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 HISTORY
"Any country worthy of a future should be interested in its past." W. Kaye Lamb, 1937
This Issue: Klondike Trails | Historic CSI | Teaching History | An Index |     Vol. 38 No.1 2005 |   $5.00
W^M£/fqe JdjMs^ ^m/foA^ /^^#Aw% British Columbia History
Journal of the British Columbia Historical Federation
Published four times a year.
ISSN: print 1710-7881 online 1710-792X
British Columbia History welcomes stories, studies,
and news items dealing with any aspect of the
history of British Columbia, and British Columbians.
Please submit manuscripts for publication to the Editor,
British Columbia History,
John Atkin,
921 Princess Avenue,
Vancouver BC V6A 3E8
e-mail: johnatkin@shaw.ca
Book reviews for British Columbia History,,
AnneYandle,
3450 West 20th Avenue,
Vancouver BCV6S1E4,
604.733.6484
e-mail: yandle@interchange.ubc.ca
Subscription & subscription information:
Alice Marwood
#311 -45520 Knight Road
Chilliwack, B. C.   V2R 3Z2
phone 604-824-1570
email: amaFwood@imag.net
Subscriptions: $18.00 per year
For addresses outside Canada add $10.00
Proof Reader: Tony Farr
Single copies of recent issues are for sale at:
- Arrow Lakes Historical Society, Nakusp BC
- Book Warehouse, Granville St. Vancouver BC
- Books and Company, Prince George BC
- Gibson Coast Books, Gibsons BC
- Galiano Museum
- Gray Creek Store, Gray Creek BC
- Royal Museum Shop, Victoria BC
This publication is indexed in the Canadian
Magazine Index, published by Micromedia.
ISSN 1195-8294
Production Mail Registration Number 1245716
Publications Mail Registration No. 09835
Member of the British Columbia Association of
Magazine Publishers
While copyright in the journal as a whole is
vested in the British Columbia Historical
Federation, copyright in the individual articles
belongs to their respective authors, and
articles may be reproduced for personal use
only. For reproduction for other purposes
permission in writing of both author and
publisher is required.
British Columbia Historical Federation
A charitable society under the Income Tax Act Organized 31 October 1922
PO Box 5254, Station B., Victoria BC V8R 6N4
Under the Distinguished Patronage of Her Honour
The Honourable lona Campagnolo. PC, CM, OBC
Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia
Honourary President
Melva Dwyer
Officers
President
Jacqueline Gresko
5931 Sandpiper Court, Richmond, BC, V7E 3P8
Phone 604.274.4383   j_gresko@douglas.bc.ca
First Vice President
Patricia Roy
Department of History, University of Victoria, PO Box 3045, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P4
proy@uvicca
Second Vice President
Bob Mukai
4100 Lancelot Dr., Richmond, BC   V7C 4S3
Phone 604-274-6449    robert_mukai@telus.net
Secretary
Ron Hyde
#20 12880 Railway Ave., Richmond, BC, V7E6G2
Phone: 604.277.2627 Fax 604.277.2657 rbhyde@shaw.ca
Recording Secretary
Gordon Miller
1126 Morrell Circle, Nanaimo, BC, V9R 6K6 millerg@island.net
Treasurer
Ron Greene
POBox 1351, Victoria, BC, V8W2W7
Phone 250. 598.1835 Fax 250.598.5539   ragreene@telus.net
Past President
Wayne Desrochers
13346 57th Avenue, Surrey, BC, V3X2W8
Phone 604. 599.4206 Fax. 604.507.4202   wderochers@mbs.imag.net
Member at Large
Alice Marwood
#311 45520 Knight Road, Chilliwack, BC, V2R3I2 amarwood@imag.net
Patrick Dunae
History Department, Malaspina University College
dunae@mala.bcca
Committees
Historical Traits and Markers
John Spittle
1241 Mount Crown Road, North Vancouver, BC, V7R 1R9
Phone 604.988.4565 jds@vcn.bcca
W. Kaye Lamb Essay Scholarships Committee
Robert Griffin
107 Regina Avenue, Victoria, BC, V8Z 1J4
Phone 250.475.0418 bgriffin@royalbcmuseum.bcca
Writing Competition - Lieutenant-Governor's Award
Bob Mukai
4100 Lancelot Dr., Richmond, BC   V7C 4S3
Phone 604-274-6449    robert_mukai@telus.net
www.bchistory.ca the Federation's web site is hosted by Selkirk College in Castlegar, BC British Columbia Historical  Federation Members
an umbrella organization embracing regional societies
Abbotsford Genealogical Society
PO Box 672, Abbotsford, BC V2S 6R7
Alberni District Historical Society
PO Box 284, Port Alberni, BC V9Y 7M7
Anderson Lake Historical Society
PO Box 40, D'Arcy, BC VON 1L0
Arrow Lakes Historical Society
PO Box 819, Nakusp, BC VOG 1R0
Atlin Historical Society
PO Box 111, Atlin, BC VOW IA0
Bella Coola Valley Museum Society
Box 726, Bella Coola, BC VOT 1C0
Boundary Historical Society
PO Box 1687, Grand Forks, BC VOH 1H0
Bowen Island Historians
PO Box 97. Bowen Island, BC VON 1G0
Bulkley Valley Historical & Museum Society
Box 2615, Smithers, BC VOJ 2N0
Burnaby Historical Society
6501 Deer Lake Avenue, Burnaby, BC V5G 3T6
B.C. History of Nursing Group
c/o Beth Fitzpatrick Box 444 Brackendale BC VON 1H0
Chemainus Valley Historical Society
PO Box 172, Chemainus, BC VOR 1K0
Chinese Canadian Historical Society of B.C.
1829 MacDonald Street Vancouver, BC V6K 3X7
Cherryville and Area Historical Society
22 Dunlevy Road, Cherryville, BC VOE 2G3
Cowichan Historical Society
PO Box 1014, Duncan, BC V9L 3Y2
Craigdarroch Castle Historical Museum Society
1050 Joan Crescent, Victoria, BC V8S 3L5
Dixon Entrance Maritime Museum Society
PO Box 183, Masset, BC VOT 1M0
East Kootenay Historical Association
PO Box 74, Cranbrook, BC V1C 4H6
Finn Slough Heritage & Wetland Society
9480 Dyke Road, Richmond BC V7A 2L5
Forest History Assn. of BC
c/o 5686 Keith Rd West Vancouver, BC V7W 2N5
Fort Nelson Historical Society
Box 716, Fort Nelson, BC VOC 1R0
Fraser-Fort George Museum Society
PO Box 1779 Pr. George BC V2L 4V7
Gabriola Historical & Museum Society
Box 213, Gabriola, BC, VOR 1X0
Galiano Museum Society
S13 - C19 - RR1, Galiano Island, B C VON 1P0
Gray Creek Historical Society
Box 4, Gray Creek, B.C. VOB 1S0
Gulf of Georgia Cannery Society
12138 Fourth Avenue Richmond, B.C. V7E 3J1
Gulf Islands Branch BCHF
c/o S-22, C-11, RR# 1, Galiano Island, BC VON 1P0
Hallmark Society
c/o 810 Linden Ave, Victoria, BC V8V4G9
Hedley Heritage Society
PO Box 218, Hedley, BC VOX 1K0
Horsefly Historical Society
Box 11, Horsefly, BC VOL 1L0
Hudson's Hope Historical Society
Box 98, Hudson's Hope, BC VOC 1C0
Jewish Historical Society of British Columbia
206-950 West 41st Ave, Vancouver, BC V5Z 2N7
Kamloops Heritage Railway Society
6 - 510 Lome St, Kamloops, BC V2C 1W3
Kamloops Museum Association
207 Seymour Street, Kamloops, BC V2C 2E7
Kimberley District Heritage Society
Box 144 Kimberley BC V1A 2Y5
Kitimat Centennial Museum Association
293 City Centre, Kitimat BC   V8C 1T6
Koksilah School Historical Society
5213 Trans Canada Highway, Koksilah, BC VOR 2C0
Kootenay Doukhobor Historical Society
112 Heritage Way, Castlegar, BC V1N 4M5
Kootenay Lake Historical Society
PO Box 537, Kaslo, BC VOG 1M0
Ladysmith & District Historical Society
c/o 781 Colonia Drive Ladysmith, BC V9G 1N2
Langley Heritage Society
Box 982, Fort Langley, BC V1M 2S3
Lantzville Historical Society
c/o PO Box 274, Lantzville, BC VOR 2H0
Lions Bay Historical Society
Bopx 571 Lions Bay, BC   VON 2E0
Little Prairie Heritage Society
Box 1777, Chetwynd BC   VOC 1J0
London Heritage Farm Society
6511 Dyke Road, Richmond, BC V7E 3R3
Maple Ridge Historical Society
22520 116th Avenue, Maple Ridge, BC V2X 0S4
Marpole Museum & Historical Society
8743 SW Marine Dr, Vancouver, BC V6P 6A5
www.globalynx.net/marpolehistorical
Metchosin School Museum Society
4475 Happy Valley Road Victoria, BC V9C 3Z3
Michel-Natal-Sparwood Heritage Society
PO Box 1675, Sparwood BC VOB 2G0
Myra Canyon Trestle Restoration Society
PBC Box 611 Kelowna BC    V1Y 7P2
Nakusp & District Museum Society
PO Box 584, Nakusp, BC VOG 1R0
Nanaimo & District Museum Society
100 Cameron Road, Nanaimo, BC V9R 2X1
Nanaimo Historical Society
PO Box 933, Nanaimo, BC V9R 5N2
Nelson Museum & Historical Society
402 Anderson Street, Nelson, BC V1L 3Y3
Nicola Valley Museum Archives Association
PO Box 1262, Merritt BC V1K 1B8
North Shore Historical Society
c/o 1541 Merlynn Cres., North \foncouver, BC V7J 2X9
North Shuswap Historical Society
PO Box 57, Celista, BC VOE 1L0
North Vancouver Museum and Archives
209 West 4th St North Vancouver BC V7M 1H8
Okanagan Historical Society
PO Box 313, Vernon, BC V1T 6M3
Old Cemeteries Society of Victoria
Box 5004, #15-1594 Fairfield Rd, Victoria BC V8S 5L8
Parksville & District Historical Society
PO Box 1452, Parksville, BC   V9P 2H4
Pemberton Museum & Archives
PO Box 267, Pemberton, BC, VON 2L0
Prince Rupert City & Regional Archives
PO Box 1093, Prince Rupert BC V8J 4H6
Princeton & District Museum & Archives
Box 281, Princeton, BC VOX 1W0
Qualicum Beach Historical Society
587 Beach Road, Qualicum Beach, BC V9K 1K7
Revelstoke & District Historical Association
Box 1908, Revelstoke BC VOE 2S0
Revelstoke Heritage Railway Society
PO Box 3018, Revelstoke, BC   VOE 2S0
Richmond Heritage Railroad Society
c/o Suite 200, 8211 Ackroyd Rd., Richmond, BC V6X 3K8
Questions regarding membership should be sent to:
Ron Hyde, Secretary, #20 12880 Railway Ave., Richmond BCV7E 6G2
Phone 604.277.2627 Fax 604.277.2657 rbhyde@shaw.ca
Richmond Museum Society
#180 - 7700 Minoru Gate, Richmond, BC V6Y 1R8
The Riondel & Area Historical Society
Box 201, Riondel, BC VOB 2B0
Roedde House Preservation Society
1415 Barclay St, Vancouver BC V6G 1J6
Royal Agricultural & Industrial Society of BC
(Samson V Maritime Museum) PO Box 42516 -
#105 - 1005 Columbia St New Westminster BC
V3M 6H5
Saanich Historical Artifacts Society
7321 Lochside Dr., Saanichton, BC   V8M 1W4
Salt Spring Island Historical Society
129 McPhillips Ave, Salt Spring Island, BC V8K 2T6
Sandon Historical Society
Box 52, New Denver, BC VOG 1S0
Sea Island Heritage Society
4191 Ferguson Road, Richmond, BC V7B 1P3
Sicamous District Museum & Historical Society
Box 944, Sicamous, BC VOE 2V0
Silvery Slocan Historical Society
Box 301, New Denver, BC VOG 1S0
South Peace Historical Society
c/o 900 Alaska Avenue, Dawson Creek, BC V1G 4T6
Steveston Historical Society
3811 Moncton St., Richmond, BC V7E 3A0
Sullivan Mine & Railway Historical Society
PO Box 94, Kimberley BC   V1A 2Y5
Surrey Historical Society
Box 34003, 17790 #10 Highway, Surrey, BC V3S 8C4
Terrace Regional Historical Society
PO Box 246, Terrace, BC V8G 4A6
Trail Historical Society
PO Box 405, Trail, BC V1R 4L7
Union Bay Historical Society
Box 448, Union Bay, BC VOR 3B0
Vancouver Historical Society
PO Box 3071, Vancouver, BC V6B 3X6
Victoria Historical Society
PO Box 43035, Victoria North, Victoria, BC V8X 3G2
Williams Lake Museum and Historical Society
113 - 4th Ave North, Williams Lake, BC V2G 2C8
Yale & District historical Society
Box 74, Yale, BC VOK 2S0
Yellowhead Museum
Box 1778, RR# 1, Clearwater, BC VOE 1N0
AFFILIATED GROUPS
Archives Association of British Columbia
PO Box 78530 University PO, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4
Hope Museum
POBox 26, HopeBC   V0X1L0
Kelowna Museum Association
470 Queensway Avenue, Kelowna, B. C. V1Y 6S7
Langley Centennial Museum
PO Box 800, Fort Langley BC   V1M 2S2
Northern BC Archives - UNBC
3333 University Way, Prince George BC   V2N 4Z9
North Pacific Historic Fishing Villiage
PO Box 1109, Port Edward BC   VOV 1G0
North Vancouver Museum and Archives
209 - West 4th Street North Vancouver BC V7M 1H8
Quesnel & District Museum and Archives
410 Kinchant St Quesnel BC V2J 7J5
Women's History Network of BC
402 - 9603 Manchester Dr., Burnaby BC   V3N 4Y7 Return Undeliverable Canadian Addresses to Circulation Department.
British Columbia Historical News
Alice Marwood, #311 - 45520 Knight Road Cnilliwack, BC V2R 3Z2
Canadian Publications Mail Product Sales Agreement No. 40025793
Publications Mail registration No. 09835
CanadS
We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada, through the Publications Assistance program (PAP), toward our mailing cost
Contact Us:
British Columbia History welcomes
stories, studies, and news items
dealing with any aspect of the
history of British Columbia, and
British Columbians.
Please    submit    manuscripts    for
publication to the Editor,
British Columbia History,
John Atkin,
921 Princess Avenue,
Vancouver BC V6A 3E8
e-mail: johnatkin@shaw.ca
Book reviews for British Columbia History,
AnneYandle,
3450 West 20th Avenue,
Vancouver BCV6S1E4,
604.733.6484
e-mail: yandle@interchange.ubc.ca
Subscription & subscription information:
Alice Marwood
#311 -45520 Knight Road
Chilliwack, B. C.   V2R 3Z2
phone 604-824-1570
email: amarwood@imag.net
Subscriptions: $18.00 per year
For addresses outside Canada add
$10.00
ffl-,.
2005
23nd Annual Competition for Writers of BC History
Lieutenant-Governor's Medal for Historical Writing
Deadline: 31 December 2005
The British Columbia Historical Federation invites book submissions for the twenty-second annual Competition for Writers of BC
History. Books representing any facet of BC history, published in
2004 will be considered by the judges who are looking for quality
presentations and fresh material. Community histories, biographies, records of a project or organization as well as personal
reflections, etc. are eligible for consideration.
Reprints or revisions of books are not eligible.
Lieutenant-Governor's Medal
The Lieutenant-Governor's Medal for Historical Writing will be
awarded to an individual writer whose book contributes significantly to the history of British Columbia. Additional prizes may be
awarded to other books at the discretion of the judges.
Publicity
AU entries receive considerable publicity. Winners will receive a
Certificate of Merit, a monetary award and an invitation to the
Awards Banquet of the Federation's annual conference to be held
in Kelowna, BC on May 14, 2005.
Submissions
For information about making submissions contact:
Bob Mukai, Chair of Competition Committee
4100 Lancelot Drive
Richmond, B. C. V7C 4S3
phone 604-274-6449 email robert_mukai@telus.net
Books entered become property of the BC Historical Federation.
By submitting books for this competition, authors agree that the British
Columbia Historical Federation may use their names in press releases
and Federation publications regarding the book
competition. HISTORY
BCHF Prizes | Awards | Scholarships
W. KAYE LAMB Essay Scholarships
Deadline 15 May 2005
The British Columbia Historical
Federation awards two scholarships
annually for essays written by students
atBC colleges or universities on a topic
relating to British Columbia history.
One scholarship ($500) is for an essay
written by a student in a first-or
second-year course: the other ($750)
is for an essay written by a student in
a third-or fourth-year course.
To apply tor the scholarship,
candidates must submit (1) a letter of
application: (2) an essay of 1,500-3,000
words on a topic relating to the history
of British Columbia: (3) a letter of
recommendation from the professor
for whom the essay was written.
Applications should be submitted
before 15 May 2005 to: Robert Griffin,
Chair BC Historical Federation
Scholarship Committee, PO Box 5254,
Station B, Victoria, BC V8R 6N4.
The winning essay submitted by a
third or fourth year student will be
published in BC Historical News. Other
submissions may be published at the
editor's discretion.
BC History Web Site Prize
The British Columbia Historical
Federation and David Mattison are
jointly sponsoring a yearly cash award
of $250 to recognize Web sites that
contribute to the understanding and
appreciation of British Columbia's
past. The award honours individual
initiative in writing and presentation.
Nominations for the BC History Web
Site Prize for must be made to the
British Columbia Historical
Federation, Web Site Prize
Committee, prior to 31 December
2005. Web site creators and authors
may nominate their own sites. Prize
rules and the on-line nomination form
can be found on The British Columbia
History Web site: http:11
www.victoria, tc.cal resources!
bchistorylannouncements.html
Best Article Award
A Certificate of Merit and fifty dollars
will be awarded annually to the
author of the article, published in
British Columbia History, that best
enhances knowledge ot British
Columbia's history and provides
reading enjoyment. Judging will be
based on subject development,
writing skill, freshness of material,
and appeal to a general readership
interested in all aspects of BC history.
The Journal of the British Columbia Historical Federation I Volume 38 Number 1 2005
John Alexander Bovey 2
A Woman of Distinction 3
Vernon Storey
Axe Murder in the Okanagan 7
Carolann Wood
The Stikine-Teslin Route to the Klondike Goldfields 12
Bill Miller
Token History 20
Book Reviews 22
Website Forays 31
Archives and Archivists 32
BC Historical News Index 36
From the Editor
Happy New Year to all our readers.
We start the new year with a new name for the
Federation's journal, I'd been giving some thought over
the last month on how to mark the occasion and I've
decided to create a writing prize.
A few years ago a very good friend of mine passed away
and left me a small amount of money which I set aside
while I thought about what to do with it. Since my friend played a big role in sparking my
life long interest in history I've decided to lauch a new writing competition for BC History
called the Moti Prize. It will be for elementary school students writing on local history.
The prize will be small - $50 to the winner and a subscription to BC History for the school
library - but I hope to inspire kids to be curious about their community and be fascinated
with its history.
The rules are simple: the competition is open to elementary school students in BC; the
submissions must be on local history; the editor is the judge; entries must be submitted
by May 1st of each year; and the winner may be published in BC History.
I think this will be a good way to use the money and I hope you'll help spread the word to
students in your area.
The new name of the journal means new ISSN numbers, they can be found on the inside
front cover. Don't forget our website at www.bchistory.ca
Our mascot Moti the elephant, 1929
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005 JOHN ALEXANDER BOVEY 1934 - 2005
John Alexander Bovey, historian
and archivist, died in Winnipeg on 12
January 2005. The seeds of John's
lifelong enthusiasms were sewn during
his happy childhood in Vancouver. He
was educated in Vancouver and
received his B A and MA in History from
the University of British Columbia, and
undertook graduate research at the
University of London, England.
He had a distinguished archival
career of over 35 years, and in retirement
he continued to contribute to the
profession. He was Archivist of the
Northwest Territories in the early 1960s,
Provincial Archivist of Manitoba (1967-
1979) and Provincial Archivist ofBritish
Columbia from 1979 until his retirement
in 1998. He also served as the Archivist
of the Diocese of Rupertsland and that of the
Ecclesiastical Province of Rupertsland. Among his
proudest achievements during his Manitoba tenure
were the 1973 deposit agreement for the transfer of
the Hudson's Bay Archives from London, England to
Winnipeg; and the transformation of the former
Civic Auditorium into the Provincial Archives
Building in 1975.
In BC, he established the Community Archives
Assistance Program and was a founding member of
the BC Archives Council. His contributions to the
archival profession were many, including his early
promotion of the use of the Internet for archival
reference and research and the period he served as
chair of the Provincial Documents Committees in
Manitoba and British Columbia. He served on many
historical and community boards including the
Canadian Conference of Historical Resources, the
Manitoba Record Society and the Historical Sites and
Monuments Board of Canada.
At the time of his death he was a member of
the Council of St. John's College, University of
Manitoba, The Manitoba Historical Society, Friends
of the BC Archives and the Vestry of All Saints Church.
Perhaps the most remarkable characteristic of John's
distinguished career was his distinctive genius for
bringing to life historical material that would
otherwise have been forbiddingly dry, arcane or
obscure. In the 1980s he shared his seemingly endless
supply of revealing - and often hilarious - historical
anecdotes with a wide audience during a regular
weekly spot on a CBC radio program. His command
of historical fact was formidable, but always offset
by his ready wit, modesty and evangelical confidence
in the importance of history. John was an omnivorous
reader and brilliant conversationalist, who carefully
recorded items of particular interest, amusement or
irony in a little black book. He enthusiastically
pursued interests including maritime history, opera,
horticulture, gastronomy, art and literature, which he
shared with his wife, children, family, and an army
of devoted friends. A man of enormous charm and
generosity, John demonstrated his affection for his
friends and family with subtlety and imagination.
Always loquacious, John's company was entertaining
and instructive, as were his inimitable postcards and
envelopes of newspaper cuttings. He will be sorely
missed by his family, whom he cherished, and who
cherished him, above all else.
This obituary appeared in newspapers across Canada in
January 2005.
Len McCann, curator emeritus of the Vancouver
Maritime Museum, remembers: "Mr Bovey had an
abiding interest in the nautical world for his father
was the founder of Bovey Marine, a major supply
house for all things nautical (you can still find Bovey
Marine compasses around). John grew up in a marine
atmosphere and always maintained the interest." •
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005 A Woman of Stature:
Dr. Henrietta Anderson and the Victoria Provincial Normal School      By vemon j. storey
Public schooling in British Columbia was
formalized in 1872 through Bill 16, An Act
Respecting Public Schools, which made its
way through the Legislative Assembly soon
after Canada's westernmost province was established.
The first Act did not provide for a provincial system
of teacher preparation, however; that would emerge
some thirty years later with the establishment of the
province's normal schools.
Most often, mention of this pioneering teacher
preparation movement evokes the question, "What
does the term normal school mean?" The term ecole
normale, introduced in the first half of the nineteenth-
century, referred to a normative operation for the
training of (primarily) elementary school teachers.
Educators such as Horace Mann and Egerton Ryerson
were impressed by its leading exemplars, such as Ecole
Normale Superieure in Paris, and pressed for similar
action in North America. By the late 1800s, the normal
school movement was firmly established in North
America and had spread across Canada.
In British Columbia from 1901 to 1956, normal
school was the means by which elementary teachers
received training leading to certification. Prior to that,
the sole requirement was to pass a Department of
Education examination. During the early years, the
training programs were very brief, though gradually
the sessions were increased until four or five months
became standard. In 1926, British Columbia instituted
a course of one academic year (nine months). In 1930
the completion of Grade XII Junior Matriculation
became the prerequisite for normal school entrance.
The province's first normal school was
established in Vancouver in 1901, the second several
years later in Victoria. On June 9,1913, the province
formalized a contract with Luney Bros. Ltd., a Victoria
contractor, for "the construction and completion of a
new Normal School at corner of Lansdowne Road and
Richmond Avenue, Victoria, B. C."1 The new school,
which opened in 1915, was regarded by locals as a
significant gain for the capital city, even though for
years they had lobbied for a university, not a teacher
training institution. The Victoria Provincial Normal
School remained in operation until 1956. From 1942
to 1946, the school was relocated to Christ Church
Cathedral's Memorial Hall to accommodate a military
hospital at the Lansdowne campus. From the time of
its 1946 return to Lansdowne until the closure of the
two normal schools in 1956, VPNS shared the facility
with Victoria College, which had outgrown its
Craigdarroch Castle campus.
The story of VPNS
is the story of its people -
the students and staff who
enlivened this forty-year
segment of education
history in British
Columbia and Victoria.
One remarkable
contributor to that story
was scholar and educator
Dr. Henrietta Anderson,
vice-principal of VPNS
from 1944 to 1946. Dr.
Anderson was a member
of the instructional staff at
VPNS from 1934 until her
retirement at the age of
fifty-nine in 1946, the year
the Normal School
returned to its
Lansdowne campus
home. Among the six
administrators appointed
to lead the Victoria
Provincial Normal School between 1915 and 1956, Dr.
Anderson (Ph.D. Washington) was not only the sole
woman, she was also the only VPNS administrator
to hold a doctoral degree during tenure at the School.
Henrietta Anderson was born in Aberdeen,
Scotland in 1885. Dr. Mary Harker, recently retired
from her work as an instructor at the University of
Victoria, Faculty of Education, recalls warm memories
of this family friend of her parents' generation:
Her father was the principal of Aberdeen University, and
from the moment she had any consciousness she realized
she wanted to be a teacher, was driven to teach, wanted
to teach badly. And when she was a young person, she was
the most lackadaisical student you could ever imagine,
she said. She was bored out of her wits, she couldn't care
less. She loved to read, she was a voracious reader, and
knew and quoted easily and often from anything from
Chaucer to T. S. Eliot. She was amazing.
She often told this story: they had to write some kind of
matriculation exam in order to get into the Teachers'
College . . . she was living in typical adolescent
[dreamland], not caring a hoot about her studies and
reading happily away. And her father said to her, "You're
never going to get to be a teacher; you haven't got the
marks," and it had never occurred to her that there was
any question. And she said, "What do you mean?' And he
said, "You're not going to pass ..."
And so then she started . . . she used to go to
sleep every second night, andshe'd boil teaon thisheater
in her room, to keep herself awake. And she often talked
Dr. Henrietta, vice-
principal of Victoria
Provincial Normal School
1944-1946.
Photo courtesy of Dr. Mary
Harker.
Vern Storey is the
author of Leamin$ to
Teach, a history of
the Victoria
Provincial Normal
School and
accidental historian
and a professor of
Educational
Psychology and
Leadership Studies.
Faculty of Education
at the University of
Victoria
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005 Students on the main
approach to Victoria
Provincial Normal School.
Picture by Edward Goodall, used
by permission of Richard
Goodall.
about that, and she
recapitulated all these
subjects that she had to
know, and . . . didn't even
care about. . . to become a
teacher. And she worked
and worked and worked at
her math, which was her
failing...and did well enough
and went into Teachers'
College, and became a
teacher . . . And then her
first assignment was in the
east end of London, which I
think she found very hard,
but very, very interesting.2
Myths and legends
abound in the annals of
organizational history.
Many of these tales
cannot be substantiated,
but some stories have a
plausible ring when
considered alongside
other evidence. Perhaps
in part because she was
physically "very little,
tiny, well under five feet," Dr. Henrietta Anderson was
the subject of one of those vignettes, a story that
perhaps reflected an ethos of her time. A teacher who
attended VPNS in the mid-1940s after returning from
military service recalled Dr. Anderson's comment to
him that early in her tenure as a VPNS instructor, one
of the school's administrators had suggested
"Probably a little lady like you would not want to be
called Doctor." According to the informant, Dr.
Anderson had responded quite vigorously that
"Doctor" was precisely the correct salutation!
On the face of it, that is simply an interesting
and perhaps unverifiable anecdote. However, its
credibility is enhanced in Harry Gilliland's file record
of the VPNS principals and vice-principals. There, the
relevant entry is clearly titled "Miss Henrietta R.
Anderson,"3 even though further down that page her
three degrees are listed. In fact, even in his Brief history
ofthe Victoria Normal School,4, the school's last principal
persisted in his decision not to speak of "Dr.
Anderson." Despite his own listing of this woman's
earned Ph.D. among her qualifications, he identified
her in the official record simply as "Miss." However,
elsewhere in that report Gilliland acknowledged the
Deputy Minister of Education's honorary doctorate
by referring to him as "Dr. H.L. Campbell." Gilliland's
mention of Donald MacLaurin's doctorate in the
record of MacLaurin's tenure as first principal of
Victoria Provincial Normal School also was
historically inaccurate. MacLaurin received his
doctoral degree in 1934, two years after leaving his
position at VPNS.5
Former VPNS students' memories in regard to
Dr. Anderson, their language arts instructor, were
remarkably clear. Without exception, they both knew
and referred to her academic qualification. Joe Lott
(VPNS 1941-42) remembered a lively personality and
an effective teacher: "We had Dr. Henrietta Anderson,
who I am sure you've heard about. She was a real
character, but a heck of a good teacher. She was really
an inspiration."6 Marjorie (Thatcher) King, a VPNS
student in 1940-41, was particularly clear about the
formalities of address in the 1940s, especially in regard
to those in positions of authority or seniority:
"We all liked her, as far as I know, but nobody ever thought
of calling her anything but Dr. Anderson. You know, in those
days, we called everybody Mr. or Mrs. or Doctor . . . like
Dr. Denton [sic], we called him Doctor, and there was Mr.
English and Mr. Gough, and Mr. Wickett. "7
Dr. Anderson's work at VPNS included the
supervision of student teachers during the practicum.
Her reputation and qualities, coupled with her arrival
in the classroom on one such occasion, triggered
Norma (Matthews) Mickelson's (VPNS 1943-44)
memory of that occasion:
I was at North Ward, my first practicum. My first supervisor
was Dr. Henrietta Anderson, and I can remember, I was
supposed to be teaching a Science lesson. I will never forget
it. . . it was a methodology course, it was how to teach
things. And I was going to have the kids plant peas. We
were going to plant peas, and they were going to watch
these peas, and water them.
Well...the class was at one level, and then there was a
slight rise to where the teacher stood - it was kind of like
one step up . .. And I was up on that little platform there,
and Dr. Anderson walked into the room, and I was so
nervous, my hands relaxed, and my bottle of peas fell on
the floor and went in a hundred different directions! Every
kid in the room leapt up out of his or her seat to pick up
those peas. I will never forget that experience!8
Perhaps in part because of her own life
experiences, Dr. Anderson cautioned her students
about the world they would face after graduation.
Norma recalled a personal admonition passed on to
the young women in her class just before they left
VPNS to begin their teaching careers:
/ remember one of our instructors, Dr. Anderson, just before
we finished and went out into the world, her advice to us
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005 was,  "Do not marry the first man you meet in Skunk
Hollow!" That was her advice.9
Mary Harker remembers Henrietta Anderson as
"very important in my life, very much of a guiding
force . . . animated and lively. She was really a
wonderful person to have around. And she was always
the life of any conversation that went on in our house."
She was not one to dwell on her own adversities, which
included stepping off a steamer in Halifax in 1912 to
discover that her life's plans had fallen through, leaving
her abandoned and having to make her own way in a
new country. Undeterred, she continued on as a single
woman in a man's world to make contributions that
might have been impossible for her had she been
married. She became a school administrator in the
Vancouver area, serving as the first woman principal
of South Vancouver Elementary School and
subsequently as principal at Lonsdale and at Queen
Mary. She received her B.A. degree at Queen's in 1925,
her Master of Arts in 1929 and her Ph.D. in 1931, the
latter two from the University of Washington. In 1934,
she joined the faculty of Victoria Provincial Normal
School as assistant professor. From 1944 to 1946, during
the Normal School's period at Memorial Hall, she
served as vice-principal under Harry English. On her
retirement, Harry Gilliland succeeded her vice-
principal position at VPNS. In 1954, Gilliland became
principal for the final two years of the School's
operation.
Perhaps Henrietta Anderson is most
remarkable when viewed in the social context of her
own time. In those days, women faced limited career
options. Prior to World War Two, young women who
became teachers faced an abrupt end to their
employment if they married. Further, whether one
was a woman or a man, the craft of teaching school
was not highly regarded. Schools, especially those in
rural areas, were sparsely equipped, support services
were minimal or non-existent, and in many cases rural
living was far from idyllic. Henrietta Anderson, then,
was something of an anomaly. Thoroughly well
educated, and recognized by her students and others
in the community as a capable professional woman,
she completed her career in the distinctly male world
of administration.
Perhaps it is significant that Henrietta Anderson
moved on to retirement at the end of the war, just at
the start of what was to become a changed though
not always better world for women in the work force.
She would have welcomed the new era that opened
VPNS faculty and staff,
1941-42.
Front row: Muriel
Pottinger (Secretary),
K.B. Woodward.
Middle row: Percy
Wickett, Isabel Bescoby,
Barbara Hinton, Marian
James, Nita E. Murphy,
Henrietta R. Anderson,
Vernon L. Denton
(Principal).
Back row: Sgt. Major
Pocock, H.O. English,
John Gough.
Photo courtesy of UVic Archives
reference #004.0400. Ken
McAllister photographer.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005 Notes
1 Contract document, British
Columbia Archives (hereinafter
BCA), GR0054, Box 36, File 517.
2 Dr. Mary Harker, interview by
Vernon Storey, 12 March 2003,
interview 27, transcript in
interviewer's file.
3 Harry Gilliland, "Staff Duties"
(Victoria BC: University of
Victoria Archives AR 329, 2.7).
4 ARPS 1956, 50.
5 D.L. MacLaurin, "The history of
education in the crown colonies
of Vancouver Island and the
Province of British Columbia"
(Ph.D diss., University of
Washington, 1934), 297.
6 Joe Lott 2002
7 Marjorie (Thatcher) King 2003.
8 Norma (Matthews) Mickelson
2002.
9 Norma (Matthews) Mickelson
2002.
10 Daily Colonist, March 30,
1961,5.
11 Victoria Daily Times, February
24,1936.
12 Ibid., 13.
13 Ibid., February 28,1936, 9.
14 Ibid., February 15,1939, 6.
15 Ibid, ca July 16,1968.
classroom and other workplace doors more widely
for women. At the same time, she would also have
recognized that some of the change surrounding her
was more about workforce supply and demand issues
than about matters of equality. Her response, though,
even in retirement, was to speak and act rather than
simply to observe.
Beyond her work as vice-principal at VPNS,
Henrietta Anderson was a driving force in her
community, collector of an impressive array of 'firsts'
- the first teacher to become President of the British
Columbia Parent-Teacher Federation; first winner, in
1932, of the Fergusson Memorial Award for her
outstanding contribution to the field of teaching; and
founder of Victoria's Silver Threads Society.
Remarkably, given the times and the audience, she
was "the first woman to give a toast to the Robbie
Burns dinner." She was an advocate for improved
teaching conditions for British Columbia's rural
schools, which faced perennial and systemic problems
of high turnover, low salaries, poor equipment, and
isolation. In 1949, retired and working with others,
she revived the local Music Festival.
Henrietta Anderson also raised an early voice
on behalf of trades education for high school students,
noting, "A university education is not in itself a
passport to success or happiness.. We must inculcate
the ideal that all labour well done is dignified."10 In a
perceptive comment on a social reality of the time,
she noted regretfully that "It is a sad commentary on
our system that the quickest way for pupils to get
good trades training is to get sent to one of our
correctional institutions."11
Where school sports were concerned,
Henrietta Anderson was an advocate of broad
participation. Speaking of sports trophies awarded
during her public school years, she observed:
There is too much silverware attached to sport at present.
There has been too much making the team and nothing
else. There have been times when as principal I would
have liked to dump the whole lot of silverware into the
inlet.12
An enthusiastic participant herself in all of life's
opportunities, Dr. Anderson also urged other women
toward action. In 1936, she urged the members of the
Victoria Business and Professional Women's Club to
action, "If we are seeking equality, we must produce
equality. Let us stand by each other and be all for
women and for all women... world peace can only
be achieved by women."13 Perhaps Henrietta
Anderson best captured her commitment to service
in a remarkably John Kennedy-like observation a few
months before the start of the Second World War:
/ don't see any hope for a great Canada until we see more
and more of our young people imbued with the ideal that
they have a contribution to make to our country. . . Living
means giving as well as taking.u
Perhaps Henrietta Anderson carried that hope
with her as she retired from Victoria Provincial
Normal School in 1946. She continued her active and
contributing life in Victoria until shortly before her
death in 1968 at the age of 83. In a far different use of
the term "grand little lady" than that cited earlier in
this article, a newspaper reader wrote to the editor
about the woman whose work as a school principal
"paved the way for other women." This reader
recalled Henrietta Anderson as:
The most remarkable woman I have ever had the pleasure
of knowing. She knew how to use time, and used every
minute. As she once said... "You can always make time for
anything you want to do." Henrietta was only happy when
she felt she was being of some use in the world, and right
to the last she was helping young people to get a start on
life.15
She carried and communicated a zest for life;
an active enthusiasm for education, for young people,
for the efforts of women, for her community, and for
the English language. Inside the front cover of a book
given to Mary Harker, she inscribed a quotation from
poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Aurora Leigh. It
captured Dr. Henrietta Anderson's own message of
observation, thoughtfulness, and initiative:
Earth's crammed with heaven, and every common bush,
afire with God:
But only he who sees, takes off his shoes,
The rest sit around and pluck blackberries. •
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005 Axe Murder in the Okanagan
A Forensic Case Study
By Carolann C.E. Wood
THE CASE: On May 11,1987 while working
on a mining claim, a backhoe uncovered
human bones near Cherryville, B.C. The
bones were located in an area under the
confines of an old cabin, buried four or five feet below
ground level and appeared old. Further excavation
revealed more bone, square nails, a button, glass from
an old bottle and an old boot containing some foot
bones (figure 1). The skull was examined on site and
found to have a large cut on the back on the head.
The holder of the mining claim recalled a story about
a poll tax collector who was killed back in the 1880's
by a miner known as "Smart Aleck." In light of the
unique injury to the skull and the location of the body,
it seemed highly probable that the skeleton was that
of Aeneas Dewar, a gold commissioner.1
THE VICTIM: The forensic analysis was
performed without prior knowledge of the case.2 The
skeletal material represents a white male, in his early
fifties to early sixties. The height of the individual was
estimated to be between 5'5" and 5'9" (65.9-70.9 inches
or 167.4-180.lcm). The gentleman was right-handed.
The health of the individual was fair although he
suffered from age-related osteoarthritis of the joints and
spine. In addition, it is apparent that this individual
was affected by osteoporosis due to extensive porosity
in the skeleton and compression of the vertebrae. Past
injury or dislocation of the right foot with improper
healing may have caused some difficulty walking. The
individual suffered an injury to his right shoulder joint
and elbow as apparent by the presence of periostitis, a
type of non-specific infection.
Poor dental care is apparent in the presence of
dental caries, the build up of calculus and staining
(figure 2). Of thirty-two teeth, the gentleman had only
seven and of those seven, only one was cavity free.
Periodontal disease, one of the most common dental
diseases, is apparent in loss of bone holding the teeth
in place (figure 2). Periodontal disease is clearly related
to age, but also to poor dental health and is the major
cause of tooth loss in those aged over forty.3 The severe
loss of alveolar bone caused the teeth to migrate out of
their proper position and as a result caused extreme
abnormal tooth wear on both the upper and lower teeth
(figure 3). All teeth were stained, likely the result of
chewing tobacco or cigarette smoking.
Enamel hypoplasia is a most common
disturbance in dental development characterized by
transverse lines or thin furrows on the enamel surface
of teeth. Enamel hypoplasia appears on all teeth present
(figure 2, arrow). For this enamel defect to affect the
permanent teeth,
the cause, most
commonly
nutritional stress,
would have
occurred before
age four.4
Trauma
analysis: The
most significant
wound was
found on the
occipital bone
(figures 4 & 5). It
is estimated that
at the widest
point the wound
is 5.2mm, gradually narrowing
to be flush on the
right side. The
length of the
wound is seven
centi-meters. The
blow did not
result in the
complete
severance of the
occipital bone.
This is demonstrated by the fact
that the lower
border of the
wound does not
exhibit a clean
edge (figure 6,
below). Portions
of the occipital
bone are missing
along the lower
border of the
wound edge. The
loss of these
fragments may
be due to a
twisting motion
during the
weapon's removal.
The first (figure 7), second and third cervical
vertebrae were fractured perimortem (figure 8). The
second and third vertebrae are fused but the blow
*■■.*
*r
Carolann Wood is a
PhD student in
Forensic
Anthropology at the
University of
Toronto. She was a
member of the
Missing Women's Task
Force assisting the
RCMP and Vancouver
Police Department
with the excavation
at the Pickton Farm
requiring the
identification and
recovery of bone and
other evidence of
potential forensic
significance. She
currently acts as an
osteological
consultant for the Six
Nations of the Grand
River Territory.
The author wishes to
thank Dr. Tracy
Rogers, Dr. Cathy
D'Andrea, Bob Stair
(Office of the Chief
Coroner, B.C.), Linda
Wills (Greater Vernon
Museum), Jonathan
Walford, (Bata Shoe
Museum, Toronto)
and the photographic
talents of Jason
Wood.
Figure 11nventory of
items recovered.
Photo J. Wood.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005 Figure 2 Poor dental care:
periodontal disease,
dental caries, calculus,
staining,
(top)
Photo J. Wood
Figure 3 Extreme
abnormal wear of the
maxillary teeth,
(middle)
Photo J. Wood
Figure 4 Wound to the
back of the skull,
(bottom)
Photo J. Wood.
fractured them into two pieces. The
fusing of vertebrae, or the immobility
or consolidation of a joint, is known
as ankylosis and is most commonly
the result of injury or disease. On the
mandible, straight, sharp triangular
cutmarks are apparent, illustrating
the narrow point of maximum
impact at the base (figure 9). The
mandibular cutmarks also vary in
length according to the contour of the
jaw surface. The first cutmark is 19mm
long. The second cutmark appears as a
beveled edge and is approximately
7mm long and 2mm at its widest point.
The manner of death is homicide
as the locations of the wounds rule out
self-infliction. It is also unlikely that the
death was accidental; the extensiveness
of the wounds suggests that they were
intentionally and maliciously inflicted.
This is a case in which the head was the
primary mark of violence due to its
vulnerability. The blows are directed
diagonally, in a downward motion
reflecting the least amount of effort
required, especially true if a heavy
weapon was used to inflict trauma.
Due to the angle of wound entry, it
is believed that the victim may have
been sitting on a chair with his head
tilted forward (as you would when
sitting at a table) or down on his
knees (figures 4 & 5). At the time of
the first blow, the victim was
unaware ofthe attacker's intentions
as he approached the victim from behind. It is
possible that the attacker was someone the victim
knew. The number of blows inflicted on the victim is
unclear but it is unlikely that they number more than
two. Defensive wounds are often found on the
fingers, hands and forearms of victims in an attempt
to protect themselves. Defense wounds were not
found on this individual however, the hand bones
as well as the left humerus and ulna were not located.
The weight of the instrument causing damage
was likely heavy, and the speed with which it was
swung, was great. This is because the amount of force
required to produce these wounds is considerable.
Even if the head of the instrument was heavy, an
impact of a distance of 5cm will do little damage.
With the strength of the person wielding the
instrument and the help of gravity to accelerate the
instrument's motion, severe damage to the skull will
result. It is likely that the motion of the instrument
began at a considerable distance from the contact
point at the skull. Without knowledge of the crime
scene, evidence of a struggle could not be determined.
Chop wounds result from impact with a heavy,
sharp-edged instrument such as an axe or machete.5
A chop wound is a deep gaping wound frequently
involving major blood vessels, nerves, muscles and
bone. Chop wounds are characterized by extensive
soft tissue laceration and bony trauma that often leads
to near or complete amputation of the injured
member. In the case of chop wounds directed at the
head, the shape of the skull defect can often determine
the angle at which the blade strikes. The flat part of
the blade may leave a slope to the one side of the
defect, while the other side of the wound may be sharp
or weakened (figures 4 & 5). Axe or hatchet wounds
appear as linear cuts or triangular fractures
resembling an isosceles triangle. This is illustrated in
that the point of maximum impact is narrow at the base
with the sides producing the long sides of the triangle.
The triangular cuts on Mr. Dewar's mandible match
the description of chop wounds (figure 9). The weight
of a chopping instrument and sharpness of the blade
results in wounds that show fine abrasion on the edges
due to the thickness of the blade.6 Microscopic
observation of the wound edges revealed fine abrasion
which is again consistent with trauma inflicted with a
chopping tool such as an axe.
The blade of the weapon would have perforated
the inner table of the skull. The weapon would have
passed through the scalp and occipital bone, through
the superior sagittal sinus, then through the posterior
portion of the right cerebral hemisphere, and possibly
the right superior surface of the cerebellar hemisphere.
Injuries of this sort will result in death. The wounds
on the inner portion of the left side of the mandible
would have resulted in extensive damage to the
posterior side of the neck and superior vertebrae and
had to have been inflicted from a blow directed behind
the individual. In order for the blade to come in
contact with the inner portion of the mandible, most
of the posterior neck muscles, nerve and blood vessels
would have been severed and many of the vertebrae
closest to the skull would have been fractured (see
figures 7 & 8).
All wounds were caused on or at the time of
death as close examination of all wound edges exhibit
similar staining and no evidence of healing.
8 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005 Time since death: The remains are completely
skeletonized, exhibiting considerable erosion from
burial. Therefore, methods for establishing time since
death relied primarily on determining the time period
of the cultural items found with the skeleton. Three
classes of items were found with the body: pieces of
footwear, nails, and fragments of green and
opalescent glass.
The fragments of footwear suggest that it is a
right definition lace-up type of boot (figure 10).
Jonathan Walford at the Bata Shoe museum in Toronto
was contacted for analysis of the footwear. Walford
dates the footwear to the early to mid 1880's. The
square toe was out of fashion by the end of the 1880's
and the re-introduction of left and right shoes,
beginning in the very early years of the nineteenth -
century was not universal until the 1880's. Walford
adds as a point of interest, "the old adage of 'being a
square' refers to this period when some people
continued to wear square boots and shoes after they
were fashionable." While this places the skeletal
remains in the 1880's, it should be noted that in the
nineteenth -century it was not unusual for men to
wear a pair of work boots for many years.7
The nails have a square-shaped shaft and head
(figure 11). After 1840 cut nails were manufactured
with the iron fibers running lengthwise, while the
early (1830 -1840) direction of nail fibers runs width
wise. Although these nails are quite rusted, the
direction of the nail fibers appears to run widthwise,
placing their manufacture between 1830 and 1840.
However, the machines used to cut these nails were
kept in use long after newer methods were invented
creating an overlap in chronology.8
The glass fragments consist of thin, brittle
opalescent glass and the bottom portion of a heavy
green glass container (figure 12). According to Barton9,
the heavy green glass dates from the late nineteenth
to early twentieth-century. This time period could not
be further narrowed down. The opalescent glass
fragments are too thin to come from a drinking glass
or other container suggesting that they may be from
a lantern (figure 12). A time frame for this type of
glass is not known.
Although the nail and glass chronologies are
very broad, it allows placement of the victim after
1830. The boot serves to further narrow down the time
frame placing the victim after the 1880's.
THE CRIME:10 Mr. Dewar was a Scotchman
who left his native land to partake in the California
gold rush. The prospect of gold in British Columbia
drew him to the Cherry Creek area where
"habits that have proven fatal to too many
in this country" (gambling, whiskey and
women?), reduced his means. In the early
1880's Aeneas Dewar (pronounced Dure)
held land as a pre-emption claim and each
summer packed supplies in to miners on
Cherry Creek. In July of 1882 the government
agent at Enderby, T.M. Lambly, hired Dewar
to collect the poll tax from the Chinese
working on the creek.
Mr. Dewar went to Cherry Creek to
collect the taxes from the miners from which
he received about thirty dollars in total and
then proceeded to have dinner at the cabin
of a Chinese acquaintance of his, Smart
Aleck. When Mr. Dewar did not return to
the office of Mr. Lambly and his horse was
found wandering homeward without a rider,
suspicions arose as to his whereabouts. It
was first thought that he was thrown off and
killed. Oddly, the horse's saddle was under
its belly indicating that the horse had thrown
its rider, yet the cinch was tight, showing that
it had been intentionally placed that way and
had not slipped. A search party was
assembled, and a thorough search of the
camp ensued. Questioning of the camp's
inhabitants indicated that Mr. Dewar had
visited all
the cabins
of the
Chinese.
The last
cabin Mr.
Dewar
entered
was of a
Chinese
miner by the name of Smart Aleck. Lambly recollects
Smart Aleck disappeared while the search was being
carried out. It seems he had left in a hurry as he
departed without taking his possessions with him or
cleaning up his sluice box, which was considered very
unusual behavior for a miner. Suspicion was that the
missing man had been murdered and the perpetrator,
Smart Aleck, had crossed into American territory.
Twenty days after commencing the search,
Dewar's body was located buried under Smart Aleck's
cabin. The cabin was found locked and when the
entrance was forced an offensive odor emanated from
Figure 5 Wound from
above, (top)
Photo J. Wood.
Figure 6 Lower border of
wound, (middle)
Photo by J. Wood.
Figure 7 Fracture of first
cervical vertebrae of the
neck, (bottom)
Photo J. Wood.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005 ^- w t—
Figure 8 Fracture of
the (fused) second and
third cervical
vertebrae, (top)
Photo J. Wood.
Figure 9 Straight,
sharp triangular
cutmarks on the left
side of the mandible,
(bottom)
Photo J. Wood.
Figure 10 Right lace-
up type of boot (circa
1880). (top right)
Photo J. Wood
the floor boards. The body had been
disposed of by tunneling outside the
cabin and stuffing the body
underneath. The floor of the cabin was
not disturbed.
Examination of the body
revealed that one wound was present
on the back of the head, probably
made by an axe. This wound was
described as "a terrible wound on the
back of the head evidently inflicted
with an axe for the skull was slit
down to the nape of the neck" It was
hypothesized that while Dewar had
been eating his dinner Smart Aleck
had struck him with an axe (his hat
was found unscathed), made off with
the money and disposed of Mr.
Dewar's body under the floor of his
cabin, placing a little dirt over it to
disguise his trail.
At the time of Dewar's death
Mr. Lambly held an inquest and
submitted a report to the government.
Mr. Price Ellison, later to become
minister of finance and agriculture,
was given the task of searching for the
perpetrator on horseback. Mr. Ellison
searched for seventy-five days to no
avail. On March 15, 1883, a very
lucrative thousand-dollar reward was
posted in the B.C. Gazette for
information that would lead to the
apprehension and conviction of the
person or persons who murdered
Dewar. Despite this, the murderer was never found
and the reward was never claimed.
In 1888, bones, and pieces of a Chinese jumper,
with loops of tapes instead of buttonholes were found
near Cherry Creek indicating the remains were that of
a Chinese man. Close examination of the body site
indicated that the man must have lain down with his
back on a mound of soil, as the impressions made by
his legs and body were still obvious. Lambly noted that
a small bottle of strychnine still containing some poison
was found, which in those days was readily accessible.
The maggot casings present indicated that the body
had not been there for a long time. Lambly stated that
John Merritt, the gentleman who originally found Mr.
Dewar's body, knew all who lived and worked in the
area. Accounting for all white and Chinese residents,
Mr. Merritt felt strongly that these were the bones of
Smart Aleck.
No adequate motive was ever given to explain
Smart Aleck's murder of Mr. Dewar. It seems odd that
while Smart Aleck had every opportunity to escape,
he instead chose to commit suicide. The final
explanation was that Smart Aleck was insane.
Tentative personal identification of the body
rediscovered in 1987 was accomplished by comparing
historic newspaper reports of the murder with the
wounds found on the victim. "Dure Meadow Road"
just west of Lumby, B.C. was named for Aeneas
Dewar. •
// anyone has any additional information or photos of Mr.
Dewar I would love to hear from you, please email me at
carolann.wood@utoronto.ca
10
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005 Figure 11 Steel nails (circa
1830-1840). (top)
Photo J. Wood
Figure 12 Green and
opalescent glass fragments
(19th to early 20th
century), (above)
Photo J. Wood
NOTES
1. Stedel, M.D. 1987
RCMP Vernon Detachment:
Sudden Death Report. Case 87-
0555.
2. C.C.E. Wood, "Forensic
anthropological analysis of an
historical homicide victim,"
(Unpublished B.A. Honors thesis,
Department of Archaeology,
Simon Fraser University, 1998).
3. C. Roberts, £t K. Manchester.
The Archaeology of Disease
(Second Edition) (Ithaca: Cornell
University Press, 1995).
4. M. Skinner £t A.H. Goodman.
"Anthropological Uses of
Developmental Defects of
Enamel," in S.R. Saunders £t M.A.
Katzenberg, Skeletal Biology of
Past Peoples: Research Methods.
(NewYork: Wiley-Liss, 1992)
153-174.
5. W.U. Spitz, "Sharp Force
Injury," in W.U. Spitz, & R.S.
Fisher (eds.), Medkologkal
Investigation of Death.
(Springfield III: Charles C.
Thomas. 1980); CJ. Stahl,
"Cutting and stabbing wounds,"
in R.S. Fisher & C.S. Petty, eds.,
Forensic Pathology: A Handbook
for Pathologists. Washington
D.C: US Department of Justice,
1977), 151-159.
6. L. Adelson, The Pathology of
Homicide. Springfield Illinois:
Charles C Thomas, 1974); C.S.
Petty, "Death by Trauma: Blunt
and Sharp Instruments and
Firearms," in W.J. Curran, A.L.
McGarry & C.S. Petty, Modern
Legal Medicine, Psychiatry and
Forensic Science. (Philadelphia:
F.A. Davis, 1980), 363-506; CJ.
Poison, & D.J. Gee, The
Essentials of Forensic Medicine.
3rd ed. (Toronto: Pergamon
Press. 1973).
7. J. Walford, Bata Shoe
Museum, Toronto, Personal
Communication. August &
October 1998.
8. L.H. Nelson, "Nail Chronology
as an aid to dating old
buildings," American Association
for State and Local History
Technical Leaflet 48, History
News, 24(11), 1968 unpaged.
9. A. Barton, Personal
Communication. November 6,
1998;
10. Details on Dewar and the
crime are drawn from a variety
of sources including: The
Sixteenth Report of the
Okanagan Historical Society, vol.
16(1952), 33-34; The Inland
Sentinel, November 9,1882, R.
Lambly, "Early days and
Enderby," n.d.; "Aneas Dewar,":
Grassroots of Lumby <http://
collections.ic.gc.ca/Lumby/
profile/dewar/dewar.a.html>
(accessed 7 February 2005); The
Sixth Report of the Okanagan
Historical Society, vol. 6 (1936),
83-84, 278-279.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005
11 The Stikine-Teslin Route to the
Klondike Gold Fields
By BiU MiUer
Bill MiUer is the
author of Wires in
the Wilderness: The
Story of the Yukon
Telegraph (Surrey:
Heritage House,
2004). BiU has
worked as a civil
engineer, a history
teacher, and an
archivist. He lives in
Atlin, BC.
Stikine-Teslin Route from
Brereton Greenhaus,
Guarding the Goldfields:
the Story of the Yukon
field Force
T
' he discovery of gold in 1896 on Rabbit Creek
in the Klondike did not become widely
known until the following summer when
the two gold ships docked, the Excelsior in
San Francisco and the Portland in Seattle. When they
disgorged their cargoes of miners with bags of gold
the world soon learned of the riches to be found in
the Yukon.
The stampede was on, as hordes of men (and
some women) headed north determined to be in the
vanguard to stake claims. From throughout Canada
and America, and from the far lands of Europe and
Asia, they came, risking all to seek their fortunes.
Of the several ways to get to the gold fields by
far the most popular were the two trails that started in
the Alaska Panhandle: from Dyea over the Chilkoot
Pass, and from Skagway over the White Pass. The trails
converged at Bennett City in British Columbia, where
the gold
seekers built
boats for the
five hundred
fifty-mile
voyage down
the waterways
of the Yukon
River to the
new gold town
of Dawson
City. Those
with more
resources
could take the
longer, but less
arduous, sea
route to St.
Michael,
Alaska, then
take passage
on a river
steamer for a
1600-miles
voyage up the
Yukon River to
Dawson.
For
Canadians
using these
routes the
incongruity of
the situation
became
quickly
WRANGELL
^. TO TESUN LAKE
apparent. Although they were travelling from one part
of their country to another they were penalized for
purchasing their supplies in Canada, because when
they passed through U.S. territory they were charged
customs duties of up to thirty percent. This could be a
crushing assessment for men and women with limited
funds. Those who attempted to move their Canadian
outfits under bond (a guarantee that goods would not
be used or sold while passing through U.S. territory)
were preyed upon by officials who imposed
"inspection fees," which often equalled the duty
charges. As a consequence fully ninety percent of
Canadian gold seekers acquired their mining
equipment and provisions from American companies.
The Dominion government also felt frustrated and
demeaned.
When Ottawa wanted to send a contingent of
North West Mounted Police to the Yukon, it had to
request permission from the U.S. government to allow
them to travel up the Yukon River through Alaska.
Equally humiliating, the only riverboats available to
transport the police were operated by American firms.
The complaints of Canadian stampeders were
joined by West Coast merchants and political leaders
who wanted the gold seekers to acquire their outfits in
Canada. They demanded that the government establish
a route to the Yukon that passed entirely through
Canadian territory, one that would not only avoid the
onerous duties charged by the Americans, but would
also encourage the gold seekers to spend their money
in Vancouver or Victoria. To determine a suitable "all
Canadian route," Clifford Sifton, Prime Minister
Wilfrid Laurier's aggressive Minister of the Interior, in
late 1897 travelled north on a scouting expedition. His
aim was to establish an alternative to the American
routes in time to attract the gold seekers of '98. He
recommended that the government support the
development of the Stikine-Teslin Route, a combination
of river and land travel through British Columbia and
the Yukon. Starting at Wrangel, near the mouth of the
Stikine River, the route went upriver one hundred and
forty miles to the settlement at Glenora, then overland
one hundred sixty miles to Teslin Lake and the
headwaters of the Yukon River, concluding with a five
hundred thirty-mile voyage downriver to Dawson
City.
Although Wrangel and the first thirty miles of
the Stikine was U.S. territory, the Washington Treaty
of 1871 allowed for free navigation of the river by
British (Canadian) ships. The treaty was interpreted
by the Canadian government to mean that goods
could be offloaded at Wrangel and transhipped
without the imposition of customs duties. At the
12
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005 Canadian border, of course, goods purchased
in America would be subject to Canadian
duties.
The river had been used for eons by the
coastal Tlingits to trade with the Thaltan
People, whose ancestral land included the
upper Stikine. The first straggle of non-natives
came into the area in the 1830s. Many more
arrived after 1861 when Alexander "Buck"
Choquette discovered gold near the head of
navigation of the river, at a place thereafter
known as Buck's Bar.
In 1866 when the Collins Overland
Telegraph selected a site on the river for the
crossing of its telegraph line it named a
nearby stream Telegraph Creek. The project
was an ambitious undertaking of the Western
Union Company to link North America with
Europe telegraphically by building a telegraph
line through Canada and Alaska, and laying
a cable under the Bering Strait to Siberia, to
connect to a line across Russia. For awhile
there was a flurry of activity as boatloads of
construction supplies arrived, but the project was
abandoned in 1867 after the Atlantic cable was laid,
and the telegraph men soon departed, leaving
quantities of their materials behind in the bush.
In 1872, a major gold strike around Dease Lake
attracted upwards of 1500 prospectors, most of whom
travelled up the Stikine by riverboat or over a trail
from Ashcroft B.C, which included a 300-mile trek
beyond Hazelton through an inhospitable wilderness.
Other strikes were made in the Cassiar area, but by
the end of the decade most miners had left, along with
the "fly-by-night packing, trading and other
businesses." The steamboats stopped regular runs on
the river, and once again Telegraph Creek settled back
to being a small Native village, with a handful of white
traders, miners, and trappers. Twenty years of
somnolence passed until once again the river came
alive. When gold was discovered in the Yukon
thousands of gold seekers were attracted to the all-
Canadian route to the gold fields.
Sifton's new route pleased the merchants and
entrepreneurs of the Canadian West Coast; now the
job was to entice the gold seekers to come their way.
Compliant newspapers were enlisted to make
exaggerated claims: that the river was navigable for
six months of the year; that the land travel, "passing
through an exceptionally easy country," required "but
a short portage before a chain of waters leading to
the upper Yukon."
Most seductive was the plan announced by
Ottawa to bridge the one hundred sixty-mile portage
between Glenora and Teslin Lake with a first-class
wagon road, and then with a railway. This created
the impression that when the railway was completed,
travellers between Wrangel and Dawson City would
encounter few hardships. After a comfortable voyage
by steamship up the Stikine to Glenora, followed by
a short ride on the railway to Teslin Lake, they would
re-embark on a riverboat for a cruise down the
Hootalinqua (Teslin) River to the Yukon River and
their destination. For those with less ready cash more
functional accommodations would be made available.
The prospect of a wagon road /railway was a
major factor in the decision of many of the gold seekers
to travel over the Stikine-Teslin Route. The government
had assured them that it was the fastest and least
painful way to travel to the Klondike to get a slice of
the golden pie. And if they purchased their supplies in
Canada they could avoid paying any customs charges.
The government and the West Coast newspapers
were not the only apostles spreading the word about
the virtues of the route. There was no shortage of
enthusiastic advocates providing glowing descriptions.
Even before Ottawa decided to build the railway, The
Chicago Record's Book for Gold Seekers, which claimed to
evaluate the several routes to the Klondike, reported
that the government was about to improve the existing
trail from Telegraph Creek to Teslin Lake to make it
"the best and easiest route to the Yukon." The British
Columbia Mining Record promised that "the country
from Telegraph Creek to Teslin is flat and easily
A barrow described as a
man-killer; a relic of the
Klondike gold rush or
1898; Teslin trail; Atlin-
Quesnel telegraph.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005
13 travelled, and pack trains can be hired at the former
place at relatively reasonable rates."
With assurances of such an easy journey it is not
surprising that as many as 6,000 gold seekers chose
the Stikine-Teslin Route. They would soon learn that,
either through ignorance or avarice, the writers of these
laudatory descriptions had subverted reality. The
"devil was in the details," which were largely omitted.
Most of the positive accounts concentrated on
the land portion of the journey. Overlooked, or avoided,
was the initial leg of the trip up the Stikine River from
Wrangel to Glenora; when, in fact, this part of the trip
could be a horrendous experience, an arduous and
perilous undertaking.
Determined to reach the gold fields before all
the good claims were staked, most of those who chose
the Stikine-Teslin Route started over the frozen river
in the winter and early spring of 1898. It was critical to
start without delay because it could take months to
move a large outfit over the ice before break-up. Those
who could not get to Glenora before the ice began to
run out were doomed to be stranded on the shore,
forced to wait for the riverboats to begin operations
(usually in May) before continuing their journeys.
Many of the gold seekers were Cheechakos
(greenhorns), totally unprepared for living and
surviving in a northern environment. George
Kirkendale, part of a group heading up the Stikine in
early 1898, commented on the inexperience of some
of the other parties. On Cottonwood Island, a staging
point near the mouth of the river, he found among
the eight hundred souls camped there "the greatest
assortment of people you can imagine: Old men,
young men, women and children, all starting up the
Stikine trail with every kind of conveyance, and with
horses, mules, dogs, goats, sheep, cattle, anything that
could pull a sleigh. None of these animals except dogs
were any use in the deep snow until the trail was well
packed, but everyone was full of excitement and
confidence."
Not long after starting upstream Kirkendale's
party came upon three forlorn Califomians, two of
whom had previously been office workers. Caught
in a rainy snowstorm, against which their leaky
gumboots had provided little protection, they had
walked for days in cold slush with wet feet. The two
office workers were now in serious trouble, as
gangrene had developed and they were helpless to
retard its growth. Kirkendale and several of the more
experienced members of his party were able to get
the men down river to medical attention, where parts
of their limbs had to be amputated to save their lives.
Moving an outfit up the river ice was done in
relays. The more fortunate parties employed horses
and dog teams to pull sleds; others had to carry all
their camping gear, mining equipment and provisions
on their backs. Travellers over the ice were constantly
aware of the powerful river flowing beneath them —
they could hear it — and the dangers at places where
there was open water. There were instances of men
who ventured to the edge of the ice to fetch water
who misstepped and slid off into the current and
under the ice shelf, never to be seen alive again.
Horses with their loads broke through the ice; the
lucky ones were hauled out.
During periods of freeze-up and break-up
assessing the condition of the ice was always tricky,
open to errors that could lead to fatal consequences.
Andrus Burdick's party started from Wrangel in early
March. In terse diary entries he recorded some of the
tragedies he witnessed. One man's load "broke
[through] the ice and he got drowned." On another
occasion Burdick's own packhorse went through,
"come near going under the ice," but "all saved." By
May the ice was out, but the river was high and running
fast, when "two white men and one Indian upset boat
and lost goods and drowned coming over rapids." A
week later two men died in the rapids at Buck's Bar.
After the river ice went out in the spring and
the boats began to operate, travel up the Stikine was
still not an easy proposition. When the swollen river
was running high small boats were especially
vulnerable, and even the larger river steamers had
difficulties. Buffeted by waves and driven back, they
might need to be tracked (pulled upstream by winches
or muscle power) to overcome the current. Later in
the season, when the water level went down, a boat
might get hung up on the ever shifting shoals and
have to be winched to deeper water.
Those gold seekers struggling upriver, whether
on the ice or, after break-up, by boat, kept going
because they believed that once they reached Glenora
the travails of their journey would be eased. The
portage to Teslin Lake would be over the fine wagon
road promised by the government. They were to be
sorely disappointed.
Almost at the same time as the announcement
in January, 1898 of the plan for the railway, the
government granted a contract to Mackenzie, Mann
and Company, premier railway builders, to "build a
wagon road in six weeks, and have a railroad in
operation by September 1st." As compensation, for
each mile of track laid the company would be granted
25,000 acres of crown land, land selected from the
Yukon and the North-West Territories west of the
Mackenzie River. The company could potentially gain
14
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005 3.75 million acres from the deal.
In an effort to carry out the terms of the contract
Mackenzie and Mann went full speed ahead. By early
spring they had a construction force of two hundred
fifty men on the way to Glenora. One large party
reached there on April 1 and started to build several
warehouses; another commenced working north
preparing the grade for the wagon road. Grading had
progressed to Telegraph Creek, ten miles above
Glenora, and a few miles beyond when disaster struck.
The government signed the contract with
Mackenzie and Mann between sessions of Parliament;
to be exact, eight days before the House and Senate
were scheduled to reconvene on February 3,1898. This
impetuous action, Prime Minister Laurier later argued,
was necessary to forestall plans by the White Pass and
Yukon Route to build a competing railway through U.S.
territory. (The bill authorizng the Canadian railway
included a monopoly clause prohibiting other railways
being built into the Yukon for five years.) The
government believed it was imperative to have a
railway to the Canadian Yukon that was not controlled
by the Americans. No doubt the Liberals assumed that
their patriotic motive and sense of urgency would be
shared by the entire Parliament.
Unfortunately, the haste with which the project
had been advanced made it vulnerable to some
embarrassing questions: Why had tenders not been
taken? And why was the land grant to Mackenzie and
Mann so overly generous? The government could
count on its majority in the Commons to approve the
contract, but the Senate, controlled by Conservative
Party members, was another matter. Under increasing
pressure that the terms of the land grant were too
munificent, on March 30 the Senate refused to pass
the bill authorizing the project.
The government's failure to gain ratification of
the contract was to have severe consequences for the
gold seekers. Although the Liberals had not been
intentionally deceptive broadcasting of their plan for
the railway project had induced thousands of
stampeders to take the Stikine-Teslin Route. They
were already on their way, or stranded at Glenora,
when they learned that the railway would not be built.
To them the niceties of parliamentary procedures were
irrelevant; explanations and assignments of blame
were of little comfort.
The Senate may have rejected the contract to
embarrass the Liberal government, or because it was
piqued at having been taken for granted, or the
members may have been genuinely aghast at the
excessive land grant provision. (Several years later
the Conservatives would glean additional political
hay during the debate over compensation due
Mackenzie and Mann. The seventeen miles of road
they built before the contract was voided cost
$328,000, or about $20,000 per mile.)
For whatever reason the plan failed, one later
analyst, R. M. Patterson, the renowned northern
adventurer and author, concluded that it would have
been irresponsible to build "a railroad with one end
based on a swift and hazardous river that was frozen
for five months of the year, and at the other end on a
lake that was frozen even longer," And within a few
years, when the flood of gold seekers travelling to
the Yukon had dwindled to a trickle, it became
apparent that the Conservatives, albeit
unintentionally, had saved the Liberal government
from creating what almost certainly would have
become a huge white elephant.
The railroad was dead, but what about the
wagon road? Although a subsequent agreement was
made with Mackenzie and Mann to continue clearing
the trail, and some government crews were also put
to work, their accomplishments were too little and
too late to ease the way of the stampeders of '98. And
when, on June 7, Mackenzie and Mann received
orders to permanently suspend operations, the gold
seekers camped at Glenora were shocked and
bewildered, and felt betrayed. They called an
"indignation meeting," attended by 2,000 men, which
unanimously adopted a resolution to the federal and
provincial governments:
Businesses in Glenora,
with activity in front of the
premises of J. Clearihue,
general merchant. 1898
BC Archives E-03771
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005
15 Members of the Yukon
Field Force on the Teslin
Trail 1898
Whereas the
construction
of the
.       waggon road
,j ■■, |    recently
i commenced
from Glenora
to Teslin Lake
having been
suddenly
abandoned,
we the
citizens and
free miners
located at
Glenora and
Telegraph
Creek
declare
extreme
dissatisfaction
with the
action of the
Government
of the Dominion of Canada in advertising to Europe and
elsewhere and advocating the Stikine route as the best
road to the Yukon goldfields, with the promise of the
completion of a waggon road from Glenora to Teslin Lake
in the spring of the present year; and whereas no pack
trail is adequate for the transport of goods ... we pray ...
that your Government will take immediate action for the
completion of the before-named waggon road; and whereas
there are some two of three thousand miners stranded at
Glenora and Telegraph Creek, unable to proceed or return,
we would respectfully urge upon your Government the
desirability and necessity ... to at once employ these men
on the work of completing the waggon road to Teslin Lake.
This quite sensible suggestion was never acted
upon, and the road project followed the railway into
oblivion. The new reality of a trail without a road did
not, however, stop the city newspapers from
continuing to publish favourable reports about the
Stikine-Teslin Route, and with the founding of the
Glenora News it gained a full time champion. Editor
W F. Thompson proclaimed the raison d'etre of his
newspaper was "to advance the interests of the All-
Canadian route to the Klondike ... for the merchants
of Canada." Glenora, he announced, would grow to
be "the metropolis of the Cassiar." Beginning with
the first issue on June 9, he promoted the trail with
persistence and imagination, grasping at every
favourable experience, reporting every rumour of the
immanent construction of the road to Teslin Lake.
The News saw itself as being engaged in a
relentless struggle with the hired guns of Skagway,
who could be found everywhere on the streets of
Glenora, attempting to lure gullible prospectors to the
Sin City of the north. All these liars "should receive
[from]... our good citizens, is a cold bath in the river
and a swim to Wrangel."
To counter the enticements of Skagway,
Thompson presented the "facts," the true accounts of
people who had actually travelled over one of the
Alaskan trails. First up was Henry Woodside, who was
in Glenora with the two hundred soldiers of the Yukon
Field Force on their way to the Yukon. Woodside, who
would later become editor of the Yukon Sun of Dawson
City, recounted the litany of horrors he endured
during his earlier crossing of the Chilkoot Pass,
starting with the lawlessness of Skagway and ending
with the scarcity of trees remaining at Bennett with
which to build boats and the dangers of the rapids on
the Yukon River. He cautioned anyone in Glenora who
was thinking of rerouting to Skagway not to do it.
Regardless of the fact that work on the road had been
halted, Woodside continued to argue that the Teslin
Trail was still the best way, and "that a wagon road
will be completed from Glenora to Teslin lake at an
early date."
Others accounts published in the News affirmed
that the trail was "vastly better than I expected to find
it," and "it is drying up fast and is in good condition."
Thompson reprinted an earlier report from the Victoria
Colonist that described "the country [as] open and
rolling all the way. There is no range to cross. In fact
you can hardly see where the divide is."
The actual conditions faced by the gold seekers
starting from Glenora could not have been more at odds
with the descriptions provided by the newspapers. In
fact the trail was little different from the old Indian trail
used years earlier by the Hudson's Bay Company when
it operated its Engell post on the Shesley River, fifty
miles north of Telegraph Creek. A year before the
Klondike rush, the British Columbia government had
made a gesture at improving the trail by contracting
John Callbreath, a Telegraph Creek outfitter and trader,
to cut and widen it all the way to Teslin Lake. But
because of delays and other problems the job was never
completed. Consequently, what the gold seekers of '98
found was a wet and overgrown trail too narrow for
their wagons. Many of the wider sleighs and wagons,
so laboriously brought over the ice, had to be
abandoned or resized.
The journey over the portage proved to be
arduous and time-consuming, taking much longer
than anticipated. Consider the experience of the John
Smith party, which started on April 4 from Telegraph
Creek, where the ground was frozen and covered with
snow. Smith recorded in his diary that the trail climbed
steeply, the footing becoming very rocky in places,
and in others composed of slippery mud over ice. The
16 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005 party was slowed by heavy overgrowth that had to
be cut back, and when the trail became even narrower,
the width of their sleighs had to be further reduced to
twenty-one inches. Eventually they reached the
abandoned Hudson's Bay Company post at the
Shesley River.
From Shesley they traversed a difficult hill,
crossed a flat and swampy area, and, after slogging
through twelve inches of icy water, reached the Nahlin
River. It had taken the party twenty-two days to reach
this juncture, only ninety miles from Telegraph Creek.
Smith's description of the trail was seconded by
Charles E. Fripp, an artist on assignment from the
London Daily Graphic. His assessment was less kind,
more cynical: "It is only possible for me to conclude
[that the Canadian Government]... instead of opening
up the route only wishes to get people to spend [all]
their money in the country, and thus to kill the golden
egg without delay."
The Mining Record, so laudatory just a few months
earlier, by August had modified its evaluation when it
learned of the restricted width of the trail:
The roughness and narrowness of the trail demanded the
use of one-wheeled vehicles. As a consequence, unicycles
in all shapes and forms were fashioned rudely out of the
poor material at hand. Men were tooling various
wheelbarrows, wrought in the woods, with only an ax[e]
for work. With a stout man pushing and a well-trained dog
pulling, 300 pounds could be taken over the first fifty miles
of the trail. No uncommon sight was a wheel five or six
feet in diameter, with a load placed in a framework below
and to each side of the axle, bringing the centre of gravity
very low. Such a contrivance [commonly referred to as a
'man killer'] required a man in front and one behind, and
could carry as high as 500 pounds ... [At one steep grade
outfits had to be] lowered by a block and tackle down a
declivity of 150 feet.
Gold seekers who got to Glenora intending to
buy horses or mules to haul their supplies were out of
luck after June 1898. All available pack animals had
been commandeered by the Yukon Field Force (YFF),
which was on its way over the Teslin Trail to support
the police in the Yukon.
When tens of thousands of gold seekers had
threatened to overwhelm the North West Mounted
Police's efforts to maintain law and order, the
government dispatched this force of two hundred
regular soldiers to back them up. The police were the
first line of defence against frontier-style lawlessness;
the YFF was the reserve, to be used only if needed.
The Force's presence in the Yukon would
discourage any challenge to Canadian sovereignty. Ever
since the United States had purchased Alaska from
Russia in 1867, British Columbia had been bordered
on two sides by its formidable and sometimes
aggressive neighbour. Now, with Americans flooding
the Klondike (by some estimates comprising seventy-
five percent of the stampeders), the sense of being
surrounded was intensified. The government's
apprehension was not allayed by U.S. newspaper
reports that repeatedly referred to the Klondike as
being located in Alaska (a misconception that continues
to this day). It was not likely that disgruntled
Americans chaffing at restrictive Canadian laws and
mining regulations would attempt a coup, but it could
not be ruled out.
The YFF, under the command of Colonel T D. B.
Evans, was drawn from active units, and comprised
nearly one-quarter of the country's standing army.
Accompanying the troops, and sharing the difficulties
of the journey, were six women: four nurses, Mrs.
Starnes, who was travelling to Dawson City to join her
husband NWMP inspector Cortlandt Starnes, and Faith
Fenton, a Toronto Globe reporter.
The nurses were members of the Victorian Order
of Nurses (VON), organized just a year earlier to bring
nursing services to outlying areas. Modelled after the
district nursing system in Britain, the idea was not
universally popular, receiving generally unfavourable
reviews from the male-dominated medical profession.
The organization was roundly condemned by the
Conservatives, in part a knee-jerk reaction to its
endorsement by Prime Minister Laurier and the
Liberals. It was a wise decision to initially assign the
nurses to the far away Yukon, where they would be
able to begin their work free from critical eyes. It was
also an area where their services were desperately
needed and appreciated by the mining communities.
There were several less arduous routes the YFF
might have taken to get to the Yukon, but the Stikine-
Teslin Route was chosen because it did not require
gaining the permission of the U.S. Government for the
soldiers to pass through American territory. As a
consequence, however, the men were forced to
undertake "one of the toughest marches ever made by
Canadian troops."
Starting from Ottawa, the soldiers travelled
cross-country by train to Vancouver, where they
boarded steamers for the trip to Wrangel, arriving on
May 16. It was in Wrangel, while changing boats, that
Colonel Evans faced and overcame the first emergency
of his Yukon expedition. The problem arose when Miss
Fenton descended the ship's gangplank "in a travelling
dress so short as to indecently expose her ankles! The
horrified bachelor colonel quickly deputed the only
married woman, Mrs. Starnes, to have a quick chat with
the young reporter," resulting in a "strip of black
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005
17 Members of the Victorian
Order of Nurses who
headed to the Yukon, 1898
BC Archives D-06932
sateen" being sewn around the bottom of Mss Fenton's
dress. "Colonel Evans's 'brutal and licentious soldiery'
had been saved from temptation!"
Early in June the YFF and its sixty tons of
supplies reached Glenora. A month later, with loads
of two hundred pounds for each mule and fifty
pounds for each trooper, they were ready to start on
the trail to Teslin Lake, which they soon learned was
a trail in name only. Several herds of cattle had already
passed through, so it was more like a quagmire, and
the journey turned out to be "a true feat of endurance."
George Jacques, a member of the Field Force, recounted
his experience:
The day's march was usually about fifteen miles,
clambering over fallen trees and boulders that barred our
path, hacking our way through bush, sinking into swampy
ground and all the while fighting off swarms of mosquitoes
and flies.
The nurses soon found their services in
demand. In addition to attending to the illnesses and
injuries of the soldiers, they were sought out by the
miners and packers. Word of their "kindness and
willingness to help has spread up and down the trail,
so that the sick man's first thought is to reach them,"
reported Faith Fenton. One of the nurses, Georgina
Powell, wrote graphically of the rigors of the trail:
From mountains to swamp and bog — bogs into whose cold,
damp, mossy depths we would sink to our knees, and under
which the ice still remains; where we trampled down
bushes and shrubs to make footing for ourselves, and where
the mules stick many times, often as many as twenty down
at once.
Through deep forest we went, where the trail was narrow
and the branches of trees threatened our eyes or tore our
[mosquito] veils disastrously, through tracts of burnt and
blackened country, in some places the ashes still hot from
recent burnings, and the dust rising in choking clouds under
our feet; through
hb^h    forests of wind-
fallen,  upturned
trees, whose
gnarled roots and
tangled branches
made insecure and
often painful
footing; over sharp
and jagged rocks,
where slipping
would be
dangerous, we
went trampling,
leaping, springing
and climbing, a
strain that only the
most sinewy
women could bear.
Upon reaching Teslin Lake, the soldiers built
boats for the three hundred sixty-mile voyage to Fort
Selkirk, the camp built by an advanced party one
hundred seventy miles upriver from Dawson City. The
YFF was by far the largest body to venture over the
Teslin Trail, although there were some other sizeable
companies, such as the "New York Group," and a well-
organized party from Philadelphia.
Twenty-two-year-old Martin Lienweber, a
recent arrival from Germany, paid $500 to join the
Philadelphia Company. It seemed the ideal group
with which to travel to a far-off and unknown country.
Its sixty members included men possessed of every
skill that might possibly be needed: a doctor, a dentist,
blacksmiths and carpenters. They were accompanied
by experienced guides reputed to know the way to
the Klondike.
In January 1898 the party travelled west in two
private railway cars to Tacoma, where they organized
their outfit of one hundred tons of provisions and
equipment, including mining machinery and a
portable sawmill. They also purchased thirty-two
horses. After "taking their lives in their hands" by
sailing on an old river steamer, unsuitable for
travelling up the coast, they reached Wrangel and
started up the Stikine ice in bitter cold.
Because of the large size of the outfit their
progress was slow and they were caught by the breakup of the river ice. Just in time they made camp on the
shore, where a heavy accumulation of snow prevented
further progress, and condemned them to wait until
the riverboats began operating. One day they were
warned that the river would rise during the night, but
since their camp was fifteen feet above the water level
they paid no heed. To their great surprise and
consternation, the next morning they found their camp
awash. Although it seemed impossible the river had
risen sixteen feet during the night.
The party hired boats to move their outfit to
Telegraph Creek, where their growing disillusion
peaked when they found that, because the trail to
Teslin was so narrow, they were forced to jettison most
of their larger pieces of equipment. Then the
defections began, as men gave up and headed back,
and their guide seemed to have disappeared. Disputes
arose, and the once vaunted Company began to split
up into cliques, and then into smaller groups, each
time dividing the remaining provisions and supplies.
Lienweber, with a small group, started on the
trail to Teslin Lake, but like so many others, to lighten
their loads and speed their travel, they soon began to
discard useful items, like hammers and saws. But their
18
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005 sacrifices were all for naught as they were caught by
early storms and forced to stop and winter over. The
group built a cabin on a lake near another cabin built
earlier by four Frenchmen; a cabin of death that was a
gruesome reminder of the dangers of the north. Inside
they found a body, the last member of the party to have
died of scurvy. The other three were buried nearby.
Lienweber was one of the few members of the
Philadelphia Company, that had started out with such
optimism and confidence, to reach his goal. He
continued on in the spring to reach Dawson City,
where he established a successful grocery store.
Travelling on the trail a few months later were
seventeen-year-old Guy Lawrence and his father, who
came from England. Assured by the London
newspapers that the Teslin Trail was almost
completed, the two had landed in Wrangel from the
same boat that transported the Yukon Field Force.
Continuing upriver, they arrived in Glenora about the
time word was received that plans for a railway had
been cancelled. Disappointed but not defeated, they
continued to push on to Teslin Lake.
Their transport consisted of a jury-built wagon,
described by Lawrence as "a small platform built over
[an] axle," pulled by a balky horse. They had to relay
their supplies in four hundred-pound loads, requiring
several trips to move the entire outfit ahead. It was a
slow and laborious procedure. By October, with the
weather changing, they had made only thirty-six miles
and they decided to build a cabin to wait out the winter.
Continuing their trek the following February,
they came to a lone cabin in the wilderness. Seeing no
footprints in the snow or smoke coming from the
chimney, they decided that the place must be deserted
and looked forward to a warm respite from sleeping
rough in the cold. As Lawrence recalled the experience:
Boldly opening the door, my father bade me bring the
sleeping bags in. I brought them in, and soon found that
after the brilliant sunshine outside it was next to impossible
to see in the dark cabin. However in the far corner I could
distinguish two bunks — one above the other. I threw my
sleeping bag on the top one. It fell off. I threw it up again,
and the same thing happened. Reaching up with my hand I
felt for the obstruction. I touched a man's face, frozen
solid. In the lower bunk I could just distinguish another
face. Both men, of course, were dead. They had died of
scurvy, neither one able to help the other. We did not stay
there that night.
Back at Glenora, even the optimism of News
editor Thompson began to weaken when official word
came from Ottawa that no road would be built to
Teslin Lake in 1898. Stirring the conspiracy-plot pot,
he headlined an article "It's a Damn Shame, There's
Some Crooked Work Being Done Somewhere,
Depend Upon It." The "four thousand poor suckers"
who had come to Glenora on the promise of a road
were out of luck.
Thompson's reactions were typical of the
emotional roller coaster experienced by so many of
the gold seekers who had gambled on Glenora and
the Teslin Trail. He always seemed to be of two minds.
At one moment he would be despondent, feeling
deserted and deceived; at the next buoyed by the latest
good news. For example, when he received word that
construction of the Cassiar Central Railway to Dease
Lake would soon start, he wrote, that contrary to the
sceptics, the News "intends to camp right here until
the cows of prosperity come home. We have paper
enough to last for five years, after which date we can
print the News on birch bark, if necessary."
But it soon became apparent, even to
Thompson, that the gold rush was ending, the
opportunity had passed. The businesses of Glenora
were moving on, and with them, reluctantly, the
publisher of the Glenora News, which ceased
publication with the issue of September 16.
George Kirkendale, who had stayed in Glenora
during the summer to work on the railway
warehouses, had had a grandstand view of the
passing human story. He summed it all up:
Of all the mad, senseless, unreasoning and hopeless rushes
I doubt if the world has ever seen the equal. Day after day
crowds of men of all classes and conditions, hauling their
sleighs, struggling, cursing, and sweating, thrashing their
horses, mules and dogs, all filled with the mad, hopeless
idea that if they could get as far as Telegraph Creek they
would be in good shape for the Klondike ... Some gave up
on the river, sold their outfits, and went back. Many threw
away parts of their outfits to lighten their loads. Thousands
arrived at Glenora and Telegraph Creek and started over
the Teslin trail, but by this time it was April or May, and
the snow was beginning to go off the trail leaving pools of
water and swamps through which it was almost impossible
to transport their outfits. You could buy food and outfits
at Telegraph for less than half what they would cost in
Victoria. Hundreds stopped at Glenora until the river
steamers started to run in the spring, and then went home
poorer and wiser.
By the end of the year the great stampede for
gold had ceased to rumble through the Stikine. The
tents at Glenora were being taken down and some of
the buildings moved to Telegraph Creek. Once again
the tide of history had intruded up the Stikine River,
only to quickly abate. •
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005
19 Token History
Albert Traunweiser and the Alberta HotelGrand Forks, B.C.
By Ronald Greene
'he Alberta Hotel
Grand Forks, &. $r
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Albert (Al) and his brother Charles
Traunweiser were barbers who both
later went into the hotel business. They
moved from Nova Scotia, where they
were born, to Ontario, then Winnipeg, and by 1891
were living in Calgary.1 In June of 1897 Albert and
his family moved to Grand Forks where he built the
Alberta Hotel on Block 2, lot 10.2 The building had
been started some time before this and was completed
by July 24, 1897. In the first advertisements, the
proprietors' names were given as Traunweiser and
Fraser. The Fraser was Alexander W, usually referred
to as A.W., who was a
brother-in-law. Albert
was married to Susan
Proctor, and A.W.
married to Susan's sister,
Mary. The partnership in
the Alberta Hotel did not
last very long, as Al
bought out Fraser in
November 1898.3 Fraser
then took over the
Province Hotel.
Al Traunweiser
suffered a number of
personal disasters over
the years. In May of 1898,
his son, Albert Jr. aged
five, was playing beside the river, throwing chips out
into the water. He climbed out on a log, lost his
balance and in a instant was carried away by the swift
current. The body was not recovered despite an
intensive search. The dance scheduled for the Queen's
birthday was cancelled in respect to Mrs. Traunweiser
who was on the reception committee.4 Another son,
George, probably the one shown as Harry in the 1891
census, got in the way the horses in a cowboy race
for the July holiday, and was run over. Fortunately,
he was not seriously injured.
In May 1902 Al gave up the Alberta Hotel,
opening a saloon on Bridge street. The saloon was
described as "one of handsomest [sic] in the
Boundary and was thronged with patrons all day. The
interior fittings were very artistic. There is a billiard
parlor in the rear."5 He applied to transfer the liquor
licence from the hotel to the saloon. The Alberta Hotel
was leased to Miss Tenkate who had previously
operated the Windsor Cafe. That summer Al obtained
the bar privilege at the race track, being high bidder
for the rights. The last mention of the Alberta hotel
Al Traunweiser
was in July 1905 when there was an application to
return the licence of the Bodega saloon to the
"premises known as the Alberta."6
In January 1903 Al Traunweiser leased the Yale
Hotel, which had opened on July 1,1899. At that time
it was described thus:
WiU open July 1st. The front portion of the Yale hotel will
be opened on July 1st. It will be the largest and finest in
southern British Columbia. The furnishings are of the
richest character. AU the furniture, which was purchased
in Toronto is of antique design. The Yale, when completed,
will contain over one hundred bed rooms, single and en
suite. There are bath rooms on every floor, as well as a
number of the rooms. John Manly and Commodore Biden,
the proprietors, have engaged the services of a
French chef.7
The Yale dwarfed all the other hotels in Grand Forks
and certainly was a grand hotel compared to all the
others in the community. Al was to buy the Yale hotel
some eighteen months later when John Manly severed
one of his last ties to Grand Forks.
On July 10, 1908 a fire swept Grand Forks,
20
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005 destroying two blocks of the city despite the best
efforts of the volunteer fire department and the
smelter fire department. Six hotels were among the
buildings destroyed by fire; the Yale, Victoria,8
Windsor, Province, Grand Forks and Granby. In the
next month Traunweiser purchased the Windsor
Hotel from his brother-in-law A.W. Fraser. He made
some repairs and changed the name to the Yale.9 The
newspaper account indicated that he might have
plans to erect a larger and more substantial building
as he owned several adjoining lots.
At some time after 1906, and probably after
1908, Susan Traunweiser, together with children,
Edna, George, and Gladys moved to Calgary. Divorce
was not a subject that was spoken of in those times,
but while not mentioned one evidently took place,
for on August 23,1916, Al Traunweiser married Edith
Hadden in Seattle. In the next two years he suffered
three great losses, his daughter Edna died of the 'Flu'
in November 1917 in Calgary where she was living.
Then his son, George, a Lieutenant in the Imperial
Flying Corps, was killed in action in April 1918.10
Another child, born days later to his second wife, on
April 22, 1918, survived only one day. Gladys was
his only child who survived past this date. Al was
divorced from Edith in January 1925.n
British Columbia's Prohibition Act which came
into effect on October 1, 1917 was not kind to hotel
keepers, many of whom needed the sales of liquor to
keep in business. Al Traunweiser, who was considered
a scoundrel by his daughter Gladys, a feeling probably
influenced by her mother, was not immune to run-
ins with the law. In early 1917 he was charged for
selling liquor to an Interdict.12 In 1920 he was caught
with twelve bottles of whiskey under the bar, fined
and the offending liquid was confiscated. In 1922 four
people were charged with illegally selling booze. Al
Traunweiser got off on a technicality, but the other
three were sentenced to jail. While two of the other
three were on bail pending an appeal, they and Al
fled across the line to avoid threatened re-arrest. He
returned a month later and awaited the Crown's
appeal of his dismissal. If the newspaper ran a follow-
up article we missed it. In 1926 his hotel was fined for
having liquor on the premises.
Al continued to run the Yale Hotel, until the
end of 1938 when he sold his interests. He passed
away early in January 1939, in his late 80s and is
buried in the Evergreen Cemetery in Grand Forks in
the Odd Fellows section.
The Token
Since the token for the Alberta Hotel has only
Albert Traunweiser's initials on it, we can say that it
was issued during the time that he was the sole
proprietor, i.e. the period from November 1898 until
May 1902.
It is made of German Silver and is 21 mm in
diameter. The token is relatively scarce with fewer
than ten examples being recorded. •
1 Per information from Albert's
grandson, Bill Sweet, and the
Canada Census for 1891, D197,
Calgary 23B. A. Traunweiser,
barber, his wife Susan, daughter
Edna (1 yrs) and son Harry (7
months).
2 Grand Forks Miner, June 26,
1897, p. land May 22,1897, p.4
3 Grand Forks Miner, November
12,1898, p. 3
4 Grand Forks Miner, May 28,
1898, pp3 and 4
5 Grand Forks Gazette, May 24,
1902, p.4
6 Grand Forks Gazette, July 22,
1905, p.4.
7 Grand Forks Miner, June 24,
1899, p. 1
8 For the story of the Victoria,
see Numismatica Canada, 2003,
p. 124
9 There is a contradiction here,
for the July account of the fire
claimed the Windsor was
destroyed. Perhaps the
"repairs" were alterations to the
replacement building, or the
hotel had not been totally
destroyed.
11 Grand Forks Gazette, April
19,1918, p. 1
12 BC Archives GR 3254 Vol 999
record numbers 4 and 1, The
divorce was dated 24 January
1925.
13 A person who was prohibited
from buying alcoholic beverages
because of past abuse problems.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005
21 Book Reviews
The Old Bow Fort.  Douglas A. Hughes. Calgary:
Detselig Enterprises, 2002. 89 p., illus. $16.95 paperback.
Inspired by John Palliser's brief
mention of the defunct Old Bow Fort
(Peigan Post) during his travels over what
is now western Canada in the late 1850s,
Douglas Hughes has reconstructed a brief
'life' of the fur trade post which was
established by the Hudson's Bay Company
in 1832 in response to the American Fur
Company's Missouri River forts and the
competition for the Peigan fur trade. Unable
to compete with the geographical
advantages of the American traders and
threatened by tribal conflicts, John Edward
Harriott ordered the post closed in 1834
ending a brief and unsuccessful venture.
Although The Old Bow Fort is written
in a readable style, Hughes rarely ventures
beyond general or stereotypical knowledge
of the fur trade or aboriginal life, and is
content to provide a popular introduction
to Old Bow Fort and some of the
personalities and events of its brief history.
Brian Gobbett Brian Gobbett is with the Dept. of History,
Trinity Western University.
Dynamite Stories. Judith Williams. Vancouver, New
Star Books. 2003. 91 p., $16 paperback.
This book is a collection of stories from
the oral tradition, from the mid-coast area of
B.C. The title indicates one stream-the use of
explosives for a variety of purposes. (One part
of interest to the reviewer was a detailed
description of the blowing up of Ripple Rock
on April 15, 1958.) However, it is more than
that. The stories tell of people whose lives in
isolation were enriched by friendships and the
telling of stories-cougar stories, gold-seeking,
and outlandish tales. Places like Refuge Cove
and Redonda Island come to life, as do the
historical details around the exploration and
mapping of Desolation Sound by Captain
George Vancouver. Dynamite Stories is drawn
from the oral history of Desolation Sound, and
as such provides another dimension to the
historical writings around this part of the
Coast. A map and a selection of photographs
provide other access points to the text.
This book is No. 11 in the Transmontanus
Series edited by Terry Glavin.
Arnold Ranneris Arnold Ranneris is President of the
Victoria Historical Society.
Books for review and book reviews should be sent to:
Anne Yandle, Book Review Editor BC Historical News,
3450 West 20th Avenue, Vancouver BC V6S 1E4
All Hell Can't Stop Us: The On-to-Ottawa Trek
and Retina Riot.
BUI Waiser. Calgary: Fifth House, 2003. 316 p., illus.
$29.95 paperback.
Bill Waiser's All Hell Can't Stop Us
chronicles the 1935 On-to-Ottawa trek
which ended in a bloody riot in Regina. As
Waiser details, the trek had its origins in the
Bennett government's failed unemployment
and relief polices during the early years of
the Depression. Unemployed and hungry,
thousands of men ended up in the fifty-four
relief camps in the interior of British
Columbia where they earned twenty cents
a day labouring on highway projects.
Ignored and forgotten in these "human
scrap heaps", many relief camp inmates
joined the Communist-led Relief Camp
Workers' Union which exposed the camps
as a prime example of the failure of
capitalism and agitated for "work and
wages." In early April 1935, Communist
organizer Arthur "Slim" Evans led a
walkout of the camp workers in the
province. The strikers descended on
Vancouver where Evans saw mass action as
the best way to gain government attention
and public sympathy for the workers. After
two months in Vancouver which included,
among other events, snake dancing through
the Bay [store] and seizing control of the city
Library and Museum, the strikers decided
to take their demands to Ottawa and directly
confront the Bennett government. The On-
to-Ottawa Trek was born: on the night of 3
June 1935, the first group of over eight
hundred trekkers boarded a CPR freight
headed east. Eventually, about two
thousand men participated in the trek.
The bulk of All Hell Can't Stop Us
focuses on the events in Regina where the
Bennett government stopped and violently
disbanded the trek. For those interested in
British Columbia history, however, there is
interesting material on the origins of the trek
in Vancouver. Waiser points out that,
contrary to government officials who saw
the trek as entirely the handiwork of
communists, the idea for the trek may not
have come from the communist leadership.
In fact, party leader Tim Buck called for the
relief camp workers to stay in Vancouver
where a major strike on the waterfront was
underway which could lead to a broader
general strike. At the same time, Buck
warned, leaving Vancouver would lead to
"the liquidation of the strike." (53) Business
and government leaders appear to have
been thinking along the same lines.
Historian R.C. McCandless has pointed out
that the Shipping Federation and its
government allies only took steps to break
the longshoremen's strike after the trekkers
had left Vancouver.1 Waiser concludes of the
relief camp workers' decision to leave that,
"Ottawa could not have asked for a better
outcome." (53) According to trekker Ron
Liversedge, who attended the meeting at the
Avenue Theatre where the men decided to
go to Ottawa, the idea for the trek came from
a "nameless striker who stood up...and
calmly suggested, 'Let us go to them.'" (53)
This was clearly a very popular idea among
frustrated men with little to show for two
months on strike in Vancouver. At the same
time, as the trek included undercover police
agents, it would be interesting to know more
about the person who made the history-
making suggestion.
Waiser uses standard as well as new
source material to carefully document the
federal government's brutal handling of the
trek. Contrary to official expectations, the
trek gained momentum as it crossed the
southern prairies and emerged as a popular
movement against the Conservative
government's neglect of the unemployed.
Bennett's solution to this emerging political
crisis which he claimed was a communist
plot to overthrow the government was
effectively to imprison and then violently
disband the trek in Regina where the RCMP
had a training depot and substantial forces.
Waiser's carefully constructed narrative of
these events which ended in a riot that
resulted in the deaths of Regina police
officer Charles Millar and trekker Nick
Schaack, and an enormous amount of
destruction in downtown Regina, reveals
how far the Canadian state would go to
crush dissent in the 1930s. More specifically,
Waiser's narrative suggests that R.B.
Bennett's insulting treatment of the trek
delegation in Ottawa and RCMP Assistant
Commissioner, S.T Wood's decision to arrest
22 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005 the trek leaders during a public rally while
negotiations were taking place with the
provincial government to end the trek
peacefully were calculated simply to create
a pretext "to bust up the boys" and end the
trek through brute force. To say the least, this
was a shabby way to treat men with simple
demands: as trekker Harry Linsley insisted
years later, "All we ever wanted was work
and wages." (273)
All Hell Can't Stop Us is an excellent
chronicle of the political history of the trek
and riot. Waiser makes effective use of
government documents, the papers of the
major political figures and the Regina
Citizens' Emergency Committee, and police
records to produce a compelling narrative.
In part, this is a fine piece of regional history
as Waiser documents how a distant federal
government gave little thought to the impact
on the people of Regina and the Jimmy
Gardiner provincial government of the
decision to forcefully disband the trek in
Saskatchewan. As in other parts of Canada,
most people in Regina wished the trekkers
well but wanted to keep them moving on to
Ottawa. My main criticism of the book is
that, surprisingly, the trekkers themselves
do not come into clear focus. Waiser makes
clear that the trek had a straightforward
objective and "...was more than a simple
Communist event." (273) Yet, we never
really find out who the rank-and-file
trekkers were as people, where they came
from, why they joined when others did not,
their personal experiences and roles in the
events, and what happened to them after the
trek was disbanded. In All Hell Can't Stop
Us, the RCMP and federal and provincial
politicians appear as "makin"' most of the
history. As an appendix, Waiser lists the
names of about twenty percent of the
trekkers. I would have liked to learn more
about these men whom Jean McWilliam of
Calgary described, in a letter to the Prime
Minister, as "a very fine type of boys."(275)
Duff Sutherland Duff Sutherland is a History Instructor at
Selkirk College Castlegar, BC
1 R.C. McCandless, "Vancouver's 'Red Menace'
of 1935: The Waterfront Situation," BC
Studies 22(Summer, 1974), 56-70.
The Canadian Rockies - Early Travels and
Explorations. Esther Eraser. Calgary, Fifth House.
2002. 248p., Illus, map, $16.95paperback.
I can still remember the pleasure that
I derived from reading Esther Fraser's book
when it was first published in 1969.1 knew
far less about her subject material than I do
today, yet rereading it has convinced me that
it is truly a marvellous review of the early
history of the region known as the Canadian
Rockies. Her judicious choice of those events
that highlight this history has just the right
balance between the serious and the
lighthearted. She has managed to make this
history exciting and meaningful. This is not
a comprehensive history but rather a
selection of stories about individuals who
travelled in the Rockies and in so doing
explored them. It is a book that should be
used in the school system to introduce
young Canadians to their history and
supplement the more formal historical
material they are taught. Each chapter is, in
effect, a sound byte.
Esther Fraser first wrote the stories as
educational radio scripts entitled
"Trailblazers of the Canadian Rockies" for
CKUAradio in Edmonton. She was inspired
to research and write this series after her first
visit to the Rockies on a family holiday. It
was a revelation to a woman raised on the
prairie who had lived in Edmonton without
ever venturing further west until she was
in her thirties. Her career in journalism gave
her an excellent preparation for the task that
she set for herself. It was a voyage of self-
discovery and she conveys that excitement
on every page. She has focused on a collection
of fascinating individuals who played major
roles in the exploration of the Rockies.
The titles of her chapters capture the
spirit of the book. She starts with "Banff's
First Tourist" that details the first trip that
the "Little Emperor" Sir George Simpson, a
governor of the Hudson's Bay Company,
made from Winnipeg to Fort Vancouver at
the mouth of the Columbia River in 1841.
The narrative is just as brisk as the pace of
forty to fifty miles per day that Simpson
drove his crew five days a week and the tart
commentary captures the personality of this
obsessed man. A great choice to get the
reader started, enthralled and committed.
She eschews a linear course of history
and deftly fits in such early explorers as
David Thompson and Duncan McGillivray
(Gateway To Power) together with the
priests Father De Smet and the Reverend
Donald Rundle (Among The Blackfeet) and
such odd ball travelers as the Earl of
Southesk (A Patrician Hunter) and Lord
Milton with Dr. Cheadle (The Incredible
Journey). She uses the search for a route for
the mainline of the C.P.R. and the ensuing
expensive construction through Roger's
Pass as the springboard for the exploration
of the region around Glacier House and the
arrival of the first mountaineers including
the Rev. Green, and others in response to Van
Home's dictum "We can't export the scenery
- we'll import the tourists!" (Initiating A
New Age). The same approach with the
focus on mountaineers such as Walter
Wilcox and Rev. Outram describes the
exploration of the region around Lake
Louise and Mt. Assiniboine. Focusing on the
explorations and climbs of Prof. Coleman
and his brother in search of the famed Mount
Brown and Mount Hooker first sighted and
named by the botanist, David Douglas, near
Athabasca Pass yields three chapters on the
exploration of this region. The debunking
of the claims for the heights of these
mountains leads to the description of the first
apparent climb of Mount Robson, the highest
peak in the Canadian Rockies, by the Rev.
Kinney and his outfitter Curly Phillips in
1909. This peak was conquered in 1913 by
Albert MacCarthy, William Foster and their
guide, the famous Conrad Kain. It was later
admitted by Phillips that Kinney and himself
did not actually reach the summit because of
bad weather (Drama At Mt. Robson).
All this and much more is included in
the twenty-five chapters plus an epilogue
that will keep the reader enthralled for a
great read. We are indebted to the publisher
for republishing this wonderful history.
Harvey Buckmaster Harvey Buckmaster is an emeritus
professor of physics whose interest in the history of the
Rockies and the interior of British Columbia was
stimulated by his joy of hiking, climbing and photography
in the region.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005        23 Edenbank ■ The History of a Canadian Pioneer
Farm. Oliver Wells, edited by Marie and Richard
WeedonMadeira Park,Harbour Publishing 2004
This is a treasure of a book which,
thanks to the perseverance of Marie and
Richard Weedon and the dedication of
Harbour Publishing to regional history, has
finally allowed the public a rare glimpse of
rural life in the Fraser Valley from gold
rush times.
Oliver Wells was the grandson of
Allen Wells, a gold rush pioneer from
Eastern Canada who, after passing through
the Fraser Valley en route to the goldfields,
quickly realized that his future lay in
working the land. Wells established
Edenbank in 1867 in the Vedder area of the
eastern Valley, an area rich in meadows,
towering timber, waterfowl, and streams
teeming with fish. He established an early
relationship with Sto:16 natives of the area,
and for more than a century the Wells family
worked in harmony with the Sto:16 - the
natives finding employment with the Wells
and their neighbours and in turn teaching
the early settlers the secrets of the land.
The book is written by Oliver Wells,
and well edited by his daughter and son-in-
law. At the time of his tragic death in
Scotland in 1967, Wells had achieved a
unique reputation in the community and
throughout Canada for his agricultural
experiments, including prize cattle
breeding, horticultural practices, and work
in naturalism - establishing a nature reserve
unique in the Valley. Allan Fotheringham,
who spent many of his growing years living
at the farm, was deeply impressed and
writes: "Oliver Wells was the first 'Green.'
Long before the environmentalist
movement was born, he conducted his life -
and his career - that way. He, who had never
travelled, corresponded with like-minded
people around the globe who lived close to
the land and loved it and wanted to preserve
it. He bred prize cattle, loved birds, loved
people of his ilk..."
Oliver Wells' life is a testament to
stewardship of the land, an example that
Man need not live at odds with Nature in
order to survive and prosper. Yet this is not
simply a sentimental description of idyllic
pioneer life. All of the hardships, from
floods, fires, drought, disease, and accidents
are presented starkly, as are the farm
practices such as killing of livestock for food
- descriptions of which are not for the
squeamish.
Prior to his death shortly after
completing the Edenbank manuscript,
Oliver had succeeded in working with local
Sto:16 to help revive the ancient arts of native
weaving. Until 1900 native women had used
wool from mountain goats for weaving
blankets; now the trade was taken up again
using natural dyes on other available quality
wool. Similarly, traditional canoe crafting
has experienced a resurgence.
The wildlife sanctuary established by
Wells has survived, and for many years
Oliver exchanged wild nest eggs of different
birds with naturalists from Great Britain.
The rare small green heron was coaxed to
visit this Edenbank paradise.
Sadly, the fate of Edenbank as a
working farm, which Oliver's descendants
hoped would be preserved in the public
domain, was not to be. A substantial portion
of the farm was developed into
condominiums. Moreover, despite the
vehement recommendations of the heritage
advisory commission for the area, both the
Agricultural Land Commission and the
Provincial Cabinet turned down pleas to
have the farm and the sanctuary together
preserved - the best opportunity which B.C.
has ever had to create a historic working
farm museum. Thankfully, the Edenbank
farmhouse has been preserved as a meeting
place for local strata owner residents.
The wildlife sanctuary and the
publication of this important book will serve
as a testament to the unswerving efforts and
integrity of Oliver Wells and his forbears in
contributing to both community and natural
environment. The tragedy of Edenbank's
desecration as an historic pioneering centre,
alas, will serve as a testament to the
bungling, bureaucratic incompetence and
shortsightedness of government.
Bella Coola Country. Leslie Kopas. Photographs by
Cliff Kopas. Vancouver, B.C., Illahee Publishing, 2003. 128
p., illus, map. $26.95paperback.
Bella Coola Country deserves a place in
every British Columbia library and on the
bookshelves of history buffs who enjoy
looking into the heart of small-town B.C.
Leslie Kopas chose nearly 150 images from
his father's vast photo collection as the basis
for a history of the Bella Coola valley. He
fleshed out the graphic storyline with essays
and maps that introduce readers to the
history, geography, and personality of the
area. Both Cliff's choice of subject matter and
Leslie's choice of photos tell us what the
people of Bella Coola consider to be
significant elements of their history.
Between 1933 and 1956, Cliff Kopas
took over 1,000 black and white photos of
the Bella Coola valley and surrounding area.
(He switched to colour photography in the
mid-1950s.) His subjects included his
neighbours and their homes and businesses;
scenery encountered on hikes and trail rides;
industrial activity in the local fishing,
logging, and agricultural businesses;
community celebrations; pioneer farm sites;
evidence of the ethnic diversity of the area;
and significant events such as floods and the
road-building venture that made Bella Coola
accessible to cars and trucks. His images
show people who are at ease with the
photographer and who seem eager to have
their work and play preserved for posterity.
Cliff's son Leslie wrote the stories
behind the pictures. They explain why some
of us decide to settle in remote areas and
challenge ourselves with difficult
livelihoods. They remind us that logging,
fishing, and agriculture have always been
precarious ways to earn a living and show
how residents of this small community
found solutions to the industrial problems
of their day. Leslie's essays reveal how
multiculturalism evolved in rural British
Columbia. And they demonstrate the impact
that individuals can have on the
development and character of a community.
The only disappointment with the
book was the layout. The photos and text
compete for our attention. The designer
24 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005 often put photos in the middle of a
paragraph, sometimes mid-sentence or even
mid-word. This awkward placement forces
the reader to skip over the those important
images to finish the story. One particularly
annoying example starts at the end of page
53, where an 1862 account of "... two Indian
vii-" is interrupted by seven photos, none
of which relate to the subject of the
paragraph. I had to flip to page 57 to resume
the story of the "lages, forming a settlement
named Ko-om-ko-otz...". In the end, I read
the book twice, first the graphic storyline
and then the text. The designer should have
made both storylines enhance each other.
That gripe aside, I would heartily
recommend this book. I am very grateful
that Leslie Kopas recognized the value of
these images and stories and devoted so
much time and energy to sharing them with
us. I hope it encourages others to give us
similar insight into other small communities
throughout our province.
Susan Stacey Susan Stacey is a Richmond writer and coauthor of Salmonopolis (1994).
A World Apart; the Crowsnest Communities of
Alberta and British Columbia - edited by Wayne
Norton and Tom Langford. Kamloops, Plateau Press, 202
p., illus., map $22.95 paperback.
This seems a sombre book, with its
black and white cover picture of grimy coal
miners with head lamps on their helmets.
However, it is not another record of the
mining disasters created by methane gas
explosions, but a record of life in the towns
of the Pass. Twenty-five chapters by
different authors set out almost everything
from politicians, soccer teams, unions, to the
tough times of the work-scarce 1930s. A
chapter on photographer Thomas Gushul
and his studio contains a most interesting
photograph of Peter "the Lordly" Verigin's
original tomb at Castlegar before it was
dynamited (possibly by the Sons of Freedom
splinter group of Doukhobors). As Gushul
was Ukrainian, and Russian speaking, this
enabled him to obtain much work for the
Doukhobors. This particular picture of the
very ornate structure shows two cement
sheaves of wheat, one of which survives at
the Verigin memorial site on the abandoned
Columbia and Western rail track near
Farron, where Peter, and seven others were
assassinated in 1924. Many of the other
photos in the book are the work of Gushul,
and his son Evan.
Many of the workers in the Pass mines
came from Europe, and tended to
congregate in Polish, Italian, and other
ethnic sections of the communities. Some
of the school teachers were handed the task
of teaching English to these workers - this
was so important, as safety in the mines
depended on an understanding of the
language.
The BC side of the border was
represented for forty years in the Legislature
by Thomas Uphill - the only Labour Party
member to be elected in B.C. Again this tells
how these communities were a "world
apart". Coal miners were specialists in the
mining industry, somewhat different from
the men who worked at Kimberley, and
other 'hard rock mines'
All types of miners had to be dedicated
union men, to try and better their tough
working conditions.. A chapter on "The One
Big Union" explains this different type of
organization satisfactorily - without
dismissing it as the "Wobblies" as most books
seem to do. Unfortunately the book doesn't
refer to Joe Krkosky, a powerful union official
who served on the Blairmore town council
for many years, (where else could a dedicated
Communist party member become a
councillor in those years ?) However it
records so much of the grimy Crows Nest
Pass during its underground coal mining
days (coal is now entirely recovered by open
pit methods).
Tom Lymbery Tom Lymbery, a long time resident of the
Kootenays, runs the Gray Creek Store.
Bloody Practice; doctoring in the Cariboo and
around the world. Sterling Haynes. Prince George,
Caitlin Press, 2003. 143 p., illus. $18.95 paperback.
This book of short stories by a
physician starts out with tales from his first
medical practice in Williams Lake in the
1960s. Each chapter tells a story: a hospital
case seen in the Emergency ward during
Stampede Week, an emergency flight in a
Cessna 180 to reach an isolated lake in the
Chilcotin where a plane has gone down, and
other examples of an extraordinary small
rural practice where medical skill and
ingenuity are put to the test.
One story tells of Dr Haynes' days as
a third year medical student when he and
others provide care to treaty Indians in Great
Slave Lake. The RCMP officers went to pay
treaty money, $5 a year for every Indian, $10
for councillors, and $15 to the Chief. But, the
natives had to have a chest x-ray and a
physical examination before the money was
paid out. The bonus was a free tooth
extraction, as necessary, by Dr Haynes.
In the second part of the book, Dr
Haynes returns to old haunts in Alberta to
research the life of a pioneer doctor there.
Stories dealing with his time in Nigeria in
1952 serve as a prelude to his next practice.
In 1980, Dr Haynes took up a rural practice
in Alabama and has many stories to tell of
his nine years of medical practice. As a
retired physician he visits Cuba, Belize, the
Panama Canal and Costa Rica and recounts
information about life and medical and
alternative practices in these far away places.
Helen Shore Helen Shore is Associate Professor Emerita
of Nursing, UBC, and a member of the Vancouver
Historical Society.
Boards, Boxes and Bins; Stanley M. Simpson
and the Okanagan lumber industry, sharron J.
Simpson. Kelowna, Manhattan Beach Publishing, 1850
Abbott St., Kelowna, BC V1Y 1B5. 152 p., illus. $29.99
paperback.
As ambitious newcomers set about
freeing up British Columbia's natural
resources early in the twentieth-century,
emerging settlements often as not came to be
dominated by super achievers. A good
example would be Stanely M. Simpson, who
rose from relative obscurity to assemble
Kelowna's major industrial enterprise.
Simpson drew his fame and fortune from the
forest, and devotees of local history are
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005        25 indebted to Sharron J. Simpson for this
sympathetic telling other grandfather's role
in the growth of the Okanagan's largest
centre.
Born in Ontario in 1886, Stanley
Merriam Simpson saw his formal education
end at Grade Eight. However, early personal
development and many lifelong attributes
were a legacy from his devoted widowed
mother. Simpson arrived in Kelowna in
1913, after spending five years on a tree-
covered quarter section in Saskatchewan
and finding he was not meant to be a farmer.
Starting with a one-man carpentry shop that
turned out storm windows, screen doors and
fruit ladders, he soon became aware of the
growing market for packing boxes. In 1925,
Simpson formed a sawmill partnership with
Fred Munson at Ellison to supply rough
boards for conversion to box stock. Simpson's
holdings eventually grew to include
sawmills, veneer plant, and a box factory,
producing 20,000 units a day, that together
provided jobs to 800 men and women.
According to Sharron Simpson,
Okanagan fruit growers consumed a
staggering total of 600 million wooden
packing boxes up to the 1950s. The forty-
pound, one-bushel box became the standard
in 1909 and customers were insistent that
only knot-free wood be used in their
manufacture, lest the fruit sustain bruising.
Considered by many a wasteful practice, the
policy led to the substantial depletion of the
Valley's magnificent Ponderosa pine stands.
Stan Simpson famously survived the demise
of the forty-pound container by becoming a
leading supplier of the new bulk bins, which
revolutionized fruit harvesting in 1957.
When Simpson died in 1959 he was
hailed by the forest-industry as a leader and
standard-setter. He could also claim to have
transformed the Kelowna landscape by
filling in numerous ponds and low-lying
areas with mill waste, and by making
available eleven acres to the City of Kelowna
for a civic centre and waterfront park.
It is also apparent from Boards, Boxes
and Bins that Simpson shared many traits
with other self-made men from similar
backgrounds. He was exceedingly thrifty,
inventive and paternalistic. In this last
instance he tended to treat loyal employees
like family members, which made it hard
for him to believe anyone would want to join
a union. "Stan must have felt betrayed"
when organized labour arrived in 1943, the
author relates. Things got worse three years
later, when S. M. Simpson Ltd. employees
walked off the job, resulting in a box
shortage that left much of a bumper fruit
crop on the trees.
Perhaps a more objective study of this
influential enterprise will yet be written, but
in the meantime Sharron Simpson has
faithfully preserved the memory of an
important Okanagan business figure. A final
comment: I would prefer to read and shelve
this work in standard 'book" format, rather
than the unwieldy size in which it
is presented.
Denis Marshall Denis Marshall is the author of Sawdust
Caesars and family ties in the Southern Interior Forests,
2003, which will be reviewed in a forthcoming issue of
British Columbia History.
Country Post; rural postal services in Canada,
1880-1945. ChantalAmyot and John Willis. Gatineau,
Quebec, Canadian Museum of Civilization, 2003. Canadian
Postal Museum, Mercury Series. 210 p., illus. Can.
Museum of Civilization, 100 Laurier St., PO Box 3100,
Station B, Gatineau, Que. QJ84H2 $39.95 paperback.
For those with an interest in social
history, Country Post; rural postal services in
Canada is a must read. The book looks at the
influence that the Canadian Post Office had
on the development of rural Canada
between 1880 and 1945. The authors open
with an overview of the transformation of
Canadian society during the sixty-five year
period covered by the book, and then
discuss the role of the small town postmaster
and the fact that the village post office often
became the social centre of the community.
It concludes with a look at special postal
services, such as the Post Office Savings
Bank and the Mail-Order business, as they
brought big city services to the small town.
The book provides an outstanding
study of small town Canada as it existed
prior to the Second World War, but the
authors may have picked a topic that is too
large for a two hundred-page book.
Generalizations that apply in Eastern
Canada are not always valid for the Prairies
and British Columbia. The authors fail to
appreciate the fact that in 1880 the present
Prairie Provinces were served by forty-four
post offices and that by 1900 the number had
increased to about four hundred fifty truly
rural post offices, while during the same
period the number of post offices in Ontario
and Quebec had remained at about 8,000
offices. As is pointed out by the authors,
many of the openings and closings of post
offices in Eastern Canada were the result of
political patronage rather than the need for
additional postal service.
It is true that the railways had a great
effect on the locations of settlements in many
parts of Canada, but the influence of the
airplane on the development in the west
cannot be overlooked. On page 41, the
authors state that Airmail was first
introduced into Canada in 1928, without
realizing that, by 1928 more than a dozen
flying companies were operating in Western
Canada and that mail was carried on nearly
one hundred mail routes mainly serving the
North. At the same time they make no
mention of the role played by coastal
shipping along Canada's West Coast where,
by the 1930s, the coastal ships provided
"way mail" service to over one hundred fifty
rural settlements, many of which had no
post office.
The word "rural" appears to be
interpreted quite differently in various parts
of Canada. The City of Nelson (p.113), with
its daily mail service, could hardly be
referred to as a rural settlement in the 1930s,
when Poplar Creek and Hauser, some 690
miles to the north, were still receiving mail
by packhorse into the mid 1940s. Had the
authors used the term "small town" or
"village", to describe many of the
settlements, those living in the more remote
rural regions of Canada would have found
these terms more acceptable.
Despite these minor oversights, the
authors are to be complimented on the depth
of study and understanding shown in the
book, and the fact that it is almost impossible
26 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005 to make a generalization that applies to all
parts of Canada should not affect the
readers' enjoyment of what is an
outstanding study of Canada's rural postal
system.
William Topping William Topping is Editor of the British
Columbia Postal History Newsletter
L.D.: Mayor Louis Taylor and the rise of
Vancouver. Daniel Francis. Vancouver, Arsenal Pulp
Press, 2004. 239 p., illus. $21.95 hard cover.
In real life, L.D. Taylor took a
pummeling from the fates. He now takes
another from biographer Daniel Francis, and
from most reviewers of Francis' book. No
doubt Taylor was a bit of a devil, but it is
time to give the devil his due, not add to the
"odour of corruption that has tainted
Taylor's reputation" The Texas journalist
Molly Ivins has written "Young political
reporters are always told there are three
ways to judge a politician. The first is to
look at the record. The second is to look at
the record. And third, look at the record. The
method is tried, true, time-tested, and pretty
much infallible. In politics, the past is
prologue. If a politician is left, right, weak,
strong, given to the waffle of the flip-flop,
or, as sometimes happens, an able soul who
performs well under pressure, all that will
be in the record." (Ivins, M.. Shrub; the short
but happy life of George W. Bush. N.Y, 2000.
p.xii) Ivins' approach is sorely needed when
it comes to evaluating the long career of L.D.
Taylor, frequent mayor, and formidable
figure in shaping the character and quality
of the City of Vancouver.
"L.D. was not a visionary mayor",
Francis writes. If he was not, has there ever
been a visionary mayor of Vancouver? The
examined record belies a so-dismissive
characterization of Taylor. It is contrary to
the documentation supplied by previous
historians, even to the record Francis himself
presents. Surely Taylor's initiatives and
support for, among others, city
amalgamation, a City Planning
Commission, an airport, a civic archives,
have something to do with 'vision'.
Although the name of L.D. Taylor is
well-known to Vancouver historians,
professional and amateur alike, it is rare to
find today an average citizen in Vancouver
who knows anything of Taylor's civic
accomplishments. Judging by reviews of
Daniel Francis' book in the local papers,
most of our journalists are in a similar state
of ignorance. Francis himself confesses that,
though brought up in Vancouver, he was in
his thirties before he happened upon
references to L.D. Taylor. Eventually, writer
Francis began to see Taylor as an intriguing
character, the possible subject of a biography,
which Francis himself would undertake.
A full biography of Taylor has long
been wanting, and many people, myself
among them, have earnestly hoped a
historian, or at the very least a Ph.D. student
of history, would take up the task. Most of
the standard books about Vancouver -
Morley, McDonald, Nicol, do give the
flavour of the times, and credit Taylor with
an important role in it. They record a
number of Taylor's civic accomplishments
as well as his spats and tribulations. But for
some reason Taylor practically disappeared
as a person of historical interest after his
death. Apart from Ronald Kenvyn's series
of articles in the Province in 1939, while
Taylor was still alive, and David McFaul's
excellent biographical sketch in 1979, there
is almost nothing with a focus on Taylor.
(Vancouver History 18:4, Aug. 1979.)
Now, more than fifty years after
Taylor's death, it is disappointing, and
passing strange, that Francis, who appears
to admire Taylor in spite of himself, has
failed to look at "the record...the record...the
record" before coming out with a biography
of the man. Instead, Francis has exhausted
himself on trivial and personal questions,
arising largely from his conversations with
Taylor's great-grandson, Roy Werbel, and a
file of personal letters and clippings dated
before 1920. Unhappily, too many of
Francis' statements are misleading, or
innuendo at best: "Bigamy, embezzzlement,
drug abuse: it turned out that Louis Taylor
was not only Vancouver's longest-serving
mayor, but also by far its most colourful".
The tenor of this statement pervades not
only Francis' book, it laces his recent
published articles on Taylor in The Beaver,
The Vancouver Sun, and elsewhere. The
implications are scandalous. This is
seriously unfair to Taylor and definitely is
not good history.
Francis leaves one with a negative
assessment of Taylor. To understand why,
even a grudgingly admiring biographer
would do this, a Molly Ivins reference to a
book of her own is suggestive: "This book
contains no news about the sex life of [... ]
nor about the drugs he has ingested, nor
about whatever dark psychological demons
drive him to seek [political office]. No sex,
no drugs, no Siggie Freud - so why would
anyone read it?" (Ivins, p.xi) The reference
is obvious. The book wouldn't sell.
Publishers have their price.
Francis did well to ferret out great-
grandson Werbel's whereabouts. It would
have been a real service to have written a
careful article based on the files kept by
Werbel, and on what he, Francis, could
reasonably surmise, or better still, prove,
about the embezzlement episode. Francis
would then have supplied one chapter in a
"Life of..." a chapter which would truly add
something new to the story of a remarkable
man. Titillating allusions are fit tabloid copy
only. It is deplorable that they found ther
way into The Beaver, let alone into the book
under review here.
A second major disappointment is
Francis' discussion of the times in which
Taylor lived and campaigned, specifically of
the deeply-rent economic/political milieu.
Michael Barnholden is the only reviewer
who has called attention to this serious gap.
He refers to 'class warfare'. He suggests that
Taylor's real sin was his fight against special
interest groups. Barnholden's suggestion is
appealing. One finds certain writers,
ostensibly on the side of the working man
who also ignore Taylor. The warfare was
within the left as well as between classes.
Barnholden could have enlarged on his
comment about class by pointing out that
the analysis of Henry George was L.D.
Taylor's guide in political economy, a
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005        27 philosophy anathema to both extremes in
the political spectrum. Francis' scant
references to Henry George betray his own
failure to understand that analysis. Nor does
he recoognize it as a potent force in Taylor's
life and times, more is the pity, since a lesson
from those days might help the City now.
The early 1900s were notorious for
their deep wells of political partisanship,
both provincial and federal. That
partisanship was vicious at times; it
coloured the municipal picture always. The
long-standing enmity between G.G. McGeer
and Taylor, for example, evidently began in
1911, when nominal-Liberal Taylor backed
Conservative H.H. Stevens for Federal
Member against Liberal McGeer. (The cabal
of B.C. Liberals in those days was oneTaylor
couldn't stomach.) A lot of strings were
pulled and deals made then; it is naive to
believe otherwise. Is it not so today? Why
Francis should name Taylor 'paranoid' to see
hidden knots of influence in the political
scene is inexplicable, but he does, putting
Taylor in the same company as John Birch
and Joseph McCarthy!
I continue to hope that a professional
historian, preferably one with economic and
political savvy, will take up a full biography.
It will require months of searching over years
of records, not only in the City Archives, but
in the minutes of many other civic institutions
- City Council, Police Commission, Planning
Commission, Library Board (Taylor was first
appointed to the Library Board in 1903), and
newspaper files, memoirs and biographies of
other city notables, of which there are now
several. Sadly, Daniel Francis has laboured
to produce just a warped, blurred picture,
relying to catch the reader's interest, it seems,
by reference to "sex, drugs and Siggie Freud".
L.D. Taylor, eight times Mayor of
Vancouver, awaits a serious biographer.
Mary Rawson Mary Rawson presented a talk to the
Vancouver Historical Society on L.D. Taylor in 1986 and
published an article on Taylor in the BC Historical News
Winter 2000.
(Daniel Francis' book L.D. Mayor Taylor and
the Rise of Vancouver was awarded the City of
Vancouver's Book Award in 2004.)
Spirit Dance at Meziadin: Chief Joseph Gosnell
and the Nisga'a Treaty Alex Rose. Principal
photography by Gary Fiegehan. Madeira Park, Harbour
Publishing, 2000. 248p., illus., map. $21.95paperback.
In 1885 three Nisga'a chiefs met with
Prime Minister John A. Macdonald. One
hundred and five years later, the Nisga'a
Treaty was formally ratified, at an estimated
cost of $487.1 million. We need to know what
happened between those two Ottawa events
and why it matters. Alex Rose tells us.
Despite its title, the book is more
concerned with reality than with spirits, and
it is not a biography. It is a strong eye- witness
account of the Nisga'a Treaty process, why it
happened, how it proceeded, and what the
experience did to those involved.
Rose gives sympathetic but not
uncritical portraits of Chiefs Joseph Gosnell
and Frank Calder and their people, but he
also knows first hand, because he was one
of them, the army of lawyers, politicians,
bureaucrats and consultants. They battled,
learned, and bargained in the stultifying
atmosphere of hotel boardrooms, and
slowly they made history.
The book ends in 2000, before Gordon
Campbell's Liberals came to power with a
commitment to a referendum on the Treaty
process. Rose is sceptical about the idea of a
referendum, but it did give the provincial
government the mandate it needed to
continue negotiating. By the end of 2003 four
Agreements-in-Principle had been
concluded and approved by First Nations.
Rose credits the tenacious
pragmatism of the Nisga'a leaders with
achieving "a real-world solution to the crisis
of aboriginal rights." He concludes, "Despite
its many contradictions, the Nisga'a Treaty
brings into sharp focus the question of how
two cultures can live together and offers a
peaceful solution to a long-standing
grievance that could never have been settled
by armed confrontation."
Phyllis Reeve Phyllis Reeve lives on Gabriola Island and
hopes a treaty will soon be finalized with the
Snuneeymuxw Nation.
The Yukon Relief Expedition and the Journal
of Carl Johan Sakariassen. Edited by v.R. Rausch
and D.L. Baldwin. Fairbanks, University of Alaska Press,
2002. 261 p., illus. US. $26.95paperback.
In the winter of 1897-98 fears of
starvation in the northern gold fields brought
about the Yukon Relief Expedition, promoted
by Dr Sheldon Jackson and paid for by the US
Department of War. It involved travelling to
northern Norway to purchase five hundred
reindeer and sign on seventy-two herders,
roughly of them Lapps or Saami, and
transport both to Haines, Alaska, as quickly
as possible. From there, reindeer pulling
loaded sleighs would dash to the gold fields
where food they brought plus the animals'
own flesh would alleviate the famine.
Jackson, a Presbyterian minister and
the US Government's special agent for
education in Alaska, had been involved in
the importation of Siberian reindeer as early
as 1891 and, along with others, hoped that
reindeer husbandry could reduce the
aboriginal people's dependence on ever-
scarcer marine animals for food. North
American caribou, although similar to
reindeer, have never been domesticated.
Racing against time, the expedition
left Norway on February 4th, 1898, reaching
New York by freighter on February 27th, the
west coast by rail on March 8th, and Haines,
Alaska by ship on March 27th, where five
hundred twenty-one of the original herd of
five hundred thirty-eight were landed. By
now the supply of 'reindeer moss', actually
a lichen, that the expedition had carried with
it, was gone and the animals refused to eat
the coarse hay brought to them.
Over the next six weeks, desperate
attempts were made to locate 'cariboo or
reindeer moss' and either bring it to the
reindeer or drive them to it, both next to
impossible during spring breakup. Losses
mounted as the starving and exhausted
reinder gave up. Often the herders would
encourage them to walk a few feet only to
have them lie down again and repeat this
until seized by a sort of cramp that brought
death within a few minutes. The herders,
often working in the rain and without
adequate food, did their best.
28 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005 Finally, on May 6th, the surviving one
hundred eighty-five reindeer, healthy and
weak together, were assembled in an area
with abundant moss, some fifty miles from
Haines and near the start of the climb to
Chilkat Pass. William Kjellmann, Jackson's
superintendent, ordered Hedley Redmyer
and a crew of six men to drive them to Circle
City on the Yukon River. The reindeer gone,
the remaining herders returned to Haines
and from there went by ship to Port
Townsend, Washington. Redmyer's party
would reach Circle City on February 28th,
1899 with one hundred fourteen reindeer, a
remarkable journey.
Sakariassen's journal begins February
2nd, 1898, the day the twenty-three year-old
left home to sign on to the Relief Expedition,
and continues until his departure from the
Nome gold field on October 18th, 1899.
Uniquely, signatures of four friends from the
expedition attest to its accuracy.
Its value lies in the first-hand
descriptions, initially of the Relief
Expedition until leaving it at Haines and,
following this, travelling to Unalakleet in
Norton Sound, Alaska, to help construct the
Eaton Reindeer Station nearby. Resigning
from government service on April 8th, 1899,
he and two companions set out for Nome,
some 210 miles away, hauling an eight
hundred-pound sledge. Their journey took
close to a month and during it they were
passed by a party using reindeer who did it
in a mere three days, an example of what
reindeer transport could accomplish given
the right conditions.
At Nome, Sakariassen both staked
claims and worked on others including
Discovery and 1 Below on Anvil Creek
staked on September 22nd, 1898 by Jafet
Lindeberg, credited with the Nome
Discovery and who had come to North
America as a member of the Relief
Expedition. Sakariassen left Nome aboard
the Portland October 18th, 1899, planning to
winter in Washington State and return north
the following spring.
His journal, borrowed and believed
lost for many years, was returned to its
author in the late 1950s. Translated from the
Norwegian by James P. Nelson, it has been
edited and annotated for this publication by
the author's daughters V.R. Rausch and D.L.
Baldwin. In addition, their introduction,
drawn mainly from archival sources,
contains much information on the
background of the expedition and the
problems faced in getting it underway.
Lewis Green Lew Green spent many years as a
government geologist mapping in the Yukon.
Walter Moberly and the Northwest Passage by
Rail. Daphne Sleigh.
Surrey: Hancock House, 2003.
ISBN: 0888395108 (pbk.)
Most readers of this journal recognize
Walter Moberly's name, but I suspect that
many would be hard pressed to list his
accomplishments, or even accurately
describe his activities. In Walter Moberly and
the Northwest Passage by Rail, a new
biography of the "doyen" of British
Columbia explorers, Daphne Sleigh is
largely successful in doing both, and, more
importantly, distinguishing one from the
other. Her careful comparison of the often
meagre sources reveals the extent and
duration of Moberly's concerted campaign
to revise the historical record concerning his
work. From the publication of his memoirs
in 1885 to the appearance of his recollections
in 1914, Moberly spent three decades
hectoring politicians in Victoria and Ottawa
and lecturing tirelessly to any social club that
would hear him. The point of this effort was
to convince his audience, and posterity, that
it was he who had located the key mountain
passes in the CPR route across British
Columbia. While Moberly was the first
white to realize the importance of Eagle Pass
as a conduit for the transcontinental railway,
Sleigh makes clear that he neither reached
nor recognized Rogers Pass before the
advent of the CPR's American explorer. She
also describes how his illogical fixation with
Howes Pass as the railway's eastern
gateway to the mountains led to a rupture
with Sandford Fleming and the Canadian
Pacific Railway Survey.
There is much else as well. Some
private letters as well as correspondence
with Henry Crease illuminate another part
of Moberly's career, the construction of part
of the Cariboo Road, for which he was jailed
twice and bankrupted on debt recovery
actions. And diligent sleuthing reveals a
disastrous marriage in 1865 that collapsed a
few years later in Nevada.
The volume has substantial merit, then.
It also has shortcomings. Editorial flaws
range from the annoying - Prime Minister
Macdonald becomes MacDonald in some
chapters - to the inexplicable - incomplete
archival citations vitiate the notes. And the
maps do not illuminate Sleigh's sometimes
intricate description of Moberly's travels. The
map of the railway passes, in particular,
requires tracings that compare Moberly's
explorations in 1865,1866, and 1871 with the
CPR constructed line.
Of greater concern are aspects of the
author's organization. Sleigh casts the
biography in a lockstep chronology that
allows her to discuss the tendentiousness of
Moberly's publications and correspondence,
still the major source for her subject, only
after she has finished her account of his
explorations. And would it not also be
enlightening to compare Moberly to others
in similar pursuits? While achieving fame
that eluded Moberly, Fleming and Major
Rogers also shared some of his frustrations.
Richard White's recent book on British-born
railway engineers Walter and Frank Shanly
indicates that Moberly's financial
insouciance was not uncommon. In
addition, studies of railway location through
the North American cordillera suggest that
exploration and survey were part of a larger
business process that is minimized in
Moberly's writings, and in this biography.
Insights from a wider investigation can
illuminate additional elements of Moberly's
"unique" career.
Frank Leonard Frank Leonard is with the Dept. of History
at Douglas College
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005        29 This Blesssed Wilderness; Archibald
McDonald's letters from the Columbia, 1822-
44. Ed. Jean Murray Cole. Vancouver, UBC Press, 2001.
297 p., illus.. $75 hard cover.
Archibald McDonald led a group of
Selkirk settlers to the Red River colony in
1813, and seven years later was hired by the
Hudson's Bay Company on the eve of its
union with the Northwest Company.
Initially he was stationed at Fort George at
the mouth of the Columbia and was then
put in charge of Kamloops, Fort Langley
and Fort Colvile, where he was promoted
to the position of Chief Factor. He was a
prolific letter writer who sent detailed
reports to headquarters and corresponded
with many friends and colleagues. Jean
Murray Cole, a direct descendant and his
biographer, has edited a selection of the
many papers which have survived. This
book will be a "must read" for those
interested in the Pacific fur trade during this
period, but the letters are interesting in
themselves, and the background and
explanatory notes provided by the editor
give this book a much wider appeal.
Morag MacLachlan Morag MacLachlan is the editor of
The Fort Langley Journals,
NOTEWORTHY BOOKS
Books listed here may be reviewed at a later date. For
further information please consult Book Review Editor,
Anne Yandle.
Backstage Vancouver; a century of entertainment legends. Greg
Potter and Red Robinson. Harbour Publishing, 2004. $39.95
Cannery Village: Company Town; a history of British
Columbia's outlying salmon canneries. K. Mack Campbell.
Victoria, Trafford, 2004. $30.95
First Invaders; the literary origins of British Columbia.
Alan Twigg. Vancouver, Ronsdale Press, 2004. $21.95
Healing in the Wilderness; a history of the United Church Mission
Hospitals. Bob Burrows. Harbour Publishing, 2004. $26.95
Mountie in Mukluks; the Arctic adventures of Bill White.
Patrick White. Vancouver, Harbour Publishing, 2004. $34.95
North by Northwest; an aviation history. Chris Wekht.
Roberts Creek, Creekside Publications, 2004. $42
paperback
Surveying Northern British Columbia; a photojournal of
Frank Swannell. Jay Sherwood. Caitlin Press, 2004. no
price given.
TheTofino Kid; from India to this Wild West Coast. Anthony
Guppy. Fir Grove Publishing, 2000. no price given.
The Wild Edge; Clayoquot, Long Beach & Barkley Sound.
Jacqueline Windh. Harbour Publishing, 2004. $34.95
More on the Crowsnest Railway
R. G. Harvey's article "The Crowsnest
Railway" in the summer editon is
excellent. When I checked one of his
primary references [Some we Have Met and
Stories They Have Told, by Will Stuart) I
immediately discovered why a major error
had slipped into the story (and the map) of
the CPR line to Kootenay Lake.
Jim Hill's Great Northern
Railway fbm Bonner's Ferry, Idaho, got to
Kuskanook first, so the CPR was never able
to run trains to this point. However, the tote
road that his company constructed to
Kuskanook was used to bring supplies and
material east to the Canadian companies
construction, as the CPR operated
sternwheelers and tugs on Kootenay
Lake. This, somewhat naturallyled the
workers on the line feel that Kuskanook was
to be the terminus. In fact, the town of
Kuskanook 'boomed' because merchants
expected that it would be a rail centre with
two companies serving.
The actual terminus of the Crowsnest
Railway was Kootenay Landing, at the
mouth of the Kootenay River, where the
station and barge loading facilities had to
be all built on pilings, because of the
insubstantial sand and mud. This also was
subject to wind, ice and
driftwood. Fcwmost Kootenay and Sternwheeler Historian. Wd Affleck researched
the Great Northern's corporate archives in
St. Paul Minnesota, about 12 years ago, to
find that the CPR tried several times to
purchase  the  route  and  landing  in
Kuskanook, but that GN was only willing
to lease, not sell.   This was not on the
program so CPR never did run trains into
Kuskanook, even though the US company
suspended service in 1909.
Sadly the 2003 forest fires severly
burned the mountain tops above
Kuskanook, resulting in a flood and
landslide in the summer of 2004, which
completely destroyed the 1904 Great
Northern station, which both the Gray Creek
Historical Society, and the Creston Museum
were hoping to preserve. This station was
virtually the last evidence of Jim Hill's many
incursions into BC after the ore from our
mines!
How easily historic errors can sneak
in - Harvey's "CPR to Kuskanook" has
already been used as a reference in the just
published book Remember When by Susan
Hulland and Terry Turner.
Tom Lymbery, President Gray Creek Historical Society
"Booming" Kuskanook
BC Archives D-06933
30 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005 Web Site Forays
Graveyards of the Pacific: Shipwrecks of Vancouver Island
by Christopher Garrish
In its 1999 Throne Speech, the Federal
Government announced that
technology was creating new
opportunities in the field of cultural to
"strengthen the bonds between Canadians,"
and that it was the government's intention
to bring Canadian culture into this digital age
by "linking 1,000 institutions across the
country to form a virtual museum of
Canada."
The responsibility for delivering on
this commitment fell to the Canadian
Heritage Information Network (CHIN) in
early 2000. CHIN represented an ideal
candidate for this task as it possessed a thirty
year track record of encouraging the creation
of a computerized national inventory of
Canadian culture, facilitating the sharing of
collections and working directly with the
country's heritage community.
And so grew the Virtual Museum of
Canada (VMC) - www.virtualmuseum.ca -
into a gateway that CHIN now uses to assist
member museums from across the country
in developing an on-line presence and
"capacity in the digital domain."
While British Columbia is represented
by a number of organizations in CHIN, some
of which have already made contributions to
the VMC, such as: the Museum of
Anthropology's Respect to Bill Reid Pole; the
Vancouver Aquarium's Salmon Tales; and the
Osoyoos Museum's Drawing on Identity:
Inkameep Day School & Art Collection. Our
focus is to be on the Maritime Museum of
British Columbia's Graveyards of the Pacific:
Shipwrecks of Vancouver Island
(www.pacificshipwrecks.ca).
While Graveyards of the Pacific is
principally the effort of the Maritime
Museum, there have been other project
partners in the form of the Museum at
Campbell River, the Vancouver Maritime
Museum, and the Underwater
Archaeological Society ofBritish Columbia.
Together, they have created an exhibition
that offers "a wealth of information about
the numerous ships that have foundered on
the Island's shores as well as the fascinating
human and social history that went down
with the ships."
While the web site has been set-up in
five differing sections, there is a certain
degree of inter-relation between these
groupings that allows visitors to better
understand the hazards and the history of
navigating around the Island.
For instance, under the section entitled
"The Wrecks" an interactive map of the Island
has been created that allows visitors to
literally "slide" through time from 1750 to the
present while red locators fade in and out of
view, each representing a different wreck.
This is probably one of the web site's
strongest features as it presents a synopsis and,
in some cases, photos of what appear to be
upwards of a hundred wrecks from around
the Island. While the site indicates this to be
only a "short list" of wrecked vessels, it
includes working tugs, lumber barges,
freighters, passenger ferries and war ships.
One of these entries is for the Valencia;
an iron steamship that was driven ashore on
January 22,1906, five miles east of Pachena
Point on the west coast of the Island. By
linking to the section "Tales of Hope &
Courage" a special "shipwreck newspaper"
has been created that relates how the Valencia
came to its most unfortunate demise.
Considered as one of the most tragic
maritime disasters in Vancouver Island
history, the Valencia had left San Francisco for
Seattle on January 20, 1906 with
approximately one hundred and six
passengers and sixty-five crewmembers on
board. Thick fog, sleet and wind forced the
ship to reduce its speed, thereby allowing the
ocean currents to push the ship off course and
into the rocks of Pachena Point.
By navigating over to the section
entitled "The Hazards," Pachena Point is
described as a headland located twelve
kilometres south of Bamfield and considered
to be among the most dangerous place along
this stretch of coastline. When the Valencia
went down this area was actually referred to
as Becherdass-Ambiadass after the British
ship of the same name wrecked in a nearby
cove in 1879.
In returning to the description of the
Valencia incident, we learn that for two days,
passengers and crew attempted to survive
aboard the crippled ship as it slowly broke
apart. While a few survivors did manage to
make shore, they were faced with a gruelling
hike along the West Coast Trail to the closest
lighthouse at Cape Beale.
In then linking to the section on
"Saving the Wrecks," it is revealed that the
West Coast Trail was originally built between
Port Renfrew and Bamfield precisely to assist
shipwreck victims such as those from the
Valencia. The Trail connected the three
lighthouses in the area that were, in turn,
connected to the Bamfield telegraph line
that ran to Victoria and could be used to
summon help.
Three vessels ultimately tried a rescue
effort but were rebuffed by the elements,
leading to the loss one hundred and thirty-
four people - including all women and
children. The public outcry following news
of the tragedy forced the Federal Government
to direct the Coast Guard to erect life saving
shacks along the shoreline at eight kilometre
intervals with direct access to the telegraph
line, blankets, provisions and directions.
As an interesting aside, the web site
claims that the Valencia wreck has
subsequently become associated with
paranormal activity and goes on to relate the
story of how the No. 5 Lifeboat eventually
came ashore in Barkley Sound untouched by
the storm. This arrival, however, happened
in 1933, twenty-seven years after the demise
of the Valencia! Truth or fiction? you decide...
While the majority of stories on the
web site relate to the destruction of ships,
the tale of Ripple Rock, located north of
Campbell River, is somewhat of a reversal.
After sinking and damaging one hundred
and twenty known vessels it was decided
to blow-up this rocky hazard with
explosives. After abortive efforts in 1943 and
1945, engineers finally managed to drill
underground and up beneath the rock in
1958. On April 5th of that year, 1,270 tonnes
of explosives displaced over 630,000 tonnes
of rock and water in the largest non-nuclear
explosion to that point (undoubtedly a
proud accomplishment in the year of
BC's Centennial) and the shipping hazard
was no more.
For more tales on the shipping
tragedies that have occurred off the coast of
Vancouver Island be sure to visit this web site,
and for other similar projects in the digital
domain of Canadian heritage be sure to visit
the Canadian Virtual Museum. •
Graveyards of the Pacific: Shipwrecks of
Vancouver Island: www.pacificshipwrecks.ca
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005        31 Archives and Archivists
By Val Patenaude
Edited by Sylvia Stopforth,
Librarian and Archivist, Norma Marian Alloway Library,
Trinity Western University
Interactive Community Archives
Thanks to the community archives
associated with the museum in the
District of Maple Ridge, we have
become increasingly aware of how
much of our history has involved local
groups and organizations. Some of these
groups are branches of larger Canadian and
even world-wide organizations and others
only ever existed in our town.
Much of our infrastructure owes at
least its initial existence to some dedicated
group. This includes our first libraries, halls,
health clinics and memorials. Most of these
accomplishments are recorded in local
newspapers but without a lot of detail. Only
the club records can provide information on
who the "movers & shakers" were, how the
project was funded, and even how the plan
arose in the first place. This continues to be
true as service clubs, in particular, continue
to develop and fund community assets.
Very few community organizations
have long term plans for historic recordkeeping. We were constantly hearing of losses
of records. "My mother used to be secretary
for the Such-&-Such club but when she died,
we threw all of that old stuff away without
even thinking about it." How many times
have we all heard that? Groups approaching
some important milestone - usually a 25th
or 50th year - would come to us in the midst
of a vain search for old records that no one
had thought about for years and that are, all
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r
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wy
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—
too often, nowhere
to be found.
We decided
to get "pro-active"
on the topic and
seek out
organizational
records
particularly from
groups still active in
the community. We
had already had
some success in
getting groups that
were closing down
to donate their
records, and that
continues as an
ongoing accessions
project. For still-
active organizations, however, we were
looking to develop an archival relationship
where we would become custodians of their
semi-active and inactive records with a plan
for further deposition of current and future
records. We did not plan to ask the groups to
give over ownership of the records but
instead to develop a shared stewardship
arrangement where each group had a
personalized agreement regarding matters of
access to materials for the Museum &
Archives, the club itself, and any other
interested parties.
Our first
"guinea pigs"
were the Haney
Rotary Club
who were just
approaching
their 50th year
and wanted
some help in
organizing their
records for the
writing of a
history. We were
able to order
their records in a
simple to use date-based fashion that club
members have found easy to access and we
have found easy to maintain. A side benefit
was that our computer database of all the files
in our possession pointed out several missing
years that no one had known were missing.
The quest for those records goes on.
Another benefit of this program has
been the ability to intercept and eliminate
"magnetic" photo albums before they have
a chance to completely destroy the pictures
they contain. To preserve original order, we
photocopy the original album and then
remove and store the images and their
accompanying ephemera and information in
a system that follows album and page
number. If, in future, there are club members
who wish to re-establish the albums in more
suitable materials, they will be able to do so.
Since we began with the Rotary Club,
several other large and active community
groups have also deposited their records with
us, including the 60 year old Maple Ridge
Lions. We have deliberately moved slowly
with the program as we are short of space in
our current premises but we will be building
a new building over the next few years which
will have a much expanded archival facility.
32
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005 As with all small archives, we are also
desperately short of cash and staff time.
To address this, we have also worked
out payment agreements with the clubs in
question. A cost for labour and conservation
materials for arrangement and description is
worked out in advance. Clubs with less
money and more people can work off much
of the amount in kind by providing labour
to work under the supervision of trained staff.
We have also taken other sorts of donations
such as computer equipment.
There is also an understanding that
once the new premises are complete, there
will be an ongoing storage fee for inactive
and semi-active records for which the club
retains ownership.
We are now beginning to add our local
schools to this interactive program, despite
our shortage of space, as the need is so critical.
As I suspect is the case in most school
districts, there are no system-wide archives.
Individual schools have bins and boxes of
original records and photos shoved into
lockers and under desks in most
unsatisfactory conditions. As with the clubs,
agreements are being made with each
individual school for access to materials to
allow them to borrow the materials back for
display purposes.
As we proceed, we would welcome
questions, advice and cautionary tales from
other more experienced archival institutions,
archivists and historians. Contact us at
604-463-5311 or by email at
mrmuseum@telus.net. •
P02596 Mrs. M. Pentreath [ L]- Librarian &
Mrs. Dean who took over from Mrs. Pentreath.
Picture taken inside the first library on upper
floor of original municipal hall.  Library was
operated by the Women's Institute beginning
in the 1930's with a Carnegie Grant.     1949 c
(top)
P06780 Fire Department rescue van and
inhalator as donated by the Lions Club and
parked in front of Municipal Hall when located
on 224th St.      1953-54 (left)
Miscellany
Bill Laux 1925 -2004
After issue 37/4 was published I learned of the
death of Bill Laux. Bill's article "The Swede Who
Survived Death Rapids" appeared in that issue
and was the first of a number of pieces he
discussed submitting to BC History. Our
condolences to his family (Editor)
Below is an edited version of his obituary
which appearred in local papers.
The Arrow Lakes lost another of its
World War II veterans. William Arlington
Laux, age 79, resident of Fauquier for 42 years
died of cancer in the Arrow Lakes Hospital
on October 7, 2004. Born in La Crosse,
Wisconsin, on February 28,1925. He joined
the US Army in 1943 and served with Allied
troops in France and northern Germany. After
the war Bill studied English at university, but
chose not to be an academic. Instead he
worked outdoors, first with the Forest
Service, then the California Park Service and
finally as grounds superintendent at
Yosemite National Park. While at Yosemite
he met and married his wife, Adele. They
immigrated to Canada in late 1962.
In the early 1980s Bill started a new
career as historian searching out the stories
and locations of the early mines and
railways of the West Kootenays and eastern
Washington state. He published many
magazine articles, though his books are
unpublished. Bill is known for his
endeavours as an artist, a writer, a builder
of buildings made of mud-cement bricks, a
small hydroelectric plant operator, as well
as an exotic evergreen tree nurseryman.
BC Electric Historian Wins
Henry Ewert has been awarded the
Canadian Railway Historical Association's
Lifetime Acheivement Award for 2003.
Henry received notice of the award from
Daniel Laurendeau, awards committee
chair, in a Novemebr 2004 letter which cited
Henry's excellent contribution in "recording
and sharing Canadian railway history, and
your tremendous commitment and energy
to document and publicize the importance
of B.C. Electric heritage."
Our congratulations to Henry Ewert
on a well deserved award.
The Okanagan Historical
Society Hosts the BCHF in 2005
The Okanagan Historical Society had
its inception in Vernon, B. C. on September
4 1925. Its first President was Leonard
Norris. Initially, it was known as the
Okanagan Historical and Natural History
Society- later shortened to the Okanagan
Historical Society
Its tenets are: To stimulate active
interest in our heritage, more particularly
its historical and archaeological aspects; To
promote the preservation of historical sites,
monuments, buildings, pictures, writings
and names; From time to time and as
circumstances permit, to accurately record
and publish the current and past history of
the Okanagan, Similkameen and Shuswap
areas anc other matters of significant interest
to the Society; To co-operate with the
museum boards and educational
institutions.
In carrying out these tenets, the First
Report of the Society was published on
September 10,1926. It contained thirty-five
pages. This year (2004) the Society published
its 68th Report, containing two hundred and
forty pages. The OHS lays claim to be the
longest continually publishing historical
society in B.C.
It is comprised of seven branches:
Salmon Arm, Armstrong-Enderby, Vernon,
Kelowna, Penticton, Oliver-Osoyoos,
Similkameen. Each branch has its own slate
of officers and carries out local programmes.
Heading the society is an Executive Council,
comprising a President, Vice-President,
Secretary, Treasurer, Report Editor, Branch
Presidents and two Directors from each
branch. This Executive Council meets three
times a year, February, July and October in
Kelowna with an AGM in April. The latter
meeting is held in each branch locale in turn.
In 2005, Kelowna is the host site.
Also, in 2005, as the City of Kelowna
celebrates its 100th birthday, the Kelowna
Branch looks forward to hosting the AGM
of the B.C. Historical Federation. •
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005        33 Alberni District Historical
Society Celebrates 40 Years of
Service
This is a time of celebration for the
Alberni District Historical Society. We are
having a Milestone Birthday!
On March 31st 1965 a meeting was
called to see if there was enough interest in
the Twin Cities of Alberni and Port Alberni
to form a Historical Society. Twenty eight
people turned up. The interest was there,
and the desire to preserve the written
photographed and artifactual history of the
area began. Individuals had been storing
things of interest to them but this was the
first time that a plan was put forward that
would involve the whole community.
Ketha Adams and Helen Ford were
the two who got it started but the support
of both Mayors and members of the First
Nations, pioneer families and businesses
made it a reality. Many meetings followed.
Archie Key, the first Field Representative for
National Museums, heard about the plan
and contacted Ketha. On April 6th he came
and spoke to an enthusiastic group about
the importance of Community Archives and
Museums. He told them about the 364 in
existence across Canada and how important
they were in preserving our history.
Mr. Key was followed by Provincial
Archivist, Willard Ireland, who not only
supported what he had to say, but offered
help in the organizing. "The history of a
community is an economic asset. It can be
used, and is for sale," he told the group.
On May 19th, 1965, in Alberni City
Hall, the first election of officers was held.
There were 19 people present. Ketha Adams
was elected the first President. The official
name, The Alberni District Museum and
Historical Society was chosen. MacMillan,
Bloedel and Powel River Co. gave a grant
of $100.00 to cover the initial expenses of
starting up the organization. Mayor Bishop
of Alberni offered space at the City Hall as a
temporary headquarters.
In November of 1966, the Federal
Government granted permission for the
society to use the basement of the Alberni
Post Office as a temporary museum. This
was the beginning of the weekly gatherings
of volunteers to collect paper treasures and
record the artifacts donated by the
community.
1971 brought a move to the old Army
Camp fire hall. It was not the ideal place by
a long shot. But it did mean more room,
which was much needed.
In 1972 the artifacts moved to their
new home. As the city's provincial
centennial project, an extension was added
to Echo Centre to house the public library
and a small museum. The archival part of
the society remained at the old fire hall.
As the collection grew, it became
obvious that something had to be done.
Fortunately the city decided to use some of
its capital development money to expand the
museum. Matching grants were obtained
from the federal and provincial
governments. It was decided to put all of the
historical items and the people who worked
on them into the new, climate controlled, fire
protected area.
On March 25th, 1983 we moved in.
The museum, on behalf of the city, was to
be totally responsible for the photographs
and artifacts. The society would be
responsible for the "paper treasures."
To reflect its new role the society
changed its name to The Alberni District
Historical Society. However it continues to
work closely with the Alberni Valley
Museum staff.
This gives you an idea of the space
the ADHS fills. It does nothing to help you
understand the dedication of the society to
its goal of preserving our story as accurately
as is possible. It tells you nothing about the
hours of selfless dedication of the volunteers
gathering that story. When we began, there
was no such thing as a photo-copier. Helen
Ford, Dorrit McLeod and many others spent
hours, days, weeks, hand writing records
held at the Provincial Archives in Victoria,
so that we could have the information here
when researchers came looking for it. Now
modern technology means more stuff that
is much easier to access. Thanks to the
Provincial Archives, the AABC and others,
we have a well trained team, all volunteers,
keeping things running smoothly in our
archives. Not only can we file things so they
can be found again, we can clean, repair,
communicate via computer, and run the
"office" efficiently. We have worked with
archives from around the world and been
able to help individual researchers in person
or via letter, phone or email from many far
away spots.
Over the years, a number of books
have been written and published.
Newsletters and brochures keep the local
community aware. So do radio and TV spots
and newspaper articles. We even have a
page on the local radio station web site
www.avl240.com.
We have hosted conferences and
workshops and look forward to doing so
again. As part of the BC Heritage
Community we enjoy the advice and
participation with other archives and
museums. Being caretakers of history is
quite a responsibility but also what a joy!
Always remember, it is the PEOPLE who
make it work. Without the dedication and
enthusiasm of our volunteer archivists, there
could not be the smooth running archives
that so many people have enjoyed accessing
successfully over the years.
We are proud of our accomplishments
and look forward to celebrating them this
spring with a series of special meetings and
guest speakers.
For further information contact the
archives any Tuesday or Thursday from 10
to 3 by phone:l-250-723-2181 local 267, or
emailadhs@uniserve.com. or snail mail:
Alberni District Historical Society,
Box 284, Port Alberni, BC, V9Y 7M7
Valentine Hughes
Director in Charge of Publicity
Alberni District Historical Society
34
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005 What's in a Name
Captain Courtenay and Vancouver Island Exploration
The Missing
Footnotes
In issue 37/4 of the BC Historical
News we published an excellent
article by Allan Pritchard of
Victoria examining Captain
Courtenay's exploration on
Vancouver Island. Somehow in
the final preparation of the
article we lost the footnotes!
How they were lost is still a
mystery, probably a computer
glitch somewhere.
But as you can see the notes are
extensive and help illuminate the
article. Our apologies to Allan.
Here are the page and column
numbers for each of the notes.
p.3, col.1.
p.3 col.2,
p.4, col.1.
p.4, col.2.
p.5, col.1.
p.5, col.2.
p.6, col.1.
p.6, col.2.
p.7, col.1.
p.7, col.2.
notes 1-3;
notes 4-6;
notes 7-9;
notes 10-12;
notes 13-14;
notes 15-19;
notes20-23;
notes 24-27;
notes 28-29;
notes 30-32.
On the top of page 7, column 2
two rivers were misspelt. They
are Tzo-o-ome and Punt-luch
1 Danda Humphreys points out
that the Victoria street, although
misspelled 'Courtney' was
evidently intended to honour
Captain Courtenay, in "The Sailor
and the Solicitor," Times
Colonist, 30 July, 2000, Islander,
3. Vancouver also has a
Courtenay Street.
2 British Columbia Encyclopedia,
ed. Daniel Francis (Madeira Park:
Harbour, 2000), 151. M.A.
Ormsby, Introduction, Fort
Victoria Letters 1846-51, ed. H.
Bowsfield (Winnipeg: Hudson's
Bay Record Society, 1979), xxxix.
3 For Courtenay's life and career,
see William O'Byrne, O'Byrne's
Naval Biography, second edition
(London: O'Byrne Brothers,
1861), I, 244; and William L.
Clowes, The Royal Navy: A
History (London: Sampson Low 6
Marston, 1897-1903), VI, 549.
Courtenay's replies to O'Bryne's
biographical enquiries are
preserved in British Library Add.
MS 38, 041, vol.3, fols. 463-64.
4 J.T. Walbran, British Columbia
Place Names 1592-1906 (1909,
reprinted Vancouver: Douglas 6
Mclntyre, 1971), 106,115-16.
5 Admiral P.W. Brock outlines the
history of HMS Constance in his
series of "Ships' Dossiers,"
British Columbia Archives
(hereafter BCA), Add. MS 265.
6 The logbook of HMS Constance
for the relevant period is
preserved among the Admiralty
records in the British Public
Record Office, Kew, London
(hereafter PRO), ADM 53/2336.
7 Courtenay to Rear Admiral
Phipps Hornby, 15 Nov., 1848,
PRO, ADM 1/5589.
8 Douglas to Courtenay, 10 Oct.,
1848, Hudson's Bay Company
Archives, Manitoba Provincial
Archives (hereafter HBCA),
B.223/b/37, fol. 40.
9 PRO, ADM 53/2336. Finlayson's
reminiscences, Biography of
Roderick Finlayson, quoted in
F.V. Longstaff and W.K.Lamb,
"The Royal Navy on the
Northwest Coast, 1813-50,"
British Columbia Historical
Quarterly, 9 (1945), 124.
Sketches by Lieut. J.T. Haverfield
of this demonstration are
reproduced by Barry Gough in
Gunboat Frontier: British
Maritime Authority and
Northwest Coast Indians, 1846-90
(Vancouver: UBC Press, 1984),
following p. 46.
10 Paul's Remarks Book, pp. 8,
13, Hydrographic Department,
Ministry of Defence, Navy,
Taunton, Somerset, England.
11 Courtenay to Hornby, 15 Nov.,
1848, PRO, ADM 1/5589.
12 Paul's Remarks Book, p. 10,
Hydrographic Department,
Taunton. Courtenay to Hornby, 15
Nov., 1848, PRO, ADM 1/5589.
13 Ormsby, Introduction, Fort
Victoria Letters, xxxix. G.P.V. and
Helen Akrigg provide a more
accurate account in British
Columbia Chronicle 1847-1871
(Vancouver: Discovery Press,
1977), 16-17. In addition to the
log of the Constance, see
Courtenay's report to Hornby, 15
Nov., 1848, PRO, ADM 1/5589.
14 Courtenay included Finlayson's
responses to his enquiries in his
lengthy report to Admiral Hornby,
15 Nov., 1848, PRO, ADM 1/5589.
15 Ibid
16 Ormsby, Introduction, Fort
Victoria Letters, xvii-xviii.
Richard Mackie, Trading Beyond
the Mountains: The British Fur
Trade on the Pacific, 1793-1843
(Vancouver: UBC Press, 1997),
280-81.
17 Confusion may sometimes
arise from earlier references to
the Comox village that existed
until the 1840s at Cape Mudge,
north of the present Comox
district. I leave aside Samuel
Bawlf's theory that Drake may
have visited Comox in 1579, set
out in Sir Francis Drake's Secret
Voyage to the Northwest Coast of
America (2001) and The Secret
Voyage of Sir Francis Drake
(2003).
18 Walbran (pp. 302-03) and
others have offered fanciful
explanations for Narvaez's Laso
de la Vega and a second name
near it on his charts, Lerena, but
Henry Wagner was no doubt
correct in stating that they both
commemorate Spanish officials,
the former probably a naval
officer and the latter a minister
of the royal government: The
Cartography of the Northwest
Coast of America to the Year 1800
(Berkeley: University of California
Press, 1937), II, 467.
19 Douglas, "Report of a Canoe
Expedition along the East Coast of
Vancouver Island," Journal of the
Royal Geographical Society, 24
(1854), 245.
20 McLoughlin to Governor Etc., 6
Oct., 1825, McLoughlin's Fort
Vancouver Letters, First Series,
1825-38, ed. E.E. Rich (Toronto:
Champlain Society, 1941), 3-4.
21 The Fort Langley Journals
1827-30, ed. Morag Maclachlan
(Vancouver: UBC Press, 1998), 42-
43, 45, 247n.
22 Douglas to Simpson, 18 March,
1838, McLoughlin's Fort
Vancouver Letters, First Series,
286. Simpson, Narrative of a
Journey Round the World
(London: Henry Colburn, 1847), I,
184. McNeill had no doubt
observed the rocks exposed at low
tide on the Vancouver Island coast.
23 McKay to Douglas, 10 Sept. and
22 Oct., 1852, in F.W. Howay's
transcript, Nanaimo
Correspondence, BCA, A/C/20.1/
N15.
24 A.F. Buckham's transcript of
Douglas' diary, Private Papers,
BCA, Add. MS 436, vol. 86 Otter
log, 23-24 Aug., 1853, HBCA, C.1/
625.
25 John Moresby, Two Admirals:
Sir Fairfax Moresby, John Moresby
(London: Methuen, 1913), 107.
26 Logs of Cormorant, PRO, ADM
53/2210; Driver, ADM 53/3837;
and Virago, ADM 53/4741. Inskip,
Journal or Private Remark Book,
BCA, Add. MS 805.
27 Prevost to Fairfax Moresby, 7
June, 1853, BCA, GR 1309,
microfilm B2645.
28 Francis M. Norman, 'Martello
Tower' in China and the Pacific
in HMS 'Tribune' 1856-60
(London: George Allen, 1902),
283-84. Log of Tribune, PRO,
ADM 53/6562.
29 Logs of Plumper, PRO, ADM
53/6856 & 6857. This early
renaming of Denman Island is
unexpected, since Joseph
Denman did not arrive on the
Pacific Station as commander-in-
chief until 1864, but he already
held a prominent position as
captain of the royal yacht and
aide-de-camp to Queen Victoria.
30 Mayne, Journal, BCA, E/B/M
45 Et M 45A, and report to
Richards, 19 April, 1860, BCA, F
1217. My transcript of much of
Mayne's report is printed in D.E.
Isenor, W.N. Mclnnis, E.G.
Stephens, and D.E. Watson, Land
of Plenty: A History of the
Comox District (Campbell River:
Ptarmigan Press, 1987), 57. This
volume also includes, on p. 17,
Mayne's account of his Comox
exploration from his book, Four
Years in British Columbia and
Vancouver Island (1862).
31 Survey D4711 (1859), sheet
52, Port Augusta and Part of
Baynes Sound, Hydrographic
Department, Taunton.
32 Log of Grappler, PRO, ADM
53/8158.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005
35 British Columbia Historical News INDEX
From Volume 37:1 (winter 2003 to Volume 37:4 (winter 2004)
Compiled by Melva Dwyer
1 an article with illustrations
AUTHORS
ALLOWAY, NORMA MARION. Archives &
Archivists: Northern BC Archives Expands
its Facility. 37:3 (summer 2004): 33."
BLAND, RICHARD L. and ANN G. SIMONDS,
notes and introduction. Philipp Jacobsen
in British Columbia. 37:2 (spring 2004):
20-27.*
BRINK, VC B.C. 's First Rangeland Research
Station. 37:2 (spring 2004): 4-5."
CANTWELL, MARGARET, S.S.A. Archives &
Archivists: Sisters of Saint Ann Archives,
Victoria. 37:1 (winter 2003): 31.
CATHRO, ROBERT J. Lord Minto's 1904
Farewell Tour . 37:1 (winter 2003): 2-5.*
COTTON, BARRY. In Search of David
Thompson: A Study in Bibliography. 37:4
(winter 2004): 23-27.*
CROCKER, LIZ. "You Will Make no Mistake in
Coming to Roesland." 37:2 (spring 2004): 2-3.*
DAMER, ENID. Isaac Brock McQueen of
Kamloops, Gold Seeker and Overlander,
Helped Lay the Foundation of Today's
Modern City. 37:1 (winter 2003): 8-11.*
FOX, TOM. Up Coast Adventures. 37:3
(summer 2004): 2-7.*
GARRISH, CHRISTOPHER. Web Site Forays: The
University of Victoria History Department.
37:1 (winter 2003): 30.r
—, . Historical Web Site Competition.
37:3 (summer 2004): 32.
—, —. —: viHistory.ca. 37:2 (spring
2004): 36.
—, —. —: Casting Your Vote. 37:4
(winter 2004): 37.
GREENE, RONALD. Token History: A, G.
Carlson, Dairyman of Revelstoke, B.C. 37:1
(winter 2003): 22-23.*
—, —. : Bread, the Staff of Life or the
Tale of Two Related Bakeries. 37:4 (winter
2004):28-29.*
—, —. —: McKnnon Bros, of Revelstoke.
37:2 (spring 2004): 28-29.*
—, —. —. R.W. Holliday, Salmon Arm's
Civic-Minded Dairyman. 37:3 (summer
2004): 23-24.*
HARVEY. R.G. The Crows Nest Railway. 37:3
(summer 2004): 17-22.*
HOPWOOD, VIC. Sea Otter Fur Trade from
Before the Mast. 37:1 (winter 2003): 12-17.*
LAUX, BILL. The Swede Who Beat Death
Rapids. 37:4 (winter 2004): 8-11.*
MILLER, NAOMI. Gerry Andrews , One Hundred
Years Young. 37:1 (winter 2003): 32.*
—, —. Hugh Watt: Physician & Politician.
37:1 (winter 2003): 18-21.*
NOEL. JOCELYN. Summer of Historical
Coincidence: A Tale of Two Men. 37:2
(spring 2004): 6.*
OVEREND, HOWARD. The Public Library
Commission: Its Finest Hour. 37:2 (spring
2004): 14-19.*
PALMER,ROD N. Feast & Famine: Salmon and
the Fur Trade in New Caledonia. 37:4
(winter 2004): 12-16.*
PEDERSEN, ROMA. Archives & Archivists: A
"S.O.L.I.D." Collection. 37:4 (winter
2004): 38.
PRITCHARD, ALLAN. What is in a Name?
Captain Courtenay & Vancouver Island
Exploration. 37:4 (winter 2004): 3-7.*
ROGERS, A.C. (FRED). Stanford Corey First to
Discover Pitt Lake Glacier. 37:1 (winter
2003): 6-7.*
SIMPSON, MILDRED. Memories of Yale, Victoria
and Union Bay. 37:3 (summer 2004): 8-16.*
TARVES, RON. A Brief History of How It All
Began: British Columbia Farm Machinery
and Agricultural Museum Association. 37:2
(spring 2004): 7-8.*
TWIGG, ALAN. John Ledyard: An Exclusive
Extract from the New Book First Invaders.
37:4 (winter 2004): 21-22.
WATSON, BRUCE. Scots on the Coast Before
Alexander MacKenzie. 37:4 (winter
2004): 17-20.
WELWOOD, FRANCES J. The Creators of
Canford. 37:2 (spring 2004): 9-13.*
WODARCZAK, ERWIN. Archives & Archivists:
The Archives Association of British Columbia.
37:2 (spring 2004): 37.
YANDLE, ANN. British Columbia Historical
News: A Short History 37:4 (winter 2004): 2.*
TITLES
Archives & Archivists: Sisters of Saint Ann
Archives, Victoria by Margaret Cantwell
S.S.A. 37:1 (2003): 31.
—: The Archives Association of British
Columbia by Erwin Wodarczak. 37:2 (spring
2004): 37.
—: Northern BC Archives Expands its
Facilities by Norma Marion Alloway. 37:3
(summer 2004): 33.*
—: A "S.O.L.I.D." Collection by Roma
Pedersen. 37:4 (winter 2004): 38.
B.C's First Rangeland Research Station by VC
Brink. 37:2 (spring 2004): 4-5.*
A Brief Historry of How It All Began: British
Columbia Farm Machinery and Agricultural
Museum Association by Ron Tarves. 37:2
(spring 2004): 7-8.*
British Columbia Historical News: A Short
History by Ann Yandle. 37:4 (winter 2004): 2.*
The Creators of Canford by Frances J.
Welwood. 37:2 (spring 2004): 9-13.*
The Crows Nest Railway by R.G. Harvey. 37:3
(summer 2004): 17-22.*
Feast & Famine: Salmon and the Fur Trade in
New Caledonia by Rod N. Palmer. 37:4
(winter 2004): 12-16.*
Gerry Andrews, One Hundred Years Young by
Naomi Miller. 37:1 (winter 2003): 32.*
Hugh Watt: Physician & Politician by Naomi
Miller. 37:1 (winter 2003): 18-21.*
In Search of David Thompson: A Study in
Bibliography by Barry Cotton. 37:4 (winter
2004): 23-27.*
Isaac Brock McQueen of Kamloops: Gold Seeker
and Overlander, Helped Lay the Foundation
of Today's Modern City by Enid Damer. 37:1
(winter 2003): 8-11.*
John Ledyard: An Exclusive Extract from the
New Book First Invaders by Alan Twigg. 37:4
(winter 2004): 21-22.
Lord Minto's 1904 Farewwell Tour by Robert J.
Cathro. 37:1 (winter 2003): 2-5.*
Memories of Yale, Victoria and Union Bay by
Mildred Simpson. 37:3 (summer 2004): 8-16.*
Philipp Jacobsen in British Columbia, notes
and introduction by Richard L. Bland and
Ann G. Simonds. 37:2 (spring 2004): 20-27.*
The Public Library Commission: Its Finest
Hour by Howard Overend. 37:2 (spring 2004):
14-19.*
Scots on the Coast Before Alexander
MacKenzie by Bruce Watson. 37:4 (winter
2004): 17-20.
Sea Otter Fur Trade from Before the Mast by
Vic Hopwood. 37:1 (winter 2003): 12-17.*
Stanford Corey, First to Discover Pitt Lake
Glacier by A.C. (Fred) Rogers. 37:1 (winter
2003): 6-7.*
Summer of Historical Coincidence: A Tale of
Two Men by Jocelyn Noel. 37:2 (spring
2004): 6.*
The Swede Who Beat Death Rapids by Bill
Laux. 37:4 (winter 2004): 8-11.*
Token History: A.G.Carlson, Dairyman of
Revelstoke, B.C. by Ronald Greene. 37:1
(winter 2003): 22-23.*
—: Bread, the Staff of Life or a Tale of Two
Related Bakeries by Ronald Greene. 37:4
(winter 2004): 28-29.*
—-.McKinnon Bros, of Revelstoke by Ronald
Greene. 37:2 (spring 2004): 26-29.*
—. R.W. Holliday, Salmon Arm's Civic-Minded
Dairyman by Ronald Greene. 37:3 (summer
2004): 22-23.*
Up Coast Adventures by Tom Fox. 37:3
(summer 2004): 2-7.*
Web Site Forays: The University of Victoria
History Department by Christopher Garrish.
37:1 winter 2003): 30.
—: Historical Web Site Competition by
Christopher Garrish. 37:3 (summer 2004): 32.
—: viHistory.ca by Christopher Garrish. 37:2
(spring 2004): 36.
—: Casting Your Vote by Christopher Garrish.
37:4 (winter 2004): 37.
What Is in a Name? Captain Courtenay &
Vancouver Island Exploration by Allan
Pritchard. 37:4 (winter 2004): 3-7.*
"You Will Make no Mistake in Coming to
Roesland" by Liz Crocker. 37:2 (spring
2004): 2-3.*
36 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005 SUBJECTS
ABRAHAMSON, ANDREW
Laux, Bill. The Swede Who Beat Death
Rapids. 37:4 (winrer 2004): 7-11.*
AGRICULTURE
Brink, VC. B.C's First Rangeland Research
Station. 37:2 (spring 2004): 4-5.*
Tarves, Ron. A Brief History of How It All
Began: British Columbia Farm Machinery
and Agricultural Museum Association. 37:2
(spring 2004): 7-8.*
ALERT BAY
Fox, Tom. Up Coast Adventures. 37:3
(summer 2004): 2-7.*
ANDREWS, GERALD S.
Miller, Naomi. Gerry Andrews, One Hundred
Years Young. 37:1 (winter 2003): 32.*
ANNUAL REPORTS
Member Society Reports to the British
Columbia Historical Federation 2004 Annual
General Meeting. 37:3 (summer 2004): 34-40.
ARCHIVES ASSOCIATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Wodarczak, Erwin. Archives & Archivists:
The Archives Association of British
Columbia. 37:2 (spring 2004): 37.
ARCHIVES & ARCHIVISTS
Cantwell, Margaret, S.S.A. Sisters of Saint
Ann Archives, Victoria. 37:1 (winter 2003): 31.
Pedersen, Roma. A "S.O.L.I.D." Collection.
37:4 (winter 2004): 38.*
Wodarczak, Erwin. The Archives Association
of British Columbia 37:2 (spring 2004): 37.
BABINE LAKE
Palmer, Rod N. Feast & Famine: Salmon
and the Fur Trade in New Caledonia. 37:4
(winter 2004): 12-16.*
BAKERIES
Greene, Ronald. Token History: Bread, the
Staff of Life or a Tale of Two Related
Bakeries. 37:4 (winter 2004): 28-29.*
BARKERVILLE
Miller, Naomi. Hugh Watt: Physician &
Politician. 37:1 (winter 2003): 18-21.*
BIBLIOGRAPHIES
Cotton, Barry. In Search of David Thompson:
A Study in Bibliography. 37:4 (winter
2004): 23-27.*
THE BIG BEND
Laux, Bill. The Swede Who Beat Death
Rapids. 37:4 (winter 2004): 8-11.*
BRINK, BERT
Brink, VC. B.C's First Rangeland Research
Station. 37:2 (spring 2004): 4-5.*
BRITISH COLUMBIA - DESCRIPTION AND TRAVEL
Bland, Richard L. and Ann G. Simonds,notes
and introdduction. Philipp Jacobsen in
British Columbia. 37:2 (spring 2004): 20-27.*
BRITISH COLUMBIA CITIZEN'S ASSEMBLY
Garrish, Christopher. Web Site Forays:
Casting Your Vote. 37:4 (winter 2004): 37.
BRITISH COLUMBIA FARM MACHINERY AND
AGRICULTURAL MUSEUM ASSOCIATION
Tarves, Ron. A Brief History of How It All
Began: British Columbia Farm Machinery
andAgricultural Museum Association.
37:2 (spring 2004): 7-8.*
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL NEWS
Yandle, Ann. British Columbia Historical
News: A Short History. 37:4 (winter 2004): 2*
BRITISH COLUMBIA PUBLIC LIBRARY COMMISSION
Overend, Howard. The Public Library
Commission: Its Finest Hour. 37:2 (spring
2004): 14-19.*
BROWN, FRED
Simpson, Mildred. Memories of Yale, Victoria
and Union Bay. 37:3 (summer 2004): 8-16*
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
Greene, Ronald. Token History: McKinnon Bros,
of Revelstoke. 37:2 (spring 2004): 28-29.*
Harvey, R.G. The Crows Nest Railway. 37:3
(summer 2004): 17-22.*
Welwood, Frances J. The Creators of
Canford. 37:2 (spring 2004): 9-13.*
CANFORD
Welwood, Frances J. The Creators of
Canford. 37:2 (spring 2004): 9-13.*
THE CARIBOO
Miller, Naomi. Hugh Watt: Physician &
Politician. 37:1 (winter 2003): 18-21.*
CARLSON, ANDREW GUSTAV
Greene, Ronald. Token History:
A.G.Carlson, Dairyman of Revelstoke, B.C.
37:1 (winter 2003): 22-23.*
CARNEGIE, DOUG
Welwood, Frances J. The Creators of
Canford. 37:2 (spring 2004): 9-13.*
COAL MINING
Pritchard, Allan. What Is in a Name? Captain
Courtenay & Vancouver Island
Exploration. 37:4 (winter 2004): 3-7.*
COLEMAN, R.Q.
Tarves, Ron. A Brief History of How It All
Began: British Columbia Farm Machinery
and Agricultural Museum Association. 37:2
(spring 2004): 7-8.*
COLUMBIA RIVER
Laux, Bill. The Swede Who Beat Death
Rapids. 37:4 (winter 2004): 7-11.*
COMOX
Pritchard, Allan. What Is in a Name?
Captain Courtenay & Vancouver Island
Exploration. 37:4 (winter 2004): 3-7.*
COMPETITIONS
BCHF Writing Competition Winners 2004.
37:3 (summer 2004): 34.
Garrish, Christopher. Web Site Forays:
Historical Web Site Competition. 37:3
(summer 2004): 32.
COREY, STANFORD
Rogers, A.C. (Fred). Stanford Corey, First
to Discover Pitt Lake Glacier. 37:1 (winter
2003): 6-7.*
COURTENAY, GEORGE WILLIAM
Pritchard, Allan. What Is in a Name?
Captain Courtenay & Vancouver Island
Exploration. 37:4 (winter 2004): 3-7.*
CROWS NEST RAILWAY
Harvey, R.G. The Crows Nest Railway. 37:3
(summer 2004): 17-22.*
DAIRIES
Greene, Ronald. Token History: A.G.
Carlson, Dairyman of Revelstoke, B.C. 37:1
(winter 2003): 22-23.*
—, —. —McKinnon Bros, of Revelstoke.
37:2 (spring 2004): 28-29.*
—, —. —: R.W. Holliday, Salmon Arm's
Civic-Minded Dairyman. 37:3 (summer
2004): 22-23.
DAVIDSON, DAVID
Crocker, Liz. "You Will Make no Mistake in
Coming to Roesland." 37:2 (spring 2004): 2-3.*
DOCTORS
Miller, Naomi. Hugh Watt: Physician &
Politician. 37:1 (winter 2003): 18-21.*
DOUGLAS, JAMES
Pritchard, Allan. What Is in a Name?
Captain Courtenay & Vancouver Island
Exploration. 37:4 (winter 2004): 3-7.*
EDITORIALS
Atkin, John. 37:1 (winter 2003): 1; 37:2
(spring 2004): 1; 37:3 (summer 2004): 1;
37:4 (winter 2004):1.
ENTREPRENEURS
Greene, Ronald. Token History: McKinnon Bros,
of Revelstoke. 37:2 (spring 2004): 28-29.*
—, —. —: R.W. Holliday, Salmon Arm's
Civic-Minded Dairyman. 27:3 (summer
2004): 23-24.*
EVANS, THOMAS G.
Greene,. Ronald. Token History: Bread,
the Staff of Life or a Tale of Two Related
Bakeries. 37:4 (winter 2004): 28-29.*
EXPLORATION
Pritchard, Allan. What Is In a Name?
Captain Courtenay & Vancouver Island
Exploration. 37:4 (winter 2004): 3-7.*
Watson, Bruce. Scots on the Coast Before
Alexander MacKenzie. 37:4 (winter 2004):
17-20.
FAMILY HISTORY
Simpson, Mildred. Memories of Yale, Victoria
and Union Bay. 37:3 (summer 2004): 8-16.*
FARWELL see REVELSTOKE
FIRST INVADERS
Twigg, Alan. John Ledyard: An Exclusive
Extract from the New Book First Invaders.
37:4 (winter 2004): 21-22.
FIRST NATIONS PEOPLE
Bland, Richard L. and Ann G. Simonds,
notes and introduction. Philipp Jacobsen in
British Columbia. 37:2 (spring 2004): 20-27.*
Palmer, Rod N. Feast & Famine: Salmon and
the Fur Trade in New Caledonia. 37:4
(winter 2004): 12-16.*
FORT LANGLEY
Tarves, Ron. A Brief History of How It All
Began: British Columbia Farm Machinery
and Agriccultural Association. 37:2 (spring
2004): 7-8.*
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005        37 FORT STEELE
Miller, Naomi. Hugh Watt: Physician &
Politician. 37:1 (wiunter 2003): 18-21.*
FRASER RIVER SYSTEM
Palmer, Rod N. Feast & Famine: Salmon
and the Fur Trade in New Caledonia. 37:4
(winter 2004): 12-16.*
FUR TRADE
Palmer, Rod N. Feast & Famine: Salmon
and the Fur Trade in New Caledonia. 37:4
(winter 2004): 12-16.*
GLACIERS
Rogers, A.C. (Fred). Stanford Corey, First to
Discover Pitt Lake Glacier. 37:1 (winter
2003): 6-7.*
GOLD RUSH
Damer, Enid. Isaac Brock McQueen of
Kamloops: Gold Seeker and Overlander,
Helped Lay the Foundation of Today's
Modern City 37:1 (winter 2003): 8-11.*
Laux, Bill The Swede Who Beat Death
Rapids. 37:4 (winter 2004): 7-11.*
GOVERNOR GENERALS OF CANADA
Cathro, Robert J. Lord Minto's 1904
Farewell Tour. 37:1 (winter 2003): 2-5.*
GRASSLANDS
Brink, VC. B.C's First Rangeland Research
Station. 37:2 (spring 2004): 4-5.*
GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY
Harvey, R.G. The Crows Nest Railway. 37:3
(summer 2004):17-22.*
GUEST, CHARLES
Welwood, Frances J. The Creators of
Canford. 37:2 (spring 2004): 9-13.*
HMS CONSTANCE
Pritchard, Allan. What Is in a Name?
Captain Courtenay & Vancouver Island
Exploration. 37:4 (winter 2004): 3-7.*
HMS. GRAFTON
Cathro, Robert. Lord Minto's 1904 Farewell
Tour. 37:1 (winter 2003): 2-5.*
HANBURY, DAVID W.
Greene, Ronald. Token History: Bread, the
Staff of Life or a Tale of Two Related
Bakeries.37:4 (winter 2004): 28-29.*
HARDIMAN, THEOPHILUS RICHARD
Welwood, Frances J. The Creators of
Canford. 37:2 (spring 2004): 9-13.*
HOLLIDAY, R.W.
Greene, Ronald. Token History: R. W.
Holliday, Salmon Arm's Civic-Minded
Dairyman.37:3 (summer 2004): 23-24.*
HOSPITALS
Miller, Naomi. Hugh Watt: Physician &
Politician. 37:1 (winter 2003): 18-21.*
HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY
Damer, Enid. Isaac Brock McQueen of
Kamloops: Gold Seeker and Overlander,
Helped Lay the Foundation of Today's
Modern City. 37:1 (winter 2003): 8-11.*
Laux, Bill. The Swede Who Beat Death
Rapids. 37:4 (winter 2004): 7-11.*
Palmer, Rod N. Feast & Famine: Salmon
and the Fur Trade in New Caledonia. 37:4
(winter 2004): 12-16.*
Pritchard, Allan. What Is in a Name?
Captain Courrtenay & Vancouver Island
Exploration. 37:4 (winter 2004): 3-7.*
ILLUSTRATIONS, COVER
A.G. Carlson on Last Day of Operating His
Dairy, Revelstoke. 37:1 (winter 2003); Dr.
Bert Brink with a Sheaf of Natural Grass
from a Field in the Southern Interior. 37:2
(spring 2004);
Detail of CPR ship Princess Victoria. 37:3
(summer 2004);
HMS Constance in Esquimalt Harbour, 1848.
37:4 (winter 2004).
INDEX
37:1 (winter 2003): 36-39.
INSERTS
British Columbia Historical Federation
Newsletter, April 6, 2004. 37:2 (spring 2004);
no.7, June 2004, 37:3 (summer 2004); no.9,
October 2004, 37:4 (winter 2004).
INSIDE PASSAGE
Fox, Tom. Up Coast Adventures. 37:3
(summer 2004): 2-7.*
JACOBSEN, PHILIPP
Bland, Richard L. and Ann G. Simonds, notes
and introduction. Philipp Jacobsen in
British Columbia. 37:2 (spring 2004): 20-27.*
JEWITT, JOHN R.
Hopwood, Vic. Sea Otter Fur Trade from
Before the Mast. 37:1 (winter 2003): 12-17.*
KAMLOOPS
Brink, VC. B.C's First Rangeland Research
Station. 37:2 (spring 2004): 4-5.*
Damer, Enid. Isaac Brock McQueen of
Kamloops: Gold Seeker and Overlander,
Helped Lay the Foundation of Today's
Modern City. 37:1 (winter 2003): 8-11.*
KOOTENAY AREA
Harvey, R.G. The Crows Nest Railway. 37:3
(summer 2004): 17-22.*
LEDYARD, JOHN
Twigg, Alan. John Ledyard: An Exclusive
Extract from the New Book First Invaders.
37:4 (winter 2004): 21-22.
LIBRARIES, PUBLIC
Overend, Howard. The Public Library
Commission: Its Finest Hour. 37:2 (spring
2004): 14-19.*
LORD MELGUND see MINTO, GILBERT JOHN	
MacKENZIE, ALEXANDER
Watson, Bruce. Scots on the Coast Before
Alexander MacKenzie. 37:4 (winter 2004): 17-20.
McKINNON, HECTOR, JOE AND LEO
Greene, Ronald. Token History: McKinnon
Bros, of Revelstoke.37:2 (spring 2004): 28-29.*
McQUEEN, ISAAC BROCK
Damer, Enid. Isaac Brock McQueen of
Kamloops: Gold Seeker and Overlander,
Helped Lay the Foundation of Today's
Modern City. 37:1 (winter 2003): 8-11.*
MARITIME FUR TRADE
Hopwood, Vic. Sea Otter Fur Trade from
Before the Mast. 37:1 (winter 2003): 12-17.*
MINING INDUSTRY
Harvey, R.G. The Crows Nest Railway. 37:3
(summer 2004): 17-22.*
MINTO. GILBERT JOHN MURRAY KYNYNMOND
ELLIOT, 4TH EARL
Cathro, Robert. Lord Minto's 1904 Farewell
Tour. 37:1 ( winter 2003): 2-5.*
MISCELLANY
37:1 (winter 2003): 33-35.* 37:2 (spring
2004): 38-40.* 37:3 (summer 2004):40; 37:4
(winter 2004): 40.*
MUSEUMS
Tarves, Ron. A Brief History of How It All
Began: British Columbia Farm Machinery
and Agricultural Museum Association. 37:2
(spring 2004): 7-8.*
MYTHS AND LEGENDS
Bland, Richard L. and Ann G. Simonds, notes
and introduction. Philipp Jacobsen in
British Columbia. 37:2 (spring 2004): 20-27.*
NEW CALEDONIA
Palmer, Rod N. Feast & Famine: Salmon and
the Fur Trade in New Caledonia. 37:4
(winter 2004): 12-16.*
NICOL, JOHN
Hopwood, Vic. Sea Otter Fur Trade from
Before the Mast. 37:1 (winter 2003): 12-17.*
NICOLA VALLEY
Welwood, Frances J. The Creators of
Canford. 37:2 (spring 2004): 9-13.*
NOEL, JAMES EWING
Noel, Jocelyn. Summer of Historical
Coincidence: A Tale of Two Men. 37:2
(spring 2004): 6.*
NORTHERN BC ARCHIVES
Alloway, Norma Marion. Archives &
Archivists: Northern BC Archives Expands
its Facilities. 37:3 (summer 2004): 33.*
NYSTROM, F.I.
Noel, Jocelyn. Summer of Historical
Coincidence: A Tale of Two Men. 37:2
(spring 2004): 6.*
OBITUARIES
Klan, Yvonne, 1930-2004. 37:4 (winter
2004): 39.*
Leeming, Ken. British Columbia Historical
Federation Newsletter, no. 9, Insert 37:4
(winter 2004).
MacLeod, Dorrit Lettitia 1906-2004. 37:4
(winter 2004): 39.
Weir, Winnifred Ariel. 37:2 (spring 2004): 38.*
OTTER BAY
Crocker, Liz. "You Will Make no Mistake in
Coming to Roesland." 37:2 (spring2004): 2-3.*
OVERLANDERS
Damer, Enid. Isaac Brock McQueen of
Kamloops: Gold Seeker and Overlander,
Helped Lay the Foundation of Today's
Modern City. 37:1 (winter 2003): 8-11.*
PACIFIC NORTH WEST
Bland, Richard L. and Ann G. Simonds, notes
and introduction. Philipp Jacobsen in
British Columbia. 37:2 (spring 2004): 20-27.*
38 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005 Fox, Tom. Up Coast Adventures. 37:3 SS VENTURE
(summer 2004): 2-7.* Noel, Jocelyn. Summer of Historical Coincidence:
Hopwood, Vic. Sea Otter Fur Trade from A Tale of Two Men. 37:2 (spring 2004): 6*
Before the Mast. 37:1 (winter 2003): 12-17.* SAILORS
Watson, Bruce. Scots on the Coast Before Hopwood, Vic. Sea Otter Fur Trade from
Alexander MacKenzie. 37:4 (winter 2004): 17-20. Before the Mast. 37:1 (winter 2003): 12-17. *
PENDER ISLAND Watson, Bruce. Scots on the Coast Before
Crocker, Liz. "you Will Make no Mistake in Alexander MacKenzie. 37:4 (winter 2004): 17-20.
Coming to Roesland." 37:2 (spring 2004): 2-3. * SALMON
PHYSICIANS Palmer, Rod N. Feast & Famine: Salmon
Milleer,Naomi. Hugh Watt: Physician & and the Fur Trade in New Caledonia. 37:4
Politician. 37:1 (wunter 2003): 18-21. * (winter 2004): 12-16.*
PITT LAKE SALMON ARM
Rogers, A.C. (Fred). Stanford Corey, First to Greene, Ronald. Token History: R.W.
Discover Pitt Lake Glacier. 37:1 (winter Holliday, Salmon Arm's Civic-Minded Dairyman.
2003): 6-7.* 37:3 (summer 2004): 22-23.*
POLITICIANS SEA OTTERS
Greene, Ronald. Token History: R.W. Hopwood, Vic. Sea Otter Fur Trade from
Holliday, Salmon Arm's Civic-Minded Before the Mast. 37:1 (winter 2003): 12-17. *
Dairyman. 37:3 (summer 2004): 22-23. SISTERS OF SAINT ANN
Miller, Naomi. Hugh Watt: Physician & Cantwell, Margaret, S.S.A. Sisters of Saint
Politician. 37:1 (winter 2003): 18-21.* Ann Archives, Victoria. 37:1 (winter 2003): 31.
RAPIDS SOCIAL LIFE AND CUSTOMS
Laux, Bill. The Swede Who Beat Death Greeene, Ronald. Token History: R.W.
Rapids. 37:4 (winter 2004): 7-11.* Holliday, Salmon Arm's Civic-Minded Dairyman.
REMINISCENCES 37:3 (summer 2004): 22-23. *
Fox, Tom. Up Coast Adventures. 37:3 Simpson, Mildred. Memories of Yale, Victoria
(summer 2004): 2-7.* and Union Bay. 37:3 (summer 2004): 8-16.*
Simpson, Mildred. Memories of Yale, Victoria STAVE LAKE
and Union Bay. 37:3 (summer 2004) 8-16.* Rogers, A.C. (Fred). Stanford Corey First to
RESEARCH STATIONS Discover Pitt Lake Glacier. 37:1 (winter
Brink, VC. B.C's First Rangeland Research 2003): 6-7.*
Station. 37:2 (spring 2004): 4-5.* STORES
RESORTS Greene, Ronald. Token History: McKinnon
Crocker, Liz. "You Will Make no Mistake in Bros, of Revelsstoke.37:2 (sprring 2004): 28-29.*
Coming to Roesland." 37:2 (spring 2004): 2-3.* TELEGRAPH COMMUNICATIONS
REVELSTOKE Simpson, Mildred. Memories of Yale, Victoria
Greene, Ronald. Token History: A.G. and Union Bay. 37:3 (summer 2004): 8-16.*
Carlson, Dairyman of Revelstoke, B.C. 37:1 THOMPSON, DAVID
(winter 2003): 22-23. * Cotton, Barry. In Search of David Thompson:
—, —. —: McKinnon Bros, of Revelstoke. A Study in Bibliography. 37:4 (winter 2004): 23-27*
37:2 (spring 2004): 28-29.* TOKENS
Laux, Bill. The Swede Who Beat Death Greene, Ronald. Token History: A.G.Carlson,
Rapids. 37:4 (winter 2004): 7-11.* Dairyman of Revelstoke, B.C, 37:1 (winter
REYNOLDS. STEPHEN 2003): 22-23.*
Hopwood, Vic. Sea Otter Fur Trade from —, —■ —: Bread, the Staff of Life or a
Before the Mast. 37:1 (winter 2003): 12-17.* Tale of Two Related Bakeries. 37:4 (winter
RIPPLE ROCK 2004): 28-29. *
Fox, Tom Up Coast Adventures. 37:3 —, —■ —: McKinnon Bros, of Revelstoke.
(summer 2004): 2-7.* 37:2 (spring 2004): 28-29.*
ROE, ROBERT —. —■ —■' R-W. Holliday, Salmon Arm's
Crocker, Liz. "You Will Make no Mistake in Civic-Minded Dairyman. 37:3 (summer
Coming to Roesland." 37:2 (spring 2004): 2-3.* 2004): 22-23.*
ROESLAND RESORT TRANSPORTATION
Crocker, Liz. "You Will Make no Mistake in Harvey, R.G. The Crows Nest Railway. 37:3
Coming to Roesland." 37:2 (spring 2004):2-3.* (summer 2004): 17-22. *
SS CARDENA TRAVEL LITERATURE
Fox, Tom. Up Coast Adventures. 37:3 Bland, Richard L. and Ann G. Simonds, notes
(summer 2004): 2-7.* and introduction. Philipp Jacobsen in
SS REVELL British Columbia. 37:2 (spring 2004): 20-27.*
Noel, Jocelyn. Summer of Historical Coincidence: Fox, Tom. Up Coast Adventures. 37:3
A Tale of Two Men. 37:2 (spring 2004): 6* (summer 2004) 2-7. *
Hopwood, Vic. Sea Otter Fur Trade from
Before the Mast. 37:1 (winter 2003): 12-17*
Twigg, Alan. John Ledyard: An Exclusive
Extract from the New Book First Invaders.
37:4 (winter 2004): 21-22.
UNION BAY
Simpson, Mildred. Memories of Yale, Victoria
and Union Bay. 37:3 (summer 2004):8-16.*
UNION STEAMSHIP COMPANY
Fox, Tom. Up Coast Adventures. 37:3
(summer 2004): 2-7.*
UNIVERSITY OF VICTORIA - HISTORY DEPARTMENT
Garrish, Christopher. Web Site Forays: The
University of Victoria History Department. 37:1
(winter 2003): 30.
VACATIONS
Crocker, Liz. "You Will Make no Mistake in
Coming to Roesland." 37:2 (spring 2004): 2-3. *
VANCOUVER
Greene, Ronald. Token History: Bread, the
Staff of Life or a Tale of Two Related Bakeries.
37:4 (winter 2004): 28-29.*
VANCOUVER ISLAND
Pritchard, Allan. What Is in a Name?
Captain Courtenay & Vancouver Island
Exploration. 37:4 (winter 2004): 3-7.*
VICE-REGAL TOURS
Cathro, Robert J. Lord Minto's 1904
Farewell Tour. 37:1 (winter 2003): 2-5.*
VICTORIA
Cantwell, Margaret, S.S.A. Sisters of Saint
Ann Archives, Victoria. 37:1 (winter 2003): 30.
Greene, Ronald. Token History: Bread, the
Staff of Life or a Tale of Two Related Bakeries.
37:4 (winter 2004): 28-29.*
Simpson, Mildred. Memories of Yale, Victoria
and Union Bay. 37:3 (summer 2004): 8-16*
VOTING
Garrish , Christopher. Web Site Forays:
Casting Your Vote. 37:4 (winter 2004): 37.
VOYAGES
Fox, Tom. Up Coast Adventures. 37:3
(summer 2004): 2-7.*
Watson, Bruce. Scots on the Coast Before
Alexander MacKenzie. 37:4 (winter 2004): 17-20.
WATT, HUGH
Miller, Naomi. Hugh Watt: Physician &
Politician. 37:1 (winter 2003): 18-21.*
WEB SITES
Garrish, Christo[pher. Web Site Forays: The
University of Victoria History Department. 37:1
(winter 2003): 30.
—, —. —: Historical Web Site
Competition. 37:3 (summer 2004): 32.
—, —. —-.viHstoryca. 37:2 (spring
2004): 36.
—, —. —-.Casting Your Vote. 37:4
(winter 2004): 37.
WORLD WAR I
Greene, Ronald. Token History: R. W.
Holliday, Salmon Arm's Civic-Minded
Dairyman. 34:3 (summer 2004): 22-23.*
YALE
Simpson, Mildred. Memories of Yale, Victoria
and Union Bay. 37:3 (summer 2004): 8-16*
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005        39 BOOK REVIEWS
ANDREWS, Mary E. and Doreen J. Hunter. A
Man and His Century: Gerald Smedley
Andrews, 1903-. Reviewed by Leonard G.
McCann. 37:2 (spring 2004): 35.
ARMITAGE, Doreen. Burrard Inlet: A History.
Reviewed by David Hill-Turner. 37:1 (winter
2003): 24.
BARMAN. Jean. Constance Lindsay Skinner:
Writing on the Frontier. Reviewed by
Frances Welwood. 37:1 (winter 2003): 24-25.
BARMAN, Jean, ed. Sojourning Sisters: The
Lives and Letters of Jessie and Annie
McQueen. Reviewed by Phyllis Reeve. 37:2
(spring 2004): 31-32.
BARMAN, Jean and Mona Gleason, eds.
Children, Teachers and Schools in the History
of British Columbia. 2nd. ed. Reviewed by
Kirk Salloum. 37:3 (summer 2004): 26-27.
BEATTIE, Judith Hudson and Helen M. Buss, eds.
Undelivered Letters to Hudson's Bay
Company Men on the Northwest Coast of
America, 1830-57. Reviewed by Barry Gough.
37:2 (spring 2004): 34.
BORDERLINE HISTORY COMMITTEE. From Tears
to Triumph: The Pioneers' Journeys.
Reviewed by Howard Overend. 37:4 (winter
2004): 34-35.
BOUCHARD, Randy and Dorothy Kennedy, eds.
Indian Myths and Legends from the North
Pacific Coast of America; a Translation of
Franz Boas' 1895 Edition of Indianische
Sagen von der Nord-Pacifischen Kuste
Ameerikas. Reviewed by Grant Keddie. 37:1
(winter 2003): 27-28.
CHRISTENSEN, Lisa. The Lake O'Hara Art of
J.E.H. MacDonald and Hiker's Guide.
Reviewed by Melva Dwyer. 37:4 (winter 2004): 32.
CODY, H.A. An Apostle of the North; Memoirs
of the Reverend William Carpenter Bompas.
Intro, by William R, Morrison and Kenneth
S.Coates. Reviewed by Phyllis Reeve. 37:3
(summer 2004): 27-28.
COPP, Terry. Fields of Fire: The Canadians in
Normandy. Reviewed by Mike Higgs. 37:2
(spring 2004): 32-33.
CRUISE, David and Alison Griffiths. Vancouver:
A Novel. Reviewed by Janet Mary Nicol.
37:4 (winter 2004): 35.
CUMMINS, Bryan D. First Nations, First Dogs:
Canadian Aboriginal Ethnocynology. Reviewed
by Phyllis Reeve. 37:1 (winter 2003): 27.
DAMER, Eric. Discovery by Design: The
Department of Mechanical Engineering of the
University of British Columbia, Origins and
History, 1907-2001. Reviewed by Cyril Leonoff.
37:3 (summer 2004): 25.
DOBBIE. Susan. When Eagles Call. Reviewed
by Morag MacLachlan. 37:2 (spring 2004): 30.
GALLAHER, Bill. A Man Called Moses: The
Curious Life of Wellington Delaney Moses.
Reviewed by Philip Teece. 37:1 (winter 2003): 25.
GEORGE, Earl Maquinna. Living on the Edge:
Nuu-Cha-Nulth History from an Ahousaht
Chief's Perspective. Reviewed by Phyllis
Reeve. 37:4 (winter 2004): 33-34.
GILKER, Gerry, Jack Lowe and Geraldine
(Dody) Wray. "Whispers from the Shadows;"
a History of Thoroughbred Racing in Richmond.
A Collection of Memoirs and Writings Reviewed
by Sheryl Salloum. 37:3 (summer 2004): 25-26.
GREAT CENTRAL BOOK PROJECT COMMITTEE.
When the Whistle Blew: The Great
Central Story 1925-1952. Reviewed by Tim
Percival. 37:1 (winter 2003): 26-27.
GREEN, Valerie. If These Walls Could Talk:
Victoria's Houses from the Past. Reviewed
by Marie Elliott. 37:2 (spring 2004): 31.
HAMMOND, Dick. A Touch of Strange:
Amazing Tales of the Coast. Reviewed by
Kelsey MacLeod. 37:2 (spring 2004): 30-31.
HULGAARD, William J. and John W. White.
Honoured in Places: Remembered Mounties
across Canada. Reviewed by Arnold
Ranneris. 37:1 (winter 2003): 29.
KOPPEL, Tom. Lost World: Rewriting
Prehistory - How New Science Is Tracing
America's Ice Age Mariners. Reviewed by
Gordon Miller. 37:3 (summer 2004): 26..
LANG, Joan. Lost Orchards: Vanishing Fruit
Farms of the West Kootenay. Reviewed by M.
Wayne Cunningham. 37:3 (summer 2004): 30-31.
LAWSON, Jullie. A Ribbon of Shining Steel:
The Railway Diary of Kate Cameron. Reviewed
by Dorothy Dodge. 37:4 (winter 2004): 30.
LE BLANC, Suzanne. Cassiar, a Jewel in the
Wilderness. Reviewed by William R. Morrison.
37:4 (winter 2004): 32-33.
LEE, Molly and Gregory Reinhardt. Eskimo
Architecture: Dwelling and Structure in the
Early Historic Period. Reviewed by James P.
Delgado. 37:2 (spring 2004): 31.
LOWENSTERN, Ludwig von. The First Russian
Voyage Around the World: The Journal of
Ludwig von Lowenstern (1803-1806). trans,
by Victoria Joan Moesner. Reviewed by
Barry Gough. 37:3 (summer 2004): 28-29.
LORENZ, Claudia and Kathryn McKay.
Trademarks and Salmon Art: A Brand New
Perspective: A Collective Study on British
Columbia Salmon Can Labels, ca. 1890-1950.
Reviewed by Gordon Miller. 37:2 (spring
2004): 30.
MOULD, Wayne. Uncle Ted Remembers: 26
Short Stories Describing the History of the
Lakes District of North Central British Columbia.
Reviewed by Esther Darlington. 37:3 (summer
2004): 29-30.
NEYLON, Susan. The Heavens Are Changing:
Nineteenth-Century Protestant Missions and
Tsimshian Christianity. Reviewed by Margaret
Seguin Anderson. 37:2 (spring 2004): 33-34.
PARENT, Milton. Bugles on Broadway. Reviewed
by Naomi Miller. 37:1 (winter 2003): 28-29.
PENNE, A.S. Ols Stones: A Biography of a
Family. Reviewed by Phyllis Reeve. 37:3
(summer 2004): 26.
PERRAULT, E.G. Tong: The Story of Tong Louie.
Vancouver's Quiet Titan. Reviewed by
Michael Kluckner. 37:2 (spring 2004): 34-35.
PHILLIPS, Terrence. Harvesting the Fraser: A
History of Early Delta. Reviewed by Norm
Collingwood. 37:4 (winter 2004): 31-32.
RASMUSON LIBRARY HISTORICAL TRANSLATION
SERIES. Volume 11. Grewingk's Geology of
Alaska and the Northwest Coast of America.
Volume 12. Steller's History
of Kamchakta Volume 13. Through Orthoodox
Eyes: Russian Missionary Narratives
of Travels to the Dena'ina and Ahtna, 1850s
1930s. Reviewed by Norm Collingwood.
37:4(winter 2004): 30.
RAYNER. William. Scandal! 130 Years of
Damnable Deeds in Canada's Lotus Land.
Reviewed by Kirk Salloum. 37:3 (summer
2004): 27.
SCHODT, Frederik L. Native American in the
Land of the Shogun: Ranald MacDonald and
the Opening Up of Japan. Reviewed by Jean
Murray Cole. 37:4 (winter 2004): 35-36.
SPLANE, Richard B. George Davidson: Social
Policy and Public Policy Exemplar. Reviewed
by Beverley Scott. 37:4 (winter 2004): 30-31.
TERPENING, Rex. Bent Props and Blow Pots; a
Pioneer Remembers Northern Bush Flying.
Reviewed by Mike Higgs. 37:4 (winter 2004): 34.
TERRACE REGIONAL HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Terrace; Incorporated in 1927; 75 Years of
Growth. Reviewed by Phyllis Reeve. 37:3
(summer 2004): 25.
THIRKELL, Fred and Bob Scullion. Frank
Gowen's Vancouver 1914-1931. Reviewed by
Michael Kluckner. 37:1 (winter 2003): 25-26.
NOTEWORTHY BOOKS
Includes books not reviewed but that are of
interest and may be reviewed at a later date.
37:1 (winter 2003): 29; 37:2 (spring 2004): 35;
37:3 (summer 2004): 31; 37:4 (winter 2004):
36.
40 BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORY - Vol. 38 No. 1 2005

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