British Columbia History

British Columbia Historical News 1986

Item Metadata


JSON: bch-1.0190682.json
JSON-LD: bch-1.0190682-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bch-1.0190682-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bch-1.0190682-rdf.json
Turtle: bch-1.0190682-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bch-1.0190682-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bch-1.0190682-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

 Published by the British Columbia Historical Federation
Volume 19    No.2
Admiral Sir George Henry Richards On the cover:
George Henry Richards had a colorful career in the Royal Navy, and made an important contribution to the
history of colonial British Columbia. Story starts on page 5. (PABC photo)
Member societies and their secretaries are responsible for seeing that the correct addresses
for their society and for its member subscribers are up-to-date. Please send changes to both
the treasurer and the editor whose addresses are at the bottom of the next page. The Annual
Report as at October 31 should show a telephone number for contact.
Member dues for the year 1984-85 (Volume 18) were paid by the following member
Alberni District Historical Society, Box 284, Port Alberni, B.C. V9Y 7M7
Atlin Historical Society, P.O. Box 111, Atlin, B.C. VOW 1A0
BCHF — Gulf Islands Branch, c/o Mrs. Ann Johnston, RR 1 Mayne Island VON 2J0
BCHF—Victoria Branch, c/o Zane Lewis, 1535 Westall Avenue, Victoria, B.C. V8T 2G6
Burnaby Historical Society, c/o 5406 Manor St., Burnaby, B.C. V5G 1B7
Chemainus Valley Historical Society, P.O. Box 172, Chemainus, B.C. VOR 1K0
Cowichan Historical Society, P.O. Box 1014, Duncan, B.C. V9L 3Y2
Creston & District Historical & Museum Society, P.O. Box 1123, Creston, B.C. VOB 1G0
District 69 Historical Society, P.O. Box 213, Parksville, B.C. VOR 2S0
East Kootenay Historical Association, c/o H. Mayberry, 216 6th Avenue S., Cranbrook,
B.C. V1C 2H6
Galiano Historical and Cultural Society, P.O. Box 10, Galiano, B.C. VON 1P0
Golden & District Historical Society, Box 992, Golden, B.C. VOA 1H0
Hedley Heritage, Arts & Crafts Society (1983), P.O. Box 218, Hedley, B.C. VOX 1K0
Ladysmith New Horizons Historical Society, c/o Mrs. V. Cull, R.R. #2, Ladysmith
B.C. VOR 2E0
Lantzville Historical Society, c/o Susan Crayston, Box 76, Lantzville, B.C.  /OR 2H0
Nanaimo Historical Society, P.O. Box 933, Station "A", Nanaimo, B.C. V9R 5N2
Nanooa Historical & Museum Society, RR 1, Box 5, Kinghorn Rd., Nanoose Bay,
B.C. VOR 2R0
Nootka Sound Historical Society, Box 748, Gold River, B.C. VOP 1G0 (Inactive)
North Shore Historical Society, c/o Mrs. Elizabeth L. Grubbe, 623 East 10th Street,
North Vancouver, B.C. V7L 2E9
Princeton & District Pioneer Museum and Archives, Box 687, Princeton, B.C. VOX 1W0
Qualicum Beach Historical & Museum Society, c/o Mrs. Cora SHipsey, P.O. Box 352,
Qualicum Beach, B.C. VOR 2T0
Salt Spring Island Historical Society, c/o Mrs. Beatrice Carroll, Old Scott Road, RR 3,
Ganges, B.C. VOS 1E0
Sidney and North Saanich Historical Society, c/o B. Peirson, 9781 Third Street, Sidney, B.C.
V8L 3A5
Silvery Slocan Historical Society, P.O. Box 301, New Denver, B.C. VOG 1S0
Trail Historical Society, P.O. Box 405, Trail, B.C. V1R 4L7
Valemount Historical Society, P.O. Box 850, Valemount, B.C. VOE 2A0
Vancouver Historical Society, P.O. Box 3071, Vancouver, B.C. V6B 3X6
West Vancouver Museum & Historical Society, P.O. Box 91785, West Vancouver, B C
V7V 4S1
Affiliated Groups
B.C. Museum of Mining, P.O. Box 155, Britannia Beach, B.C. VON 1J0
City of White Rock Museum Archives Society, 1030 Martin St., White Rock, B.C. V4B 5E3
Fort Steele Heritage Park, Fort Steele, B.C. VOB 1N0
The Hallmark Society, 207 Government Street, Victoria, B.C. V8V 2K8
Nanaimo Centennial Museum Society, 100 Cameron Road, Nanaimo, B.C. V9R 2X1 BRITISH COLUMBIA Voume19N„2
A Guardian of the Boundary
by Alec McEwen        5
First Fire Insurance Plan of Vancouver
by John Spittle        8
Hudson's Bay Company Lands and Colonial Surveyors on Vancouver Island, 1842-1858
by James Patrick Regan   11
Roger Peacfiey, M.C., the Last Commissioner of the British Columbia Provincial Police Force
by R.G. Patterson    17
A 1912 New Westminster Sampler
by Jacqueline Gresko      19
Ladies in Scarlet: An Historical Overview of Prostitution in Victoria, British Columbia
by CL. Hansen-Brett     21
News and Notes
British Columbia Historical Federation Annual Conference    23
Leonard Frank Display   30
Captured Heritage: The Scramble for Northwest Coast Artifacts by Douglas Cole;
review by Richard Mackie      31
The Iron Church 1860-1985 by Stuart Underhill; review by Jacqueline Gresko      32
Heads of Household in British Columbia ed. by Pat Vibert; review by Irene Moorhouse  33
Rolling with the Times by Wallace Baikie; review by Lorna Holyer      34
Contest     34
Second-class mail registration number 4447.
Published fall, winter, spring, and summer by the British Columbia Historical Federation, P.O. Box 35326, Station E
Vancouver, B.C. V6M 4G5. Our Charitable Donations number is 0404681-52-27. Printed by Dynaprint, Victoria!
Manuscripts and correspondence for the editor are to be addressed to 1745 Taylor St., Victoria, B.C. V8R3E8. Send all
other correspondence, including changes of address, to the Vancouver address given above.
Subscriptions: Institutional $16.00 per year; Individual (non-members) $8.00 per year.
The B.C. Historical Federation gratefully acknowledges the financial assistance of the British Columbia Heritage
Could any members provide me with the following copies of the B.C. Historical News:
Vol. 1 No. 1 (Nov. 1967)
Vol. 1 No. 2 (Feb. 1968)
Vol. 4 No. 3 (Apr. 1971)
Vol. 7 No. 2 (Feb. 1974)
Vol. 13 No. 2 (Feb. 1980)
Vol. 15 No. 1 (Nov. 1981)
Thank you.
T.D. Sale
262 Juniper St.
Nanaimo, B.C. V9S 1X4
Deadline for Next Issue
March 1,1986
The next issue of the B.C. Historical News will
have a Vancouver Centennial theme. Please
submit articles to guest editor Esther Birney, 1240
Shorepine Walk, Vancouver, V6H 3T8.
Unfortunately, all good things must come to an
end. I have enjoyed immensely my thirty-two
months as Editor of the B.C. Historical News
because of the unfailing support received from
members of the Council of the B.C. Historical
Federation, and from subscribers to the News.
I am especially indebted to Past Presidents
Barbara Stannard and Ruth Barnett for giving me
a unique opportunity to work and learn, and tc
Patricia Roy for her important contribution as
Book Editor and proof reader par excellence. The
staff at Dynagraphics, Victoria, deserve a special
thanks for their patience and efficiency in
typesetting, photography and printing.
The next issue of the News will have a
Vancouver Centennial theme, and will be
produced by guest editor Esther Birney. This
should be an issue to treasure.
Best wishes to you all.
—Marie Elliott
I wish to subscribe to B.C. Historical News. I enclose a cheque or money order payable to the
B.C. Historical Federation, P.O. Box 35326, Station E, Vancouver, B.C. V6M 4G5.
Individual ..
Four issues for $8.00 (_
Four issues for $16.00 (.
Postal Code
Page 4
British Columbia Historical News Alec McEwen
A Guardian of the
Rising prominently from a cliff top at Tsawwassen
Beach, Point Roberts, about twenty miles south
of Vancouver, a massive stone obelisk marks the
place where the Canada/United States land
boundary strikes the coast. Officially known as
Monument No. 1 on the 49th Parallel,1 it is by far
the largest of the more than 8,000 pillars and
other physical objects that define the border
between the two countries.
The section of the boundary from the Rocky
Mountains through the straits of Georgia and
Juan de Fuca into the Pacific Ocean was established by the Oregon Treaty of 1846.2 But the task
of identifying the actual line on the ground did
not begin until more than a decade later when
two separate boundary commissions were
created: one to determine the position of the
water boundary and the other to mark the 49th
parallel over land.
Three water boundary commissioners were
appointed in 1857: Archibald Campbell for the
United States, and two naval captains, James
Charles Prevost and George Henry Richards,
who represented Britain. Because of disputed
claims of ownership to San Juan and neighbouring islands, the commissioners were unable to
come to a decision.3 The location of the boundary was eventually settled by bilateral agreement in 1873,4 following arbitration by Emperor
William I of Germany.5
Between the years 1858-62, a second commission undertook the surveying, mapping and
marking of the 49th parallel. Archibald Campbell
was again chosen as United States Commissioner
and his British counterpart was Lt.-Col. John
Summerfield Hawkins of the Royal Engineers.
The commissioners and their staff located the
parallel of latitude on the ground by taking
astronomical observations, and the boundary
was then marked at intervals of a mile or more by
iron posts or stone cairns.6
The Boundary Obelisk at Point Roberts
In April 1861 Hawkins reported that he had
reached agreement with his colleague Campbell, and also with Richards of the water
boundary commission, that a stone obelisk
should be built at the western terminus of the
49th parallel on Point Roberts, since this was the
common starting point for the land and the
water boundaries. In his view:
while a larger mark can give no greater
significance to the spot on which it stands
unless there were a special agreement to that
effect, as the coast of Point Roberts ... is
undoubtedly the most prominent point, it is
quite consistent that the most prominent
beacon should be placed upon it... 7
Accordingly, Hawkins informed Lord Russell,
the British foreign secretary, in October of his
intention to erect the obelisk, 20 feet high, which
he regarded as being "of comparatively small
size for the purpose intended, having been so
designed solely on the ground of economy.8 The
estimated cost was £1500, "a sum probably
representing from twice to three and four times
that for which it might be performed in most
other parts of the world."9
British Columbia Historical News
Page 5 A contract to build the obelisk was awarded to
E. Brown of New Westminster.10 Made of solid
cut granite, with a total weight of about 40 tons,
the monument was formed by blocks weighing
from one to two-and-a-quarter tons each. This
material was transported to the western shore of
Point Roberts by British gunboat and then
hauled to the top of the cliff, 160 feet high, by a
specially-built wooden tramway.11 The cost of
$7,590.38, very close to Hawkin's estimate, was
shared equally by both governments.12
The monument itself stands just over 19 feet
above the ground, with a base about nine feet
square and a tapered shaft that averages about
three feet in width. It bears the following
inscriptions, cut in large letters in the granite:
North face Capt. J.C. Prevost, R.N.
Capt. G.H. Richards, R.N.
Lt.-Col. J.S. Hawkins, R.E.
H.B.Ms. Commssrs.
fast face Lat.   49°0' 0"
Long. 123°3'53"
Erected 1861
South face Archibald Campbell
U.S. Commssr.
West face Treaty of Washington
June 15th, 1846
Hawkins, possibly with tongue in cheek,
suggested to London that the "substantial
though small obelisk ... will I doubt not endure
as long as any political significance attaches
importance or necessity to its preservation."13 It
is interesting to note that although the monument does not say specifically that it marks a
boundary, nor does it identify the two countries
concerned, the commissioners made sure that
their own names were perpetuated on it. This
practice, uncommon but not unprecedented on
the Canada/United States boundary demarcation, has been perhaps aptly characterized as
"monumental egotism".14
All four men whose names are commemorated on the obelisk went on to enjoy illustrious
careers. Campbell was appointed the United
States member of the commission of 1872-76 that
surveyed the remainder of the 49th parallel
boundary from Lake of the Woods to the Rocky
Mountains.15 Prevost continued as an adviser on
the San Juan water boundary question and
subsequently retired with the rank of admiral.16
Richards, who also became an admiral, was
appointed hydrographer to the British navy and
was later knighted.17 Hawkins, who declined the
offer of appointment as British commissioner on
the eastern section of the 49th parallel survey,
General Sir John Summerfield Hawkins (1816-1895)
was promoted to general and also received a
In his final report to London in 1869, Hawkins
recommended the preservation of the boundary
marks that the commissioners had "laid down at
such large cost of time, labour and money", and
he particularly urged the maintenance of the
obelisk at Point Roberts.19 The care of the entire
Canada/United States boundary passed in 190820
to a new International Boundary Commission,
now a permanent treaty organization.21
It is formally accepted by both governments22
that the true boundary line passes through the
centre of the obelisk, even though the monument actually lies about 800 feet north of the
theoretical parallel of 49 degrees north latitude.23
This apparent loss of Canadian territory gives rise
to occasional complaints that because the
monument is incorrectly placed it should be
moved southward to its proper position. But the
monument itself represents the actual boundary,
regardless of its departure from the geographical
parallel of latitude that it is intended to mark. The
positional difference is not attributable to
careless survey work. It results from the limitations of nineteenth century technology, and also
from inevitable discrepancies caused by the
initial adoption of astronomic, rather than
geodetic, coordinates, and the effect of gravity
Page 6
British Columbia Historical News On the British Columbia side Monument No. 1
stands on a municipal lane that adjoins the rear
limit of private residential property, while its
Washington portion is also on public land. The
obelisk does not belong to any private owner,
nor to any provincial, state or municipal authority. It is jointly owned by Canada and the United
States, as represented by the International
Boundary Commission which alone is responsible for maintaining the structure. In 1960, for
example, field employees of the commission
cleaned the granite surface by sandblasting,25
and the monument was given a further facelift in
1976 when it was sprayed using a high-pressure
water jet technique.26
The obelisk, like all other monuments that
mark or define the international boundary,
receives some protection against wilful damage
or disturbance under a provision of the International Boundary Commission Act, enacted in
1960, which imposes a fine of $500 and/or
imprisonment for six months upon any person
convicted of causing such injury.27
In 1961 the Province of British Columbia and
the State of Washington jointly celebrated the
centenary of the completion of the western
portion of the 49th parallel boundary survey.
This event, organized by the Provincial Archivist
and the Washington State Historical Society,
took place at Point Roberts on July 30. It included
a meeting addressed by prominent speakers
from both countries, an exchange of flags,
symphonic band music and a barbecue. Because
of the historical importance and imposing
presence of the granite obelisk, it was considered most fitting to hold the festivities in the
vicinity of the monument itself.28
A further indication of the pride taken by local
residents in the care and upkeep of their
boundary monument appeared in a recent issue
of a Point Roberts newspaper. Lamenting the
growth of weeds and vines that had sprung up
around the obelisk and turned it into "profanation of history", the editor called for volunteers
to form a combined Canadian-United States
team to clear away the unwanted vegetation.29
Today, 124 years after it was built, Monument
No. 1 not only separates Canada from the United
States, it serves also as a proud reminder of the
attainment of territorial growth and stability
through peaceful agreement between the two
neighbours. It is part of the heritage of both
nations, an artifact to be admired and preserved
as a guardian of the boundary.
1. International Boundary Commission, (a) joint report
upon the survey and demarcation of the boundary
between the United States and Canada from the Gulf
of Georgia to the northwesternmost point of Lake of
the Woods, Washington, D.C, 1937, pp. 205, 272. (b)
Official Maps, Sheet No. 1,1913.
2. Treaty of Washington, June 15, 1846, Treaties and
agreements affecting Canada, in force between His
Majesty and the United States of America, with
subsidiary documents, 1814-1925, King's Printer,
Ottawa, 1927, pp. 28-29.
3. This dispute and its eventual settlement are discussed
fully in James O. McCabe, The San Juan Water
Boundary Question, University of Toronto Press, 1964.
4. Protocol of Agreement, Washington, March 10,1873,
Treaties and agreements, op. cit., p. 50.
5. Award of the Emperor of Germany, October 21,1872,
Treaties and agreements, op cit., p. 49.
6. [Otto Klotz (ed.)], Certain correspondence of the
Foreign Office and of the Hudson's Bay Company
copied from original documents, London 1898,
Government Printing Bureau, Ottawa, 1899, containing Foreign Office correspondence. International
Boundary, 49th Parallel, British Columbia, Part III 1858-
1864, Part IV1869-1870. The Commission's final report
dated May 7,1869 is given in Part IV, pp. 6-14. Neither
the British nor the United States governments had
published an official report of the Commission's work
and the information was considered lost until its
chance discovery in London in 1898; see O. Klotz,
"The History of the forty-ninth parallel survey west of
the Rocky Mountains", The Geographical Review, vol.
3, no. 5, May 1917, pp. 384-385.
7. Ibid., Part III, p. 58.
8. Ibid., p. 65.
9. Ibid.
10. Kathleen Weeks, "Monuments mark this boundary",
Canadian Geographical journal, vol. 31, no. 3,
September 1945, p. 132.
11. Certain correspondence, op. cit., Part III, p. 65.
12. Marcus Baker, Survey of the northwestern boundary
of the United States, 1857-1861, Geological Survey
Bulletin No. 174, Washington, D.C, 1900, p. 19.
13. Certain correspondence, op. cit., Part III, p. 72.
14. John W. Davis, "The unguarded boundary", The
Geographical Review, vol. 12, no. 4, October 1922, p.
15. Biography: Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American
Biography, New York, 1901, vol. 7, p. 47; G.W. Cullum,
Biographical Register of the officers and graduates of
the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N. Y., 3rd edn,
Cambridge, 1891, vol. 1, pp. 610-611.
16. Biography: Gerald Prevost, Admiral James Charles
Prevost in British Columbia, unpublished private
circulation, Vancouver, 1977; F. Boase, Modern
English Biography, London, 1965,'vol. 2, col. 1633;
W.R. O'Byrne, A Naval Biographical Dictionary,
London, 1849, p. 925.
17. Biography: L.S. Dawson, Memoirs of Hydrography,
Henry W. Keay, Eastbourne, 1885, Part II, pp. 134-155;
Boase, op. cit., vol. 3, cols. 138-139.
18. Biography: The Royal Engineers journal, March 1,
1895, pp. 56-58; Boase, op. cit., vol. 5, cols. 609-610.
19. Certain correspondence, op. cit.. Part IV, d. 6.
British Columbia Historical News
Page 7 20. Treaty of Washington, February 24,1925, Treaties and
agreements, op. cit., pp. 299-310.
21. Treaty of Washington, February 24,1925, Treaties and
agreements, op. cit., pp. 515-519.
22. Treaty of Washington, April 11,1908, Article VII.
23. The present official latitude of the monument is
49°00'08".027. This value will change as a result of a
forthcoming readjustment of the North American
24. A.C. McEwen, "The Boundaries of Canada", Terravue,
Autumn 1982, p. 33.
25. International Boundary Commission, Annua/ Report
for 1960, p. 41.
26. International Boundary Commission, Annual Report
for 1976, pp. 54-55.
27. Revised Statutes of Canada, 1970, chapter 1-19, section
28. Harriet Seely, "Boundary Centennial Celebration",
Pacific Northwest Quarterly, vol. 53, no. 1, January
1962, p. 33.
29. The All Point Bulletin, August 1985, p. 4.
Alec McEwen is a member of the International
Boundary Commission.
Don't let your subscription expire.
Check your address label for date of renewal.
John Spittle
First Fire Insurance Plan of Vancouver
To commemorate the one hundredth anniversary of incorporation of the city of Vancouver, the
Map Society of British Columbia and the Canadian Northern Shield Insurance Company have
collaborated in publishing a facsimile of the city's
first fire plan from an original print in Special
Collections, University of British Columbia
Ever since the Babylonians recorded cadastral
surveys on clay for taxation purposes over four
thousand years ago specialized mapping has
played an essential role in civilized society.
Insurance companies began making their own
Fire Insurance Plans of British cities in the early
eighteenth century to enable underwriters to
assess risk and establish premium and introduced
them into North America around 1808. By 1876
the systematic surveying and mapping of municipalities had become almost entirely turned over
to bureaux which printed and distributed plans to
subscribing companies. Dominating the field
were the Chas. E. Goad Company in Canada and
the D.A. Sanborn Map and Publishing Company
in the United States. Sanborn surveyed a number
of Canadian cities before selling out his Canadian
stock to Goad.
The first Fire Insurance Plans of British Columbia towns—Granville, Victoria, New Westminster, Nanaimo and Yale—were published by
Sanborn in 1885. Today, they provide a unique
and fascinating record of the social and economic
activity of the period.
When Edward Stamp built a sawmill (later to
become the Hastings Mill) on the south shore of
Burrard Inlet in 1865 (at the foot of today's
Dunlevy Street) one "Gassy Jack" Deighton,
recognizing the needs of millhands and visiting
sailors, opened up shop nearby with a barrel of
whiskey. The settlement which arose around his
establishment soon became known as "Gastown". In 1870, presumably to add an air of
Page 8
British Columbia Historical News WOO D <ftr**ray)
A portion of the first Fire Insurance Plan of
Vancouver, August 1885. Originally published by
Sanborn Map & Publishing Co. Limited, reproduced from an original print in Special Collections, University of British Columbia Library.
British Columbia Historical News
Page 9 respectability, the community was officially
named Granville after Britain's Colonial Secretary, surveyed and subdivided into lots for sale.
"Gassy Jack" purchased Lot 1, Block 2 for $67.50
on which he build Deighton House.
Another early arrival, Joseph Spratt, established
Coal Harbour Fishery (just west of the present
Marine Building at the foot of Burrard Street). His
floating cannery, a 140-foot-long barge, was
known by locals as "Spratt's Ark". Spratt's practice
of fishing for herring with sticks of dynamite
eventually resulted in their total elimination from
the harbour.
By 1885, aside from its two industries (Individual Risk Plans of which are inset on Sanborn's
sheet), the townsite was limited to the block
bounded by Front, Water, W/7/ow and Wood
Streets (Today's Water, Carrall, Cordova and
Abbott Streets respectively). It boasted a population of 300. "Gassy Jack" had died a decade earlier
but Deighton House still flourished along with
two other hotels. Almost all the buildings were of
frame construction with shake roofs and fire
fighting facilities could only be regarded as
minimal. It is difficult to imagine any application
for fire insurance being accepted with any degree
of enthusiasm by an underwriter. Following the
Fire of 1886 it was reported that "only a few of the
buildings were insured and those for only a
fraction of their value".
Before the end of 1885 rumour of a plan to relocate the western terminus of the Canadian
Pacific Railway at Granville precipitated a boom
in real estate. Neither William Van Home's
abandonment of Port Moody nor his choice of
name for the new city was greeted enthusiastically by everyone. Nevertheless, on 6 April 1886
the Lieutenant-Governor gave royal assent to the
incorporation of the City of Vancouver and
notice of the first civic election was nailed to the
maple tree on Water Street in front of Deighton
Within eight months of Sanborn's survey it is
estimated that there were 1,000 buildings occupied or under construction and that the population had risen to 3,000.
On the afternoon of Sunday June 13,1886 at a site
being cleared on False Creek for the CPR
roundhouse, a slash fire was burning. Fanned by a
sudden change in wind it quickly grew out of
control. Within less than half an hour Vancouver
was reduced to ashes. Only the Mill, Fishery and
the new Regina Hotel on Water Street were
spared, with many of the survivors having time
only to take to the waters of Burrard Inlet and the
safety of boats. Others were not so fortunate.
Building a new city began immediately. The
first authorization of council was a civic loan for
fire-fighting equipment and the construction of a
fire hall. Three years later, in 1889, the second Fire
Insurance Plan of Vancouver, which now ran to
twenty sheets, reflected improved fire-fighting
facilities and construction practices which
without doubt enabled underwriters to sleep
better at nights.
Copies of the map may be obtained from:
Map Society of British Columbia,
P.O. Box 301, Station A,
Vancouver, B.C. V6C 2M7
Cost: $3 per map plus $1 postage and handling.
The Society can arrange to have maps hand-
coloured according to the original for a nominal
Initial response has been so good that the fire
plan map for Kamloops (1887) will be available
early in 1986.
Scholarship Fund
Help us establish a scholarship for a 4th year
student taking a major or honors course in
Canadian history at a B.C. University. All donations are tax deductible. Please send your
cheque today to:
The British Columbia Historical Federation
Scholarship Fund
P.O. Box 35326
Station E
Vancouver, B.C. V6M 4G5
Page 10
British Columbia Historical News James Patrick Regan
Hudson's Bay Company Lands and Colonial
Surveyors on Vancouver Island, 1842-1858
Vancouver Island's first surveyor was Adolphus
Lee Lewes, the country-born son of Chief Factor
John Lee Lewes. The boy had been sent to
England for his education and had entered the
service of the Hudson's Bay Company as "Surveyor and Clerk for General Service."1 He arrived
at Fort Vancouver in 1840 and accompanied Chief
Factor James Douglas to the future site of Fort
Victoria at Camosack on the southern tip of
Vancouver Island in 1842.2 Lewes prepared a map
titled, Ground Plan of portion of Vancouver
Island selected for New Establishment taken by
James Douglas, Esq. Drawn by A. Lee Lewes, L.S.2
This is the only known survey work by Lewes who
subsequently retired from the Hudson's Bay
Company service in September, 1856.
On January 13, 1849, "The Governor and
Company of Adventurers trading into Hudson's
Bay ... [was granted] that Island called Vancouver's Island ... [as] the true and absolute Lords and
Proprietors... in free and common soccage at the
yearly rent of seven shillings."4 By the terms of the
charter the Hudson's Bay Company agreed to
establish a settlement on Vancouver Island and
towards this end a modest start was made the
same year with the arrival at Fort Victoria of
Captain Walter Colquhoun Grant and his eight
men.5 Captain Grant had the distinction of being
the only colonist on Vancouver Island in 1849 not
directly employed by the Company. In addition
to being a putative settler, he had also been
appointed "Surveyor to the Company" with a
salary of £100 per annum.6 Captain Grant's
qualifications were somewhat vague and he was,
to say the least, irresponsible. He had arrived at
Fort Victoria in June, 1849, after losing most of his
surveying instruments en route, and this unfortunate occurrence seemed to set the tone for his
subsequent careers on Vancouver Island, both as
colonist and map-maker.7
James Douglas's greatest need, at this point in
the development of his new colony, was to
determine the legal boundaries and nature of the
Hudson's* Bay Company land reserves, and its
subsidiary, the Puget's Sound Agricultural Company farms. Good maps were also required to
enable the Company to promote the sale of its
lands. Grant's work as a surveyor was unsatisfactory, and Douglas had to write the Company in
London stating that he still had no sketches to
send. Captain Grant did survey a portion of the
Victoria district in 1850, but wrote to James
Douglas in September 1850, that "thick fog &
smoke which at present overclouds the district"
made it impossible to carry on the survey.8
Captain Grant, seemingly our first tourist, then
departed to winter in the Sandwich Islands, and
left Vancouver Island for good in 1853.9 It is
difficult not to feel some measure of sympathy for
Grant—not only was he terribly undernamed for
a most demanding task, he was cursed with poor
assistants, in contrast to J.D. Pemberton and his
admirable assistant Benjamin William Pearse.
Joseph Despard Pemberton was born in Dublin
in 1821 and educated at Trinity College, Dublin.
He was trained as an engineer and worked in this
capacity for several railways in Britain. He also
served for two years at the Royal Agricultural
College, Cirencester, Gloucestershire, as Professor of Surveying, Civil Engineering and Mathematics.10 He was appointed Colonial Surveyor to the
Hudson's Bay Company on February 15,1851, and
arrived in the Colony of Vancouver Island in June
of the same year. Pemberton and his assistant
started to lay out a townsite beside Fort Victoria
and Esquimalt, and also started the long-awaited
survey of the Hudson's Bay Company land
reserves and farms. Pemberton was a trained
engineer, so documentation existed from the
beginning concerning his survey work. His
British Columbia Historical News
Puget's Sound Agricultural Company Farms
Sec. II & XXI
Sec. X
Sec. XI
Sec. I (not shown)
Fur Trade Reserve
Craigflower Farm
Constance Cove Farm
Viewfield Farm
Esquimalt Farm
H.B. Co's Reserve No.
H.B. Co's Reserve No.
H.B. Co's Reserve No.
Map No. 1
Page 12
British Columbia Historical News notebook titled, "Trigonomtl. Memda" contains
an entry dated November 25, 1851 that reads in
Furnished Jms Douglas with 3
small Plans of
Reserve at Christmas Hill
do at Cadboro Bay
do at Victoria Fort
which are dispatched by steamer Mary Dare to
Nisqually tomorrow.11
James Douglas was delighted with the fast,
accurate work of his new surveyor and immediately mailed to London the maps of the above
Hudson's Bay Company Reserves. We shall have
occasion to refer to these maps later in the paper.
Prior to beginning his surveys, Pemberton had
to make a basic decision regarding the type of
survey system best suited to the unique conditions of the new Colony of Vancouver Island,
because the area to be mapped was quite rough
and heavily wooded. He was well aware of the
various systems used in different parts of the
world to solve special problems in land surveys as,
for example, the United States system in which
townships of 36 sections, with 640 acres per
section, were then divided into quarter-sections
of 160 acres. There were other systems in use such
as the types employed in New Zealand and
Australia. In Pemberton's diary the following
quotation is copied out in full.
Sections laid out with frontages upon main
lines of roads, rivers, or wherever increased
value is thereby conferred upon the land,
should have their frontage reduced to one-
half, or even one-third of the depth of the
section, so as to distribute this advantage
among as many as can participate in it,
without rendering the different sections too
elongated in figure to be advantageously
cultivated as a farm?2
This somewhat programmatic paragraph was
taken from a monograph on surveying by Captain
Frome of the Royal Engineers, who had been
Surveyor General of South Australia. In this text
Captain Frome recommended that prior to any
cadastral, i.e., boundary surveying, being carried
out, trigonometric surveys should be done with
the concomitant layout of roads and townsites—
this road allowance was ignored by Pemberton
and is perhaps the reason so many of the roads in
Saanich tend to wind all about the Peninsula.12
Because the Victoria Land District was the first
area on lower Vancouver Island to be surveyed,
the pattern of section lines in this district vividly
illustrates the rather erratic arrangement of
sections that result from the use of Pemberton's
system. A secondary reason for this seemingly
haphazard arrangement was that the first allotments had been surveyed as isolated parcels of
land, which were later tied together trigono-
metrically. A modern surveyor has commented
that "when the intervening allotments filled in
the spaces between, a very kaleidoscopic pattern
resulted" (see Map No. I).13 It should be noted
that in some areas of the Victoria Land District a
modified grid pattern, similar to the 1849 Canterbury Settlement of New Zealand, was used, but
this regular grid was only possible in the area
where no isolated allotments of land existed. At
any rate, these early allotments of land later
became known as "Sections" and, in the Victoria
Land District, are between 20 and 1212 acres in
size, a very substantial variation.
Pemberton's method of tying land units
together was to begin with a trigonometric
framework as recommended by Captain Frome.
The first page of Pemberton's notebook contains
a surveyor's sketch of the prominent elevations in
the Victoria district that were later used to
establish bench marks for the area, and it may be
seen how these features were utilized by a skilled
surveyor (see Map No. 2).14 This trigonometric
grid has been superimposed on Map No. 3 of the
Victoria area and illustrates how this grid topographically defines the Victoria district. One may
have observed that the sight line between Grants
Hill (probably Knockan Hill just above Portage
Inlet) and Mount Douglas eventually became the
boundary between the Victoria Land District and
the Lake Land District (see Map No. 3). One
should also notice that it is just north of this
boundary, by Elk and Beaver Lake, that Pemberton's original system of surveying changed rather
abruptly to a more orthodox system of rectilinear
form with the sides aligned to the cardinal
directions. This change was probably because the
influx of gold seekers from California increased
the urgency to survey large tracts of land quickly.
It has been observed that the initial survey of the
Victoria and Lake Land Districts, .which includes
all of present day Saanich, has more in common
with New Zealand and Australia than with the rest
of North America.15
While one must admit that the sizes and
orientations of land allotments varied in the
Victoria Land District, it was a much more
humanistic method than the monolithic grid
favoured in the United States and on the Cana-
British Columbia Historical News
Page 13 dian Prairies. Western Canadian homesteader's
accounts are filled with the various problems
created by the Township system with its grid of
sections and quarter-sections. The Dominion
Township Grid system made no allowance for
topographical characteristics such as the natural
'lay of the land'. It also had the unfortunate
feature of tending to isolate the farming families
just when they needed the maximum support
from neighbours. This was particularly true for the
women of the family, and the psychological toll
was very heavy.
In the Victoria district the earliest surveyed
allotments were, as mentioned above, isolated
parcels of land which, were tied together as more
and more allotments were sold. This trend is quite
noticeable in a study of the Hudson's Bay
Company lands and farms. The plans completed
by Pemberton November 25, 1851, and given to
James Douglas, still exist in the original form, or at
least very early copies, as does other documentation concerning the Reserve lands themselves. A
true copy of the resolution requesting that these
lands be reserved for the Company are to be
found in a set of bound folio Identures recording
land grants within "Vancouver's Island".16 The
resolution reads in part:
January 30, 1854
Ordered that Lot No. 24 [this is an error, it
should read Lot No. 18] containing 1212
acres, Lot No. 31, containing 1130 acres and
Lot 32 containing 710 acres being land
occupied by the Company prior to the
Boundary Treaty of 1846 be entered in the
Land Register of Vancouver's Island, as
directed by the Minute of 26th. September
Hudson's Bay House, A True Copy
January 7th. 1859
These reserves are registered as "H.B. Co.
Reserves No's. I, II and III". The Hudson's Bay
Deeds also carry a record of the four Puget's
Sound Agricultural Company farms and names of
the respective bailiffs (see Appendix A). In order
to gain a more vivid impression as to the amount
of land reserved by the Hudson's Bay Company to
itself, Map No. 1 should again be consulted; as
may be seen it covered a substantial area, 6018
acres. At least some of the Company's land was
held for almost a century; the Puget's Sound
Agricultural Society, Ltd. was still in existence in
1927, and parts of Craigflower Farm were being
sold in 1933.17
Pemberton's system of surveying resulted in
some "untidy" sections of land, but the philosophical background becomes, in some aspects as
least, apparent if one studies maps of the Victoria
Land District with some care. Pemberton agreed
with Captain Frome that one should distribute
any geographical advantages "among as many as
can participate in it." Pemberton attempted to
split favourable geographical features such as lake
frontages and water rights among several sections—this may be seen quite clearly in the
divisions of land surrounding Swan and Blenkinsop Lakes in Saanich where the section lines
neatly bisect the lakes (see Map No. 3). A letter
written by J.D. Pemberton to Kenneth McKenzie
indicates this concern; the key paragraph reads as
/ had one application for a patch of land near
Lake at Christmas Hill where I constantly see
your sheep grazing & refused to sell less than
100 acres in that place as it is impossible
everywhere to give access to every small
allotment for it would not be right in that place
to cut off a large tract of grazing ground from
There is much to be said for this type of
surveying and land control as opposed to the
somewhat dehumanizing grid used over most of
Western Canada, but perhaps Pemberton's
system relied too much on the integrity of the
person in charge to be practicable.19 It is interesting that it was at another Hudson's Bay colony that
the ubiquitous grid form of survey was modified—this occurred at the Metis settlement at
White Horse Plain, now St. Francois-Xavier,
Manitoba, founded in 1823, just twenty years
prior to the building of Fort Victoria in 1843. The
basis for the land divisions in this area was that of
the Quebec river lots, and the river lots at St.
Francois-Xavier, running back at an angle to the
Assiniboine River, still survive almost unchanged
from the original land grants.20
Maps are fascinating documents because they
are a concrete record of man's attempts to make
sense of and to order his world. "For Herodatus
geography was the 'eye of history'," and our
topographical maps delineate both space and
time.21 Maps give concrete expression to the
philosophical and political realities of the day—in
other words the historical process that result in
what is seen around us today. In the case of J.D.
Pemberton, it is possible to trace some of the
concepts behind the actual mechanics of the
maps covering the Victoria and Lake Land
Districts.22 These maps are a part of the historical
Page 14
British Columbia Historical News Ma»- X
[ Kt.   Douglas 3
f Knockan  Hill?"]  \ ^^
Grants      .,-£_——~*ZT
Hill               I3 0Z-&     .
_—^-—f\70'4'                   \
Xmas    l^***^   /                                  ~\
stmas  Hilll.x«>\^<X                        \
_ t,\*           ^\!?                      \
I                         ^X.                \
7\. \          ■*"'
\i   Tolmie
PiTZO' 7
/     £Ht.   Tolmie ]
Copy  of  first   page  from
notebook   of  J.D.   Pemberton
titled:   "Trigononetl.   Menda."
The sketch  is possibly dated
to   1851.
(note  that   all   distances
/<*•        Victoria  Land  DistTin,
/' V
are  calculated   in   links.
/                  (compare  this  trigonometric
1   link  =  7.92")
/ b
/                      grid  with  Map No.   3)
eacon     r             ,,.,,
^Beacon  Hill J
evidence of the different traditions behind the
settlement of lower Vancouver Island compared
to the Canadian Prairies—as Margaret Ormsby
wrote, "More than mountains separated Canada
and British Columbia."23 On Vancouver Island
particularly, there never had been a "typical
North American frontier settlement." Settlement
arrived by sea, with scarcely any change. It is only
fitting that this Colonial, water-borne tradition
had been expressed by the system of surveying
used by Joseph Despard Pemberton, and that
evidences are imprinted in the section boundaries of Greater Victoria.
Lands Reserved by the Hudson's Bay Company
Puget's Sound Agricultural Company Farms:
ESQUIMALT FARM—Captain Edward Langford,
Sec. No. I, Lot 26, Esquimalt Land District, folio 82,
620 acres
Sec. No. II, Esquimalt Land District, folio 88, 546
Sec. No. XXI, Victoria Land District, folio 97, 600
Sec. No. X, Lot 28, Esquimalt Land District, folio 91,
600 acres
VIEWFIELD FARM—Donald Macauley, [Esquimalt]
Sec. No. XI, Lot 29, Esquimalt Land District, folio
94, 600 acres
Fur Trade Reserves:
[James Bay]
Sec. No. XVIII, Victoria Land District, folio 73,1212
[Oak Bay]
Sec. No. XXXI, Victoria Land District, folio 100,
1130 acres
Sec. No. XXXII, Victoria Land District, folio 103,
710 acres
All the above information was taken from the
following: Vancouver's Island Colony: Register     Book No. 1.
British Columbia Historical News
Page 15 Map 3
South saauich laud ois-Jkicr
LA it    L^UD ajZ-TTtic-f
1. Willard E. Ireland, "Pioneer Surveyors of Vancouver Island," In The Report of Proceedings of the
46th. Annual General Meeting of the Corporation
of B.C. Land Surveyors, (Victoria, B.C.: January 11-
12, 1951), p. 47.
2. Margaret Ormsby, British Columbia: A History,
(Vancouver, B.C.: Macmillans in Canada, 1958), p.
3. Ireland, p. 47.
4. Province of British Columbia, Surveys and Lands
Branch, Vancouver's Island Colony: Register
Book No. 1, [Victoria, B.C. c. 1858]), Fol[io] 100.
5. Ormsby, p. 99.
6. Ireland, p. 48.
7. Ormsby, p. 100.
8. Captain Walter Colquhoun Grant, Letter to James
Douglas, September 10, 1850, quoted in full in
Ireland, pp. 49-50.
9. Ormsby, p. 116.
10. Ireland, p. 50.
11. Joseph Despard Pemberton, Surveying Notebook
titled: "Trigonometl Memda." ADD MSS 1978,
12. quoted in W.A. Taylor, Survey Systems within the
Crown Domain: Colonies to Confederation,
([Victoria, B.C.]: Dept. of Lands, Forests and Water
Resources of B.C., 1975), p. 2. I was unable to
verify the quotation in Pemberton.
12a. Captain [Edward Charles] Frome, Outline of the
Method of Conducting a Trigonometrical Survey
for the Formation of Geographical and Topographical Maps and Plans: (London: J. Weale,
1840, [rpt.] 1850).
Cited in Taylor, p. 2, but the above work was not
available for verification.
13. Taylor, p. 4.
14. Pemberton, "Trigonometl. Memda," [p. 1].
15. Lome Hammond, unpublished paper, "Early
Land Ownership in Saanich: A Report Prepared
for the British Columbia Heritage Trust," (Victoria,
B.C.: August 15, 1985), p. 4.
16. Vancouver's Island Colony: addendum to folio
17. Hudson's Bay Company, Letter to the Corporation of the District of Saanich, January 18, 1927,
Vertical file: "Craigflower School," Saanich
Archives, Victoria, B.C.
 , Letter to the Corporation of the District
of Saanich, June 3,1933, Vertical file: "Hudson's
Bay Company," Saanich Archives, Victoria, B.C.
18. Joseph Despard Pemberton, Letter to Kenneth
McKenzie, June 18, 1856, Correspondence Outward, A/E/M19/P361, PABC.
19. see Lewis G. Thomas, ed. The Prairie West to 1905:
A Canadian Sourcebook, (Toronto: Oxford
University Press, 1975), p. 225, for some of the
problems that later arose in Alberta over water
rights and livestock.
20. W.L. Morton, Manitoba: A History, (Toronto,
Ont: University of Toronto Press, 1957, rpt. 1979),
p. 155.
21. Elizabeth Eisenstein, The Printing Revolution in
Early Modern Europe, (New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press, 1983), p. 127.
22.Province ot British Columbia, Map: Victoria
District Official Map 1858, CM/D49. Map: Lake
District. O.M. 1862, CM/C715, PABC.
23. Ormsby, p. 257.
James Patrick Regan is an archivist with the Saanich
Page 16
British Columbia Historical News R.G. Patterson
Roger Peachey, M.C.
The Last Commissioner of the
British Columbia Provincial Police Force
Roger Peachey was born on October 19,1892, in
London, England. After finishing his schooling he
took clerical training. Shortly thereafter, he
emigrated to Canada and Alberta, where he put
his talents to work.
At the outbreak of World War I, Peachey
enlisted in the 3rd Battalion, Canadian Mounted
Rifles on January 7, 1915, at Medicine Hat,
Alberta. He trained in Canada and England and
landed in France on September 22, 1915. After
nineteen months in the field, he was recommended for a commission, and attended Officer
Training Course at St. Omer in France and Bexhill
in England.
After training, Lieutenant Peachey returned to
France and saw action until August 8,1918, when
at Hangard, leading a party of scouts and snipers
of the 1st Battalion, Canadian Mounted Rifles, he
suffered severe hand grenade wounds. He spent
a month in hospital at Rouen, before being
allowed to return to England for further recuperation. For this action, he was awarded the Military
Cross on October 7,1918. During his three years
service in France, he was wounded twice, lost a
leg as a result of his wounds, and saw action in all
the major campaigns of the War, including Vimy
Ridge. Lieutenant Peachey was invalided back to
Canada on May 21, 1919, and given his final
discharge papers in Victoria on October 21,1919.
On May 12, 1920 Roger Peachey joined the
Headquarters staff of the British Columbia
Provincial Police Force as a Clerk/Constable
under Corporal W.J. Voisey, the head of the
newly created Criminal Identification Department.
Commissioner Roger Peachey, M.C.
British Columbia Historical News
Page 17 The year 1923 marks a watershed in the history
and development of the Provincial Police Force.
During that year the Province enacted the Police
and Prisons Regulation Act. By this act, the Force
underwent a total reorganization. A further result
was the creation of the Criminal Investigation
Branch on January 1, 1924.
Roger Peachey was commissioned into the
Force in 1936 and four years later became the
head of the Criminal Investigation Branch. Once
head of the Branch, he improved its stature to the
point where it had (for its day) the best photographic and fingerprint technology, an up-to-
date firearms registry, a modas operandi section,
and top quality specialists in ballistics and other
sciences available for police investigation work.
During the Second War, Deputy Commissioner Peachey was a member of the Joint Services
Security Intelligence Board. Its principal function
was to co-ordinate the work of the tri-services
and the police forces in preserving the security of
Canada's Pacific Coast. This work was over and
above his police work.
Like his predecessors, Peachey worked his way
up through the ranks of the Force, always
remaining in the same branch, to become
Commissioner of the Force on March 1,1950. He
held the post for four and one-half months, until
the Force was taken over by the Royal Canadian
Mounted Police on August 15,1950. Rather than
transferring to the R.C.M.P. as the majority of the
members of the Force did, Peachey took early
retirement. Shortly thereafter, he became Civil
Defence co-ordinator for the Greater Victoria
area. He held this, and related posts until
resigning in 1957. Once he was completely
retired, Peachey took up golf, and often could be
found traversing from putting green to putting
green, with better than average results. This he
pursued up until the day of his death which was
July 10,1964.
From all that one reads and gathers through
talking to members of the Force, Peachey was not
a flamboyant policeman, in fact just the opposite—quiet and unobtrusive, but highly efficient,
in fact a "real gentleman" in the true sense of the
British Columbia Provincial Police Promotion
Record of Roger Peachey: First Appointed to the
Force May 12,1920, Victoria, Clerk/Constable
1/4/24      Appointed First Class Constable
1/4/26      Appointed Acting Corporal l/C
1/4/27      Promoted to Sgt. Criminal
Investigation Branch, Victoria
1/4/30     Promoted to Staff Sgt.
1/4/36      Promoted to Sub-Inspector
1/8/40      Promoted to Inspector
1/11/47    Promoted to Deputy Commissioner
1/3/50      Promoted to Commissioner
15/8/50    Discharged from the Force
B.C. Provincial Police taken over by the Royal
Canadian Mounted Police on August 15,1950.
R.C. Patterson is a curator with the Modern
History Division, British Columbia Provincial
Don't Forget!
Subscribe now if you're not
receiving the News regularly.
Page 18
British Columbia Historical News Jacqueline Gresko
A 1912 New Westminster Sampler
The following excerpts from the New Westminster British Columbian are the results of applying
Patricia Roy's suggested Miniature Exercise in
Historical Research (Canadian Historical Association Newsletter Summer 1984) in a first year
History course at Douglas College. This assignment required students to read one issue of the
1912 British Columbian assigned by individual
birthdates. Students were to use this source, plus
periodical articles and books, to discuss the life
and times of New Westminster and district in
1912. Students could write an essay or a letter to
an imaginary correspondent about a trip to New
Westminster in 1912.
When the papers came in to be marked I noted
the usual problems with English composition. It
was uplifting, however, to see that students had
enjoyed doing original research and had made
some attempts at analysis of their sources. Some
students with the help of college or New Westminster Public Library staff looked at the Vancouver Province, the Coquitlam Star, or the
Financial Post. A few students interviewed
oldtimers about the construction schemes of the
pre-war boom period. One student considered
the B.C. Orange Lodge 50th Anniversary parade
attended by 10,000 as his most interesting "find".
Another regarded the Temperance movement as
hers. Nearly every student exulted in advertisements; e.g., for Kamloops as the Los Angeles of
Canada, for the Palace of Sweets on Columbia
Street, New Westminster, for the Edison Theatre
presentation of 'The Coming of Columbus' as
endorsed by 'Educators, Press, Pulpit, Historians,
and the Public'.
Student compositions on New Westminster
and district from the British Columbian included
essays spread through the year. In keeping with
the focus of our local history course, the essays
discussed themes of community, class and race.
Community or local boosterism and race or anti-
oriental sentiments were more evident than class
conflicts. No doubt, the British Columbian editor,
Conservative J.D. Taylor, had limited his paper's
treatment of them in favour of his prime concerns: British Imperialism and local progress.
Some excerpts from student papers include:
February 7, 1912 (Vancouver Province as well as
Columbian) stories detailed the building of a flour
and oatmeal mill and terminal elevator at Port
Mann. Mr. F.A. Bean, president, International
Milling Co., had just announced the proposal. In
the Province, lots at Port Mann were advertised at
$150 a lot, $5 down, 5 months with no taxes and no
interest. City workers' wages had gone up to $3
per day from $2.80, according to the British
The Board of Trade gave a complimentary
banquet to Sir Donald Mann, "the railroad
builder whose name [was] the magic sesame to an
era of progress and development the likes of
which the city had not yet experienced." New
Westminster would become the "heart and
centre of a great industrial region". The Province
echoed this news from the New Westminster
paper with an article on "Great Prosperity
Predicted for Royal City."
Newcomers were already doing well according
to a front page Columbian story about the
petition sent to the Honourable R. Rogers,
federal minister of the Interior, from Hindus and
Sikhs in Vancouver. They were "doing very well as
a community" and, they asked if their families
could join them. That reunion would be "an act of
moral and civil justice which every well-wisher of
society would desire." [See The Canadian Family
Tree, 1979, p. 112. Between 1909 and 1913 only 29
Sikhs were admitted to Canada.]
Vancouver Province July 10,1912, advertisement for development of Hardy Bay boasted of a
bridge to be built from the mainland to the Island
across Seymour Narrows.
Financial Post July 13, 1912, "Real Estate in the
West Nearing a Crisis" headlined one article,
while another, "The Half Year in Real Estate
Investment", included a table showing prices in
British Columbia cities higher than those in other
regions of Canada.
British Columbia Historical News
Page 19 October 1, 1912, the real estate boom continued. A small house on 160 acres in Alberta was
advertised for the same price as a bare lot on
Eighth Street, New Westminster. The Brunette
Sawmill Co. had purchased the street along the
river from the city for private use in order to
expand. Job advertisements for women were
mainly housekeeping positions and for men
mainly construction work.
In social life, lodges such as the Sons of Scotland
and the Orangemen predominated. Soccer,
cricket, croquet and lacrosse merited mention in
the sports columns. The Provincial Exhibition
began October 1 but the Duke and Duchess of
Connaught would formally open it October 3.
The Columbian boosted it as the largest in
Western Canada.
In international headlines the "Balkans [were]
on the Brink of War".
Back Issues of the News
Back issues of the News can be ordered at $3.50
each plus postage from the Editor.
Writing Competition
The British Columbia Historical Federation invites
submission of books or articles for the third
annual competition for writers of British Columbia History.
Any book with historial content published in
1986 is eligible. Whether the work was prepared
as a thesis or a community project, for an industry
or an organization, or just for the pleasure of
sharing a pioneer's reminiscences, it is considered
history as long as names, dates and locations are
included. Stories told in the vernacular are
acceptable when indicated as quotations of a
story teller. Writers are advised that judges are
looking for fresh presentation of historical
information with relevant maps and/or pictures.
A Table of Contents and an adequate Index are a
must for the book to be of value as a historical
reference. A Bibliography is also desirable. Proof
reading should be thorough to eliminate typographical and spelling errors.
Submit your book with your name, address,
and telephone number to:
British Columbia Historical Federation
c/o Mrs. Naomi Miller
Box 105
Wasa, B.C. VOB 2K0
Please include the selling price of the book and an
address from where it may be purchased.
• •*•••
Thinking of Publishing?
A seminar on publishing local history, given by
Helen Akrigg, may be arranged for your
historical society. Please contact Leonard G.
McCann, #2, 1430 Maple Street, Vancouvei,
There will also be a prize for the writer of the best
historical article published in the British Columbia Historical News quarterly magazine. Articles
are to be submitted directly to:
The Editor
British Columbia Historical News
1745 Taylor Street
Victoria, B.C. V8R 3E8
Written length should be no more then 2,500
words, substantiated with footnotes if possible,
and accompanied by photographs if available.
Deadlines for the quarterly issues are September
1, December 1, March 1, and June 1.
Page 20
British Columbia Historical News CL Hansen-Brett
An Historical Overview of Prostitution
in Victoria, British Columbia 1870-1939
In the past, prostitution was often ignored as a
topic for research, not only because it concerned
women but because those women were devalued members of society. "Prostitution has
been tolerated throughout much of western
history, but because of its 'unspeakable' stigmatized and clandestine nature, it has been largely
unrecorded."1 Serious interest in women's history
is only a recent phenomenon, and prostitution, as
a part of that history and as a social and economic
reality, is worthy of study. The subject of prostitution is a difficult one to research, but by relying
predominantly upon Victoria City Police archival
documents this article will attempt to trace the
history of prostitution in Victoria from the 1870s
through the 1930s. A chronological approach will
outline prostitution in the context of other types
of criminal offences, locations of prostitution
activity, ethnic and other characteristics of
prostitutes, and prevailing community attitudes.
In addition, attention will be given to social and
economic circumstances underlying the choice
of prostitution as a viable occupation,
Prior to 1900
Typical charges of the last three decades of the
19th century, as noted in the Victoria City Police
charge books, include desertion by sailors,
assault, being a "rogue and a vagabond" and most
common, drunk and disorderly. Charges for
prostitution appear infrequently, and are often
combined with drunk and disorderly arrests.
Indeed, during the 1890s more charges are laid
against men as "frequenters" or "habitual
frequenters" of brothels than against prostitutes.
Records for the 1870s and 1880s would seem to
indicate that most prostitution was in the form of
street soliciting. Not until May 16, 1894, does a
house address appear in connection with prostitution, in the soon-to-be-notorious Chatham-
Herald Street district.
Prior to 1870, most prostitution seems to have
been conducted by native Indian women. As
Fisher observes for this early period,
... Large numbers of Indian women from the
north came to Victoria annually to earn money
by prostitution. Apparently some were able to
raise their husband's social position with the
wealth that they acquired in this way. Women
could earn twice as much as prostitutes in
Victoria as they could further up the coast.2
In the Victoria City Police charge books
examined for the 1870s and 1880s, the only record
of prostitution concerns soliciting by native
women. A typical notation is the following: "April
7, 1873, Lucy a Hydah Indian woman charged by
Inspector Bowden with being on the public street
at the hour of 1:00 a.m. for the purposes of
Prostitution does not seem to have been
considered as more than a minor offence.
Women charged with soliciting were discharged
the same day, or the following day at the latest,
with no fines imposed. In contrast, fourteen days'
hard labour was the usual sentence for theft by
males and females, native or non-native. Drunk
and disorderly carried the most severe penalty,
particularly for native women:
March 25, 1876, Jennie an Indian woman
charged with drunk and disorderly. Sentence
14 days in gaol on half food rations and to be
confined in a dark cell every second day.
Charges against frequenters were more often
than not dismissed, but habitual frequenters
received a fifty-dollar fine.
In 1892, "keeping a house of ill-fame" was an
British Columbia Historical News
Page 21 indictable offence subject to one year's imprisonment.3 Victoria City Police records indicate
keeping a house of ill-fame resulted in a fine of
$75.00 to $100.00 while charges against inmates
and frequenters resulted in fines of twenty-five to
fifty dollars. What is interesting is that prostitution
itself was not regarded as an offence in English
Common Law, and came into conflict with the
law only when it was associated with street
soliciting, or with the operation of a bawdy house
as to be an annoyance.4 In other words, the test of
the offence was the fact of public annoyance.
Prostitution does not appear to have been
regarded as a serious problem by police, and
there is no record during these three decades of
community complaints. However, in 1889 the
Women's Christian Temperance Union opened
the Refuge Home at 2 Work St., Victoria for
"...the rescue of the fallen and the care of the
unfortunate woman"' The Refuge Home was
approximately five blocks from the main centres
of prostitution in the late 1880's. Perhaps Women's
Christian Temperance Union officials reasoned
that fallen women should be kept at some
distance from sources and scenes of temptation.
After 1900
The turn of the century saw the development of
specific crime areas in Victoria. Gambling, opium-
related offences, prostitution, and drunk and
disorderly became centered in the area from
Cormorant Street to Discovery Street. Gambling
and opium possession or use were the most
commonly cited offences in the Victoria City
Police charge books, with drunk and disorderly
still a major problem, particularly in the Herald
and Chatham locale. The Colonist, April 6,1911,
recalled "the district lying in the vicinity of Herald
and Chatham was, at that time [1903], about the
toughest part of town." The houses of prostitution
in this area were "principally in the hands of the
Chinese" and were rented out to the madams.
There appear to have been two classes of
prostitution in early Victoria. In addition to the
lower-class 'red-light' district on Chatham and
Herald, "carriage trade" houses, catering to a
more prosperous clientele, were located in the
Broughton, Courtney and Douglas Street area. In
1906-07, Mayor Morley instigated a major cleanup of prostitution in Victoria. He boasted of
having rid the city of white slavery. "On the moral
issue there have been important changes, notably
the elimination of the Red Light district..."4
However, it appears that Morley succeeded only
in moving the prostitutes into the residential areas
outside of the downtown area. The "carriage
trade" houses were also closed, supposedly in
1907, but the Times reports
... they never actually closed, but ran on
quietly ...A Police Commissioner is quoted as
saying ... these places were run orderly [sic]
and he did not see why they should be closed.
In 1910 and 1911 major complaints by Victoria
residents were being received by the Victoria City
Police regarding bawdy houses located in residential areas. In the Police Chief's Report, J.M.
Langley stated,
In dealing with the social evil, some 33 keepers
and inmates were arrested and 36 houses
closed. These were scattered throughout the
city, mostly in residential areas.
In 1911-12, a "restricted district" was imposed,
at Morley's urging, which confined prostitution
houses to the Chatham and Herald areas. However, the "carriage trade" houses continued to
operate quietly in the downtown area, and were
not required to relocate. There is little evidence
of street soliciting at this time.
The ethnic breakdown of prostitutes appears to
consist mainly of white, Chinese and a few black
women and very rarely, native women.
The native women, who solicited the streets
apparently worked in gangs. A single Indian
woman would take a man under the E&N bridge
on Johnson Street where she would then be
joined by one or two other women who would
gang up on the customer and roll him.
In the Chatham and Herald Street area, white
women and Chinese men were cited as keepers.
Although Chinese women were inmates, apparently they were not allowed out of the brothels,
and for reasons unknown, their names never
appeared in the charge books.
Records indicate that Chinese women would
stand at their windows and were notorious for
making lewd and suggestive comments to
The women in the "carriage trade" houses,
unlike the Chinese women in the "red light"
district, were visible about town, often dressed in
red velvet. The "Ladies in Scarlet" operated the
"carriage trade" houses as high class, carefully
controlled businesses, and were selective of their
clientele. The police report book in 1915, records
a telephone message from a woman of considerable notoriety living on Broughton Street, in
which she lodges a complaint that "she is
annoyed by men getting into her yard and that
Page 22
British Columbia Historical News she had not let them in." Sergeant Clayards writes
underneath, "some she lets in and some she
Houses of prostitution appear to have a quasi-
business status at this time. Apparently there was
an agreement among the madams of the "carriage trade" house, City Hall officials, and the City
Police. Because City Hall could not collect
legitimate business licence fees from these
houses, the police raided them twice a year and
the owners or keepers were fined $100.00 in lieu
of license fees.
The Chatham and Herald Street area did not
appear to have the same agreement. The same
houses were raided frequently with no apparent
consistency in time or fines. Keepers were
charged $75.00 to $100.00, inmates $25.00 to
$50.00, and frequenters $25.00 to $50.00. A high
proportion of the charges resulted in warrants
issued with no subsequent action recorded.
The "carriage trade" area appears to have been
quietly and more tastefully run, according to
community standards of the time, thereby
causing little concern to the police or to the
public in general. Although there were occasional complaints logged in the Police report books
regarding alleged houses of ill-fame in residential
areas, and most of the complaints seem to have
no substance, it appears that houses in the
downtown area were, if not accepted, at least
condoned. However, the profession of prostitution and the women themselves were not part of
acceptable society. The local Council of Women
was a powerful group who submitted many
petitions opposing prostitution to the Legislature
and to City Hall. The response from the Legislature is unknown, but it is suspected that City Hall
didn't pay much attention. Since City Hall had a
vested financial interest in houses of prostitution,
the lack of interest in the petitions is understandable.
The women who managed the houses in the
"red light" area were at the mercy of the
landlords, most of whom appear to have been
Chinese. In some cases the owner lived on the
premises to ensure collections of the rent. The
amount of rent paid by the keepers came to light
in 1910 in an enquiry regarding the Police
Commissioners "...The rents were extortionate,
the owners having women in their power owing
to the limited number of houses."
With the exception of the "carriage trade"
houses, houses of ill-fame could operate only in
the restricted area. Four keepers of houses in that
area testified at the enquiry. Rents for houses
were reported from $150.00 to $500.00 per month.
One allegation at the enquiry was that high rents
were charged because part of the money went to
the Police Commissioners as protection money.
"...It was suggested that as ... the rents were so
out of all proportion, a fair inference would be
that the landlord was contributing out of the rent
for the purposes of protection." One of the
keepers stated that "she had heard that people
'running downtown' had protection. She had
been harassed while others were let alone." The
outcome of the enquiry was that no acts of
bribery were established.
Not all residents looked on prostitution with
disdain. W. Marchant, a columnist for the Vitoria
Times in 1910, suggested that houses of ill-fame
should be legalized. He acknowledged "the
degradation of womanhood" but suggested the
government should protect the earnings of
prostitutes and exercise supervision. He further
British Columbia Historical News The brutal callousness of robbing the fallen
woman of the very earnings for which she had
entered the gates of hell is so despicable that
language has not been invented strong enough
to portray it.
Although City Hall officials and Police do not
appear to have been overly concerned with the
removal of prostitution, they were concerned
about juvenile prostitution and about the number of young women who were frequenting the
Herald Street area in the evening.
The annual crop of young girls who are
allowed to stay out at night were in evidence in
the past year and a number of cases were called
to the attention of our officers who, in most
cases took them home, only to see them back
around their old haunts viz. auto and fruit
This concern continued, as noted in the Report
of the City Detective Dept., January 1917.
/{ is rather deplorable to see so many [young
girls] on the street at night with their latest
make-ups [sic] on, talking and mixing with
entire strangers. This class of the community
ought to be taken in hand by their parents or
juvenile officers.
Charges relating to procuring juveniles for the
purpose of prostitution were harshly dealth with:
Sept. 15,1910 Fred R. did unlawfully inveigle or
entice one Florence J. a woman under the age
of 21 to a house of ill-fame or assignation at 5Vi
Chatham for the purpose of illicit intercourse.
Sentence: 1 year imprisonment of hard labour.
In the 1920s Victoria City Police were making an
extreme effort to close down gambling houses in
the restricted area. The charge books list up to
fifty people arrested in one gambling raid. The
raids in 1923 resulted in a substantial number of
arrests, often once a month, for gambling.
Indecent exposure and indecent assault became
fairly common in the 1920s as did charges relating
to juveniles. Women, for the first time, were
being charged with opium and cocaine possession, and procuring abortions was also cited with
come frequency.
Keepers of gambling houses were fined
$100.00, while guests of the houses were fined
fifteen to twenty dollars. Indecent exposure
resulted in fines of $25.00 to $50.00, while women
charged with procuring abortions were sentenced to one year in prison. Charge records
regarding drug possession reveal that a warrant
was issued, but further information is unrecorded.
Charges relating to prostitution in brothels
virtually disappears by 1924 with hotels being
commonly cited as replacements. With the
instigation of prohibition in 1917, most of the
hotels were suffering financially. Many went
broke, but, gradually reopened and became
bawdy houses.
The Occidental Hotel, 1319 Wharf Street and
the Western Hotel on Store Street, regarded as
the location of better-class prostitutes, and the
Strand Hotel on Johnson Street, where lower-
class prostitutes worked, appear to have become
the main centres for prostitution.
Black women from the United States were
appearing in the city in the 1920s with some
regularity and notoriety. Black women were
usually madams of brothels and seem to have
operated business-like establishments. A black
woman who sold her brothel in Alaska, moved to
Victoria and succeeded in operating a chain of
brothels. The brothels were located in Langley,
Duncan and the Occidental Hotel in Victoria. She
also built a house for the purpose of prostitution
on the outskirts of Victoria. This house, known
then as The Chantecler and now as Fort Victoria,
Page 24
British Columbia Historical News contained closet-size rooms with hidden doors
that could not be seen from the outside. The
present owners of Fort Victoria mention finding
these rooms and that they were accessible only
from the attic. It would appear that when a raid
was to occur, the woman had an arrangement
with the Provincial Police whereby she would be
notified, giving time for inmates and frequenters
to hide.
During the depression of the '30s, charges for
prostitution decline markedly. A typical charge of
the depression years is for "being a loose and idle
person ... who did unlawfully wander around and
beg." Being intoxicated in a public place,
particularly by native Indians, occurs with some
frequency and indecent exposure and indecent
assault continue. In the 1936 and 1937 charge
books examined, there were no prostitution or
prostitution-related charges recorded. Nevertheless, prostitution was still in existence, and hotels
were still the major location of brothels. They do
not appear to be located in a specific area, and as
in the early 1900s, some hotel brothels were of
better class than others. The rapport between the
police and prostitutes or madams is unknown, as
police report books for this period are unavailable.
The discussion to this point has presented a
chronological account of some of the major
characteristics of prostitution in Victoria from
1870 through the 1930s. Undoubtedly, the
depression of the thirties created as severe
economic hardships for prostitutes as it did for
other segments of society. However, for prostitutes, economic hardship was probably a reality
throughout Victoria's history and in all likelihood
may be regarded as a major contributing factor to
women entering this occupation.
Prostitution as an occupation may be seen as an
indictment of the limited range of opportunities
that late nineteenth and early twentieth-century
women faced in their daily struggle for economic,
social and psychological well-being. Most women
chose to enter prostitution not because they were
mentally deficient, not because they suffered
unresolved Oedipal complexes, not because they
were the helpless victims of sinister procurers, nor
because they were merely passive individuals, but
because they perceived prostitution as a means of
fulfilling particular economic, social or psychological needs.5 "Female labour in Vancouver ...
[and no doubt in Victoria] was restricted to
occupations of a low-paying and expendable
Given the economic circumstances in Victoria,
prostitution was one of the few alternatives open
to women workers. Options available for working
women included low-paying, unskilled menial
work, prostitution and marriage. Whether widowed with children to support, deserted, seduced under promise of marriage and then cast
aside, or disgraced by illegitimate pregnancy,
women entered prostitution for survival. In a
world of limited employment opportunities for
women, they perceived prostitution as a rational
economic choice. It afforded them higher wages,
shorter hours and a camaraderie with women in a
similar situation. Some women perceived prostitution as a means of upward mobility.7 Some, too,
perceived prostitution as the only option available for the "fallen woman" whose virtue had
been lost to rape or to seduction. "The brothel
served as a warehouse for damaged property."8
Thus, the major causes of prostitution during the
period under discussion were economic: actual
poverty, fragile family economics, the need for
supplemental income, and lack of, or contempt
for, other occupation options.9
Denied access to social and economic power
because of their gender and class status, poor
women made their choices from a vulnerable
position of socially-structured powerlessness. All
too often, a woman had to choose from an array
of dehumanizing alternatives: to sell her body in a
loveless marriage contracted solely for economic
protection, to sell her body for starvation wages as
an unskilled worker, or to sell her body as a "lady
British Columbia Historical News
Page 25 in scarlet". Whatever the choice, some form of
prostitution was likely to be involved.
Although women generally profited economically from prostitution, they suffered the social
cost of community, and often family, ostracism.
They were characterized as outcasts with no place
in society, but in actuality they held an important
economic function. Prostitution in the City of
Victoria provided an essential income to the City
in the form of fines paid in lieu of licence fees.
Hotels, particularly during prohibition, remained
viable businesses due to revenues from prostitution. Liquor interests were served as the consumption of alcohol was an integral part of
brothels. Finally, the women themselves were
consumers in the marketplace and many had
more disposable income from prostitution than
they would have had in more socially-acceptable
Socially, prostitutes held the position of moral
object-lessons. They were reminders to respectable women of what they might become and of
how they would be treated if they failed to live up
to the moral expectations placed upon them.
Prostitutes were "the ultimate most efficient
guardians of virtue."
1. R. Rosin, The Lost Sisterhood (London: The John
Hopkins Press Ltd., 1983), p. xi.
2. R. Fisher, Contact and Conflict (Vancouver:
University of British Columbia Press, 1977), p. 113.
3. W. Waterman, Prostitution and its Repression in
New York City (New York: AMS Press Inc., 1968),
p. 12.
4. Ibid., p. 12.
5. Rosin, Lost Sisterhood, p. 137.
6. D. Nilsen, "The Social Evil, Prostitution in
Vancouver, 1900-1920," In Her Own Right, ed. B.
Latham (Victoria: Camosun College, 1980).
7. M.E. Hawkesworth, "Brothels and Betrayal: On
the Functions of Prostitution," International
Journal of Women's Studies (Montreal: Eden
Press, 1984) Vol. 7, no. 1, p. 84.
8. Ibid.
9. Rosin, Lost Sisterhood, p. 147.
Unless otherwise footnoted, information was obtained from the Victoria City Police Archives.
At the request of the Victoria City Police Department, full names are not recorded in this paper.
The photographs are mug shots of women charged
with prostitution.
Lacey Hansen-Brett is a student in History at the
University of Victoria, and recently helped to
establish the Police Archives for the City of
Victoria, and for the Municipalities of Oak Bay
.and Esquimalt.
Financing the British Columbia Historical News
The attention of all readers of The British Columbia Historical News is drawn to the following table:
Subscribers Member        Individual     Institutional Total Amount
1981-82 1180
1982-83 1198
1983-84 772
1984-85 833
1985 to Nov. 22 458
Grant   Publication
$ 7,541
The figures given above are compiled on the basis of when the money was received or paid out
irrespective of the financial year. Arrears from one year to the next did occur so numbers are not fullv
accurate for any particular year.
Up to 1983 fees paid by members to the then B.C. Historical Association included a subscription to the
magazine. In that year the bylaws were changed to create a Federation of Member Societies with a
separation of dues to the Historical Federation from subscriptions to the magazine. This resulted in a drop
of member subscriptions because there was also an increase in rates. The effect of the reduction in
business activity and the concomitant government restraint from 1984 on is very noticeable Our small
financial reserves are being eroded steadily.
The Historical Federation Council has appointed a publication and marketing committee to examine
the situation and make recommendations. This committee asks that suggestions from Federation
members, either individually, or through a Member Society, be sent to the Federation P.O. Box as soon as
Page 26
British Columbia Historical News News and Notes
British Columbia
Historical Federation
Annual Conference
The Vancouver Historical Society will be host to
the British Columbia Historical Federation's
annual conference, May 8, 9 and 10, 1986.
Conference sessions will be held at the Gage
Towers on the University of British Columbia
campus. There is easy access and parking. The
Student Union Building is nearby for inexpensive
Speakers will be Maria Tippett, Leonard
McCann and Frances Woodward, while the
dinner speaker is Charles Humphries. A panel of
Antiquarian booksellers will further our knowledge on this fascinating business.
Ivan Sayers will present historic costumes from
the sublime to the absurd, and Phil and Hilda
Thomas will discuss the origins of British Columbia folk songs, and sing them for us.
Saturday afternoon you will have a choice of
several conducted tours.
A detailed program will appear in the April
issue of the News.
The next issue of the B.C. Historical News will
have a Vancouver Centennial theme. Please
submit news and notes from various branches, by
February 15, to guest editor Esther Birney, 1240
Shorepine Walk, Vancouver, V6H 3T8.
Vancouver Historical Society
January 22
"Vancouver Mayors 1: "Gerry McGeer" - David
Arguably Vancouver's greatest mayor (1935-6,
1947), the flamboyant Gerald Gratton McGeer
read the riot act to Vancouver unemployed in
1935, hosted the city's 50th birthday celebrations
in 1936, and was responsible for the erection of
the new City Hall and the fountain in Lost Lagoon.
February 27
"Vancouver Mayors 2: Art Phillips" - Art Phillips
Political reminiscences of the founder and first
president of TEAM (The Electors' Action Movement). Currently B.C.'s Commissioner of Critical
Industries, Art Phillips served as alderman (1968-
73), mayor (1973-6) and Liberal MP for Vancouver
Center (1979-80).
March 27
"Vancouver Mayors 3: Bill Rathie" - Bill Rathie
An accountant and tax consultant, Bill Rathie,
Vancouver's first native-born mayor, served as
alderman (1959-62) and was elected mayor (1963-
6) on the slogan "Let's Get Vancouver Going".
April 27
To Be Announced
May 28
A.G.M./'Vancouver Mayors 4: Louis D. Taylor" -
Mary Rawson
Vancouver's longest serving mayor (1910-11,
1915,1925-26,1941-44), L.D. Taylor arrived in the
city in 1896 and worked for the Vancouver Daily
Province. In 1905 he purchased the World.
During his reign, the Lions Gate Bridge was built
and the fire department completely mechanized.
Each lecture starts at 8 p.m. in the Vancouver
Museum Auditorium, 1100 Chestnut Street.
Light refreshments will be served after each
meeting, and members of the audience will have
an opportunity to meet the guest speaker.
Visitors and new members welcome.
For further information contact: Peggy Imredy
738-0953; Margaret Waddington 266-4709.
British Columbia Historical News
Page 27 Burnaby Historical Society
Windows To Burnaby's Past
The Burnaby Historical Society was on the verge
of disbanding in 1983 for lack of interest. What
influenced them to produce a three-volume
heritage report in 1985 and lobby Burnaby
Council to establish a Municipal Heritage
Advisory Committee? It was due primarily to an
injection of enthusiasm and challenge by three
young people: Robert Powys of Delta, Ann
Watson of North Vancouver, and Jim Wolf of
Surrey. Their efforts resulted in a record of
buildings erected by early settlers during the first
38 years of Burnaby's 93 year history.
It happened that a citizen of Delta, Robert
Powys, wanted to buy the old Powys home, built
in 1900, located at 7356 - 11th Avenue, Burnaby.
Robert's family and his sea-captain grandfather
had owned and occupied the home for about
fifty-six years. Robert's father had recently died
and Robert thought it a fitting memorial to
purchase the old home, restore it at his own
expense, and live in it. He encountered problems in locating the owner and arranging a trade
of near-by property. The owner simply wanted
to demolish the house and divide the 62' by 145'
lot into two 31' lots, and sell them. In desperation, Powys appealed to the Historical Society to
write to Burnaby Council on his behalf, asking
that the house be saved. It was expected that
Council would reject any plan to subdivide lots
that would result in 31' frontage, a figure below
the normal minimum frontage standards. To
divide a 62' lot seemed a poor precedent to set.
In reply to the Society's letter in support of
Powys' request, Council tabled the letter,
"pending further information." It was stated
that, "No further action is proposed to be taken
by staff in this regard unless specific direction is
given by Council" (April, 1984).
At the end of the summer of 1984, Robert
Powys and the BHS learned that on June25,1984,
a demolition permit had been issued to the
owner of the old Powys property, and soon
afterward there was complete obliteration of the
house, trees, shrubs and hedges. In the bare
ground were stakes marking the two 31' lots.
At this point our Society said there should be
an advisory body qualified to evaluate the
historical/architectural merit of buildings, and
requested that Burnaby Council establish a
Municipal Heritage Advisory Committee. We
know that there is a limit to what may be saved,
but we must strive to keep the best of our
heritage resources. Immigrants of diverse
backgrounds have enhanced our rich cultural
heritage that is preserved in buildings, photographs, documents and stories, all of which give
a sense of pride, security and belonging. To
ignore history and past achievements is to negate
memory, and where there is loss of memory
there is loss of identity. Burnaby has ninety-three
years of history and her heritage resources
should be recorded before neglect, deterioration and demolition take their toll. Unfortunately, the motion to establish a M.H.A.C. was
defeated by Burnaby Council.
Following the demolition of the Powys property and the refusal of Council to form an active
advisory committee, the Historical Society
created a Heritage Advisory Committee and
applied to the B.C. Heritage Trust for a grant
under the Student Employment Program, to
conduct an initial survey and inventory of
Burnaby's pre-1930 buildings.
The committee set three goals:
1. To survey and list many of the best buildings
and structures;
2. To apply to the Trust for a student grant to
employ a student to do survey;
3. To request that Council re-consider our
previous request for a Municipal Heritage
Advisory Committee.
In mid-March, Pauline Rafferty, Program
Manager for B.C. Heritage Trust Student Employ
ment, informed our Society that our project had
been selected as one of 50 from about 300
applications. The maximum time allotted for the
project was from mid-May to Mid Aug., 62
working days to cover 36.9 sq. mi. and approximately 780 streets. It was a prodigious task;
however, Ann Watson, a student a Simon Fraser
University tackled the job and overcame such
obstacles as barking dogs, the absence of an
occupant in a house, or lack of knowledge by
occupant of the age, architect or builder of the
dwelling, traffic and parking hazards, and dense
foliage that defied photo-taking.
When a further grant under the Challenge '85
Summer Employment Program of the Ministry of
Page 28
British Columbia Historical News (I to r) Jim Wolf, Alderman Don Brown, Evelyn Salisbury, John Adams, and Ann Watson
Labour was approved, Jim Wolf, BHS archivist,
joined Ann's survey project. When the final
report was completed it was titled Windows to
Burnaby's Past.
In recognition of Burnaby's 93rd birthday in
September, the BHS conducted a special general
meeting in September, giving prominence to the
birthday theme. "On September 22, 1892,
Burnaby ceased to be an unorganized territory
of 250 residents and by legislative charter
became the Corporation of the District of
Burnaby." It was appropriate at this time to make
presentations of Windows To Burnaby's Past as a
Birthday Book to Burnaby, Burnaby Arts Council,
Burnaby Public Library, and Burnaby Village
At the close of the memorable meeting, Allan
Corbett, BHS and Heritage committee member,
read a motion requesting that Burnaby Council
re-consider our previous request that they
establish a Municipal Heritage Advisory Committee. The membership passed the motion and
when it was dealt with in Council, the eight
aldermen voted to accept in principle the
establishment of a M.H.A.C.
At a final gala presentation, at the Robson
Square Media Centre, before the B.C. Heritage
Trust Directors and the representative of the B.C.
and Yukon Division of the Board of Governors of
Heritage Canada Foundation, the Hon. Henry
Bell-Irving, the students and sponsors made their
reports. It was a tribute to the authors of the BHS
report that additional time was given for their
Evelyn Salisbury is chairman of the BHS Heritage
Advisory Committee and Vice President of the
British Columbia Historical News
Page 29 Jewish Historical Society
Leonard Frank Display
When this giant of Canadian photographers
passed away February 23, 1944, the Victoria
Colonist, in a rare editorial, said eloquently what
his contemporaries already knew;
The death of Mr. Leonard Frank of Vancouver
removes a figure widely known in British
Columbia. For many years Mr. Frank specialized in industrial photography. His pictures of
British Columbia logging, mining, fishing, and
other scenes were celebrated, and they have
appeared literally all over the world. The cut
files of this journal and many another British
Columbia newspaper bear eloquent testimony to the art and industry of a man who was
a patient, tireless craftsman, and a master of his
Leonard Frank's name is assured of becoming
known all over again. Since his death much of his
collection of negatives, photos and enlargements have been quietly preserved in the estate
of his successor, Otto Landauer.
But, now, good news!
The Jewish Historical Society of B.C. has just
acquired the entire residual collection, and goes
on record in promising to make the priceless,
historical photos available again.
To start with, a Vancouver centennial Leonard
Frank Display will be open to the public March
4th to 21st, 1986, in the Shalom Gallery of the
Vancouver Jewish Community Centre, 950 West
41st Ave.
Mr. Frank served British Columbia and the
world for fifty years, and his fine photographs
number well over 20,000. This unique legacy will
now be publicized and shown by the Jewish
Historical Society.
Leonard Frank's portrait was made by another famous
British Columbia photographer, Jack Savannah.
Page 30
British Columbia Historical News Bookshelf
Vancouver: Douglas & Mclntyre, 1985. Pp. xv. 373,
illus., $24.95.
Douglas Cole's Captured Heritage deals mainly
with the collection and export from coastal British
Columbia of Indian artifacts to museums outside
British Columbia. It begins with the visit of the
Santiago in 1774, and takes us through the nineteenth
century, when Franz Boas, CF. Newcombe and their
agents collected on an extensive and often rapacious
scale for museums in the United States and, to a lesser
extent, for museums in Canada. The book is well-
researched and written, and Cole's anecdotal style is
well suited to the richness of the historical record. The
strangest part of the book must be the story of the
journey of fifteen Kwakiutl to the Chicago World's
Fair of 1893, where they were displayed, like zoological specimens, as part of an "open mart and caravansary of nations" alongside Indonesians, Eskimos and
Irish villagers (pp. 127-128).
Why were most coastal Indians, sooner or later,
willing to part with their most precious possessions?
First, Cole notes, the decline in the native population
in the nineteenth century "created a surplus of many
objects at precisely the period of most intense
collecting." Second, "while population declined,
creating a surplus of ceremonial items, the introduction of European manufactured goods rendered
many utilitarian objects obsolete and therefore
disposable." (p. 295) Against this background, Cole
documents how rival collectors competed for a
diminishing number of artifacts in the most intensive
period of collecting between 1875 and 1914.
From the point of view of what Cole terms a
"nativist" (p. 91), it is sad how American collectors
simply absorbed the coast in a sort of "ethnological
Monroe Doctrine", (p. 74) Canadian collectors, like
I.W. Powell and CF. Newcombe, may have lamented
the dispersal of artifacts from Canada, but they
realized that, with an absence of interest in this
country, their exportation at least ensured their
preservation. It is lamentable that government
officials from Powell in the 1870s to Francis Kermode
in the 1930s were unable or unwilling to prevent the
export of important collections. One inevitable result
of the Monroe Doctrine-like, cultural imperialism
was the appearance, in 1980, of a Bella Coola
ceremonial mask on an American postage stamp!
Captured Heritage will be of fundamental interest
to the worldwide audience of museum curators,
anthropologists, archaeologists and ethnohistorians
with a special interest in the rich material heritage of
the Northwest Coast culture area. The book will
become a textbook for university courses in British
Columbia history and anthropology. One of the
many connections that Cole reveals, in his understated way, is the one between museum collecting
and the evolution of the Boasian ethnographical
method. Boas, who first came to the coast as a
collector in 1886, subsequently encouraged his field
collectors to provide complete documentation for
each artifact they acquired, and instructed them not
to overlook objects of everyday use. As a museum
curator, Boas championed the display of artifacts not
by type but by ethnic group. This concern was
thoroughness and with a group's cultural integrity
provided Boas with the inspiration for his later
ethnographic field work (Ch. 5).
The book's greatest value is as a guide to the origin
and evolution of the great museum collections of
artifacts from the Northwest Coast. The book is
written for an international scholarly audience, and as
such, it is a work of great importance. The effect,
however, of Cole's familiarity with outside museums
and outside record groups is that British Columbia
remains something of a frontier in the book. Just as
early collectors saw the coast as a frontier, rich in
available artifacts, so British Columbia comes across as
Boas perceived it—as a "remote place" where
scholars would have no chance of viewing artifacts (p.
That nineteenth century British Columbia was a
materialist, immigrant society where "racism was
conspicuous and unabashed" (p. 228) is beyond
doubt. But there were a few British Columbians with a
social conscience or with an interest, official or
unofficial, in Indian welfare. Cole makes no mention
of colonial British Columbia's 1865 legislation entitled
"An Ordinance to Prevent Violation of Indian
Graves", which was extended to Vancouver Island
with the union of the colonies, and which was not
repealed upon union with Canada. Presumably it was
this ordinance that provided the basis of the objections to Boas and the Suttons' grave-robbing exploits
at Cowichan in the 1880s (pp. 119-121). Who framed
this pioneering ordinance, why was it made into law,
and when if ever was it repealed?
British Columbia Historical News
Page 31 Similarly, the role of the Hudson's Bay Company is
not adequately assessed. Cole remarks that the
Company "did little collecting", and that the officials
of the Russian-American Company "seem to have
been more conscientious." (p. 6) Yet toward the end
of the book, we are told the fundamentally important
fact that "The Northwest Coast was one of the few
North American areas of rich and striking material
cultures which remained relatively unshattered at the
advent of the Museum Age." (p. 294) How did this
come to be? This cultural survival was a result of the
lateness of white settlement; was it also a result of the
patriarchal but generally benign rule of the Company's bureaucracy? Perhaps the Company's main
legacy to British Columbia's coastal Indians was in
allowing their culture to remain relatively undisturbed until the mid- or late nineteenth century, at
which point the coast was ransacked by museum
collectors. While Company officials in a formal,
corporate sense may not have collected artifacts, they
did, on a level of individual initiative, provide much
help to visiting collectors. Cole mentions in this
incidental context James Deans, Robert Cunningham, Alexander McKenzie, William Charles, C.E.
Morrison, Robert Hunt, W.F. Tolmie and R.H. Hall.
How many other Company employees, or former
employees, had a hand in collecting between the
1820s and 1920s?
Three other groups of indigenous whites are
brought into the book,..but in an incidental and
unsystematic fashion. These are clergymen, government officials and naval officers. We hear of Bishop
Hills, William Duncan and Rev. J.H. Keen, but not of
the collections of Bishop Ridley or Canon Beanlands.
We learn that the Department of Indian Affairs "did
not recruit highly competent men," (p. 351) but this
statement is confounded by the work of George
Blenkinsop, J.W. McKay and Hamilton Moffatt,
whose careers spanned the fur trade, colonial and
provincial eras. We are told that "a large number of
naval officers gave to a variety of local or national
museums in the United Kingdom," (p. 7) but we are
told no more. Each of these groups of professional
men was well-established here before the first formal
museum collections were made in the 1870s. Does
not the work of these officials warrant a separate
British Columbia's late nineteenth century intellectual community, referred to as "small and ineffectual"
(p. 228) nevertheless was responsible for the founding
of the British Columbia Provincial Museum (1886), the
Natural History Society of British Columbia (1890), the
Vancouver Art, Historical and Scientific Institute
(1890s), and came close to founding a provincial
university (1890). Not bad for a society only a
generation or two old! The explicit purpose of the
Natural History Society was to collect artifacts for the
provincial museum. The society was the meeting
place of interested clerics, naval officers, retired fur
traders, government officials and other professional
men and women. Its membership included CF.
Newcombe, collectors James Deans and Canon
Beanlands, Indian reserve surveyor Ashdown Green,
and photographer Oregon Hastings. Guest lecturers
included Franz Boas and Father Brabant of Hesquiat.
Yet Cole makes only a passing reference to the
While Captured Heritage will serve as an indispensable reference book and guide to museum collections in Victoria, Ottawa, and the United States, it is
not (nor does it claim to be) the intellectual or the
bureaucratic history of British Columbia. Another
book is needed that documents more fully the
collecting activities of those who lived and worked
among the Indians on this frontier.
Richard Mackie is a doctoral candidate in History at
the University of British Columbia.
THE IRON CHURCH 1860-1985, Stuart Underhill.
Victoria: Braemar Books, 1984. Pp. vi, 99, illus. $6.95
The Iron Church is a loving chronicle of St. John's
Anglican Church, Victoria, by Stuart Underhill. A
retired journalist and a member of the congregation,
Underhill tells the story of his church and its
community from 1860 to 1985. The name iron church
came from the first St. John's, built of pre-fabricated
iron plates shipped out to Vancouver Island on the
orders of Bishop Hills. The Hudson's Bay Company
people, colonial officials and miners who attended
the pioneer church had difficulty hearing preachers
over the sound of rain on the roof. St. John's parish
survived that small problem as well as the larger
problems of the late nineteenth century Anglican
churches in Victoria notably a split between pro and
anti-ritualist factions. The latter, in the mid-1870s,
separated to form the Reformed Episcopal Church of
God under former Church of England minister
Edward Cridge, while the 'high' Church people
remained with the cathedral or St. John's. St. John's
congregation, and particularly its ladies' aid fund
raisers, had to make adjustments for a further decline
in the parish when the establishment of Vancouver as
C.P.R. terminus took business and population from
Victoria. The boom of 1900 to 1910 saw St. John's grow
and gave its members the opportunity to sell the old
iron church property to the Hudson's Bay Company
for a department store site. Rector P. Jenns barely
moved to the new church at Quadra and Mason
Streets before the boom ended and the war began.
When Jenns retired, the first Canadian born rector,
F. Chadwick replaced him. Under Chadwick, St.
John's served newcomers and temporary residents, as
well as its own members, with social and spiritual care.
Yet, when Reverend G. Biddle became rector in 1940
the congregation had dwindled. The Depression as
Page 32
British Columbia Historical News well as the previous rector's illness had taken their
toll. Under the dynamic and community-minded
leadership of Rev. Biddle, St. John's congregation was
more than rebuilt before the church celebrated its
centenary in 1960. The unfortunate destruction of the
church building by fire at the end of that year did not
daunt the parishioners or the pastor. The rebuilding
process showed their ability to renew themselves
once more.
It is good to see that the 125th anniversary of St.
John's and another aspect of Victoria history have
been recorded with this volume. It should inspire
further archival collecting, research and interpretation on St. John's, its staff, and its congregation—part
of the neglected British aspect of British Columbia
history. The photographs of the original and renovated churches might be studied as documents on the
architectural and social history of the community. The
ministers and their congregations might be examined
too. Their origins and experience lay in Scotland and
Canada as well as in England. Did many church
members share Reverend Biddle's British birth and
Canadian prairie experience and education? What of
the ladies in the guilds? Who taught in the Sunday
Schools and what and why? How did St. John's
contribute to the shaping of Victoria as a little bit of
old England and as part of the Anglican Church in
Jacqueline Cresko, an active member of the Vancouver Historical Society, teaches History at Douglas
1874. ed. Pat Vibert. Vancouver: British Columbia
Geneaological Society, 1984. Pp. vii, 117, maps, no
price given. (Obtainable through the B.C. Genealogical Society, P.O. Box 94371, Richmond, B.C. V6X1W9)
In recent years the historiography of British
Columbia has been enriched in sum and in kind by a
growing body of scholars committed to the use of
census data and other such routinely generated
material. The use of this type of primary documentation has increased among both amateur and professional researchers. Pat Vibert's work is noteworthy as
an addition to reference documents on nineteenth
century British Columbia.
Heads of Household in British Columbia in 1874
combines information from two important historical
sources: The Victoria Directory (1875), and "A List of
Persons Entitled to Vote" contained in theVourna/s of
the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia (1875)
Vibert has compiled over 15,000 entries containing
information such as the name, occupation, location
and electoral particulars for individual, primarily
male, heads of households in B.C.
While this work is a laudable attempt to integrate
two existing historical sources into a single reference
volume for social historians, its utility is diminished by
a few but important organizational errors. Most
importantly among these is Vibert's alphabetical
arrangement of the data; while this is very convenient
for researchers who already possess the surname of a
research subject, it is a severe hindrance to historians
wishing to use the work for regional studies. For a
social historian who wished to study say, occupational
structure in the Cariboo, one would literally have to
scan all 15,000 entries to pick out the relevant
individuals. Obviously, alphabetical listings are
convenient to geneologists, but such an arrangement
limits the scope of the volume's audience.
Vibert's work includes three pages of helpful and
generally useful maps of the province, including
detailed insets of the more important regions. This
particular feature could, however, have been rendered even more valuable had the author included a
brief index indicating which map to consult when
locating a given city or town.
Final criticisms of this work are of a very minor
nature. Vibert does not clarify why a separate list of
Chinese household heads, partially derived from the
"Voter's List," is included in this work when the
volume's Preface implies their exclusion from
political activity. Vibert also fails to point out the
absence of virtually all native peoples from inclusion
in either the Directory or "List" data; with population
estimates as high as 40,000 for the year 1871, the native
presence should at least be mentioned if only to place
non-native figures in their proper perspective.
Finally, it should be mentioned that census data,
albeit inadequate in some instances, is available for
selected areas of the province prior to the federal
1881 census. For example, the census conducted in
Victoria in 1871 was used as a partial basis for HI.
Langevin's findings in his Report on British Columbia
of the following year. At the moment work is being
undertaken by an independent researcher to compile a comprehensive list of early census data for the
province—a point which some historians and geneologists may wish to keep in mind.
Despite the aforementioned drawbacks, Vibert's
work is important in that it gives researchers easy
access to two historical resources and stimulates
interest in the era as well as the use of these forms of
historical documentation.
Irene Moorhouse has worked with census data and is
currently completing an M.A. thesis on Social History
in Colonial Victoria at the University of Victoria.
ROLLING WITH THE TIMES, Wallace Baikie. Campbell River: Campbell River Museum and Archives,
1984. illus. $20.00
This is an engrossing collection of stories which
focus on pioneer life and logging exploits on the
North Island. Baikie wrote the book to record some
British Columbia Historical News
Page 33 local history that might otherwise be lost. Fortunately
for the reader, he never lets too many names and
dates bury a good story. The tales revolve around
Baikie's personal experience beginning with the
arrival on Denman Island of William Baikie, Wallace's
father, and the Piercey clan, Wallace's mother's
family, in the late nineteenth century. The first stories
recount the hardships of pioneer life and Baikie's own
experiences as a child.
Baikie's unique writing style brings his recollections
to life. The anecdotes read like an oral history. One
seems to hear, rather than read, accounts such as the
K/7//ng a pig was a big event, as far as we kids were
concerned. I don't thing (sic) my Dad ever got
proficient at the job. To do the job right, the
process is to shoot the pig between the eyes with a
twenty-two, roll him over and slice his throat with
the butcher knife. Well, on this occasion, my Dad's
aim was off or the pig moved his head and the
bullet did not hit the vital spot. Mr. Pig wandered
off and got into a little low shed (where the pig
slept) and wouldn't come out so that my Dad could
get on with the execution. We kids got to laughing
at my Dad trying to pull the pig out of his abode by
the hind leg. My Dad got mad and sent us scurrying
into the house. Mum came out bawling Dad out
for being so tough on the pig. I think he ended up
hitting the pig with an eight pound hammer and
then cutting his throat, (pp. 10-11)
Although there are several anecdotes from Baikie's
personal life, the book is largely an account of his
experiences as a logger on Northern Vancouver
Island and its surroundings. From loggingwith horses,
oxen, a steam donkey, to more recent methods,
Baikie describes the jobs he held with large companies and as a "gypo" logger when he and his two
brothers formed their own company. So accurate and
detailed are his descriptions of logging techniques
that the reader might decide he knows enough to go
into the woods and log his own timber, after finishing
the book!
There are also some great tales about log rolling
competitions and some of the loggers' hijinks on and
off the job. A tale that particularly comes to mind
involves a cougar that attended a Pacific Logging
Congress and met up with a mysterious blond.
Rolling With The Times covers events up to the
1980s. The stories are accompanied by pages of
memorable photographs, gleaned from various
sources, including Baikie's personal albums. Other
reviews have emphasized the book's appeal as a local
history written by a prominent local figure. As a
newcomer, unfamiliar with much of the area's history
and its makers, this reader can claim that Rolling With
The Times will appeal to a broader readership for its
readable style as well as its historical documentation
of pioneering and logging life from the turn of the
Rolling With The Times is available from local
bookstores and the Campbell River Museum at a cost
of $20.00.
torna Holyer is a Campbell River resident.
Patricia Roy is the Book Review Editor. Copies of
books for review should be sent to her at 602-139
Clarence St., Victoria V8V2J1
The winner of our current contest is Evelyn Goddard of Duncan. The prize: Sunlight and Shadows, The
Landscape of Emily Carr, (Oxford University Press, 1984) by Kerry Dodd and Michael Breuer. Entry for the
contest was a constructive suggestion for improving the News. Ms. Goddard's letter contained a number of
useful ideas.
For our new contest we have a very handsome book, Barns of Western Canada: An Illustrated Century,
by Bob Hainstock (Braemar Books, Victoria, $26.95). The book is generously illustrated with colour
photographs of extant barns, and with historical photographs and sketches in black and white. Most of the
barns are on the Prairies, but there is a photo of an early hop barn near Victoria, of buildings on the B.X.
Ranch, and of Toad Hall in the Kettle Valley.
This book will appeal to anyone with an interest in the history of agriculture in Western Canada. To win it,
send your answer to the following question, to the Editor of the News before March 1,1986. The question is:
What was the name of the Hudson's Bay Company's agricultural subsidiary?
Page 34
Honorary Patron:
His Honour, the Honourable Robert G. Rogers,
Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia
•     Honorary President:
Col. G.S. Andrews, 116 Wellington, Victoria V8V 4H7
382-7202 (res.)
/     President:
Leonard G. McCann, #2-1430 Maple St., Vancouver V6J 3R9
736-4431 (bus.)
V   1st Vice President:
Naomi Miller, Box 105, Wasa VOB 2K0
422-3594 (res.)
/    2nd Vice President:
John D. Spittle, 1241 Mount Crown Rd., North Vancouver V7R 1R9
988-4565 (res.)
/    Secretary:
T. Don Sale, 262 Juniper St., Nanaimo V9S 1X4
753-2067 (res.)
Recording Secretary:
Margaret Stoneberg, P.O. Box 687, Princeton VOX 1W0
295-3362 (res.)
v/    Treasurer:
J. Rhys Richardson, 2875 W. 29th, Vancouver V6L 1Y2
733-1897 (res.)
/    Members-at-Large:
Myrtle Haslam, 1875 Wessex Road, Cowichan Bay VOR 1N0
748-8397 (res.)
Mary G. Orr, R.R. #1, Butler St., Summerland VOH 1Z0
/   Past-President:
Barbara Stannard, #211-450 Stewart Ave., Nanaimo V9S 5E9
754-6195 (res.)
Marie Elliott, Editor, B.C Historical News, 1745 Taylor St., Victoria V8R 3E8
Chairmen of Committees:
Leonard G. McCann
Historic Trails:
John D. Spittle
v^   B.C. Historical News
Ruth Barnett, 680 Pinecrest Rd., Campbell River V9W 3P3
Policy Committee:
287-8097 (res.)
Award Committee:
Naomi Miller
/    Publications Assistance Helen Akrigg, 4633 W. 8th Ave., Vancouver V6R 2A6
Committee (not
228-8606 (res.)
with B.C. Historical
Loans are available for publication.
Please submit manuscripts to Helen Akrigg. The
invites applications for the
position of Editor.
This voluntary position begins in May 1986 with preparation for the
Volume 19, Number 4 issue. Send applications to:
J. Rhys Richardson
B.C. Historical News Policy Committee
Box 35326, Station B
Vancouver, B.C. V6M 4G5
Deadline for applications is April 1,1986.


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items