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 British Columbia
Historical News
Journal of the British Columbia Historical Federation
Volume 34, No. 1
Winter 2000/2001
$5.00
ISSN 11Q5-8294
The Canadian Pacific's Crowsnest Route train at Cranbrook about 1900.
Remember the smell of coal and steam?
r Robert Turner, curator emeritus at the Royal British Columbia Museum
inVictoria, is an authority on the history of railroads and steamships in
British Columbia and he has written and published a dozen books on
BC's transportation history.
In this issue he writes about the Crowsnest Route.
Archival Adventures
The Flood of 1894
Yellowhead
Cedar Cottage
"Single Tax" Taylor
Patricia Theatre
Index 2000 British Columbia Historical News
Journal ofthe
British Columbia Historical Federation
Published Winter, Spring, Summer, and Fall.
Editor:
Fred Braches
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Phone (604) 462-8942
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ISSN 1195-8294
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conservation of our heritage resources, gain further
knowledge and increase public understanding ofthe
complete history of British Columbia.
BRITISH COLUMflJA
gientage
<Jrup
British Columbia Historical Federation
PO Box 5254, Station B., Victoria BC V8R 6N4
a charitable society under the income tax act
Executive
Honorary Patron: His Honour, the Honorable Garde B. Gardom, Q.C.
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British Columbia Historical News
Publishing Committee see column on left side
Our Web site, http://bchf.bc.ca, is hosted by Selkirk College in Castlegar, BC British Columbia
Historical News
Journal of the British Columbia Historical Federation
Volume 34, No. 1
Winter 2000/2001
$5.00
ISSN 1195-8294
2 Ladner and the Flood of 1894
by Gwen Szychter
6 Sex and Violence in the BC Archives: Adventures in
Historical Detection
by Jean Barman
13 Railway Route through the Crowsnest
by Robert Turner and Randal Macnair
18 "...That Old Rogue, the Iroquois Tete Jaune"
by Yvonne Mearns Klan
22 Eight Times Mayor of Vancouver:
"Single Tax"Taylor: Louis Denison Taylor 1857-1946
by Mary Rawson
27 Childhood Memories ofVancouver's Cedar Cottage
and Trout Lake District
by A.C. (Fred) Rogers
36 Reports:
Powell River's Patricia Theatre
by Dean linger
Thinking about Museums
by Valerie Patenaude
30 Book Reviews
38 News and Notes
41 Letters to the Editor
42 Federation News
43 Index Volume 33 (2000)
Any country worthy of a future should be interested in its past.
W. Kaye Lamb, 1937
Sex and Violence
The promotion of and public education
in BC's documentary heritage is no small
task. Real estate, memorabilia, and
collectibles are in the public eye, but not
archives, although our knowledge and understanding ofthe past depends on documents. Archives need help to increase public awareness ofthe true value of their collections and the documentary history of
our province.
We welcome therefore the recent formation of the "Friends ofthe British Columbia Archives," which had its inaugural
meeting inVictoria on a sunny Saturday
in October.
The "Friends ofthe British Columbia
Archives" want to increase the awareness
of what is at the BC Archives, and assist
the BC Archives in the acquisition and
preservation of records of historical significance and making these more widely
available.
The BC Archives takes care of an astonishing amount of material about the
entire Northwest area of the continent.
The holdings are not confined to government records but include a huge variety
of records on subjects touching the development and the people of this province. It is all owned by the citizens of BC
but few realize the extent of this valuable
asset.
More information on the "Friends of
British Columbia Archives" and how to
participate in their efforts can be found
on page 39.
But what has an archives to do with
"Sex and Violence?" Dr. Jean Barman,
speaker at the inaugural meeting of the
"Friends," kindly agreed to publish the
text of her talk on the subject in this issue
of BC Historical News.
The editor
BC HISTORICAL NEWS - FALL 2000
1 Ladner and the Flood of 1894
by Gwen Szychter
Gwen Szychter, local
historian and heritage
enthusiast, has written
and published a series
of books on the past of
Ladner, BC. She is currently widening her research to the rest of
Delta, with the intention of creating a second series of publications. Her Web site is
www.ladnerslanding.com
Right: Paul Ladner,
Reeve William Ladner's
son, was in charge ofthe
dispersal of seeds. He was
well regarded and educated,
and knew his neighbours
well. Photo ca. 1900.
The residents affected by the 1993 overflow ofthe Mississippi River in the Midwestern United States undoubtedly have
applied the label "the big flood" to their experience. In all likelihood, they will be dating events
in their lives from that time. This is typical of
how people remember historical events.
There are many people still living in Delta,
who remember graphically the flood of 1948,
arguably British Columbia's most disastrous. But
for those who Uved on the Fraser River and in
its vicinity the definitive flood, "the big flood"
against which all others are compared, is the 1894
one. Local lore has led us to beUeve that this flood
had the greatest impact on the residents of
ChiUiwack and other points upriver. Ladner and
environs were beUeved to have suffered minimal
damage, being most adversely affected in January
1895 instead, when rain and tide combined to
put the viUage under water. Not so.
The winter of 1893—1894 saw unusuaUy heavy
snow deposits in the upper FraserVaUey.This snow
pack, melted at the end of May by unseasonably
hot temperatures, caused aU the streams emptying into the Fraser to overflow their banks. From
there the domino effect brought disaster to the
communities along the river.
On 25 May 1894, Quesnel reported that the
water in the Fraser River was rising "half an inch
per hour." By 4 June, the flood waters had exceeded the previous record set in 1882; at New
Westminster the river registered 13 feet 9 Vi inches
above the low water mark. Many locales on the
lower Fraser were under water by then, including Annacis Island. And the waters continued to
rise until 10 June. This was the peak ofthe flood.
Afterwards the waters ofthe Fraser began to subside, but by then a tremendous amount of damage had been done in the vaUey, with thousands
of acres under water.
The files ofthe Provincial Archives inVictoria
reveal the extent ofthe damage suffered by Delta's farmers. Much of the municipaUty escaped
unscathed. The viUage at Ladner's Landing was
threatened for a time on 3 June, when the dyke
burst opposite Chinatown. Feverish sandbagging
by the residents, many of whom were at the time
attending Sunday morning service in the Presbyterian church, prevented any serious problems.
Westham Island suffered some flooding, with
some pasture land and hay crops being reported
under water after two hundred feet ofthe existing dyke was washed out. The Dominion Government wharf there, as weU as London's wharf,
coUapsed and were swept away. Brodie s Cannery
on Deas Island was inundated and feU into the
river.
But it was Crescent Island that bore the brunt
ofthe overflow from the Fraser. Not surprisingly,
therefore, the names of Crescent Island farmers
predominated among the requests for reUef.
The provincial government inVictoria estabUshed fairly quickly a Fraser River Flood ReUef
Fund, for the dispersal of seed to those farmers
affected, so that they could re-sow their fields
once the water had subsided.Two grain merchants
in NewWestminster, Brackman-Ker, andYoudaU
& Sinclair, provided the seed for farmers in this
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 34 No. 1 municipaUty, and deliveries were made, naturally
enough, by the boats that typically plied the Fraser.
This disaster had occurred at a crucial time of
year for local farmers. If the water did not subside fairly quickly and the land did not dry out
enough to enable the planting of a second crop,
they would be forced to buy fodder, that is, hay,
oats, turnips, or other feed, for their catde over
winter. This would be an intolerable financial
burden for many of these men who were just
getting estabUshed on the land. Luckily the waters receded in time to sow another crop.
In each municipaUty the reeve was designated
to oversee the operation. In Delta the agent was
Paul Ladner, son of then Reeve WiUiam H.
Ladner, who had delegated the position to the
younger man. PoUtical patronage at its most blatant? Probably. However, Paul Ladner was weU-
regarded and educated, and knew his neighbours
weU, as can be seen from his reports, some of
which foUow. In addition, the job probably did
not pay much, and appeared to have been only a
month or so in duration.
In any event, the appUcations from local farmers, while brief and to the point, are also informative. A sampling of those appUcations gives us a
clear idea of the effect of the disaster locaUy.
The foUowing letter from a farmer located on
the southeast bank of Crescent Slough is typical:
Ladner's Landing, June 16th [1894]
Gendemen,
All my farm being completely submerged by the
flood I have lost all my crop. I hereby make appUcation for a ton of potatoes, 500 lbs. of oats, 1
sack barley and 1 lb. turnip seed.
I am yours
respectfully]
Ernest R. Chidell
Mr. ChideU appeared to be leaving nothing to
chance, giving the agent an itemized Ust of his
requirements.
Most letters tended to be explanatory, giving
some detad ofthe farmer's situation, perhaps because previous experience with government suggested the necessity of taking nothing for granted.
Since farmers had seldom been in government,
even in those days, perhaps the detad ofthe following appUcation is not excessive:
Ladners Landing, June 9th 1894
To Reeve Ladner,
My ground was under two feet of water all last week
and the crop I had in is ruined. I had one acre planted
& if I can get 5 or 6 sacks I could plant again for my
own use (potatoes).
L.V Lucas
Another letter writer who beUeved in the direct
approach, giving a Ust of specific requirements,
was Douglas Dove, who farmed with his brother,
Spencer, on 156 acres on the mainland opposite
the easternmost end of Tilbury Island. Because
of the farm's location, his address is somewhat
different from that of the other petitioners:
New Westminster B.C.June 19th /94
Dear Sir,
My farm having been flooded with the high water I make an application for the following seeds.
1 ton oats
300 lbs. of Timothy Seed [replaced by "400 lbs
Millet"]
6 lbs. Turnip seed
lA ton Potatoes
Douglas D. Dove
New Westminster, B.C.
West Vi of Lot 130 Gp 2 Delta MunicipaUty
This is one ofthe few instances in which changes
to the requested materials or amounts were noted
direcdy on the appUcant's letter. An assessment
ofthe damage to Dove's property was contained
in the Distributor's Report made out by Paul
Ladner for this appUcation:
This 10 acres of newly seeded hay will be a complete loss as it is covered with sediment about two
inches deep & the pasture will be damaged very
considerably for the same reason. Garden & roots
a total loss. The fences on this property have been
very much damaged & about one third drifted
away.
Left: 1873 survey map of
"Crescent Creek and
vicinity." Crescent Creek,
now Crescent Slough,
connects at both ends to the
Fraser River. The land
bordered by the Crescent
Slough and the Fraser
River is known as
Crescent Island. Today's
Ladner is to the west.
TraveUers going south exit
the Deas tunnel on
Cresent Island.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 2000/2001 Right: One of the other
letters applying for seeds
". ..to be given to farmers
that have had their crops
ruined by the overflow of
the Fraser..."
On the back of many letters was noted the approval given by the Provincial Secretary or his
assistant, as in the foUowing:
Ladners June the 18/94
Dear Sir,
I beg to apply for 500 Lbs Potatoes as my crop has
all been lost in the recent flood. My land is situate[d]
on Crescent Island on Lot 149 G[roup] 2.
R.W. Hawthorne
Mr. Paul Ladner, Ladners
On the reverse is written the foUowing order:
Messrs Youdall & Sinclair, Please fill the enclosed
order by dehvering to R.W. Hawthorne, Ladner.
James Baker Provincial Secy
Evidence that it had been deUvered is noted, "deUvered June 26th 94 MS".
AU deUveries were recorded in this fashion,
directly on the order written by either Baker or
Townsend.
AppUcations continued to come in, as late as
the early part of July. It may have been that news
of the reUef program did not reach everyone in
the district for some time, although deUveries of |
seed from the government began to arrive on <
June 26th. This appears to have been the last letter received:
Ladner Landing, July 5th 1894
Paul E Ladner Esq, Agent for Distribution of
Seeds
Dear Sir,
I beg to apply for one and a half ton of Seed Potatoes
E. Beadleston
At the bottom is a notation: "Please fiU this order, Wm B. Townsend, For Prov Sectr"
The appointed agent, in this case, Paul Ladner,
also filed a letter of recommendation in respect
of each appUcation, referred to earUer as the Distributor's Report. It appears that these recommendations were generally acted upon, but they
also reveal a lot about the community and its
individuals, not to mention serving as a barometer of the relationship of each appUcant to the
Ladner fanuly.
The foUowing notation is probably the most
negative, and since Nathaniel MitcheU had been
in dire financial straits in the early 1890s, to the
point of losing one of his original holdings,
Ladner's comments are not surprising.The notation reads as foUows:
mjsy
~Z*stdU Q*+t*t fit /&e*f&*~.
j  /*    .   .   6ZU&T
4.&      fL~™y>x>     	
This appUcant is in debt about as much as he can
be, his farm is heavily mortgaged. It would be
useless to grant more than half of what he asks for
but [I] would suggest that he be aUowed 500 lbs
of potatoes. My reason for suggesting cutting his
appUcation down one half is that with his horses
it would be impossible for him to put it all in.
It is apparent from other papers that MitcheU
received less than he expected as a result of his
appUcation, but whether he registered a complaint at being shortchanged is not known, at least
not from the surviving records in this file. The
reason put forth by Ladner is also unclear. Were
this man's horses incapable of doing the amount
of work required because they were too old? Or
did he not have enough horses for the work? We
shaU never know.
FinaUy, we should not be deceived into be-
Ueving that there were no fraudulent or exaggerated claims. Delta contained, as it does now, a
cross-section of inhabitants, some honest and law-
abiding, and some not. One farmer, George
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 34 No. 1 ..       . >•   /wSeK   *%,   X1
. u
-_•    ■ iiHUiii T"ilrlV -Tn i
Lassiter, made appUcation for quantities of oats,
miUet, potatoes, barley, and turnip seed, aU of
which were reduced by at least half. Of turnip
seed he requested ten pounds, but was given only
four pounds. Ladner remarked in his report,"This
man appUes for enough turnip seed to provide
feed for one hundred cattle through the winter
& he has but twenty-five." It is left to the reader
to speculate as to what Lassiter had intended to
do with the surplus seed, but Paul Ladner was
obviously nobody's fool.
At the end ofthe operation the agent made a
report to the government on the quantity of seed
that had been given out to the appUcants. A total
of thirty-four appUcations for seed reUef were
received from Delta farmers, of which only one
was denied outright. It was stated in the newspaper that the recipients of seed grain and potatoes
were "expected to return the seed in kind next
year," but no record exists of this occurring and
it is apparent that at least some farmers beUeved
they were being "given" the seed. Nor is there
any indication that the loss of fencing was rem
edied by governmental assistance. This was a serious consideration for some farmers, as is evident in Ladner's comments on the damage to
the Dove property.
Paul Landner's report gives us the clearest picture of the effects of the flood, one that is quite
in contrast to the reports of the newspaper, in
which downriver locations, such as Delta, got secondary coverage. And so we can lay to rest the
first myth, namely that the inhabitants of Delta
were scarcely affected by the flood of 1894. However, to be fair to the Daily Columbian, we need
to remember that the newspaper was pubUshed
in New Westminster and attempted to serve aU
the FraserVaUey and the interior ofthe Province.
At the time ofthe disaster it was more committed to reporting the reaUy extensive damage of
the flood, which was upriver. On its front page,
the paper carried news of the dauy rise in the
river's level at various points and the effect on
the nearby inhabitants.
A second myth shattered by the contents of
these files is that of the much-touted self-reU-
ance of early settlers. Certainly in the early years,
before there was much in the way of an organized government inVictoria and before the municipaUty of Delta was organized and incorporated, self-reUance may have been the rule. But
by the 1890s and perhaps even sooner, government assistance was welcomed and employed to
the individual's advantage—hardly the stand-on-
our-own-two-feet attitude of popular lore.
However, one does not have to look far to
find a positive aspect of this disaster. The experience of 1894, coupled with another inundation
in January 1895, motivated local residents finaUy
to do something coUectively about the situation.
Since organizing to put pressure on the provincial government was the only viable solution to
the unpredictabiUty ofthe Fraser River, they organized. And poUticians, not only inVictoria, but
also in Delta, recognizing that they were dispensable if they did not respond to the demands of
the voters, devised and implemented a system of
pubUcly owned and maintained dykes.
LocaUy this took the form of the Delta Dyke
and Drainage Bylaw 1895, under which the
dyking was paid for through local taxes over a
period of years. Farmers in the end paid for this
protection from the river, but at least they aU paid
and they paid proportionately. And the much-
needed dyke was buUt. No more discussion and
no more promises.'^^^
Left: Paul Ladner's
Distributor's reports
regarding Spencer Dove's
claim: "Grain, potatoes &
roots a compkte loss & hay
so badly covered with
sediment that it is only fit
for pasture.... The fences
are very much damaged on
this property a considerable
portion being carried away
entirely."
Sources:
BC Archives, File FOI,
Box 12.
The Daily Columbian, 23
May 1894 to 19 June
1894 inclusive, 27 and
28Junel894,and25
July 1894.
Land Title Office, New
Westminster, records.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 2000/2001 Sex and Violence in the BC Archives:
Adventures in Historical Detection
by Jean Barman
Dr. Jean Barman
teaches at the
University of British
Columbia and is the
author of The West
Beyond the West: A
History of British
Columbia.
Talk given at the inaugural meeting of the "Friends ofthe BC Archives,"
in Victoria on 21 October 2000.
Archives and
Archivist
Editor Frances Gundry
As a long-time user ofthe British Columbia Archives, I can think of no more appropriate event than the inauguration of
a Friends group. The archives has gone through
many changes—I can remember when the name
was so long no one knew quite what it was—
and I'm sure aU of us applaud the return to the
direct and straightforward British Columbia Archives. While we miss John Bovey s interested
presence in the reading room, we appreciate the
initiatives taken by Gary MitcheU since he was
appointed Provincial Archivist two years ago.
Thank you, Gary.
Gary and everyone else connected with the
BC Archives have not had an easy time. We are,
around the world, in the midst of an archival revolution. The technology that invades our everyday Ufe has nowhere made a greater contribution than with archives. We as users have access
to repositories in ways that we would not even
have dreamt of just a few years ago.
No technical innovation has been as critical
for my research Ufe as is the BC Archives Web
site. I find myself using it, almost every day, for
some reason or another. For me the three key
elements of the Web site are access to textual
records, both government documents and private papers; to vital events, in other words, birth,
marriage, and death records; and to visual resources, over a hundred thousand images held by
BC Archives.
The Web site is a godsend, particularly for those
of us from the mainland who tend to use the
archives through the mad dash method. By this I
mean getting up at 4 or 5 to catch the 7 a.m.
ferry to get to the archives by its opening at 9:30
and then another dash back at about 7:30 in the
evening for the final, 9 p.m. ferry and so home by
midnight, if aU goes weU.These mad dashes concentrate the mind most wonderfuUy.The Umited
amount of time we have forces us to focus on
precisely what it is we really want and then to go
for the jugular, so to speak. It is precisely this that
makes the Web site so valuable in aUowing us to
do preUminary research before we ever leave
home. For the Web site alone, and to encourage
its continuing development, we should aU become fervent supporters of the BC Archives
through the new Friends group.
There is stiU, I hasten to add, an element of
serendipity that enters into research. However
strategic we think that we are the folder we open
up might weU contain something just a Utde bit
different than what we thought would be there.
Sometimes the contents are cause for disappointment, other times we come upon an unexpected
treasure that takes our research in a whole new
direction. It is inevitable that the BC Archives, or
indeed any archives, is organized around big events
and important persons.These are often our starting points, for by their very nature they generate
far more records in a concentrated fashion than
do the ordinary and the mundane of everyday
Uves.AU the same, BC Archives is a treasure trove
ofthe unexpected, particularly now that we have
the Web site to give assistance. By describing three
of the most provocative finds I've made in connection with my ongoing research in British Columbia history, I hope to make the larger point
that the archives is not just about big events, but
also about peoples' real Uves in aU of their diversity and complexity.
No aspects of human behaviour are more intimate than sex and violence.They touch us aU at
some point in our Uves, vicariously if not direcdy.
We are affected by the temptation, if not the reaUty. So it was for the Nova Scotian schoolteacher,
two Mexican packers, and Cowichan Native
woman with two husbands whose stories await
us in the BC Archives. These three adventures in
historical detection highUght the many ways that
the BC Archives can help us toward greater understanding of aU aspects of this province in which
we Uve.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 34 No. 1 Adventure 1
How come Jessie McQueen stayed single?
The first of the three adventures in historical
detection grows out of my longstanding interest
in teachers and teaching in nineteenth century
British Columbia. I have been intrigued by the
province's distinctiveness in not having a teachers' coUege, normal school, or any organized
means to train teachers. Up to the turn of the
century, persons wanting to teach simply had to
pass a knowledge-based examination not that different than what it took to graduate from high
school.
My research goal has been to understand the
motives and attitudes of persons going into teaching. What I have discovered is an occupation
viewed primarily as a stopgap in the Ufe course.1
Young men taught until they got the funds together to study for a profession, acquire a piece
of land, or go into business. Women anticipated
marriage, a goal facilitated in nineteenth-century
British Columbia by the very uneven sex ratio
among the non-Aboriginal or newcomer population. The frontier nature of much ofthe province meant that there were far more men than
women to go around until after the First World
War.
It was in connection with this research that I
met my Nova Scotian schoolteacher, Jessie
McQueen. She was one of many attracted west
to British Columbia to teach in the wake ofthe
transcontinental railway completed in the mid-
1880s. The simple requirement to write an examination gave young persons Uke her, who had
already attended normal school elsewhere a real
advantage in entering the classroom. The plan
was that Jessie would teach three years to assist
the farruly economy back home in Pictou County,
where teachers got $60 a term compared with
$60 a month in British Columbia. Then Jessie
would be free to marry, and there was every reason for her to do so, given the uneven sex ratio,
particularly in areas Uke the Nicola VaUey where
she taught.
Yet Jessie did not marry, and I wanted to know
why. Here was a very presentable young woman
in a social setting where persons Uke her were at
a premium.Yet she remained single year after year
and taught, over her lifetime, in not just the Nicola
VaUey, but at Salmon Arm, CampbeU Creek,
Rossland, and Salt Spring Island, among other
locations. BC Archives came to the rescue. Among
its treasures are the letters that Jessie and her sister Annie wrote home to Nova Scotia, generously donated by a great niece, Margaret
McCurrach, herself a Ufetime teacher Uving in
Victoria.
Jessie McQueen's letters reveal blossoming
sexuality ending in violence.The man who caught
Jessie's fancy was Thomas HaU, a young EngUsh-
man who courted her through such means as a
letter consisting in its entirety of a Une from Sir
Walter Scott's poem"The Lady ofthe Lake.""The
stag at eve had drunk his fiU where danced the
moon on Monan's riU."2 Jessie came to reaUze
that one of the reasons Tom resorted to poetry
was that he did not have much schooUng and she
began to tutor him. Her respect grew when he
turned out to be a good pupil, and she gave him
a smaU Bible that he thereafter, according to family
memory, carried in his shirt pocket next to his
heart. As the courting became more earnest, the
two exchanged photographs.Tom and Jessie went
riding together, and they made plans to attend
the 24 May picnic at Nicola Lake celebrating
Queen Victoria's birthday.
Then the unthinkable happened. "On Wed.
morning he walked to school with me..., and
the next Wednesday he was kiUed I said goodbye so carelessly, and never dreamed that I would
Left: Jessie McQueen
1 See Jean Barman, "British Columbia's Pioneer
Teachers," in Jean Barman, Neil Sutherland,
and J. Donald Wilson,
ed., Children,Teachers and
Schools in the History of
British Columbia (Calgary:
Detselig, 1995), 189-208.
2 Information taken from
Jean Barman, '"Domesticating British Columbia:
Westward with the
McQueen sisters of
Pictou County, Nova
Scotia," book manuscript
under consideration for
publication.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 2000/2001 4&a*<+/ £&>>&£<
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never see him again." On the fatal Monday, 13
May 1889,Tom HaU began a newjob in a nearby
sawmiU. He was to assist the sawyer by carrying
away the edgings from the cut wood. While doing so, Tom crossed over the lumber on the carriage behind the saw and caught his foot. He was
essentiaUy chopped into pieces, so the Kamloops
Sentinel newspaper reported in gruesome detail.
According to the story passed down through
Jessie's sister, "as he lay screaming in agony on
the ground, his companions puUed the Bible out
of his breast pocket and pressed it between his
teeth for him to bite on."
A good Scots Presbyterian, who as a chUd imbibed the predestination ethic that everything
happened for a reason that was for the best.Jessie
came to beUeve that the violence of Tom HaU's
death was a lesson to her. She had aUowed her
sexuaUty to override her responsibiUty to her famUy. Jessie agonized in a letter home, "I know that
'God meant it, and God sent it,' but oh mother, I
do seem to lose hold of aU my comfort." Jessie
was, she came to beUeve, destined to remain single aU her Ufe to serve her fanuly, and she did so.
The McQueen famUy letters, divided between
the BC Archives and the Provincial Archives of
Nova Scotia, gave me an understanding that I
would not have obtained in any other way of
how sex and violence can touch ordinary Uves. I
am grateful, particularly given that I have just
finished a book-length manuscript now with a
pubUsher about Jessie and her sister Annie's adventures in British Columbia, entided "Domesticating British Columbia: Westward with the
McQueen sisters of Pictou County, Nova Scotia."
Adventure 2
Why did Raphael Valenzuela and
Angelo Gutierrez get into a fight?
The other two adventures in historical detection grow out of a quite different strand of my
ongoing research on British Columbia history.
The second story is about two Mexican packers
who tangled violendy over sexuaUty.
I have for some time attempted to give meaning to the thousands of relationships that sprung
up during the fur trade and the gold rush between newcomer men and Aboriginal women.3
Such ties, be they one-night stands or Ufe long
matches, are difficult to disentangle for several
reasons. Most of their participants were ordinary
people, far less Ukely to have their Uves traced in
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 34 No. 1 ■ X,
x'&x^ X
public archives than the handful of men at the
top. Such relationships were tainted by racism.
Almost aU newcomers accepted the notion of a
hierarchy of the races, which conveniendy put
them on top. Aboriginal people were doubly disparaged, being darker in skin colour and non-
Christian and so "unciviUzed." Newcomers' quest
for Aboriginal peoples' land heightened racist
rhetoric, whose consequences became a very convenient basis for dispossession.
Racism was double-edged in the case of several hundred Hispanics who arrived in British
Columbia during the gold rush, mainly to work
as packers. Many of them had come north for
the CaUfornia gold rush beginning in 1849, and
just kept going when gold was discovered here
in 1858. Speaking Spanish, these men were, even
if Uterate, not generaUy Uterate in EngUsh. Due
to the racism that rebounded on anyone of darker
complexion, they almost always partnered with
Aboriginal women.
Whereas aU hybrid or mixed-race relationships
are hard to trace, those of Hispanics are, for these
reasons, particularly difficult to uncover. It is perhaps not surprising, then, that this second adventure in historical detection is a joint effort. It was
initiated by my husband Roderick J. Barman, who
is a historian of Latin America interested in the
Hispanic presence in British Columbia,4 encouraged by Marie EUiott, who is on the Friends organizing committee,5 and assisted by Chris Hanna,
a consummate contract researcher at BC Archives.6
With this second adventure in historical detection, a little bit of luck made the difference. A
court case giving a window into the complex
relationship between sex and violence for two
Mexican packers was next to one being sought
for another purpose in a judge's bench book, or
record of cases tried.7 Angelo Gutierrez was
charged with "assault with intent to maim, disfigure etc. one RaphaelValenzuela."The two men,
both Mexicans come with the gold rush, had been
"good friends" for "many years." Sex and violence now parted them.
At the heart of the matter lay an accusation
that Valenzuela had made against Gutierrez's
"klootchman," the word in Chinook jargon for
Aboriginal woman. Valenzuela accused her of
having gone "to town to look after lovers." So
informed, Gutierrez felt compeUed to defend his
mascuUnity as the expense of his long friendship.
Angelo Gutierrez was not so much concerned
about what his klootchman had, or had not, done
but rather about the suggestion that he did not,
as a man, have adequate control over his woman's actions. It was Gutierrez's own honour and
not that of his klootchman that was at stake in
the confrontation ending in violence.
RaphaelValenzuela explained to the court what
happened during the late afternoon in question
after he made the accusation against Gutierrez's
woman.
"[Gutierrez] came to where I was & asked me
to go to his house — went to his house — He
invited me in. I said How do you do. He asked
me to sit down. I was making a paper cigarette.
He asked me if I had told his Klootchman she
went to town to see her lovers. I saidYes.Then—
he said—You..., using an expression as if... [my]
mother was a whore. At the same time he came
at me. I caught him by the two arms—and said I
didn't understand you asked me over to fight
me...he drew his [Bowie] knife—I then threw
him off and run—About 10 yards I feU down.
He foUowed after me—he struck me in the back
Left: Group of packers.
Photo from WA. Baillie-
Grohman, Fifteen Years
Sport and Life in the
Hunting Grounds of
Western America and
British Columbia
(1909).
Opposite page, top:
Page from one of Jessie
McQueen's letters.
Opposite page, bottom:
Page from Gutierrez court
case.
3 See Jean Barman, "Tam-
ingAboriginal Sexuality:
Gender, Power, and Race
in British Columbia,
1850-1900," BC Studies:
The British Columbian
Quarterly 115-16 (Fall-
Winter 1997-98), 237-
66; "What a Difference a
Border Makes: Aboriginal Racial Intermixture
in the Pacific North-
west," Journal ofthe West
38,3 (July 1999), 14-20;
"Invisible Women: Aboriginal Mothers and
Mixed-Race Daughters
in Rural British Columbia," in R.W Sandwell,
ed., Beyond the City Limits: Rural History in British
Columbia. (Vancouver:
UBC Press, 1999), 159-
79; "Families vs. Schools:
Children of Aboriginal
Descent in British Columbia Classrooms ofthe
Late Nineteenth Century," in Edgar-Andre
Montigny and Lori
Chambers, ed., Family
Matters: Papers in Post-
Confederation Canadian
Family History (Toronto:
Canadian Scholars' Press,
1998), 73-89.
4 See Roderick J. Barman,
"Packing in British Columbia: transport on a
resource frontier,"Journal
of Transport History 21,2
(September 2000): 140-
67.
5 See Marie Elliott, Gold
and Grand Dreams:
Cariboo East in the Early
Years (Victoria: Horsdal
& Schubart, 2000).
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 2000/2001 6 Available by phone at
250-595-7501, by fax at
250-595-7461.
7 "The Queen vs. Angelo
Guiteritz - Indie. 1 for
Assault with intent to
maim, disfigure, etc. one
RaphaelVanezualo," 17
October 1874, BC Archives, GR 1727,Judge
Gray's Bench Book,
1874.
8 Inquest on E.B. Fisher,
25 September 1865,
BCA, GR 1328, Records
of Provincial Secretary,
F15/5a.
9 Fisher correspondence
and related materials, BC
Archives, GR485, box
15, folders 1-2.
10 Edward Brande Fisher,
pre-emption of Piers Island, BC Archives,
GR766,box,5,file697.
11 British Columbia, Division ofVital Statistics,
Death registration, 48-
3820.
12 "Cowichan -The
Death of Fisher," Colonist, 23 September 1865.
13 George Purser, preemption of Purser Island,
21 September 1868, BC
Archives, GR766, box, 8,
file 1062.
14 Census of Canada,
1881, district Cowichan
and Salt Spring, household 123.
15 Inquest on George
Purser, 18-1885, BC Archives, GR 1327, Attorney General, Inquisitions,
1872-1937.
16 G[eorge] Stainburn to
CC. McKenzie,
Burgoyne Bay, 4 October
1881 and 11 January
1882, BC Archives,
GR1445, BC Superintendent of Education,
Inward Correspondence.
Opposite page, left:
Teacher's letter lamenting
circumstances of Purser
children.
Opposite page, right:
George Fisher.
ofthe head twice."
At this point Valenzuela showed his scars to
the jury, which may have been responsible for
their finding Gutierrez guUty and his being sentenced to two years of hard labour.
This second adventure reveals a different relationship between sex and violence than does the
first. It is not affection between a man and a
woman that is undone by violence, but rather a
case of mascuUne honour having to be defended.
In striking RaphaelValenzuela, Angelo Gutierrez
was not, I want to reiterate, defending his
klootchman's honour but rather his own.To have
even an old friend Uke Valenzuela charge him
with being a cuckold, with being betrayed by a
woman for another man, was what caused
Gutierrez to act as he did. Despite the high price
that he paid in terms of imprisonment, Gutierrez's
honour, his mascuUnity, remained intact.
Adventure 3
What was Sara alias Anne's role in two
husbands' violent deaths?
This second vignette serves as a useful prelude to
my third adventure in historical detection.
The image of Aboriginal women as agents of
seduction and initiators of violence was widespread during the gold rush.These women's illiteracy has made it extremely difficult for them to
defend themselves across time from the charges
so easily leveUed against them by men like
Valenzuela. Or so I thought.
One ofthe most intriguing stories I have come
across is of a Cowichan woman known at different points in her Ufe by the Christian names of
Sara and Anne who had two newcomer husbands
die violendy, one after the other. Speculation has
passed down, even among descendants that she
might have done in one or both of them. In each
case, the BC Archives has served to exonerate
this Cowichan Native woman, or so you can
decide.
Husband number one was the father of George
Fisher. George was recaUed by his grandchUdren
as neat and orderly, quite refined, and very much
an EngUshman. He used to teU his family about
how, after his father died violendy when he was
an infant, he was taken away from his Aboriginal
mother Sara by the priests at Catholic St. Louis
CoUege inVictoria, who then raised him to adulthood. So what happened?
Two sets of records in the BC Archives, both
of which I found through the Web site, gave me
the story of George's parents and hence of the
first violent death involving this Cowichan
woman. The first are the inquests where there
was a suspicious death.8 The Web site for inquests
gives some by name, others only by date, so the
absence of a name is no guarantee that no inquest exists.The second set of records that helped
me to piece the story together I found through
serendipity. One evening, whUe looking for something else, I decided to search one more time by
name for any new information that might be
avaUable about George's father, Edward Brande
Fisher. To my pleasure, a new source turned up
on the screen. Materials are constandy being
added to the Web site, making it useful, every
once in a while, to search once again for some
critical, missing piece of data.
What I had located were the records from an
intestate estate, in other words, the estate of someone who died without a wiU. As soon as I had
time to make one of my mad dashes to Victoria,
I requested the folders to find a treasure trove of
famUy letters and also the very pocketbook that
the Cowichan woman's first husband had with
him when he died at her side.91 was touching
documents that may weU have lain unbidden in
their files since shordy after Edward Brande Fisher's violent death in September 1865. By putting
these two sources together with newspaper accounts from the Victoria press, also avaUable on
microfilm in the BC Archives, another Utde drama
of sex and violence took shape.
The story is a classic tale from the British
Columbia gold rush. In December 1862 a weU-
heeled young Englishman, twenty-year old
Edward Brande Fisher, boarded a White Star
packet ship at Liverpool. Having booked "First
Class Cabin Passage" for the weighty sum of £52
10 shiUings, or $265, which was more than most
men made in a year, he and his 40 cubic feet of
luggage set out for Victoria. The letters his widowed mother back in London wrote to her dear
Teddy, as she caUed him, he carefuUy kept even
though he increasingly did not respond. "I wish
my dear boy I would hear you were doing some
thing for your Uving;—an idle Ufe at any time is
bad besides if you spend your capital you will
soon find yourself in the wrong." Her letters became desperate for even a scrap of news from an
errant son who, instead of heading to the gold
fields, used his inheritance to make a very differ-
10
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 34 No. 1 ent Ufe for himself than would have been possible at home. Not only did young Teddy Fisher
soon cohabit with a young Cowichan woman
who he called Sara, he legaUy married her in January 1864, a highly unusual commitment for the
time. A few months later he pre-empted Piers
Island, 150 acres in size, located just north of
Saanich Inlet.10Their son George was born there
in June 1865."
Just three months after George's birth, Teddy
Fisher was dead. The violent circumstances
seemed, at first, to impUcate his Aboriginal wife
Sara. According to Victoria's Colonist newspaper,
"the female who was with him at his death was
his wife, and it is aUeged that she had previously
been betrothed to a young Indian who may have
fired the fatal shot out of jealousy or revenge.
The woman states that he was stepping over a
log and was using his gun as a prop when it accidentally exploded, and the charge entered his
chest."12
The inquest cleared Sara Fisher of blame, but
not to the extent that she was able to keep her
baby or her husband's money. Even though legaUy married, she was an Aboriginal woman and,
as "there is a considerable amount of property
belonging to the Estate, it seems necessary that a
Guardian (as Administrator) should be appointed;
if it can legaUy be done, to protect the interests of both [mother and chUd]."
Teddy Fisher's mother back home in London approved. Having been informed ofthe death, she hired aVictoria soUcitor in order to "do justice to
aU concerned." By this she meant insulating the fanuly from a hybrid infant being landed on them whUe ensuring he was not brought up a 'savage.'
And so it became clear to me, through records I found in the BC Archives,
how it was that baby George was made a ward of the CathoUc order of
Christian Brothers, who very possibly got the estate in exchange for bringing
him up as a young pseudo EngUshman.
But that's not the end ofthe story of our young Cowichan woman, for
she has been implicated in not just one but two violent deaths of newcomer husbands. Rebounding, as she had to, from the loss of husband and
child, Sara soon Ut upon George Purser, who had come out from England
in 1858 as a sapper with the Royal Engineers. As I found out by once again
checking pre-emption records, also in BC Archives and indexed for Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands on the Web site, Purser took over Fisher's pre-emption on Piers Island.13 At about the same time the first of half
a dozen chUdren by Sara, whom he renamed Anne, was born.14
So began a second cycle in which sexuaUty would again end in violence.
My understanding of what happened came in two stages through the BC
Archives. The first was, once again, an inquest; in this case into George
Purser's death in 1885.15 The second find came through serendipity. In
connection with my research on teachers, I read through the incoming
correspondence ofthe BC Superintendent of Education, avaUable in the
BC Archives on microfilm.This is a marveUous source for the social history
of late-nineteenth century British Columbia, containing thousands of letters from people in communities around the province, giving a grassroots
perspective on their needs and aspirations. Unfortunately, it is not indexed,
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 2000/2001
11 either by person or place, but simply organized
chronologicaUy.
AU of a sudden, one day, I came across the name
Purser in a fashion that tore at my heart strings.16
In the faU of 1881 the teacher at Burgoyne Bay
on Salt Spring Island, where the famUy now Uved,
fretted to the Superintendent of Education how
his four Purser pupUs were "not very weU provided with shoes & clothing.. .in this cold damp
weather." By the next January the Purser famUy
was, so the teacher reported, "in a situation of
considerable difficulty and hardship." As to the
reason: "George Purser, the father, is almost helpless with paralysis." His wife Anne had to go out
to work, and perforce took the only job the dominant society permitted Aboriginal women. "The
mother, an Indian woman married to Purser, is
at Victoria with a baby, she is washing and I do
not know what else she may be doing. Last Tuesday she ought to have sent home some flour &
other things from town for the use ofthe famUy,
but they did not arrive Altogether Purser and
his fanuly are in a very deplorable state."
The teacher's letters make expUcable another
part of George Fisher's story that has come down
through descendants. He told his grandchUdren
how he wanted to become a priest, but that his
mother beseeched him, at age sixteen, to leave
his studies to assist his younger half sibUngs.
Now I knew the reason, and the inquest into
George Purser's violent death gave me another
chapter in this Utde frontier drama, the second to
involve this Cowichan woman who had transformed herself from Sara Fisher into Anne Purser.
George Fisher and his half brothers were the
principal witnesses at the inquest into Purser's
death.Their stories reveal that at some point Sara,
aUas Anne, had simply given up. As George explained about his stepfather, "he said very Utde,
he was a very quiet man, I do not think he was
happy; he [was] troubled, I think because my
mother had left him. She had been away about a
year." The eldest Purser son testified about his
father that "the night before he died ... he asked
me if I knew for sure that my mother had got
another man, I told him yes, and he said, 'That's
aU I wanted to know.'" George Fisher then described how the very next day he was "getting
out some cedar" when "I heard a gun go off in
the house." AU hope gone, his stepfather had kUled
himself.
At this point, I can only leave to your reflections whether this enigmatic Cowichan woman,
stiU only in her mid-thirties, was or was not culpable in the death of her second husband. At the
least, thanks to the BC Archives, I learned the
circumstances of the violent deaths of the two
men with whom her Ufe had been entangled. I
should add as a postscript, that I stiU don't know,
nor do descendants so far as I am aware, how
Sara aUas Anne picked up the pieces. Maybe another research adventure is on the way.
Conclusion
What, then, do these three adventures in historical detection have to teU us? What can we learn
from our Nova Scotian schoolteacher, two Mexican packers, and our Cowichan woman's encounters with sex and violence?
Three things, I think.
First, the BC Archives must be congratulated,
and then congratulated again, on its response to
the archival revolution. Research, particularly for
those of us across the water, has become much
more accessible as a consequence of the Web site
than we would ever have thought possible even a
year or two ago.
Secondly, the image ofthe BC Archives as the
somewhat staid repository of records only ofthe
powerful and the poUtical is simply not correct.
Yes, there is a need to coUect government records,
but the archives is also a magnificent storehouse
of information and insights about ordinary men
and women at their most intimate. Here I've used
sex and violence as a means to make the larger
point that the BC Archives is about aU of us, and
we must each encourage everyone at the archives
to continue to coUect the stories of aU of our
Uves in aU of their richness and diversity. The
Friends ofthe BC Archives gives us an opportunity to do so.
Thirdly, and perhaps most importandy, I hope
I have convinced you of the joy of research. Yes,
we start out with specific goals and think of ourselves as organized researchers, but something
more gives the true pleasure to what we are doing, and that is the element of adventure. We can
never quite teU where we wiU end up. We may
now reaUze how it was that Jessie McQueen stayed
single, why Angelo Gutierrez went to jaU to protect his honour, and what role Sara aUas Anne
played in her two husbands' violent deaths. But
there are many more adventures just waiting to
be had by each and every one of us in the BC
Archives.'***'
12
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 34 No. 1 Railway Route through the Crowsnest
by Robert Turner and Randal Macnair
On 7 December 1898 a gala excursion
left Nelson on the beautiful, brand new
Canadian Pacific sternwheeler SS Moyie
en route to Kootenay Landing and an awaiting
passenger train for Cranbrook. The guests were
traveUing to a banquet at Cranbrook to celebrate
the opening of the new Canadian Pacific RaUway route via the Crowsnest Pass from southern
Alberta through to Kootenay Landing at the
southern end of Kootenay Lake. With connecting steamer services to Nelson, the raUway provided a direct route from the mainUne of the
CPR just east of Lethbridge through to the Columbia River at Robson. From there steamers
ran up the Columbia to Arrowhead and to another raU connection with the CPR mainUne at
Revelstoke.
The raUway route was buUt to provide the resource-rich area stretching along the Canada-
United States border with efficient transportation and communications in an era where that
meant only one thing: a raUway. After much local
agitation and pressure from British Columbia, an
agreement was reached between the Canadian
Pacific RaUway, the Crow's Nest Pass Coal Company and the Federal government to buUd the
raUway through the Crow. The agreement provided a cash subsidy and land grant for the raUway and in return, the CPR agreed to a permanent reduction in freight rates. IranicaUy, the raUway has been known over the years not so much
for its importance as a transportation route but
for the legacy of its freight rates, the famous or
infamous "Crow Rates."
Construction of this new raU route was by no
means easy. Working west from Lethbridge towards the mountains, the raUway was forced to
buUd a series of major bridges and cuttings. Later
this route would be bypassed and the huge
Lethbridge Viaduct of High Bridge buUt as part
of a more efficient aUgnment of the raUway. In
the mountains, winter conditions were severe and
the workers suffered from the cold, poor camp
conditions and long hours of hard labour for Utde pay. The complaints of labourers prompted a
parUamentary inquiry into conditions on the raUway. Nonetheless, the raUway progressed westward and reached Kootenay Landing and a "temporary" end of track that would remain in use
for over 30 years.
The new Crow Route brought the Kootenays
a much closer and more efficient connection with
the rest of Canada and most of the route would
continue to be a key part of British Columbia's
transportation network to the present day. The
people ofthe region celebrated the new raUway
with great enthusiasm and looked forward to the
extension of the CPR west to the Boundary
District and eventuaUy to Vancouver, completing
a Coast-to-Kootenay railway. Over the next decade, the CPR also improved the services on its
steamer connections in the interior with the con-
Bob Turner is a curator
emeritus at the Royal
British Columbia
Museum in Victoria
and has written
extensively on BC's
transportation history.
He is also the project
historian for the
restoration ofthe SS
Moyie at Kaslo and a
heritage consultant.
His 13th book,
highlighting the
Canadian Pacific's
coastal liners, will be
published in the
spring. Several others,
he hopes, will follow
soon after.
Randal Macnair is a
heritage consultant
living in Fernie in the
Crowsnest Pass region.
He curated and
produced a travelling
exhibit for the
centennial ofthe
Crowsnest Pass
Railway route. He
developed Web sites
and worked on
heritage projects in BC
and Alberta. Most of
his work presently
focuses on the coal
mining heritage ofthe
Elk Valley, a heritage
that owes its existence
to the Crowsnest
Railway route.
Left: TheSS Moyie,
shown here during the
First World War, was built
for the Crowsnest Route in
1898.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 2000/2001
13 Crow Rates
The Crow Rates had Uttle to do
with the Crowsnest railway itself
but set low rates for the movement
of grain from the Prairies and for
the shipment of manufactured
goods and some other commodities to the Prairies from the manufacturing centres of eastern Canada.
Later the Crow Rates were extended to all raUways in western
Canada, including the Canadian
National that had absolutely nothing to do with the original Crowsnest Pass raUway. The Crow Rates
became a controversial element in
Canadian poUtics and in the shipping of grain across western
Canada.
As the years went by, the rates
estabUshed in the late 1800s reflected less and less ofthe real costs
of moving grain, and they became
an increasing financial burden on
the raUways and a significant disincentive for capital investment. Of
course, the raUways seldom got
much sympathy from the general
pubUc or their elected officials, but
the net result by the 1960s and
1970s was an increasingly obsolete
grain transport system from the
Canadian Prairies to export terminals.
The general movement in
North America towards free trade
and deregulation ofthe economy
led to the phasing out ofthe Crow
Rates in the 1980s and 1990s.The
phase-out ofthe Crow Rates was
controversial and received with
consternation by many who saw
their disappearance as the beginning of major changes in the rail
system and of higher costs for Prairie grain producers.
Right: The original terminus ofthe
Crowsnest Route at the south end of
Kootenay Lake: Kootenay Landing
station and steamer dock.
struction of larger and faster sternwheelers, including the Kuskanook and Nasookin for
service on Kootenay Lake and the Bonnington for the Arrow Lakes route.
Within a few years the CPR extended its trackage west to the Boundary District and
in 1915 it opened the Ketde VaUey RaUway joining with the main Une at Spences Bridge.
The next year saw completion of its route through the CoquihaUa Pass to Hope and a
connection with the main fine across the Fraser River. Passengers and freight could now
travel aU the way from Vancouver to Lethbridge along the southern boundary of British
Columbia and Alberta. Steamer services remained an important Unk in the Crow Route
until the end of 1930 when the railway opened along the western shore of Kootenay Lake
between Kootenay Landing and Procter, east of Nelson.
Mining is central to the story ofthe Crowsnest Route. In the 1890s and early 1900s,
southern British Columbia was in the midst of a mining boom that extended aU across the
province from the East Kootenays through Nelson and the Slocan to Rossland and on
west to Grand Forks and Phoenix in the Boundary District. SUver, copper, and lead ore
discoveries drove an industrial expansion that transformed the southern districts along the
international boundary. Key to the success of metal mining were several factors: capital,
labour, markets, transport, and fuel for power and smelting. The Crowsnest Route provided efficient and economical transport and access to markets, and Unked the mining
districts together, making it possible for ores to be shipped to smelters. Moreover, the
Crowsnest Coal field, with its huge deposits of high-grade steaming and coking coal,
provided coke for the smelters and fuel for the steam locomotives on the raUways and for
steam boUers driving pumps, compressors, and hoists. The raUway was the sinew that
bound the mining and industrial complex together and made it economicaUy functional.
Large-scale coal mining began in the Crowsnest at the same time as the raUway was
opened for service and the relationship between coal and the Crowsnest Une continues
over 100 years later. Nearly aU of the Crowsnest coal was mined underground and the
seams proved to be enormous. In some places the coal seams were over 40 feet thick and
of good quaUty. The major mines on the British Columbia side ofthe pass were developed
by the Crow's Nest Pass Coal Company, which controUed most of the coal lands in the
area.The Canadian Pacific itself developed a short-lived mine and coking plant at Hosmer.1
The Canadian Pacific was not the only raUway in the Crowsnest region. James J. HUl's
Great Northern buUt northwards from Rexford, Montana, to reach Fernie in 1904 and
Michel four years later. The GN route, known properly as the Crows Nest Southern
14
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. u No. i Ktunaxa
The Ktunaxa, sometimes written as Kootenay, Kootenai or Kutenai peoples who Uved in the
region for hundreds of generations, used the Crowsnest Pass as a travel and trading route through
the mountains. The route finaUy adopted by the raUway was to pass through or near many areas
used by the Ktunaxa for hunting and fishing and for harvesting food, medicine, and materials
and other sites that were sacred. The raUway brought tremendous and lasting changes because it
was an enormous catalyst for setdement and subdivision of the land, industrial development,
landscape and ecosystem change as weU as bringing profound pressures for cultural change.
The changes in land ownership and land use through logging, mining, agriculture and urban
setdement disrupted their way of Ufe in many ways. Not least was the estabUshment of reserves
that often held Utde relationship to their traditional resource use patterns. For the Ktunaxa
People issues of lands and aboriginal tide are an ongoing concern and certainly reflect back on
the aUenation of lands and the disruptions of their culture that came with the buUding ofthe
Crowsnest Route and the many profound changes that foUowed with the raUway.
RaUway, provided a water level grade from the
pass south to the GN main Une and gave the
American transcontinental access to the coal it
needed for locomotive fuel and for the mines
and smelters along its route. HUl acquired substantial interests in the Crow's Nest Pass Coal
Company and his raUway buUt branch Unes into
aU ofthe major mining districts of Southern British Columbia.The competition between the GN
and the CPR for control of the area was fierce
and continued through to the beginning of the
FirstWorldWar. However, the GN Une to Fernie
was abandoned in the 1930s after the GN
switched to oU for fuel in its steam locomotives
and as other sources of coal became avaUable in
the United States.Today, Highway No. 3 foUows
much ofthe old GNR right-of-way through the
Elk VaUey.
The Morrissey, Fernie & Michel RaUway was
incorporated in 1903 to buUd trackage to the
mines at Coal Creek and elsewhere in the district. The Une operated frequent passenger services for the miners and their famUies between
Fernie and the mines. It remained in operation
until 1957 and, ironicaUy, was one of the first
railways to use a diesel locomotive in British Columbia. Several of the MF&M's passenger cars
and other roUing stock survive today at Heritage
Park in Calgary and at Fort Steele Heritage Town
at Fort Steele. Its diesel locomotive, an early
Baldwin design, is preserved at the CaUfornia State
RaUroad Museum in Sacramento, CaUfornia.
Another raUway that had an important impact
on the region was the Spokane International, buUt
by Daniel Chase Corbin of Spokane with the
backing ofthe Canadian Pacific. It connected with
the CPR at the BC-Idaho border at Kingsgate-
Eastport.What made this route so important was
the gateway it provided into the US Northwest
for the Canadian Pacific. The CPR, in connection with the Soo Line which it controUed, developed a first-class train service from St. Paul
and MinneapoUs through to North Portal, Saskatchewan, and westward across the Prairies to
the Crowsnest Route, Cranbrook, and the
Spokane International. From Spokane, connections over the Union Pacific's Oregon RaUway
& Navigation Company gave a fast and convenient service through to Pordand. Beautiful new
trains of equipment for this service, caUed the
"Soo-Spokane Train de Luxe," were buUt in 1906-
' Work in the mines was difficult and dangerous and
there were many accidents
as well as several major,
horrible explosions. Although the mines were
monitored for coal gas and
dust accumulations and
were generally well ventilated, explosions occurred
with tragic frequency. At
Fernie in 1902,128 men
were lost in an explosion
at Coal Creek. At Bellevue
30 men died in a 1910 explosion. Worst of all, in
1914,189 men were killed
in a terrible explosion at
Hillcrest.Then, at Michel
in 1916, 12 miners died
from an explosion and the
next year 34 were killed at
Coal Creek. There were
other losses but once it was
determined that lightning
was often the cause of
these explosions and the
underground railway systems were grounded and
other precautions taken,
the safety record was
greatly improved.
To
B(GNR Mainline)
['ANA
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 2000/2001
15 Right: The Soo-
Line-CPR's "Flyer" at
Moyie about 1908. This
was a beautifully appointed
train. Cars from the Soo-
Spokane "Train de Luxe"
are being restored at the
Canadian Museum of
Rail Travel at Cranbrook.
1907 and operated in direct competition with
the luxury trains of the Great Northern and
Northern Pacific. Unfortunately, this outstanding service did not last and was suspended in 1914.
Fortunately, the "Soo-Spokane" train is being restored as one ofthe many outstanding exhibits at
the Canadian Museum of RaU Travel at Cranbrook. The repatriation of two of the key cars
from the train and their ongoing restoration is
an outstanding achievement in heritage preservation.
Passenger sery- ;es along the Crow Route remained important through the SecondWorldWar
and into the 1950s. In the 1950s diesels replaced
steam locomotives on the CPR on the Crow
Route and throughout British Columbia. As patronage declined, passenger trains were re-
equipped with RaU Diesel Cars (Budd cars or
"Dayliners") and they were used until service was
withdrawn in 1964. By that time highways had
been substantially improved throughout the
southern interior and there was Utde demand for
the passenger trains.The Moyie, the original Crow
Boat of 1898, was the last of the CPR
paddlewheelers in service and was retired in 1957.
Fortunately, the faithful old steamer was acquired
by a dedicated group of farsighted individuals at
Kaslo for preservation and is now beautifuUy restored as a National Historic Site.
The demands for freight services also changed
in the post-SecondWorldWar period as road sys
tems expanded. Increasingly the railway carried
primarUy coal, bulk commodities, lumber, and
sirrtilar products. Mines producing the once-rich
ores were mosdy worked out or were producing
much smaUer quantities of ores. In 1973, the
CPR's Ketde VaUey RaUway was abandoned between Penticton and BeaverdeU, severing the
route across the southern interior.Traffic on other
sections west ofthe Columbia continued to de-
cUne and freight service was aU but gone by the
late 1980s. In 1990 most ofthe remaining trackage
west of Casdegar through the Boundary District
and the southern Okanagan was formaUy abandoned. Since that time traffic west of Cranbrook,
except for trains running south into the United
States over the old Spokane International route,
has dwindled, with the TraU Smelter and the pulp
miU at Casdegar being the two largest remaining
sources of traffic.
The Crow Route ofthe late 1990s continues
to be intimately Unked with coal mining just as
it was over 100 years ago, although now the coal
is destined for export and distant power plants
where once it was needed for local industry. The
route through to the northern United States, via
the Spokane International, which is now part of
the Union Pacific, remains an important gateway
for traffic from the US Midwest and the Canadian Prairies. Now the Crow Route could be
said to include the Une north to Golden whereas
in 1898 the connection north to the main Une
16
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 34 No. was via the Arrow Lakes to Revelstoke.
In the late 1960s coal mining in the Crow was
given a new lease on Ufe with the development
by Kaiser Resources of new mines to produce
huge volumes of coal for export to Japan.To ship
the coal the CPR rebuUt its Kootenay Central
route between ColvaUi, south of Cranbrook, and
Golden and put massive "unit" coal trains into
service between the mines and a new export terminal south ofVancouver at Roberts Bank.These
new trains, which entered service in 1970, were
at first 88 cars long and were powered by 3,000-
hp diesel locomotives. Because ofthe mountainous nature of the CPR route west of Golden,
helper locomotives were needed and remote-con-
troUed "slave" diesels were operated in the middle of the train. Before long the trains grew in
length to over 110 cars. The success of these operations and continuing growth in traffic led to
Une improvements in the Selkirk Mountains and
at Notch HUl, between Salmon Arm and Chase,
which reduced the number of diesels required,
and most recendy the introduction of new General Electric locomotives, rated at 4400-hp, has
reduced the number of diesels on these trains to
just three. Other changes are evident in the trains
of today. The traditional caboose is gone from
nearly aU freight trains and the impact of mergers and corporate changes is also evident. Soo
Line diesels are often part of CPR trains as the
Soo is absorbed into the CPR system, and on
the Crow Route, Union Pacific locomotives are
frequent visitors to Cranbrook.
After 100 years, the Crow Route has certainly
proven an effective and efficient raU route. Its success was a quiet one. Aside from the notoriety of
the Crow Rates, the raUway itself has received
Utde pubUcity. It was weU engineered over a comparatively benign terrain. It lacked the sensational
snowfalls of Rogers Pass or the engineering features ofthe Kicking Horse Pass and whUe beautiful, the landscapes lacked the spectacular quaU-
ties that made the CPR mainUne through British Columbia world-famous. Nonetheless, the
impact of the Crowsnest Une on southern British Columbia and Alberta was profound. It has
been a key to natural resource development and
the corresponding development of setdement
throughout the region, as weU as the extensive
impact on landscapes from logging and mining.
Moreover, the raUway had a profound impact on
the people ofthe region: the Ktunaxa First Peoples and the setders and immigrants who came
primarily from other parts of North America and
from Europe. For nearly everyone along the raUway, the route became an essential service for
personal travel, maU, express, and the day-to-day
commerce ofthe entire region.
The Crowsnest Route continues to influence
the Uves of people throughout the southern
Rockies and its impact extends weU beyond the
confines ofthe mountain pass.The Crow Route
is part of a continental raUway system that reaches
west to Roberts Bank, southwest to Pordand and
east across the country. As it did 100 years ago,
the Crow Route Unks the region to the distant
parts ofthe continent and it remains essential to
the industrial economy ofthe region. Its impact
wUl be felt for many years to come.'<s=^
Contacts:
The Canadian Museum of RaUTravel.Box 400, Cranbrook, B.C.VIC 4H9, (250) 489-3918, E-mail:
mail@trainsdeluxe.com. URL: www.trainsdelux.com.
SS Moyie National Historic Site, Box 537, Kaslo,BC,
VOG 1M0, (250) 353-2525
E-maU: ssmoyie@pop.kin.bc.ca
The Crowsnest Railway Route Web site
(www.crowsnest.bc.ca) includes an extensive bibUography and also includes original documents, legislation and newspaper reports.
Further Reading:
Andreae, Christopher. 1998. Lines of Country: An Atlas
of Railway and Waterway History in Canada.The Boston Mills Press, Erin, ON.
Burrows, Roger G. 1984. Railway Mileposts: British Columbia. Vol. ILThe Southern Routes from the Crowsnest
to the Coquihalla. RaUway MUepost Books, North
Vancouver, BC.
Dawson, J. Brian. 1995. Crowsnest. An Illustrated History and Guide to the Crowsnest Pass. Altitude Pub-
Ushing, Vancouver, BC.
Hungry Wolf, Adolf. 1979. Rails in the Canadian Rockies.
Good Medicine Books, Invermere, BC.
Norton,Wayne and Naomi MiUer (editors). 1998. The
Forgotten Side ofthe Border. British Columbia's Elk Valley and Crowsnest Pass. Plateau Press, Kamloops, BC.
Turner, Robert D. 1984. Sternwheelers & Steam Tugs,
An Illustrated History of the Canadian Pacific's British
Columbia Lake & River Service. Sono Nis Press, Victoria, BC.
Turner, Robert D. 1986. West ofthe Great Divide, An
Illustrated History of the Canadian Pacific Railway in
British Columbia, 1880-1986. Sono Nis Press.Victo-
ria, BC.
Turner, Robert D. 1991. The SS Moyie, Memories ofthe
Oldest Sternwheeler. Sono Nis Press and the Kootenay
Lake Historical Society,Victoria, BC.
WWW.CROWSNEST.CA
As part ofthe Crowsnest Route centennial
events in 1998, the
Canadian Museum of
Rail Travel developed
an Internet Web site
called the Crowsnest
Railway Route which
tells the history of the
railway, steamer
services, and related
industries, and reflects
on the lives ofthe
people along the line
and in particular in
British Columbia.
This Web site is designed for easy access
and also features
highlights ofthe
Canadian Museum of
Rail Travel at Cranbrook, the SS Moyie
National Historic Site,
and other heritage
attractions in the
region.
As well, it includes
many original documents, newspaper
articles,and other
source material.
Bob Turner wrote the
text and Roger Boulet
designed the site.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 2000/2001
17 "...That Old Rogue, the Iroquois Tete Jaune"
by Yvonne Mearns Klan
Yvonne Klan, author of
several articles on early
days in BC, is thrilled by
narratives of high
drama and adventure
unreeling from HBCo
microfilms.
1 Hudsons' Bay Co. Archives (HBCA) FA/32,
index; B.39/d/4, fo.5;
B.239/d/245 fo.99d
2 Charles M. Gates, ed., Five
fur traders ofthe Northwest.
University of Minnesota
Press. 1933. pp. 258,266
3 A. S .Morton, ed. Journal
of Duncan McGillivray of
the North West Company at
Fort George on the Saskatchewan 1194-5.
Macmillan Company of
Canada. Toronto. 1929.
pp. li, 49.
4 W.K. Lamb, ed. The jour
nals and letters of Sir Alexander Mackenzie. Hakluyt
Society at the University
Press. Cambridge. 1970.
p. 411
5 Victor Hopwood, ed.,
Travels in Western North
America, 1784-1812.
Macmillan of Canada.
Toronto. 1972. p. 223
6 Lamb, 1970 p. 85
7 E.E.Rich, ed., Colin
Robertson's Correspondence
Book, September 1817 to
September 1822.
Champlain Society for
Hudson's Bay Record
Society.Toronto. 1939. p.
56 {CRCB)
8 HBCA B.60/a/7, Feb. 4,
1808
9 F. Wentzel to R.
McKenzie, Feb. 28,1814
in Masson, L.R. Les Bourgeois de la Compagnie du
Nord-Ouest... lmpr. general A. Cote et Cie. Quebec. 1889.1890. vol. 1, p.
109
Notes continue on page 20
THE haunting image ofTete Jaune, a blond
Iroquois who roamed the Rocky Mountains in the early 1800s, has fired men's
imagination for over a century. It inspired Howard
O'Hagan to write the novel Toy John, a Canadian
classic set in the 1880s. It gave rise to numerous
theories to account for Tete Jaune's presence in
the west, and equatty numerous speculations about
his identity. YeUowhead Mountain, YeUowhead
Lake.YeUowhead Pass, and the vUlage ofTete Jaune
Cache, commemorate him. His profile guides
traveUers along YeUowhead Highway 16, which
stretches from the Queen Charlotte Islands to
Portage la Prairie, and BC's Highway 5 from
Kamloops to Tete Jaune Cache.Yet Utde is known
about him.
Howard O'Hagan's Toy John was conceived of
an Irish evangeUst and a Shuswap native woman.
The historical Tete Jaune's Uneage is less precise;
even his name has caused much confusion. The
muddle started in 1819 when CoUn Robertson,
a Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) officer at St.
Mary's on the Peace River, wrote that a group of
Baymen embarking for New Caledonia was accompanied by "Pierre Hatsinaton, Guide."When
the letter was copied in the fort's journal it read
"with the Tete Jaune, Guide." However, account
books of both the Hudson's Bay Company and
the North West Company (NWC) refer to
"Pierre Bostonais (dit Tete Jaune)."1 Pierre may
weU have been christened Hatsinaton but caUed
"Bostonais" to denote his origin or residence in
the United States. This would lend credence to
speculation that he was the Tete Jaune referred
to in an 1804-1805 journal kept by a trader in
present-day Minnesota:
Nov. 9,1804: ...this afternoon the Tete Jaune and
Son come from hunting Beaver, made an indifferent hunt, paid their debts, gave them 6 GaU Rum.
they drank peacably and gave me no manner of
trouble.
Jan. 27,1805: ...this afternoon the Tete Jaune's Son
expired after a long and painful Malady of upwards
of three Months, his Death costs me a Keg of Rum
to content his relatives, he was a most excellent Indian, desired his father to pay his Debt and to be
attentive to the White people.2
Eight weeks later Tete Jaune again visited the
post, repaired his canoe, and paddled out of fur
trade records until 1816, when "Bostonnais dit
Tete Jaune Pierre" appeared in a NWC ledger.
Towards the end of the 1700s Canadian and
American fur traders were sending Iroquois,"who
trapped with an appUcation unknown to the Indians,"3 to the Missouri, Mississippi, and Saskatchewan rivers. For some Iroquois this was an idyUic
Ufe. Explorer Alexander Mackenzie noted that a
smaU colony had emigrated to the Saskatchewan
River in 1799, "to escape improvements of civi-
Uzation in the east and to foUow the mode of Ufe
of their forefathers."4
In 1800 David Thompson, wishing to bring
Iroquois trappers to Piegan country in the Rocky
Mountain foothUls, diplomaticaUy consulted the
Piegan chiefs. He told them that the Iroquois'
homeland was so depleted in furs that they could
no longer make a Uving there and had asked to
be brought to the Rockies. He assured the chiefs
that the immigrants "would behave quiedy, would
reside in the woody hills at the foot ofthe mountains, and serve as a barrier between the Piegans
and their enemies."5 The latter point was particularly pleasing to the frequendy embatded
Piegans and they gave their consent.
By the summer of 1801 more than 300
Iroquois and Mohawks had been brought west.
They migrated to the meadowlands around today's Jasper and to the grazing fields in the vaUeys
ofthe Peace and Smoky rivers. They frequented
the sources of rivers yet unknown to white men,
and traversed the rugged passes twisting through
the Rockies into New Caledonia. When their
contracts expired many were unwilUng to leave
their native wives and famUies and re-engaged.
Others remained as "freemen"—unfettered wanderers who traded furs on the same basis as the
local natives and contracted as temporary interpreters, guides, canoemen, and provision hunters.
The majority came from mission settlements
along the St. Lawrence River. Alexander Mackenzie stated that many had been taught "reading and writing in their own language, and are
18
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 34 No. 1 better instructed than the Canadian [i.e. today's Quebecois]
inhabitants ofthe country ofthe lower ranks."6 The more pious taught their famUies and native hosts elements of CathoUc
prayer and ritual, and it was said that Iroquois voyageurs paddled more often to hymns than to Canadian paddle songs.
They were skillful canoemen. CoUn Robertson held that
Canadian voyageurs "may be more hardy or undergo more
fatigue, but in either a rapid or traverse, give me [the Iroquois],
from their calmness and presence of mind which never forsakes them in the greatest danger."7
They trapped relendessly. In 1802 traders in the Saskatchewan District complained that the area had been trapped out
by Iroquois who "leave nothing wherever they come." In 1808
Edmonton officers noted that "in a few years a beaver wUl be
nearly as great a curiosity here as in London.'tis the free Canadians and Iroquois with their steel traps that has so totaUy
destroyed them."8 In 1814 NorWesters in Athabasca reported
that local Indians "complain ofthe want of beaver (the Iroquois
having ruined the Country)."9 And Daniel Harmon, an NWC
clerk in New Caledonia, commented in October 1818,
As they are mere rovers, they do not feel the same interest, as those
who permanendy reside here, in keeping the stock of animals good,
and therefore they make great havock among the game, destroying
aUke the animals which are young and old. A number of Iroquois
have passed several summers on this side ofthe mountain, which
circumstance they knew to be displeasing to the Indians here, who
have often threatened to kUl them, if they persisted in destroying
the animals on their lands. These menaces were disregarded. A
month since, an Iroquois, with his wife and two children, were all
kiUed, whUe asleep, by two Carriers of this viUage, which melancholy event, I hope, wiU prevent any ofthe Iroquois from coming
into this region again.10
Ironically, whUe Harmon was writing this comment a contingent of Iroquois engaged by the HBC was preparing to enter
New Caledonia.
For many years the HBC had been trying to penetrate the
NorWesters' fur-rich strongholds in Athabasca, Peace River,
and New Caledonia. Every attempt had been ruthlessly crushed.
The NorWesters drove game away from the Baymen's path
and so intimidated the natives that they refused to trade furs or
provisions with the newcomers. Consequendy in the winter
of 1815 at least sixteen HBC voyageurs died of starvation along
the Peace. Nonetheless the HBC persisted, and in the faU of
1818 an HBC brigade led by John Clarke had reached the
forks ofthe Peace and Smoky Rivers (todays's Grande Prairie,
Alta.) and were buUding Fort St. Mary's. Clarke's relative ease
in estabUshing this post was largely due to the early onset of
winter, for whUe his men were erecting St. Mary's, the NWC's
Peace River brigade, bringing reinforcements and trading goods
from Montreal, became ice-bound far downriver leaving the
NorWesters with insufficient men to drive Clarke away and
not enough trade items to effectively compete with him.
Clarke's brigade was composed largely of Iroquois, many of
whom had previously served the NWC in this area, had forged
across the Rockies, and were famiUar with the country. Now
under contract with the HBC, they were to return to New
Caledonia and secure the natives' goodwiU towards the
Baymen who wanted to trade in their land. As winter tightened its icy grip, the Iroquois, led by Jose Gaubin, set off on
their mission. (Other voyageurs were sent to Uve with local
natives—a tactic which eased the strain on St. Mary's meager
food resources and ensured that furs and game hunted by the
natives went to Clarke rather than the NorWesters.)
Gaubin's party returned in the spring and reported that
the New Caledonia natives were eager to have the HBC on
their lands. During his journey Gaubin had encountered other
Iroquois and brought them into the HBC's fold. One ofthe
new recruits was Tete Jaune, who made his first appearance
in HBC records as "Pierre, the Guide" in October 1819. In
that same year the NWC wrote off the large debt he owed
with the notation "deserted."
CoUn Robertson took charge of St. Mary's over the 1819-
1820 season. Determined to gain a footing in New Caledonia in 1820, he had earUer arranged for a brigade of trading
goods to be sent from Norway House in time to cross the
mountains weU before freeze-up. At St. Mary's he sought the
Iroquois' opinions of the mountain passes and the country
beyond and Tete Jaune, who knew the territory weU, drew a
map for him, which unfortunately has not come to Ught.
In December, 1819, Robertson ordered Clerk Ignace
Giasson, "with Tete Jaune, Guide," to take a party of Iroquois
up the Smoky, hunt and cache provisions for St. Mary's until
AprU 1820, then cross the mountains at the Smoky's source.
In New Caledonia he was to advise the natives that an HBC
brigade crammed with trading goods would arrive in the fall
and urge them to withhold their furs from the NWC, trading instead with the Baymen when they arrived. FinaUy,
Robertson warned Giasson to expect fierce opposition from
the NorWesters, who "wUl throw every obstacle in the way
of your having any intercourse with the Indians."11
On 23 December Tete Jaune strapped on his snowshoes
and guided the party (accompanied by wives who could serve
as interpreters) up the Smoky. It was a hard and hungry journey. One man, near starvation, died after reaching a food
cache and overeating. The group struggled on, hunting and
caching provisions only to have one cache destroyed by bears
and another spoUed by weather. At the end of March Giasson
sent a report from Sheep Creek, some 300 ltilometres up the
Smoky, stating he would leave for New Caledonia 30 AprU.
Their route through the Rockies is not known but most
probably Tete Jaune led them through Robson Pass—from
the Smoky's headwaters, along the base of Mt. Robson, past
sprawUng glaciers and alpine lakes, to the Robson River,
which debouches at the Fraser River near today's Tete Jaune
Cache. Almost certainly the route was not today's
"YeUowhead."
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 2000/2001
19 10 W. K. Lamb, ed., Sixteen
years in the Indian Country.
The Journal of Daniel
Williams Harmon. The
Macmillan Company of
Canada. Toronto. 1957
11 HBCA B.190/a/2, 18
Dec. 1819.
12HBCAB.188/a/l.
13 E. E. Rich, cd.Journal of
occurrences in the Athabasca
Department by George
Simpson, 1820 and 1821,
and report. Champlain Society for Hudsons' Bay
Record Society. 1938. p.
10 (SAJ).
14 SAJ p. 132.
15 HBCA B.190/a/3, 29
Oct. 1820.
16 HBCA B.190/a/3, 2
Nov. 1820.
17 SAJ p. 338.
18 HBCA B.190/a/3, 17
May 17 1821.
19 SAJ, p. 277.
20 SAJ p. 286.
21 HBCAB.39/b/2,4May,
1823.
22 HBCA B.39/b/2, 18
May, 1824.
23HBCAB.5/a/l,21July
1824.
24HBCAB.188/b/4,#ll,
24 Oct. 1825.
25 HBCA B.188/a/8, 24
Sept. 1826.
26HBCAB.188/a/10, 21
Apr. 1827.
27 HBCA B.188/a/10, 5
Sept. 1827.
28 HBCA B.188/a/10, 27
Apr. 1828.
News ofthe HBC's presence in New Caledonia raced through native lodges and reached the
ears of incredulous NorWesters. At Ft. St. James a
clerk wrote,
June 10: Indians report of there being at the Forks
of Fraser's River one ofthe HBC clerks and three
men with the Iroquois distributing out goods and
tobacco Gratis with the promises of their coming
in force early in the summer, but I can hardly credit
them as certainly our Gendemen in Peace River
would have sent us notice of it, if such is the case
they certainly wiU play the deuce with the Natives
and get aU their furs without my having it in my
power to prevent them ... however it is false.12
Nevertheless he ordered his men to spread
through the country and secure whatever furs
and provisions the natives had before they could
"faU into the clutches" ofthe HBC.
Summer passed into autumn and the HBC
Peace River posts heard no more from Giasson.
George Simpson, superintendent of the HBC's
Athabasca Department, worried over the expedition's fate. His plans for New Caledonia were
going badly awry. At Norway House the brigade
destined for New Caledonia was delayed "by the
misconduct ofthe people who were in a continual state of intoxication."13 Once underway the
canoes were found to be poorly buUt, necessitating frequent stops for repairs. Obviously the brigade could not reach Peace River Portage before freeze-up and aU hope of estabUshing New
Caledonia in 1820 had to be abandoned. To cap
matters, NorWesters from the Peace brought reports that Giasson's party had been kUled by natives. Not surprisingly, the Iroquois destined for
New Caledonia in 1821 had second thoughts and
"positively declared that they wiU not renew their
engagements unless Giasson returns safe, so if he
does not make his appearance it wiU be quite
impractical to estabUsh the country next year."14
Simpson's worries were not entirely groundless. The NorWesters had indeed tried to persuade the natives to murder Giasson and his men
but the New Caledonians had instead welcomed
them, were keen to have them in their country,
and dutifuUy hoarded their furs for the expected
HBC brigade. When the canoes faUed to arrive
they were obUged to trade their furs—some five
hundred pelts—with the NorWesters.
Giasson's party, resplendendy clad, returned to
St. Mary's ten months after their departure. "Beaver must be remarkably plentiful in that quarter,"
a clerk noted,"as they were aU clothed in dressed
Coat Beaver."15 The arrival ofTete Jaune and his
brother Baptiste was duly celebrated when "The
Iroquois aU enjoyed themselves with a boose."16
Giasson sent Simpson a report and a map (neither of which has survived) showing two sites he
had selected for future estabUshments and, with
the natives' approval, had marked "H.B.Coy." to
signify possession.
Tete Jaune spent the remainder ofthe winter
hunting up the Smoky. Unfortunately an unseasonably mUd thaw setded over the area and was
foUowed by a cold snap. The resultant snowcrust
crackled under the hunters' feet, causing the star-
ded prey to flee out of gunshot range. "Many of
the Beaver Indians have been starved to death,"
Simpson noted, "one of our Iroquois and three
belonging to the North West Coy. have shared
the same fate."17 Tete Jaune returned to St. Mary's
in May, haggard, starving, and without pelts.
Nonetheless the journal records, "OldTete Jaune
was engaged for the New Caledonia."18
MeanwhUe Simpson pushed ahead with plans
to estabUsh the new country in 1821. He urged
officers along the Peace to engage Iroquois "without delay. I shaU not Umit you to terms, we absolutely need their services."19 He assembled "a formidable force" of six canoes, sixteen men, and
four officers20 to fight through the resistance expected from the NorWesters and in the summer
of 1821 Tete Jaune guided the first HBC brigade
to enter New Caledonia up the Peace. Contrary
to expectations, it was a peaceful voyage for in
the spring the rival companies had united under
the banner of the Hudson's Bay Company.
With the union, aU hands could work at gathering furs and provisions instead of harassing and
spying on the opposition. The HBC suddenly
found itself overburdened with too many men
and too many posts.The Iroquois could no longer
demand (and get) high wages; many could not
even renew their engagements. As freemen they
were not wanted around the forts, being perceived
now as mischief-makers and, with their famUies,
a drain on the area's resources. Nor were they
wanted by the Beaver Indians, who threatened
their Uves if they tried to go up the Smoky where
beaver were now aU but extirpated. A former
NWC officer wrote Chief Factor Smith at Ft.
Chipewyan complaining ofthe faithless Iroquois
who were an untolerable burthen and expence
to me throughout the winter.21 Smith, however,
took a broader view and repUed,
20
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 34 No. It is cruel to introduce foreign Indians to ruin [the host] country.
The poor Beaver Indians with all their industry scrape only a miserable Uvely hood, their country exhausted of beaver and large
animals, and by who? by the wUd ambitious poUcy ofthe whites
who study their interest first and then that ofthe natives...22
Perhaps it was this animosity towards Iroquois that causedTete
Jaune and Baptiste to move with their famUies to New Caledonia. They arrived at Fort George (today's Prince George)
in the faU of 1823, heavUy in debt to the Company and so
ragged that they were obUged to trade their cherished dogs in
exchange for clothing.Though deemed "not very handy workmen" and "no great acquisition" they were hired for the winter.
With the spring break-up they paddled down the Fraser to
Alexandria.Their presence infuriated the post's clerk, who noted
that local natives were bringing in very few pelts,
.. .but the poor feUows are not so much to blame, the beaver lands
having been destroyed ... by those two confoundedVagabonds.Tete
Jaune and his brother Baptiste who have hunted there aU spring. I
wish they were anywhere except New Caledonia, even if it was in
HeU for they do more mischief than they are worth. I am only
sorry the Indians did not strip them naked provided they spared
their Uves, but I would not pity them.23
Faced with such hostiUty, the brothers retreated to Jasper, a
favorite Iroquois resort.
Leather, the most preferred trade item in New Caledonia,
brought Tete Jaune into HBC records once again. Hides and
sinew were coUected at the prairie posts and paddled west via
the Peace River. Governor Simpson chafed at this long and
costly mode of transport and ordered Chief Trader James
McMiUan to find a route suited to packtrains. McMiUan arrived at Jasper in October 1825 and tried to hire a guide famU-
iar with such a route. Of aU the men McMUlan approached
only Tete Jaune would agree to guide him. The Utde party
threaded its way through the winding corridor that would
evermore be known as "YeUowhead Pass" and emerged at a
point on the Fraser caUed then, as now, Tete Jaune Cache.
McMUlan found the route better than he expected. He beUeved a packtrain could easUy bring cargoes of leather to Tete
Jaune's cache, where it could be picked up by canoes from
New Caledonia. McMUlan wrote a report for Tete Jaune to
deUver to New Caledonia's Chief Factor ConnoUy at Ft. St.
James, and thoughtfully added,
The Iroquois says that salmon does not agree with him. If kept at
the Fort I beg that some consideration may be shewn him. If he
had not undertaken [this journey] none else would, not even for
150 Beaver.24
ConnoUy sent Tete Jaune to trap around Alexandria (now in
charge of a more congenial clerk) with the understanding that
he should return to Ft. St. James in the summer to guide a
party to the cache to fetch ConnoUy's 1825-1826 leather requisition: 400 dressed moose and deer skins, 30 parchment skins,
2000 fathoms of pack cords, 30 lbs. sinews, and 70 lbs. babiche
(used for making snowshoes). Unfortunately Tete Jaune became Ul at Alexandria and faded to return to Ft. St. James.
WhUe ConnoUy fumed over "that old rogue the Iroquois
Tete Jaune, who was depended upon to guide the people..."25
his clerks scoured the area and eventuaUy found another
Iroquois who knew the cache's location.
ConnoUy saw no more ofTete Jaune until November
1826, when "that rogue Tete Jaune and his brother" appeared
at Ft. St. James, driven there by a dread of Carrier Indians
who had threatened to kUl them. Though ConnoUy was a
reluctant host he reaUzed that "these people cannot in this
part of the country Uve by hunting in the winter, and it
being too late for them to cross the mountains they wiU be
a charge upon us tiU Spring." He proposed that they winter
at Fort Kilmaurs on Babine Lake, where salmon was less
scarce than at other posts. In return they would have to do
whatever work was required of them. This offer, however,
"they decUne accepting and they may now shift for themselves the best way they can."Three weeks later the hungry
Iroquois accepted ConnoUy's proposal and, with their famiUes, set off for Babine Lake.
Tete Jaune's rugged Ufe and his advancing years were taking their toU. When the aging brothers returned to Ft. St.
James the foUowing spring it was apparent to ConnoUy that
they had endured a miserable winter "for I never saw two
more wretched beings in my Ufe. Since the faU they have not
kUled one marten between them, nor had they even shift
enough to hunt rabbits for their subsistence."26 Only the
charity of the Babine Indians had kept them aUve and now
they were at a loss what next to do or where next to turn. At
ConnoUy's suggestion that they hunt around the headwaters
of the Finlay River—a harsh mountainous country where
game and beaver were said to be plentiful—they assembled
their ragged famUies and trudged into the hinterlands of
New Caledonia.
ConnoUy sometimes thought about them and inquired
about their welfare but "aU I can learn is that they crossed
the mountain to Finlay's Branch and intended to proceed
downards to Peace River. I am glad that this district is rid of
them,"27 he wrote in September 1827.
In that same month Tete Jaune and Baptiste, their women
and their chUdren, were murdered by a party of Beaver Indians near the mouth ofthe Finlay.28
Tete Jaune and his famUy met their fate more than 175
years ago but the old pathfinder is not entirely forgotten.
His legend stiU survives in the high Rocky Mountain passes
and his presence, styUzed on YeUowhead Highway signs, stiU
guides traveUers through the long-conquered wUderness that
was once New Caledonia. '"^"
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 2000/2001
21 Eight Times Mayor of Vancouver
"Single Tax" Taylor: Louis Denison Taylor 1857-1946
by Mary Rawson
Mary Rawson is a Fellow
of the Canadian
Institute of Planners and
a member of the
Vancouver Historical
Society.
For Vancouver's centennial year, 1986, the
Vancouver Historical
Society held a series of
evening talks about
"Mayors ofVancouver."
On Wednesday, 22 April
1986 Mary Rawson
spoke about Louis D.
Taylor. Penny Hagarty
summarized the lecture
as "an entertaining and
convincing portrayal of
this dynamic mayor."
In this article Mary
Rawson revisits this
interesting personaUty.
Right: Henry Georges's
ideas of reform were not
well received by all.
Thisl884 cartoon shows a
big bad wolf, a copy o
George's Progress and
Poverty stickingfrom his
pocket, importuning the
innocent worker-voter Red
Riding Hood.
Opposite page: 1925.
Mayor L.D. Taylor and the
"Exhibition Queen."
"Many Vancouver residents still remember the fiery mayor. Even if they have forgotten his major improvements, none can erase the image of his great rolled cigars, and
his roguish sense of humour. Thus, for many years, both through his personality and
positive civic programs, L.D. Taylor infused the city ofVancouver with vitality and
character." David McFaul.i
First elected as Mayor of the City ofVancouver in 1910, L.D. Taylor was tagged
with the sobriquet "Single Tax" because of
his commitment to the ideas of the American
Henry George.
George was identified chiefly with a proposal
to raise needed public revenue from urban and
resource rents alone and to remove aU other taxes.
His principal book, Progress and Poverty (1879),
had electrified the reform-minded pubUc worldwide. It had also raised fear, anger, and scorn
among the not-so-reform-minded, feeUngs weU
caught in the front-page cartoon of Punch, 26
January 1884; here one sees the sly big bad wolf,
a copy of Progress and Poverty peeping from his
overcoat pocket, whUe he importunes the innocent worker-voter Red Riding Hood.2 Such
views were very aUve in Taylor's early days, and
persisted for decades to infect poUtical and academic opinion.
Taylor had become acquainted with the ideas
of Henry George while in Ann Arbor, Michigan,
his birthplace, and even ran for election (on a
RepubUcan ticket) as a very young man.3 After
Uving through two swings ofthe boom-and-bust
cycle working at various jobs— Ubrarian, bank
clerk, accountant, raUway auditor—he set out for
Alaska and the gold fields. He paused en route in
Vancouver in 1896, struck out for the Klondike,
"struck out" very quickly, and setded down to
spend the rest of his Ufe in British Columbia.
Vancouver in 1896, as a take-off point for the
Klondike, was a roistering, raw young city. Patricia
Roy's description ofthe toleration of booze and
"vice" around the 1890s provides ample proof
both ofthe activity and the ambience into which
L.D. arrived.4 Ethel WUson's memories (she arrived about the same time, but as a young girl
joining an eUte famUy) reveal that, though the
city had its seamy side.Vancouver was a safe place
for respectable citizens.5 When she sat in church
on a Sunday however, among her dignified relatives, and had heard the Minister's wrathful sermons, she had been quite bemused:
Whereas the ministers ofthe Gospel to whom
she had Ustened Sunday by Sunday since infancy
spoke gendy ofthe love of God, the Rev. Elmer
Pratt thundered about brothels. She supposed that
brothels were places where broth was made and
decided that the broth must be very bad or the
Rev. Elmer Pratt would not be so angry. He also
spoke frequendy about 'foaming out your shame
upon your city streets', in a way that made her
feel personaUy responsible, and she could only
conclude that he had [made] reference to the
nasty habit of spitting that she had noticed and
disUked among the men in the streets of this Utde
western town.6
22
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 34 No. Taylor himself was a church-going man, having
been brought up a CongregationaUst. He attended
the Congregational church at Richards and Georgia, and later taught Sunday School there. Because CongregationaUsts generaUy were to the
fore in attempts to apply Christian principles to
matters of social and poUtical importance, it is
not surprising Taylor should link up later with
H.H. Stevens who also had arrived in Vancouver
at the turn of the Century. Stevens was a man
twenty years younger than Taylor but of extraor-
dinarUy similar background and experience.7
Coming to British Columbia at a mature age,
with an experience and philosophy that was coherent, gave L.D. Taylor a steadfastness of purpose that showed in the rest of his Ufe which,
from that time on, was a pubUc Ufe.
As a boy, Taylor got a taste for both
newspapering and politics when chumming
around with the son of the editor of the Ann
Arbor Courier. And it was with a newspaper that
he first made a decent income in Vancouver, as
circulation manager for the Province, in 1898. He
was employed by the Province on contract and
buUt up the circulation mightily. After seven years,
when his contract was not renewed, he joined
with another former Province employee to buy a
rival paper, the World, which he also buUt up and
renewed both in machinery and circulation.
He appeared onVancouver's poUtical scene the
first time as a member ofthe "Decorations Committee" for celebrations in 1901.This committee
was one of several set up to welcome their Royal
Highnesses, the Duke and Duchess of CornwaU
and York. Royalty had not come to Vancouver
before.To judge by the papers ofthe day, the visit
ofthe royal personages was the biggest event ever
Vancouver had experienced. There was an IUu-
mination Committee, a Harbour iUumination
Committee, a Decorations Committee, a Finance
Committee, a Parade Committee—fifteen committees in aU, some of them with nine or ten
members each.
The Decorations Committee's efforts were a
great success. It may seem ridiculous today, but,
according to accounts, the decorations were impressive. The raw city was a forest of poles leaning every which way—telephone poles this way,
telegraph poles that way, electric, another.8 It was
not a very pretty sight. L.D. and his committee
got aU sorts of garlands and greenery, as weU as
coloured paper and ribbons. They wound garlands up the poles and decorated them. They
decorated the CPR station. They created arches
over the streets in Japan town and elsewhere.They
persuaded the Chinese to put an arch over their
street. It made a great display. As Eric Nicol has
written:
Everyone agreed that the bunting draped on the
CPR RaUway Station, a turreted casde redolent
of fairy tales, was thoroughly regal without being
gaudy. The American boy had made good as a
loyal subject.9
Although no longer a "boy," it was L.D.'s first
triumph—chair of the Decorations Committee
on this famous occasion. He never looked back.
He ran for Licence Commissioner in 1902 and
was elected one of two Commissioners. When
he ran again for Licence Commissioner the following year, with a plan for strict control of the
Uquor business, his plan was attacked in the editorials ofthe Province, his own employer, as being
too extreme.10 The next year, 1904, he ran unsuccessfully for alderman, one of the numerous
times he was defeated electoraUy. But he was again
appointed by CouncU to serve on the Library
Board, as weU as on the BuUding Committee of
the Carnegie Library.
Taylor's first successful try for CouncU occurred
after his "fuU lunch pail" campaign in 1910.
Among the proposals he put forward were the
annexation of South Vancouver, exempting improvements from taxation, mechanizing the fire
department, and estabUshing a juvenile court. He
also urged Council to adopt the eight-hour day
for municipal employees. Delegates from Vancouver and South Vancouver went to Victoria to support the first proposal, but the Provincial gov-
1. The best available biography of L.D. is the
sketch "Louis D.Taylor"
by D. McFaul in Vancouver History,Vol. 18, No.4,
August 1979, pp. 12-16,
including portrait. Published by theVancouver
Historical Society.
2. Punch cartoon reproduced as Land and Liberty cover, September-
October, 1987.
3. City ofVancouver Archives (CVA), Matthews
News clippings, M9253-
2, Taylor. Ronald
Kenvyn, "L.D. TeUs His
Own Life Story", Vancouver Daily Province. The
series of sixteen articles
was published daily beginning Monday, 27
February 1939 and ending Thursday 16 March
1939. Kenvyn was an experienced newspaperman, sometime Marine
editor, later Managing
Editor, of the Province.
Many details of L.D.'s
early life can be found in
the series, but as the
reminiscences did not by
any means appear in
chronological order, they
have been referenced
only by the instalment in
which they appeared.
The reference to Taylor's
running for election in
Ann Arbor appears in
Kenvyn, 4.
4. Patricia B. Roy, Vancouver, An Illustrated History,
James Lorimer & Company, National Museum
of Man. Toronto, 1980),
43.
5. Mary McAlpine, Tlie
Other Side of Silence, A
Ufe of Ethel Wilson, (Harbour Publishing, 1988)
29.
6. Ethel Wilson, TJie Innocent Traveller, (New
Canada Library, 1990),
121. This book is a
slightly fictionalized
family history. See also
McAlpine for reference
to the sermons of wrath
and denunciation, 25.
Continued on next page.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 2000/2001
23 7. Richard Wilbur, H.H.
Stevens, 1878-1973. (Canadian Biographical
Studies, University ofToronto Press, 1977, 5-11.
See also Robert A.J.
McDonald, Making Vancouver: Class Status, and
Social Boundaries, 1863-
1913. (UBC Press, 1996).
In chapter seven, about
the "artisan" class,
McDonald wraps his
commentary around
L.D.and H.H.: both are
described as "populists",
174-180.
8. CVA, Kenvyn, 10.
9. Eric Nicol, Vancouver
(Doubleday Canada Ltd.,
Toronto, 1970), 114.
10. CVA, Kenvyn, 4.
11. CVA, Kenvyn, 5.
12. CVA, Kenvyn, 6. H.H.
Stevens was also part of
this productive 1910
council.
13. CVA, Kenvyn, 8.
14. Hilda Symonds, "The
Vancouver City Planning
Commission. Some Historical Notes", 1975,
mimeo. 12 pp.
15. Graeme Wynn, "The
Rise ofVancouver" in
Vancouver and Its Region,
eds. Graeme Wynn and
Timothy Oke, (Vancouver, UBC Press, 1992),
128.
Centre: Photo of L.D.
Taylor in Man to Man in
June 1910. He turned 53
in that year and the photo
shows him younger.
Below: A billboardfrom the
"Full Dinner Pail" election
in 1910.
ernment under Bowser refused.11 Taylor kept
pushing year after year, in office and out, until his
aim was finaUy achieved in what is known as the
"amalgamation" in 1929.
Improvements were whoUy
exempted from taxation, as
Taylor promised, in 1910. The
fire department was the first to
be mechanized in North
America. CouncU voted to approve the eight-hour day for
civic workers, and for civic contractors; a plebiscite approved the
decision. AjuvenUe court was estabUshed, assisted by L.D. assigning part of his mayor's salary to
help out. In sum, 1910 was a year
of remarkable accompUshment.12
Taylor won the mayoralty the
next year but was defeated in the
two foUowing contests. He won
again in 1915. Probably due to
both business and famUy pressures.Taylor did not
enter civic poUtics between 1916 and 1922. He
had been financiaUy over-extended as a consequence of a cosdy revamping of the World and
financing a new buUding for it. The venture had
been started just before the outbreak of the First
World War and a real estate coUapse in Vancouver. L.D. had to give up the newspaper, and his
wife and capable business helpmate, the former
AUce Berry, had died in 1919.
L.D.'s next stretch in office began in 1925.This
time his success at the poUs continued over four
consecutive years. It was a period of prosperity
which, together with Taylor's continuity in office, no doubt contributed to a variety of soUd
achievements.The GreaterVancouverWater Board
was put through and in good shape. The CN
hotel—which had long been promised—got
underway. He got the airport started.
Taylor's part in the airport beginnings is typical of L.D.'s mode of action. He was invited to
Seattle in 1927 to a banquet where Colonel
Lindbergh was a guest. He asked Lindbergh to
fly to Vancouver. Lindbergh repUed that he could only fly over
the city as there was no landing
field, and told him to get busy
building one or Vancouver
would be left behind. On
Taylor's return to Vancouver he
at once spoke to CouncU about
it. They agreed something
should be done. They sent
Dean, one of the aldermen, to
certain locales in the United
States to see airports.The councU also took a lease on a site
out on Lulu Island and started
cleaning it up for an airport.13
L.D.Taylor was also the person who propeUed city planning into Vancouver. He appointed the first City
Planning Commission and strongly supported it,
an effort that was important for fifty years after,
and perhaps even today. Harland Bartholomew,
the company L.D. brought in to do the technical
planning, prepared certain proposals that were
placed in a bound book for reference. Though
Bartholomew's principles and proposals were
never officiaUy adopted by the city, they were "in
the drawer", and were foUowed over the years by
the City Planning Commission and by the civic
bureaucracy.H Road connections, parks, and many
other elements ofthe city's physical structure were
developed in accordance with suggestions made
at that time; the Bartholomew Plan has had a
greater influence than most Vancouverites realize on the shape and amenity of their city.15
Apart from its technical quaUty, and its mere
existence, the Bartholomew Plan's success owes
something to L.D.'s abUity to co-operate with
others and to persuade them to co-operate. He
had been instrumental not only in getting the
councUs of Point Grey, South Vancouver, andVan-
couver to talk together about amalgamation, but
to work together on community planning before the actual amalgamation date.
As it turned out, Taylor was defeated in the
campaign that would have made him the first
mayor ofthe about-to-be amalgamated city. Candidate W.H. Malkin, a leading downtown businessman but a resident of the Point Grey area,
24
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 34 No. 1 BCHF Conference and AGM, 3-5 May 2001, Richmond, B.C.
PROGRAM
Thursday, 3 May 2001
5:00-7:00 pm      Registration
Richmond Cultural Centre
7:00-9:00 pm      Welcome Reception (Wine and Cheese)
-Opening Remarks
-Welcome from Mayor Halsey-Brandt
Richmond Museum, Richmond Cultural Centre
Friday, 4 May 2001
9:00-10:30 am     Plenary Session: "The Land You Pass Through"
-Panel Discussion (Panelists: TBA)
Lecture Hall, Richmond Cultural Centre
10:30-11:00 am   Coffee Break
Lecture Hall, Richmond Cultural Centre
11:00-l 2:00 am   Session: The History of Richmond
Presenter: Harold Steeves
Lecture Hall, Richmond Cultural Centre
12:00-12:30 pm   Short Break and Board Buses
12:30-4:00 pm Tours (including Lunch) (choose one)
Tour A: Steveston
Lunch at Dave's (best fish and chips in town!) followed by a walking tour of
Steveston and a tour ofthe Gulf of Georgia Cannery
Tour B: The Dyke (this tour involves a fair bit of walking)
Lunch at Yokohama followed by a tour of Britannia Heritage Shipyard, a walk
along the dyke, and a tour of London Farm (will include afternoon tea and
therefore may go a bit longer than the 4:00 pm scheduled end)
Tour C: YVR (Vancouver International Airport)
Lunch at The Flying Beaver Pub followed by a behind-the-scenes look at the
operations ofthe airport.
6:30 pm - Chinese dinner and visit to Asian malls
This is an optional, pay-your-own-way event. For those not interested in this
event, Friday dinner and evening is on your own.
Saturday, 5 May 2001
8:30-9:00 am      Continental Breakfast
Richmond City Hall
9:00 am-12:30 pm BC Historical Federation AGM
Richmond City Hall
12:30-1:30 pm    Lunch
Lecture Hall, Richmond Cultural Centre
1:30-2:00 pm      Short Break and Board Buses
2:00-4:00 pm      Tours (choose one) (two of Friday's choices have been repeated in order to accommodate the
many people we think will be interested in the various sites in Steveston)
Tour A: Repeat of Steveston Tour
Tour B: Repeat of Dyke Tour
Tour C: "Uses ofthe Land"
Walking tour of Finn Slough followed by a bus tour of agricultural Richmond.
6:00-6:30 pm      No Host Bar
Richmond Inn
6:30 pm Banquet and Awards Presentation
-Guest Speaker: Michael Kluckner, Past President and BC Governor, Heritage Canada
Richmond Inn BCHF Conference and AGM, 3-5 May 2001, Richmond, B.C.
REGISTRATION FORM
Name 1
Name 2
Organization
Address
FEES - please indicate for what and for how many you are paying.
Payment in full must accompany registration. Make cheques payable to Richmond Museum Society.
  Full Conference (deadline for registration is 6 April 2001) $ 130
  Early Bird (before 2 March 2001) $120
  Day Rate (check which day Friday Saturday) $ 65
  Banquet Only $ 30
TOURS - please indicate your first choice for each day
*Space is limited on the C-YVR tour due to security considerations. Register early to ensure your spot.
Friday: A-Steveston  B-Dyke  C-YVR*	
Saturday: A-Steveston  B-Dyke  C-UsesofLand_
MAILING ADDRESS: Conference Co-ordinator, c/o Richmond Museum, Minoru Park Plaza, 7700 Minoru Gate,
Richmond, B.C. V6Y 1R9
INQUIRIES:
Eileen Mak (604) 875-8023 emak@interchange.ubc.ca
Pat Gudlaugson (604) 274-2808 dpj_gudlaugson@paralynx.com
Richmond Museum (604)231-6457 museumfaicitv.richmond.bc.ca
ACCOMMODATIONS INFORMATION
The conference hotel is the RICHMOND INN (Best Western): the banquet will be held here and the Inn is a short five
minute walk to the Richmond Cultural Centre and the new City Hall, where meetings will be held. A block of rooms
has been reserved for conference participants.
Cost: $95.00 single/double, $105.00 triple, and $115.00 quadruple. Tax not included.
Address: 7551 Westminster Highway, Richmond, B.C. V6X 1A3
Fax: (604)244-3775
Alternative hotel suggestions
ABERCORN INN (Best Western), 9260 Bridgeport Rd., Richmond, (604) 270-7576
Cost: $99.00 plus tax for single/double. Includes breakfast. You must mention that you are attending the BCHF
conference in order to get this rate. The Abercorn is a five to ten minute drive from the Richmond Inn.
Sandman HOTEL, 3833 St. Edward Dr., Richmond, (604) 303-8888
Cost: $87.75 plus tax for single/double. This rate is not guaranteed but is unlikely to rise by too much, if at all. The
Sandman is also a five to ten minute drive from the Richmond Inn.
All the hotels have complimentary shuttles to and from Vancouver International Airport.
General information: For other hotel suggestions, or for information on what to do in Richmond during your spare
time please call Tourism Richmond at (604) 271-8280. defeated him.
In the Vancouver-only election for the first
two-year term, 1927-1928, L.D. had taken 11,000
ofthe 16,000 votes. In the expanded municipality vote for the 1929-1930 term, although L.D.
took 17,000 votes.Malkin took 19,000. It is possible that rumours and innuendo widely spread
during a poUce inquiry in 1928, affected Taylor's
vote as much as bringing in the eUte area of Point
Grey did. However that may be, L.D.'s greatest
triumph at the poUs was to defeat W.H. Malkin
22,797 to 17,568 in the very next election.Taylor
also won the 1933—1934 term foUowing. That
was his final term as Mayor. He had already passed
his 77th birthday on his last day in office.
In the 1930s, Taylor's accompUshments were
not as obvious as in the 1920s. It was a time of
severe unemployment, and it was beyond the
abiUty ofthe city to make more than slight amelioration of grave conditions. Taylor had always
presented himself as a champion ofthe working
man:
My aim in administering this office is to represent aU the people. I treat the corporation as an
individual. I fuUy appreciate its usefulness, but do
aU in my power to curb it if it shows grabbing
tendencies.We want capital in British Columbia,
but we don't want any money menace. We want
opportunities for aU—the poor man as weU as
the man in affluent circumstances. I am in thorough sympathy with the man who earns his Uving with his hands. He is the backbone of the
country—the fundamental force and the first
source of wealth.16
He had Uved up to this creed as a businessman,
when he condemned the union-busting tactics
ofthe telephone company in 1905 and caUed for
its pubUc ownership. In 1910, in pubUc office, he
had pushed the eight-hour day for aU civic workers. In the 1930s he granted Tag Days to help
coastal loggers and the married unemployed. He
caUed meetings to try to find ways of deaUng
with hardships, and he used his good offices to
prevent strikes, as in the case ofthe B.C. Electric
RaUway in 1934.'7 In aU this, he was true to his
CongregationaUst upbringing and to his Georgist
background, typical ofthe social reformers of his
generation.
It is one ofthe litde ironies of history that the
phUosophy of Henry George should be frozen
in the narrowing caption "Single Tax". Social
justice was George's core concern, but that"sin-
gle"jingle has seemed to steer modern historians
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onto a false traU. AvaUable references to L.D.Taylor
are a case in point. They are scanty and uncoordinated.
In spite ofTaylor's long and positive record, he
is treated sUghdy, and sometimes meanly, in Vancouver's histories. For example, radio scripts produced about Mayor Taylor for the CBC in 1977
are confined to recounting amusing anecdotes.'8
They make him out to be bright and determined,
but something of a lightweight: "He was an'eve-
ryday man's mayor' without a vision for the future"—this about the man who, aside from the
accompUshments already noted, played a key role
in estabUshing theVancouver City Archives, surely
a matter of importance to the future.
Without doubt Major Matthews was the spearhead, heart, and soul of the Archives campaign,
but if there had been no champion on the CouncU, there would have been no City Archives. As
Major Matthews himself wrote in one of his notes
to L.D., "If the only thing you do, or that you
help me do, is to get the Archives, you wiU have
earned your place in history."'9 Years later,
Matthews wrote to Barney WiUiams, the former
city soUcitor, "Just where would I have been had
it not been that Mayor Taylor and yourself cham-
Left: L.D. Taylor at age
75. Photo taken about
1932.
16. J. Herbert Welch, "The
Prospector Who Became
Vancouver's Mayor", Opportunities, December
1910, Vol.2, pl2.
17. CVA, Kenvyn, 14. See
also Alan Morley, Vancouver from Milltoum to Metropolis, (Mitchell Press,
Vancouver, 1961), 201.
Morley describes Taylor
as "the dominating figure
ofthe 1925 - 35 decade."
18. Tom Cone, "Mayor
Taylor", two scripts for
CBC/Heritage Festival
Production, produced by
Don Mowat, February,
1977.
19. CVA, Matthews Correspondence, Ms 154 Vol.
14 B, File 196. Letter to
LDT 18.10.34.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 2000/2001
25 § Above: Section of a 1925
> cartoon by Fitz m the —  —
Vancouver Province
20. CVA, Matthews Correspondence, File 216, Letter to Barney Williams
27.8.41. and his reply.
21. Cone, "Mayor Taylor',
Part One, 1-4.
22. Cone, "Mayor Taylor",
Part Two. 1-4.
23. Cone, ibid. Also CVA,
Kenvyn, 8.
24. Alan Morley, "How the
Mayor ofVancouver Kidnapped a Roosevelt", Vancouver Sun, 16 September
1964, 4. Morley says
Taylor was "a kind, gentle, quiet friendly little
hunk of political and
journalistic dynamite"
who had a habit of "exploding in the faces of
respectable citizens when
they gave him a condescending pat on the
head."
25. Nicol, Vancouver, 165.
26. David R. Williams,
Mayor Gerry, (Douglas &
Mcintyre Ltd.,Vancouver,
1986), 80-81.
27. Hans Blumenfeld, Canadian Planning Issues, A report ofthe Canadian Institute of Planners, Ottawa, 1976,18.
pioned my cause and instaUed me on the tenth
floor of the Temporary City HaU?"20 In his reply,
WiUiams wrote, "If it hadn't been for Alderman
Twiss, and L.D. Taylor, you wouldn't have any
Archives." In any poUtical situation, as those who
have been involved in commissions or committees reaUze, it matters much to have support of a
persistent, ingenious, indomitable individual. L.D.
was certainly that.
It is curious that most Vancouver histories
.downplayTaylor's part in fostering the growth of
a democratic progressive community. Others ignore his contributions altogether. Some merely
triviaUze.The CBC scripts, for example, emphasize episodes such as Taylor's ride in Vancouver's
first ambulance with a Mrs. Bonnalee.21 There
we learn that Taylor and Mrs. Bonnalee had driven
into a man on the street and knocked him out.
The script was unclear as to the severity of the
man's injuries—but this was a vignette of disaster. On another occasion, as reported in the script,
L.D. went out to Lulu Island to welcome a plane
coming in from Victoria. The propeUer blade
knocked him down. He was in the hospital for
weeks.They thought he was going to die ... and
so on. The scripts dwelt on incidents that made
the mayor seem to be accident-prone. Then, as
the script put it, "He went on to other awkward
glories."22 It was an odd thing to say about a man
who had been elected mayor eight times over a
period spanning 25 years.
In most histories there is also a hint of shadow
of scandal over L.D. He was certainly disUked by
Vancouver's upper crust. It wasn't clear whether
there was some impropriety, or just poUtical jealousy, or something more. One CBC script mentioned that the Board ofTrade "had left Taylor
out of a welcoming ceremony again," a welcome
for Teddy Roosevelt.23 The script showedTaylor's
spunk as weU as the Board's haughty attitude. L.D.
found out that he was not going to be invited,
even though he was Mayor at the time, 1915.
When he found out, he went out to Coquidam
in a car, got on the train there, and was with Mr.
and Mrs. Roosevelt when they arrived in town.
He introduced the Roosevelts to the Welcoming
Committee, whisked them into another waiting
car, and took them for a drive through town. The
Welcoming Committee were aU mad as fleas
about that.24
But what was it about L.D. that he was so disliked by Board ofTrade members? Was it some
kind of social impropriety? Was it stealing? Was it
that he turned the tables on the Board too often?
Was it just his democratic ways? The cloud still
hangs over him.
Eric Nicol gendy suggests it was Taylor s "readiness to shake hands with anybody" that jeopardized his reputation. "He had become associated,
in the pubUc mind, with unsavoury characters
attracted to Vancouver by its homespun greed."25
Nicol in this instance refers to rumours rife at
the time of the 1928 police inquiry. G.G.
McGeer's biographer, David WUUams, was less
forgiving of Taylor, and less accurate, when he
laid poUce corruption, prohferation of gambUng
joints, and other "vice" common in the 1920s aU
at Taylor's door:"AU arose", WiUiams writes with
finality, "from Taylor's so-called open town
poUcy."26 Given that the career of McGeer's own
appointee as PoUce ChiefWalter MuUigan, ended
in disgrace,WUUams might have more gracefully
reflected on what a difficult problem mayors face
in matters of policing.
"Single Tax" Taylor was Uberal in his personal
attitudes as weU as in his poUtical leanings, but
that weU-known fact hardly accounts for the intense feeUng against him in certain circles.What-
ever the truth of Taylor's deeds and misdeeds in
the administration ofVancouver's affairs, and
whatever the sources ofthe intense feeUng, L.D.
Taylor and other mayors deserve more objectivity from historians of their city.
To begin with, Taylor could be freed of the
bogeyman satirized in the Punch cartoon. The
100 percent exemption of buUdings from property tax, L.D.'s 1910 poUcy and his most obvious
connection to the Single Tax, was graduaUy abandoned by CouncU, but not by L.D. In 1918, the
exemption was dUuted to 50 percent where it
remained for fifty years, before a further dUution
in 1968. These later CouncUs may have been
unwise. Hans Blumenfeld, Canada's senior philosopher of cities, wrote in the year of Habitat
that shifting the property tax from buUdings to
land (L.D.'s old poUcy) "would do more for the
quaUty of life in human settlements...than aU the
busy housing and development programmes now
being operated by huge and proUferating Federal
and Provincial bureaucracies." 27
A revisiting of L.D.'s legacy is in order.^^
26
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 34 No. 1 Childhood Memories of Vancouver's
Cedar Cottage and Trout Lake District
by A.C. (Fred) Rogers
I have many memories of old Cedar Cottage
and Trout Lake district ofVancouver. I was
born in Vancouver in 1919,and the first home
my parents rented was on Nanaimo Street (#20).
I have no recoUection of that, and we soon moved
into a smaUer house two years later (#18 B). I
was too young to remember that home but I
could recaU the stories my father told me. He
made his own beer then and I was his Utde helper.
Mother fUled the bottles and dad capped them.
It seems I was inspecting each botde, and if a
litde too fuU, I took a sip to make it right. By the
time this was over, I was staggering around and
put to bed to sleep it off.
My dad was not inchned to stay in one place
too long, and moved into home (18). I was now
age four and do have memories whUe there. As
the sketch shows, this rented house was buUt over
a smaU stream that flowed into Trout Lake and
the creek provided many adventures for me.
Salmon came up China Creek in the faU from
False Creek to spawn, and I tried to catch them.
It was only natural I would shp and faU in the
creek and ruin my shoes; so I got a spanking.
After that I went in bare-footed. There were also
some nice trout in the summer, and most of them
I found hiding in the old wooden culvert under
Nanaimo Street.
This small home had no indoor plumbing and
toUet so dad buUt a bench over the creek under
the house. Mother sure didn't Uke that dark place
with spiders and salmon splashing around.
There were two events close by that scared
me. A Utde house nearby (#19) caught fire one
morning, and the smoke and hot cinders drifted
over our house. Dad got a ladder and hose and
watered the roof to wet it down. The old chap
that Uved there alone calmly sat on the front porch
waiting for the fire truck. It was only when the
flames came roaring out the front door that he
moved. His house was reduced to ashes due to
the problem the heavy fire engine had breaking
through the old plank Nanaimo Street which was
rather marshy in places.
There was another fire on
Nanaimo Street.
This was a grocery
store (#15). We aU
ran to see the excitement. The fire
truck came from a
different route before the building
burned down. A
short time later the
owners had a fire
sale there and my
parents bought
several boxes of
canned goods for a
bargain. We didn't
know what was in
the tins as the labels were missing either from
the fire or water damage. So we had some strange
meals until it was used.
There was another event we had whUe in this
house. Evening visitors with nothing to do became a nuisance, looking for Dad's beer. So he
did something about that. He made up a vUe
batch for freeloaders and a batch for himself.
That put an end to the problem.
There was another episode worth recalling.
A neighbor behind our house had his elderly
mother visit him from England. Old man
Higgins came over in the afternoon and asked
dad if he could spare a few beers for his mother
who was exhausted from the long trip. So Dad
gave Higgins some of the vUe beer and said
nothing. Dad thought no more about this until
the morning and asked Higgins how his mother
was feeling. "Oh she's just fine." he said, "she's
still in bed asleep." WeU this got him worried
fearing something could happen to cause trouble. He went under the house and poured the
beer into the creek.The foaming brew went into
Higgins duck pond, and he was puzzled what
happened to the Utde stream. Later that evening
Higgins came to see Dad, and he was hoping
Fred Rogers, seen
above with a bottle of
his father's beer, has
since moved to
Qualicum Beach.
The numbers in the
text refer to the map
on page 29.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 2000/2001
27 nothing had happened. "And how is your mother," dad asked
apprehensively. "Oh she just got up for supper," he said, "and
she's feeUng fine, and wondering if you had more beer."WeU
Dad was so reUeved, he told Higgins he was worried about
her and dumped the beer into the creek. "So that's where aU
the bubbles and foam came from," he said.
My Dad decided to buUd a house we moved into. It was
just around the corner from Nanaimo Street on Lakewood
Street (#13).This house had a bathroom and toUet so mother
was much happier. He purchased an old model T Ford truck,
and with a partner named Harry CoUins, they went on junk
coUecting expeditions up the Fraser VaUey. So the backyard
was soon fined with old engines and greasy machinery. I used
to play around with this and got into a real mess. He also
coUected cascara bark in the bushland of Burnaby. When the
bark was dry, he crushed it by having myself and my sister
jump on it. The bark was sold to extract the juice for a laxative.
I soon acquired a few friends on Lakewood Street, such as
BiU Gracie among others. He was two years older than I and
we often went exploring the two Utde streams that flowed
into Trout Lake. One stream ran alongside a home owned by
a famUy who had a daughter named HUda the same age as
myself. One summer we played in the creek and I made a
dam. WeU, we both got wet and took our clothes off to dry.
Her mother happened to see us and came running over aU
excited and grabbed HUda and her clothes and then scolded
me. So I dressed and ran home.
There was plenty of wUd bushland around there and one
day BiU and I went on a long hike up the stream. It passed
under the raUway tresde as shown. The stream had some good
trout then but I was too young to go fishing. We explored the
old log culvert and beyond 22nd Avenue. It was a long trek and
mother was worried I was lost. I was quite a mess when I got
home aU scratched and wet.
My father told me never to wander down to Trout Lake. It
was a marshy wUderness then, and I remember that during
the summer older boys had campfires burning at night. It was
a secret place of nude swimming.
I started school at age six and it was a long walk to Cedar
Cottage and the school. My father guided me through the
bushland to school until I became famiUar with the traU which
went to Gladstone,Victoria, and Commercial Drive and schools
(#1). I soon had other kids to walk with and wasn't alone.
HUda also went to school with me and another boy. WeU, I
didn't Uke school. The first teacher I had was Miss Robb. She
was short and somewhat sarcastic, and we didn't get along. I
often got the strap and I was transferred to another teacher,
Miss Flemming, a taU blonde woman. We got along fine.
Some boys often played around the interurban raUway tresde, and one day they started a bush fire which roared through
the dry grass and ferns. BUI and I watched this a few minutes
then got scared, and ran away. A few minutes later the fire
men came and saved the tresde. There was a pipe foundry
(#11) on Nanaimo Street, and one day I went to see the men
working. I often thought the buUding was on fire with aU the
smoke coming out. The men were making cast iron pipes and
pouring the molten metal into the castings from the big furnace. I was standing in a doorway watching when suddenly
one mould exploded (too much steam pressure) and the molten metal showered Uke a fountain. No one was hurt but it
scared me. I stayed away after that.
We made another move to Cedar Cottage when I was age
seven, so my two sisters would be closer to school when they
came of age. Father rented a store on Commercial Drive and
we Uved in the back. His new adventure was running a grocery and produce store in competition with a Chinese merchant who was furious with him. They had a few harsh words
one morning. WeU, father sold the business to a man named
Nichols who had a son named Mike about my age. He often
stole candy bars from the store and treated us kids until his
father gave him a sound beating.
My father got another idea and rented another store across
the street where he started a laundry. He had no experience
but that didn't stop him. He buUt a boUer room in the back
aUey, and after school I deUvered the laundry in my Utde wagon.
WeU, he soon ran into trouble and ruined some clothes. So he
decided to seU out and found a buyer.
Cedar Cottage had a different Ufestyle for me and I missed
the Utde streams I knew so weU. I got to know the stores but
that bored me. I often walked down to visit my chum BiU. But
there was one buUding that interested me. It was a Utde theatre (#22) with sUent movies, and although I had trouble reading the written dialogue, it was stiU impressive. One fibn scared
me. It showed a buUding on fire and a Utde girl running and
screaming. The firemen saved her but that image stayed with
me for a long time. I had no desire for more movies until I got
older.
The old theatre had another attraction I discovered. I was
watching people going to a Saturday matinee and often some
coins feU onto the boardwalk and down the open cracks between the boards. This got me thinking. There was a bush
growing beside the boardwalk and I looked to see if I could
get under there. I did and soon found lots of money. In a few
minutes I had a handful of treasure. I was smart enough to
keep this a secret. Whenever I needed money I returned to
my treasure trove. But sadly this came to an end. The theatre
closed and the buUding sold to Bader Bros, who started a
bakery. Workmen tore up the boards and when I tried to get
in they chased me away.
WhUe Uving in Cedar Cottage we often played in Buffalo
Park. Sometimes I fished for catfish in Trout Lake. It was loaded,
and my mother cooked the fish for me. The lake was popular
for ice skating when winter was cold enough, but some careless kids got into trouble by being too anxious to get on before the ice was soUd and broke through. At a much later time,
28
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 34 No. a pet shop owner on Commercial Drive near
Broadway had a team of dogs and a sled aU decorated with jingle beUs. It was a real attraction for
young kids to go riding but it ended in disaster.
A crowd gathered around and the extra weight
caused the ice to break open. The sled and dogs
went down and drowned and some kids were in
the water, who lucidly were rescued. The man
tried to save his dogs and dived down but quickly
gave up. His sled was later salvaged by him with a
grappUng hook and ladder.
On the map I drew a raUway siding between
Victoria Drive and Commercial.Trainloads of fuel
wood were placed there for wood dealers. My
father later used this source of firewood for his
business.
We eventuaUy left Cedar Cottage and moved
to Colhngwood district on Kingsway. Most of
my teenage years I Uved in the Grandview area
of Commercial Drive. I was old enough to go
trout fishing in StiU Creek which was the favourite area for me and new friends. But that's
another story I could teU.<
Below: This map was
drawn by Fred Rogers. The
numbers in the text refer to
the places marked on the
map
LEGEND
K Buildings
Railvay
4-  Trees -bushland
HISTORIC CEDAR COTTAGE
VANCOUVER
Hap
Not to scale
Sketch by the author
Index
1. The first school I [Fred Rogers] attended.
2. The park with wading pool was known as
"Buffalo Park?
3. The interurban railway to New Westminster & route of No.4 streetcar line to Cedar
Cottage.
4. The loop ofthe No.4 streetcar.
5. Apartment building.
6. Drugstore and butcher shop.
7. Shoe store.
8. McKee's clothing & dry goods store.
9. A store my father rented and used for a
laundry business.
10.Three stores.My father rented one for groceries and produce.
11 .Tate's Pipe foundry.
12.The interurban line.
13. A house my father built on Lakewood
Drive.
M.The Hargreave's home.Their daughter
and I played in the creek when only four
years of age.
15. A grocery store on the hill. It caught fire
about 1923.
16. A Japanese family lived here. One of their
boys died at an early age.
17. The English Higgins family. See text for
story.
18. A house my father rented.See text for full
story.
19. A small home (a shack). It caught fire. See
text for story.
20.The first home my father & mother rented
in 1919.
21. The Gracie home. Their son Bill was an
early chum of mine.
22. A small theatre. About 1925, Bader Bros,
converted it into a bakery.
23.The No.4 streetcar station terminal.
24. Gladstone interurban tram station.
25.The dotted line was the trail and route I
walked to school.
26. Grocery store.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -WINTER 2000/2001
29 Book Reviews
Books for review and book reviews should be sent to:
Anne Yandle, Book Review Editor BC Historical News, 3450 West 20th Avenue,Vancouver BC V6S1E4
WilUam Rayner
British Columbia's Premiers in Profile.
Reviewed by Adam C. Waldie
Ian Macdonald and Betty O'Keefe
The Mulligan Affair.
Reviewed by George Newell
Paula Pryce
Keeping the Lake's Way: Reburial and
Recreation of a Moral World Among an
Invisible People.
Reviewed by Barb McPherson
W Hutcherson
Sparks in the Parks.
Reviewed by Philip Teece
MitsuoYesaki and Sakuya Nishimura
Salmon Canning on the Fraser River
in the 1890s.
Reviewed by Arnold Ranneris
MitsuoYesaki and Harold and Kathy
Steves
Steveston: Cannery Row, an illustrated
history.
Reviewed by Arnold Ranneris
Lewis Green
The GreatYears: Gold Mining in the
Bridge River Valley.
Reviewed by Robert Cathro
Margaret Thompson
Eyewitness.
Reviewed by Margaret Owen
Margaret Horsfield
Cougar Annie's Garden.
Reviewed by Jim Rainer
Wing Chung Ng
The Chinese in Vancouver, 1945-80;
the Pursuit of Identity and Power.
Reviewed by Paul Yee
Danda Humphreys
On the Street WhereYou Live:
Pioneer Pathways of Early
Victoria.
Previewed by George Newell
SalUe PhiUips
You're on the Air.
Reviewed by Jaqueline Gresko
British Columbia's Premiers in Profile.
WilUam Rayner. Surrey BC: Heritage House,
2000.286 pp. Paperback $28.95.
Reviewed by Adam C. Waldie.
This timely book is a short, crisp account of
the Uves and times ofthe thirty-one premiers
in this province, up to and including Ujjal
Dosanjh who was inducted on 24 February
this year. Written by a senior journaUst and
editor, it is remarkably complete in its names,
dates and election standings, and could weU
become a useful handbook for anyone writing about this province.
The first chapter of nine pages, entided
"The Corner Office," is a capsule history of
activities emanating from the premier's suite
in the legislative buUdings when it functioned
as the "font from which aU poUtical power
in this province springs." But the author is
quick to point out that "much ofthe influence of the premier's office has been deUb-
erately shifted away from its headquarters in
the west wing of the legislative buUdings,"
and that "Premier Glen Clark conducted
much of the province's business out of the
Cabinet offices in downtownVancouver."The
rest ofthe chapter skips Ughdy over some of
the poUtics and crises from the entry of British Columbia into Confederation in 1871
to the present time. In all it is a readable summary of the turbulent governance of this
province since its inception.
There is a short chapter on each of the
premiers, usuaUy six or eight pages, giving
concise details ofthe date and place of birth
and the names ofthe parents, and often indicating poUtical alUances with other legislators ofthe era. It is a rare poUtician that does
not engender some sort of scandal, but the
author does not waUow in the details.There
are some novel listings at the end ofthe book,
such as a table assigning a performance score
for each ofthe premiers. Predictably W.A.C.
Bennett tops the Ust with a rating of 79John
Hart is second with one of 76, Duff PattuUo
foUows with 73,WilUam Smithe with 69, and
John Oliver, Bill Bennett and Richard
McBride tying at 67 Van der Zalm and Glen
Clark take up the rear with 36 and 30 re
spectively. Of course it is an arbitrary rating
but it is part ofthe author's scheme of Usting
premiers in three groups: the Good, the Bad,
and the Transient—those "whose imprint in
office is too faint to register." Unfortunately
some ofthe author's own poUtical prejudices
are all too evident.
Virtually aU of the premiers in the 130
years of our provincial history had to deal
with staggering provincial deficits but they
were due, for the most part, to raUway construction costs, and not to those of fast ferries as now. The burden of welfare costs in
our day was probably matched by those of
reUef camps during the Great Depression.
And the "Ulegal immigrant" problems of
present times had their counterpart in bygone years in the "Oriental problem" which
was of major concern to our poUticians after
raUway construction virtually ceased at the
end ofthe nineteenth century.
The chapter on each premier is attractively
laid out with a portrait photo in a suffused
oval background in the upper left corner,
together with his name and the dates of his
term in office.The photographs used are excellent, including one of the Bennett Dam,
1967, and one of that forgotten institution,
TranquUle Sanatorium, which was almost like
DevU's Island in its day. There is an interesting aside that President Franklin D.
Roosevelt, as a personal friend of Duff
Pattullo, made one quick visit to the province when, on a tour of the Pacific Northwest, "he nipped across to Victoria aboard a
destroyer." Within two weeks Pattullo was
"sipping tea at the Roosevelt famUy estate
near Hyde Park, New York."
I found but one "typo" though: I am puzzled why the tide of the book is not embossed on the spine. How wUl one pick it
out in a bookshelf?
It is a pleasure to recommend such a concise, readable, and even entertaining book that
casts a bright Ught on the long history of
near anarchical poUtics in this province.'^*'
Reviewer Adam Waldie, a medical practitioner in
many parts ofBCfor many years, died in May of
this year.
30
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 34 No. 1 The Mulligan AffairTop Cop on the Take.
Ian Macdonald and Betty O'Keefe. Surrey,
BC: Heritage House Pubhshing, 1997. 160
pp. IUus. $16.95 paperback.
Reviewed by George Newell.
In his foreword for The Mulligan Affair, Jack
Webster writes that Walter MulUgan, the chief
of the Vancouver Police Department, was
"tough, confident, ambitious, and backed by
friends in high places," then adds "MulUgan
was, unfortunately, also a crook." Rumours
that all was not above board in MulUgan's
force were set aside, and "on at least two occasions" then provincial Attorney General
Gordon Wismer "refused requests from the
[Vancouver] PoUce Commission to order an
inquiry into the activities of [the] department." It was only when stories in the tabloid Flash forced the issue, in June 1955, that
a formal pubUc inquiry was estabUshed.
"From mid-1955 through to spring 1956,"
Macdonald and O'Keefe write, "most of
Canada and parts of the United States were
caught up in the drama ofVancouver's Tupper
Inquiry into the activities of MulUgan and
theVancouver PoUce Department. Fist fights
broke out as hundreds pushed and shoved to
get a seat in the courthouse in order to see
the saga unfold. Media coverage was massive. The inquiry had everything reporters
wanted: graft, corruption, death, boodeggers,
bookies, vice-lords, poUticians with a sudden loss of memory, gambUng squad cops
who could barely remember their names,
hookers, and MuUigan's own black-veUed
"mystery lady."
The "drama" which surrounded the inquiry, with its revelations of the state of the
police department and the city's underworld,
are weU captured in The Mulligan Affair..The
authors draw extensively on the newspaper
reports ofthe day, and have reproduced many
of the headUnes and their accompanying
photographs.These give an immediacy to the
book which is rewarding for the reader. A
listing ofthe "Leading players" is helpful, and
the latter-day comments of four ofthe major participants give a fine overaU perspec-
tive."In the end,"Webster notes,"the inquiry
was a white-wash, and "an exercise in damage control." MulUgan lost his job, went to
CaUfornia, and then returned to Uve out his
life in Victoria. The report of a separate investigation by an RCMP officer into criminal aspects ofthe case "either contained nothing of value or revealed too much.. .it was
never released to the pubUc and no recom
mendations based on its findings were ever
made."
Altogether The Mulligan Affair is an interesting and lucid account of this important
event in the recent history ofthe city ofVancouver. It is weU worth reading. '**»'
Reviewer George Newell is a historian, resident
in Victoria.
Keeping the Lakes' Way: Reburial and
Recreation of a Moral World Among an
Invisible People.
Paula Pryce. Toronto: University ofToronto
Press, 1999. 203 pp. IUus., map. $45 hardcover; $17.95 paperback.
Reviewed by Barb McPherson
Most of us in the Arrow Lakes Valley, whether
we were born here or moved in from another place, don't know much about the native people who inhabited the area before
the advent of Europeans. They were few in
number, we have been told; they spent Utde
actual time in the valley; they were a mishmash of marriages between the Okanagan,
the Kutenai, and the ColviUe.
Now, at last, we have a definitive book
that helps to clear up all the confusion. Keeping the Lakes'Way brings out into the Ught of
day the fascinating, but overlooked, people
who caU themselves the Sinixt and who were
the original inhabitants of this valley. Also
called the Lakes Indians, the Sinixt traversed
the lake systems in the Columbia basin area
for thousands of years and Uved in vUlages
along the shores.
Researchers now have identified over 80
different viUage sites they inhabited, of which
at least 35 were in the West Kootenays. In
the Arrow Lakes Valley, there were at least 15
temporary and permanent dwelling sites.The
Sinixt had thek own way of Uving, their own
distinct culture and language, and Uved relatively peacefuUy on their own terms. But
once the struggle for land began, their peace-
fulness may have been their undoing.
When European setdement encroached
on the Sinixt territory in Washington, those
who Uved there fled to the remote reaches
of the West Kootenays, where they joined
the rest ofthe tribe and lived quiedy in the
seclusion ofthe densely forested valleys. But
then precious minerals were discovered here
in the 1880s and 1890s and, once again, they
were driven from their homes. Some went
back to the Washington area; some went west
to the Okanagan. A few estabUshed themselves at the Oatscott reserve on Upper Ar
row Lake. All the while, however, they remained Sinixt, with their own identity and
culture.
But that fact, unfortunately, escaped nearly
everyone, including the Canadian government. When the last person died on the
Oatscott reserve, the government declared the
"Arrow Lakes Indians" extinct. And despite
all the evidence to the contrary, this position
has not changed.
Keeping the Lakes'Way should help to shed
some Ught on the ambiguous situation ofthe
Sinixt. This scholarly book, written by anthropologist Paula Pryce, who grew up in
the Casdegar area, shows us that they were
not only a real and distinct native people,
but that they still exist and want to be recognized as Sinixt.
Pryce gives us a thorough, in-depth study
of the Sinixt, their history, culture, spiritual
beUefs, and their place in society today. The
author also explains the importance to the
Sinixt of repatriation and reburial of their
dead, who have been scattered far and wide.
We also learn to appreciate what "the Lakes'
Way" is and get to know what these admirable people are all about, perhaps for the
first timc**^
Reviewer Barb McPherson, an Arrow Lakes resident, first published this review in Arrow Lakes
News.
Sparks in the Parks: the experiences of a
Canadian radio officer while serving in the
wartime built deep-sea freighters of Canada's
fourth service, the Canadian Merchant Navy.
W. Hutcherson. Richmond, BC: Old Hutch
PubUcations, 2000.258 pp. IUus. $25 paperback. AvaUable from Richmond Book Services, Box 46,8415 GranviUe St. Vancouver,
BCV6P 4Z9.
Reviewed by Philip Teece.
This is a memoir that recalls a neglected part
of our country's Second World War effort,
Canada's 'fourth service', in which British
Columbia shipyards and seamen played a central role.
The Parks ships were our fleet of cargo
carrying supply vessels (most of them named
after Canadian parks). Built largely in
Vancouver shipyards, these vessels and their
crews faced some ofthe most hazardous service in the 1939-1945 conflict.
As a young school graduate, the author,
after a wireless course at Vancouver's King
Edward High School, joined the wartime
Merchant Marine as a radio officer. His ac-
BC HISTORICAL NEWS - WINTER 2000/2001
31 count offers a first-hand view of the perils
that awaited these vulnerable ships in U-boat-
plagued waters.
The book is a record of often-tedious
weeks of routine and sporadic shore fun interspersed with moments of horror. Vivid
instances ofthe latter include a ship-and-air-
craft coUision that cost many Uves, a destructive Adantic hurricane, and an encounter with
a launch-full of corpses.
Even after the war the Merchant Service
continued to offer a Ufe of hardship. Ironi-
caUy, one of the author's last voyages to the
northern British Columbia ports of Ocean
Falls and Prince Rupert involved sea passages as cold and stormy as some Adantic
crossings.
The book closes with a sad message about
Canada's treatment ofthe crews of these spe-
ciaUzed wartime ships.The merchant seamen
who served in the Second World War were
long denied war veterans' benefits. Nearly
sixty years later, small recognition and compensation have been extended to the Service's
few elderly survivors. The author stiU Uves,
writes, and pubUshes in Richmond.BC.<*==»'
Reviewer Philip Teece lives on a boat near Sonora
Island, BC.
Salmon Canning on the Fraser River in
the 1890s.
MitsuoYesaki and Sakuya Nishimura. IUus-
trated by Duke Yesaki. Vancouver, 2000. 35
pp. Illus. $12.00 paperback.
AvaUable from MitsuoYesaki, #1105 - 1740
Comox St.,Vancouver,BCV6G 2Z1
Reviewed by Arnold Ranneris.
This short book describes the salmon canning process in word and colour. The layout
of Ulustrations on the left page and text on
the right is very pleasing and easy to foUow.
Often small diagrams provide further details,
such as what a "soldering iron" is, or how
the Ud is attached.The author, MitsuoYesaki,
was the co-author of Steveston: Cannery Row.
The book would be an exceUent addition
to a school Ubrary. It could be read to children or children could read it by themselves
and get a sense of what the salmon canning
industry was about. The text is a Utde advanced for young chUdren, but later elementary grades could handle it weU. One suggestion to the authors is to be sure, in future
pubUcations, to include as part ofthe verso
of the tide page where the book can be
ordered. ^^
Steveston: Cannery Row, an Illustrated
History.
MitsuoYesaki and Harold and Kathy Steves.
Richmond, 1998.128 pp. Ulus.,maps. $25.00
paperback. AvaUable from Mitsuo Yesaki,
#1105 - 1740 Comox St., Vancouver, BC
V6G 2Z1
Reviewed by Arnold Ranneris.
This is much more than a history ofthe community of Steveston, now part ofthe City of
Richmond. It is also a lens through which
we can see the history ofthe fishing industry in British Columbia and its related industries, such as fish canneries and
boatbuUding. It also provides an insight into
the Japanese, who did so much to develop it.
The authors are weU qualified to write
this fascinating account. Harold Steves is the
great-grandson of Manoah and Ida Steves,
who were pioneer setders in the area in 1877.
Kathy Steves, married to Harold, has Uved in
the area for many years and keeps historical
records for the Steveston Historical Society.
MitsuoYesaki was born in the Steveston Japanese Hospital and is a descendent of three
generations of Japanese fishermen. The resulting book is the fruit of lifelong identification with Steveston.
The book is very weU organized.The decade-by-decade organization suits the subject, and subsections within each chapter have
maps and tables. ExceUent black-and-white
photographs Ulustrate the text throughout.
An extensive bibUography provides a sense
of the authors' research and Usts places to
foUow up on aspects that may interest the
reader. It is difficult to summarize the content, but this reviewer found it accurate and
even-handed, including its handUng of difficult episodes such as the removal of the Japanese from Steveston during the Second World
War. The last chapter, covering 1975-1997,
entided "Years of Dedine" bridges the gap
between the early and recent history, which
has seen the demise of the fishing industry,
and the "new Steveston," which is arising as
a tourist and upscale residential area.
In summary, this book offers an exceUent
documentary history of a unique British
Columbia town. It is a good book to read
before coming to the British Columbia Historical Federation Conference to be held in
Richmond in May, 2001.^^
Reviewer Arnold Ranneris, Secretary ofthe British Columbia Historical Federation, is a Victoria
librarian, who grew up in Richmond.
The Great Years: Gold Mining in the
Bridge River VaUey.
Lewis Green.\foncouver:Tricouni Press, 2000.
262 pp. IUus. maps. $22.95 paperback. AvaUable fromTricouni Press,3649West IS*Ave.,
Vancouver BCV6S 1B3
Reviewed by Robert Cathro.
The history of mining in Western Canada
has become a forgotten topic, mainly kept
alive in books such as the pictorial history of
the BluebeU Mine by The Riondel Historical Society (1997). In the United States, a
score of university historians are carrying out
historical research on western mining. In
Canada, however, where the industry played
an equaUy important pioneering and economic role, university historians aren't
strongly involved.
Dr. Lewis Green, a geologist who spent
most of his career with the Geological Survey of Canada, has stepped in to help fiU the
gap with this definitive work on the history
ofthe Bridge River gold camp, home ofthe
Bralorne and Pioneer mines. It is situated 60
kUometres west of LiUooet in southern BC.
The author of previous histories of gold
dredging in the Klondike and of the BC-
Alaska boundary survey, Green has coUabo-
rated with a former colleague, Glenn
Woodsworth, who has formed a new pub-
Ushing company with his wife Joy.
Although smaU amounts of placer gold
were recognized on the Bridge River inl886,
the first lode claims were not staked until 10
years later. The "great years" were between
1924 and 1941, and its jobs and equipment
purchases were especiaUy important during
the Great Depression. The Bridge River
camp was notable for its richness (an average
grade of 0.53 ounces per ton), its difficult
road access, the high temperatures encountered in the deep mines, and its strong stock
market promotion. When mining ceased in
1971, production totaUed 4.18 miUion ounces
of gold and 0.94 miUion ounces of sUver.
While this amount is not important on a global scale, the Bridge River camp remains the
largest gold producer in the history of BC.
This is mining history, as it should be written. Exhaustively researched from local newspapers, government records, company files,
the mining press, and interviews and correspondence with over 50 pioneers, this will
likely stand as the final word on the subject.
It is superbly Illustrated with a large coUection of photographs and clear location maps
and supported by footnotes, a good index
and (for the layman) a mining glossary. The
32
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 34 No. reproduction of the photographs is so clear
that the reader will wonder if the originals
were any better. For the layman, there are
clear descriptions ofthe methods and equipment used to extract the gold. For mining
buffs, there is abundant detail about exploration and personaUties. Social historians wUl
appreciate the descriptions ofthe Uving conditions and recreation faculties in the many
local communities, the transportation difficulties, the labour relations (including the
landmark Pioneer strike of 1939-40), the
local merchants and government services, and
the economic conditions in B.C. at the
time.'*^
Reviewer Bob Cathro is a retired geological engineer and a director ofthe Bowen Island Histori-
Eyewitness.
Margaret Thompson. Vancouver: Ronsdale
Press, 2000.190 pp. $8.95 paperback.
Reviewed by Margaret Owen.
"...I ran to the woodshed and plunged inside. Instandy the gloom bUnded me. Before my eyes could adjust, something
clutched the front of my jacket and a grip
like iron tightened about my throat.. ..The
man called TzoelhnoUe stared at me, compelling me to stare back, Uke a weasel with
a rabbit. Slowly he drew a finger across his
own throat and smUed wolfishly."
Thus did eight-year-old Peter encounter two men who had just committed the
murders of two Hudson's Bay post company men. Being weU aware ofthe murder-
retribution custom ofthe area, young Peter
thereafter lived in fear that his Ufe was in
mortal danger because he could now identify the murderers. He had been the sole
eyewitness.
This delightfully told story of an event
of recorded history at Fort St. James in Central British Columbia has been catalogued
as Juvenile Fiction, but I strongly disagree.
Margaret Thompson writes with such a
lovely and educated style that I'd classify this
as Adult and Teen Fiction.A child could follow the story and enjoy it, but so much of
the brilliant writing might weU be overlooked. Being a feUow author and a senior
citizen as weU, I've read the book twice in
as many days, wishing I possessed Mrs.
Thompson's abUity for putting words together in such an engaging manner.
The book describes life around the remote fur-trading post in the 1820s.The only
white people were the orphaned Peter and
about ten others who worked for the Company. The reader meets real historical characters including James Douglas, George
Simpson, and James McDougaU, in this area
of Carrier Indians, led by the great Chief
Kwah, and Uving and roaming the Stuart Lake
area, seUing their furs at the post.
Peter longed for a friend his own age in
this desolate place, and before long was saved
from a bear attack by a brown-skinned young
feUow who "talked" the bear away. Instandy
the two boys became fast friends.
Fleshing out the plot ofthe story are descriptions ofthe eager sled dogs who provided the land transportation, the buUding
of a birchbark canoe from the cutting ofthe
first tree to the applying of a mixture of
spruce gum and bear grease to the seams and
exterior. Peter's learning to identify the various pelts which crossed the counter, and his
training in the business ofthe Post, the near
starvation when the Ufe-sustaining salmon
were late—all this makes the reading of this
book a truly joyous experience.
WhUe the plot may seem juvenile, the
words of Margaret Thompson are so brilliantly woven that I fear adults wiU pass over
this book and miss out on a beautiful one
day's reading experience.'^s*'
Margaret Owen, a resident of Fort St. James, is
the author of So We Bought the Town and
Diary of Fort St. James.
Cougar Annie's Garden
Margaret Horsfield. Nanaimo:1999.260 pp.
$40 softcover. Foreword by Peter C.
Newman. Winner of the Roderick Haig-
Brown Regional Prize for the best book
about British Columbia. Winner of Second
Prize in the BCHF Writing Competition.
AvaUable from Salal Books, PO Box 1021,
Station A, Nanaimo, BC V9R 5Z2. Phone
1(888) 858-5455 or FAX 1(250)753-9468.
Add GST and $5.00 for postage and han-
dUng.
Reviewed by Jim Rainer
The West Coast ofVancouver Island is rocky,
densely forested and isolated. Constandy battered by wind and rain from the fuU force of
Pacific storms, it is beautiful yet forbidding
terrain. Here on an AprU day in 1915 the
steamer Princess Maquinna anchored in
Hesquiat Harbour, some 160 miles north of
her home base in Victoria. Lowered into a
dugout canoe were the Rae-Arthur famUy,
their household goods, tools and a cow, legs
tied together, placed on its back in the bottom of the canoe. The famUy was made up
of three young children under the age of
seven; their father WUUam Francis John Rae-
Arthur, a charming Scot who believed a
gendeman should never do manual work; and
their mother Ada Annie Rae-Arthur, a small,
strong, wUy, courageous woman of EngUsh
stock whose "fierce energy was to carry them
all, come what may, into a new Ufe."
Across seven miles of choppy, steep-sided
swells lay their home, a deserted trapper's
cabin hidden in the dark forest well back from
the beach. At this remote spot, accessible only
by boat or airplane, the woman called Cougar Annie lived for almost 80 years, rarely
went "outside," and became a legend. Largely
by herself she cleared five acres of rainforest
by hand, creating a garden that fed her family and later provided cash from the sale of
plants maUed all over Canada. In 1936 she
convinced Canadian postal authorities to
approve a post office, a tiny room in her home,
which placed Boat Basin on the maps of
British Columbia to this day even though in
1983 the post office was closed. She operated a general store in her home and sold
eggs and vegetables to local natives, fishermen, and loggers. She kUled coundess cougars that threatened her children and Uvestock. Including WiUie, who drowned in
1936, she oudived four husbands—one of
whom she is rumoured to have killed. None
ofthe husbands were of much help with the
hard work, and her daughter Rose says
dismissively "those husbands of hers were
basicaUy hired hands." She bore eight more
chUdren at Boat Basin, three of whom died
in infancy, and another, her son, Lawrence,
drowned in Hesquiat Harbour in 1947. She
was a tough, brave, obstinate, feisty, tenacious
woman. She was a survivor in a very difficult
land.
Her garden was the focus of her life. It
was her work, her joy, her burden, and her
passion, as iUustrated by this quotation: "Being in charge of this working garden meant
labouring every day, dawn till dusk, making
her own chances, following her own rules
and thinking first and foremost of herself and
her garden." She experimented continually
with different species, seeing what would
grow best and what she could profitably seU.
Over the years she sold everything from roses
and fruit trees to shrubs and bulbs, to mosses
and ferns. She brought in plants from growers in British Columbia and Ontario as well
as faraway places like Japan, New Zealand,
ChUe, England, HoUand, and Belgium. Today "the garden still boasts over a hundred
different species of trees and shrubs alone,
BC HISTORICAL NEWS - WINTER 2000/2001
33 representing decades of planting and experimenting." Among them are a Unden tree, a
black locust, an English chestnut, an
ekianthus, a huge Uriodendron, many varieties of ornamental cherry, crabapple and
plum, and dozens of fruit trees. Dahlias were
a large part of Cougar Annie's sales. She grew
nearly two hundred different varieties in the
heyday ofthe garden.
Cougar Annie remained at Boat Basin
until the autumn of 1983 when failing health
forced her departure to a hospital in Port
Alberni where she died on 28 AprU 1985, a
few weeks short of her ninety-seventh birthday. In her latter years the garden was reverting to wUderness and its fate appeared to be
sealed unless someone intervened. That person was Peter Buckland. He had owned the
property since 1981 but he Uved and worked
in Vancouver and could only visit monthly.
He knew the garden needed fuU-time attention. So in 1987 he came to Uve permanendy
and once setded in a new house he buUt near
the beach, he tackled the garden. Armed with
a chainsaw, lopper, and machete Peter and
friends have removed the tangle of growth
strangling the trees, shrubs, and plants and
revived the garden.The task has taken twelve
years. Nothing new has been introduced.Two
kilometres of interconnecting pathways loop
and wander throughout the garden. Mosses
grow freely underfoot. Native Uly ofthe valley, twinflower, bunchberry thrive amid
skunk cabbages, sedge, and ladyfern whUe
perennials and bulbs bloom in seasonal profusion.
To ensure the legacy of Cougar Annie
continues, Peter Buckland has estabUshed the
Boat Basin Foundation and he is donating
the property to the foundation. The aim of
the foundation is to preserve and to maintain the garden for future generations, and to
encourage botanical and environmental studies. The property is the only pioneer homestead that has endured in the Clayoquot
Sound region, an area now designated as a
World Heritage region.
Cougar Annie's Garden is captivating and
appeals in so many ways: it is a biography of
an extraordinary woman; the family history
is engrossing—Ada Annie, born in 1888 in
Sacramento, had a resdess chUdhood as her
parents wandered from England to CaUfornia to South Africa to Alberta to Winnipeg
and finaUy to Vancouver around 1909 where
her father setded as a veterinarian; WiUie,
born in 1873 in Glasgow, was the black sheep
of the prominent Rae-Arthur family, a
drinker, a ne'er-do-weU who did not Uke
hard work and was sent away to Canada
where on 4 September 1909 he married Ada
Annie (and continued to receive remittances
from a wealthy sister until the beginning of
the thirties).
The history ofthe Hesquiat Harbour area
and the role ofthe Fathers Brabant and Moser
is fascinating; pre-emption of land was a lure
offered to setders in the 1900s, and the difficulty of gaining ownership by Wittie Rae-
Arthur is told with insight and humour;WU-
liam Gibson, father ofthe four Gibson brothers of timber fame, is rumoured to have had
an influence in bringing the Rae-Arthurs to
Hesquiat and according to Gordon Gibson's
autobiography Bull ofthe Woods sold a cabin
to them.
Margaret Horsfield has written a worthy
winner of a BC Book Prize. Author of three
previous books, she has written for The
Guardian and The Independent among others,
did extensive feature reporting for BBC
Radio in England and contributed to CBC
Radio's Ideas. The book is based largely on
primary sources: interviews, letters, unpublished memoirs, archival documents and private papers. Cougar Annie 's Garden was self-
pubUshed, independendy financed and marketed privately, an extraordinary achievement.
The book is weU designed, printed on coated
paper with French flap covers. The approximately 150 photographs are superb, two-
thirds in colour. The pictures of old envelopes, letters, journal entries, and government
records provide much to interest lovers of
good handwriting. This is a book of many
pleasures.'*5^
Reviewer Jim Rainer is an avid gardener and chairman ofThe Alcuin Society.
The Chinese in Vancouver, 1945-80; The
Pursuit of Identity and Power.
Wing Chung Ng, 1999 Vancouver: University of B.C. Press. 213 pp. $75 hard cover;
$29.95 paperback.
Reviewed by Paul Yee.
When I began studying Chinese-Canadian
history in the mid-1970s, I remember complaining that available historical works on the
histories of Chinese in Canada often masked
white racism. As weU, it seemed, given the
overwhelming number of studies on these
highly visible elements, as if the Chinese had
emigrated to the New World with the express purpose of setting up clan, district, and
poUtical organizations. Happily,Wing Chung
Ng's The Chinese in Vancouver 1945-1980 direcdy addresses these and other issues.
The book's key achievements are firsdy,
its focus on a period often overiooked in studies of histories of the Chinese in Canada.
UsuaUy, the immediate post-Second-World-
War period is Ughdy skipped over, depicted
as the joyous turning point for the Chinese
in Canada as racist barriers against them are
lifted. This, of course, reflects how racism
dominated the teUing of Chinese Canadian
history: once the racism eased, the story
ceased being interesting. In his reveaUng account, Ng examines the key players of this
period, the old-timers, immigrant youth, and
Canadian-born youth, to see how they interacted with one another. Divisions cut
through the community by generation (old-
time fathers versus newly-arrived sons) and
by place of birth (immigrant youth versus
Canadian-born youth).
Secondly, Ng revises scholarly thinking on
the traditional clan and district associations
during the 1950s and 1960s. Past studies suggested they declined during this period given
the changing demographics within the community (i.e. rise to leadership of a new
younger generation) and the removal of racist barriers in mainstream society. Ng proposes that the ongoing pubUc ritual activities of these associations at that time played a
key role in maintaining cultural identity and
community for the old-timers during a time
of great change. These activities included
annual cycles of banquets, cemetery visits,
leadership elections, and a successful mechanism for investment. Ng's analysis allows for
a poignant human dimension to frame the
inevitable passing ofthe old-timers' generation, and also explains why these organizations continue to exist.
Thirdly, Ng shifts the framework of study
away from race relations because in such studies, the majority society always victimizes the
Chinese and the authors of such studies tend
to deprive the Chinese of initiative or conscious motivation. Ng constructs a framework
of analysis around the question of individual
and coUective identity and places the Chinese front and centre to restore their many
voices by asking how they, rather than the
host society, defined being a Chinese ethnic
minority. Over the period of study, Ng examines how different segments ofthe community articulated their identity as they contended over social and poUtical issues and
foresaw their future in Canada. He notes that
identity construction was a complex process,
34
BC. HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 34 No. given that the community had long contained
competing sub-interest groups.
Fourthly, Ng situates his study of
Vancouver's Chinese into a global perspective, comparing the Vancouver experience
with that of other overseas Chinese in the
United States and South East Asia. China,
for example, has long influenced discussions
of identity in terms of cultural retention and
homeland loyalty. Importandy, the author
factors in Hong Kong as a surrogate native
place (other than China) for Chinese immigrants due to its role as a major production
centre of modern Chinese culture. Interestingly, he notes a similarity between recent
and earUer immigration: both "astronauts"
and "bachelors" faced separation from families as part of their immigration experience.
This book is a welcome addition to studies ofthe Chinese in Vancouver, as this community continues to thrive on Canada's west
coast.The book should find a home on pubUc library shelves, even though its first chapter, the introduction, gready intimidated me
with post-modern terms such as "essential-
ist," "historical agency," "structuraUst paradigm," and "discursive parameters." '<:a^
Reviewer PaulYee is the author q/"Saltwater City,
Tales from Gold Mountain, and many juvenile titles.
On the Street Where You Live: Pioneer
Pathways of Early Victoria.
Danda Humphreys. Surrey, BC: Heritage
House, 1999.189 pp. IUus., maps. $34.95
hardcover
Reviewed by George Newell
On the Street Where You Live is a coUection
of 40 articles that Humphreys wrote for the
Victoria Times-Colonist over the past few years.
The starting point for each article is the
street's name, and from that the author tells
something of the history of the person or
family after whom the street was named, or
ofthe principal family which made its home
there. The sub-tide, Pioneer Pathways of Early
Victoria, is not quite accurate; the contents
embrace people and famUies located in the
Sooke area to the west and into the Saanich
peninsula to the north, well beyond the Urn-
its ofthe city proper.
This is a convenient and very effective way
to approach the history of the city and its
environs. In her introduction, which is a very
capable synopsis ofthe city's physical development, Humphreys claims that the book
"affords a snapshot gUmpse of just a few of
the people who Uved here during Victoria's
first quarter century."This is a modest claim;
many ofthe pieces go weU beyond the first
25 years, and the "snapshot glimpse" is by
most standards much more than that.
Altogether the book is very easy-to-take
local history. The stories are full of snippets
ofthe trials and tribulations, and ofthe triumphs, of Uves Uved at the edges of civilization. Humphreys points out that "Each street
name teUs a story, some of them intensely
personal, aU of them fascinating", and it is to
her credit that she is largely able to capture
the fascination. She has an eye for the teUing
detaU, a feeUng for the terrain, a sense for the
passage of time and its effect on people and
the places they inhabit.
In the book good use is made of early
photographs. They are an integral part and
are well presented with clear reproduction
and helpful captions and legends. There is a
very adequate index, quite weU detaUed, and
a bibUography Usting 32 items and some general sources for the articles.<_==^'
Reviewer George Newell lives in Victoria.
You're on the Air.
SalUe PhilUps.Victoria: Sono Nis Press,
2000.213 pp. $21.95 paperback.
Reviewed by Jacqueline Gresko
If you want to learn about the lives of British Columbians in the mid-twentieth century, read SalUe PhiUips' book. You're on the
Air is a compUation of the radio scripts she
read on Vancouver stations in the 1940s and
1950s. Radio buffi will appreciate this was
before broadcasts were taped.
Modern academic historians overlook the
significance of radio in British Columbia,
unless the programs concerned poUtical or
businessmen in the "Big Smoke." In contrast,
Phillips speaks of leaving Vancouver, "going
up the country" and "opening day."As a suburban wife and mother she joined in fishing
and hunting expeditions. Her photographs
of the loaded car and trailer, the camp suppUes, and the campsite enhance her description of "how one family [went] camping."
She thus gives us special insight into the experiences of families in this province in the
1950s.
SalUe PhiUips' book has particular value
as a source on British Columbia women's
lives. Although she voices the historical stereotype that mid-twentieth-century women
were just housewives, her radio scripts tell
stories ofthe movement of married women
Errata
Apology
The text ofthe article "The Hammond
Brothers and Port Hammond" by Barry
Cotton (Volume 33/4) was altered without the author's knowledge and consent.
The editor apologizes for this and sincerely regrets the upset it has caused the
author.
One-Armed Tomo
Vol 33/4: "On the TraU of the One-
Armed Man." The speUing Quamtany
used throughout the article is a rare variant ofTomo's last name. Usually it is written Ouamtany and that is why Tomo
called himself Anthony or Antoine in later
years.
Sonia Cornwall
Vol 33/4, page 37. The subject of the
painting is of course: "...House at Onward Ranch...," not Outward Ranch.
outside the home. The "West Coast Wives"
she visited considered themselves part of
marital and occupational teams. They chose
lives on isolated stations. They took on the
jobs as camp cooks on top of housework,
childcare, and teaching correspondence
courses. Fifty per cent ofthe housewives the
radio reporter met on her travels throughout the province held jobs outside the home.
SalUe Phittips' own life as a working and trav-
eUing wife/mother/radio correspondent
contradicted the domestic feminine image
too.
The overall portrayal of everyday Ufe of
the 1950s in British Columbia in You're on
the Air wUl benefit students of its history. I
recommend it to them, and to anyone who
aspires, as I did last year, to sort out sixty
years of her mother's stuff and understand
what it all meant: the canning as well as hunting gear, her lunch bucket, her work overalls,
and aU her radios.'*=»•'
Reviewer Jacqueline Gresko teaches history at
Douglas College, New Westminster, BC
Also Noted:
A Place for Gold.
Walter Guppy. Tofino: Grassroots Publication.
2000.146 pp. Map. Paperback.
AvaUable from Walter Guppy,
PO Box 94,Tofino BC.V0R 2Z0
BC HISTORICAL NEWS - WINTER 2000/2001
35 Reports
Powell Rivers5 Patricia Theatre
Struggling for a New Life
by Dean linger
Just as smells can conjure up remembrances
of other places or times, so can visual landmarks have the effect of dredging up memories that had been seemingly lost to the flow
of time. It had been a long whUe since I had
been back to my hometown of PoweU River,
and as I drove past the Patricia I instandy
recalled my first movie theatre experience
there at four years of age. We had come to
watch Walt Disney's Dumbo. I remember being amazed, even at that young age, at the
way the place was buUt. Foremost in my recollections were the murals that had adorned
the huge wall panels.
I decided to contact the owner and see if
I couldn't relive the amazement of my
younger years. I discovered that since that
time the theatre had been let go almost to
the point of annihilation, and that the present
owner, Michael Scott, was doing his best to
save it. I am a writer and journalist by trade
and could not help but see the potential for
a story.
From early on in its development, fueUed
by the youthful confidence of a prospering
setdement, PoweU River had set for itself a
high standard of entertainment. Movies were
just the thing to meet some of this demand.
The first theatre in PoweU River was a small
tent movie show pitched on the corner of
Ash and Walnut and run by a Vancouver Island operation. It was only a short time, however, before a seasonal coastal gale blew
through town and took the tent movie show
with it. Cosgrave and McDonald buUt the
first Patricia Theatre—named after Princess
Patricia, daughter of the Duke of Connaught—on 2nd street at Walnut and ensured
that this one was a more permanent structure. It was in 1928 that the Patricia Theatre
found its permanent home at the corner of
2nd and Oceanview. That year saw both the
height of the vaudeville era and the breakthrough of sound motion pictures. By 1929
the sound movies had become so popular
that it created problems for theatre proprietors not ready for the technological change.
McLeod-Scanlon Amusements Limited, a
Vancouver based company, seeing the advancement as an opportunity that would keep
them at the leading edge ofthe industry, installed sound equipment in the Patricia Theatre and other theatres they owned.
The Patricia Theatre—attracting big-
name features in its time—was constructed
in the tradition of Spanish Renaissance ar-
a
o
I
I
Above: It was in 1928 that the Patricia Theatre found its permanent home.
DOLORES OBL, RIO
chitecture complete with wall panels depicting gardens, gUt panels on the row-ends, sUk
curtains, a balcony for valued visitors, and an
orchestra pit. Door frames, window panels,
and mouldings were all fashioned from
knodess fir, stiU as straight and true today as
the day it was cut.
The Patricia, in spite of its splendour,
would doubdess have been demoUshed, but
for the efforts of Michael Scott, who came
to PoweU River during the mid 1980s. Scott,
previously an agent for many top musical acts
and with connections in HoUywood, was
drawn in by the tales of old fishermen and
seasoned loggers who had Uved in rum-running days of the prohibition. He learned
about Al Capone's influence reaching far up
the coasdine. In particular he Uked the story
ofthe gunfire that erupted in the early morning hours of 14 March 1932 when Charles
Bagley and Edward Fawcett, two notorious
criminals wanted across the United States and
Canada, robbed the massive iron safe of the
PatriciaTheatre.
Fascinated by the unique history of the
place Scott decided to look for evidence of
the story. But when he stood before the
Patricia he looked at a buUding that, although
it was still operational, had been badly neglected. It was barely recognizable from the
early photos he had seen. Life once sparkled
here with the buzz of chorus girls and vaudeville troupes. Now the windows were darkened, many broken, boarded up and nailed
shut. Inside, fifteen-foot cobwebs hung from
36
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 34 No. 1 the ceilings. Rats had taken up permanent residence and could be seen
running along the Plateresque cornice.The ornate murals had been painted
over, and the Ught sconces had been covered, hiding much ofthe original interior.
In spite of obvious difficulties, Michael Scott saw that the theatre
could be revived. Any apprehension vanished as he explored the dark
buUding and the project became a journey of discovery. Long-forgotten
rooms were found sealed behind walls during earUer remodelUng. Treasures were hidden in closets and tucked away in dark corners: original
light fixtures, film canisters, and tobacco paraphernaUa. Vintage movie
posters turned up behind later-constructed showcases, and even an autographed picture of Al Jolson, who once played there in the days of the
Dockstader Minstrels.The most important find, however, were the original
McLeod-Scanlon contracts, blueprints, and drawings, and a Ust of the
original colours, complete with mixing instructions.
Drawing on his own finances, Scott has the Patricia Theatre slowly
beginning to show glimpses of its old integrity. At present it is a venue
for "A" circuit movies and one ofthe oldest operating theatres in North I
America. But the restoration process has been a difficult one, and the |
theatre has once again been put up for sale. As Michael Scott confided to 5
me the main difficulty was, aside from the support ofthe Powell River |
Museum and a few ofthe locals, a mosdy apathetic community strug- M
gling to come to terms with its history.
Today, standing in the, sUent, empty theatre it is not difficult to imagine the sounds of an eight-piece band playing its smooth numbers, and
the dancing girls' flat leather shoes clapping on the stage; or imagine the
grace of Garbo or Dietrich on the sUver screen. The Patricia stands again
as a monument to coastal BC's pioneer days and to the early days ofthe
film industry. <"==•■'
i
^fW*
Above: Powell Rivers'sfirst Patricia Theatre replaced a small tent movie
show that was blown away by the wind. Posters show "Boxing Contest,"
"Charlie Chaplin,"and "Jitney Elopement."
Thinking about Museums
by Val Patenaude, Maple Ridge Museum
The BC Museums Association held its annual conference inVictoria this October in
conjunction with the Western Museums Association ofthe United States. This brought
together nearly 750 museum professionals
representing an enormous range of facUities
from small community museums to art galleries to science centres to the mammoth
institutions of states Uke CaUfornia.
Perhaps the most striking aspect of the
conference was that we aU suffer the same
problems and that money is not the only
concern, nor even the biggest issue. Both
Canada and the United States are complex
multi-cultural societies where curators feel
very strongly the need to represent all those
cultures in ways that are respectful and interesting, thoughtful and honest. We readUy
admit that past efforts have focussed on isolated aspects of culture Uke art or technology and that rarely is the attempt made to
explain the culture from the inside and in its
own voice.
Another issue facing museums is how far
are we to go in the direction of "infotainment"? AU institutions want to increase
their visitor base and to attract people who
don't normaUy go to museums.That sounds
great, but how far can we go in the direction
of current pop culture before we become yet
another multi-media entertainment experience that is big on flash and sizzle and low
on content? Do we need to go the fuU Disney route to attract young people to museums or wiU that process destroy us?
Another big issue facing museums and
archives is the handUng of controversy. Should
we avoid it or do we have an obUgation to
present the information we hold that might
help clarify an issue or put it in historic context, even if it draws fire from special interest
groups ? How do we represent and reflect
that historic context if we are bound by
modern notions of "poUtical correctness"?
The last primary theme was about engaging our community in history related projects
and celebrations. This is a development that
has occurred quite naturaUy as museum curators have found themselves short of resources and space and have looked to Ubraries, malls and other pubUc venues. Perhaps
the most prominent discovery from this process is that while people are always interested
in "ancient" history and the roots of their
community, they are more engaged with displays that reflect their own past and particularly their youth. This more recent history
provides a bridge between generations and
serves to remind us how quickly we forget.
For next year's conference, the two associations wUl go their own way again, though
we might find some BCMA members attending the Western Museums Association
conference in pursuit of greater international
cooperation and not entirely because it's in
Palm Springs.'*5^
BC HISTORICAL NEWS - WINTER 2000/2001
37 News and Notes
Please send information to be published in News and Notes to the editor in Whonnock before IS August, 15 November, 15 February and 15 May.
From the Members
Burnaby Historical Society
Extract from report submitted at BCHF council
meeting by Margaret Matovich. Monthly meetings have resumed after the summer break. A
quarterly newsletter is produced. Burnaby
Historical Society continues to maintain the
records ofthe Burnaby Community Archives
and participates in special community events
with brochures, displays, and video presentations.
Hedley Heritage Museum Society
In the spring of this year the society offered
a one-hundred-doUar award for the return
of their Hedley heritage sign, missing for two
years. Believe it or not.AlJohnson, the owner
of the Mother Lode store in Hedley, told
the society that a buddy of his had spotted
the sign on someone's shed in Surrey.
Through famUy connections in Surrey the
RCMP became involved and volunteers in
Surrey arranged the recovery of the 400-
pound sign and its return to Hedley. No
charges were laid. — Source: Hedley Heritage
Museum Society Newsletter and Naomi Miller.
London Heritage Farm
Extract from report submitted at BCHF council
meeting by Ron Hyde. The London Heritage
Farm reports an unprecedented increase in
interest and visits compared with previous
years. With the help of several hired students
it was possible keep the farm open seven days
a week during July and August. Annual plant
sale, collectibles fair, and Christmas craft fair
are special events attracting many. The cataloguing of all artifacts, furnishings, and equipment is planned and the Farm has appUed
for two students through Youth Community
Action.
Nanaimo Historical Society
Last spring the Nanaimo Historical Society
hosted Victoria's Old Cemetery Society.
Members of Nanaimo Historical Society
accompanied the visitors on their tour of
Nanaimo's cemeteries. In the morning the
guests visited the Pioneer Cemetery, one of
British Columbia's oldest still extant, and the
main cemetery, where many prominent citizens lie buried. In the afternoon the Chinese Cemetery and the Memorial Garden
to Chinese Pioneers, the former cemetery,
were visited, where Chuck Wong and Dick
Mah explained Chinese burial customs.
—Source: Nanaimo Historical Society: News for
Members, September 2000.
North Shore Historical Society
In the November issue ofthe newsletter of
the society, president and newsletter editor
Roy Pallant reports the passing away of
Harold Cook Fromme. Harold Uved in Lynn
VaUey aU the ninety-five years of his Ufe. In
1899 Harold's fatherjulius Martin Fromme,
buUt the first house in what was then called
Shake Town (now Lynn VaUey) and subdivided his land in 1903 selUng sixty blocks to
early setders.
Harold Fromme owned and operated a
garage on Fromme Road from 1936 till his
early and very active retirement years, starting in 1966. Harold added many maps, photographs, and drawings to the coUection of
the NorthVancouver Museum and Archives.
He took a vigorous and essential part in tracing and mapping the remnants of historic
logging including the mapping ofthe 11-
mile route ofthe flumes which carried shingle bolts to the saltchuck.The map, drawn in
sections, shows in detail the route ofthe flume
over what are now the lawns and gardens of
Lynn VaUey from Rice Lake and the Lynn
Creek down to Burrard Inlet. The almost 12-
feet long map he created is on display in the
museum in NorthVancouver. Roy Pallant
refers to Harold as "everyone's friend," and
as could be expected, the church where the
memorial service was held was fUled with
famUy and friends, including Mayor Don Bell
of the District of North Vancouver and his
predecessor, Murray Dykeman. —Source :The
North Shore Historical Society, November 2000
Okanagan Historical Society
The society recendy pubUshed its 65th annual report. As the cover of this issue reminds
us, the Okanagan Historical Soceity celebrated its 75th anniversary this year. The
OHS was founded in 1925, only a few years
after the British Columbia Historical Federation was organized in 1922 under its first
name British Columbia Historical Associa-
tion.The 76th annual general meeting ofthe
Okanagan Historical Society wiU be held on
Sunday 6 May, 2001 .As usual the date coin
cides with the BCHF annual gathering held
in Richmond this year. President Peter Tassie
expressed the hope for a "better liaison" with
the BCHF and perhaps some joint meetings.
Princeton and District
Extract from report submitted at BCHF council
meeting by Margaret Stoneberg. A busy year with
an addition to the museum to house a fossil
exhibit.The Princeton Family History book has
just been pubUshed. A weU-known pioneer
family—the AUisons—held a famUy reunion
attended by over 300 in Princeton.
Victoria Historical Society
Extract from report submitted at BCHF council
meeting by Arnold Ranneris. The Society has
monthly meetings with an exceUent Uneup
of speakers. Several group outings have taken
place throughout the year. The Society has
revised a membership brochure. Over 30
historical groups are active in the Victoria
Other News
Gabriola Historical and Museum
Society
Volume l,No. 1 of Shale, the journal ofthe
society is out and we must congratulate editor and contributor Nick Doe and his fellow-contributors Dr. Loraine Litdefield,
Lynda Poulton, Barrie Humphrey, and PhylUs
Reeve for a most informative and elegant
inaugural issue. Shale subscriptions cost $15
for four issues and single issues are for sale
for $5. Interested? Write to Shale subscriptions, Gabriola Historical and Museum Society, PO Box 213, Gabriola, BCV0R 1X0.
BC Heritage Trust: Scholarships
and Student Prizes
AppUcations for British Columbia Heritage
Trust scholarship and student prizes for 2001
must be received by 16 February and 28 February respectively. Information and applications can be found posted on their Web page
www.heritage.gov.bc.ca/trust/scholar.htm
—Source: BC Heritage Trust
Scanning History
Thanks to funding provided by the Canadian Heritage grant program Young Canada
Works in Heritage Institutions, coUege and
38
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 34 No. 1 university students were hired to scan more
than 15,000 historic photographs ofthe collection of City ofVancouver Archives and
Vancouver PubUc Library. By the end ofthe
current grant they hope to have done at least
another 2,000 photographs. The CVA photographs are available at the Web site
www. city, vancouver.be. ca/city clerk/archives.
Those of theVancouver PubUc Library will
be accessible on the Ubrary's Web site later
this year. — Source: Vancouver Historical Society Newsletter. October 2000
AABC Conference 2001
Archives Association of British Columbia
2001 conference wUl be held inVictoria at
St. Ann's Academy on 27 and 28 April. The
theme wUl be: "The place of archives in heritage."
Collaboration
In the faU 2000 edition of AABC Newsletter,
Jane Turner, president of the Archives Association of British Columbia, acknowledges
the submission of letters of support to the
government for Archives Week by the British Columbia Historical Federation and other
organizations.
She also writes: "The British Columbia
Historical Federation's journal, British Columbia Historical News, has recendy developed a
regular column under the direction of Fran
Gundry entided,'Archives and Archivists.'The
column has brought archival issues before its
readers, and draws connections between the
value of archives and their vital role in understanding our past. Gary MitcheU, Provincial Archivist, and BUI Purver, our AABC
Network Coordinator, have both contributed thoughtfUl pieces to the column. In future Fran anticipates that the column wiU
also explore archival holdings and access issues, which wUl be of interest to BCHN readers. We applaud the initiative ofthe BCHF
to promote archives in this way. If you have
not done so, be sure to take time to read this
informative journal."
BC Archives Action Group
The formation of the "Friends of the BC
Archives" has not ended the activities ofthe
BC Archives Action Group.The BCAAG decided to continue as a lobby group for archives users with the archives and with government and is prepared to be more poUtical and, if necessary, confrontational, than a
"Friends" group can be. This year the
BCAAG has been active on a number of issues as shown on their Web site: web.uvic.ca/
~}\utz/arch-index.htm. This new Web site
contains contacts and other information as
well.
Friends of the BC Archives
The "Friends of the British Columbia Archives," is an organization concerned with
the documentary heritage of British Columbia.
At their inaugural meeting, held inVictoria in October, members elected the foUowing board of directors: President Evert Moes;
Vice President Marie ElUott; Secretary/Treasurer Ronald Greene; and Directors at Large
Sandra GUI, Dr. John Lutz and Branwen
Patenaude.
In his greetings, published in the first
newsletter of the "Friends," Provincial Archivist Gary MitcheU welcomes the "Friends"
as an organization "to support and assist in
making community archives generaUy and
the BC Archives specificaUy better understood within our society." He continues writing that:'"Friends'.. .are the voice of a community, responding to the needs and desires
ofthe user and non-user. They are the educators, out in the schools, community centres and cultural events, speaking and teaching about archives generaUy and the BC Archives specificaUy. They are the sponsors,
hosting speaking engagements, seminars, and
lecture series about how to preserve famUy
photos and records, etc. They are the friends
who are the sounding board for innovations
within the BC Archives.They are the volunteers, who assist the trained, professional BC
Archives staff in rescuing, preserving, and
making accessible more of our documentary
heritage than we ever thought possible.That
is what 'Friends' are. Valued. Vital. Supportive."
The "Friends" encourages everyone to
become a member and they are also looking
for volunteers wilUng to work on various
projects. Membership fees cover the year from
September to August. The fees are $15 for
students and seniors, $20 for individuals, $30
for famiUes, and $50 for corporations and
institutions. For information write to: Friends
of the British Columbia Archives, c/o BC
Archives, PO Box 9419, Stn Prov Govt,Victoria BC,V8W 9V1, or contact a member of
the board.
"Gunpowder Gertie"
A historical heroine was "revealed" to West
Kootenay residents in an AprU 1st pubUcation in 1995.The tale of'Gunpowder Gertie,"
a lady pirate was first told when Carolyn
McTaggart was assisting a teacher in rural
Redfish School. McTaggart's extensive work
in provincial archives assured the accuracy
of her findings.
Gertrude Imogene Stubbs came to
Sandon with her parents in 1895. Young
Gertrude worked as a stoker for her father
on the Kaslo & Slocan RaUway. After her
parents died she—disguised as a boy—went
to work in the engine room of sternwheelers
plying Kootenay Lake. EventuaUy her identity was revealed. Gertrude was prompdy
dismissed. To gain revenge she commandeered a powerful new launch and with the
assistance of a small crew, became a pirate on
Kootenay Lake.
Bob Johnstone told the story on CBC
Radio's "This Day in History" in February
1999 and Carolyn's McTaggart phone started
ringing:"Your fictitious heroine was on CBC
this morning." She phoned CBC, explained
her part of the story, and was connected to
Mr. Johnstone. He gulped, then roared with
laughter.
Since then, Carolyn McTaggart and her
husband have prepared a 25-minute video
taking viewers in and beyond the Kootenays
through the turbulent times of Gertie. The
video was made on location at Sandon and
on the SS Moyie in Kaslo.—Naomi Miller
Encyclopedia of British Columbia
On 3 November 2000, Harbour PubUshing
Co. officially launched their brand-new book
at the Main Branch ofVancouver PubUc Library. The encyclopedia contains more than
4,000 articles, 1,500 photos, and hundreds
of maps and diagrams. It was noted that items
on the Kootenays were vetted or written by
two former presidents ofthe BC Historical
Federation, Ron Welwood and Naomi Miller.
Nakusp historian Rosemarie Parent, Kaslo's
Martin Lynch, and former Nelsonite Ted
Affleck have also contributed to this extensive work. The editor is Daniel Francis of
NorthVancouver.—Naomi Miller
Governor General's Award
Three Kootenay teachers and two teachers
from Delta were named among Canada's top
history teachers. They were the BC finalists
for the 2000 Governor General's Award for
ExceUence in Teaching Canadian History,
nominated for their dynamic and innovative
approach to teaching Canadian history.
Gloria Beecham, Linda Hoffmann, and
Donalda Messer from Crescent VaUey (Nelson) developed a learning resource kit "History Connection," which focuses on local
BC HISTORICAL NEWS - WINTER 2000/2001
39 history and has been used in schools in the
area since 1997. Susan Anderson and Susan
Earles from Beach Grove Elementary, Delta,
created a locaUzed, chUd-centered curriculum in Canadian history, focussing on Delta,
Tsawwassen, and Ladner pioneers.
The five finalists from British Columbia
and 14 other finalists were honoured at a ceremony at Ottawa's Rideau HaU on 18 November. Mario Mimeault, from Riviere-au-
Renard, Quebec, received this year's award.
—Naomi Miller and Ron Welwood.
Japanese Canadians National Museum & Archives Society
We congratulate the Japanese Canadian National Museum & Archives Society at the
opening ofthe inaugural exhibition at Nikkei
Place in Burnaby. The JCNMAS wants to
rediscover the Japanese-Canadian heritage
and the importance of the Japanese Canadian history. They ask to contribute to the
museum and archive's collection and to share
family histories to add to the coUective national history. The Society seeks volunteers
from across the country to contribute their
talents. Tax-deductible donations are welcome. For further information please contact the Japanese Canadian National Museum, #120-6688 Southoaks Crescent,
BurnabyBC,V5E 4M7, Phone: (604) 777-
8000, Fax (604) 777-7001. E-mail
jcnmas@telus.net.Web site www.jcnm.ca
—Naomi Miller
Women's History Network
Women's History Month, October, came
early to Douglas CoUege this year. We hosted
the Women's History Network of BC Conference on Friday 29 and Saturday 30 September on the theme "Women and Health."
We had a great gathering thanks to CoUege
staff and our presenters. Mavis Henry spoke
about the traditions of First Nations' healing. Norah Lewis spoke on home remedies
ofWestern setders communities. Catherine
Marcellus, Betty Dandy, and Betty Robertson
shared stories on Mission's community hospital. A panel discussion on the writing of
history and the writing of women's history
completed the conference. For membership
or newsletter information on the Women's
History Network of BC write to Cathy Kess,
#20-1030 Hulford Street,Victoria,BC,V8X
3B6.—Jaqueline Gresko
Spirited Women
While the historical documentation of women's experiences is beginning to find its way
into contemporary Uterature the history of
specific groups of women, such as that of
CathoUc women reUgious, is stiU neglected.
Yet these women often played crucial roles
in the development of Canadian society. The
recent book SpiritedWomen,A history of Catholic Sisters in British Columbia wiU assist in fining the gap in documenting and understanding the importance of CathoUc women reUgious in the historical evolution of British
Columbia.
The book, a soft cover with approximately
three hundred pages and over a hundred pictures, was produced by Harbour PubUshing
Co. Ltd. retaUs at $27.95. Books can be ordered from the Sisters Association Archdiocese ofVancouver, #215 7700 Francis Road,
Richmond BC.V6Y IA. Phone: (604) 272-
4779. E-maU: hudec@telus.net
Spaces and Landscapes
The 54th Pacific Northwest Conference is
scheduled from 19 to 21 AprU 2001 in Portland, Oregon.The theme ofthe conference
is the region in a new miUennium. The program committee gives special notice and
placement to sessions that address teaching
history in secondary and post-secondary
schools. The conference is sponsored by the
Washington State Historical Society. Co-
sponsors are Oregon Historical Society and
Pordand State University. For conference
information contact Jean Peterson at the
WHS Heritage Resource Center (360) 586-
0219 orjpeterson@wshs.wa.gov
Paddlewheelers
Edward L. "Ted" Afflecks's recendy pubUshed
compUation of information on inland steamboats, A Century of Paddlewheelers in the Pacific
Northwest, the Yukon and Alaska, seems to be
selling faster than expected. If you are still
interested in this reference book you should
write to Alexander Nicolls Press, #208,2250
SE Marine Drive,Vancouver BC,V5P 2S2,
before the stock is sold out.
BBC and Canadian Pacific Railway
MeUssa Blackburn ofthe British Broadcasting Corporation writes us:
"The history department here at BBC
television is considering making a documentary film about the buUding ofthe Canadian
Pacific Railway. It would be part of our well-
known Timewatch series and be seen all over
the world, and would be directed by one of
our senior producers, Jonathan GiU.
"Obviously the story ofthe CPR is a great
one (weU-known in Canada but not, I sus
pect, outside it) and our film would cover
the fascinating history ofthe construction of
the raUway from 1881 to 1885. We would
use eye-witness accounts ofthe time, and the
wealth of contemporary photographs to paint
a picture of this enormous human endeavour. I'm particularly interested in interviewing the remaining relatives of the protagonists of this story—this ranges from the great
figures such as Donald Smith and William
Van Horne, to the navvies who worked on
the track, and the people who were affected
by the advent ofthe CPR.
"I've already contacted quite a few people, and am hoping to find others. At the
moment, it's the working people's ancestors—the people who got their hands dirty,
from Canadian navvies to the Chinese workers—that I'm particularly interested in finding. It is for this reason that I'm writing to
you. Do you know anyone who is related
either to someone who worked on the original buUding of the CPR Une, or who was
affected by the Une (i.e. moved to the West
around 1880-1885, or was aheady there)—
anyone who has a story to teU? We strongly
beUeve that the best way of telUng these old
stories is through the stories and characters
handed down over generations. As you imagine, it's quite an undertaking! We're hoping to come to Canada in December for a
preUminary visit, and then to film in January.
Perhaps your members have some ideas, or
know the right people to talk to? Obviously
I'm working with the CPR on this, but any
help you could give me would be wonderful."
If you think you can help please write to
MeUssa Blackburn, Timewatch, Room 5433,
BBC White City, 201 Wood Lane, London
W12 7TS. Phone: 0208 752 6220. E-mail:
meUssa .blackbur n@bbc. co.uk.
Charlotte Diamond's World
One song on the latest CD of award-winning children's entertainer Charlotte Diamond caught the attention of Wayne
Desrochers. In this song, called Skookumchuck,
are not less than forty-seven place names and
terms of First Nation's origin. With the recording comes a Ust with the meaning ofthe
names and terms and an acknowledgement
ofthe use of PhiUip and Helen Akrigg's British Columbia Place Names. The fourth verse
of the song asks the Ustener: "What is the
name of your town, do you know it's story?"
And that takes us right to local history. Will
it trigger the curiosity of younger Usteners?
It seems worth a try.
40
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 34 No. 1 Letters to the Editor
Sir:
I think we should honour Adam Waldie B.A.,
M.D. who died in May.
Adam was a close friend of mine and my
sister Shirley. Adam was a classmate at UofA
medical school with my sister Shirley. I have
known Adam for over 50 years as a friend,
historian and coUeague.
Adam practiced medicine in Casdegar,
then, in 1952 moved to Vancouver, and became the first head of the Dept. of FamUy
Practice at UBC. He practised in Vancouver
for 35 years. In retirement he did many locum tenens throughout the province. As a
medical student Adam worked in church
mission hospitals along the coast in isolated
locations, and in retirement continued helping people in remote areas.
Adam was kind, concerned, affable and
funny. He wrote historical articles, book reviews for the [BC] Historical News and the
BC Medical Journal. They were humorous,
timely and weU researched.
Adam made history in BC, he wrote of
the history of BC, and he reviewed books
written about the people of BC. Let us honour him.
Sterling Haynes, MD, Vancouver, BC
We mentioned Dr. Waldie's passing in the summer edition (33/3). This winter issue includes the
last book review written by the late Dr. Adam
Waldie. for BC Historical News. Ed.
All work and no play.
Right: In September, at the
BCHF council meeting in
Surrey, President Wayne
Desrochers presented Past
President Ron Welwood (left)
with a three-pegged coat rack
for his three-year presidency.
Wayne created the coat rack
from a piece of discarded wood
he picked up at Alberni's
historic McLean Mill in May.
He painted it in true pencil-
yellow, eraser-pink, and, of
course, graphite-black.
Ron now has a place to
hang his boots.
Sir:
Gordon Miller's review of Tom Henry's
Westcoasters: Boats that Built British Columbia
in (BCHNVol. 33 No.3) prompts this letter
of support. MiUer identified our lack of a
comprehensive book on the history of
Coastal Shipping in British Columbia in the
age of steam. Many column inches have been
committed to press on the subject of the
sidewheeler Beaver, first of Hudson's Bay
steamers to work on the coast, and a number
of books have been written on the coastal
services provided by individual companies
such as the Canadian Pacific, Grand Trunk/
Canadian National, and Union Steamships.
What seems to be missing is a book dealing
not only with the rough-and-tumble market for shipping between San FranciscoVic-
toria, and New Westminster in the gold-rush
days ofthe 1850s and 1860s and the somewhat similar open market that existed for
coastal shipping during the time of the
Klondike gold rush, but also with the whole
spectrum of shipping up the BC coast from
Colonial days up to the demise ofthe steam-
propeUed vessel. It would be great to learn
something about the services provided by the
various players in the field and how they
sorted themselves out in a highly competitive field. If Tom Henry doesn't hunger to
take on this challenging task, I earnesdy hope
that some other marine-minded writer wiU
see fit to do so.
Ted Affleck, Vancouver, BC
BCHF Endowment Fund
Would You Like to Help History?
Knowledge of history has many benefits,
not the least is to know who we are and
why we are here. And who was it that
said, that if we don't know our history
we shaU be doomed to repeat it? Unfortunately the study of history is not a matter that raises great interest in the poUtical arena. It seems a lot less important
than a whole host of other current topics. Our history is ignored and treated as
something to be done away with. But
you, as a reader of this journal, know this.
HopefuUy you wUl want to help reverse
this trend, and thus we are appealing to
you.
The British Columbia Historical Federation has started an Endowment Fund
to help promote a wider interest in the
history of this province. There are many
ways by which you could help, small annual donations, occasional gifts, or be-
quests.There are other ways, such as purchase of an insurance poUcy with the
British Columbia Historical Federation
named as beneficiary. The Federation can
provide receipts for Income Tax purposes.
Some ofthe many uses to which the
income from an endowment could be
put are (1) scholarships for university students; (2) grants in aid for current teachers of history to enable them to take a
specific course to upgrade their teaching skills; (3) support for pre-conference
and stand-alone writing and research
workshops; (4) research grants for writing and cataloguing—we would treat
these as loans that would be forgiven if
the work is published or the catalogue is
made available to the pubUc; (5) enlarge
the pubUcation fund and include reprints
of rare books, transcriptions of oral histories, tapes, and compact discs as eUgible for loans; (6) competitions in schools
on historical themes; (7) matching grants
to Ubraries to develop and enlarge their
British Columbia History sections. Or
you may have ideas of your own you
would Uke to suggest.
Interested? Please write or talk to
BCHF treasurer Ronald Greene (see inside front cover for address and phone
number).
BC HISTORICAL NEWS    WINTER 2000/2001
41 Federation News
BCHF Council Meeting, Surrey BC, 16 September 2000
Host: Surrey Museum and Archives
Highlights from the minutes prepared by
Recording Secretary Betty Brown.
Work continues on the tracing and coUection of the minutes of BCHF meetings
of previous years to be deposited in the
BC Archives.
Three new members were nominated and
accepted. CouncU welcomed the Archives
Association of British Columbia (affiliated group), Maple Ridge Historical Society (member), and Union Bay Historical Society (member).
Council thanked Leonard McCann who
stepped down as honorary president after years of exemplary service to the Federation, and welcomed AUce GlanviUe of
Grand Forks as his successor for the coming year.
The people of the Alberni District Society
not only presented an exceUent conference in 2000, they also enjoyed a small
profit that they shared with the Federation. After Richmond (2001) conferences
are scheduled for Revelstoke (2002) and
Prince George (2003). Who on Vancouver Island wiU host the 2004 conference?
In 2005 the conference will be held at
Kelowna in conjunction with the
Okanagan Historical Society.
The Federation applied for and received a
BC Heritage Trust grant of $4,000 towards the publication of BC Historical
News. A renewed call was made to council
and aU members to continue promoting
BC Historical News.
Nine entries were received for the scholarship contest. The winner, Julie Stevens,
has received a cheque for $500. In future
the Federation wiU offer two $500 scholarships, one for first- and second-year college and university students and another
for third- and fourth-year university students.
The Federation sent a letter to the government endorsing the proclamation of Archives Week in November.
Funding was approved to register the BCHF
domain name and to upgrade the present
BCHFWeb site.
In 1961 Dr. Donald Paterson donated a reproduction ofthe weU-known Captain
Vancouver painting to what was then
called the British Columbia Historical
Association. Since 1968 the portrait is in
custody ofthe BC Maritime Museum. A
plaque with inscription, originaUy attached to the painting was lost when the
painting was still in Vancouver and it was
never replaced. Steps wiU now be taken
to replace the plaque.
For Member Society Reports: see "News and
Notes,"Members.
Next Meeting: Saturday, 24 February 2001
inVictoria.<<:=»'
Richmond 2001
The Richmond Museum Society is hard at work preparing a most promising conference
with an exciting program. We expect an as good, if not a stiU better attendance as in Port
Alberni. The 2001 Conference wiU start on Thursday 3 May and will end with the traditional Gala Award Banquet on Saturday evening, 5 May.
Readers wiU find a registration form inserted in this issue—weU in time for early registra-
tion.The reverse ofthe form shows the program of Conference 2001 and hotel information.
Please do register as soon as possible.
We suggest that you take a photocopy or two ofthe form with you to your next society
meeting for your friends and feUow-members who don't read BC Historical News and may
therefore miss early registration.'
British Columbia Historical
Federation
2000-2001 SCHOLARSHIP
Deadline 15 May 2001
The British Columbia Historical Federation
awards two $500 scholarships annually for
essays written by students at BC colleges or
universities on a topic relating to British
Columbia history. One scholarship is for an
essay written by a student in a first- or second-
year course; the other is for an essay written
by a student in a third- or fourth-year course.
To apply for the scholarship, candidates
must submit (1) a letter of application; (2) an
essay of 1500-3000 words on a topic relating
to the history of British Columbia; (3) a letter
of recommendation from the professor for
whom the essay was written.
Applications should be submitted before
15 May 2001 to: Frances Gundry, Chair BC
Historcal Federation Scholarship Committee,
PO Box 5254, Station B.Victoria, BC V8R
6N4.
The winning essay submitted by a third-
or fourth-year student will be published in BC
Historical News. Other submissions may be
published at the editor's discretion.
BC History Web Site Prize
The British Columbia Historical Federation
and David Mattison are jointly sponsoring a
yearly cash award of $250 to recognize Web
sites that contribute to the understanding and
appreciation of British Columbia's past. The
award honours individual initiative in writing and presentation.
Nominations for the BC History Web Site
Prize for 2000 must be made to the British
Columbia Historical Federation, Web Site
Prize Committee, prior to 31 December
2000. Web site creators and authors may
nominate their own sites.
Prize rules and the online nomination form
can be found on The British Columbia History Web site: http://www.victoria.tc.ca/re-
sources/bchistory-announcements.htlm.
A Certificate of Merit and fifty dollars will
be awarded annually to the author ofthe article, published in BC Historical News, that best
enhances knowledge of British Columbia's history and provides reading enjoyment. Judging
will be based on subject development, writing
skill, freshness of material, and appeal to a general readership interested in all aspects of BC
history.
Manuscripts suBMiTreD for publication should be sent to the Editor, BC Historical News, PO Box 130, Whonnock BC  V2W 1V9. Submission by
e-mail of text and illustrations is welcome. Otherwise please send a hard copy and if possible a disk copy ofthe manuscript by ordinary mail. Illustrations should be accompanied by captions and source information. Submissions should not be more than 3,500 words. Authors publishing for the first
time in the British Columbia Historical News will receive a one-year complimentary subscription to the journal.
42
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 34 No. 1 Melva J. Dwyer, Librarian Emerita, compiled this yearly index for the 2000 volume of British Columbia Historical News. Thanks to her efforts we are now
up to date. Other indexes published in Volume 33 (2000) are the index for 1998 (Volume 31) in volume 33:1, and index 1999 (Volume 32) in volume 33:3.
For earlier years see five-year indexes ending with 1997 (Volume 30).
Index Volume 33
From 33:1 (winter 1999/2000) to 33:4 (fall 2000)
AUTHORS
Affleck, Edward L. Steamboating on the Peace
River. 33:1 (1999/2000): 2-7.
Appleton, Paul C. Dr. Moss's Second Bear Hunt.
33:3 (2000): 8-11.
Barlee, N. L. Phoenix -TheVanished City. 33:3
(2000): 12-15.
Brazier, Graham. On the Trail of the One-
Armed Man. 33:4 (2000): 22-24.
Bridge, Kathryn. [BC Archives Web Site Address]. 33:4 (2000): 33.
Cathro, Robert J. Bowen Island's Howe Sound
Hotel. 33:1 (1999/2000): 19-21.
Chamberlain, Paul G. Strait of Anian: In Search
ofthe Northwest Passage in British
Columbia. 33:1 (1999/2000): 13-15.
Cotton, H. B.The Hammond Brothers and Port
Hammond. 33:4 (2000): 6-8.
Doe, Nick. Malaspina Research Centre Opening in Nanaimo. 33:1 (1999/2000): 33.
 , . Simon Fraser's Latitudes, 1808:Where
Was the Chiefs Village? 33:2
(2000): 2-5.
Dunford, Muriel Poulton. Molly Moilliet of
Aveley Ranch. 33:4 (2000): 2-5.
Elliott, Marie. The Gold Rush Pack Trail of
1861. 33:3 (2000): 19-22.
Glanville, Alice. William Bambury: Phoenix's
Last Resident. 33:3 (2000): 16-17.
Greene, Ronald. Glanville's Dairy of Grand
Forks, BC. 33:1 (1999/2000): 25.
 , .Token History:The Church Collection Tokens of Holy Trinity Church, Aiyansh.
33:4 (2000): 25-26.
■.AToken History:The Hotel Brooklyn
of Phoenix, BC. 33:3(2000): 18.
 , .Tokens: J. N Killas & Co. of Premier,
BC. 33:2 (2000): 35.
Gundry, Frances, ed. Archives & Archivists. 33:1
(1999/2000): 31; 33:2 (2000): 34; 33:3 (2000):
23; 33:4 (2000): 33.
Guppy, WALTER.The Road to Tofino. 33:1 (1999/
2000): 16-18.
Harris, Donald F.Victoria Interlude: A Troubled Time in the Lives of Nessie and
Norman Lee. 33:2 (2000): 6-14.
Hou, Charles. Anderson's Brigade Trail. 33:1
(1999/2000): 34.
Kelly, Earl (Mr. Good Evening). Phoenix Remembers. 33:3 (2000): 15.
Lane.WT. A Half Century of BC's Land-Use
Wars. 33:4 (2000): 9-13.
Layland, Michael. Historians of Discovery Visit
Nootka. 33:1 (1999/2000): 32.
Leier, MARK.The Life and Times of Robert Raglan Gosden: Anarchist, Saboteur,
Mystic, and Labour Spy. 33:3 (2000): 2-7.
Mitchell, Gary A. Archives & Archivists. 33:2
(2000): 34.
 , .   [British Columbia Provincial Archives]. 33:1 (1999/2000): 31.
Orr, Lynda Maeve. MinisteringAngekTheVictorian Order of Nurses and the
Klondike Goldrush. 33:4 (2000): 18-21.
Purver.Bill. [ArchivesAssociation ofBC].33:3
(2000): 23.
Reeve, Phyllis. Nanaimo's Malaspina Murals.
33:2 (2000): 36-37; 33:4 (2000):24.
Roberts, John E. The Blunt End ofthe Discovery. 33:2 (2000): 24-27.
Saad, Michael. Three Tough Men: Surviving the
1969 Balmer South Flood and
Cave-in. 33:1 (1999/2000): 8-12.
Shore, Helen. Cottage Hospitals in British Columbia. 33:4 (2000): 14-17.
Tilt, Nelly. Nelly Tilt's Journey to New Westminster. 33:1 (1999/2000): 22-24.
Truscott, Eileen. Sonia Cornwall. 33:4 (2000):
36-37.
Walker, Harvie. Harley Robert Hatfield 1905-
2000: A Tribute. 33:4 (2000): 34-36.
Weir, Winnifred Ariel. Pynelogs. 33:3 (2000):
24.
Welwood, Ron. Big Litde Cherry. 33:2 (2000):
15-18.
Wood, Keith R.A Walhachin Index. 33:2 (2000):
19-23.
TITLES
Anderson's Brigade Trail by Charles Hou. 33:1
(1999/2000): 34.
[Archives Association ofBC] by Bill Purver. 33:3
(2000): 23.
Archives & Archivists ed. by Frances Gundry. 33:1
(1999/2000): 31; 33:2 (2000): 34;
33:3 (2000): 23; 33:4 (2000): 33.
Archives & Archivists by Gary R. Mitchell. 33:2
(2000): 34.
[BC Archives Web Site Address] by Kathryn
Bridge. 33:4 (2000): 33.
Big Litde Cherry by Ron Welwood. 33:2 (2000):
15-18.
The Blunt End of the Discovery by John E.
Roberts. 33:2 (2000): 24-27.
Bowen Island's Howe Sound Hotel by Robert J.
Cathro. 33:1 (1999/2000): 19-21.
[British Columbia Provincial Archives] by Gary
A. Mitchell. 33:1 (1999/2000): 31.
Cottage Hospitals in British Columbia by Helen
Shore. 33:4 (2000): 14-17.
Dr. Moss's Second Bear Hunt by Paul C. Appleton.
33:3 (2000): 8-11.
Glanville's Dairy of Grand Forks, BC by Ronald
Greene. 33:1 (1999/2000): 25.
The Gold Rush Pack Trail of 1861 by Marie
Elliott. 33:3 (2000): 19-22.
A Half Century of BC's Land-Use Wars by IT.
Lane. 33:4 (2000): 9-13.
The Hammond Brothers and Port Hammond by
H. B. Cotton. 33:4 (2000): 6-8.
Harley Robert Hatfield: A Tribute by Harvie
Walker. 33:4 (2000): 34-36.
Historians of DiscoveryVisit Nootka by Michael
Layland. 33:1 (1999/2000): 32.
The Life and Times of Robert Raglan Gosden:
Anarchist, Saboteur, Mystic, and Labour
Spy by Mark Leier. 33:3 (2000): 2-7.
Malaspina Research Centre Opening in Nanaimo
by Nick Doe. 33:1 (1999/2000): 33.
Ministering Angels: The Victorian Order of
Nurses and the Klondike Goldrush by Lynda
Maeve Orr. 33:4 (2000): 18-21.
Molly Moilliet of Aveley Ranch by Muriel
Poulton Dunford. 33:4 (2000): 2-5.
Nanaimo's Malaspina Murals by Phyllis Reeve.
33:2 (2000): 36-37.
Nelly Tilt's Journey to New Westminster by Nelly
Tilt. 33:1 (1999/2000): 22-24.
On the Trail ofthe One-Armed Man by Graham
Brazier. 33:4 (2000): 22-24.
Phoenix - The Vanished City by N. L. Barlee.
33:3 (2000): 12-15.
Phoenix Remembers by Earl Kelly (Mr. Good
Evening). 33:3 (2000): 15.
Pynelogs by Winnifred Ariel Weir. 33:3 (2000):
24.
The Road to Tofino by Walter Guppy. 33:1 (1999/
2000): 16-18.
Simon Fraser's Latitudes,1808: Where Was the
Chiefs Village? by Nick Doe. 33:2 (2000): 2-
5.
Sonia Cornwall by Eileen Truscott. 33:4 (2000):
36-37.
Steamboating on the Peace River by Edward L.
Affleck. 33:1 (1999/2000): 2-7.
Strait of Anian: In Search ofthe Northwest Passage in British Columbia by Paul G. Chamberlain. 33:1 (1999/2000): 13-15.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS - WINTER 2000/2001
43 Three Tough Men: Surviving the 1969 Balmer
South Flood and Cave-in by Michael Saad. 33:1
(1999/2000): 8-12.
Token History: The Church Collection Tokens
of Holy Trinity Church, Aiyansh by
Ronald Greene. 33:4 (2000): 25-26.
AToken History: The Hotel Brooklyn of Phoenix, BC by Ronald Greene. 33:3 (2000): 18.
Tokens: J.N. Killas & Co. of Premier, BC. by
Ronald Greene. 33:2 (2000): 35.
Victoria Interlude:ATroubledTime in the Lives
of Nessie and Norman Lee by Donald F. Harris.
33:2 (2000): 6-14.
A Walhachin Index by Keith R. Wood. 33:2
(2000): 19-23.
William Bambury: Phoenix's Last Resident by
Alice GlanviUe. 33:3 (2000): 16-17.
[Writing Competition Awards for 1999 Publications.] 33:3 (2000): 26.
SUBJECTS
Aberdeen, Ishbel Gordon, Lady see Lady Aberdeen
Agricultural Land Reserve
Lane, W.T. A Half Century of BC's Land-Use
Wars. 33:4 (2000): 9-13.
Agriculture
Welwood, Ron. Big Litde Cherry. 33:2 (2000):
15-18.
Aiyansh, BC
Greene, Ronald. Token History: The Church
Collection Tokens of Holy Trinity Church,
Aiyansh. 33:4 (2000): 25-26.
Anarchism
Leier, Mark. The Life and Times of Robert
Raglan Gosden: Anarchist, Saboteur, Mystic,
and Labour Spy. 33:3 (2000): 2-7.
Anderson's Brigade Trail
Hou, Charles. Anderson's Brigade Trail. 33:1
(1999/2000): 34.
Antler Creek, BC
Elliott, Marie. The Gold Rush Pack Trail of
1861. 33:3 (2000): 19-22.
Archives
Bridge, Kathryn. [BC Archives Web Site Address]. 33:4 (2000): 33.
Mitchell, Gary A. Archives & Archivists. 33:2
(2000): 34.
 , . [British Columbia Provincial Archives]. 33:1 (1999/2000): 31.
Purver, Bill. [Archives Association of BC]. 33:3
(2000): 23.
Art - Restoration
Reeve, Phyllis. Nanaimo's Malaspina Murals.
33:2 (2000): 36-37; 33:4 (2000): 24. .
Arts and Artists
Truscott, Eileen. Sonia Cornwall. 33:4 (2000):
36-37.
Athabasca-Slave Rivers
Affleck, Edward L. Steamboating on the Peace
River. 33:1 (1999/2000): 2-7.
Aveley Ranch
Dunford, Muriel Poulton. Molly Moilliet of
Aveley Ranch. 33:4 (2000): 2-5.
Awards
[Writing Competition Awards for 1999 Publications.] 33: 3 (2000): 26.
Balmer South Mine
Saad, Michael.Three Tough Men: Surviving the
1969 Balmer South Flood and Cave-in. 33:1
(1999/2000): 8-12.
Bambury, Wiluam
Glanville, Alice. William Bambury: Phoenix's
Last Resident. 33:3 (2000): 16-17.
Bealby, J.T.
Welwood, Ron. Big Litde Cherry. 33:2 (2000):
15-18.
Bears
Appleton, Paul C.Dr. Moss's Second Bear Hunt.
33:3 (2000): 8-11.
Begbie, Matthew Baillie
Elliott, Marie. The Gold Rush Pack Trail of
1861. 33:3 (2000): 19-22.
Blaylock Estate
Welwood, Ron. Big Litde Cherry. 33:2 (2000):
15-18.
Boundary Country
Barlee, N. L. Phoenix -TheVanished City. 33:3
(2000): 12-15.
Glanville, Alice. William Bambury: Phoenix's
Last Resident. 33:3 (2000): 16-17.
Greene, Ronald. Glanville's Dairy of Grand
Forks, BC. 33:1 (1999/2000): 25.
 , . A Token History: The Hotel
Brooklyn of Phoenix, BC. 33:3 (2000):
18.
Bowen Island, BC
Cathro, Robert J. Bowen Island's Howe Sound
Hotel. 33:1 (1999/2000): 19-21.
British Columbia - Description and Travel
Appleton, Paul C.Dr. Moss's Second Bear Hunt.
33:3 (2000): 8-11.
British Columbia Horse (C Squadron)
Wood, Keith R.AWalhachin Index. 33:2 (2000):
19-23.
British Columbia Provincial Archives
Bridge, Kathryn. [BC Archives Web Site Address]. 33:4 (2000): 33.
Mitchell, Gary A. [British Columbia Provincial Archives]. 33:1 (1999/2000): 31.
Bruce, Robert Randolph
Weir, Winnifred Ariel. Pynelogs. 33:3 (2000):
24.
Canadian Pacific Railway
Cotton, H. B.The Hammond Brothers and Port
Hammond. 33:4 (2000): 6-8.
Tilt, Nelly. Nelly Tilt's Journey to New Westminster. 33:1 (1999/2000): 22-24.
Cariboo Area
Truscott, Eileen. Sonia Cornwall. 33:4 (2000):
36-37.
Cariboo Gold Rush
Elliott, Marie. The Gold Rush Pack Trail of
1861. 33:3 (2000): 19-22.
Cenotaphs
Kelly, Earl (Mr. Good Evening). Phoenix Remembers. 33:3 (2000): 15.
Cherries
Welwood, Ron. Big Litde Cherry. 33:2 (2000):
15-18.
Chilcotin
Harris, Donald F.Victoria Interlude: A Troubled Time in the Lives of Nessie and Norman
Lee. 33:2 (2000): 6-14.
Churches
Greene, Ronald. Token History: The Church
Collection Tokens of Holy Trinity
Church, Aiyansh. 33:4 (2000): 25-26.
Civil Engineers
Walker, Harvie. Harley Robert Hatfield 1905-
2000: A Tribute. 33:4 (2000): 34-36.
Clayoquot Sound
Guppy, Walter.The Road to Tofino. 33:1 (1999/
2000): 16-18.
Coal Mining
Saad, Michael.Three Tough Men: Surviving the
1969 Balmer South Flood and Cave-in. 33:1
(1999/2000): 8-12.
Columbia Coast Mission '
Shore, Helen. Cottage Hospitals in British
Columbia. 33:4 (2000): 14-17.
Columbia Valley Arts Council
Weir, Winnifred Ariel. Pynelogs. 33:3 (2000):
24.
Community and Regional Planning
Lane, W.T. A Half Century of BC's Land-Use
Wars. 33:4 (2000): 9-13.
Conferences
Port Alberni 2000.33:3 (2000): 34-39.
Cook, Captain James
Chamberlain, Paul G. Strait of Anian: In Search
ofthe Northwest Passage in British Columbia.
33:1 (1999/2000): 13-15.
Copper Mining
Barlee, N. L. Phoenix -TheVanished City. 33:3
(2000): 12-15.
Cornwall, Sonia
Truscott, Eileen. Sonia Cornwall. 33:4 (2000):
36-37.
Correspondence
Appleton, Paul C. Dr. Moss's Second Bear Hunt.
33:3 (2000): 8-11.
Dunford, Muriel Poulton. Molly Moilliet of
Aveley Ranch. 33:4 (2000): 2-5.
Cottage Hospitals
Shore, Helen. Cottage Hospitals in British
Columbia. 33:4 (2000): 14-17.
Cover Illustrations see Illustrations, Cover
Cowan, Sonia see Cornwall
44
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 34 No. 1 Cowichan Valley
Brazier, Graham. On the Trail of the One-
Armed Man. 33:4 (2000): 22-24.
Daniels, Elsie (Tilt)
Tilt, Nelly. Nelly Tilt's Journey to New Westminster. 33:1 (1999/2000): 22-24.
Dairies
Greene, Ronald. Glanville's Dairy of Grand
Forks, BC. 33:1 (1999/2000): 25.
Denzler, Robert (Bob)
Glanville, Alice. William Bambury: Phoenix's
Last Resident. 33:3 (2000): 16-17.
Diaries
Harris, Donald F.Victoria Interlude: A Troubled Time in the Lives of Nessie and Norman
Lee. 33:2 (2000): 6-14.
Tilt, Nelly. Nelly Tilt's Journey to New Westminster. 33:1 (1999/2000): 22-24.
Discovery
Roberts, John E.The Blunt End ofthe Discovery. 33:2 (2000): 24-27.
Douglas, Sir James
Brazier, Graham. On the Trail of the One-
Armed Man. 33:4 (2000): 22-24.
Elections
Leier, Mark. The Life and Times of Robert
Raglan Gosden: Anarchist, Saboteur, Mystic,
and Labour Spy. 33:3 (2000): 2-7.
Esquimalt, BC
Appleton, Paul C. Dr. Moss's Second Bear Hunt.
33:3 (2000): 8-11.
Eulogies
Walker, Harvie. Harley Robert Hatfield: ATrib-
ute. 33:4 (2000): 34-36.
Evans, Donald
Saad, Michael.Three Tough Men: Surviving the
1969 Balmer South Flood and Cave-in. 33:1
(1999/2000): 8-12.
Exploration
Chamberlain, Paul G. Strait of Anian: In Search
ofthe Northwest Passage in British Columbia.
33:1 (1999/2000): 13-15.
Doe, Nick. Simon Fraser's Latitudes, 1808:
Where Was the Chief s Village? 33:2 (2000):
2-5.
Explosions
Saad, Michael.ThreeTough Men: Surviving the
1969 Balmer South Flood and Cave-in. 33:1
(1999/2000): 8-12.
Family History
Harris, Donald F.Victoria Interlude: A Troubled Time in the Lives of Nessie and Norman
Lee. 33:2 (2000): 6-14.
Federation News
33:1 (1999/2000): 37; 33:2 (2000): 40; 33:3
(2000): 32, 40-42; 33:4 (2000): 31.
Fenton, Faith
Orr, Lynda Maeve. Ministering Angels: The
Victorian Order of Nurses and the Klondike
Goldrush. 33:4 (2000): 18-21.
Fisher, Orville
Reeve, Phyllis. Nanaimo's Malaspina Murals.
33:2 (2000): 36-37; 33:4 (2000): 24.
Fraser, Simon
Doe, Nick. Simon Fraser's Latitudes, 1808:
Where Was the Chief s Village? 33:2 (2000):
2-5.
Fraser River
Cotton, H. B.The Hammond Brothers and Port
Hammond. 33:4 (2000): 6-8.
Doe, Nick. Simon Fraser's Latitudes, 1808:
Where Was the Chiefs Village? 33:2 (2000):
2-5.
Friendly Cove see Yuquot
Ghost Towns
Barlee, N. L. Phoenix -TheVanished City. 33:3
(2000): 12-15.
Glanville, Alice. William Bambury: Phoenix's
Last Resident. 33:3 (2000): 16-17.
Greene, Ronald. A Token History: The Hotel
Brooklyn of Phoenix, BC. 33:3 (2000): 18.
Glanville Family
Greene, Ronald. Glanville's Dairy of Grand
Forks, BC. 33:1 (1999/2000): 25.
Gold Mining
Barlee, N. L. Phoenix -TheVanished City. 33:3
(2000): 12-15.
Elliott, Marie. The Gold Rush Pack Trail of
1861. 33:3 (2000): 19-22.
Orr, Lynda Maeve. Ministering Angels: The
Victorian Order of Nurses and the Klondike
Goldrush. 33:4 (2000): 18-21.
Gorason, Paul
Reeve, Phyllis. Nanaimo's Malaspina Murals.
33:2 (2000): 36-37.
Gosden, Robert Raglan
Leier, Mark. The Life and Times of Robert
Raglan Gosden: Anarchist, Saboteur, Mystic,
and Labour Spy. 33:3 (2000): 2-7.
Granby Company
Barlee, N. L. Phoenix -TheVanished City. 33:3
(2000): 12-15.
Grand Forks, BC
Barlee, N. L. Phoenix -TheVanished City. 33:3
(2000): 12-15.
Greene, Ronald. Glanville's Dairy of Grand
Forks, BC. 33:1 (1999/2000): 25.
Greenwood Camp
Barlee, N. L. Phoenix -TheVanished City. 33:3
(2000): 12-15.
Hammond, John and William
Cotton, H. B.The Hammond Brothers and Port
Hammond. 33:4 (2000): 6-8.
Hanceville, BC
Harris, Donald F.Victoria Interlude: A Trou-
bledTime in the Lives of Nessie and Norman
Lee. 33:2 (2000): 6-14.
Hanna, Rachel
Orr, Lynda Maeve. Ministering Angels: The
Victorian Order of Nurses and the Klondike
Goldrush. 33:4 (2000): 18-21.
Hatfield, Harley Robert
Walker, Harvie. Harley Robert Hatfield: ATrib-
ute. 33:4 (2000): 34-36.
Health Care
Orr, Lynda Maeve. Ministering Angels: The
Victorian Order of Nurses and the Klondike
Goldrush. 33:4 (2000): 18-21.
Shore, Helen. Cottage Hospitals in British
Columbia. 33:4 (2000): 14-17.
Heritage Preservation
Hou, Charles. Anderson's Brigade Trail. 33:1
(1999/2000): 34.
Heritage Restoration
Weir, Winnifred Ariel. Pynelogs. 33:3 (2000):
24.
Horticulture
Welwood, Ron. Big Litde Cherry. 33:2 (2000):
15-18.
Hospitals
Appleton, Paul C. Dr. Moss's Second Bear Hunt.
33:3 (2000): 8-11.
Shore, Helen. Cottage Hospitals in British
Columbia. 33:4 (2000): 14-17.
Weir, Winnifred Ariel. Pynelogs. 33:3 (2000):
24.
Hotels
Cathro, Robert J. Bowen Island's Howe Sound
Hotel. 33:1 (1999/2000): 19-21.
Greene, Ronald. A Token History: The Hotel
Brooklyn of Phoenix, BC. 33:3 (2000): 18.
Reeve, Phyllis. Nanaimo's Malaspina Murals.
33:2 (2000): 36-37; 33:4 (2000) 24.
Howe Sound
Cathro, Robert J. Bowen Island's Howe Sound
Hotel. 33:1 (1999/2000): 19-21.
Hudson's Bay Company
Affleck, Edward L. Steamboating on the Peace
River. 33:1 (1999/2000): 2-7.
Brazier, Graham. On the Trail of the One-
Armed Man. 33:4 (2000): 22-24.
Hudson's Hope, BC
Affleck, Edward L. Steamboating on the Peace
River. 33:1 (1999/2000): 2-7.
Hughes, E.J.
Reeve, Phyllis. Nanaimo's Malaspina Murals.
33:2 (2000): 36-37.
Hunting
Appleton, Paul C. Dr. Moss's Second Bear Hunt.
33:3 (2000): 8-11.
Illustrations, Cover
David Thompson Taking an Observation by
Charles William Jefferys. 33:2 (2000).
Interior of the Bar of the Second Brooklyn
Hotel, Phoenix, BC. 33:3 (2000).
Operating Room in Queen's Hospital at Rock
Bay,Vancouver Island. 33:4 (2000).
The Tilt Family in Front ofTheir Home, New
Westminster, 1907.33:1 (1999/2000).
BC HISTORICAL NEWS - WINTER 2000/2001
45 Indexes
Volume 31:l,Winter 1997/1998 to 31:4,
1998. 33:1 (1999/2000): 38-44.
Volume 32:1,Winter 1998/1999 to 32:4,
1999. 33:3 (2000): 43-48.
Wood, Keith R.A Walhachin Index. 33:2
(2000): 19-23.
Industrial Workers of the World
(IWW)
Leier, Mark. The Life and Times of
Robert Raglan Gosden: Anarchist, Saboteur, Mystic, and Labour Spy. 33:3
(2000): 2-7.
Invermere, BC
Weir, Winnifred Ariel. Pynelogs. 33:3
(2000): 24.
J. N. Killas & Co.
Greene, Ronald. Tokens: J. N. Killas &
Co. of Premier, BC. 33:2 (2000): 35.
Jackson, Alexander Young
Truscott, Eileen. Sonia Cornwall. 33:4
(2000): 36-37.
Keith, James
Cathro, Robert J. Bowen Island's Howe
Sound Hotel. 33:1 (1999/2000): 19-21.
Killas Family
Greene, Ronald. Tokens: J. N. Killas &
Co. of Premier, BC. 33:2 (2000): 35.
Klondike
Orr, Lynda Maeve. Ministering Angels:
The Victorian Order of Nurses and the
Klondike Goldrush. 33:4 (2000): 18-21.
Kootenay Area
Weir, Winnifred Ariel. Pynelogs. 33:3
(2000): 24.
Welwood, Ron. Big Litde Cherry. 33:2
(2000): 15-18.
Krall, John
Saad, Michael. Three Tough Men: Surviving the 1969 Balmer South Flood and
Cave-in. 33:1 (1999/2000): 8-12.
Kutchner, Frank
Saad, Michael.Three Tough Men: Surviving the 1969 Balmer South Hood and
Cave-in. 33:1 (1999/2000): 8-12.
Labour Unions
Leier, Mark. The Life and Times of
Robert Raglan Gosden: Anarchist, Saboteur, Mystic, and Labour Spy. 33:3
(2000): 2-7.
Lady Aberdeen
Orr, Lynda Maeve. Ministering Angels:
The Victorian Order of Nurses and the
Klondike Goldrush. 33:4 (2000): 18-21.
Lee, Nessie and Norman
Harris, Donald F.Victoria Interlude: A
TroubledTime in the Lives of Nessie and
Norman Lee. 33:2 (2000): 6-14.
Legislation  see  Planning Legislation
Letters see Correspondence
Letters to the Editor
Affleck, Eward L. (Re: Guppy,Walter.The Road
to Tofino. 33:1 (1999/2000): 16-18) 33:2
(2000): 39.
Clearihue, Joyce. Thanking BCHF for Award
for Best Article in BC Historical News. 33:3
(2000): 25.
Harvey, R. G. (Re: Book Review by Edward
L.Affleck of Carving the Western Path 33:2
(2000): 33-34) 33:3 (2000): 25.
LymberyTom. ( Re: Welwood, Ron. Big Litde Cherry. 33:2 (2000): 15-18) 33:3 (2000):
25-26. Response by Ron Welwood. 33:3
(2000): 26.
Little Cherry Disease
Welwood, Ron. Big Litde Cherry. 33:2 (2000):
15-18.
Mccullagh, James
Greene, Ronald. Token History: The Church
Collection Tokens of Holy Trinity Church,
Aiyansh. 33:4 (2000): 25-26.
McLagan, Sara
Orr, Lynda Maeve. Ministering Angels: The
Victorian Order of Nurses and the Klondike
Goldrush. 33:4 (2000): 18-21.
Malaspina, Alejandro
Doe, Nick. Malaspina Research Centre Opening in Nanaimo. 33:1 (1999/2000): 33.
Malaspina Hotel
Reeve, Phyllis. Nanaimo's Malaspina Murals.
33:2 (2000): 36-37; 33:4 (2000) 24.
Malaspina University College, Nanaimo
Doe, Nick. Malaspina Research Centre Opening in Nanaimo. 33:1 (1999/2000): 33.
Maps
Affleck, Edward L. Steamboating on the Peace
River. 33:1 (1999/2000): 2-7.
Barlee, N. L. Phoenix -TheVanished City. 33:3
(2000): 12-15.
Cathro, Robert J. Bowen Island's Howe Sound
Hotel. 33:1 (1999/2000): 19-21.
Chamberlain, Paul G. Strait of Anian: In Search
ofthe Northwest Passage in British
Columbia. 33:1 (1999/2000): 13-15.
Cotton, H. B.The Hammond Brothers and Port
Hammond. 33:4 (2000): 6-8.
Doe, Nick. Simon Fraser's Latitudes, 1808:
Where Was the Chiefs Village? 33:2 (2000):
2-5.
Elliott, Marie. The Gold Rush Pack Trail of
1861. 33:3 (2000): 19-22.
Greene, Ronald. Token History: The Church
Collection Tokens ofthe Holy Trinity Church,
Aiyansh. 33:4 (2000): 25-26.
 , .Tokens: J. N. Killas & Co. of Premier, BC. 33:2 (2000): 35.
Guppy,Walter.The Road to Tofino. 33:1 (1999/
2000): 16-18.
Saad, Michael. Three Tough Men: Surviving
the 1969 Balmer South Flood and Cave-in.
33:1 (1999/2000): 8-12.
Mining
Barlee, N. L. Phoenix -The Vanished City. 33:3
(2000): 12-15.
Elliott, Marie. The Gold Rush Pack Trail of
1861. 33:3 (2000): 19-22.
Saad, Michael.Three Tough Men: Surviving the
1969 Balmer South Flood and Cave-in. 33:1
(1999/2000): 8-12.
Missionaries
Greene, Ronald. Token History: The Church
CollectionTokens ofthe Holy Trinity Church,
Aiyansh. 33:4 (2000): 25-26.
Shore, Helen. Cottage Hospitals in British
Columbia. 33:4 (2000): 14-17.
Moilliet, Molly (Mary) and Tom
Dunford, Muriel Poulton. Molly Moilliet of
Aveley Ranch. 33:4 (2000): 2-5.
Moss, Dr. Edward Lawton
Appleton, Paul C. Dr. Moss's Second Bear
Hunt. 33:3 (2000): 8-11.
Murals
Reeve, Phyllis. Nanaimo's Malaspina Murals.
33:2 (2000): 36-37.
Museums — Displays
Robertsjohn E.The Blunt End ofthe Discovery. 33:2 (2000): 24-27.
Nanaimo, BC
Doe, Nick. Malaspina Research Centre Opening in Nanaimo. 33:1 (1999/2000): 33.
Nanaimo Community Archives
Reeve, Phyllis. Nanaimo's Malaspina Murals.
33:2 (2000): 36-37.
Nash, Agnes
Harris, Donald F.Victoria Interlude: A TroubledTime in the Lives of Nessie and Norman
Lee. 33:2 (2000): 6-14.
Nass River
Greene, Ronald. Token History: The Church
CollectionTokens ofthe Holy Trinity Church,
Aiyansh. 33:4 (2000): 25-26.
New Westminster, BC
Tilt, Nelly. Nelly Tilt's Journey to New Westminster. 33:1 (1999/2000): 22-24.
Newland, Arthur
Cathro, Robert J. Bowen Island's Howe Sound
Hotel. 33:1 (1999/2000): 19-21.
News and Notes
33:1 (1999/2000): 35-36; 33:2 (2000): 38-39;
33:3 (2000): 33; 33:4 (2000): 38-40.
Nisga'a
Greene, Ronald. Token History: The Church
CollectionTokens ofthe Holy Trinity Church,
Aiyansh. 33:4 (2000): 25-26.
Nootka Sound
Layland, Michael. Historians of Discovery Visit
Nootka. 33:1 (1999/2000): 32.
North Thompson Valley
Dunford, Muriel Poulton. Molly Moilliet of
Aveley Ranch. 33:4 (2000): 2-5.
46
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 34 No. Northwest Passage
Chamberlain, Paul G. Strait of Anian: In Search
ofthe Northwest Passage in British Columbia.
33:1 (1999/2000): 13-15.
Nurses
Orr, Lynda Maeve. Ministering Angels: The
Victorian Order of Nurses and the Klondike
Goldrush. 33:4 (2000): 18-21.
Shore, Helen. Cottage Hospitals in British
Columbia. 33:4 (2000): 14-17.
One - Armed Tomo
Brazier, Graham. On the Trail of the One-
Armed Man. 33:4 (2000): 22-24.
One Big Union (OBU)
Leier, Mark. The Life and Times of Robert
Raglan Gosden: Anarchist, Saboteur, Mystic,
and Labour Spy. 33:3 (2000): 2-7.
Onward Ranch
Truscott, Eileen. Sonia Cornwall. 33:4 (2000):
36-37.
Orchards
Welwood, Ron. Big Litde Cherry. 33:2 (2000):
15-18.
Wood, Keith R. A Walhachin Index. 33:2
(2000): 19-23.
Ouantany, Thomas
Brazier, Graham. On the Trail of the One-
Armed Man. 33:4 (2000): 22-24.
Pack Trails see Trails
Payson, Margaret
Orr, Lynda Maeve. Ministering Angels:TheVictorian Order of Nurses and the Klondike Gold-
rush. 33:4 (2000): 18-21.
Peace River Area
Affleck, Edward L. Steamboating on the Peace
River. 33:1 (1999/2000): 2-7.
Peavine seeVavenby, BC
Phoenix, BC
Barlee, N. L. Phoenix -The Vanished City. 33:3
(2000): 12-15.
Glanville, Alice. William Bambury: Phoenix's
Last Resident. 33:3 (2000) 16-17.
Greene, Ronald. A Token History: The Hotel
Brooklyn of Phoenix, BC. 33:3
(2000): 18.
Kelly, Earl (Mr. Good Evening). Phoenix Remembers. 33:3 (2000): 15.
Physicians
Appleton, Paul C. Dr. Moss's Second Bear Hunt.
33:3 (2000): 8-11.
Pioneer Life
Dunford, Muriel Poulton. Molly Moilliet of
Aveley Ranch. 33:4 (2000): 2-5.
Planning Legislation
Lane, W.T. A Half Century of BC's Land-Use
Wars. 33:4 (2000): 9-13.
Plans
Roberts, John E.The Blunt End ofthe Discovery. 33:2 (2000): 24-27.
Plugging Scandals see Scandals
Politics
Leier, Mark. The Life and Times of Robert
Raglan Gosden: Anarchist, Saboteur, Mystic,
and Labour Spy. 33:3 (2000): 2-7.
Port Alberni, BC
Guppy, Walter.The Road to Tofino. 33:1 (1999/
2000): 16-18.
Port Hammond, BC
Cotton, H. B.The Hammond Brothers and Port
Hammond. 33:4 (2000): 6-8.
Powell, Georgina
Orr, Lynda Maeve. Ministering Angels: The
Victorian Order of Nurses and the Klondike
Goldrush. 33:4 (2000): 18-21.
Premier, BC
Greene, Ronald. Tokens: J. N Killas & Co. of
Premier, BC. 33:2 (2000): 35.
Pynelogs
Weir, Winnifred Ariel. Pynelogs. 33:3 (2000):
24.
Quantany, Thomas see Ouantany, Thomas
Quesnel Forks, BC
Elliott, Marie. The Gold Rush Pack Trail of
1861. 33:3 (2000): 19-22.
Railroads
Cotton, H. B.The Hammond Brothers and Port
Hammond. 33:4 (2000): 6-8.
Tilt, Nelly. Nelly Tilt's Journey to New Westminster. 33:1 (1999/2000): 22-24.
Ranches
Dunford, Muriel Poulton. Molly Moilliet of
Aveley Ranch. 33:4 (2000): 2-5.
Truscott, Eileen. Sonia Cornwall. 33:4 (2000):
36-37.
Research Centres
Doe, Nick. Malaspina Research Centre Opening in Nanaimo. 33:1 (1999/2000): 33.
Roads
Guppy, WalterThe Road to Tofino. 33:1 (1999/
2000): 16-18.
Royal British Columbia Museum, Vicoria
Roberts, John E.The Blunt End ofthe Discovery. 33:2 (2000): 24-27.
Scandals
Leier, Mark. The Life and Times of Robert
Raglan Gosden: Anarchist, Saboteur, Mystic,
and Labour Spy. 33:3 (2000): 2-7.
Scott, Amy
Orr, Lynda Maeve. Ministering Angels: The
Victorian Order of Nurses and the Klondike
Goldrush. 33:4 (2000): 18-21.
Sercu, Adolf (Forepaw)
Glanville, Alice. William Bambury: Phoenix's
Last Resident. 33:3 (2000): 16-17.
Sextants
Doe, Nick. Simon Fraser's Latitudes, 1808:
Where Was the Chiefs Village?
33:2 (2000: 2-5.
Smelting
Barlee, N. L. Phoenix -The Vanished City. 33:3
(2000): 12-15.
Social Life and Customs
Glanville, Alice. William Bambury: Phoenix's
Last Resident. 33:3 (2000): 16-17.
Harris, Donald F.Victoria Interlude: A Troubled Time in the Lives of Nessie and Norman
Lee. 33:2 (2000): 6-14.
Society for the History of Discoveries
Layland, Michael. Historians of Discovery Visit
Nootka. 33:1 (1999/2000): 32.
Spies
Leier, Mark. The Life and Times of Robert
Raglan Gosden: Anarchist, Saboteur, Mystic,
and Labour Spy. 33:3 (2000): 2-7.
Steamboats
Affleck, Edward L. Steamboating on the Peace
River. 33:1 (1999/2000): 2-7.
Steamships, West Coast
Guppy, Walter.The Road to Tofino. 33:1 (1999/
2000): 16-18.
Sternwheelers
Affleck, Edward L. Steamboating on the Peace
River. 33:1 (1999/2000): 2-7.
Strait of Anian
Chamberlain, Paul G. Strait of Anian: In Search
ofthe Northwest Passage in British Columbia.
33:1 (1999/2000): 13-15.
Strikes
Leier, Mark. The Life and Times of Robert
Raglan Gosden: Anarchist, Saboteur, Mystic,
and Labour Spy. 33:3 (2000): 2-7.
Stuart, John
Doe, Nick. Simon Fraser's Latitudes, 1808:
Where Was the Chief's Village?
33:2 (2000): 2-5.
Tilt, Nelly
Tilt, Nelly. Nelly Tilt's Journey to New Westminster. 33:1 (1999/2000): 22-24.
Tofino, BC
Guppy, Walter.The Road to Tofino. 33:1 (1999/
2000): 16-18.
Tokens
Greene, Ronald. Glanville's Dairy of Grand
Forks, BC. 33:1 (1999/2000): 25.
 , .Token History:The Church CollectionTokens ofthe Holy Trinity
Church, Aiyansh. 33:4 (2000): 25-26.
 , . A Token History: The Hotel
Brooklyn of Phoenix, BC. 33:3 (2000): 18.
 , .Tokens: J. N. Killas & Co. of Premier, BC. 33:2 (2000): 35.
Townsites
Cotton, H. B.The Hammond Brothers and Port
Hammond. 33:4 (2000): 6-8.
Trails
Elliott, Marie. The Gold Rush Pack Trail of
1861. 33:3 (2000): 19-22.
BC HISTORICAL NEWS - WINTER 2000/2001
47 Hou, Charles. Anderson's Brigade Trail. 33:1
(1999/2000): 34.
Transportation and Travel
Affleck, Edward L. Steamboating on the Peace
River. 33:1 (1999/2000): 2-7.
Guppy, Walter.The Road to Tofino. 33:1 (1999/
2000): 16-18.
Tilt, Nelly. Nelly Tilt's Journey to New Westminster. 33:1 (1999/2000): 22-24.
Ucluelet, BC
Guppy, WalterThe Road to Tofino. 33:1 (1999/
2000): 16-18.
Vancouver, Captain George
Chamberlain, Paul G. Strait of Anian: In Search
ofthe Northwest Passage in
British Columbia. 33:1 (1999/2000): 13-15.
Vancouver Island
Brazier, Graham. On the Trail of the One-
Armed Man. 33:4 (2000): 22-24.
Guppy, Walter.The Road to Tofino. 33:1 (1999/
2000): 16-18.
Vavenby, BC
Dunford, Muriel Poulton. Molly Moilliet of
Aveley Ranch. 33:4 (2000): 2-5.
Vermillion Chutes
Affleck, Edward L. Steamboating on the Peace
River. 33:1 (1999/2000): 2-7.
Victoria, BC
Harris, Donald F.Victoria Interlude: A Trou-
bledTime in the Lives of Nessie and Norman
Lee. 33:2 (2000): 6-14.
Victorian Order of Nurses
Orr, Lynda Maeve. Ministering Angels: The
Victorian Order of Nurses and the
Klondike Goldrush. 33:4 (2000): 18-21.
Shore, Helen. Cottage Hospitals in British
Columbia. 33:4 (2000): 14-17.
Videos
Hou, Charles. Anderson's Brigade Trail. 33:1
(1999/2000): 34.
Voyages
Chamberlain, Paul G. Strait of Anian: In Search
ofthe Northwest Passage in British Columbia.
33:1 (1999/2000): 13-15.
Tilt, Nelly. Nelly Tilt's Journey to New Westminster. 33:1 (1999/2000): 22-24.
Walhachin, BC
Wood, Keith R. A Walhachin Index. 33:2
(2000): 19-23.
Women
Dunford, Muriel Poulton. Molly Moilliet of
Aveley Ranch. 33:4 (2000): 2-5.
Orr, Lynda Maeve. Ministering Angels: The
Victorian Order of Nurses and the
Klondike Goldrush. 33:4 (2000): 18-21.
Shore, Helen. Cottage Hospitals in British
Columbia. 33:4 (2000): 14-17.
Tilt, Nelly. Nelly Tilt's Journey to New Westminster. 33:1 (1999/2000): 22-24.
Truscott, Eileen. Sonia Cornwall. 33:4 (2000):
36-37.
World War I
Kelly, Earl (Mr. Good Evening). Phoenix Remembers. 33:3 (2000): 15.
Wood, Keith R. A Walhachin Index. 33:2
(2000): 19-23.
Yukon Territory
Orr, Lynda Maeve. Ministering Angels: The
Victorian Order of Nurses and the Klondike
Goldrush. 33:4 (2000): 18-21.
Yuquot
Layland, Michael. Historians of Discovery Visit
Nootka. 33:1 (1999/2000): 32.
BOOK REVIEWS
Alexander, J. W.E. Lardeau - Duncan Memories. Reviewed by Edward L.Affleck.
33:2 (2000): 28-29.
CameronJune. Destination Cortez Island, a Sailor's Life Along the BC Coast. Reviewed by
Kelsey McLeod. 33:3 (2000): 30.
Campbell, Shirley. Our Fair: The Interior Provincial Exhibition, Its First lOOYears. Reviewed
by Alice Glanville. 33:4 (2000): 29-30.
Corley-Smith, Peter and David N. Parker.
Helicopters:The British Columbia Story. Reviewed by Kirk Salloum 33:3 (2000): 29.
Drushka, Ken. Tie Hackers to Timber Harvest-
ers:The History of Logging in British Columbia's Interior. Reviewed by Denis Marshall. 33:2
(2000): 32.
Fast, Vera K. Companions ofthe Peace: Diaries
and Letters of Monica Storrs, 1931-1939. Reviewed by Peter J. Mitham. 33:3 (2000): 30-
31.
Goldschmidt, Walter and Theodore H. Haas.
Haa Aani, Our Land. Tlingit and Haida Land
Rights and Use. Reviewed by Joy Inglis. 33:3
(2000): 27-28.
Halliday, Hugh. Wreck! Canada's Worst Railway Accidents. Reviewed by Bill McKee.
33:1 (1999/2000): 27-28.
Hammond, Dick. Haunted Waters: Tales of the
Old Coast. Reviewed by Kelsey McLeod. 33:4
(2000): 31.
Harris, Cole. The Resetdement of British Columbia: Essays on Colonialism and Geographic
Change. Reviewed by Richard Lane. 33:2
(2000): 29-31.
Harvey, R. G. Carving the Western Path by River,
Rail, and Road Through BC's Southern
Mountains. Reviewed by Edward L. Affleck.
33:2 (2000): 33-34.
Hayes, Derek. Historical Adas of British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest. Reviewed by J.
E.Roberts.33:3 (2000):31.
Heaman, E. A. The Inglorious Arts of Peace: Exhibitions in Canadian Society During the
Nineteenth Century. Reviewed by Jim Rainer.
33:1 (1999/2000): 27.
Henry.Tom. Small City in a BigValleyThe Story
of Duncan. Reviewed by Adam C. Waldie. 33:4
(2000): 30.
 , .Westcoasters: Boats that Built British
Columbia. Reviewed by Gordon Miller. 33:3
(2000): 28-29.
Johnson, Peter. Glyphs and Gallows:The Rock
Art of Clo-oose and the Wreck of the John
Bright. Reviewed by Phyllis Reeve. 33:4 (2000):
30-31.
Kahn, Charles. Salt Spring:The Story of an Island. Reviewed by Rachel Grant. 33:1
(1999/2000): 26-27.
Kendrick, John. Alejandro Malaspina: Portrait
of aVisionary. Reviewed by Barry Gough. 33:3
(2000): 28.
Laforet, Andrea and Annie York. Spuzzum:
Fraser Canyon Histories, 1808-1939. Reviewed
by PhyUis Reeve. 33:1 (1999/2000): 30-31.
Nanaimo Community Heritage Commission,
comp. Columns, Cornices and Coal. Reviewed
by Gordon R. Elliott. 33:4 (2000): 28.
Norton, Wayne. A Whole Litde City by Itself
Tranquille and Tuberculosis. Reviewed
by Naomi Miller. 33:3 (2000): 31-32.
O'Keefe, Betty and Ian Macdonald. The Final
Voyage of the Princess Sophia: Did They Have
to Die? Reviewed by Gordon Miller. 33:1
(1999/2000): 29-30.
 , and , .The Sommers Scandal: The Felling ofTrees and Tree Lords.
Reviewed by Kirk Salloum. 33:4 (2000): 28-
29.
Ogston, Leigh, ed. Researching the Indian Land
Question in British Columbia. Reviewed by
Morag Maclachlan. 33:4 (2000): 31-32.
Palmer, Mary. Jedediah Days: One Woman's Island Paradise. Reviewed by Phyllis Reeve. 33:2
(2000): 28.
Place, Hilary. Dog Creek: A Place in the Cariboo.
Reviewed by Sheryl Salloum. 33:3 (2000): 32.
Rayner, William. Images of History: Twentieth
Century British Columbia Through the Front
Pages. Reviewed by Gordon R. Elliott. 33:2
(2000): 31.
Reksten, Terry. Rattenbury 2nd ed. Reviewed
by JanaTyner. 33:1 (1999/2000): 28-29.
Sandwell, R. W, ed. Beyond the City Limits:
Rural History in British Columbia. Reviewed
by Clint Evans. 33:4 (2000): 27-28.
Sterne, Netta. Fraser Gold 1858! The Founding of British Columbia. Reviewed by Lewis
Green. 33:3 (2000): 29-30.
Swanson, Robert. Whisde Punks and Widow
Makers:Tales ofthe B. C.Woods. Reviewed by
Bill McKee. 33:1 (1999/2000): 27-28.
Titley, Brian. The Frontier World of Edgar
Dewdney. Reviewed by Charles Hou. 33:4
(2000): 32-33.
Walker, Elizabeth. Street Names ofVancouver.
Reviewed by Carol Gordon. 33:2 (2000): 32-
33.<^
48
BC HISTORICAL NEWS -Vol. 34 No. 1 British Columbia Historical Federation
Organized 31 October 1922
Affiliated Groups
Archives Association of British Columbia
Union ofBC Indian Chiefs
Member Societies
Alberni District Historical Society
POBox 284, Port Alberni, BC V9Y 7M7
Anderson Lake Historical Society
PO Box 40, D'Arcy BC VON 1L0
Arrow Lakes Historical Society
PO Box 819, Nakusp BC VOG 1R0
Atlin Historical Society
PO Box 111, Atlin BC V0W1A0
Boundary Historical Society
PO Box 1687, Grand Forks BC VOH 1H0
Bowen Island Historians
PO Box 97. Bowen Island, BC VON 1G0
Burnaby Historical Society
6501 Deer Lake Avenue, Burnaby BC V5G 3T6
Chemainus Valley Historical Society
PO Box 172, Chemainus BC VOR 1K0
Cowichan Historical Society
PO Box 1014, Duncan BC V9L 3Y2
District 69 Historical Society
PO Box 1452, Parksville BC V9P 2H4
East Kootenay Historical Association
PO Box 74, Cranbrook BC VIC 4H6
Gulf Islands Branch BCHF
c/o A. Loveridge S22, CI 1, RR # 1
Galiano Island BC VON IPO
Hedley Heritage Society
PO Box 218, Hedley BC VOX 1K0
Kamloops Museum Association
207 Seymour Street
Kamloops BC V2C 2E7
Koksilah School Historical Society
5213 Trans Canada Highway,
Koksilah, BC VOR 2C0
Kootenay Lake Historical Society
PO Box 1262, Kaslo BC VOG 1M0
Lantzville Historical Society
c/o Box 274, Lantzville BC VOR 2H0
London Heritage Farm Society
6511 Dyke Road, Richmond BC V7E 3R3
Maple Ridge Historical Society
22520 116th Ave., Maple Ridge, BCV2X 0S4
Nanaimo & District Museum Society
100 Cameron Road
Nanaimo BC V9R 2X1
Nanaimo Historical Society
PO Box 933, Nanaimo BC V9R 5N2
Nelson Museum
402 Anderson Street, Nelson BC V1L 3Y3
Nicola Valley Museum Archives Association
PO Box 1262, Merritt BC V1K 1B8
North Shore Historical Society
c/o 1541 Merlynn Crescent,
NorthVancouver BC V7J 2X9
North Shuswap Historical Society
Box 317, Celista BC  VOE 1L0
Okanagan Historical Society
PO Box 313,Vernon BC V1T 6M3
Princeton & District Museum & Archives
Box 687, Princeton BC VOX 1W0
Qualicum Beach Historical Society
587 Beach Road
Qualicum Beach BC V9K 1K7
Richmond Museum Society
Minoru Park Plaza, 7700 Minoru Gate,
Richmond BC V6Y 7M7
Salt Spring Island Historical Society
129 McPhillips Avenue
Salt Spring Island BC V8K2T6
Sidney & North Saanich Historical Soc.
9281 Ardmore Drive
North Saanich BC V8L 5G4
Silvery Slocan Historical Society
Box 301, New Denver BCV0G ISO
Surrey Historical Society
Box 34003 17790 #10 Hwy.
Surrey BC  V3S 8C4
Terrace Regional Historical Society
PO Box 246,Terrace BC V8G 4A6
Texada Island Heritage Society
Box 122,Van Anda BC VON 3K0
Trail Historical Society
PO Box 405,Trail BC V1R 4L7
Union Bay Historical Society
Box 448, Union Bay, BC VOR 3B0
Vancouver Historical Society
PO Box 3071,Vancouver BC V6B 3X6
Victoria Historical Society
PO Box 43035, Victoria North
Victoria BC  V8X 3G2
Yellowhead Museum
Box 1778, RR# 1
Clearwater BC VOE 1N0
Please keep the editor of BC Historical News informed about corrections to be made to this Ust.
The British Columbia
Historical Federation is
an umbrella organization
embracing regional
societies.
Local historical societies
are entitled to become
Member Societies ofthe
BC Historical Federation.
All members of these
local historical societies
shall by that very fact be
members ofthe Federation.
Affiliated Groups are
organizations with
specialized interests or
objects of a historical
nature.
Membership fees for
both classes of membership are one dollar per
member of a Member
Society or Affiliated
Group with a minimum
membership fee of $25
and a maximum of $75.
2001 Membership fees
are now due for most
members. Please
complete the application
form you received and
arrange payment at your
earliest convenience.
Questions about
membership should be
directed to:
Terry Simpson,
Membership Secretary,
BC Historical Federation,
193 Bird Sanctuary,
Nanaimo BC V9R 6G8
Phone:(250)754-5697
terryroy@nanaimo.arkcom Return Address:
British Columbia Historical News
JoelVinge, Subscription Secretary
561 Woodland Drive
Cranbrook,   BC    ViC 6V2
Canadian Publications Mail Product Sales Agreement No. 1245716
Publications Mail Registration No. 09835
CiUltlQcl     We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada, through the Publications Assistance Program (PAP), toward our mailing c
Contact us:
BC Historical News welcomes your
letters and manuscripts on subjects
dealing with the history of British
Columbia and British Columbians.
Please send stories or essays on any
aspect of the rich past of our province to the Editor, BC Historical
News, Fred Braches, PO Box 130,
Whonnock BC, V2W 1V9.
Phone: (604) 462-8942
E-mail: braches@netcom.ca
Send books for review and book
reviews direcdy to the Book Review Editor, BC Historical News,
Anne Yandle, 3450 West 20th
Avenue, Vancouver BC V6S 1E4,
Phone: (604) 733-6484
E-mail: yandle@interchange.ubc.ca
News items for publication in BC
Historical News should be send to
the editor in Whonnock.
Please send correspondence about
subscriptions to the Subscription
Secretary, Joel Vinge
561 Woodland Drive
Cranbrook BC ViC 6V2
Phone: (250) 489-2490
E-mail: nisse@telus.net
Subscriptions
Individual $15.00 per year
Institutional $20.00 per year
For addresses outside Canada add $6.00
&**.
The British Columbia Historical Federation
invites submissions of books for the eighteenth
annual Competition for Writers of BC History.
Any book presenting any facet ofBC history, published in
2000, is eUgible. This may be a community history, biography, record of a project or an organization, or personal recollections giving a glimpse ofthe past. Names, dates and places, with relevant
maps or pictures, turn a story into "history." Note that reprints or revisions
of books are not eligible.
The judges are looking for quality presentations, especially if fresh material is
included, with appropriate illustrations, careful proofreading, an adequate
index, table of contents and bibliography, from first-time writers as well as
established authors.
The Lieutenant-Governor's Medal for Historical Writing will be awarded to an
individual writer whose book contributes significandy to the recorded history of British Columbia. Other awards will be made as recommended by
the judges to valuable books prepared by groups or individuals.
Winners will receive a Certificate of Merit, a monetary award and an invitation to the BCHF annual conference to be held in Richmond in May 2001.
SUBMISSION REQUIREMENTS: All books must have been published in 2000 and*
should be submitted as soon as possible after publication. Two copies of each book
should be submitted. Books entered become property ofthe BC Historical Federation. Please state name, address and telephone number of sender, the selling price of
all editions ofthe book, and, if the reader has to shop by mail, the address from which
it may be purchased, including applicable shipping and handling costs.
SEND TO:    BC Historical Federation Writing Competition
c/o Shirley Cuthbertson
#306-225 Belleville Street Victoria BC    V8V 4T9
DEADLINE: 31 December 2000

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