British Columbia History

BC Historical News Mar 2, 1979

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 B.C. HISTORICAL
VOLUME 12, NO. 2 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL NEWS
Vol. 12, No. 2
February 1979
Second-class mail registration number 4447.
Published November,  February, April and June by the British Columbia Historical Association,  P.O.  Box 1738,
Victoria,  B.C.,  V8W 2Y3.   (Printed by D.A.  Fotoprint Ltd.,  777 Fort Street, Victoria.)
Distributed free to members of affiliated societies.     Individual subscriptions $5 per year;  institutional
subscriptions $10 per year.    Correspondence concerning subscriptions should be directed to the Business
Manager,  B.C. Historical Mews,  P.O.  Box 1738,  Victoria,  B.C. V8W 2Y3.
AN  EDITORIAL NOTE
This  issue of the News focuses on Nanaimo,  host city for our 1979 Convention.
Details about the Convention and registration form can be found on the last page.  The
Nanaimo Society have an excellent programme planned and we hope you will reserve the
dates of May 10 to May 13.    The articles we have gathered should place some aspects of
the history of Nanaimo  in perspective and whet your appetite  for more in May.     See you
in Nanaimo!!
*******
The B.C. Historical Association gratefully acknowledges the financial assistance
of the B.C. Cultural Fund, the Koerner Foundation, and the Hamber Foundation.
*******
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Philip Yandle, 1911-1978.  Editor and Publisher Extraordinaire Robin Brammall.
Phil Yandle and Justice on the Job George North.
Early Coal Personalities:  Some Neglected British
Columbians Daniel Gallacher.
Indian Reserve Commission of 1876 and the Nanaimo
Indian Reserves Terry Eastwood...
.fi
.16
Old Trails and Routes in British Columbia R.C. Harris	
The 1860 Mule Road past Nicaragua Bluff
News from the Branches 21
Bulletin Board 22
Book Reviews:
Western Canada since 1870.  A Select Bibliography. Clarence Karr....
Western Canada since 1870.  A Select Bibliography. Elizabeth Walker.
From Desolation to Splendour  Roger Boulet	
 25
 26
 27
Whistle up the Inlet:  The Union Steamship Story Robert Turner 28
In the Sea of Sterile Mountains Chuen-Yan David Lai 29
Trails to Timberline R.C. Harris 29
Remembering Roberts Creek Donald New 30
Early Days in Lynn Valley David Grubbe 31
Ontario Since 1867 Ian MacPherson 32
Books of Interest Frances Woodward 33
B.C. Historical Society Annual Convention Outline 34
B.C.H.A. Annual Convention Registration and Reservation Form 36 -2-
Phil Yandle, sitting in the centre front row wearing white shirt and shoes,
next to Gordon Baird who is wearing suspenders.  This picture
was taken in 1944 at a meeting of the Machinist's Lodge. -3-
"IN MEMORIAM"'
With regret, we announce the death on November 5, 1978 of Philip Yandle, the
founding editor of the News and long-time secretary of the Association. We are
sure all members of the Association will join us in extending sympathy to his widow,
Anne.
As a memorial to Phil we asked two of his long-time friends, Robin Brammall and
George North to share with us some of their recollections of Phil who was, as these
tributes suggest, a man of many parts. _,  ,,.
PHILIP A. YANDLE 1911 - 1978:
Editor and Publisher Extraordinaire.
Since its birth over half a century ago, the B.C. Historical Association has enjoyed
several marked phases, characterized in large measure by the personalities involved, who
in their turn governed to no little extent the role assumed by the Association.  For over
ten years of our existence we were amused, educated, entertained, inspired, cajoled, chided,
and guided by Philip Yandle.  Not only did he bear the onerous role of Secretary during
most of that time, but also as founder, editor, publisher, printer, binder, and distributor,
of the B.C. Historical News he has left to all of us his worthy legacy from Volume 1,
No. 1 of February 1968 to Volume 10, No. 4 of June, 1977.  His first editorial in February,
1968 tells all too well the inauspicious circumstances at our Annual Convention in Williams
Lake where he volunteered to be secretary of the Association.  The growing vigour of the
Association over the following ten years is recorded for all in his News, to which the
Association has owed much of its existence and vitality.
The success of the News derived from Philip's many and varied interests, his many
friends and contacts, his ability to write entertaining copy, and his ability to turn a
good phrase, all of which are much better appreciated and savoured by re-reading his
editorials than reading any tedious "In Memoriam" eulogy.  His editorials preserve so
much of his zest for life, his inquiring mind and the obvious fun he had with his creation.
However, few of our members ever really appreciated or understood the enormity of
regularly scrounging the necessary material, finding the necessary editorial inspiration
appropriate to the time, and having produced the actual draft issue carrying on together with
his helpmate Anne, to the tedious work of typing, reproducing and stapling the "thing"
together.  From its beginning circulation of 350 to over 1,300 when he retired as editor, he
strained beyond all normal limits, the monetary limitation of 25<? per copy, less than the
cost of a cup of coffee, by spending with Anne some 88 person hours per issue.
The success of the Association and its News was unfortunately all too dependent on
one mere mortal, however enduring he may have seemed.  It is indicative of Philip's
greatness of spirit that he realized and decried how dependent the Association was upon
the "monster" the labour intensive News had become, and for some years he warned and
exhorted us to be prepared for the inevitable time when he and Anne could no longer continue.
Sooner or later the Association would have to face the dilemma of its dependence upon the
publication it was for so long unable and perhaps unwilling to finance in a proper manner.
The words of Judge Howay in 1942 with respect to the Quarterly, unfortunately applied
equally to the News.
"The Quarterly is the THING, the Society is a mere bit of shadow-boxing."
As editor, he cherished the many friends he made throughout the province and the
sncouraging and extensive correspondence he enjoyed with his correspondents and many supporters. Few men can have looked back with more pride on such an accomplishment, achieved
with so little material resources, but of such benefit and enjoyment to so many.
In his memory all of us can do little better than respond to his fervent wish that
a lasting News be carried on, soundly based and financed, and no longer dependent on
one rare human being.
H. Robin Brammall
Robin Brammall has been an active member of the Association for many years.
******
PHIL YANDLE AND JUSTICE ON THE JOB
Phil Yandle was a man of many talents and a variety of interests and occupations
overlaying a keen insight into society and a deep desire to change it for the better.
Phil's war years were spent in Boeing Aircraft where he put victory over fascism
a first priority.    But justice on the job was also a major goal in itself and as a
basis for achieving the number one target.  That is why Phil was one of the leaders of
Aeronautical Lodge 756 (InternationalAssociation of Machinists) during a strike for two
10-minute daily rest periods, a condition now taken for granted as an established right.
Phil Yandle served his fellow workers at Boeing's four lower mainland plants in
many capacities - as a shop steward, a delegate to the Machinists' District Lodge and
the Vancouver, New Westminster and District Trades and Labor Council, on several union
committees, and finally as full-time treasurer of Lodge 756.
He was a consistent advocate of labor unity and non-partisan political action to
win the post-war struggle for jobs.  He desperately wanted to prevent the pre-war
depression from returning in the post-war period.
"What does it matter to what political thought any of us might belong if we are
trade unionists first, last, always?" he asked in an article in the 756 Review of
March 1945.  "Our struggle today is a national one. Although we may have problems that
affect one particular company, it is our duty to see that what is achieved becomes the
right of all labor to enjoy."
A trace of bitterness surfaced in one of his final comments before closure of British
Columbia's aircraft industry in which over 10,000 men end women had been employed.
"The surrender terms of the Japanese had not even been signed before the papers
blazoned out with the headlines - 'MASS LAYOFFS', "WAR PLANTS CLOSE", "SHIPYARD CONTRACTS
CANCELLED' - to tell the working people that only a military victory had been won and a
further fight to ultimate victory was still to be fought."
And he noted, "Labor has paid the biggest price...to achieve military victory, and
a full and complete victory" must not be denied.  But the plants did close in spite of
valiant efforts by Phil and his colleagues to keep them open for peace-time production.
Mass meetings, publicity, interviews with civic and provincial bodies, and delegations to
Ottawa failed to halt the shutdowns.  So the skilled work force assembled to build planes
went where work was available.  A journeyman/carpenter, Phil returned to his trade and to
the International Brotherhood of Carpenters, later successfully trying other occupations.
Among Phil's wartime friends and associaties were Lodge 756 executive members Pat
Ryan, Stu Kennedy, Bert Wybrew, Ruth Smith,  and Tom Parkin, all of them expressing their
respect for Phil and their regret at his passing.  Parkin, for several years full time
secretary of Lodge 756, described Phil Yandle as "a very honest, dedicated person with a
clear understanding of the labor movement and people in general; in short, a fine human -5-
being,"   sentiments expressed by other wartime  associates.     Phil played a key but
unsung part  in one of history's  great dramas  for which he will be remembered at  least
by those of us  fortunate enough to have been his  co-workers. ,
George North,  author of A Ripple,  a Wave:    The Story of a Union Organization
in the B.C.   Fishing Industry was a long-time friend of Phil Yandle.
ft**************************************************************
EARLY COAL PERSONALITIES: SOME NEGLECTED BRITISH COLUMBIANS
During the 1850's and 1860's, the growing number of steamships on the Pacific, the
rapidly increasing demand for coal in California, and much talk of Vancouver Island
becoming a major manufacturing centre because of its extensive coal measures, made investment in the Vancouver Island coal industry an attractive proposition.  The Island, however,
developed little more than an export trade which expanded until the end of World War I.
Then, as a result of competition from petroleum and other fuels, as well as exhaustion   .
of the coal fields, the coal industry began to decline as sharply as it earlier had risen.
Considering how vital the coal trade once was to the economy of Vancouver Island, it
is surprising that so little effort has been made to produce a definitive history of
coal mining.  The few worthwhile studies of the industry come largely from geologists,
economists, and a very small number of historians - mostly amateur - who have tended to
have a narrow focus.   The lives and personalities of the industry's figures have been
examined only slightly.  The well-known Dunsmuir family, for example, has been treated chiefly
as a symbol of nineteenth century capitalism.  The investors, colliery operators, and
government officials who dominated British Columbia's early coal industry are easily
identified, but it is difficult to determine with a high degree of confidence their
actual impact though it is clear that they varied widely in their skills and experience.
This article introduces the most active and influential of them in the hope that historians
will be stimulated to investigate such personalities in some depth.
Exploitation of the Kootenay coal deposits, begun in 1898, followed a similar
pattern of rise and fall until the late 1860's when major coal sales to Japanese steel
producers revived the industry.
2
See, for example:  J. Richardson, "Coal Fields of the East Coast of Vancouver
Island," Geological Survey of Canada (hereafter GSC), Report of Progress, 1871-72, pp. 73-79;
C.H. Clapp, "Geology of the Nanaimo District," GSC, 1912; R. Strachan, "Coal Mining in
British Columbia," Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (hereafter CIMM), Transactions,
vol 26 (1923), pp. 70-132;  T.A. Rickard, "History of Coal Mining in British Columbia,"
The Miner, vol 15 (1942); A.F. Buckham, "The Nanaimo Coal Field," CIMM Transactions, vol 50
(1947), pp. 460-472; J.E. Muller and M.E. Atchison, Geology, History, and PotentiaT of
Vancouver Island Coal Deposits, GSC paper 70-53, (1971); Gustavus Myers, A History or
Canadian Wealth (Chicago, 1914), pp. 301-308; William Bennett, Builders of British Columbia
(Vancouver, 1935), pp. 65-72;  Paul Phillips, No Power Greater (Vancouver, 1967). pp. 5-9;
James Audain, From Coalmine to Castle (New York, 1955) and Alexander Dunsmuir's Dilemma
(Victoria, 1964). -6-
The only major figure in the history of British Columbia's coal industry who has
received extensive treatment by scholars is James Douglas, chief factor of the Hudson's
Bay Company, governor of both Vancouver Island and British Columbia, and the main promoter
of the Island's coal mines until his retirement from the HBC in 1858.  Douglas and other
HBC officials first sought to open the Susguash coal field located at Beaver Harbour (near
present day Port Hardy).  Acting upon reports of coal outcrops, officers of the Columbia
District erected Fort Rupert to protect future mining operations and to establish a new
trading centre for the area.  Company officials in London and at Fort Victoria had no
mining experience.  Yet they alone determined how operations and trade were to be handled.
John Muir, an experienced "practical miner" from Scotland was appointed oversman (foreman) of the first party of miners recruited for service at Fort Rupert.  No coal master
in British Columbia had more problems than Muir.  Most of the miners in his party were
members of his family.  His sons were insubordinate to HBC traders and were arrested as a
result.  Later, they deserted the H3C and went to California. Additionally, the local
natives were hostile to the coal venture and often intimidated the miners with threats
of injury or death.  More basic to the problems of Muir and Fort Rupert were an extremely
limited coal field, an inadequately sized work force, and insufficient equipment for
effective surveying.
The HBC's coal operation at Nanaimo (1852-1862) was more rewarding.  Having learned
the importance of separating coal mining from the fur trade, the HBC officers organized a
subsidiary, the Nanaimo Coal Company.  James Douglas established this new system of colliery
management and the labour and marketing policies of the Nanaimo Coal Company.  The extensive
historiography on Douglas, however, has overshadowed the contributions of other HBC coal
officials including Joseph McKay and George Robinson, manager and oversman at Nanaimo
respectively.  McKay was a highly experienced fur trader and loyal employee of the HBC when
given the responsibilities of building Fort Nanaimo, erecting the colliery, and developing
the surrounding community.  Douglas, in his determination to make Nanaimo virtually self-
sufficient, offered McKay little more than moral support in the first months of operation.
Once the mine was fully active, McKay was moved to duties elsewhere.  Robinson was the
leader of a large party of Staffordshire miners who arrived at Nanaimo in 1854. As he
was close to retirement, his task was chiefly a matter of integrating the newcomers with
the existing workforce and supervising various activities both below and above ground.
Robinson appears to have performed his role well, and sometime later acted as mining
consultant to various groups of speculators intent upon promoting coal mining ventures elsewhere on the coast.
Probably no one did more to establish coal mining on a firm footing in British
Columbia than Charles S. Nicol, an engineer, one time high sheriff of B.C., and James
Douglas' choice to head the HBC colliery in 1859. Nicol retained his position as resident
manager when the Vancouver Coal Mining Company purchased the coal operation in 1862. Nicol's
main concern always was the low state of the physical plant, especially those parts relating
to transport.  He installed a railway and made significant harbour improvements, both of
which helped greatly to increase the tonnage shipped out. Nicol fast became the most
prominent citizen of Nanaimo, for in addition to being its leading industrial figure, he
served in various civic offices, including justice of the peace and president of the
literary society.  Over the years he purchased sufficient acreage to make him the district's
largest landowner, second only to the Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company. Although
Nicol was popular in the mining town, government officials at Victoria regarded him as being
too loose in interpreting land and trade regulations.  His superiors in London, who
initially tended to allow him a free hand in erecting works and pursuing sales, feared
his willingness to spend money on improvements would jeopardize shareholders' dividends.
Nicol opened a sales office in.San Fransicso and moved there to promote further sales a year
before his retirement in 1869.  Without his determined efforts to upgrade the old HBC
colliery, Vancouver Island's coal trade would have developed much more slowly than it did.
The best source of documents pertaining to the HBC's coal operations on Vancouver
Island is the "Fort Victoria Correspondence", Hudson's Bay Company Archives (Provincial
Archives of Manitoba), All/72-75, Winnipeg.
Before his death in 1900, Nicol worked as a mining consultant successively in
Russia, Spain and Central America. -7-
The retirement of Nicol did not end conflict between VCMLC investors and their
resident manager.  For years, the directors urged patience on both sides as they struggled
to satisfy the conflicting demands of shareholders for larger dividends and of management
for expenditures on improvements.  In the face of such problems it is surprising that the
company directors remained remarkably loyal to their resident managers.
Nicol's successor was Mark Bate, a clerk-accountant educated in England and further
trained at the VCMLC's offices in Nanaimo.  Bate, an inveterate joiner, was a much more
outgoing personality than his predecessor.  He held memberships in every club and lodge,
he eagerly accepted any official appointment, and he served as Nanaimo's mayor eleven
times.  He was,  however, an incompetent colliery manager.  Under his management, the
company's share of the province's annual coal output dropped from 100% to 16.3%.  In
1884 he was replaced by Samuel Robins, secretary to the board of directors and a longtime advocate of colliery expansion as the key to improved profitability.  Robins' first
actions upon his arrival on Vancouver Island were to enlarge the size of both plant and
workforce substantially.  By 1888 he had pulled the Vancouver Coal Company's annual
production abreast of its chief rival, R. Dunsmuir & Sons.  One year later, the VCMLC produced more than half the province's total coal output, and remained slightly in the lead
for the remainder of the century.
The most efficient and profitable coal enterprise was the Wellington Colliery
established by Robert Dunsmuir who acted as both its owner and its manager between 1871
and 1889.  Dunsmuir arrived on Vancouver Island in 1851 under contract as a coal miner to
the HBC at Fort Rupert.  By 1864 he was manager of the Harewood Coal Company which never
reached production due to insufficient capital.  In 1869 Dunsmuir made a major coal
discovery on his own, and within two years had a small colliery in place.  Unquestionably
his right to set policy, coupled with his ability to supervise mining operations, gave
Dunsmuir a fundamental advantage over his competitors, a circumstance he exploited fully,
becoming B.C.'s largest coal producer by the mid-seventies.
During his employment with the HBC, Dunsmuir avoided being identified with dissident
elements, placing his emphasis instead upon rising in the ranks of the new industry.  An
innovative and ambitious man, Dunsmuir became the coal trade's first and most successful
entrepreneur.  Among the many shrewd steps he took in the course of his career, Dunsmuir
arranged wherever possible to place his immediate kin into positions of authority within
his business enterprises, including, of course, the collieries.  Equally important, he
tended to make his sons partners in his firms, which in turn served to concentrate much
wealth in the family's hands.  Tracing the Dunsmuir's coal mining operation is not a difficult research task, but following details of their private lives, especially for the nineteenth century, is all but impossible as they appear to have avoided publicity about anything
other than their business activities.  It is importantgto note that as yet no definitive
study on any or all of the Dunsmuirs has been written.
Of the ten Dunsmuir children born to Robert and his wife, Joan, only two were
boys.  James, the elder son, entered his father's mines in his late teens, first as an
apprentice, then as an overseer.  Alexander, two years younger than James, also worked
underground, but soon was made a coal sales' agent in Victoria, a role his father apparently
believed suited Alexander best.  From Vancouver Island, Alexander was transferred to San
Francisco where he opened a sales office in the 1870's.  Cut off from the mainstream of
company affairs, and possessing a taste for social climbing, Alexander was the weakest
member of the Dunsmuir business hierarchy.  He performed his assigned duties passingly well,
but descended into debauchery, reportedly dying an alcoholic womanizer in 1900.  James was
For details of this company's administration, see the reports of the VCMLC's
semi-annual meetings, 1862-85, as published in the Mining Journal Railway, and Commercial
Gazette, London, Vols. 32-53.  (Microfilm available at British Columbia Provincial Museum,
Modern History Division.)
Of particular use in tracing the progress of the Dunsmuirs and other early coal
proprietors are the B.C. Minister of Mines', Annual Reports (Victoria:  Queens Printer,
1874). ■8-
much more stable, and stuffy.  He was educated as an engineer at Virginia military
academy.  Upon his return to Vancouver Island he became his father's chief lieutenant,
rising rapidly in the colliery organization to become a full managing partner.  By the
mid-eighties he was deeply engaged in bringing the Comox coalfield into production, and
moved into the presidency of the family holdings upon his father's death in 1889.  James
later served both as premier and lieutenant governor of British Columbia.
Assisting James Dunsmuir in the Comox enterprise was John Bryden, husband of Elizabeth,
oldest daughter of Robert Dunsmuir.  Bryden was a highly experienced coal miner and colliery
supervisor, having gained much of his knowledge of the Vancouver Coal Mining Company where
he worked during the late 1870's and early 1880's.  A hard liner with labour, Bryden
broke with the Vancouver Coal Company over Bate's inability to descipline the workforce.
In the Dunsmuir operation, where employees were regarded as little more than chatties by
the proprietors, Bryden found conditions much to his liking.  He too rose to be a managing
partner, and became one of British Columbia's wealthiest men as a result of his association
with the Dunsmuirs.
Almost to a man, the major personalities of the province's coal trade were highly
optimistic about the future of their industry and of British Columbia's ecomony.  They
sincerely believed that the province's future wealth would be derived largely from the
exploitation and use of locally produced coal. Yet neither the great manufacturing sector
nor the huge transportation nexus that they envisioned for Nanaimo materialized despite the
area's coal measures.  In fact, the bulk of coal produced on Vancouver Island was shipped
south to California almost as soon as it reached the surface.  It would have taken much
more than coal alone to create the type of provincial economy its business leaders dreamed
of.  That, however, is another story, and one that cannot be written until much more
research is done, including studies on B.C.'s early entrepreneurs.
Unfortunately, there does not appear to be a wide range of documentary materials
that will tell us much about any of these men.  Mark Bate was sufficiently active in a
variety of roles to make him a strong possibility for at least a lengthy article.  Samuel
Robins' life might be a fertile ground, too.  With his political activities in mind, James
Dunsmuir is a better bet than either his father, his brother or his brother-in-law, John
Bryden.  Charles Nicol is a particularly attractive subject, but there appears to be little
information available on him - not even a portrait or photograph.  This lack of available
source material, coupled with the virtual absence of major biographies on leading B.C.
industrialists and other business figures reveals the need to acquire the documentation
necessary for the study of our commercial and industrial leaders.
Daniel T. Gallacher, Curator of Modern History
B.C. Provincial Museum.
THE INDIAN RESERVE COMMISSION OF 1876 AND THE NANAIMO INDIAN RESERVES
The letter reproduced here is one of many Gilbert Malcolm Sproat wrote to federal
and provincial authorities in his capacity as joint commissioner on the three-man Indian
Reserve Commission formed in 1876 by the two governments to fix boundaries of Indian
reserves in British Columbia.  A Scot who trained for the Indian civil service, Sproat
instead came to Vancouver Island in 1860 in the employ of Anderson and Company, a London
Sproat to A.C. Elliott, Provincial Secretary, 20 Dec. 1876, British Columbia.
Provincial Secretary.  Minister, GR 494, file 15, pp. 135-169, Provincial Archives of British
Columbia (PABC).  The records in GR 494 were recently transferred from the Legislative
Library to the Archives.  They consist of official communications between the commissioners
and the provincial secretary.  Sproat wrote the same letter to Ottawa.  The letter may be
found in Canada.  Department of Indian Affairs.  Central Registry, Black (Western) Series.
RG 10, Vol. 3611, file 3756-8, Public Archives of Canada. (PAC) The Black Series is also
available on microfilm at PABC. -9-
firm of shipbuilders and ship-brokers which had taken the advice of Captain Edward
Stamp to set up a sawmill at the head of Alberni Canal.  In 1862, Sproat took over from
Stamp as manager of the mill.  Three years later he returned to England where he
kept up on British Columbia events as one of the leading lights of the "London Committee
for watching the affairs of British Columbia" along with such men as Alexander Grant
Dallas, a governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, and Donald Fraser, Pacific Coast
correspondent of the London Times.  After visiting British Columbia again in 1871,
Sproat became-the province's first agent general in London, a position largely of his
own creation.
Sproat recorded his experiences and observations of the Indians of the West Coast
of Vancouver Island in his book Scenes and Studies of Savage Life published in 1868.
There, he ruminated about the very responsibility which would later become his charge
as joint commissioner.
My own notion is that the particular circumstances which make the
deliberate intrusion of a superior people into another country
lawful or expedient are connected to some extent with the use
which the dispossessed or conquered people have made of the soil, and
with their general behavior as a nation...intruders would be bound to
act always with such justice, humanity, and moderation as should
vindicate fully those superior pretensions which were the ground
right of occupying.
Sproat had witnessed first hand the degradation and disease that infected Indian life on
contact with European society, and concluded that Indians were a vanishing race whom his
society had the duty to protect. As commissioner, he took his task seriously, as is
reflected in the voluminous correspondence and reports he tendered to the two governments.  In this letter written early on in the commission's work, Sproat betrays
European attitudes toward the virtues of tidy housekeeping and cultivation of the soil.
He seems to be suggesting that the Indians' claim to land depended on the extent to
which they had adopted European culture. His instructions, as we shall see, left him
very little scope to satisfy the Indians' own assessment of their needs, but his
sympathies for and understanding of the Indians deepened as the commission's work
progressed. Working on the ground in close contact with the Indians, he came to
appreciate that as settlement spread the Indians' traditional field of action was becoming
ever more circumscribed.  Few individuals, least of all the politicians in Victoria
who represented the settler interest, could see the Indians' attachment to the land
as Sproat did.  "I do not exaggerate in saying," he wrote the superintendent of Indian
Affairs in Ottawa in 1879,."that some of these Indians die if they lose their land:  they
take it so much to heart."
Sproat's benevolent paternalism harkened back to Sir James Douglas's Indian policy.
After Douglas retired in 1864, the direction of colonial Indian policy fell largely to
the hands of Sir Joseph Trutch, who proved to be disdainful of Indians and exacting in
systematically curtailing reserves laid out under Douglas.  The five years elapsing
between Confederation and the establishment of the Indian Reserve Commission featured
persistent provincial obstruction of federal attempts to settle the Indian land question
on behalf of the Indians.
2
For further information on Sproat see T.A. Rickard, "Gilbert Malcolm Sproat",
British Columbia Historical Quarterly, January 19 37, pp. 21-32.
G.M. Sproat, Scenes and Studies of Savage Life (London, 1868), pp. 7-8.
4
Quoted in Robin Fisher, Conflict and Contact, Indian-European Relations in British
Columbia, 1774-1890 (Vancouver, 1977), p. 103.
Ibid., ch. 8, and the same author's "An Exercise in Futility:  the Joint Commission
on Indian Land in British Columbia, 1875-1880", Canadian Historical Association Paper, 1975,
pp. 79-94, give an account of government policy towards the commission. -10-
Because the two governments completely failed to come to an agreement on the average
number of acres per Indian family to be allotted in reserve lands, Sproat and his fellow
commissioners, Archibald McKinlay for the province and Alexander Caulfield Anderson for
the dominion, were given only general instructions to lay out reserves with regard "To
the habits, wants and pursuits of [each] Nation, to the amount of territory available in
the region occupied by them, and to the claims of White Settlers."  In special instructions
the provincial government enjoined McKinlay not to allow apportionment of "any unnecessarily
large reserves such as would interfere with White Settlement."  Even as the commission
began work, provincial authorities requested the dominion government to amend the Indian-
Act to provide simpler procedures for reduction of the size of existing Indian reserves.
From the outset, Victoria took a niggardly attitude towards the needs of a commission
it only participated in under protest.  Within little more than a year from the start
of its work, the commission was disbanded, and Sproat carried on alone until, in
frustration, he resigned in 1880.
The commission began on Burrard Inlet and Howe Sound and soon moved to Vancouver
Island.  The reserves of the Nanaimo Indians, the subject of this letter, had a history
not unlike those in the settled areas around Fort Victoria,-where in the 1850's the
Indians signed agreements, usually referred to as treaties,  for the purchase of their
lands by the Hudson's Bay Company,  then the legal authority for the disposition of
land on Vancouver Island.  In 1854, the Nanaimo Indians signed a similar treaty, but
one which did not have the usual preamble defining in a general way the compass of lands
surrendered by the Indians.  The "Fort Victoria Treaties" had reserved the Indians'
"village sites and enclosed fields" and promised a survey to stake out the boundaries of
Indian lands.  A survey had not been done at Nanaimo by 1860 when the acting surveyor-
general, B.W. Pearse, noted that Hudson-!s Bay Company officials were selling Indian
lands and a survey was urgently needed.   On one occasion in the 1860's, the Indians
protested that settlers were using their lands for a cricket pitch.  In 186 3, Pearse
reported that 250 acres comprising three reserves of 79, 40 and 131 acres had been
set aside for the Indians at Nanaimo.  It is evident from Sproat's letter that a survey
was done before the commission arrived, but as late as 1872 the Indians could still
complain to Trutch, who became British Columbia's first lieutenant governor in 1871,
that they were growing tired of waiting for settlement of the land question.   Indeed,
as the commission began, Indians all over the province looked forward to the settling
of long standing disputes and grievances.  Sproat's letter illustrates the sort of
disputes that had arisen and the way the commissioners handled them.
Terry Eastwood, Archivist,
Provincial Archives of British Columbia.
PABC.
A copy of the agreement may be found in GR 10, file 3756-2, PAC.
7 Memorandum of Instructions to Archibald McKinlay, 23 Oct. 1876, GR 494/1/2,
8
Deputy Provincial Secretary Charles Good to Prime Minister Alexander Mackenzie,
25 Oct. 1876, GR 494/2/6-12, PABC.
Q
The documents recording these transactions are found in Hudson's Bay Company.
Fort Victoria. Register of land purchases from Indians, Add.MSS. 772, PABC, and are
printed in British Columbia, Papers Connected with the Indian Land Question, 1850-1875
(Victoria, 1875), pp. 5-11.
Pearse to Governor Douglas, 26 Mar. 1860, Vancouver Island.  Surveyor General.
Letterbook, 185 7-1864, p. 72, PABC.
11 Pearse to Colonial Secretary, 24 Oct. 1863, ibid., pp. 197-98.
12
Nanaimo Chiefs to Trutch, [May 1872], British Columbia.  Provincial Secretary.
Correspondence Inward, Vol. 3, No. 379/72, PABC. -11-
Nanaimo, Vancouver Island
20th Decr. 1876
The Honourable A.C. Elliott
Provincial Secretary
Sir.
My last was about the reserves at Qualicum and Nanoose which lie between Comox and this place.
The present is about the reserves for the Nanaimo Indians.
Nanaimo is a thriving town supported by the coal miners who live in its neighbourhood, and by a
considerable Indian tribe.  It has also some dealings with several of the farming settlements on the
east side of Vancouver's Island. The surrounding country is mountainous and covered with trees.
The soil on the lower lands, except in a few places, is gravelly and thin. There cannot be any
extensive farming settlement in the neighbourhood of Nanaimo. The Indian Reserve near the mouth of'
the Nanaimo river is the best land we saw; it is flat and only a part of it covered with trees or
subject to overflow. I very much disliked to see such a piece of land lying uncultivated within a
mile or two of a growing market.
The Nanaimo Indians are a large tribe numbering 85 men, 75 women, 5 male youths, 7 female youths,
31 male children, 20 female children, altogether 223 Indians. They speak a dialect of the Lower
Fraser and Cowichan tongue.
They are of good appearance and well dressed. The first reserve visited was their small reserve
of 46 acres , which forms a strip with a pleasant frontage and beach, on Nanaimo harbour. This is
the Indians' townsite, and contains their houses, church, school, burial grounds &c. The greater part
of the Indians live in large houses built of cedar plank in the old style. These buildings are far
from being tidy. A few of the Indians, however, have erected neat cottages, forming a street, with
the Methodist Church at one end. These cottages have a pleasing appearance and are remarkably clean
within. They are mostly occupied by young men who work regularly in the coal mines, and it is worthy
of note that during our visit, several of their wives were engaged in household duties in a wifelike
way, whilst others were knitting and making articles of clothing for their families. The houses and
cottages on this reserve are forty eight in number. The Indians have, perhaps, about 10 acres fenced and
cultivated, consisting of small gardens round the cottages, yielding potatoes and other vegetables.
A few of the gardens have fruit trees.
Our conference with the Indians was, at their request, held in the Church. They said they wished
to retain their village site which I have just described, as it was very convenient for their work at
the coal mines close to it. Their wish on this point was so strongly expressed and from their point of
view so reasonable that it was clear the Commissioners could not remove them, but at the same time I
think it will be undesirable to look upon this village site as a permanent location, for the town of
Nanaimo already partly surrounds it and is stretching beyond it. An Indian village cannot be within
a city without causing disadvantages to the Indians and to the whites. In a few years, the mines in
which these Indians are employed may not require their labour, but their labour may be required in another
mine nearer the mouth of Nanaimo river, and when that time comes, it may appear to be in the interest
of both Indians and whites that some arrangement should be come to for the sale of the forty-six acre
village site and the transference of the village to another convenient locality in the neighbourhood.
For the present, the Commissioners could not see their way, without considerable injustice and disturbance
of praiseworthy industrial occupations, to press the Indians for their consent to remove the existing
village site at Nanaimo, but in what was afterwards arranged, I had, for my part, constantly in view that
such transference might by and bye become necessary in the interests both of the Indians and of the whites.
Having heard all the Indians had to say about their village site, and come to a decision respecting
it, the Commissioners asked the chiefs what more they had to say. They stated that white people had not
only encroached upon, but had built houses and made fences and gardens on a portion of their reserve
near the mouth of the Nanaimo river and that they wanted more land and particularly a portion of land
opposite., the island, at the mouth of the Nanaimo river, on its left bank, owned by the Vancouver Coal
Company.
13
This reserve has remained unchanged.  It was listed as containing 47 acres by the 1913 royal
commission on Indian affairs in British Columbia and in the 1972 schedule of Indian reserves published
by the Department of Indian affairs.
In 1859, the coal mining operation of the Hudson's Bay Company, the Nanaimo Coal Company, was
sold to British interests and renamed the Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company. The extensive holdings
of this company included much of the land that eventually formed the townsite of Nanaimo. -12-
The Commissioners accordingly proceeded in the company of about 35 Indians, to examine the boundaries
and the nature of the reserves near the mouth of the Nanaimo river, which are about 2 miles from the
town of Nanaimo.
These reserves consist of 382 acres.   The reserve on the east bank of the river is as above
said, for the most part open land, and though like the deltas of most of the rivers in the country,
subject to partial inundation at the time of high spring tides, when the river also is high the soil
generally may be said to be of very good quality.  In its arid state, it yields a considerable quantity
of coarse hay.  This portion of the reserve would be a valuable farm in the hands of an industrious
white settler and as above said, it is close to a growing market.  It is the only portion of the
reserve on which the Indians have done any work. What this work amounts to, I will now state. There
are three houses only, permanently occupied at the reserves on Nanaimo River. Many of the Indians,
however, from the reserve at Nanaimo town (above described) reside at the Nanaimo river reserve during
the fishing season and also when they are planting their potatoes. There are irregular patches along
the river fenced in, and cultivated for potatoes and other vegetables but on the whole, little use has
been made of this valuable reserve. It is but fair, to the Indians, however, to say that they stated
to us that their backwardness in cultivating their reserve arose from alarm in their minds as to
what land they could consider to be their own.
The reserve on the west side of the Nanaimo river contains 117 acres and though of fair quality is
timbered throughout, rather heavily in some places.
Game now is becoming scarce, but salmon are abundant.
Having carefully examined the boundaries and nature of the reserves, the Commissioners proceeded
to investigate the specific complaints of the Indians.
They stated that a piece of the north-west corner of the reserve was occupied by a white man. The,
Commissioners accordingly went to this place, and after a careful investigation, aided by Mr. E. Mohun,
who years ago, while employed by the Dominion Government to survey the Nanaimo Reserve, discovered that
an encroachment had been made at this place, they decided that probably 4 or 5 acres of the Indian
Reserve are now in the occupation of a white settler. A comfortable house with barn and the usual
outbuildings of a homestead had been built. There were also a garden and small orchard. Leaving the
Indians outside the gate the Commissioners entered the house and had an interview with the mistress.
The whole place, outside and inside, was attractive and afforded the clearest evidence of industry and
thrift, very pleasing to witness after the filth of the Indian habitations which had been lately visited.
The story of the mistress was as follows. She had been the widow of a Mr. Barton  who had been
killed by an accident near Nanaimo. Mr. Barton had bought, she believed, from a Mr. Nicol,  the farm
adjoining the Reserve including the portion on which the homestead was placed. After her husband's death,
Mrs. Barton has supported her family by hard work for some time, and afterward became the wife of her
present husband, a Mr. McKinley  who works in the mines. Before marrying Mr. McKinley she handed over
the farm which Mr. Barton's death placed in her hands, to Messrs Wall and Hirst, Nanaimo, as Trustees
for her children by Mr. Barton and these trustees now had everything to do with it. Since Mr. Mohun's
survey of the Indian Reserve, some years ago, she had learned there was a difficulty as to the ownership of the site of the homestead, and her mind has been much troubled. She hoped the matter would be
settled now.  She did not understand the matter, but knew that her late husband had paid cash for his
farm, and she referred the Commissioners to the Trustees.
These reserves (Nos. 2 and 3, Nanaimo River) were listed at 260 and 128 acres in 1913 and in 1972.
16 *
Edward Mohun was born in Chigwell, England in 1838 and died in Victoria in 1912. He came to
Victoria in 1863, and served the colonial and provincial governments in various capacities as surveyor
and public works engineer. In 1877, he was appointed chief surveyor to the Indian Reserve Commission.
He continued to survey Indian reserves until 1884.
William Barton died in an accident at a mine at Newcastle in November 1872 when a defective
fuse exploded unexpectedly. He left a wife and three children.
18
Charles Samuel Nicol became High Sheriff for Yale district in 1859, but later the same year
took over as manager of the Nanaimo Coal Company's operation. His brother, James Nicol, negotiated the
sale to British interests in 1862, and Charles was retained as resident manager. In 1868, Charles went
to a position in the head office of the company in San Francisco.
19
Perhaps James McKinley or one of his sons, all of whom worked for the Vancouver Coal Company. -13-
The Commissioners, accordingly, requested the Trustees to favour them with an interview at their
camp, and in the meantime made inquiries which satisfied them that Mrs. McKinley's (formerly Mrs.
Barton) statement was correct in the main, and that her husband had not intentionally encroached on the
reserve. The adjoining farm had been originally pre-empted, about 1862 by Mr. Nicol, Manager of a
Coal Company here, and it is believed that he bought the piece of land in question (which was outside
of his pre-emption and cut into the reserve) from the Indians and built on it with their consent. This
purchase from Indians was of course illegal, but many persons made such bargains, by mistake, in the
old times. The land afterwards passed through second hands until it came into the hands of Mr. Barton
an innocent purchaser. The case was one of unintentional encroachemnt on the Reserve by several
successive owners of the adjoining farm, who acquired their supposed rights from Mr. Nicol under the
circumstances stated.
The result of a conference with the trustees of the children was an agreement on their part to
leave the whole matter to the Commissioners.  It was stated to the Trustees that the Commissioners had
no other duty to perform than to make a Report of the facts which would result in an action of ejectment
by the Dominion authorities, and that nothing else could be done, either by the Commissioners or by
the Dominion Government, except with the formal consent of the Indians, but under all the circumstances of the case, the Commissioners would ask the Indians what they wished to be done, and would report
the wishes of the Indians to the Minister of the Interior who doubtless would confirm what the
Commissioners recommended as regards this matter, provided it was in accordance with the wishes of the
Indians.
The Commissioners having called a meeting of the chiefs and others who desired to come, at their
Camp at East Passage, Nanaimo, explained to them the facts of the case, pointing out clearly to them that
the land belonged to them, and that the Queen would uphold them like white men in all their rights but
that, in this case of Mrs. McKinley there had been a mistake, and the land on which valuable houses had
been built was now supposed to belong to the young children of a white man who was dead. The Indians were
asked to declare their minds. After a consultation, the chiefs, with good feeling and good sense, as I
thought, said they did not wish to break up Mrs. McKinley's home, but would be satisfied if they got
an equal quantity of land added to the Reserve from her farm, to that now occupied by her upon the
reserve. The Commissioners told them this was a serious matter, and brought out their book of record,
and asked them to state their minds again, and informed them that they would put what they said into
the books. The Indians said they had explained their minds, and the Commissioners accordingly agreed
to report to the Minister of the Interior that this would be a good settlement of the question and they
so informed Messrs. Wall and Hirst, the Trustees for the children.
The next matter which came under the notice of the Commissioners was the cutting of timber on
the reserve on the west bank of the Nanaimo river. This was observed by the Commissioners and not
brought to their notice by the Indians who indeed showed a want of interest in the matter. There were
two rolling ways for logs on the bank of the river within the reserve. These rolling ways of course, were
the termini of logging roads, and the question was, by what authority were such roads made through
the reserve, and were the logs - conveyed to the water along these roads - taken from land beyond the
Indian Reserve, or from the Indian Reserve? On further examination of this west portion of the Nanaimo
River Indian Reserve, a third rolling way was found, which encroached on the Reserve, as also did a
cabin erected by the logging camp foreman and a portion of a sleeping house made for the men of the
logging camp whom the Commissioners found carrying on their work at this place.
The Commissioners, having observed these facts, requested the foreman to come to their camp. They
considered that the expense of their stay to inspect the Reserve with the view of ascertaining the amount
of the trespass would have been unjustifiable. Such work is properly the duty of the Indian Department
at Victoria. The foreman of the camp came to the camp of the Commissioners, and stated that he had
acted innocently, and had been employed by the owner of a Sawmill at Nanaimo. This gentleman accordingly
was sent for, and his explanation was that the Indians had permitted him to make the two now disused
roads through the Reserve and that he never wished his foreman to cut any streets on the Reserve, or
place a cabin there.
It was explained to him that, under the Indian Act of last session, he had placed himself in an
uncomfortable position, and that the Commissioners had satisfied themselves that they must report him
as an encroacher upon a Reserve. They recommended him to write to the Superintendent of Indian Affairs,
Victoria, to give what explanations he could of his acts, as the matter properly was a Departmental
affair. I have only to add for myself that the impression left on my mind is that the owner of the
sawmill is an honest man, who has been careless of the Indian's rights. He has an agreement with the
Vancouver Coal Co. to cut timber on their land which adjoins the Reserve and states that he has been
occupied with his Mill and has in fact not visited his logging camp lately and will much regret if it
should be proved that any encroachment has been made by his men upon the Indian Reserve. He is willing
to pay for any logs that may have been wrongly cut on the Reserve, and will take good care that no
encroachment, without licence, will take place in the future. -14-
So far as I could ascertain there are about three quarters of a million feet of good saw logs
obtainable from a portion of the Reserve.  The Indians, as above said, strangely seemed to attach no
value to the timber on their reserve and did not much complain of any encroachment upon it.
One of the rolling ways mentioned included the spot that should have been marked by a post as one
of the corners of the Indian Reserve.  The post could not be found. On mentioning this most serious
matter to the owner of the sawmill, he positively affirmed after examination that no person in his
employment had removed the post, but that probably it had been inadvertently removed by a road party
who had been working in the same place - I am disposed to think that the owner of the sawmill is not
chargeable with this serious offence.
It was not found to be practicable to make any considerable extension of the reserve for these
Nanaimo Indians, as most of the land in the neighbourhood is owned by the coal companies or„eccupied
by white settlers. The three existing reserves were confirmed and an addition of 200 acres  made
from unoccupied land adjoining the reserve on the east bank of the Nanaimo river. This addition is
for the most part ridgy, wooded land but there are in it 20 or 30 acres of good alder bottom land, and
10 or 15 acres of open grass land. The Indians as above said, expressed a strong desire to get a
piece of land owned by one of the coal companies near the mouth of the river, but as this piece of land
has been held for many years under a Crown Grant, the Commissioners could not interfere with it. At the
urgent request of the Indians, they, however, promised to mention the matter to the Indian Department,
but without holding out any hope to the Indians that the Department would be able to get the land for
them. We told them it was white man's land and the owner could do what he pleased with it. With the
exception of this disappointment, the Nanaimo Indians appeared to be well satisfied with the action of
the Commissioners. At the closing conference with them, they took off their caps and gave three cheers
in bidding us goodbye.
Before leaving Nanaimo, an old Nanaimo Indian asked us to visit the south end of Gabriola Island,
where he said there were Indian houses in one of which he lived. We were disinclined to favour the making
of a small reserve so far from the others, but as the Indian begged us to go, and said that a white
settler had come to the place lately, and had knocked down the Indian fences and as our inquiries at
Nanaimo seemed to make a visit desirable, we promised to visit the scene of the dispute as soon as
possible.
Captain Wake of Valdez Island also visited our camp at Nanaimo, with reference to questions between
him and the Li-ick-sin Indians.
We heard also of other questions that awaited our decision in the district to which we were
about to proceed from Nanaimo - namely the district of Chemainus including the larger outlying islands
in the gulf. There were 20 to 25 places within this district which the Commissioners would have to visit,
and it therefore was necessary to select an encampment from which the different places could be reached
conveniently without shifting the Camp. Horse Shoe Bay was the place selected. The Commissioners arrived
there on the 21st December. Next morning they went to Valdez Island to begin work among the Li-ick-sins,
and while there ran up in the steamer to the south end of Gabriola Island to settle the question above
mentioned as existing there between some of the Nanaimo Indians and a white settler.
20
This reserve (No. 4, Nanaimo River) was listed at 200 acres in 1913, and 198 acres in 1972, the
two acres having been assigned to a right of way.
21
Baldwin Arden Wake, a former captain in the Royal Navy, was born in 1913 and drowned in January
1880 when returning home alone in his sloop from a trip to Nanaimo. Sproat reported (GR 494/18/191-192,
PABC) that Wake had preempted land on the extreme north end of Valdez Island and taken up more on a
military grant, all told 760 acres.  The Lyacksun Indians protested against any settlement on the
island, all of which they claimed when the commissioners visited them.  Sproat estimated that there were
18 adult male Lyacksuns and 49 in all. The commission assigned over 1800 acres to the Lyacksuns, for
an average for each adult male of over 100 acres.  By comparison, the Indians inhabiting the Nanaimo
reserves Nos. 1-4, in a much more settled area than Valdez Island, averaged 7.4 acres for each adult
male, according to calculations by George Blenkinsop who was official census taker to the commission.
For Blenkinsop's census see GR 494/25, PABC. -15-
The settler, Mr. Martin was not at home, but he had been there an hour or two before we arrived.
He had built a good log house, and had cut and was burning the trees near it. The place was a narrow
point and the Indian houses, four in number, were close to a beach at the end of it. Four Indian
men, three women and 2 children lived in the houses. Behind the houses was a good patch of land running
across the point, showing traces of having been cleared and cultivated by the Indians. Portions of a
fence were lying on the ground, and near the prostrate fence were cuts in old stumps, showing where the
fence had been erected.  Farther back was Mr. Martin's house partly surrounded as above said, by evidences
of vigour and industry in the shape of felled and burning trees.
Not being able to see Mr. Martin, the Commissioners wrote a letter to him asking for the favour of
an interview and Captain Wake who was present kindly offered to deliver the letter to Mr. Martin.  The
statement of the old Indian Kwak-yum-men was then taken down as follows:
"I am a Nanaimo Indian with a wife, a girl and a boy. I am old, and not strong and
cannot work land much. I am a fisherman, and I get food and clothes for my family
by catching fish and selling them. I have been here since I was a boy, and my father
and grandfather were here too, and are buried on that little island. I like this
place because it is a good place for catching fish. I go to Nanaimo river to catch
the winter Salmon. These other men do the same but this is our place. One of these
men's wives is buried on that island. What I say is true; you can see that the
houses are old, and you can ask the white people about me. I do not want much land.
I want you to say that I may have the houses and a small piece for potatoes.  I
have grown potatoes here & I cut down trees, and that fence was mine and was put up
across there. A short time ago, a white man came and began to cut down trees and
when I asked him what he meant to do, he said he was going to build a house. He
built that house, and burned trees, and then knocked down my fence. I said I would
speak to Dr. Powell.   The white man said Dr. Powell was no chief: he was all the
same as an Indian. Dr. Powell told me to wait for the commissioners. You can see
that my fence is old wood. I did not use my gun because I know the law, and I
waited. I do not know the white man's name. He was working here near his house
when your steamer came."
The Commissioners returned next day, going 12 or 14 miles in the hope of finding Mr. Martin, and
he awaited them at the beach, when they arrived.
The statement of the Indian was read over to him in the presence of the Indians. He said that he
had cut down trees and had knocked down the old fence, and did not think he was doing wrong, as he had
been told at Nanaimo that there was no Indian reserve at this place. This little point was very good
land, and he wished to have it. The Indians he said, did not always live in their houses. He had not used
any disrespectful language with regard to Dr. Powell: he had not been long in the country and could not
speak Chinook well and the Indians must have misunderstood him.
The Commissioners, having carefully examined the ground, formed an opinion that it was an old
Indian settlement, and as such, could not be legally pre-empted or occupied.  They explained to Mr. Martin
the degree of protection afforded by the law to Indian settlements which are not recorded as Reserves and
pointed out to him the very serious position in which he had, apparently placed himself by his high
handed proceedings. At the same time, the Commissioners offered to postpone their decision, if Mr.
Martin wished to place any evidence before them which in his opinion might give a different colour to
his acts. Mr. Martin said he wished a summary decision to be given. He had acted on misinformation.
He had no papers for his claim, as the neighbouring claims had not been "proved up". He was a squatter.
The settlers wished a road to the water at this point of land.
The Commissioners would probably not have exceeded their duty, nor done injustice, had they caused
Mr. Martin to remove his house and reported him to the Indian Department as an encroacher upon an Indian
Settlement, but they endeavoured to arrange a compromise that would satisfy the Indians, as well as the
views of the white settlers, and at the same time give Mr. Martin an opportunity of making a homestead
without transferring from his occupancy the whole of the good soil on the small point of land.
22
Dr. Israel Wood Powell, a medical doctor in Victoria, was appointed to one of the two positions
as resident superintendent of Indian affairs in British Columbia in 1872. -16-
By this time, the old Indian had larger views. He not only wished Mr. Martin removed but wished
for a tract of land for cattle. The Commissioners reminded him of what he had asked for the day before,
and stated that they had given lands to the Nanaimo Indians at Nanaimo, and that this must be a fishing
station, or nothing.
They decided to give the Indians the land from the point back to where their old place had been.
This included their beach, their houses, well, and cultivated ground, and it left a piece of good land for
Mr. Martin, and room for the proposed road to reach the place of shipment which Mr. Martin pointed out.
In order to get wood for the reserve, the simplest way would have been to have drawn the back line of
the reserve farther back from the point so as to include woodland but as this would have caused the
sacrifice of Mr. Martin's labour and cut off his house, the Commissioners added a longish strip of
woodland on one side of the point. The whole reserve is only about 2%  acres,  of which half an acre
is clear land. Additionally the Commissioners made a reserve of a small rocky islet, used as a
burying ground. They walked finally over the ground, and showed the boundaries to the Indians and to
Mr. Martin. This finished the allotment of reserves for the Nanaimo Indians.
[Next paragraph written in the left margin:]
A minor incident in this arrangement of matters at Gabriola Pass is that the Government agent.at
Nanaimo is of opinion that the Commissioners have been "imposed upon" by the Indians at that place.
In conclusion I should mention that the Commissioners were requested by His Worhip the Mayor of
Nanaimo to consider whether they could not make a small reserve near the city, on which Indians travelling
or coming to Nanaimo in search of work, could find accommodation.
The Nanaimo Indians will not accommodate strange Indians in their village. A village for strange
Indians might be under effective police control. At present, they encamp here, there and everywhere
on private property and cannot be well looked after. These views of His Worship were evidently the
views of other influential residents in Nanaimo, and on this account the question received the earnest
consideration of the Commissioners. The Conclusion which they came to was that, however useful such
a reserve might be at Nanaimo, from the point of view of residents in that city, its establishment would
be of doubtful advantage as a matter of general policy, and would probably be regarded by the Dominion
Government and by the government of the province as an undertaking of a purely municipal character.
I have the honor to be, Sir, Your obedient servant,
Gilbert Malcolm Sproat
Joint Commissioner
23
This reserve (No. 5, Gabriola Island) was listed at 2Jg acres in 1913 and in 1972.
The government agent in question was W.H. Fawcett. The correspondence registering his complaint
may be found in GR 494/21/212-219, PABC.
OLD TRAILS AND ROUTES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA   by r.c. Harris
THE 1860 MULE ROAD PAST NICARAGUA BLUFF
near Hells Gate in the Fraser Canyon
The discovery of placer gold by miners working up the Fraser Canyon gave economic
impetus for completing a direct riverside pack trail between Yale, at the head of
navigation, and Lytton at the head of the canyon.
The mission section of trail, or mule road, was expected to be the most difficult -17-
to build.     It  lay between Chapman's Bar and Boston Bar,     and would have  to pass  such
hazards as Turnbull Crags,     The Black Canyon   (where  the  river runs  in  a sub-canyon),
Nicaragua Bluff,     Hells  Gate and China Bar Bluffs.     From earliest times,   this  section
had divided our native  Indians,   to the extent that they spoke different languages
above and below.
The  first relevant trail to be shown in the vicinity was on Archibald McDonaldis
1827  "Map of Thompson's River District".       A recently constructed Indian horse  road    ran
east  from the Fraser Canyon at Quayome   (Boston Bar)   the the  "Similkameen"   (Merritt area),
via the  lower Coquimome   (Anderson River)   and Uztlius Creek.
Alexander Anderson's  1848  Brigade Trail    to Kamloops   (HBC headquarters of Thompsons
River District),   avoided the Black    Canyon and other horrors by striking north east  from
the  lower end,   at Kequeloose   (later Chapmans Bar,   14 Mile House and Alexandra Lodge).
Anderson's  route  crossed Lake Mountain   (the  ridge between the Fraser and Anderson
Rivers),   and joined the old Indian horse road    from Boston Bar to Similkameen near
the mouth of Uztlius Creek.
Travel patterns  up the Fraser Canyon changed in 1858;     traffic was now destined for
Lytton and the north,   rather than Merritt and Kamloops.   Until the direct riverside
route was build in  1860,  horse traffic had to detour round 2  sides of a triangle,   via
Uztlius Creek.       Not only was  this  "Old Mountain Trail"     15 miles  longer than the
Fraser River route,  but it was  usually closed from November  to May by snows on Lake
Mountain.
9
On  10 January 1860,   Governor Douglas    asked Colonel Moody,   R.E.,  Chief Commissioner
of Lands and Works,   to investigate cutting off  the detour with a 12  foot wide  low levei
mule trail between Chapmans Bar and Boston Bar,  where  it would rejoin the Old Mountain
Trail.     This exploration was  assigned to Sapper James Turnbull,   R.E.,  who made his report
23 July  1860, with 9  sketch maps  and narrative.
The river bars were mined and named by the miners as they worked their way upstream.    At
least half of the Gold Rush bars are shown on modern maps,  and can be found in the river.
"Boston Bar" was,  and is,  a gravel bank on the west,  or true right,  bank of the Fraser River,
opposite the mouth of Anderson River.    The name was applied to the Indian village opposite  (Quayome),
immediately upstream of the mouth of Anderson River.    Later,   the CNPR moved the name north to its
present location,   formerly a divisional point on the railway.
Boston Bar was the start of an easier  trail and wagon    road building going north — only Jackass
Mountain gave real trouble thenceforth.
Map A serves to locate the points mentioned for readers who may not have been over the ground.
2
"Turnbull Crags" are named on his sketch map, #8 or 9, on letter sized scraps of cartridge paper -
(also marked Sketch (3)). See Turnbull's report, 23 July 1860 F1783/1, Colonial Government Correspondence,
PABC. The Crags are the mountain spur now pierced by the Alexandra Tunnel on highway #1.
3
Nicaragua Bluff (and Slide) took their names from Nicaragua Bar, directly opposite, near the mouth
of Tsileuh Creek which cascades into the Fraser from the west. A painting at PABC, by Frederick Whymper,
entitled: "The Frazer, from Nicaragua Slide (near the Zigzags)" shows, in the foreground, a stationary
mule train facing north on the new trail. Across the Fraser, the Tsileuh torrent enters.
4
The Provincial Archives of British Columbia holds a photostat copy. All the maps mentioned in
this article can be found in the map collection of the Provincial Archives of British Columbia.
A.C. Anderson also mentions the Indian horse road east from Boston Bar to the "Similkameen". In
fact he built his 1848 Brigade Trail from Yale to intersect it, leaving the Fraser at Chapmans Bar,
feee Map A).
Anderson describes his exploration for the Brigade Trail in his "Journal of an Expedition to Fort
Langley via Thompson's River.  Summer of 1847", PABC. -18-
Turnbull's biggest problem was passing the Nicaragua Bluff,   the  150  to 200
foot sheer rock wall at the north portal of Hells  Gate Tunnel on the present highway.
This was a subject of great interest to many potential users;     the  Sergeant Major  for
one,  on  the military engineering    side, while  the public were represented by expressmen
and contractors  such as Barnard,  Way and Moberly.     One suggestion was  a tunnel      near
the  2  later highway tunnels.
Turnbull went  for  the cheapest,  quickest solution that would give acceptable grades.
Working from south to north,   he  zigzagged down  500   feet  from the elevation of the
present highway near the  south portal of Hells  Gate Tunnel  to a point not far above  the
CNR tracks.     The  location then ran north,  round the rocky end of the mountain spur
forming Nicaragua Bluff,   and over slides,   ravines,   and rocky benches  for about 60  chains
(3/4  of a mile)   before  zigzagging back up   ("tacking"   in Turnbull's  language)   to  the
original elevation.
12
On  18 July  1860,   Douglas  asked Moody  to call bids  for the work.     The  contract
was awarded August 1860  to Powers  and McRoberts,   and the riverside mule road was  first
opened to traffic  in October,   1860.     It continued in heavy use  until superseded by  the
Cariboo Wagon . road late  in  1863   (built where  the CNR now runs).
Both sets of Turnbull's  zigzags  and some of the connecting trail are extant and in
quite  good condition.     There may be more of the  connecting trail to be  found,  but the
wooden cribbing and trestles  over the ravines  and gullies are  long gone,   discouraging
exploration.     Several rounds of highway construction above the trail,  plus extensive
remedial works on the cliffs  above  the highway,   have covered much of the  trail with
new talus,  but a few more  sections may yet be  found.     There may not be,   however,  enough
left  for rehabilitation as  an historic hiking trail between two accessible points on the
Trans Canada Highway.     The  cost would be many  times  that of the original construction.
Anderson describes the finished Brigade Trail in his "Handbook to the Gold Regions...."
published with map in San Francisco,  May 1858.    The hand-book and map were republished in Great Britain,
Parliament,  "Papers Relative to the Affairs of British Columbia," Part I,  pp.   79-83.
The Name "Kequeloose"  survives on the Indian Reserve "Tequeloose",  almost opposite Chapmans
Bar.    The creek just north of the Reserve is "Tikwalus",  another approximation to the name.
Judge Begbie shows the trails  in the area on the collage of his field sketch maps.    Several of his
maps and those of the Royal Engineer's maps give similar information.
Q
Captain A.R. Lempriere refers to the "Old Mountain Trail" in his map and report, 2 January 1860,
F985a, Colonial Government Correspondence, PABC.
q
Douglas to Moody, 10 January 1860, F485a/101, Colonial Government Correspondence, PABC.
Pfifer to Moody, 25 June 1860, F558/lc, Colonial Government Correspondence, PABC, transmitting
Barnard's sketch map, where a tunnel immediately south of Nicaragua Slide is proposed. The map also notes
"Lake House" on the skyline.
The Contractor did not follow Turnbull's location exactly. See the transmittal of Cpl..Howell's
inspection report, 7 May 1861, British Columbia, Department of Lands and Works, Letterbook correspondence,
pp. 191-193.
1860.
12
Moody gave the abstract of tenders for the "Chapman and Boston Bar (Mule) Road on 17 August -19-
fc L
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ie arid souaves are-
THE MULE
PfcT[   MlCfcgACcUK  BLUFF
HAP    fe -21-
^o  find the zigzags at the south end,  start down towards the Fraser from a point
about halfway between Hells Gate Cafe and Hells Gate Tunnel. There is good roadside
parking here.
You will soon intersect the 6 foot wide trail and its well built zigzags, 7 in
all.  Descending, the trail gets a little more damaged and decrepit from fallen rock
and trees.  The vegetation indicates a drier climate than coast forest. Now it heads
upstream, over rough talus, not far above the CNR tracks, fading out on the bare rock
nose of Nicaragua spur.  All trace of the original soil, or cribbing, have now disappeared.
You must turn back.
But first look into the unnavigable Fraser and its surging riffles.  Then look to
the far bank and the mouth of Tsileuh Creek.  Here, near either end of the railway
bridge are traces of a competing trail on the sidehill.
For access to the north end zigzags, park near the monument to the International
Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission in the old roadside parking lot on the west side
of the highway.  This is south of the footbridge serving the Hells Gate Tram.
Walk south along highway 1 for a few yards, to the near end of the great, but little
known, barrel vault supporting the highway.  Take the steps leading down from the
north end of the vault, near the bronze name plate.  Continue descending towards the
Fraser from the bottom of the steps, and you will soon intersect the trail at its
zigzags on the rocky hillside.
Follow the zigzags down to the left, then contour south over the talus below the
great concrete vault.  The mule trail is sketchy for about 50 yards;  then you reach a
fine mossy section of undisturbed trail, say 200 yards in good condition.  Beyond this
section lies a difficult ravine.  The prospects down the ravine, and further south,
are not inviting;  you will likely wish to end your examination here.
13
Our most recent visit (Suttlll, Hughes, Harris) to both sets of zigzags was made Sunday, 25
June 1978.
NEWS FROM THE BRANCHES
The Creston and District Historical and Museum Society had a busy year in 1978,
especially its Field
Committee of Mr. R. Masse, Mr. F. Hagen, Mr. R. Rollin and Mr. A. Snyder.  One of
their projects, the clearing and marking of the Dewdney Trail through the Creston
Mountains and Valley, has received much attention.  At present this committee and the
B.C. Wildlife Association are negotiating  an easement   from the government, forest
companies and individuals who own land over which this historic trail passes.  This
once long neglected trail is sure to attract both local residents and visitors once
it is opened.
District 69 Historical Society, p.o. box 74, parksville, b.c (Mildred Kurtz,
Secretary-Treasurer).  The District 69 Historical
Society which serves the Parksville-Qualicum area and surrounding district was established
in 19 75, and includes a small membership of dedicated people who are working towards
the provision of a museum to serve the district.
The town of Parksville has provided a small archives room for storage of smaller
historical objects and papers and photographs but this will soon be inadequate for the -22-
increasing number of artifacts being donated by interested citizens.  There is a
display case for exhibits which members change about once a month.
Two major projects have been undertaken during the year:  the saving of an old
church building from demolition and an active campaign to preserve a pioneer farm
property as a heritage park.  The church building, formerly Knox United Church, was
built in 1912 and therefore qualified as a heritage building.  Largely through the
efforts of then vice-president Marjorie Leffler the old structure was saved from the
wrecker's hammer at the eleventh hour and, through the co-operation of the town
council and the local school board, it was moved to a temporary site on a former
school ground.  Financing the move caused the members great anxiety.  They appealed
to various levels of government for grants. Some members and interested residents offered
interest free loans, fund-raising projects were held and finally the bulk of the cost
was covered.  When restoration is completed it is hoped to use the former church
building for historical displays and meeting rooms.
The second project involved a publicity campaign to encourage the public to
petition the government to purchase the Craig Farm, Craig's Crossing, Nanoose Bay as
a heritage park.  The farm was established in 1887 when the late James Craig preempted the land and has been owned by the same family since that time.  Some original
buildings are still standing and the owners have collected many pioneer artifacts.
Hundreds of signatures were turned over to the government on petitions, dozens of letters
were written and the campaign attracted television, radio, and newspaper coverage.
At time of writing this report, there had been no definite response from the Parks Branch.
District 69 Historical Society is planning numerous projects for 1979 including
fund-raising events for restoration of the old church building.  It hopes to hold a
Museums Day to publicize the work of the Society and gain more members. Work bees
are to be held for cataloguing and sorting collections received also to work on the
heritage building.
Immediate past president, Graham Beard has compiled quite a collection of photographs of old buildings and present scenes in areas which are to be modernized in the
near future.
Officers for the ensuing year are president, Marjorie Leffler, vice president, M.A.
Miller, secretary-treasurer, Mildred Kurtz and museum trustees, Peggy NichoUs, Graham
Beard and M.A. Miller.
ELPHINSTONE PIONEER MUSEUM, GIBSONS.  1979 was a particularly active year for the
Elphinstone Pioneer Museum. A British
Columbia Museums and Archives Development Fund grant and a Koerner Foundation Grant have
enabled the museum's volunteers to organize the photographic collection which numbers
in excess of 1500 historic photos.  Two display stands were constructed to exhibit 200
8 x 10 enlargements.  The entire photographic collection is being catalogued and
photographs without negatives are being re-photographed.  Ultimately the collection will
be made available for research purposes.
From October to December, two Canada World Youth volunteers worked on the cataloguing of the museum's artifact collection.
Additional projects initiated this year include an Aural History Project with five
interviews completed to date, a B.C. historical research library, and a cemetery
cataloguing project. Gary A- Kent -23-
GOLDEN AND DISTRICT HISTORICAL SOCIETY was awarded a Canada Works grant to clean
up the Donald Cemetery in September 1978.
Four workers have spent twelve weeks cutting underbrush, falling large trees, clearing
debris, and fencing the 2.64 acres. The cemetery was on land owned by Evans Forest
Products and now is transferred to the Golden and District Historical Society. The
Provincial Government has been approached to designate this an Historic Site.
The history of Donald and its cemetery was initially tied to the Canadian Pacific
Railway. Donald was first a construction camp, then a Division Point.  It was a thriving
city between 1885 and 1899.  In that latter year, the C.P.R. changed its Division Points
to Revelstoke and Field. Donald's population dwindled to that of a tiny sawmill
settlement.  Then the sawmill folded following a severe forest fire close to the town-
site.  Truck-logging made it possible to rebuild the mill in the late '20*s, and
this operation has supported a small population and a number of commuters continuously
since then.
The Cemetery appears to have approximately 100 occupied gravesites but fewer than
twenty markers are readable. Many avenues are being explored in an attempt to compile
a list of those buried there.  Information has been sought from church archives, C.P.R.
archives. Department of Vital Statistics, and private citizens. These sources have yielded
less than half the names.  They have, however, provided us with a few other items of
Donald history and whetted our appitite for more.
Do any of your readers know of people with memories of life in Donald? or Beaver-
mouth? If so, please contact our Society.
Mrs. Naomi Miller
December, 19 78.
British Columbia Historical Association - Gulf Islands Branch, During the summer
and fall, talks were
given by Mr. Donald New on the 1978 Conference, and by Dr. G.P.V. Akrigg on effects of
the Gold Rush on B.C.'s history.
A workshop on the production and publication of local histories was conducted by
Mr. Ron Blair of the Friesen Printing Company of Altona, Manitoba.  Much useful advice
was given and samples of the company's publications of local histories were on display.
As a result, application was made for a New Horizons grant toward the publication of
a second collection of Gulf Island reminiscences.
The Branch has received from the Estate of the late Mrs. Dorothy Crawford a screen
worked by the members in Indian designs and raffled to augment the funds needed for
the publication of the Branch's "A Gulf Islands Patchwork". The members are most
appreciative of this gift which will be once more raffled toward the expenses of a new
book.
A contribution of $25 was made toward the restoration of the once well-known boat
"Sophia", used by the late Dr. Aldridge around the Islands.  "Sophia" later became the
home of Darrell Georgeson, son of two pioneer families, the Higgs and Georgesons, and
served in many capacities in Island waters.  In early December it was burnt with all
the owner's possessions but the sturdy vessel proves worthy of reconstruction and will
once more be seen in its familiar setting.
Again the Branch has invited contributions by children to an essay contest on local
history for which are offered prizes of $10 and $5.  Teachers of the Island schools have
been asked to encourage their pupils to compete.
Mrs. C. Claxton -24-
BULLETIN BOARD
EXECUTIVE COUNCIL MEETING
Twenty-two members attended a Council meeting at Nanaimo on November 19, 19 78.  The
major item of business was the plans for the convention.  Council also passed resolutions
asking the Minister of Highways to name the Ministry's new office building in Victoria
after Edgar Dewdney.
CONFERENCES
The National Museum of Man is sponsoring a forum on Canada's material history in
Ottawa on 1-3 March 1979 which will interest historians, museum curators, historic
site researchers, historical archaeologists, and others working in the field.  Papers
presented at the conference will be published in the spring 1979 issue of the National
Museum of Man's Material History Bulletin.  For further information write to the
National Museum of Man, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0M8.
*****
B.C. STUDIES CONFERENCE
The University of Victoria and Simon Fraser University, with assistance from the
Leon and Thea Koerner Foundation, are sponsoring the first B.C. Studies Conference,
which will be held from October 18th to October 21st.  Topics for the conference on
Friday and Saturday include sessions on B.C. Historiography, B.C. Architecture, The
Chinese and Indians in B.C., B.C. Politics, Social Unrest in B.C., Sectionalism and
Class in B.C., and B.C.'s Mining Frontier.  The speaker for the Saturday evening
banquet will be Professor J.M.S. Careless.  Persons wishing more information should
contact Professor Alan F.J. Artibise, Department of History, University of Victoria,
Victoria, B.C., V8W 2Y2.
AWARDS
The American Association for State & Local History has awarded Alan F.J. Artibise
of the University of Victoria a 1978 Award of Merit for his historical writings on
Winnipeg; A Social History of Urban Growth, 1874-1914 and Winnipeg: An Illustrated
History. The Award of Merit is given for excellence of accomplishment or programme
in state, provincial, and local history.  Thirty-four such awards were granted throughout North America in 1978 but Mr. Artibise was the only individual Canadian to win such
an award.
PUBLICATIONS
The Publications Committee of the Campbell River & District Historical Society
has established a publications fund, made possible by the generosity of Crown Zellerbach's
Elk Falls Mill.  The aim of the fund is the reprinting of long-out-of-print materials,
the printing of unpublished accounts by settlers, or the publication of scholarly research
on the Campbell River region.  Donations to the fund are welcome.  All proceeds from
sales will be returned to the fund.
The committee's first project was the reprinting of their booklet A Voyage of
Discovery covering the period Vancouver spend at Desolation Sound and his visit to
Quadra Island, and excerpted from George Vancouver's A Voyage of Discovery to the
North Pacific Ocean and Round the World in the Years 1790-1795. -25-
The cost of the booklet is $1.00 and may be ordered from the Committee at 1235 Island
Highway, Campbell River, B.C. V9W 2C7.  Prepayment is requested and a 20% discount is
given on orders of multiples of 10.
OLD NEWS
Does anyone want assorted copies of B.C. Historical News under the editorship of
the Yandles? We have quite a few and if the missing copy you want is among them,
write the Alberni District Museum and Historical Society, Box 284, Port Alberni, B.C.
V9Y 7M7.  Free plus postage!!
ROBERTS LETTERS PROJECT
Fred Cogswell, with the permission of Lady Roberts, is collecting the letters of her
late husband, Sir Charles G.D. Roberts (1860-1943), for publication.
Roberts was a well-known poet and writer of animal stories, and an avid outdoorsman.
He lived at various times in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Toronto and Vancouver,
travelled extensively in Canada between 1880 and 1943 on lecture tours and personal
visits, and had contacts with persons from all walks of life.
Mr. Cogswell wishes to collect additional Roberts letters prior to completing the
preparation of the existing collection for publication.  He would greatly appreciate
hearing from any persons holding letters from Sir Charles.
Write to the Roberts Letters Project, c/o Department of English, University of New
Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3.
BOOK REVIEWS
Editors note: When we receive published bibliographies or indexes we endeavour to have the volume
reviewed by both a user and a professional librarian.
WESTERN CANADA SINCE 1870.  A SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY AND GUIDE.  Alan F.J. Artibise.
Vancouver, The University of British Columbia Press, 1978, pp. xxi, 312, illus. $17.50
(cloth), $6.95 (paper).
In an era of expensive books, all those interested in Western Canada will welcome
this bibliographical guide. The cost of most bibliographies restricts their usage to
the reference section of the library. Here, at last, is a good, comprehensive volume
which can be purchased, studied and marked as a constant companion.
The usefulness of any bibliography is determined by the ease with which the user
can find the specific references.  Professor Artibise has organized his volume into
one general and four provincial sections with sub-sections ranging from "The People"
to "Urban Development".  There are also sections on the Riel Rebellions and the Northwest
Territories to 1905.  An author index provides additional help in the search for titles,
many of which are found in more than one category.  There might be some confusion over
the final 'Bibliographical and Methodological' sub-section which is perhaps too much
of a depository for items that did not fit closely into other categories.  The listings
include a wide range of published and unpublished material but wisely, for a volume
of this size, omit most government documents.  This is one bibliography that was not
already dated before reaching its readers.  Even 1978 listings are included. -2'6-
It is unfortunate that Professor Artibise chose to ignore the field of literature
at a time when it is becoming recognized as a major source of social, cultural and intellectual history.  Three minor articles by Robert Stead are listed but none of his
novels, nor those of Ralph Connor, Irene Baird or Sinclair Ross are included.  Two
other areas that remain incomplete are the National Policy and surveying.
In a more technical area, a few publishers have been missed and a few reprints,
particularly paper-back editions by Coles, Clarke Irwin and Macmillan have been overlooked.  The quality of the paper and the durability of binding, a trademark of the
UBC Press - combine with the readable print to improve the usage and the durability of
the volume.  The.illustrations, lists of specialized series, archives, and organization
add another dimension to this fine book.  Perhaps the next edition could add a list
of newspaper holdings in Western Canada.  Such newspaper guides are a rare and much
needed species in Canada.
In the preface, Professor Artibise hopes that this bibliography will "help to locate
areas of insufficient research and, as a result, facilitate a more co-ordinated approach
to the study of Canada's most diverse region." This reviewer noticed the fascination
with agricultural technology in the 1920's and the failure of so many theses to reach
the publication stage in any form.  One hopes students will take heed and supply
Professor Artibise with many more entries for the next edition.  This volume should be
updated and reprinted at regular intervals.
Clarence Karr
Malaspina College
WESTERN CANADA SINCE 1870:  A SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY AND GUIDE.  Alan F.J. Artibise.
Vancouver:  University of British Columbia Press, 19 78.  pp.xvi, 294, illus. $17.50
(cloth), $6.95 (paper).
This well produced bibliography is a guide to significant literature of western
Canada.  The 3,662 entries are arranged in 63 broad subject categories with each item
clearly identified by bolder type.  The arrangement will be welcomed by students
preparing essays. A close examination of this subject arrangement reveals that many of
the entries are duplicated under two or more topics so in fact, there are far fewer
titles than the 3,662 entries would suggest.  It is a highly selective bibliography
reflecting the interests of Artibise, an urban historian who teaches Canadian history
at the University of Victoria, and containing those items that he judges essential to
the study of the region.  It is left to the academic historians and teachers to assess
the choices he has made in the diverse fields of Western Canadian studies. The
bibliographical sections within each topic are comprehensive and will lead the user
deeper into the wealth of available material.
A few inconsistencies with standard library practice are noted.  The Best of Bob
Edwards is usually entered under R.C. Edwards as author rather than the editor, Hugh
Dempsey.  One entry would suffice for John Diefenbaker's three volume memoirs One Canada.
Item No. 3632 would be better listed in an open entry form under PNLA Quarterly as "Books
and Pamphlets about British Columbia" has been an annual feature since April 1959.
Closer editing would have caught some of the errors in volume numbering which could
cause problems in inter-library loans.
The use of photographs in a bibliography is questioned.  Photographs per se serve
no interpretive function and valuable space is sacrificed.
Artibise has provided two indexes to complement his subject arrangement.  The
duplication of entries by number in the author index gives the impression that the
author has several titles to his credit.  Perhaps a statement at the beginning of this
index could indicate this duplication.  The addition of a few more topics such as sports
and music to the select subject index would be useful.
The greatest strengths of this bibliography are the listing of over 500 theses and
the Analytics given for articles contained in edited collections of papers such as the
five articles in Man and Nature on the Prairies, edited by Richard Allen.  To have the -27-
recent upsurge in graduate and scholarly research so assembled and organized is a
valuable feature, one which supplements and updates to 1977 to two standard bibliographies
for the region, namely Peel's Bibliography of the Prairies Provinces to 1953 and the
three volume Bibliography of British Columbia.
This feature alone is sufficient reason to recommend purchase for all libraries with
Western Canadian collections.  The reasonable price of the paperback edition puts it
within reach of the individual historian - amateur or! professional - who may be led
into new fields of research.
Elizabeth Walker
Miss Walker, a member of the Vancouver Branch, is in charge of the North West Collection
of the Vancouver Public Library.
FROM DESOLATION TO SPLENDOUR - CHANGING PERCEPTIONS OF THE BRITISH COLUMBIA LANDSCAPE,
Maria Tippett and Douglas Cole, 159 pp.  Toronto/Vancouver:  Clarke, Irwin and Company,
Limited, 1977,
This book has now been available for over a year, and the fact that it is not in
every museum or gallery library in this province can only mean that few people know
about it.  The publishers, Clarke, Irwin & Co., do not seem to have introduced the book
with great fanfare.  Fanfare it deserves.  It is one of the first books to appear on
the art of a region.  In fact, the book's subtitle "Changing Perceptions of the British
Columbia Landscape" is indicative of the book's main intent:  to set forth the development of artists' perception of British Columbia's landscape.
From Desolation to Splendour documents this development in nine well written and
generously illustrated chapters.  The first part shows the earliest views of our
coastal landscape, many of these second-hand.  From 1778 to 1886 or so, the landscape
is really in the hands of variously competent topographical painters who accompany
expeditions or other artists who hear about them later.  Towards the latter part of this
period, say after 1843, explorations into the interior are accompanied by such little
known artists as E.T. Coleman and E.M. Richardson, and better known ones such as Paul.
Kane and W.G.R. Hind.  This is the "desolation" part.  The land is inhospitable - a
wilderness.
After the Canadian Pacific Railway was completed in 1885, more professional artists
came to the new province and they perceived the land for its picturesque splendour of
mountains, canyons, and coasts.  This was the eye of Lucius O'Brien, F.M. Bell-Smith
and so many others whose new "Rocky Mountain" subjects dominated exhibitions in Toronto
and Montreal for over a decade.  Most of these artists made their home in Toronto.
The next generation of painting in British Columbia is one of the most interesting
and one of the most underrated.  Resident artists began to appear:  Thomas Fripp, Sophie
Pemberton, Thomas Bamford, Charles John Collings.  Much of the art looks like the work
of English watercolourists, which is not surprising because many of the artists were
British born immigrants.  The late 20's and 30's marked the arrival of new "national"
influences when artists such as A.Y. Jackson and Fred Varley of the Group of Seven came
to British Columbia to paint.
The most productive period in terms of an artistic perception of the British Columbia
landscape begins with Emily Carr, British Columbia's greatest artist and surely the
most "British Columbian".  Her work eclipsed that of many significant artists such as
Charles H. Scott, Paul Rand and W.P. Weston.
Until about 1945, the book makes perfect sense, but after that, the role of landscape
in the new artists' work had probably more to do with international art trends (i.e.
American) than with British Columbia.  Only E.J. Hughes derived his subjects from the
provincial landscape, particularly that of Vancouver Island.  Gordon Smith's landscapes
owe more to Richard Diebenkorn than to the local landscape.
The only weakness of this book is its fairly limited scope, i.e. landscape.  Its
only fault is that it ends on a weak note:  where works of earlier chapters are selected -28-
on the basis of this "changing perception" of the British Columbia landscape, the last
chapter is hardly a suitable ending, and not a beginning either.  But as a reference
book for well-known and little-known artists of British Columbia, of the landscape
persuasion, it is indispensable.  Co-authors Maria Tippett and Douglas Cole are to be
congratulated for a well presented book, well worth the twenty dollars.
Roger Boulet
Roger Boulet is the Director of the Art Gallery of Greater Victoria.
WHISTLE UP THE INLET, THE UNION STEAMSHIP STORY, Gerald Rushton, Vancouver:  J.J. Douglas,
1974.  Pp. xxi, 236, illus. $13.95 (cloth), $6.95 (paper).
The Union Steamship Company of Vancouver is a name closely associated with the
history of transportation on the British Columbia coast.  Ships of the Union fleet
served hundreds of small coastal communities scattered between Howe Sound and the
Queen Charlottes from 1889 until 1959.  The Union ships were a vital economic and social
link, carrying freight, mail, resource products and passengers with a remarkable reliability
in conditions that were at best, difficult.  Additionally, a number of the ships also
were important recreationally, providing extremely popular cruises from Vancouver to
Bowen Island, where the company had a large resort development, and to other scenic
locations within a day's sailing time.  Whistle Up the Inlet details the story of the
Union Steamship Company, its personnel, and its ships.  It does the job well in a highly
readable and entertaining fashion.
Gerald Rushton served with the Union Steamship Company at Vancouver for 38 years
from 1920, when the company was at its peak, until his retirement at the time of the
company's sale.  When he retired, he was Assistant Manager and Director of Public
Relations.  With this experience, the author has an intimacy with his subject that I
doubt anyone else could equal.  He knew the ships and people involved on a first hand,
daily basis, making the book far more than a chronology of the events in the company's
history.  It is a friendly, personal, insider's view, often told in the first person.
Rushton clearly notes that it is not his intention to present a detailed financial and
corporate histoiy of the company.  However, he does draw on this type of information in
the book and he is not without criticism of the way the company carried out its affairs.
As with the other major steamship lines, the business gradually shifted to other faster,
more economical means of transport as road and air access to coastal communities improved
and people moved away from the isolated coastal areas to the larger centres.  A detailed
corporate history of the Union Steamship Company and an appraisal of its economic impact
on the British Columbia coast would be a valuable companion to this book, but this
cannot be taken as a criticism of Rushton's work.  The author has succeeded admirably
in presenting the company's story and giving the reader a feeling and understanding of
its operations and the skill and dedication that went into the running of the coastal
steamers.
Rushton's book is illustrated with photographs of the Union fleet, a map of the
shipping routes, and pictures of a number of the major personalities in the company.
In addition, he provides a detailed fleet list, and lists of the company's master
mariners and senior managerial personnel.  This is":an extremely valuable and most
welcome publication.
Robert Turner
Robert D. Turner, author of The Pacific Princesses, is Assistant Curator in the
Modern History Division, British Columbia Provincial Museum. -29-
IN THE SEA OF STERILE MOUNTAINS:  THE CHINESE IN BIRITSH COLUMBIA, James Morton.
Vancouver:  J.J. Douglas, 1974, pp. xiii, 280, illus., $12.00.
Although many articles and theses have been written about the Chinese in British
Columbia, In the Sea of Sterile Mountains is the first book length English publication
exclusively about the subject.  Based on newspaper reports and some archival sources, Morton
has traced the history of the Chinese in the province from 1858 to 1973, has summarized
the important events concerning the Chinese in the province, and revealed how they were
treated by the white community during the past hundred years.
The book's ten chapters divide the history of British Columbia
into ten periods:  1858-1871; 1871-1880; 1880-1883; 1883-1886; 1886-1887; 1887-1890;
1890-1898; 1899-1908; 1909-1923; and 1923 to the present.  The reasons for such a
division are not given and the number of years covered in each period varies considerably.
Chapter V, 1886-1887, for example, related events in those two years whereas Chapter
IX, 1909-1923 covered a period of fourteen years.  The chapters lack a central theme and
cover a wide range of subject matter, containing many choppy paragraphs and abrupt
transitions.  Each chapter is the summary of the major events in the period concerned and
it is not possible, for example, to compare the distribution of the Chinese population,
economic and social activities in one period with another period.
Few mistakes about the Chinese names are noticeable.  Most of the Chinese immigrants
to North America came from KWangtung Province and not the 'Kwantung area' (page 5).  Tai
Yune and Kwong On Tai were names of the opium companies in Victoria and not names of
their owners (page 164)  The photograph (the sixth page following page 178) is a family
photograph of the Lee family and not the Kow family. The man standing in the photograph
is Lee Mong Kow who was a prominent leader in the Chinese community in Victoria at the
turn of the century.
Nevertheless, the book is extremely enjoyable to read.  It is a good piece of work
and reveals "the thoughts of the citizens of the day — or the thinking to which the
citizens were exposed" during the past hundred and fifteen years.  It contains a wealth
of information that will stimulate serious researchers.  It would be a valuable reference
tool had it included the sources of reference from newspapers.
Chuen-yan David Lai
Chuen-yan David Lai is Associate Professor in the Department of Geography,
University of Victoria.
TRAILS TO TIMBERLINE, Einar Blix.  Terrace: Northern Times Press, 1977.  $6.50 (paper).
It is good to see Einar's book has been reprinted so soon — no editorial changes
could be found, but the new printing is better quality and the cover is a darker green.
The publication of the guide in 1977 followed several years of exploration by northern
resident Einar Blix, both in the field, and in printed records.  The guide, with its area
notes, will be of interest to most tourists passing between Prince Rupert and Prince
George, even if they never intend to leave their cars.
The layout and style of this "Comprehensive Guide to 50 Hiking Trails" in west
central B.C. could well be taken as a model for other parts of B.C. where mining exploration
has left us a rich legacy of mining history and pack trails.  As one should expect from
a professional engineer, the guide is organised in a logical fashion.  First comes the
regional map, locating the geographical areas on either side of Highway 16 from Terrace
to Houston.  Facing the regional map is the index of 50 (actually 52) trails grouped by
the geographical areas.  In turn, each area starts with its index map and a three or four
page essay on its characterists, geography, mining, history and future prospects.  Finally,
each trail has its detailed description, with a photo or two, and a large scale map (often
shared with adjacent trails).  Thus one can find the start of a trail and assess its
eligibility for one's hiking. -30-
To the list of references on page 197, the serious student of the history of the
region could add:
#22 The annual reports of exploration for the Canadian Pacific
Railway, C1872-1882.
Engineer-in-Chief:  Sandford Fleming, CMG
#23 G.M. Dawson's 1879 report and large map, published by the
Geological Survey of Canada in their 1879-1880 papers,
particularly pages 9-23.  Dr. Dawson worked closely
with the CPR surveys in British Columbia, soon after
Confederation.
#24  Steamboat Days on the Skeena River, British Columbia, Wiggs
O'Neill, 1960.
Your reviewer travelled over most of the trails round Hazelton in 1950, and had
the good furtune to be introduced to those round Smithers by Einar Blix during the (wet)
summer of 1975, as Einar was completing his book.  Einar notes how Smithers nestles at
the foot of shapely, glacier-hung Hudson Bay Mountain, and gives the best viewpoint —
the Telkwa High Road, formerly the trail along the projected Western Union Extension
Telegraph to Alaska and Europe.  Hudson Bay Mountain takes its name from the Hudson's
Bay Company ranch formerly on the Telkwa High Road just west of Driftwood Creek.
One can gain an appreciation of Einar Blix's concern for the future prospects of
the area after the devastation by some mindless logging and mining operations.  One can
also learn a great deal about the region from this "Comprehensive Guide".
R.C. Harris
REMEMBERING ROBERTS CREEK.  Roberts Creek, B.C: History of Roberts Creek Committee, 1978.
$7.50 (including postage) to Mrs. W. Gross, R.R. #2, Gibson's, B.C., VON 1V0.
This very readable anthology detailing the development of the Roberts Creek area of
what is now known as the "Sunshine Coast" gives a detailed story of how a stretch of
coastline northwest of Vancouver developed from virgin bush to its present almost suburban
condition.  It gives great detail of the personalities of the many people who contributed
to its growth, and supplements the text with maps and pictures.
The first chapters deal mostly with stories of families and individuals who began
the pioneering process in the area, and give a good account of what it is like when one
has to depend on water transportation,  a condition not uncommon in British Columbia.
Chapter 4 dealing with camps gives a good story of the establishment of Camp Byng
in 1922, but does not say that the first "Gillwell" training camp for Scouters in B.C.
was held there in September of that year under Mr. Rodney Wood.  Mr. Wood was sent out
from England to establish this training course, and had held five camps across Canada
before coming to B.C.  Mr. Merrick took the course the following year when it was run by
Mr. John A. Stiles of Ottawa.
The remaining chapters deal largely with organizations such as churches, schools,
and social events which are the natural development when an area becomes more populated
and people seek to assemble on a basis of mutual interests.
I would say that the book is very well written and produced and would be
interesting to anyone who was acquainted with anybody living there, it also is a typical
detailed description of the process by which our present civilization developed from a
condition of wild unpopulated nature.
Donald A. New
Donald A. New, a past-president of the BCHA, set up the 2nd course of the
GillwellTraining Camp held on Galiano Island in 1923. -31-
EARLY DAYS IN LYNN VALLEY, Walter MacKay Draycott.  Published privately, October 1978.
pp. 108, 8*5 x 11", 48 photos, 3 maps, soft cover.  $7.50 + 50C postage.
Walter Draycott, pioneer, geologist, journalist, Boer War and World War I veteran
has lived in Lynn Valley in the District of North Vancouver since 1911.  Now 95, he
has published local histories of Lillooet and Pemberton.  Walter collected his stories
of the Lynn Valley pioneer loggers and shingle mill workers, from 1895 to 1928, in a
notebook which served to jog his memory, and helped create a book useful to students of
the early days of a very colourful community.  In 1912, Walter cleared his own lot of
huge cedar stumps, and built the house he still lives in.  Chapter headings include:
History of the first Lynn Valley School
Lynn Valley Institute Hall
Entertainment
Lynn Valley Park and canyons
A list of firsts, and Origin of Road Names.
Copies can be obtained from:  Hunt's Antiques, 1305 Lynn Valley Road, North Vancouver,
B.C., V7J 2P1.
David C. Grubbe
David Grubbe is President of the North Shore Historical Society.
THE SYMONS REPORT AND CANADIAN ARCHIVES.  (Occasional Paper No. 1, Association of Canadian
Archivists, 1978) pp. 11.
Writing a review of what is, essentially, a review is usually a task reserved for
the author of the original cause of it all.  After all, who am I to spring to the defense
of Tom Symons or, on the other hand, to that of the anonymous author of this pamphlet?
What this occasional paper does reflect is a curious sort of prickliness in its
assertion that Symons didn't really understand archives or the archival profession.  That
is probably true since most academics seldom think of archives in the context of records
management.  The customary view is of a centre where the private papers of dead notables
are stored and made useable for scholars.  It is not surprising that this should be the
common perception since it is only fairly recently that archives have been more than that.
Indeed, at one well known archives there seemed to be a well established tradition that
anything more recent than 1910 was viewed with some suspicion.
That has all changed and scholars and administrators are happier for it.  Nevertheless,
there doesn't seem to be any point in making an issue of the Symons Report's failure to
fully comprehend the modern role of archives.  Moreover it seems fair to say that the
records management side of archival work does benefit the active administrator more
than the scholar since, obviously, the one makes use of the material and the other, in
normal circumstances, does not.
What this paper does do is reiterate some important truths about archives and in
its conclusion reasserts the message of the Symons Report: we need to know more about
ourselves and the place to look is, of course, in the archives.
Walter Young
Walter D. Young is the Chairman of the Department of Political Science
at the University of Victoria.
Editors note: From time to time publishers send us review copies of books relating to other parts of
Canada.  Since these volumes sometimes display interesting contrasts with British Columbia,
it is our policy to publish short reviews of them. -32-
ONTARIO SINCE 1867, Joseph Schull.  Toronto:  Ontario Historical Studies Series/
McClelland and Stewart, 1978, pp. ix, 400, photographs, $15.95.
One of the strangest anomalies in the study of Canadian history is our relative
weakness in understanding Ontario's past.  Although a very high percentage of our
historians have lived in that province, most of them have concentrated on national or
imperial history.  This book begins to fill that remarkable and regrettable gap.  It
is the first of some fifty volumes that will explore Ontario's remarkably rich heritage.
Financed by the Ontario government, this new series will examine the careers of the
principal premiers and numerous political, economic, social and cultural topias as
well.  This volume, in many ways, is a fitting and stimulating introduction to the series.
The focus of Schull's book is the political life of the province and most of the
chapters examine the regimes of the premiers up to the time of John Robarts.  More
than political events are recorded, however, and Schull makes a valiant attempt to
examine some of the more obvious social and economic developments.  The premiers are
placed in context and the peculiar mould that seems to have been used for most of that
province's political leaders becomes clear.  Most of them were cautious, bland, and
pragmatic men, fashioned by the province's conservatism and committed to its growth.
Schull also outlines well the main areas of development over which they presided:  the
opening of the north, the maturing of the province's remarkably diverse and successful
agriculture, the boom of the "golden horseshoe", and the diversification of southwestern Ontario.  In all of this description, Schull shows a keen eye for interesting
detail and a remarkable ability for sustained narrative.  He is particularly strong
in outlining French-English issues and some aspects of educational history.  In fact,
with the exception of the concluding chapter, which lacks a strong focus, the book is
easy and often compelling reading.
The weaknesses of the volume are reflections of Schull's approach and, inevitably,
the state of Ontario historiography.  By focussing on the premiers and their regimes, he
stresses the impact of the provincial government and over-estimates its role especially
in controlling economic development.  Did Queen's Park, the home of the Ontario government, really control the north or was it dominated by the large mining and lumbering
companies? Did the province play a great role in modernizing agriculture or were farmers'
organizations more responsible? One can read government reports so long that one actually
begins to believe all of them.  Another problem with his approach is that is is somewhat
"whiggish" in nature:  the grand old province, led by a grand old/young man struggles
forward to its destiny.  As a literary device such a tactic is useful; as a tool for
historical analysis, it can be misleading.
The other flaws are largely the consequences of work not done by Ontario's
historians, geographers, and economists.  Sections dealing with urban life, culture,
trade unionism, women's history and natives are weak and in some instances amount to only
a few sentences.  To some extent, Schull must be held to blame for these weaknesses:
there is information and analyses, especially on urban life and trade unionism, that
should have been used.  But, in balance, the weaknesses are mainly promises the series
makes.  Over the next decade or so, Ontario and the nation will be richer for the
volumes in this series.  Indeed, it is an approach which other provinces, notably British
Columbia — now historiographically one of the weakest of the Canadian regions — might
consider imitating.
Ian MacPherson
Ian MacPherson, who teaches Canadian history at the University of Victoria, is
especially interested in the history of co-operatives in Canada. -33-
BOOKS OF INTEREST
Compliled by Frances M. Woodward, University of British Columbia Library, Special
Collections Division.
BARLEE, N.L.  The Best of Canada West.  Langley, Stagecoach Pub., 1978.  192 p.,
ill.  $579?:  0-88983-022-3.
BARLEE, N.L.  Similkameen:  the pictograph Country.  Summerland, Canada West Pub.,
1978.  96 p., ill.  $3.95.  0-920164-03-X.
CONNOR, Daniel, and Lorraine Miller.  The Master Mariner:  Capt. James Cook and the
peoples of the Pacific.  Vancouver, Douglas & Mclntyre, 1978.  160 p., ill.  $~16.95.
0-88894-191-9.	
CRAIG, Andy.  Trucking:  British Columbia's trucking history.  Saanichton, Hancock House,
1978.  168 p., ill.  $14.95.  0-919654-88-6.
CAMERON, Silver Donald.  Seasons in the rain:  an expatriate's notes on British Columbia.
Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1978.  108 p., $6.95 pa.  0-7710-1847-9.
FOSTER, H.D., ed.  Victoria:  Physical environment and development. Western Geographical
Series, no. 12, Victoria, University of Victoria, 1976.  pp.xvii, 334, ill.
GOULD, Ed.  Ranching:  the history of ranching in Canada.  (Resource series.)  Saanichton,
Hancock House, 1977.  196 p., ill.  $17.95":  0-919654-79-9.
GREIG, Hugh and Terry McLean. The hope and the promise: the tender, tragic and often
brutal story of the Doukhobours. Langley, Stagecoach Pub., 1977. pp. 176, ill.
$9.95.
HALL, Ralph.  Goldseekers. Victoria,, Sono Nis Press, 1978.  176 p., ill. $5.95.
0-919462-72-3.
HEALEY, Edna.  Lady Unknown:  the life of Angela Burdett-Coutts.  London, Sidgwick &
Jackson, 1978.  350 p., ill.  $17.25.
HEMBROFF-SCHLEICHER, Edythe.  Emily Carr:  the untold story.  Saanichton, Hancock House,
1978.  320 p., ill. $14.95.  0-88839-003-3.
HILL, Elizabeth.  Captain Barkley's bride.  Sidney, Gray's Pub., 1978.  pp. 132, ill.
$7.95 pa.  0-88826-077-6.
HONG, W.M. And so that's how it happened:  recollections of Stanley-Barkerville, 1900-
1975; designed and edited by Gary and Eileen Seale, originally edited by J.R. Hambly.
WeTTs, 1978.  pp. 225, ill.  $9.95.
ITO, Roy.  The Japanese Canadians.  (Multicultural Canada Series.)  Toronto, Van Nostrand,
Reinhold, 1978.  64 p., ill  $2.95.  0-442-29891-9 (paper).
JANZEN, Adina, and Winnie Dueck, ed.  History of B.C. Mennonite women in Mission, 1939-1976,
Chilliwack, Menonite Women in Mission [1976], 100 p.
JAPANESE CANADIAN CENTENNIAL PROJECT COMMITTEE. A dream of riches:  the Japanese
Canadians 1877-1977.  Vancouver, Japanese Canadian Centennial Project, 1978.
190 p., ill. 0-96907-8-0-2.  [Text in English, Japanese and French.]
JEWITT, John R.  A journal kept at Nootka Sound.  (Garland Library of Narratives of
North American Indian Captivities, v. 28)  New York, Garland Pub., 1976.  48, 203 p.
LEE, Alfred E.  The Liard trail to the Klondike:  Alfred E. Lee's diary of an expedition
from Edmonton, 1897-18981  Montreal, K.L. Gilliland, 1976.  xxiv, 270 p. -34-
LEONOFF, Cyril Edel.  Pioneers, pedlars, and prayer shawls:  the Jewish community in
British Columbia and the Yukon, a pictorial history.  Victoria, Sono Nis Press,
1978.  225 p., ill.  $15.00. 0-919462-74-x.
LIND, Carol J.  Big timber, big men:  a history of loggers in a new land.  Saanichton
Hancock House, 1978.  160 p., ill.  $14.95.  0-88839-020-3.
OWEN, Margaret.  So we bought the town.  Vancouver, Mitchell Press, 1977.  191 p.,
ill.  $6.50~pa1  0-88836-020-7.
REDIVO, Hugo, and Eric D. Sismey.  The Okanagan;  introduction by Eric D. Sismey.
Toronto, Oxford University Press, 1978.  96 p., ill.  $9.95.  0-540286.
REKSTEN, Terry.  Rattenbury.  Victoria, Sono Nis Press, 1978.  242 p., ill.  $12.95.
0-919462-58-8.
ROTHENBURGER, Mel.  The Chilcotin war.  (Stagecoach Book.)  Langley, Stagecoach Press,
1978.  220 p.  $2.95 pa.
RUSHTON, Gerald. Whistle up the inlet:  the Union Steamship story.  North Vancouver,
Douglas & Mclntyre, 1978.  304 p., ill.  $6.95 pa.  0-99904-186-2.
SHEILS, Jean Evans, and Ben Swankey. "Work and wages!" semi-documentary account of the
life and times of Arthur H. (Slim) Evans. Vancouver, Trade Union Research Bureau,
1977.  297 p., ill.  $9.95.
B.C. HISTORICAL SOCIETY ANNUAL CONVENTION
May 10-11-12-13, 1979.
Place:  Nanaimo, B.C.
Hosts:  Nanaimo Historical Society
Convention Headquarters:  Malaspina Hotel, Nanaimo.
Thursday, May 10
A.M.       Registration Desk Open.  Malaspina Hotel.
*****
P.M.       Field Trip to Gabriola Island.  Cost of ferry, 50C each way.
(Time to be arranged)
EVENING      Informal Reception - Hotel Malaspina Ball Room.
Refreshments available from 7:30
Friday, May 11
A.M,       9:30 - 11:30 Registration desk open.
Symposium in Hotel Ball Room -35-
Friday, May 11  (Cont'd.)
A.M.        Speakers:
9:30 Elizabeth Forrester:  Topography and Geography of Nanaimo
10:00 Dan Gallacher, Provincial Museum:  Early Mining in Nanaimo
10:30 Dr. K. McAllister:  Biological Station.  Nanaimo Harbour
Development Past, Present and Future
11:30 - 12:00 Question period
P.M.        12:30 -  2:00 Lunch (All welcome $4.00 per person - advance reservations
pay at the door.)
2:00 Heritage Walk (conducted tour). Approximately one hour.
EVENING        7:30 Informal reception and entertainment in the hotel ball room.
Refreshments available.
Saturday, May 12
A.M.        Registration Desk Open
9:00  Register for Annual Meeting
9:30 - 12:30 Annual Meeting (Hotel Ball Room)
Proposed amendments to By-Laws.
BY-LAW 15 Annual General Meeting.
Delete the following "The Annual General Meeting shall be held in
the month of May".  In place add the following "An Annual General
Meeting shall be held at least once in every calendar year and not
more than fifteen months after the holding of the last preceding
Annual General Meeting."
BY-LAW 27     Add the following at the end of the present BY-LAW.
"And amendment to BY-LAW 15 and amended BY-LAW 27 which are
effective as of "  " May, 1979.
P.M.        2:00 - 4:30 Field Trip (coaches from hotel)
1st stop - Nanaimo's first mine site (near museum)
2nd stop - Site of #1 mine
3rd stop - Chase River
4th stop - Morden mine
5th stop - Site of Granby mine
6th stop - Ladysmith
Return via Malaspina College
EVENING        6:30  Cocktails
7:00 DINNER ($10 per person - advance reservations - pay at the door)
Guest Speaker - Mayor Frank Ney - Nanaimo, Past Present & Future. -37'
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
1979 ANNUAL CONVENTION, NANAIMO, B.C.
MAY 10 - 13, 1979
CONVENTION HEADQUARTERS:  MALASPINA HOTEL, NANAIMO.
Please mail ALL REGISTRATIONS, BEFORE APRIL 1QTH, together with covering cheque made
payable to NANAIMO HISTORICAL SOCIETY to:  Mrs. E. Kneen, 925 Townsite Road, Nanaimo, B.C.
If further information is required, contact B. Hardcastle, c/o Nanaimo Centennial
Museum, 100 Cameron Road, Nanaimo, B.C.  Phone 753-1821.
********
REGISTRATION AND RESERVATION FORM
NAME
ADDRESS
BRANCH ASSOCIATION
BASIC REGISTRATION (PER PERSON) $ 5.00
BASIC REGISTRATION AND FIELD TRIPS (PER MEMBER)    JQ.QQ
(NON member)
m
I ENCLOSE A CHEQUE, MADE PAYABLE TO THE NANAIMO HISTORICAL SOCIETY, FOR  $.
ACCOMMODATION
A package rate offered by the Malaspina Hotel, our convention headquarters,
for those wishing hotel accommodation, includes the following:
Rooms:  Thursday, Friday_ and Saturday Nights
Meals:  Thursday - Lunch and Dinner
Friday - Breakfast and Dinner
Saturday - Breakfast and Lunch
Sunday - Breakfast
Rates:  Inclusive, single room occupancy $ 98.00
double room occupancy $106.00
IMPORTANT:  PERSONS ATTENDING THE CONVENTION AND WISHING TO STAY AT THE
MALASPINA HOTEL MUST MAKE THEIR OWN BOOKINGS BEFORE APRIL IOtH.
ACCOMMODATION ARRANGEMENTS ARE THE RESPONSIBILITY OF EACH PERSON
ATTENDING,
********
Persons wishing to attend the Friday Lunch ($4 payable at the door) and/or the Saturday
Banquet ($10 payable at the door) must indicate below:
Friday Lunch  (  )
Saturday Dinner  (  )
Other meal rates at the hotel will be approximately:  breakfast $3, lunch $4, dinner $9.50. -38-
For those not taking the package rate but who still wish to eat at the hotel, would
you please mark off the appropriate squares below so that the hotel has some indication
as to how many meals to prepare.
Breakfast
Lunch
Dinner
Thursday
(
)
(
)
( )
Friday
(
)
(  )
Saturday
(
)
(
)
Sunday
(
)
(
)
********
To help us plan for programs and field trips, please indicate below those that you
plan to attend:
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
Gabriola Tour
Symposium
Heritage Walk
Annual Meeting
Newcastle Island
(depending on the number interested, will
be a morning outing)
N.B.  If more than one person plans to attend any of the above sessions, please
indicate accordingly. BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
Honorary Patron:  His Honor, The Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia.
Honorary President: Mrs. Anne Stevenson, Box 4570, Williams Lake, V2G 2V6.
Table Officers:
President:  Helen B. Akrigg, 4633 West 8th Avenue, Vancouver, V6R 2A6.  Tel. 228-8606.
1st Vice-President:  Rex Tweed, 376 McCarthy, Campbell River, V9W 2R6. Tel. 287-3885.
2nd Vice-President:  Mrs. Winnifred Weir, Box 774, Invermere, VOA 1K0.  Tel. 342-0562.
Secretary:  Mrs. Ruth Barnett, 680 Pinecrest Rd., Campbell River, V9W 3P3.  Tel. 287-8097.
Treasurer:  Michael F.H. Halleran, #8-1711 Duchess, Victoria, V8R 4W2.  Tel. 598-5883.
Other Officers:
Past President: Alf Slocomb, 1564 Oakcrest, Victoria, V8P 1K6.  Tel. 595-3656.
Recording Secretary: Mrs. Arlene Bramall, 5152 Grafton Court, Burnaby, V5H 1M7.
Tel. 433-7176.
Executive Member s-a t-Large:
Donald New, Galiano Island, VON 1P0.
Mrs. B. Stannard, #211-450 Stewart Avenue, Nanaimo, V9S 5E9.  Tel. 754-6195.
Ex-Officio:
Allan R. Turner, Provincial Archivist, Victoria, V8V 1X4.  Tel. 387-3621.
Kent Haworth and Patricia Roy, Editors, BC Historical News, P.O. Box 1738,
Victoria, V8W 2Y3.  Tel. 387-6671.
Cover:  Inside Extension Mine, southwest of Nanaimo.
Qourtesy Nanaimo Museum Society. MEMBER SOCIETIES
Alberni District Museum and Historical Society, Mrs. C. Holt, Secretary, Box 284,
Port Alberni, V9Y 7M7.  Tel. 723-3006.
Atlin Historical Society, Mrs. Christine Dickenson, Secretary, Box 111, Atlin.
BCHA, Gulf Islands Branch, Helen Claxton, Port Washington, VON 2T0.
BCHA, Victoria Branch, Miss F. Gundry, Secretary, 255 Niagara, Victoria, V8V 1G4.
Tel.385-6353.
Burnaby Historical Society, Ethel Derrick, Secretary, 8027-17th Avenue, Burnaby,
V3N 1M5.  Tel. 521-6936.
Campbell River & District Historical Society, Gordon McLaughlin, President,
1235 Island Highway, Campbell River, V9W 2G7.
Chemainus Valley Historical Society, Mrs. E. Pederson, Secretary, P.O. Box 172,
Chemainus, VOR 1K0.  Tel. 245-3205.
Cowichan Historical Society, W.T.H. Fleetwood, Riverside Road, Cowichan Station.
Creston & District Historical and Museum Society, Mrs. Margaret Gidluck, Secretary,
Box 164, Creston, VOB 1G0.  Tel. 428-2838.
District #69 Historical Society, Mrs. Mildred E. Kurtz, Secretary-Treasurer, Box 74,
Parksville, VOR 2S0.  Tel. 248-6763.
Elphinstone Pioneer Museum Society, Box 766, Gibsons, VON 1V0.  Tel. 886-2064.
Golden & District Historical Society, May Yurik, Secretary, Box 992, Golden.
Historical Association of East Kootenay, Mrs. A.E. Oliver, Secretary, 670 Rotary Dr.,
Kimberley, VIA 1E3.  Tel. 427-3446.
Kettle River Museum Society, Alice Evans, Secretary, Midway, V0H 1M0.  Tel. 449-2413.
Maple Ridge & Pitt Meadows Historical Society, Mrs. T. Mutas, Secretary, 12375-244th St.
Maple Ridge, V2X 6X5.
Nanaimo Historical Society, Len NichoUs, Cor. - Secretary, Box 183, Qualicum Beach.
North shore Historical Society, David Grubbe, President, 815 West 20th Street, North
Vancouver, V7P 2B5.
Princeton & District Pioneer Museum, The Secretary, Box 687, Princeton, VOX 1W0.
Sidney & North Saanich Historical Society, Mrs. Ray Joy, Secretary, 10719 Bayfield Rd.,
R.R. #3, Sidney, V8L 3P9. Tel. 656-3719.
La Societe historique franco-canadienne, Ms. Anna Beaulieu, pres., 1204-1560 Burnaby
Street, Vancouver, V6G 1X3.
Trail Historical Society, Mrs. M.T. Jory, Secretary, Box 405, Trail, V1R 4L7. Tel. 368-5602
Vancouver Historical Society, Miss Irene Tanco, Secretary, Box 3071, Vancouver, V6B 3X6.
Wells Historical Society, Sharon Brown, Secretary, Box 244, Wells, V0K 2RO.
Windermere District Historical Society, Mrs. E. Stevens, Secretary, Box 784, Invermere,
VOA 1K0.

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