illustrations should be accompanied by captions and source information. Submissions should not be more than 3,500 words. Authors publishing for the first
time in the British Columbia Historical News will receive a one-year complimentary subscription to the journal.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. 3 Index Volume 32
From 32:1 (winter 1998-1999) to 31:4 (fall 1999)
by Melva Dwyer, Librarian Emerita
The general index is arranged in three sections for authors, tides, and subjects. Book reviews appear after the general index. There are just
four articles in this volume without illustrations. These are identified with an asterisk. Illustrations having appeared on covers are listed
under the subject ILLUSTRATIONS, COVER. No attempts have been made to identify the numerous other ulustrations. The information included in each entry is as follows: 32:4 (1999): 15-16.* This may be interpreted as meaning voulume 32, issue number 4, year 1999,
pages 15 and 16, an article without illustrations.
BARMANJean. Family Life at Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 16-23.
BELYK, Robert C.Victoria and the Loss ofThe Padfic. 32:3 (1999): 2-6.
BRACHES, Fred. A Historical Aspect ofthe Fire of 1898.32:3 (1999): 29*
BRINK.V C. Lytton Alfalfa. 32:1 (1998-99):17.
 , and Elizabeth Rutherford. Knox McCusker: Dominion Land
Surveyor. 32:3 (1999): 7-10.
[BURNABY, Robert]. My Dearest Harriet... from Robert, February 28,
1860. 32:1 (1998-99):29-30*
CARLSON, Keith T. Natives in the FurTrade: Looking at the Fort Langley
Journals. 32:4 (1999): 13-15.
CLARK, Adrian. AWord from Adrian Clark: President of the Vancouver
Historical Society. 32:4 (1999): 2.
CLEARIHUEJoyce. FortVictoria & H.B.Co. Doctors. 32:1 (1998-99):
COLE, Jean Murray. Archibald McDonald's Fort Langley Letters. 32:4
(1999): 31-36.
COTTON, H.Barry. The Retribution of D.G.F. Macdonald C.E. 32:1
(1998-99): 14-16.
 , .Walter Moberly: A Forgotten Pathfinder. 32:1 (1998-99): 11-
CUTHBERTSON, Shirley. H. B. MacLean's Method ofWriting. 32:1
(1998-99): 6-10.
DUKE, Laura. Against aTide of Change: An Interpretation of the Writings
of Simma Holt, 1960-1974. 32:2 (1999): 24-29.
DUNN, Sam. Managing Multiple Narratives: Alexander Mackenzie at
Nuxalk Territory, 1793.32:3 (1999): 16-23.
GILLESPIE, B. Guild. Captain George Vancouver: 200 Years Dead on May
12*, 1998.32:2 (1999): 2-3.
GREEN, J. A. Edward Marriner, Pioneer Farmer of Cowichan: An
Annotated Summary of His Diaries 1862-1884.32:2 (1999): 18-20.
KLAN, Yvonne Mearns.The Apprenticeship of James Murray Yale. 32:4
(1999): 37-42.
KORETCHUK, Patricia. A Capilano Love Story. 32:1 (1998-99): 24-28.
LANE, Richard J. "Writing the Coast": Bertrand William Sinclair's BC
Stories. 32:3 (1999): 26-29.
MACLACHLAN, Morag. The Founding of Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 4-8.
 , . History Is AUve and Well. 32:4 (1999): 3*
 , You Are Asked to Witness. 32:4 (1999): 9.
MEYERS, Leonard W Stylized Arrows and Compass Roses: The Declining
North Point. 32:2 (1999): 8-9.
MILLER, Dale and Archie. "On Account of Loss Suffered by Fire":The
Human Aspect of New Westminster's Great Fire. 32:3 (1999): 24-25.
NAISHJohn M. Joseph Whidbey:A Nearly Forgotten Explorer ofthe
Pacific Northwest. 32:3 (1999): 11-15.
PARENT, Rosemarie. The Story of Estella Hartt. 32:2 (1999): 30.
RICHARD, George.When the Ditch Runs Dry: Okanagan Natives,Water
Rights, and the Tragedy of No Commons. 32:2 (1999): 10-17.
ROBERTS,J. E. "Vancouver Sunday" inVictoria. 32:2 (1999): 4-7.
ROGERS, A. C. Historic Echoes ofthe North Shore Mountains. 32:2
(1999): 21-23.
RUTHERFORD, Elizabeth with V. C. Brink. Knox McCusker: Dominion
Land Surveyor. 32:3 (1999): 7-10.
SCHLAPPNER, Carrie. Unapologetically Jewish: Unapologetically
Canadian. 32:1 (1998-99): 18-23.
SUTTLES, Wayne.The Coast Salish in the Journals. 32:4 (1999): 10-13.
WATSON, Bruce M. Family Life at Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 24-30.
WELWOOD, Ron. Lowery PO'd. 32:1 (1998-99): 2-5.
 , .ThankYou Naomi and Peter. 32:2 (1999): 1*
YANDLE, Anne.W. Kaye Lamb. 32:4 (1999): 3.
Against aTide of Change:An Interpretation of the Writings of Simma Holt,
1960-1974 by Laura Duke. 32:2 (1999): 24-29.
The Apprenticeship of James Murray Yale by Yvonne Mearns Klan. 32:4
(1999): 37-42.
Archibald McDonald's Fort Langley Letters by Jean Murray Cole. 32:4
(1999): 31-36.
A Capilano Love Story by Patricia Koretchuk. 32:1 (1998-99): 24-28.
Captain George Vancouver: 200Years Dead on May 12*, 1998 by B. Guild
Gillespie. 32:2 (1999): 2-3.
The Coast Salish in the Journals by Wayne Suttles. 32:4 (1999): 10-13.
Edward Marriner, Pioneer Farmer of Cowichan: An Annotated Summary of
His Diaries 1862-1884 by J. A. Green. 32:2 (1999): 18-20.
Family Life at Fort Langley by Jean Barman. 32:4 (1999): 16-23.
Family Life at Fort Langley by Bruce M.Watson. 32:4 (1999): 24-30.
FortVictoria & H.B.Co. Doctors by Joyce Clearihue. 32:1 (1998-99): 30-34.
The Founding of Fort Langley by Morag Maclachlan. 32:4 (1999): 4-8.
H. B. MacLean's Method ofWriting by Shirley Cuthbertson. 32:1 (1998-99):
Historic Echoes ofthe North Shore Mountains by A. C. Rogers. 32:2
(1999): 21-23.
A Historical Aspect ofthe Fire of 1898 by Fred Braches. 32:3 (1999): 29*
History Is Alive and Well by Morag Maclachlan. 32:4 (1999): 3*
Joseph Whidbey: A Nearly Forgotten Explorer ofthe Pacific Northwest by
John M. Naish. 32:3 (1999): 11-15.
The Keepers of the Journals. 32:4 (1999): 30.
Knox McCusker: Dominion Land Surveyor by V. C. Brink and Elizabeth
Rutherford. 32:3 (1999): 7-10.
Lowery PO'd by Ron Welwood. 32:1 (1998-99): 2-5.
Lytton Alfalfa by V. C. Brink. 32:1 (1998-99): 17.
Managing Multiple Narratives: Alexander Mackenzie at Nuxalk Territory,
1793 by Sam Dunn. 32:3 (1999): 16-23.
My Dearest Harriet... from Robert, February 28,1860 by [Robert
Burnaby]. 32:1 (1998-99): 29-30*
Natives in the FurTrade: Looking at the Fort Langley Journals by Keith T.
Carlson. 32:4 (1999): 13-15.
"On Account of Loss Suffered by Fire":The Human Aspect of New
Westminster's Great Fire by Dale and Archie Miller. 32:3 (1999): 24-25.
43 The Retribution of D.G.F. Macdonald C.E. by H. Barry Cotton. 32:1
(1998-99): 14-16.
The Story of Estella Hartt by Rosemarie Parent. 32:2 (1999): 30.
Stylized Arrows and Compass Roses:The Declining North Point by
Leonard W Meyers. 32:2 (1999): 8-9.
Thank You Naomi and Peter by Ron Welwood. 32:2 (1999): 1*
Unapologetically Jewish: Unapologetically Canadian by Carrie Schlappner.
32:1 (1998-99): 18-23.
"Vancouver Sunday" inVictoria by J. E. Roberts. 32:2 (1999): 4-7.
Victoria and the Loss ofThe Pacific by Robert C. Belyk. 32:3 (1999): 2-6.
W Kaye Lamb by Anne Yandle. 32:4 (1999): 3.
Walter Moberly: A Forgotten Pathfinder by H. Barry Cotton. 32:1 (1998-
99): 11-14.
When the Ditch Runs Dry: Okanagan Natives, Water Rights, and the
Tragedy of No Commons by George Richard. 32:2 (1999): 10-17.
A Word from Adrian Clark: President of theVancouver Historical Society by
Adrian Clark. 32:4 (1999): 2.
"Writing the Coast": Bertrand William Sinclair's BC Stories by Richard J.
Lane. 32:3 (1999): 26-29.
You Are Asked to Witness by Morag Maclachlan. 32:4 (1999): 9.
Brink,VC. Lytton Alfalfa. 32:1 (1998-99): 17.
Green, J. A. Edward Marriner, Pioneer Farmer of Cowichan: An
Annotated Summary of His Diaries 1862-1884.32:2 (1999): 18-20.
Parent, Rosemarie. The Story of Estella Hartt. 32:2 (1999): 30.
Richard, George. When the Ditch Runs Dry: Okanagan Natives,Water
Rights, and the Tragedy of No Commons. 32:2 (1999): 10-17.
Brink,V C. Lytton Alfalfa. 32:1 (1998-99): 17.
Klan, Yvonne Mearns.The Apprenticeship of James Murray Yale. 32:4
(1999): 37-42.
Parent, RosemaricThe Story of Estella Hartt. 32:2 (1999): 30.
Klan, Yvonne Mearns.The Apprenticeship of James Murray Yale. 32:4
(1999): 37-42.
Duke, Laura.Against aTide of Change:An Interpretation of the Writings
of Simma Holt, 1960-1974. 32:2 (1999): 24-29.
Lane, Richard J. "Writing the Coast.": Bertrand William Sinclair's BC
Stories. 32:3 (1999): 26-29.
The Keepers of the Journals. 32:4 (1999): 30.
Dunn, Sam. Managing Multiple Narratives: Alexander Mackenzie at
Nuxalk Territory, 1793.32:3 (1999): 16-23.
Clearihue,Joyce. FortVictoria & H.B.Co. Doctors. 32:1 (1998-99): 30-34.
Parent, Rosemarie.The Story of Estella Hartt. 32:2 (1999): 30.
My Dearest Harriet... from Robert, February 28,1860.32:1 (1998-99):
Gillespie, B. Guild. Captain George Vancouver: 200 Years Dead on May
12*, 32:2 (1999): 2-3.
Roberts,J. E. "Vancouver Sunday" inVictoria. 32:2 (1999): 4-7.
Richard, George. When the Ditch Runs Dry: Okanagan Natives, Water
Rights, and the Tragedy of No Commons. 32:2 (1999): 10-17.
Cotton, H. Barry.Walter Moberly: A Forgotten Pathfinder. 32:1 (1998-99):
Koretchuk, Patricia. A Capilano Love Story. 32:1 (1998-99): 24-28.
Cotton, H. Barry.Walter Moberly:A Forgotten Pathfinder. 32:1 (1998-99):
Belyk, Robert C.Victoria and the Loss ofThe Pacific. 32:3 (1999): 2-6.
Roberts,J. E. "Vancouver Sunday" inVictoria. 32:2 (1999): 4-7.
Klan, Yvonne Mearns.The Apprenticeship of John Murray Yale. 32:4
(1999): 37-42.
Sutdes,Wayne.The Coast Salish in the Journals. 32:4 (1999): 10-13.
Cotton, H. Barry. Walter Moberly: A Forgotten Pathfinder. 32:1 (1998-99):
Meyers, Leonard W Stylized Arrows and Compass Roses:The Declining
North Point. 32:2 (1999): 8-9.
Braches, Fred. A Historical Aspect ofthe Fire of 1898.32:3 (1999): 29*
[Burnaby, Robert]. My Dearest Harriet... from Robert, February 28,
1860.32:1 (1998-99): 29-30*
Cole, Jean Murray. Archibald McDonald's Fort Langley Letters. 32:4
(1999): 31-36.
Green, J. A. Edward Marriner, Pioneer Farmer of Cowichan: An
Annotated Summary of His Diaries 1862-1884.32:2 (1999): 18-20.
Rogers, A. C. Historic Echoes ofthe North Shore Mountains. 32:2
(1999): 21-23.
Schlappner, Carrie. Unapologetically Jewish: Unapologetically Canadian.
32:1 (1998-99): 18-23.
Meyers, Leonard W Stylized Arrows and Compass Roses: The Declining
North Point. 32:2 (1999): 8-9.
Green, J. A. Edward Marriner, Pioneer Farmer of Cowichan: An
Annotated Summary of His Diaries 1862-1884.32:2 (1999): 18-20.
Gillespie, B. Guild. Captain George Vancouver: 200 Years Dead on May
12*, 32:2 (1999): 2-3.
Naishjohn M.Joseph Whidbey: A Nearly Forgotten Explorer ofthe
Pacific Northwest. 32:3 (1999): 11-15.
Roberts,J. E. "Vancouver Sunday" inVictoria. 32:2 (1999): 4-7.
Clearihue,Joyce. FortVictoria & H.B.Co. Doctors. 32:1 (1998-99): 30-34.
Cotton, H. Barry. The Retribution of D.G.F. Macdonald CE. 32:1 (1998-
99): 14-16.
 , . Walter Moberly: A Forgotten Pathfinder. 32:1 (1998-99): 11-
Richard, George. When the Ditch Runs Dry: Okanagan Natives, Water
Rights, and the Tragedy of No Commons. 32:2 (1999): 10-17.
Duke, Laura. Against aTide of Change: An Interpretation of the Writings
of Simma Holt, 1960-1974. 32:2 (1999): 24-29.
Barmanjean. Family Life at Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 16-23.
Cole, Jean Murray. Archibald McDonald's Fort Langley Letten. 32:4
(1999): 31-36.
Richard, George. When the Ditch Runs Dry: Okanagan Natives, Water
Rights, and the Tragedy of No Commons. 32:2 (1999): 10-17.
Watson, Bruce M. FamilyLife at Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 24-30.
Welwood, Ron. Lowery PO'd. 32:1 (1998-99): 2-5.
 , .ThankYou Naomi and Peter. 32:2 (1999): 1*
Cuthbertson, Shirley. H. B. MacLean's Method ofWriting. 32:1
(1998-99): 6-10.
Cotton, H. Barry. The Retribution of D.G.F. Macdonald C.E.
32:1 (1998-99): 14-16.
 , .Walter Moberly:A Forgotten Pathfinder. 32:1 (1998-99): 11-
Naish, John M.Joseph Whidbey: A Nearly Forgotten Explorer ofthe Pacific
Northwest. 32:3 (1999): 11-15.
Schlappner, Carrie. Unapologetically Jewish: Unapologetically Canadian.
32:1 (1998-99): 18-23.
Dunn, Sam. Managing Multiple Narratives: Alexander Mackenzie at
Nuxalk Territory, 1793.32:3 (1999): 16-23.
Gillespie, B. Guild. Captain George Vancouver: 200Years Dead on May
12*, 32:2 (1999): 2-3.
Maclachlan, Morag.The Founding of Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 4-8.
Naish, John M.Joseph Whidbey: A Nearly Forgotten Explorer ofthe
Pacific Northwest. 32:3 (1999): 11-15.
Roberts,J.E."Vancouver Sunday" inVictoria. 32:2 (1999): 4-7.
32:2 (1999): 38-40; 32:3 (1999): 38-41.
Braches, Fred. A Historical Aspect ofthe Fire of 1898. 32:3 (1999): 29*
[Burnaby, Robert]. My Dearest Harriet... from Robert, February 28,
1860. 32:1 (1998-99): 29-30*
Miller, Dale and Archie. "On Account of Loss Suffered by Fire":The
Human Aspect of New Westminster's Great Fire. 32:3 (1999): 24-25.
Barmanjean. Family Life at Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 16-23.
Carlson, Keith T. Natives in the FurTrade: Looking at the Fort Langley
Journals. 32:4 (1999): 13-15.
Cole Jean Murray. Archibald McDonald's Fort Langley Letters. 32:4
(1999): 31-36.
Dunn, Sam. Managing Multiple Narratives: Alexander Mackenzie at
Nuxalk Territory, 1793.32:3 (1999): 16-23.
Maclachlan, Morag.The Founding of Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 4-8.
Richard, George. When the Ditch Runs Dry: Okanagan Natives, Water
Rights, and the Tragedy of No Commons. 32:2 (1999): 10-17.
Suttles, Wayne.The Coast Salish in the Journals. 32:4 (1999): 10-13.
Watson, Bruce M. Family Life at Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 24-30.
Cole, Jean Murray. Archibald McDonald's Fort Langley Letters. 32:4
(1999): 31-36.
Maclachlan, Morag.The Founding of Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 4-8.
Sutdes, Wayne. The Coast Salish in the Journals. 32:4 (1999): 10-13.
Barmanjean. Family Life at Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 16-23.
Carlson, Keith T. Natives in the FurTrade: Looking at the Fort Langley
Journals. 32:4 (1999): 13-15.
Colejean Murray. Archibald McDonald's Fort Langley Letten. 32:4
(1999): 31-36.
The Keepers of the Journals. 32:4 (1999): 30.
Klan, Yvonne Mearns.The Apprenticeship of James Murray Yale. 32:4
(1999): 37-42.
Maclachlan, Morag.The Founding of Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 4-8.
 , .You Are Asked to Witness. 32:4 (1999): 9.
Suttles, Wayne.The Coast Salish in the Journals. 32:4 (1999): 10-13.
Watson, Bruce M. Family Life at Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 24-30.
Brink.V C. and Elizabeth Rutherford. Knox McCusker:
Dominion Land Surveyor. 32:3 (1999): 7-10.
Clearihuejoyce. FortVictoria & H.B.Co. Doctors. 32:1 (1998-
99): 30-34.
Carlson, KeithT. Natives in the FurTrade: Looking at the Fort
Langley Journals. 32:4 (1999): 13-15.
Maclachlan, Morag.The Founding of Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999):
Sutdes, Wayne.The Coast Salish in the Fort Langley Journals. 32:4 (1999):
Barmanjean. Family Life at Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 16-23.
Carlson, Keith T. Natives in the FurTrade: Looking at the Fort Langley
Journals. 32:4 (1999): 13-15.
Dunn, Sam. Managing Multiple Narratives: Alexander Mackenzie at
Nuxalk Territory, 1793.32:3 (1999): 16-23.
Klan, Yvonne Mearns.The Apprenticeship of James Murray Yale. 32:4
(1999): 37-42.
Maclachlan, Morag. The Founding of Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 4-8.
Sutdes, Wayne.The Coast Salish in the Journals. 32:4 (1999): 10-13.
Watson, Bruce M. Family Life at Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 24-30.
Parent, Rosemarie.The Story of Estella Hartt. 32:2 (1999): 30.
Belyk, Robet C.Victoria and the Loss ofThe Pacific. 32:3 (1999): 2-6.
Koretchuk, Patricia.A Capilano Love Story. 32:1 (1998-99): 24-28.
Rogers, A. C. Historic Echoes ofthe North Shore Mountains. 32:2
(1999): 21-23.
Cuthbertson, Shirley. H. B. MacLean's Method ofWriting. 32:1 (1998-
99): 6-10.
Cotton, H.Barry. Walter Moberly: A Forgotten Pathfinder. 32:1 (1998-
99): 11-14.
Parent, Rosemarie.The Story of Estella Hartt. 32:2 (1999): 30.
Clearihuejoyce. FortVictoria & H.B.Co. Doctors. 32:1 (1998-99): 30-
Parent, Rosemarie.The Story of Estella Hartt. 32:2 (1999): 30.
Rogers, A. C. Historic Echoes ofthe North Shore Mountains. 32:2
(1999): 21-23.
Duke, Laura. Against aTide of Change: An Interpretation of the Writings
of Simma Holt, 1960-1974. 32:2 (1999): 24-29.
[Burnaby, Robert]. My Dearest Harriet... from Robert, February 28,
1860.32:1 (1998-99): 29-30*
Belyk, Robert C.Victoria and the Loss ofThe Pacific. 32:3 (1999): 2-6.
Barmanjean. Family life at Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 16-23.
Carlson, KeithT. Natives in the FurTrade: Looking at the Fort Langley
Journals. 32:4 (1999): 13-15.
Clearihuejoyce. FortVictoria & H.B.Co. Doctors. 32:1 (1998-99): 30-
Cole,Jean Murray. Archibald McDonald's Fort Langley Letters. 32:4
(1999): 31-36.
Klan, Yvonne Mearns.The Apprenticeship of James Murray Yale. 32:4
(1999): 37-42.
Machlachlan, Morag.The Founding of Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 4-8.
Suttles, Wayne.The Coast Salish in the Journals. 32:4 (1999): 10-13.
Watson, Bruce M. Family Life at Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 24-30.
Captain George Vancouver — Portrait. 32:2 (1999).
H. B. MacLean's Method ofWriting Compendium Examples. 32:1
Portrait of Cowichan Chief "Saw - se - a". 32:4 (1999).
The Side -Wheeler Pacific. 32:3 (1999).
Schlappner, Carrie. Unapologetically Jewish: Unapologetically Canadian.
32:1 (1998-99): 18-23.
Richard, George.When the Ditch Runs Dry: Okanagan Natives,Water
Rights, and the Tragedy of No Commons. 32:2 (1999): 10-17.
Schlappner, Carrie. Unapologetically Jewish: Unapologetically Canadian.
32:1 (1998-99): 18-23.
Duke, Laura.Against aTide of Change: An Interpretation of the Writings
of Simma Holt, 1960-1974. 32:2 (1999): 24-29.
Barmanjean. Family Life at Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 16-23.
Carlson, KeithT. Natives in the FurTrade: Looking at the Fort Langley
Journals. 32:4 (1999): 13-15.
The Keepers of the Journals. 32:4 (1999): 30.
Maclachlan, Morag.The Founding of Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 4-8.
Roberts J.E. "Vancouver Sunday" in Victoria. 32:2 (1999): 4-7.
Suttles, Wayne.The Coast Salish in the Journals. 32:4 (1999): 10-13.
Watson, Bruce M. FamUy Life at Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 24-30.
Clearihuejoyce. FortVictoria & H.B.Co. Doctors. 32:1 (1998-99): 30-
Brink,V.C. and Elizabeth Rutherford. Knox McCusker: Dominion Land
Surveyor. 32:3 (1999): 7-10.
Cotton, H. Barry. The Retribution of D.F.G. Macdonald C.E. 32:1
(1998-99): 14-16.
 , ."Walter Moberly: A Forgotten Pathfinder. 32:1 (1998-99): 11-
Welwood, Ron. Lowery PO'd. 32:1 (1998-99): 2-5.
Leonoff, Cyril. Response to: Duke, Laura. Against aTide of Change: An
Interpretation ofthe Writings of Simma Holt, 1960-1974.32:2
(1999): 24-29; 32:4 (1999): 47-48.
Rogers, A. C. Historic Echoes ofthe North Shore Mountains. 32:2
(1999): 21-23.
Lane, Richard. "Writing the Coast": Bertram William Sinclair's BC
Stories. 32:3 (1999): 26-29.
Belyk, Robert C.Victoria and the Loss ofThe Pacific. 32:3 (1999): 2-6.
Welwood, Ron. Lowery PO'd. 32:1 (1998-99): 2-5.
Brink,V. C. Lytton Alfalfa. 32:1 (1998-99): 17.
Barmanjean. Family Life at Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 16-23.
Cole Jean Murray. Archibald McDonald's Fort Langley Letters. 32:4
(1999): 31-36.
The Keepers of the Journals. 32:4 (1999): 30.
Cotton, H. Barry. The Retribution of D.G.F. Macdonald C.E. 32:1
(1998-99): 14-16.
Miller, Dale and Archie. "On Account of Loss Suffered by Fire":The
Human Aspect of New Westminster's Great Fire. 32:3 (1999): 24-25.
Maclachlan, Morag.You Are Asked to Witness. 32:4 (1999): 9.
Dunn, Sam. Managing Multiple Narratives: Alexander Mackenzie at
Nuxalk Territory, 1793.32:3 (1999): 16-23.
Dunn, Sam. Managing Multiple Narratives: Alexander Mackenzie at
Nuxalk Territory, 1793.32:3 (1999): 16-23.
Maclachlan, Morag.The Founding of Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 4-8.
Brink,V. C. and Elizabeth Rutherford. Knox McCusker: Dominion
Land Surveyor. 32:3 (1999): 6-10.
Cuthbertson, Shirley. H. B. MacLean's Method ofWriting. 32:1 (1998-
99): 6-10.
Clearihuejoyce. FortVictoira & H.B.Co. Doctors. 32:1 (1998-99): 30-
The Keepers of the Journals. 32:4 (1999): 30.
Meyers, Leonard W. Stylized Arrows and Compass Roses:The Declining
North Point. 32:2 (1999) 8-9.
Gillespie, B. Guild. Captain George Vancouver: 200 Years Dead on May
12*. 1998.32:2 (1999): 2-3.
Naishjohn M.Joseph Whidbey: A Nearly Forgotten Explorer ofthe
Pacific Northwest. 32:3 (1999): 11-15.
RobertsJ. E."Vancouver Sunday" inVictoria. 32:2 (1999): 4-7.
GreenJ. A. Edward Marriner, Pioneer Farmer of Cowichan: An
Annotated Summary of His Diaries 1862-1884.32:2 (1999): 18-20.
RobertsJ.E."Vancouver Sunday"inVictoria. 32:2 (1999): 4-7.
Welwood, Ron.ThankYou Naomi and Peter. 32:2 (1999): 2*
Cotton, H.Barry.Walter Moberly:A Forgotten Pathfinder. 32:1 (1998-
99): 11-14.
Rogers.A. C. Historic Echoes ofthe North Shore Mountains. 32:2
(1999): 21-23.
Braches, Fred.A Historical Aspect ofthe Fire of 1898.32:3 (1999): 29*
Cotton, H. Barry. The Retribution of D.G.F. Macdonald C.E. 32:1
B.C. HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. .3 (1998-99): 14-16.
Miller, Dale and Archie. "On Account of Loss Suffered by Fire":The
Human Aspect of New Westminster's Great Fire. 32:3 (1999): 24-25.
32:1 (1998-99): 35; 32:2 (1999): 36-37; 32:3 (1999): 42-44; 32:4 (1999):
Welwood, Ron. Lowery PO'd. 32:1 (1998-99): 2-5.
Meyers, Leonard W Stylized Arrows and Compass Roses:The Declining
North Point. 32:2 (1999): 8-9.
Koretchuk, Patricia.A Capilano Love Story. 32:1 (1998-99): 24-28.
Cole, Jean Murray. Archibald McDonald's Fort Langley Letters. 32:4
(1999): 31-36.
Klan, Yvonne Mearns.The Apprenticeship of James Murray Yale. 32:4
(1999): 37-42.
Dunn, Sam. Managing Multiple Narratives: Alexander Mackenzie at
Nuxalk Territory, 1793.32:3 (1999): 16-23.
Yandle, Anne.W Kaye Lamb. 32:4 (1999): 3.
Richard, George. When the Ditch Runs Dry: Okanagan Natives, Water
Rights, and the Tragedy of No Commons. 32:2 (1999): 10-17.
Belyk, Robert C.Victoria and the Loss ofThe Pacific. 32:3 (1999): 2-6.
Belyk, Robert C.Victoria and the Loss ofThe Pacific. 32:3 (1999): 2-6.
Dunn, Sam. Managing Multiple Narratives: Alexander Mackenzie at
Nuxalk Territory, 1793.32:3 (1999): 16-23.
Gillespie, B. Guild. Captain George Vancouver: 200 Years Dead on May
12*, 32:2 (1999): 2-3.
Naish, John M.Joseph Whidbey: A Nearly Forgotten Explorer ofthe
Pacific Northwest. 32:3 (1999): 11-15.
RobertsJ.E."Vancouver Sunday" inVictoria. 32:2 (1999): 4-7.
Brink,V.C. and Elizabeth Rutherford. Knox McCusker: Dominion Land
Surveyor. 32:3 (1999): 7-10.
Schlappner, Carrie. Unapologetically Jewish: Unapologetically Canadian.
32:1 (1998-99): 18-23.
Barmanjean. Family Life at Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 16-23.
Clearihuejoyce. FortVictoria & H.B.Co. Doctors. 32:1 (1998-99): 30-
Green, J. A. Edward Marriner, Pioneer Farmer of Cowichan: An
Annotated Summary of His Diaries 1862-1884.32:2 (1999): 18-20.
Parent, Rosemarie.The Story of Estella Hartt. 32:2 (1999): 30.
Watson, Bruce M. Family Life at Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 24-30.
Gillespie, B. Guild. Captain George Vancouver: 200 Years Dead on May
12*, 1998.32:2 (1999): 2-3.
RobertsJ. E."Vancouver Sunday"inVictoria. 32:2 (1999): 4-7.
Schlappner, Carrie. Unapologetically Jewish: Unapologetically Canadian.
32:1 (1998-99): 18-23.
Welwood, Ron. Lowery PO'd. 32:1 (1998-99): 2-5.
Cotton, H. Barry. The Retribution of D.G.F. Macdonald C.E. 32:1
(1998-99): 14-16.
GreenJ. A. Edward Marriner, Pioneer Farmer of Cowichan: An
Annotated Summary of His Diaries 1862-1884.32:2 (1999): 18-20.
Richard, George. When the Ditch Runs Dry: Okanagan Natives,Water
Rights, and the Tragedy of No Commons. 32:2 (1999): 10-17.
Klan, Yvonne Mearns.The Apprenticeship of James Murray Yale. 32:4
(1999): 37-42.
Richard, George. When the Ditch Runs Dry: Okanagan Natives, Water
Rights, and the Tragedy of No Commons. 32:2 (1999): 10-17.
Brink,V C. and Elizabeth Rutherford. Knox McCusker: Dominion Land
Surveyor. 32:3 (1999): 7-10.
Cotton, H. Barry. Walter Moberly: A Forgotten Pathfinder. 32:1 (1998-
99): 11-14.
Belyk, Robert C.Victoria and the Loss ofThe Pacific. 32:3 (1999): 2-6.
Belyk, Robert C.Victoria and the Loss ofThe Pacific. 32:3 (1999): 2-6.
Suttles, Wayne.The Coast Salish in the Journals. 32:4 (1999): 10-13.
Cuthbertson, Shirley. H.B. MacLean's Method ofWriting. 32:1 (1998-
99): 6-10.
Brink, V.C. Lytton Alfalfa. 32:1 (1998-99): 17.
Belyk, Robert C.Victoria and the Loss ofThe Pacific. 32:3 (1999): 2-6.
Colejean Murray. Archibald McDonald's Fort Langley Letters. 32:4
(1999): 31-36.
Lane, Richard J. "Writing the Coast": Bertrand William Sinclair's BC
Stories. 32:3 (1999): 26-29.
Barmanjean. Family Life at Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 16-23.
Clearihuejoyce. FortVictoria & H.B.C0. Doctors. 32:1 (1998-99): 30-
Colejean Murray. Archibald McDonald's Fort Langley Letters. 32:4
(1999): 31-36.
Duke, Laura. Against aTide of Change: An Interpretation of the Writings
of Simma Holt, 1960-1974. 32:2 (1999): 24-29.
Koretchuk, Patricia.A Capilano Love Story. 32:1 (1998-99): 24-28.
Schlappner, Carrie. Unapologetically Jewish: Unapologetically Canadian.
32:1 (1998-99): 18-23.
Watson, Bruce M. Family Life at Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 24-30.
Cotton, H.Barry. The Retribution of D.G.F. Macdonald C.E. 32:1
(1998-99): 14-16.
Maclachlan, Morag.You Are Asked to Witness. 32:4 (1999): 9.
Naish, John M.Joseph Whidbey: A Nearly Forgotten Explorer ofthe
Pacific Northwest. 32:3 (1999): 11-15.
Clark, Adrian.A Word from Adrian Clark: President of theVancouver
Historical Society. 32:4 (1999): 2.
Koretchuk, Patricia.A Capilano Love Story. 32:1 (1998-99): 24-28.
Clearihuejoyce. FortVictoria & H.B.C0. Doctors. 32:1 (1998-99): 30-
Cotton, H. Barry.Walter Moberly: A Forgotten Pathfinder. 32:1 (1998-99):
Dunn, Sam. Managing Multiple Narratives: Alexander Mackenzie at
Nuxalk Territory, 1793.32:3
(1999): 16-23.
Gillespie, B. Guild. Captain George Vancouver: 200Years Dead on May
12*, 1998.32:2 (1999): 2-3.
Naishjohn M.Joseph Whidbey:A Nearly Forgotten Explorer ofthe
Pacific Northwest. 32:3 (1999): 11-15.
RobertsJ. E."Vancouver Sunday" inVictoria. 32:2 (1999): 4-7.
Schlappner, Carrie. Unapologetically Jewish: Unapologetically Canadian.
32:1 (1998-99): 18-23.
Beh/k, Robert C.Victoria and the Loss ofThe Pacific. 32:3 (1999): 2-6.
Green J. A. Edward Marriner, Pioneer Farmer of Cowichan: An
Annotated Summary of His Diaries 1862-1884.32:2 (1999): 18-20.
Gillespie, B. Guild. Captain George Vancouver: 200 Years Dead on May
12*, 1998.32:2 (1999): 2-3.
Green, J. A. Edward Marriner, Pioneer Farmer of Cowichan: An
Annotated Summary of His Diaries 1862-1884.32:2 (1999): 18-20.
Naishjohn M. Joseph Whidbey: A Nearly Forgotten Explorer ofthe
Pacific Northwest. 32:3 (1999): 11-15.
RobertsJ. E."Vancouver Sunday" inVictoria. 32:2 (1999): 4-7.
Richard, George. When the Ditch Runs Dry: Okanagan Natives, Water
Rights, and the Tragedy of No Commons. 32:2 (1999): 10-17.
Naishjohn M.Joseph Whidbey: A Nearly Forgotten Explorer ofthe
Pacific Northwest. 32:3 (1999): 11-15.
Duke, Laura. Against aTide of Change: An Interpretation of the Writings
of Simma Holt, 1960-1974. 32:2 (1999): 24-29.
Parent, Rosemarie.The Story of Estella Hartt. 32:2 (1999): 30.
Cuthbertson, Shirley. H. B. MacLean's Method ofWriting. 32:1 (1998-99):
Barmanjean. Family Life at Fort Langley. 32:4 (1999): 16-23.
Klan, Yvonne Mearns.The Apprenticeship of James Murray Yale. 32:4
(1999): 37-42.
Adams John. Historic Guide to Ross Bay Cemetery, Victoria, BC, Canada.
Rev. ed. Reviewed by Ron Welwood. 32:3 (1999): 36.
Anderson, Suzanne. Good Morning Quadra:The History of HMCS Quadra.
Reviewed by Kelsey McLeod. 32:2 (1999): 35.
Bagshaw, Roberta L. No Better Land: The 1860's Diaries ofthe Anglican
Colonial Bishop George Hills. Reviewed by Phyllis Reeve. 32:1 (1998-
99): 40.
Bartroli, Tomas.The Genesis ofVancouver: Explorations of Site 1791,1792
& 1808. Reviewed by Gordon Elliott. 32:2 (1999): 31-32.
Bell,W H. Beyond the Northern Lights: A Quest for the Outdoor life.
Reviewed by Kelsey McLeod. 32:4 (1999): 43-44.
Bennett, Norma V, comp. Pioneer Legacy: Chronicles ofthe Lower Skeena,
vol. 1. Reviewed by George NeweU. 32:1 (1998-99): 39.
Bendey, Mary and Ted. Gabriola: Petroglyph Island. Rev. ed. Reviewed by
PhyUis Reeve. 32:3 (1999): 37.
Bimie, Lisa Hobbs. Western Lights: Fourteen Distinctive British Columbians.
Reviewed by Sheryl SaUoum. 32:4 (1999): 45.
Bocking, Richard C. Mighty River: A Portrait ofthe Fraser. Reviewed by
George NeweU. 32:1 (1998-99): 39-40.
Bridge, Kathryn. By Snowshoe, Buckboard and Steamer: Women ofthe
Frontier. Reviewed by Frances Lew. 32:3 (1999): 30-31.
Buck, George H. From Summit to Sea: Illustrated History of Railroads in
British Columbia and Alberta. Reviewed by Robert D.Turner. 32:1
(1998-99): 36-37.
Burne, Charles S.The Fraser River Gold Fever of 1858. Reviewed by Fred
Braches. 32:3 (1999): 32.
Burton, E.C. and Robert S.Grant. Wheels, Skis and FloatsThe Northern
Adventures of a Pioneer Pilot. Reviewed by Kirk SaUoum. 32:3 (1999):
Cathers, Arthur. Beloved Dissident Eve Smith, 1904-1988. Reviewed by
Linda L. Hale. 32:1 (1998-99): 37.
Culos, Raymond. Vancouver's Society of Italians. Reviewed by Gordon
Effiott. 32:3 (1999): 33-34.
Day, Frances Martin, PhyUis Spence and Barbara Ladouceur, eds. Women
Overseas: Memoirs ofthe Red Cross Corps. Reviewed by Naomi
MiUer. 32:2 (1999): 36.
GiUisJohn Graham. "A Lovely Letter from Cecie":The 1907-1915
Vancouver Diary and World War I Letters ofWallace Chambers.
Reviewed by Adam Waldie. 32:2 (1999): 33-34.
Hanson, Frances, comp. Memories of Osland. Reviewed by PhyUis Reeve.
32:4 (1999): 45.
Hope and Forty Acres. Reviewed by Edward L. Affleck. 32:1 (1998-99): 37-
Lillard, Charles with Terry Glavin. A Voice Great Within Us. Reviewed by
George NeweU. 32:3 (1999): 35.
MacGregorJ. G. Peter Fidler: Canada's Forgotten Explorer, 1769-1822.
Reviewed by Barry Gough. 32:3 (1999): 36-37.
Maclachlan, Morag, ed.The Fort Langley Journals, 1827-30. Reviewed by
Brian Gobett. 32:4 (1999): 44-45.
Merilees, BiU. Newcasde Island: A Place of Discovery. Reviewed by PhyUis
Reeve. 32:3 (1999): 31.
Muckle, Robert J. The First Nations of British Columbia: An
Anthropological Survey. Reviewed by Jos Dyck. 32:1 (1998-99): 38-39.
Norton, Wayne and Naomi MiUer. The Forgotten Side ofthe Border.
Reviewed by Edward L.Affleck. 32:1 (1998-99): 38.
Ommundsen, Peter D.The Bowen Island Passenger FerriesThe Sannie
Company 1921-1956. Reviewed by Gordon Elliott. 32:2 (1999): 35-36.
Patenaude, Branwen. Golden Nuggets, Roadhouse Portraits Along the
Cariboo's Gold-Rush Trail. Reviewed by Esther Darlington. 32:3
(1999): 31-32.
Pollard, Dou^as F.W. Peetz: A Reel for AUTime. Reviewed by Kelsey
McLeod. 32:1 (1998-99): 28.
Porsild, Charlene. Gamblers and Dreamers: Women, Men and Community
in the Klondike. Reviewed by Lew Green. 32:3 (1999): 34.
Roberts, John E. A Discovery Journal. Reviewed by Robin Inglis. 32:2
(1999): 32-33.
Simmons, Norman.The Sale-Room: A Story Written in the Hope of
Achieving the
Postponement of Its Own End. Reviewed by Kelsey McLeod. 32:2 (1999):
Siroisjames. Afloat in Time. Rev. ed. Reviewed by Leslie Kopas. 32:4 (1999):
Sommer, Warren and Kurt Alberts. Langley 125: A Celebration. Reviewed by
Morag Maclachlan. 32:4 (1999): 44.
Turner, Robert D. Sternwheelers and Steam Tugs: An IUustrated History of
the Canadian Pacific Railway's British Columbia Lake and River
Services. Reviewed by Kenneth L. Mackenzie. 32:1 (1998-99): 36.
White, Howard and Peter A. Robson, eds. Raincoast Chronicles, 18.
Reviewed by James P. Delgado. 32:2 (1999): 35.
WiUiams, A. R. (Al) Bush and Arctic Pilot. Reviewed by Kirk SaUoum. 32:3
(1999): 35-36.
B.C. HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 33 No. .3 British Columbia Historical Federation
Organized 31 October 1922
Member Societies
Alberni District Historical Society
PO Box 284, Port Alberni, BC V9Y 7M7
Anderson Lake Historical Society
PO Box 40, D'Arcy BC VON 1L0
Arrow Lakes Historical Society
PO Box 819, Nakusp BC VOG 1R0
Atlin Historical Society
POBox 111, Atlin BC V0W1A0
Boundary Historical Society
PO Box 1687, Grand Forks BC VOH 1H0
Bowen Island Historians
PO Box 97. Bowen Island, BC VON 1G0
Burnaby Historical Society
6501 Deer Lake Avenue,
Burnaby BC V5G 3T6
Chemainus Valley Historical Society
PO Box 172, Chemainus BC VOR 1K0
Cowichan Historical Society
POBox 1014, Duncan BC V9L 3Y2
District 69 Historical Society
PO Box 1452, Parksville BC V9P 2H4
East Kootenay Historical Association
PO Box 74, Cranbrook BC VIC 4H6
Gulf Islands Branch BCHF
c/o A. Loveridge S22, C11, RR # 1
GaUano Island BC VON IPO
Hedley Heritage Society
PO Box 218, Hedley BC VOX 1K0
Kamloops Museum Association
207 Seymour Street
Kamloops BC V2C 2E7
Koksilah School Historical Society
5213 Trans Canada Highway,
Koksilah, BC VOR 2C0
Kootenay Lake Historical Society
PO Box 1262, Kaslo BC VOG 1M0
Lantzville Historical Society
c/o Box 274, Lantzville BC VOR 2H0
London Heritage Farm Society
6511 Dyke Road, Richmond BC V7E 3R3
Nanaimo & District Museum Society
100 Cameron Road
Nanaimo BC V9R 2X1
Nanaimo Historical Society
PO Box 933, Nanaimo BC V9R 5N2
Nelson Museum
402 Anderson Street, Nelson BC V1L3Y3
Nicola Valley Museum Archives Association
PO Box 1262, Merritt BC V1K 1B8
North Shore Historical Society
c/o 1541 Merlynn Crescent,
NorthVancouver BC V7J 2X9
North Shuswap Historical Society
Box 317, Celista BC  VOE 1L0
Okanagan Historical Society
POBox313,VernonBC V1T 6M3
Princeton & District Museum & Archives
Box 687, Princeton BC VOX 1W0
Qualicum Beach Historical Society
587 Beach Road
Qualicum Beach BC V9K 1K7
Richmond Museum Society
Minoru Park Plaza, 7700 Minoru Gate,
Richmond BC V6Y 7M7
Salt Spring Island Historical Society
129 McPhillips Avenue
Salt Spring Island BC V8K2T6
Sidney & North Saanich Historical Soc.
10840 Ardmore Drive
North Saanich BC V8L3S1
Silvery Slocan Historical Society
Box 301, New Denver BC VOG ISO
Surrey Historical Society
Box 34003 17790 #10 Hwy.
Surrey BC V3S 8C4
Terrace Regional Historical Society
PO Box 246,Terrace BC V8G 4A6
Texada Island Heritage Society
Box 122,Van Anda BC VON 3K0
Trail Historical Society
PO Box 405,Trail BC V1R 4L7
Vancouver Historical Society
PO Box 3071,Vancouver BC V6B 3X6
Victoria Historical Society
PO Box 43035, Victoria North
Victoria BC  V8X 3G2
Yellowhead Museum
Box 1778, RR#1
Clearwater BC VOE 1 NO
Affiliated Groups
Union of Indian Chiefs
The British Columbia
Historical Federation is
an umbrella organization
embracing regional
Local historical societies
are entitled to become
Member Societies ofthe
BC Historical Federation.
All members of these
local historical societies
shall by that very fact be
members ofthe Federation.
Affiliated Groups are
organizations with
specialized interests or
objects of a historical
Membership fees for
both classes of membership are one dollar per
member of a Member
Society or Affiliated
Group with a minimum
membership fee of $25
and a maximum of $75.
Questions about
membership should be
directed to:
Terry Simpson,
Membership Secretary,
BC Historical Federation,
193 Bird Sanctuary,
Nanaimo BC V9R6G8
Please write to the
Editor, BC Historical
News for any changes to
be made to this list. Return Address:
British Columbia Historical News
JoelVinge, Subscription Secretary
561 Woodland Drive
Cranbrook,  BC    VIC 6V2
Canadian Publications Mail Product Sales Agreement No. 1245716
Publications Mail Registration No. O9835
V^tinaCla.     We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada, through the Publications Assistance Program (PAP), toward our mailing costs.
BC Historical News
welcomes manuscripts dealing
with the history of British Columbia and British Columbians.
Please send stories or essays on
any aspect ofthe rich past of our
province to:
The Editor, BC Historical News
Fred Braches, PO Box 130
Whonnock BC V2W 1V9
Phone: (604) 462-8942
Send books for review and book
reviews directly to the Book
Review Editor, Anne Yandle
3450 West 20th Avenue
Vancouver BCV6S1E4
Phone: (604) 733-6484
NEWS ITEMS for publication in
BC Historical News should be
addressed to the editor in
Please send correspondence about
subscriptions to the Subscription
Secretary, Joel Vinge
561 Woodland Drive
Cranbrook BC ViC 6V2
Phone: (250) 489-2490
The British Columbia Historical Federation
invites submissions of books for the eighteenth
annual Competition for Writers of BC History.
Any book presenting any facet of BC history, published in
2000, is eligible. This may be a community history, biography, record of a project or an organization, or personal recollections giving a glimpse ofthe past. Names, dates and places, with relevant
maps or pictures, turn a story into "mstory." Note that reprints or revisions
of books are not eligible.
The judges are looking for quality presentations, especially if fresh material is
included, with appropriate illustrations, careful proofreading, an adequate
index, table of contents and bibliography, from first-time writers as well as
established authors.
The Lieutenant-Governor's Medal for Historical Writing will be awarded to an
individual writer whose book contributes significandy to the recorded history of British Columbia. Other awards will be made as recommended by
the judges to valuable books prepared by groups or individuals.
Winners will receive a Certificate of Merit, a monetary award and an invitation to the BCHF annual conference to be held in Richmond in May 2001.
SUBMISSION REQUIREMENTS: All books must have been published in 2000 and
should be submitted as soon as possible after publication. Two copies of each book
should be submitted. Books entered become property ofthe BC Historical Federation. Please state name, address and telephone number of sender, the selling price of
all editions ofthe book, and, if the reader has to shop by mail, the address from which
it may be purchased, including applicable shipping and handling costs.
SEND TO:    BC Historical Federation Writing Competition
c/o Shirley Cuthbertson
#306-225 Belleville Street Victoria BC    V8V 4T9
DEADLINE: 31 December 2000


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