British Columbia History

BC Historical News 1979

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 B.C. HISTORICAL
J¥EWS
VOLUME 75, NO. 2
 THE BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
Honorary Patron:  His Honor, The Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia,
Henry P. Bell-Irving.
Honorary President:  Anne Stevenson, Box 4570, Williams Lake, V2G 2V6.
Officers
President
-Ruth Barnett, 680 Pinecrest Road, Campbell River, V9W 3P3.
287-8097 (res.).
1st Vice-President:
Barbara Stannard, 211-450 Stewart Avenue, Nanaimo, V9S 5E9.
654-6195 (res.).
2nd Vice-President:
Winnifred Weir, Box 774, Invermere, VOA 1K0.
342-9562 (res.).
Secretary:
Arlene Bramhall, 5152 Grafton Court, Burnaby, V5H 1M7.
433-7176 (res.).
Treasurer:
Michael Halleran, #8-1711 Duchess, Victoria, V8R 4W2.
598-5883 (res.).
Recording Secretary:
Margaret Stoneberg, Box 687, Princeton, VOX 1W0.
295-3362 (res.).
Members at large:
Len McCann, Vancouver Maritime Museum, 1905 Ogden Street,
Vancouver.
736-4431 (bus.).
Frank Street, 6176 Walker Street, Burnaby, V5E 3B4.
521-4529 (res.).
Past President:
Helen Akrigg, 4633 West 8th Ave., Vancouver, V6R 2A6.
228-8606 (res.).
Ex Officio:
John Bovey, Provincial Archivist, Victoria, V8V 1X4.
387-3621 (bus.).
Kent Haworth, Co-editor of B.C. Historical News.
387-6671 (bus.).                                       a
Patricia Roy, Co-editor of B.C. Historical News.
477-6911, local 4793 (bus.).
c
Cover Photograph courtesy of PABC
 BRITISH   COLUMBIA   HISTORICAL   NEWS
Vol. 13, No. 2 Winter 1979
Second-class mail registration number 4447.
Published fall, winter, spring, and summer by the British Columbia Historical
Association, P.O. Box 1738, Victoria, V8W 2Y3.  (Printed by D.A. Fotoprint
Ltd., 747 Fort Street, Victoria, V8W 3E9).
The B.C. Historical Association gratefully acknowledges the financial assistance of the Ministry of the Provincial Secretary.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Letters to the Editor 2
A Small Profession in a Large Land: Pioneer
Land Surveyors of British Columbia G.S. Andrews  7
Flying Reminiscences, 1909-1959 A.D. Bell-Irving 19
Old Trails and Routes in British Columbia:
Trails near Akamina Astronomical Station
and Camp R.C. Harris  24
News from the Association and its Branches 28
Book Reviews:
Memories of the Chemainus Valley.. .etc Gerald Savory 30
Lady Rancher Anne Stevenson 32
Motion Picture Production.. .etc Charles Hoffman 34
Wheeler John Marsh 35
Encyclopedia of Ghost Towns...etc Elsie Turnbull 36
Above the Sand Heads.. .etc John Gibbard 37
Nanaimo Retrospective Daniel Gallacher 38
CD. Howe: A biography Freeman Tovell 40
 -2-
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
I>aar Editors,
I am sure that many of your readers will recognize the driver of
the automobile in the cover photo as former premier, T. Duff Pattullo.
However, does anyone know the make of automobile?* I was particularly
interested iin the articles on T.D. Pattullo and Prince Rupert because I was
once very familiar with that part of the province. My birth place and home
for my first 13 years was Port Essington on the Skeena River about 25 miles
from Prince Rupert. We visited Prince Rupert occasionally and although it
was a very raw young city, as a child, I was impressed by things that I saw
there that we didn't have in Port Essington, such as trains, moving-picture
shows, a Hotel with an elevator and electric lights and telephones, and on
the streets there were horses and carts and automobiles.  It's true that
the autos didn't have any roads to drive on beyond the city streets - and
many of these were constructed of heavy planks supported by wooden posts -
as shown in your cover photo.
T.D. Pattullo was elected to the Legislature, as your article states,
in 1916 and Port Essington was part of his Prince Rupert constituency.  I
met him two or three times but the occasion I remember best was in the fall
of 1920 when there was another provincial general election.
One day in, I think, October my father gave me a batch of hand-bills
to distribute around our village.  Each sheet had a picture of Mr. Pattullo
on it and a printed message announcing a meeting would be held that evening
in the school-house.
Just about everyone turned out, including children, and the school-
house was packed. My father was the chairman and briefly introduced the
speaker. Mr. Pattullo made a quite lengthy speech and naturally extolled
the virtues of the Liberal government of "Honest John" Oliver in which he
was the Minister of Lands.  He also, I remember, explained very simply but
clearly the difference between Liberals and Conservatives.  "The Tory mind,"
he said, "is like this" - and he placed his hands quite close together, only
a few inches apart.  "But," he went on, "the Liberal mind is like this!"
Here he placed his hands wide apart - allowing plenty of room for all
intelligent and broad-minded voters to be included within this range.
He then went on to talk about sinking funds and observed that "perhaps
some of the younger members in the audience don't know what sinking funds
are."  (This was quite true - but I'm sure some of the older characters
present didn't know what they were either.). He explained that the Government, in its wisdom, when borrowing money, carefully set aside adequate annual
amounts, (sinking funds), to pay off the debt when it fell due.  Evidently
Pattullo's own personal financial problems had emphasized the wisdom of this
policy.
After the meeting Mr. Pattullo came to our house for coffee before
going on the Caledonia Hotel where he was spending the night.  I was introduced
to him and he shook hands with me, saying, "There's a husky young fellow."
That remark - (actually I was rather skinny) - on top of broad-minded Liberalism
 -3-
and provident sinking-funds was more than enough. Mr. Pattullo had my vote -
or would have had if I had been old enough to vote! A trivial item perhaps
but a minor indication of his political acumen.
Whatever faults Duff Pattullo may have had he was never a hypocrite.
He was proud to declare himself a professional politician and as such claimed
considerable expertise in the science, and/or art, of government.  In retrospect I would say that Pattullo, on his smaller political stage, had much
in common with former U.S. President Harry Truman. Both men were peppery
and impulsive, both were forthright and stubborn in expressing and maintaining
their points of view, neither was successful in private business yet both
of them performed creditably and effectively as heads of governments.
Yours sincerely,
E.A. Harris. [Vancouver]
* P.S. After typing the foregoing letter I happened to read the section on
T.D. Pattullo in Derek Pethick's Men of British Columbia which states :
"He (Pattullo) soon attracted attention, partly because he owned the
first automobile in town - a red Auburn."      _ . T1
E.A.H.
The editors:
Re: Howse Pass: A Neglected Historic Wilderness Resource
The Rocky Mountains of Canada have always presented a considerable
barrier to movement between the prairies and the coast and since prehistoric
time people have sought routes throuth these mountains. Each pass cutting
through the range has its own character and potential for communications,
from the Yellowhead Pass in the north to the South Kootenay Pass in the south.
In the middle lies Howse Pass, a low route (5,200 feet), linking the valley
of the Howse River on the east with that of the Blaeberry River on the west.
There is archeological evidence of Indian use of the pass but it
came into prominence in the early nineteenth century in connection with the
fur trade.  It is unclear which white men first crossed the pass but two of
David Thompson's workers, Le Blanc and La Gasse, apparently passed through
from the east in 1800, Thompson himself making the journey in the same
direction in the summer of 1807. Joseph Howse, a fur trader after whom the
pass was named, travelled through the pass in 1810 on behalf of the rival
Hudson's Bay Company.  Shortly thereafter Indian hostility Hed to the closure
of the pass and the use of the Athabasca Pass to the north for the trading
between the Saskatchewan and Columbia River areas. Howse Pass again received
public attention in 1859 when Dr. James Hector, a member of the Palliser
Expedition explored it from the east as part of ah investigation of possible
railway routes through the mountains. Despite confirmation of the suitability
of this route by the railway surveyor Walter Moberley in the 1870's and
further examination of its character at the end of this decade an alternate
route via the somewhat higher Kicking Horse Pass was adopted in the 1880's
and the Howse Pass area became neglected once again. At the turn of the
century some intrepid mountaineers looking for first ascents passed through
the area and in 1917 and 1918 Arthur Wheeler and his survey team were in the
 -4-
area to delimit the Alberta-British Columbia boundary and establish cairns
at key points along it.  In the decades following,various mountaineering
parties have visited the area, many passing across the pass.  Inclusion of
the area east of the pass in Banff National Park has led to protection of
the environment and the maintenance of a good trail up the Howse Valley.
Guided hunting parties visiting the west side of the pass on horseback have
helped to maintain a trail up the Blaeberry Valley but much of the upper
reach of the valley has been burned over since 1900 and in the lower reaches
of the valley logging has been extensive and settlement has increased.
Today the route which totals some 41 kilometres affords a great
opportunity for an easy and rewarding three day wilderness backpacking trip
in the steps of the explorers. The trailhead on the west side is reached
by a logging road from the Trans-Canada Highway west of Golden up the Blaeberry Valley.  The route starts at Moberly, the place where the surveyor's
crew camped in 1871, and in passing up the valley one can stop to see
Thompson Falls or take a side trip to see the spectacular Mummery Glacier.
The trailhead on the eastern side is at Mistaya Canyon, 5.3 kilometres south
of the Saskatchewan River Crossing highway junction on the Banff-Jasper
Highway.  The trail is a relatively flat one rising from 4,050 feet on the
west side, to the summit of the pass at 5,200 feet, then falling to 5,000
feet at the eastern end.  Transport considerations more than anything else
will probably determine which way most people hike through the pass.
The trail itself is well maintained within Banff National Park
although an alternative and more attractive route along the upper Howse
River gravel flats and by Lagoon Lake is less well defined and involves
some wading.  On the east side of the pass the trail is less satisfactory
being especially poor but still discernible between Cairnes Creek and
Lambe Creek. A rough log bridge exists at the latter creek but the former
may pose problems during high water. Travelling the route on horseback,
as many of the explorers did, and some people do today, eliminates some of
the bad sections of trail and the river crossing problem. Water is readily
available along most of the route but is often silty.  There are numerous
campsites but fortunately man's impact through recreation has been relatively
small and garbage is minimal. Along the route freeze-dried rations can be
supplemented by berries (after which Dr. Hector named the Blaeberry Valley)
and by Labrador and mint teas. Hunters, like the explorers, will also be
tempted to finish off a ptarmigan or two, perhaps even a mountain goat,
though hunting is naturally prohibited in the national park.  Travellers
should also comply with national park regulations by registering for the
trip. This can be done by mail or at administration offices which also
can provide advice on trail conditions, bear hazards, as well as topographic
maps.  Some reading on the history of the route and proper preparation of
equipment and supplies will doubtless enhance the experience of hiking
through Howse Pass.
My intention in writing about Howse Pass was not only to draw
attention to its potential but also to indicate its neglect and possible
threats to this historic wilderness resource. While the eastern section
of the route lies in Banff National Park and has for decades received environ-
 -5-
mental protection the western section in the upper Blaeberry Valley is
presently unprotected.  The historic integrity of the route and the quality
of the wilderness experience obtained there depend on landscape protection
and recreation management along the full length of the trail. Already
logging has transformed much of the Blaeberry Valley and plans are afoot
to expand logging at least as far as Wildcat Creek. Although much of the
western side of Howse Pass was burnt over after 1900 it seems there may even
be some interest in removing what remains, or the limited new growth.  Such
activity would seriously impair the heritage and recreation values of the
upper Blaeberry.  Given the slow rates of regeneration in this environment
and the potential for erosion further logging in the upper valley must be
unsound on ecological and commercial grounds also. Not only should logging be
restricted in the upper Blaeberry to maintain heritage and recreation and
ecological values but some form of protection should be afforded the area,
at least along the trail route. This might be accomplished by extending
Banff National Park or by designating the area as a Provincial Park.
Possibilities exist for federal-provincial co-operation such as is being
considered, or has been undertaken for other nationally significant historic
routes.  Indeed, given that activity in the upper Blaeberry may markedly
effect the the adjacent section of Banff National Park collaboration between
federal and provincial agencies seems essential if national and historic
resources are to be safeguarded. In the future national parks will not be
islands in a sea of wilderness but remnant natural areas in a sea of
resource extraction and development. Hopefully critical areas of historic
and natural significance like the Howse Pass area can be given protection
before it is too late.
Yours sincerely, John Marsh
"A MODERN FAD?"
Daily Standard
March 30, 1872
ROLLER SKATING - Roller Skating is assuredly a novelty that will wear.  Its
popularity is steadily on the increase throughout the civilized world.  It combines the pleasures of the ball room with the advantages
of the gymnasium and is a delight at once to young and old.  It is one of
the few contrivances which the genius of amusement has supplied to youth
to which the doctors and preachers do not take exception, yet it is as
facinating [sic] as the drama and dancing, and it presents a number of
arguments for special popularity.  The pleasure can be indulged in within
doors under the parental eye.  It is graceful, strengthening to the limbs,
expands the chest, teaches self-reliance, and is conducive to general health.
Eminent Eastern physicians recommend the exercise for its hygenic and invigorating tendencies, and many striking proofs are furnished of it efficiency
in restoring impaired health.  Intellectual and social culture among us
receive, as they should great attention, but these can never attain to their
highest development until our physical condition, the base of all, is better
appreciated.  Sound minds in sound bodies are necessary to form a community
that shall withstand all shocks and produce the highest results of civilized
life.  Physical weakness is, almost without exception, the inviting cause
 -6-
to most diseases of both sexes.  When the vital forces are strong and the
blood courses freely, there is no danger. We all know that any physical
exercise, in order to be kept up regular enough to produce the desired benefit,
must be made attractive and enjoyable. It requires a mental determination
very like heroism to keep up any gymnastic exercise for the sake of health.
Even horseback riding, which is as exhilarating as any solitary exercise,
can become a burden, and everyone can see by their own experience that very
active exercise at long intervals, is a damage rather than a beneift.  In
this climate we cannot have ice skating, and for several months out door
excercise is out of the question, or attended with exposure to health.  In
the Atlantic States and in Europe roller skating is taking the place of
skating on ice as it is attended with less risk and exposure and may be
enjoyed by all classes and conditions of people.
This exercise is also beneficial in its social and moral results,
it quickens the mind; develops and disciplines judgment, activity and skill;
imparts a sure, elastic step, easy manners and graceful bearing, which
accomplishments once attained, remain to be admired and respected through
life.  Those who are awkward by nature will acquire grace of motion and
confidence of manner on rollers.  It afford just the sort of
recreation required by our young girls for their physical development,
while it is an attraction sure to allure from pernicious influences and
vile haunts our young men and boys.
CONTEST WINNER
We had 18 entries to our contest in the last issue.  All respondents
correctly identified T.D. Pattullo as the driver of the car.  The winner
of the draw is Mrs. E.F. Stewart of Victoria.
ANOTHER CONTEST
This issue, the question is, we hope, a little more challenging to
our readers.  The cover picture is of course Dr. R.W.W. Carrall's office at
Barkerville c.1867/8. The question is, Dr. Carrall was a well-known
physician but for what other reason is he remembered in British Columbia
history?  To be eligible for the prize, RALPH EDWARDS OF LONESOME LAKE
correct answers must be .submitted by March 1, 1980.
 -7-
A SMALL PROFESSION IN A LARGE LAND:  PIONEER LAND SURVEYORS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
With less than three hundred authorized practitioners, land surveying must
be one of the smallest legally recognized professions in British Columbia. Its
maximum membership of 260 in 1914 and 215 in 1921 reflect respectively the land
boom of 1912-1913 and the return of veterans from World War I. The minimum
figures 130 in 1918 and 105 in 1943 reflect the combined effects of Depression
and War (See Table I). By comparison, there are over 8500 professional engineers
and 1,000 professional foresters in the province today.
Land surveying in British Columbia is governed by the Land Surveyors Act,
1905 and its amendments. This Act delegates admission, licensing, discipline
and modus operandi to "The Corporation of Land Surveyors of the Province of
British Columbia," the professional association of surveyors. Admission to the
profession is by "Preliminary", "Intermediate" and "Final" examinations spanning
nearlyifour years' articles with a practising surveyor. Partial concession from
these requirements may be granted to candidates with appropriate diplomas or
degrees or qualifications from elsewhere. Beyond broad requirements in
mathematics, physics, the natural sciences, mensuration, and survey law, the
Act does not specify activities exclusive to land surveying. However,
provincial statutes governing boundaries of various land tenures and title
thereto stipulate that surveys be performed and certified under oath by a
BCLS in good standing. The Surveyor General is empowered to issue instructions
and regulations covering field methods, accuracy, posting, returns and practical
interpretations, which have the force of law.
Between the passage of the old act in 1891 and the modern act of 1905, a
government appointed Board of Examiners chaired by the Surveyor General issued
a total of eighty-five numbered "PLS" (Provincial Land Surveyor) commissions.
The 1891 Act delegated no responsibility to the then voluntary "Association of
Provincial Land Surveyors of B.C.", organized December 1, 1890 in Victoria. It
is likely that sustained pressure from this group won the Act of 1905 which
delegated full professional responsibility to the Association.
Before 1891, the Surveyor General had issued authorizations to practice on
a rather casual basis. Charles Westley Busk, CE, LS (1852-1934), who arrived
in Victoria in 1883, wrote:
I established myself in a couple of rooms on Yates Street, until
I could look around and learn something of the country and opportunities
in my profession. As a preliminary I called on (Sir) Joseph Trutch and
the Surveyor General [then W.S. Gore], and from both learned that as
I owned a theodolite and level and allied instruments, it was to be
presumed I knew how to use them, and accordingly no examination or
license was necessary - all_I had to do was to get the offer of some
work and then go and do it.
Association of Provincial Land Surveyors of British Columbia, Report, 1892,
2
British Columbia Land Surveyors, Annual Report, 1935, p. 75.
 -8-
The forerunners of the land surveyors were explorers such as Cook, Vancouver,
Mackenzie, Thompson and Fraser who left quantitative geographies in the form
of charts, maps and fixed points of Latitude and Longitude.  Russians,
Spaniards, Britons and Americans, on sea and on land but mainly in the fur
trade, contributed significant qualitative geographies. Early primary surveys
by the British Admiralty (1792-cl910), the international and provincial
Boundary Commissions (1857 et seq.), the Royal Engineers (1858-1863), the
Collins Overland Telegraph (mid-1860s), the CPR location (1871-cl883), Geological surveys (1871 et seq.), and the subdivision of the Railway Belt and
the Peace River Block (1870-1930) included a distinguished array of pioneer
hydrographers, engineers and surveyors, many of whom were, or became,
authorized land surveyors in British Columbia.
******
An advantage of a small profession is that its members get better
acquainted through experience, argument and agreement. In the wilderness
where much work was, and still is to be done, by sharing hazards and privations
as well as joys and gratification, the best and the worst in men are
brought out. In early days, a large proportion of the field season was
spent travelling into and out of remote areas, by arduous and primitive means.
This meant starting early in lingering snow and finishing late with winter's
onset. Without radio or airmail, surveyors often lived and worked in isolation for six months or more with only rare encounters with lone trappers,
prospectors or Indians providing the variation in company. In these circumstances, life-long friendships and loyalties are engendered, like those
made by comrades-in-arms during war.
Land surveyors in British Columbia stem largely from early civil
engineers, Dominion Land Surveyors and a few of the Royal Engineers.  Generally
they were men of high cultural and academic calibre with a zest for adventure
and stamina to surmount rigours and hazards of wilderness life. They were
held in high esteem where they lived and worked.
Of the 141 surveyors authorized before 1891 — the LS group — biographical
details are available for forty (see Table II). Of these 26 were Civil
Engineers and ten had commissions as Dominion Land Surveyors. These DLS commissions were first authorized about 1875 and were granted to those who passed an examination supervised by a Board and chaired by the Surveyor General
in Ottawa.  Fifteen of the early Provincial Land Surveyors were born in Canada; twelve, in England; four, in Ireland; five, in Scotland; and one in the
United States. The birthplaces of three are unknown. They were a long-lived
group, the average span was 73 years. The last to qualify before the 1891 act
Francis Algernon Devereux, was born in 1867 and did not die until 1960.
The first born of the LS group about whom there is biographical data was
Adolphus Lee Lewes, LS, (c.1830-1856). He was a half-breed son of the HBC
Chief Factor John Lee Lewes (1791-1872) who commanded a wide range of posts
3
G.S. Andrews, Cumulative Nominal Roll of Professional Land Surveyors of
British Columbia, (Victoria:  Corporation of Land Surveyors of the Province
of British Columbia, 1978), 4th edition.
 -9-
east and west of the Rockies, including Fort Simpson (c.1840) where he staunchly
supported Robert Campbell's explorations of the upper Liard, Pelly and Yukon
Rivers.  The place and date of Adolphus's birth are obscure but 1820 should
be biologically close.  He was sent to school in England and when he was
considered for enrolment with the HBC it was reported "that he had been
brought up in the land surveying business." He was enrolled in 1839 as
"surveyor and clerk" and assigned to the Columbia department under Dr. John
McLoughlin.  Adolphus accompanied James Douglas to Vancouver's Island in
1842, where he surveyed the site of what became Fort Victoria.  The "Ground
Plan", signed by him and dated 1842, is probably the first of its kind for
what is now British Columbia. He left the service in 1853 and died at Fort
Vancouver, Oregon Territory, September 1856.
Another early member of the LS group, Capt. Walter Colquohoun Grant,
FRGS, (1823-1862) was a graduate of Sandhurst Military College. He was also
the first "settler" on Vancouver's Island, arriving in August 1849 with
the appointment, "Surveyor to the Company." He selected acreage at Sooke and
with eight "colonists" recruited in Britain, began improvements, including a
small saw mill.  He was described as a "fine big braw Scot, 26 years old,
6 ft. 2 in. tall, with an engaging personality, but precious little business
sense." His surveying, secondary to other preoccupations, was casual, sporadic,
spasmodic, inconclusive, in effect, abortive. Convivial interludes at
"Bachelors' Hall" in Victoria had priority.  Financial problems caused him
to leave for Oregon in 1851 in search of gold.  After visits to Victoria, he
left the scene for good in 1853, serving in the Crimea and India, where he
died in 1862.  As surveyor, he was a poignant disappointment to Governor  ,
Douglas and the delay in surveys for the new colony created acute problems.
The choice of Grant's successor was made with care, resulting in the appointment in 1851 of Joseph Despard Pemberton, CE, LS (1821-1893), as "Colonial
Surveyor". A graduate of Trinity College, Dublin, he had participated in
railroad engineering and had been professor of surveying at the Royal
Agricultural College, Cirencister. His eminent record as Colonial Surveyor
which included various public works led to his appointment by Royal Warrant as
Surveyor General of the Colony in 1859 from which he retired in 1864.  Thus,
he initiated "a long line of worthy public servants." The position of Surveyor
General "has always commanded the greatest respect....being filled by competent,
intelligent and dedicated men." Pemberton made explorations of Vancouver Island,
did various public works, and surveyed the townsite of Victoria.  He was a
member of the House of Assembly, 1856-1859, the Executive Council, 1863-1864,
and the Legislative Council of the United Colony, 1867-1868.  He founded the
real estate firm, Pemberton & Son in 1887 which survives today as Pemberton,
Holmes, Ltd. He is commemorated by several place names in British Columbia
and street names in Victoria and North Vancouver.  He married Teresa Jane
Groutoff in 1864 and died in Victoria in 1893.
4
Clifford Wilson, Campbell of the Yukon, Toronto:  Macmillan, 1970.
W.E. Ireland, "Pioneer Surveyors of Vancouver Island," BCLS, Annual
6
7
Report, 1951, p. 47.
Ireland, "Pioneer Surveyors,"
G.P.V. and Helen Akrigg, British Columbia Chronicle, 1847-1871, Vancouver:
Discovery Press, 1977.
Ireland, 'Pioneer Surveyors" & Civil Service News Letter, Victoria, June 1965, p.3
 -10-
Many of the pioneer surveyors, like Pemberton, participated in railroad
engineering — location, grades, bridges and tunnels.  (See Table III)
Stephenson's famous "Rocket" steam locomotive in 1829 activated the vigorous
age of railroad building which teamed with gathering momentum through the rest
of the century and later in Britain, America, and elsewhere. Henry Bell-Irving
for example, served in the engineering Department of the London and NW Railway
in the late 1860s and in the 1870s with C.W. Busk.  Busk and Bell-Irving
were ship mates in the Allan Line vessel, Polynesia, nick-named, "the Rolling
Polly", sailing from Britain in March 1882.  Bell-Irving went out from
Montreal that year to join the CPR, "six weeks' walk from Winnipeg."
T.S. Gore, born at Gore's Landing, Canada West in 1851 provides some highlights of early railway surveys in the American West in the following (abridged)
account:
In 1870 he left home to seek his fortune in the western USA.
After a sedentary job at Osceola, Iowa, he joined a party
surveying for the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Ry. (where his
brother William had preceded him by several years).  They were
locating a line from Lincoln, Nebraska to connect with the Western
Pacific Ry. near Fort Kearney on the Platte River, at a time
when the Sioux Indians were hostile. A government party sent
out the year before failed to return — ever. A search party
found only charred remains of their wagons and instruments.  Mr.
Gore's party were therefore armed with Winchester repeating rifles
which were always carried in the field.  Gore, being the youngest
and least experienced rear flagman, a lonely, unpopular but easy
job, with lots of time to think, so he kept his rifle oiled and
ready for the Indian raid which never materialized.  One false
alarm was a large herd of elk approaching through the prairie
dust they were raising, mistaken for mounted Indians. All hands
were signalled to muster at the wagon, instruments stowed, rifles
and ammunition handed out.  Then someone had the bright idea to
set up a theodolite and train the telescope on the enemy, —
which revealed the novel animals as they passed a few hundred yards
away.  Another time, they had returned to camp after the day's
work, and were alarmed to see a large mounted party approaching
their camp.  They were Oteos, about 600 of them, returning to
their reserve from a buffalo hunt, and were friendly to the whites,
but not so to the Sioux, so had to travel in force.  They camped
along the side of the surveyors and provided an interesting show.
The braves arrived first on their buffalo ponies, clothed only
in breech cloth and mocassins, — fine-looking fellows.  They
dismounted, leaving their horses for the women and children to
unpack and make camp, while the men enjoyed their smoke, one pipe
among six braves.  They were armed only with bows and arrows and
rode without saddle or bit.
8
9
C.W. Busk, "Memoirs," Provincial Archives of British Columbia, E/E/B96.
BCLS, Annual Report, 1937, p. 59
 -11-
There have been some entertaining accounts„about the CPR location
surveys after 1871, east and west of Winnipeg.  Much of the colour of this
work in British Columbia had to do with seeking feasible routes through the
mountain barriers.
The Pine Pass route in., the Peace River district was found thanks to the
plaintive call of the loon.   In 1877,  Joseph Hunter, one of Sandford Fleming's
CPR surveyors was sent to investigate the elusive Pine Pass reported, but
not seen, by Horetzky in 1872 and sought abortively by A.R.C. Selwyn in 1875.
Early in 1877 Hunter had been sent to demark the Alaska Boundary across the
Stikine River to mitigate jurisdictional problems with traffic to and from
the Dease watershed, the "Peter Martin Case" being one of the conflicts.
That job completed, Hunter reached Quesnelle in June, enroute to McLeod Lake
where he hoped to learn how to approach the pass from the west.  Earlier
attempts had been from the east, up the Pine River. At McLeod, the only
person who had knowledge of the pass was an old Indian woman, who sketched the
route in the sand - down the Pack River to the Parsnip, up it to the Misinchinka
then up the latter to the pass, in which lay a small lake.
Following these directions, Hunter reached the headwaters of the Misinchinka
some fifty miles from its mouth.  He found them cradled in a "cul de sac of
high mountains on all sides" with no sign of a pass to the east. Returning downstream, somewhat dejected, he made camp for the night where the river swings
sharply from flowing northwest to southwest.  Smoking his pipe after supper in
the long June twilight, cogitating on what best to do, he heard a loon call from
a northerly direction, about two miles away up a small tributary.  His association of the loon and the old lady's mention of a lake allowed Hunter to retire
with the decision to investigate that possibility next morning.  About two
miles up the creek (Atunatche), its source proved to be the lake in the pass
(Azouzetta), leading to the Pine River which they followed down to Fort St.
John on the Peace, below Hudson's Hope.
To the west, the first comprehensive exploratory survey and report of
the North West Cassiar District, including Atlin Lake, was made in 1892 by a
colourful French-Canadian surveyor, Narcisse Belleau Gauvreau (1855-1933).
Gauvreau remarked on the gold activity on the Stikine (1962) and in the Dease
watershed (1870s) but made no mention of it in the Atlin area.  Then in 1897,
Fritz Muellen and Kenny McLaren, prospectors from Juneau, discovered gold
in the Atlin area.  This gold attracted seekers bound for the Klondike in 1898
especially via the Stikine and Teslin route which saved them some 300 miles
extra travel.  Among those gold seekers were Guy,Lawrence, a pioneer surveyor,
and his father, who arived in Atlin in May 1900.
10
11
12
Charles Horetzky, Canada on the Pacific, Montreal:  1874;  Walter Moberly,
The Rocks and Rivers of British Columbia, London, 1885;  C.A. Shaw, Tales
of a Pioneer Surveyor, 1970; Pierre Berton, The National Dream, Toronto,
1970 and The Last Spike, Toronto, 1971;  G.S. Andrews, "The Bell-Irving
Land Surveyors in British Columbia, " B.C. Historical News, Vol. 12, no. 4
(summer 1979), pp. 11-16.
Gordon E. Bowes, comp. Peace River Chronicles, Vancouver, 1963.
Georgiana Ball, "The Peter Martin Case and the Provisional Settlement of
the Stikine Boundary," BC Studies, no. 10 (Summer 1971), pp. 35-55.
 -12-
Guy Lawrence tells an amusing example of the esteem enjoyed by
pioneer surveyors.  J.H. Brownlee, CE, DLS, LS, had come to British
Columbia from Manitoba about 1887.  In 1899, the provincial government
employed him to survey the townsite at Atlin where he was prominent in other
surveys and mining. He was also a reputed poker player. Lawrence relates
that Taku Jack, chief of the Taku tribe at Atlin was a giant of a man and
well liked by the whites.  After several daughters, his wife finally presented
him with a male heir which caused rejoicing in the tribe.  Jack decided to
do things up right, and approached the Anglican priest about having the
boy christened. A Saturday was arranged. Punctually he, with wife and
papoose, accompanied by numerous relatives arrived at the church, all in
their best clothes and heavily pomaded with bear's grease. The Rev. F.L.
Stephenson led them to the font and asked what name they had chosen.  In
stentorian tones, Taku Jack announced, "We call 'im Jesus Christ." Greatly
shocked, Stephenson told him this would be a sacrilege, and to think of some
other name. Retiring outside, the natives held a long conflab, finally
returning to the font when Jack said, "We call 'im J.H. Brownlee" and
"J.H. Brownlee" the child was christened.  Evidently Taku Jack considered
that after Jesus Christ, Brownlee was "No. 1."
The career of the late Frank C. Swannell, PLS, DLS (1880-1969) bridged
the transition from the utter primitive before World War I to incipient
sophistication at the outbreak of World War II. He was a keen photographer
and a meticulous diarist.  Thanks largely to his surviving family, his
negatives and diaries are now safe in the Provincial Archives.  From this
material, a comprehensive exhibit was displayed in the Archives in 1978 and
in the Provincial Museum in 1979.  It is currently "on the road" and the
opportunity to see it is recommended.
Swannell once remarked that the first mechanical aid to wilderness
travel was the outboard motor, just prior to World War I.  It mitigated
arduous rowing, paddling, poling and lining of river craft, both up and down
stream.  In the late 1920's the optical-reading theodolite made its first
appearance in B.C. Compact, stream-lined and reading directly to 1 second
of arc, it weighed less than half of the previous type, which read only to
fractions of minutes by hard-to-read verniers.  The 1930's witnessed the
advent of bush flying with pontoons, giving quick access to countless lakes
in strategic locations, otherwise inaccessible. About the same time, radio
communication appeared to co-ordinate field operations and broaden the
scope and effect of weather reports.  Finally, by the late 1930s, the
all-seeing eye of air survey photography had become a practical requirement
in field and office.  In retirement, Swannell lived to witness the electronic
break-through in distance measurement and office computations.
13
14
In July, 1924, the author with two companions, six horses and two dogs,
packed through the Pine Pass westbound from Kelly Lake (south of Pouce
Coupe) to McLeod Lake, Fort St. James and Vanderhoof. At that time, the
only exceptions to pristine wilderness through the pass were occasional
trappers' shelters and their intermittent trails.  Today, the pass
accommodates a highway, a railroad, two pipelines, the B.C. Hydro grid, and
a micro-wave system.
Guy Lawrence, 40 Years on the Yukon Telegraph, 1965.
 -13-
When in the mood, and in rapport with his audience, Swannell was
an entertaining raconteur with a lively sense of humour. He and the late
George V. Copley were lifelong friends.  They courted two girl chums in
Victoria. After a double wedding early in 1904 and ensuing honeymoons, the
summer field season arrived all too soon. The brides were left for long
months 'incommunicado'. Mid-season, while occupying a wilderness station,
an Indian chanced to pass, heading for a remote post office. Seizing opportunity by the forelock, they tore a blank sheet from the field-book, George
writing to Mabel on one side and Frank to Ada on the other. Contriving
postage, envelope and address, the letter was entrusted to the Indian and
was eventually posted. Months later on their return from the field, their
welcome was tempered with poignant protest that had they torn the sheet in
half, using both sides separately, each bride could have treasured her own
'billet doux' from her sweetie.
On a later occasion, Swannell and Copley were organizing the field
party at Fort St. James for take-off 'into the blue yonder' for long months.
Copley, having a vivid imagination and a facile hand, spenti a couple of
hours writing a series of letters to Mabel, post-dated two weeks apart, sealed
them in separate numbered envelopes and instructed the postmaster to mail
them at intervals accordingly.  The latter, with other preoccupations of
the trading post, forgot, and dumped all of George's letters in the bag to
go out next mail. Poor George had some very imaginative explaining to do
when at the season's end, he returned to Mabel.
In October 1914, the same colleagues were returning from a season
in the upper Finlay river. Coming downstream, on rounding a bend, they
noticed an old pair of 'long Johns' suspended from a pole stuck in the
river bank.  Realizing it had significance, they landed to find tacked on
a large spruce tree, the front page of a newspaper dated 4 August 1914
with the headlines "BRITAIN DECLARES WAR ON GERMANY".  The war had been in
progress more than two months without their knowledge.
In his remote surveys, Swannell had a reputation for always being
able to produce a tot of rum to forestall fatal effects of hypothermia on
members of his crew.  His secret was, that as the original contents of the
bottle diminished, he would 'top up' with fresh water, and firmly replace
the cork. Once, when his intrepid packer, Jo (Skook) Davidson arrived in
camp, after a long hard trek, on downing Frank's life saving potion, Skook
remarked "Gosh Chief, that rum sure has a wonderful flavor of cold spring
water!" Near the season's end, a 'junior' on the party had ordered a bottle
to sparingly allay the rigours of approaching winter. On Skook's return
with supplies, the lad was delighted and surprised to receive his consignment
intact, seal unbroken.  In a grateful impulse, he offered the bottle to Skook,
saying he deserved the first taste,  whereupon the old packer removed the
cork, tossed it in the river, and downed a copious draught, saying in response
to the lad's look of dismay, "What do we want the cork for?"
 -14-
In general, as already remarked, the early surveyors were cultured,
well educated gentlemen. Their choice of a career in the primitive, arduous
and often hazardous environment bespoke courage, stamina, love of adventure
with an appreciation of the beauties of Nature and the comeradeship of simple
but worthy and colorful companions, including the aborigines.  Several,
like W.G. Pinder, T.S. Gore, H.O. Bell-Irving and E.C.W. Lamarque displayed
artistic sensitivity and skill in their sketches, many in colour. Many were
accomplished linguists.  Those working on the B.C. Coast were, by necessity,
conversant in Chinook, the trade jargon of the natives.  Their well-written
official reports and other literary legacies make informative and entertaining
reading.
Henry Hughes Browne, C.E., P.L.S., (1862-1932) was a prolific writer.
His auto-biography   is' a classic in humour and interest.  In 1883, after
ubiquitous surveys in the old N.W. Territories, he was with a party running
north on the 120th Meridian, the Boundary between Alberta and British Columbia,
in the Peace River region.  He remarked on the climate etc. on the left of
the line being conspicuously preferable to what was on the right (the Alberta)
side. At school he had learned in Euclid that parallel lines met at Infinity,
but in some of the early quarter sections on the prairies, the north and
south boundaries, theoretically parallel, seemed to meet "a couple of miles
out".  Browne and Frank Swannell were friends.  In 1929, Frank visited Harry
in Port Alberni, who presented Frank with a Nootkan hat for "his Mrs." in
Victoria.  The gift was accompanied by the following poem written partly in
Chinook:
"Frank dedicates an Easter bonnet to his Wife:
1789-1929
*
When Wekininnish went to war
Against his ancient foe Maquinna ,
The braves assembled near and far,       f
The Klootchmanc, sollex^, koolie, kimta .
When the great Ulysses sailed for Troy
He gave his wife a stint of weaving.
She undertook the job with joy
To celebrate the old man's leaving.
The Siawash8 Tyeeh, like the Greek,
Had set his wife to weave a bonnet, '
And she obeyed, being dumb and meek,
And spent a year or so upon it.
So interwoven in the woof
Of this old Clayoquot icta ,
You see once more the tragic proof,
Wives must obey their husbands' dicta.
H.H. Browne.
15
H.H. Browne, "Autobiography," B.C.L.S., Annual Report, 1930,
 -15-
Notes: a Clayoquot Chief, vicinity Long Beach, Vancouver Island
b Clayoquot Chief, vicinity Nootka, Vancouver Island
c Woman (women)
d Unhappy, angry
e close
f behind
g Indian
h Chief
i thing, object
Browne was not the only surveyor poet. James Herrick McGregor, PLS
(1869-1915), well known throughout British Columbia before being killed
in World War I, Wrote on a wide variety of topics in prose and poetry, for
local dailies and other journals. About 1913, he assembled these in one
cover, "The Wisdom of Waloopi" for private circulation.-"-°
Many surveyors were also artists. A good illustration is the manuscript journal of the Bedaux Expedition, 1934, and the large route plan,
adorned with numerous sketches by E.C.W. Lamarque, DLS, BCLS (1879-1970).
His delineations of wilderness scenes, weather phenomena, his companions —
aminal and human, by word and line are delightful and should merit publication
with minimal editing.•*•'
Time and space have allowed only a synoptic treatment of the subject.
We have emphasized the close-knit character of a uniquely small profession
and touched on its evolution in legal status. The role of the early primary
surveys on sea and land, especially railroad location have been emphasized.
The evolution from the unmechanized primitive to modern technology has been
remarked. Capsule examples from individuals have been selected to show their
color, reality and humour as well as their cultural and literary attainments.
For my "Finis" it seems fitting to return to our old humourist, H.H. Browne
by quoting his own epitaph, found among his papers:
Beneath this Cairn and Witness Post'
A Land Surveyor's bones are laid:
The Bearing Trees inform his ghost
When hubs from Azimuth have strayed.
Along the front, where moved his tent,
Departure grew with Latitude,
But still he never saved a cent:
His recompense on high he views.
He seldom grumbled at his lot
(Surveyors are not built that way),
But made the best of what he got
And called the fraction "Parcel A."
Methinks I hear this message short
As from Polaris he looks down,
"Sir, I've the honour to report, "
Your most obedient servant
Browne
16
J.H. McGregor, The Wisdom of Waloopi, [1913]
 -16-
TT
Lt. Col. Andrews, who contributed the article on the Bell-Irving
land surveyors in our Summer 1979 issue, read this paper to the
Vancouver Historical Society, November 28, 1979.
E.C.W. Lamarque, "Travels & Explorations in Northern B.C. - 1934,"
(for the Bedaux Expedition), manuscript in Rocky Mountain Archives,
Banff, Alberta (with plan).
TABLE I
1891
83
1910
130
1914
260
1918
130
1921
215
1943
105
1955
155
1965
191
1970
199
1979
281
TABLE
II
Names:
(1)
(2)
(3)
Born
Dec.
(4)
(5)
LEWES, Adolphus Lee
C
1820
1856
?36
a, 51
+*PEMBERTON, Joseph Despard
CE
I
1821
1893
72
a, 51
GRANT, Walter Colquhoun
S
1823
1862
39
b, 51
+ TRUTCH, Joseph William (Sir)
CE
E
1926
1904
78
c
*RALPH, William
?
1830
1905
75
57
+ PEARSE, Benjamin William
CE
E
1832
1902
70
a
MOBERLY, Walter
CE
E
1832
1915
83
a
DEWDNEY, Edgar (Hon.)
CE
E
1835
1916
81
a
*TURNER, George (RE)
E
1836
1919
83
28
*M0HUN, Edward
CE
E
1838
1912
74
a
*GREEN, Ashdown Henry
CE
E
1840
1927
87
28
+*FARWELL, Arthur Stanhope
CE
E
1841
1908
67
a
+ GORE, William Sinclair
CE,
DLS
C
1842
1919
77
a
*HUNTER, Joseph
CE
S
1842
1935
93
36
*PELLY, Richard Stuart
E
1846
1928
82
28
*HARGREAVES, George
?
?1847
1910
?63
a
*PATRICK, Allan Poyntz, DTS
DLS
C
1849
1948
99
dl
*AYLMER, Frederick W. (Hon.)
CE
C
1850
1920
70
a
+*McKAY, Eric Barclay
CE
S
1850
1922
72
a
*PINDER, William George
CE
E
1850
1936
86
37
 -17-
TABLE II (cont'd.)
Names
(1)  (2)
(3) Born  Dec.
(4) (5)
*GORE, Thomas Sinclair
+*KAINS, Tom
*HARRIS, Dennis Reginald
*HEYLAND, Alfred Rowley
COTTON, Arthur Frederick
CE DLS
CE DLS
CE
CE DLS
C
C
E
I
C
1851
1851
1851
1852
1852
1937
1901
1932
1919
1925
86
50
81
67
73
37
71
33
71
29
*BUSK, Charles Westley
*GRAY, John Hamilton
HAMILTON, Lauchlan Alex
CUMMINS, Arthur Patrick
*KIRK, John Albert
CE
CE
CE
DLS
DLS
E
C
C
I
C
1852
1852
1852
1853
1854
1934
1941
1941
1936
1930
82
89
89
83
76
35
42
d2
37
31
*BURNYEAT, John Purvis CE
*GAUVREAU, Narcisse Belleau CE
*BELL-IRVING, Henry Ogle CE
*BROWNLEE, James Harrison CE
*SMITH, George Arbuthnot
DLS
C
C
S
c
s
1855
1855
1856
1856
1858
1923
1933
1931
1934
1934
68
78
75
78
76
a
34
79
35
35
*LEE, Robert Henry
WHEELER, Arthur Oliver
*PRIEST, Elijah
*HERMON, Ernest Bolton
*DEVEREUX, Francis Algernon
CE
CE
CE
DLS
DLS
U
I
1
C
C
1859
1860
1861
1863
1867
1935
1945
1946
1937
1960
76
85
85
74
93
36
d3
47
38
56
Totals:  40 Land surveyors
26  10  Mean: 1847  1923
76
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Columns:  (1)  Civil Engineer
Dominion Land Surveyor
Country of birth: C=Canada 15
E=England 12
1=Ireland 4
S=Scotland 5
U=U.S.A. 1
Life span, years  ?= 3
Source of biography or obituary:
a = Provincial Archives of British Columbia
b = Akrigg, British Columbia Chronicle 1847-1871, 1977.
c = Andrews, Sir Joseph William Trutch", 1972.
dl = The Canadian Surveyor, Vol. 9, No. 11, January 1949.
d2 = The Canadian Surveyor, Vol. 7, No.  4, April 1941.
d3 = The Canadian Surveyor, Vol. 8, No.  8, April 1945.
57, 28, 36, etc. = Annual Reports of the BCLS Corporation
for the years 1957, 1928, 1936, etc. respectively
* authorization as Land Surveyor notified in the British Columbia Gazette,
18 December 1890 and 5 January 1891 by W.S. Gore, Surveyor General.
+ Surveyors General of British Columbia and/or Vancouver Island.
// Lieutenant Governors of British Columbia.
 -18-
TABLE III
J.W. Trutch: Great Northern, Liverpool & Edinburgh; Great Western, 1843-49.
J.D. Pemberton: various in Britain, cl843-48. '•
W. Moberly: Ontario, Simcoe & Huron, cl855;  CPR Location (B.C.) 1871-74.
E. Mohun:  CPR location (B.C.), 1871-72.
A.H. Green: CPR location (B.C.), 1871-80.
A.S. Farwell:  CPR location (B.C.) and construction, 1880-c83.
W.S. Gore: Chicago, Burlington & Quincy (U.S.A.), 1864 et seq.
J. Hunter: CPR Location (B.C.) and E & N, 1872-79.
George Hargreaves: CPR location (B.C.), 1872.
A.P. Patrick:  CPR location (North of Great Lakes) c 1870.
F.W. Aylmer:  CPR (B.C.), 1881 et seq.
W.G. Pinder:  CPR location (B.C), 1871 et seq; E&N, cl880's.
T.S. Gore:  Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, cl869; Credit Valley (Ontario),
cl870; Nelson & Fort Sheppard (B.C.), cl900-10.
Tom Kains: various in Ontario, before 1880.
D.R. Harris: Canada Central, 1868-70; CPR location (Ontario), 1870-72;
(B.C.), 1872-78.
A.F. Cotton:  Crand Trunk Pacific (B.C.), 1903-04; National Transcontinental
(Ontario), 1905.
C.W. Busk: London, Northern & Western, 1868 et seq.; CPR (Ontario), 1882;
Ontario & Quebed, 1882-83; E & N (B.C.), cl883-85.
J.H. Gray: CPR & others (Ontario), 1871-73; CPR (B.C.), 1874-84; E&N, 1884-87;
Shuswap and Okanagan, 1889-94; Kaslo & Slocan, 1894-1903.
L.A. Hamilton:  CPR (B.C.), cl880's.
A.P. Cummins:  India State Railways, cl874-77.
N.B. Gauvreau:  CPR (Ontario), 1874-76, 79-80;  Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa &
Occidental, 1876-8; CPR (B.C.), & Crowsnest, 1880-5, 97-99;
CNR, 1899-1905.
H.O. Bell-Irving:  London Northerns Western, cl867 et seq;  CPR location
(B.C.) 1882-5.
J.H. Brownlee:  CPR prior to 1880.
G.A. Smith:  Milwauki, Lakeshore & Western, cl885; CPR (Manitoba, cl886;
CPR and CNR (Vancouver Island), cl910.
R.H. Lee:  Union Pacific (Colorado), cl875-84; Nicola & Similkameen, cl885-c98.
E.B. Herman:  CPR (B.C.), after 1886; Vancouver, Westminster, Northern and
Yukon, cl901.
F.A. Devereux:  E&N, British Pacific, Kaslo & Slocan, 1885, c 1895.
 -19-
FLYING REMINISCENCES, 1909-1959
Perhaps it wasn't exactly powered flight:  it was a fire-powered balloon...
a little over fifty years ago in Victoria, at the Willows Track. An open fire
under an open-mouthed balloon kept hot air rising into the envelope, which
developed lift to carry aloft a brave aerobat, who sat on a bar below the fire-
pot.
Then, in 1910, came Chas. K. Hamilton to Minoru Park. And a very
fine show he put on, with a Curtiss type biplane, with interplane ailerons
and a triangular undercarriage. He performed what was called a "vol plane",
which was in fact a glide, with the motor shut down. More than once he did
minor damage when landing. But he also raced a Ford car around the track:
outpacing it, and playfully dipping down at the driver and he made a sterling
cross-country to Westminster and back. My friend John McCurdy tells me
Hamilton had been with the Bell-McCurdy team as a mechanic. Some of the
design of the Curtiss may well have been developed in Canada at the Silver
Dart camp.
Hendon aerodrome outside London, England, and Johannisthal outside Berlin
were as busy as any of the world's pre-1914 airfields, and at Johannisthal
one summer day in 1913 I saw a lot of flying, of the beautiful 'Taube' types:
bird-like curved wing monoplanes. One, somewhat sleeker, and straight-edged,
came apart in the air: my first sight of a fatal crash. Many years afterwards
my friend Tony Fokker told me he had pleaded with that young man.  "It will
break...you will kill yourself...wait, please, until the engineers shall look
at it." But his advice was not taken.
At Hendon I was a frequent schoolboy spectator.  Grahame-White with his
'Boxkite': Turner, Hamel, Chevillard, Verrier, Pegoud. With Deperdussin, Bleriot,
Caudron, Farman, and Breguet aircraft:  it was quite a busy field.
In 1914 my brother Malcolm (Mickey) was working with a survey crew in
northern B.C. When war broke out he went straight to England.  Before the
end of the year he had talked himself into a commission in the R.F.C., and
was learning to fly at the Brooklands auto track. He went to France with
No. 1 Squadron.  I believe he was the first civilian Canadian to get into the
R.F.C.:  the first to get to the war:  and the first to be decorated with the
D.S.O. Later he was with the R.F.C. (Can.) at Camp Borden and Deseronto.
He and "Art" Tylee were great friends.
I had meanwhile come from Canada as a motorcyclist in the 16th Battalion,
but by the spring of 1915 I was a subaltern in the Gordon Highlanders, in the
front line, temporarily attached to the 2nd Battalion, Queen's Own Cameron
Highlanders.
The morning sky was frequently dotted with minute white shell-burst:  the
apparently still smaller aircraft invariably leading the shell-burst line.
No good looking for it except ahead of the last burst. Almost solemnly the
bursts would follow the aircraft around the loop of its reconnaissance:  perhaps to Lille-Roubaix-Tournai:  perhaps to Douai-Mons-Maubeuge.
 -20-
One noon-day I was standing in my shirt in the breast-works at Chapelle
d'Armentieres; I had taken off my kilt, laid it on the parados, and was carefully going through the seams with a lighted match, popping off the minor denizens at the top of each pleat. There developed that type of a stir which
bespeaks what is now known as top brass. The coterie passed me in a swish
of narrow passage and murmured conversation. Later information indicated the
distinguished visitor was The Mackintosh. In Scotland, in his particular
hierarchy, ranking with the reigning monarch. During the passing of such an
auspicious visitor I was studiously unobserved.
Some days later, back in billets, came an Army Order: Officers prepared
to volunteer for duty with the Royal Flying Corps were to be permitted to make
application, through the usual channels. My Company Commander sent for me:
"Bell-Irving? You're a Gordon? You're the officer was in his shirt-tails
when th'Mackintosh came...verra reprehensible...well, th' Commanding Officer
says since you're not one of us, you may volunteer for this Flying Corps, if
you're so minded. He'll not let a Cameron go..."
Weeks passed: I was back with my own Regiment, at the Bluff, at Ypres,
breathing the sour air of a muddied battle ground, covering up the bodies
of Frenchmen who had fallen there six months before, and whom we exposed sometimes in our efforts to get a protective depth to our wr&tched trench.
Back at billets: a party: my twenty-first birthday:  "And goodbye to you,
laddie: off to join the suicide club...an'a guid guidbye to ye..."
Off in the rain to Cassel:  twenty miles on an army horse:  thence by train
to St. Omer, where to celebrate the occasion the Germans put on a bomb-raid,
in the early hours of the morning, whilst I was asleep in the train at the
railway yard.
Next at the H.Q., R.F.C.: Colonel Festing was a gracious but preoccupied
examining officer.  I went through a thoroughly British examination:  more
concerned with my motivation than any obscure medical matters. When a tray
of coloured wool was produced I suggested: "If you're in a hurry, Sir, we
don't need that..." Modestly I turned to him:  "You see I'm something of an
artist, in an amateur way." Col. Festing was more interested in R.F.C.
reinforcements, and my colour-blindness went undetected.
In No. 7 Squadron I found myself in the somewhat bared magnificence of a
large chateau, in a wood near the aerodrome. Later in the air in a Voisin
three-wheeled biplane, which must have been one of the largest aircraft of
those days, Barry Moore, the pilot, cursed it violently. He said that at
one point he had quite lost control. I had not been aware of it. I learned,
though, that a kilt was an unsuitable garment for flying: I soon switched
to tartan breeches..normally a prerogative of field officers.
RE5s and BE2Cs were the other types in the Squadron:  reconnaissance was
our job.  At times such missions as message-dropping to spies behind the lines
were an added interest:  it was difficult to locate a man in strange
country, perhaps a hundred miles to the Eastward, with no form of communication
and the rendezvous only approachable in daylight and (insofar as the aircraft
was concerned) undisguised.
 -21-
We carried little in the way of protective or offensive weapons in those
days, and in this the Germans were ahead of us. After a couple of quite serious
engagements had followed a lot less deadly, I was allowed to wear the badge
of a qualified Observer. This was soon followed, in November 1915, after
an encounter with Immelmann in his famous Fokker, by the luxury of a London
hospital: Lady Ridley's residence, turned into a hospital for officers:
fronting on the Mall, by the Waverley Steps.
Then to fast single-seaters, as a pilot, after training on French
aircraft at Farnborough and Upavon: Maurice and Henry Farman biplanes, then
Morane-Saulnier and Nieuport types; single seaters powered with rotary
motors:  fast for those days, yet making less than three figures in MPH at
operational height. Called Scouts, they were light and sensitive, and coupled
the fixed machine gun to the controls, so that the pilot was in a sense a
flying machine gun, and to survive he had to be accurate with both the
controls and the trigger.
There was a lot of air fighting over the Somme in 1916. Practically a
fight or two every sortie. We were always over enemy occupied territory.
Although the German aircraft performed better than ours, still morale was
high: we were trying to catch up to Albert Ball, first of the British stars,
and McCudden, who was almost daily adding to his score.  I once met McCudden
at St. Omer. He had just returned from leave in England.  "Eight years ago,
Bleriot was the first man to fly the Channel," he said, "eight minutes ago
I was the last."
We had some trouble with aircraft. They were not performing well. The
Germans seem to have made the only good magnetos in those days, and the rotary
motor was very sensitive. So with our unserviceability we were not always
there "with the mostest". Finally, three Mieuports escorted thirty bombers
(BE2Cs and FE2Bs), and we were set upon by half the Luftwaffe, led by the
newcomer Richtofen. We three did what we could to get our men out and home,
but we were all shot down before long. Two of us survived: Norman Brearley,
an Australian, crawled his painful way out, shellhole to shellhole, with a
bullet through both his lungs.  I was blackened and singed by fire, and had
a hole through my legs, and I was lifted gently to a stretcher by bearers who
were proud to have been up when their infantry unit had captured that tiny
salient that morning.
When wounded a year before I had been unconscious until safely tucked up
in a hospital bed:  this time I saw all the various stages and steps:  the
waits and the waggons, the shell-shocked men: muddied, muddled, staff and
orderlies:  pathetic flotsam cluttering up war's beach-head. Back to a point
where motor ambulances could be used, from the advanced dressing station:
to the Casualty Clearing Station, where the Padre, who came from my father's
village in Dumfriesshire, sent wires for me, and was kind to the boy who did
not live through that dark night.
Again to Lady Ridley's Hospital, where by brother Mickey was ahead of me,
getting attention from the prettiest nurses, and where my sister Isabel was
working by now, as a VAD.
 -22-
Thence to serve as Chief Flying Instructor to that great Irishman,
Bob Smith-Barry, back from command of our 60 Squadon in France, with a brief
from Headquarters to improve the standard of flying by the introduction of
his own dynamic system of flying training. How we did fly'. Now we really
did get to know the whys and wherefores. With me on this staff was another
Vancouver boy: J. Scott-Williams: he flew like an angel, and raised
hilarious hell wherever he went. After the war he discovered, by air, some
of the attractions of that part of Northern B.C. which now is being talked
of in terms of hydro-electric power.
In August 1917 I crashed badly, while test flying an experimental
combination of airframe and motor. Six months later Smith-Barry came to
London and charmed medical officers and medical board officials into releasing
me: back to Gosport where we had our School of Special Flying. I was promoted to the rank of Major, to command.
I did not fly in Canada, after the war, until 1928, when A.H. (Hal.) Wilson,
Ernie Eve, and Nick Carter, in Victoria, were already doing what I then set
out to do in Vancouver. But my basic plan was slightly different: it was
aimed specifically at the establishment of an air component of the Militia
in Canada. A non-permanent Air Force. This idea was not well received, even
by members of the permanent force, wh" T/ere having a desperately tough time
getting any money from the Federal Treasury, and who realised that funds
required for non-permanent air activities would have to be met from their vote.
So we followed the English plan, and obtained a small Government subsidy,
with which we kept trained pilots flying in light aeroplanes, and trained
replacements 'ab initio'.
These activities were popular, and blossomed into three separate and
useful branches, each extolling (for political reasons) their peaceful
intent:  Flying Clubs, Auxiliary Squadrons of the RCAF, and Air Cadets. Each
had a direct or indirect connection with Air Force authority; each played an
important part in Canada's Second War effort.  In 1939, when war broke out,
the Auxiliary Squadron at once became merged or identified with permanent
formations.  Shortly afterward the Clubs became the Elementary Flying Training
Schools, and the most junior, the Air Cadet units, spread like wild fire
across the country, under the new national formation:  the Air Cadet League:
and they have provided a large fraction of RCAF personnel ever since.
Two permanent force officers of the RCAF, who served as pre-war adjutants
of the Vancouver non-permanent Squadron, come to my mind.  One is Air Marshal
Hugh Campbell, who became Chief of Air Staff, the other is Group Captain
(now Squadrom Leader) E.A. McCowan (Ret'd).
The Joint Air Training Plan began in 1940:  the September opening of #4
SFTS at Saskatoon was only a little ahead of winter, and intense cold prior
to completion of station heating arrangements developed the "Pipe Dream", where
each hangar office had its makeshift chimney:  no two seemed alike. Warming
up Anson and Harvard motors was a problem we soon overcame, and the clear cold
weather was quite suprisingly suitable for flying training. A smartly uniformed corps of local civilian stenographers, employed at the Station, preceded
by some months the official establishment of the RCAF (WD).  I am sorry no
photographic record of this beauty chorus exists today.
 -23-
From Saskatoon to #1 Training Command, Toronto, in August '41, under a
darkish cloud, perhaps developed by my impatience. There, my friend 'Ferdy'
Marani soothed me with the vintage and peace of old Ontario history. Thence
to command #1 B&C School at Jarvis, where we had a fine Station, though I recall
with sadness there were more fatal air collisions than I remember anywhere
in my experience. But the School was well regarded, for in September I received
a very kind letter from the CAS, and in October my old friend Frank McGill
(already AVM) wrote:  "I think we're going to have some good news for you
shortly." A few days later I was posted to RCAF Station, Trenton, to command.
I took over from Ralph McBurney, and with a capable staff and the help of
Station Warrant Officer John Silver I did what I could to uphold the prestige
of that great Station. My wife was with me, and we made many good friends.
Here I flew a Hurricane (my most modern warlike type) and took it one day to
35,200 ft. Nobody at Trenton had been that high before, and I think the
airmen were amused that'the "Old Man' should do it.
Came "V.E." Day: Ottawa was afraid of premature announcements; but I
arranged a special Station assembly parade. Instead of the usual marching
off: "You may go, now." The troops broke of in all directions, and a very
gay break-off it was, lasting far into the night.
I brought home from Trenton the little Fleet Finch seaplane: it was
afterwards known as "B.Q.B." Over the ten years after the war we both grew
old together. I was never quite sure whether my aging technique or B.Q.B.'s
aging performance would write finis to my flying. Finally a combination of
the two ended under a bridge at New Westminster. With a couple of cracked
ribs I did not have the strength to climb aboard a tugboat. B.Q.B. was
reduced to scrap slavage on a nearby sandbar.
Desmond Murphy of the D. of T. was much relieved, not to have to ground
us both, for decrepitude.
Alan Duncan Bell-Irving, a Vancouver lawyer, prepared these
reminiscences in 1959.
NOTE
Mr. Gordon Bell-Irving who supplied us with his father's "Flying
Reminiscences" published in this issue of the News pointed out a slight
inaccuracy in G.S. Andrews' article "The Bell-Irving Land Surveyors in
British Columbia" published in Volume 12, No. 4.  On page 13, footnote
2, Alan Duncan Harry should read Alan Duncan Bell-Irving, there being no
Harry in that generation of the family.
 -24-
OLD TRAILS AND ROUTES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA   by R.C. Harris
TRAILS NEAR AKAMINA ASTRONOMICAL STATION AND CAMP Southeastern British Columbia.
There are two historic trails over the Rocky Mountains in the
extreme southeast of B.C. that deserve to be better known and used: the
South Kootenay and the Akamina.
The South Kootenay Pass was the first route reported in the district.
It was the traditional Indian way between the Tobacco Plains, (Straddling
the 49th parallel where the Kootenay River leaves B.C.) and the Buffalo
Plains (of southwest Alberta).  Lt. T. Blakiston, R.A., detached from the
Palliser expedition, named it the Boundary Pass when he crossed in 1858; he
was not aware of any alternative between it and the border.
Owing to its destination, the name Kootenay, Kutanie or Kootenai was
liberally applied at the eastern end of the trail when Europeans arrived,
particularly to Waterton Lakes and Blakiston Brook, and by association, to
John George (Kootenai) Brown, one of the original settlers, and eventually the
first park warden.
2
The south Kootenay trail was shorter than the Akamina route described
next, and most of the way it ran over better ground. A finger of prairie
reaches a long way up Blakiston Brook on the Alberta side. There are still
patches of meadow, after the prairie ends. However, the crossing of the divide
is steeper, rockier, and 1000 feet higher than the Akamina;  the saddle is
"merely a low point on the skyline." It was never considered for a road or
a railway.
In contrast, Akamina pass is a mile wide, and so flat that the interpro-
vincial boundary, nominally on the divide, had to be defined as a series of
straight lines between monuments.  The name is Indian;  George Giws of the
U.S. North West Boundary Survey, 1857-61, collected and published Indian names
along the border.  He reports "Kam-i-na" to mean watershed.
The discovery of gold in B.C. in 1858 forced the decision to mark
B.C.'s southern boundary, in accordance with the Oregon Treaty of 1846.  U.S.
and British Coundary Commissions were set up, operating independently at most
places, but jointly at such important points as the ends of the line,
monuments 1 and 161.
"The Kootanie and Boundary Passes of the Rocky Mountains," Explored in
1858 by Lieutenant Blakiston.
2
Reconnaissance Map of a Portion of the Rocky Mountains, 1886.
3
B.C. - Alberta Boundary Commission:  Maps 1, 2, 3.
Report on U.S. Northwest Boundary Survey of 1857-61.  U.S. Geological
Survey, Bulletin #174.
 -25-
The Akamina route was opened by the joint Boundary Commission in 1861,
as they worked east along the 49th parallel, from the Gulf of Georgia to
the summit of the Rocky mountains, surveying and monumenting as they thought
necessary. To reach the east end of their line, they diverged from the South  5
Kootenay trail at the mouth of Akamina Brook, about 10 miles west of the divide.
They cut a trail through heavy fallen timber, along the north bank of the Akamina
travelling southeasterly to its source in Forum Lake, a great cirque just
north of the border, and a little west of the continental divide.  Forum
Lake discharges underground for the first quarter mile. Here, in a small
meadow, the Commission set up their astronomical station and camp, and
determined their latitude and longitude from the stars. With this information, they computed their distance (5254.8 feet) north of the 49th parallel.
From camp, they traversed east on to the divide, and built a trail
south, high above Cameron Lake, until they had gone the required distance.
Here, on the divide, they set a "pile of stones", monument 161, in an
almost inaccessible grassy saddle.  The U.S. and British determinations of
the 49th parallel in this saddle were 38 feet apart. They split the
difference. Later surveys showed monument 161 to be about 400 yards south
of the 49th parallel, but it was not corrected, in fact it was augmented
by an "iron pillar".
Owing to the American Civil War, the copious U.S. and British reports
and maps of this survey were never properly published. However, enough
information was resurrected to help the three subsequent boundary surveys,
which all made use of monument 161 and of the same trails for access.
The next boundary survey, 1872 to 1876, came westwards along the
49th parallel, over the prairies from the Lake of the Woods to the summit
of the Rickies.  From 1901 to 1907 the southern boundary of British Columbia
was completely resurveyed.  Finally, the British Columbia - Alberta boundary
was laid out and marked along the great divide from 1914 to 1923.  Dr.
G.M. Dawson of the Geological Survey of Canada was geologist on the survey
west from the Lake of the Woods.  His orders took him as far west as the
mouth of Akamina Creek. He reported some difficulty in finding monument 161
(which became no. 382 of his survey):
"Monument 161 stands in a saddle-shaped depression of the
watershed ridge, walled in on two sides [north & south]
by high, rocky peaks, while the other two are bounded
by an almost precipitous descent....  Far down, on the
east side is [Cameron Lake]"
The 49th parallel was an astronomical boundary, a continuous curve
disregarding topographic restraints, making no concessions for mountains or
cliffs, swamps or glaciers.  With an eye to economy, the original 1857-61
survey from the Gulf of Georgia slashed the border and placed monument, only
intermittently.  In all, but half of the B.C. boundary was defined, mainly
in the valleys and on the ridges, where it was deemed that people would settle
or travel.
5
6
"Map of Waterton Lakes Park, Alberta", from photographic surveys by
Bridgeland and Wheeler, January 1918.
U.S. Northern Boundary Commission 1872-76. G.M. Dawson, Geological Survey
of Canada, AR VI, 1885.
  -27-
In the 30 years following this survey, settlement and mineral
exploration increased to the point where the whole line had to be marked.
This was done from 1901 to 1907;  one hundred and eleven monuments were
added, making the monument on the continental divide No. 272.  This time
the U.S. and British Commissions published a joint atlas, 19 maps beautifully
prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey.  Old and new monuments are identified;
it is well to remember that all monuments except No. 1 were renumbered.
Between 1914 and 1919 a joint British Columbia - Alberta commission
surveyed and monumented the inter-provincial boundary north from monument
272 (161).  Theirs was a natural or watershed boundary. They worked north
and south from the passes along the divide. A.O. Sheeler, B.C.L.S., describes
with photographs, the location of monunent 272 in his annual report for
1915:
"Monument 272 occurs on the flat summit of a little
grassy col, with a few larch trees on it, which makes a
gap between two sharp ridges of rock. No more suitable
spot could have happened....  and the iron pillar
erected to a heigh of six feet is visible from many miles
distant, both north and south."
East of Akamina pass, the pack trail was continued down to the outlet
of Cameron Lake, then northeast down Cameron Brook, mostly on the left bank.
At the difficult canyon section of Cameron Brook, where the vally turns from
northeast to southeast, the trail turned north through a low (Crandell) pass.
From here it was an easy descent to rejoin the South Kootenay trail onqBlaki-
ston Brook, about 10 miles east of the divide, at the present Crandell
campsite.
The discovery of oil seepages on Cameron Brook  caused "Oil City"
and drill rigs to be set up near Crandell pass.  A waggon road was built
through the pass in the 1890s, connecting Oil City to Pincher Creek.  Cameron
Brook was named Oil Creek, to stimulate production, which regrettably ceased
after 230 barrels.
In 1914, John Gloyn of Pincher Creek extended this waggon road up
Cameron Brook and 6 miles into B.C.   to his oil prospect on Akamina Brook,
at the mouth of Grizzly Gulch.  His road was laid out on an easy grade,
requiring very little earth work.  There have been several cycles of improving
this road for vehicles, and for resource extraction., but at present the
road on the B.C. side is washed out in several places.  Gloyn's road up
Cameron Brook became Parks Canada's blacktopped "Akamina Highway" to
Cameron Lake.  It runs only hald a mile east of Akamina Pass, and but 500
feet below it.  The pass was proposed for a loop highway through an
international park comprising U.S. Glacier Park, Waterton Lakes, and the
Akamina.  In the 1930s, a broad right-of-way1 was cleared through the trees
Q
B.C. - Alberta Boundary Commission:  Report Pt. I, 1913-16, p. 70.
Geological Survey of Canada, SR 1890, 1891.  p. 9A - 13A. A.R. Selwyn.
9
"Map of Waterton Lakes Park, Alberta" from photographic surveys by
Bridgeland and Wheeler, January 1918.
G.M. Dawson, Reconnaissance Map of a Portion of the Rocky Mountains, 1866,
11 OP- cit.
 -28-
up to the pass on the Alberta side, then abandoned. This cut led to the true
pass, a ravine 60 to 70 feet deep, probably a meltwater channel, which
reaches across the divide on the extreme southerly edge of the pass.  In
this narrow gully, the 5835 foot "summit", i.e. the lowest point on the
divide, was found.
With the cancellation of B.C.'s longstanding Akamina Park reserve in
1978, Parks Canad removed a bridge in Waterton Lakes National Park, on the
old waggon road to the pass, closing the route to vehicles.  It remains,
however, accessible to hikers and horse riders, as it was 100 years ago.
Kootenai Brown used it to one of his favourite fishing holes on the B.C. side
at Wall Lake  , (or "Walled" Lake, to him).  This is a bigger, lower cirque
than the Boundary Commissions' Forum Lake, and takes its name from the sheer
2500 foot headwall at the back. The trail contours south from the present
Akamina jeep road, crossing John Gloyn's waggon road en route.
B.C. residents may be interested to learn that about 100,000,000 years
ago, ancient B.C. rocks slid 30 miles east over the Alberta plains, thus
locating monument 161, and B.C.'s southeast corner, a long way east of where
it might have been. ,, .,
12
B.C. - Alberta Boundary Commission:  Map 1A.
News from the Association and its Branches
The BCHA COUNCIL met in Nanaimo on September 9, 1979. Council members
exchanged considerable information relating to museums. Leonard McCann
reported that the B.C. Museums Association has made a study of 130 museums
in the province and will soon publish its findings. This is the first survey
of its type in Canada. Council also agreed to ask the Attorney-General's
department to draw up a simplified form for the receipt of artifacts in con-
juncion with the B.C. Museums Association.
Council has invited the Okanagan Historical Society and the Williams
Lake Historical and Museum Society to join the BCHA as affiliated members.
In return for an annual fee of $15.00, affiliated organizations may send a
non-voting observer to BCHA meetings and receive one copy of the NEWS.
Council accepted an inviation to hold the 1980 convention on June 5-8
at Princeton.
 -29-
At its October 29, 1979 meeting the CHEMAINUS VALLEY Historical Society
heard an interesting and witty account of the history and romance of perfume
by Thelma Godkin of--PYM Perfume of Saltair. This local firm is the only
perfumery in Canada.
The GOLDEN & DISTRICT Historical Society displayed renewed
enthusiasm in 1979. Many ventures were undertaken and considerable progress
was evident.  Fund raising projects varied from previous years - so a canvass
of the community was undertaken with assistance from the Golden Lions Club.
The proceeds collected were more than sufficient for operational expenses of
the Golden Museum.
Some Lions Club members and other local volunteers dismantled a log
school house about 80 km south of Golden, loaded the logs and roof aboard log
carriers and flat decks and delivered them to the museum property in Golden.
The foundation was readied in the fall for the rebuilding of the school when
loggers bring their machinery out of the woods in bad weather.
Pioneer Recipes were collected, compiled, and printed.  Sale of this
cookbook will improve the condition of the coffers.
A large contingent of membuis attended the opening of the Railway
Station Museum at Windermere. Following the open house our executive participated in the founding meeting of the Kootenay-Columbia Zone of the B.C.
Historical Association.
Each meeting has featured interesting guest speakers or panels. The
topics ranged from excerpts from diaries of tourists at the turn of the century,
to a slide show on the climbing of Mt. Everest, working on the CPR prior to
1935, the "Swissification" of the Selkirks and the Rockies, the RCMP,
memories of a one roomed school, and early celebrations of May Day / Victoria
Day.
The Museum was open daily during July and August attracting over 1000
visitors. Tourists are becoming increasingly museum conscious, and the high
school students on staff worked very hard to earn the often repeated praise
about the displays.
A local artist kindly donated a painting to be raffled. The response
to ticket sales was excellent. The draw was made on Labour Day weekend at
the rodeo grandstand show. The Museum staff and society members prepared a
float of a class in a one roomed school at their desks - costumed appropriately.
This scene had such an authentic ring to it that judges awarded it a white
ribbon - third prize.
Within the Museum proper there are several new displays, and many acquisitions which will be put out when time and space permits.  A few of the archival photographs are displayed with recent black and white shots to illustrate
"Then & Now". The whole community has become increasingly alert to its heritage.
As its summer outing, the SIDNEY AND NORTH SAANICH Historical Society
undertook an expedition to the Sooke Region Museum and nearby historical sites
including the Moss Cottage, originally built in 1870, two miles west of the
museum and the Metchosin Museum in the old school, built in the 1870s. The
 -30-
Society enjoyed homemade strawberry shortcake at the Moss Cottage, visited
teaVt KilimaFr^.MeCh°Sin ^ ^ ^ "*"■«** trip with afternoon
At its October and November meetings the Society has been treated to
displays of dresses of the late nineteenth and earl/fentieth century  At
the November meeting, a member who weighs only eighty pounds, modeled hand
sewn wedding gown of golden cinammon coloured pure silk taffeta  The dress
we^dingninai88U0ae' ™  ^ * "*" *» E™±S°«  °f S°Uth *«*<*  « ^
exhlhtt l?L°l  itS/rive for new ambers, the VICTORIA SECTION held an
lattern at ^Vi^iTm ^  "S"^8 ^ a7^^ flaT^on and a miner's
lantern at the Hillside Mall on October 4, 5 and 6. The display proved
produceTa ^P--/-^, especially young people, while the artlfactl
?™f^!d..a l0°d °f reminiscences. The section also sold copies of "Victorian
Tapestry ', a volume in the Sound Heritage Series. Victorian
R c    lllV^T^l'  R°bert SPearin8 8ave the society an illustrated talk on
1 .     HU8b°atS"  In °Ct0ber' Marilyn Barber of °"awa lectured on
Emigrant Gentlewomen to British Columbia. Professor Barber appeared with the
assistance of the Multicultural Program of the Secretary of Stkte
BOOK REVIEWS
MEMORIES OF THE CHEMAINUS VALLEY: A HISTORY OF PEOPLE.  Lillian Gustafson,
comp. and Gordon Elliot, ed. Chemainus: Chemainus Valley Historical Society,
1978. pp. xix, 389, illus., $14.95.
Local histories, particularly those compiled as a voluntary group
activity, pose a dilemma for the reviewer - should they be judged on the
basis of their lay volunteer effort or as history? The title of this volume
poses the question in spades - Memories of the Chemainus Vally: A History of
People. Memories it contains in abundance but history, in the stricter
sense, it is not.
In deciding to undertake this volume, the Chemainus Valley Historical
Society was building upon W.H. Olsen's Water Over the Wheel, a brief but well-
written 'economic overview' published by the CVHS in 1963. According to
the editor's Introduction, the CVHS recognized the need to preserve the
personal histories of the early settlers to the area:
To document this history the Society asked the 'pioneers' to
write their own individual stories, their own memories of the
district as they first knew it before 1940. It was decided that
the native Indian history should be left to the many talented
native Indian writers and artists because only they ceuld do
justice to their own story (p. xviii).
As one active in volunteer groups, the reviewer can appreciate both the
magnitude of the task being undertaken in a compilation of this sort and the
limited number of hands that would be available to do the job.  In the same
vein one can appreciate the desire to set relatively modest objectives but
here, one wishes the Society had been more prescriptive. Beyond the above
excerpt, we have no clue as to how contributions were solicited or selected
or what guidelines, if any, were laid down. The aim of having pioneers tell
their stories in their own words sounds fine in theory but predictably, in
practice, the various contributions are of uneven length and quality. With
a few notable exceptions, the reminiscences pertain almost exclusively to
the "Anglo" segment of the community.
 -31-
Contrary to what one might expect in a volume of this length and price,
no historical introductions or "backgrounders" lead off the individual
chapters and, as a result, the volume lacks a fundamental coherence. This
lack of coherence is added to by the decision to lay out the chapters on
the basis of the chronology of family first-contact with the district, and
grouped by geographic area. As the honour of having the oldest continuous
contact with the district appears to belong to the Silvey family of Reid Island,
that is where the book begins (Chapter 1) and it then goes on to cover the
families who settled on Thetis Island, Kuper Island, Westholme and Crofton,
before finally getting to Chemainus itself (Chapter 6). The overall result
is that the CVHS has produced a volume which will be of interest and value
primarily to people in the local area whose families are mentioned in the
text. The lack of an Index hinders even the casual browser in searching for
that specific mention and it severely restricts the value of the book for the
researcher. Memories of the Chemainus Valley is not a substitute for Olsen's
Water Over the Wheel.
It is hard to tell just when the editor was brought into the process but
one wishes there had been much more rigorous editorial control than is
evident. In addition to the unevenness of contributions mentioned earlier,
numerous spelling errors and obvious inconsistenceies in the text need to
be corrected or, at least, acknowledged in brackets. While individual memories
can honestly vary, the reader is entitled to some better guidance. For
example, on page 17, relating to the drowning death of Samuel Grey, the inference
is left that Grey's body was never found. Subsequently, in other contributions,
we learn it was later recovered and properly buried by Rev. R.G. Roberts in
the Mission church yard at Lamalchi Bay, on Kuper Island (p. 63-64). Henry
Severn(e) - the name being spelled both ways at different places in the
book, and who dies in the same accident as Grey, was buried January 27, 1891
(p. 63) and on June 27, 1891 (p. 66). In another contribution, a date is
left as " ", suggesting that someone meant to check a date but neglected
to do so (p. 331). More rigorous proof-reading by 'old timers' in CVHS would
have helped in making sure that a well-known family name like Cadwallader
(who are written of elsewhere in the book) is not spelled 'Catwalder' (p. 3),
that the 'Roch twins' referred to (p.331) were the daughters of Ed and Florence
Koch, or that Dickey in the text is spelled 'Dickie" in the title of the same
article (p. 333).
One hesitates to criticize a book for not being what it did not set
out to be. Perhaps this reviewer is showing his own bias in hoping that the
volume would be a social history of the Chemainus Valley. As suggested earlier,
the volume would have benefited from introductory background material and one
can only lament that a long list of events chronicled by the editor in his
introduction, or some of the people mentioned in Mollie Robinson's 'Pioneer
Personalities' (pp. 168-179), were not taken on as research topics by someone -
the various fraternal organizations, the baseball teams which were known the
length of the Island, etc. One notes with pleasure the credit given to the
typing classes at Chemainus Secondary School for their help in preparing the
manuscripts and regrets it was not paired with credit to senior social studies
classes for having researched a variety of topics which would have enriched
this volume and at the same time introduced the students to the methodology
of history.
 -32-
Finally, a significant omission which again may reflect a personal bias.
Chemainus has been basically a one-industry town, the economic life-blood of
the community from 1889 to 1944 being the Victoria Lumber and Manufacturing
Company Limited, owned and operated by the Humbird family. Even though John
Humbird Jr. left Chemainus upon the sale of the firm in 1944, he maintained
contacts with the community until his death in 1963. Surely the Humbirds,
and their resident manager from 1890-1923, E.J. Palmer, deserve more than the
oblique and passing references in this volume. Newspaper excerpts were used
elsewhere in the book - why not here?
The above having been said, this reviewer, a native of Chemainus himself,
must congratulate the CVHS for their initiative in attempting to begin a
social history of the Chemainus Valley. I found the book fascinating, learning
much and having many personal memories revived of people and events. People
familiar with the Chemainus Valley will undoubtedly respond the same way and
while, like myself, they know that the 'memories' cannot always be trusted,
they will enjoy the many excellent photographs which embellish the volume and
give it a flavor of 'people1.
Finally, and whatever else, it has reminded this reviewer of his roots
and has stimulated him to research the story of the Humbird family, the
'VL&M' and their relationship to the Chemainus Valley.
Gerald N. Savory is director of Public Affairs Programs at the
Centre for Continuing Education at the University of British
Columbia.
LADY RANCHER, Gertrude Minor Roger.  Saanichton and Seattle: Hancock House,
1979. Pp. iii, 112, illus., $12.95.
In July 1944, Gertrude Sharpe, 18, accepted an invitation from John Minor,
18, her highschool sweetheart to visit the Minor Ranch for the branding weekend.
Thus was Gertrude introduced to her future life. Lady Rancher is the record of
her experience filled, with bitter sweet memories - happiness, frustration,
tragedy, related with the art of a fine story teller. Every rancher's wife
in reading the book will live again her early experience with nostalgia; every
rancher will have a hearty belly laugh at the naivete of this sheltered girl's
reactions to ranch life.
John Minor, son of a well known and prosperous Saskatchewan cattle rancher
invited his sweetheart Gertrude to the branding to meet his father the cursing,
vociferous, energetic Pop Minor. John, anxious for his father's approval of
Gertrude, warned her "to keep busy"; Pop would not welcome anyone who was not
a "good doer". Gertrude's background was entirely different, a motherless •■
girl brought up by her father on a grain farm. She lived a sheltered life
strictly supervised, therefore she, naive and uncomfortable, found herself
forced into taking an active part in the branding.
 -33-
"Hey you - Come and lend me a hand."
"You mean me?" - "Here grab a leg." And so began her first ranching
lesson. Assailed by the stench of the burning hide and flesh caused by the
red hot branding iron, she watched the vaccination, shuddered at the castration,
was astonished by a bucket full of testicles.
"Surely dogs deserve better than this I" Nevertheless, she was filled
with admiration for John's and the cowboy's easy co-ordination of riders and
horses in roping calves. Some of her own inadequacy vanished when at dinner,
Pop boomed out, "Get that girl some food she worked damned hard today I"  She
was accepted. But tested she was at the 5:30 breakfast when John offered,
amid curious glances from the rest at the table, what appeared to be crispy
brown sausages. She remembered the bucket. "Try some, girl, they're real
good." bellowed Pop.  "Prairie oyster may be a delicacy, but not for her1."
Every day, faithfully recorded, had its challenges for a rancher's wife.
Pop proved to be one of them. To John "You gonna rope off that son-of-a-bitch
horse?" "Why not, he needs the practice." "He's a crazy bastard, that's why.
And you'll get you doddamn neck broke'." John grinned and paid no attention to
his father who stomped off whistling cheerfully - happy that his son had 'guts'.
Gertrude makes her readers aware of the pioneer role of a ranch wife
even the modern ranch wife. In 1944 her first home was primitive - no
electricity, a wood stove, and no plumbing. She learned what every rancher's
wife must learn to be successful. The needs of the ranch come first; the
ranch house needs come later. "According to Pop, if you got along with something in the pioneering days you could get along forever." Gertrude makes
the reader agonize with her as she bakes bread, in the heat, on a wood stove
for the crew; cleans the bunkhouse in preparation for the hay crew.  "That
girl (to Pop she is always that girl) can give the bunkhouse a lick," learning
to ride a horse "show him who is boss; helping during calving, holding the
head of a half-born calf while John cut it off so that the cow might live;
just a few of the trials of this pioneer wife. On June 30, 1957, the great
artificial insemination experiment began. The Minors' were the first to use
artificial insemination on a big herd of cows under range conditions.
In 1946 John Minor became a father and a pilot. The plane brought the
Minor Ranches into a new age.  From Pop came the assessment, "I've been
runnin1 this place for fifty years and never needed a goddamn plane!"
In 1961 came the big move to the Chilco Ranch in Cariboo, the third
largest cattle ranch in North America. Though entranced by the beauty of the
ranch house with its mahogany paneling (not transported by horse and wagon
as reported), Gertrude was not yet to be removed from her pioneer role, more
than one emergency found her in the kitchen cooking for a crew. Despite the
splendor of the house, the cookhouse was primitive. When propane was installed
she exclaimed, "Tis so easy to cook I could cry!"
Under the Minors, the Chilco prospered. Had John's plans been realized
his imagination and venturesome spirit would have made it one of the very great
ranches of the world.  But that was not to be. He was only thirty-six when
in November, 1962, his plane crashed. With the crash died his dreams.
 -34-
Gertrude Minor Roger has written a bit of history. The place of ranch
wives in the great Canadian industry, cattle ranching. The well chosen
photographs make visual points of interest in her biography;  the pen and
ink drawings are delightful. Sadly, no credits were given. For young and
old, Ladyt Rancher is a fascinating biography and adventure.
Anne Stevenson needs no introduction to long-time members of the BCHA.
She remains interested and active in local and provincial heritage matters.
MOTION PICTURE PRODUCTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: 1898-1940. Colin Browne.
Heritage Record No. 6. Victoria, British Columbia Provincial Museum, 1979.
Pp. 381, illus., $10.00
This latest addition to the Heritage Series is a valuable contribution
to the Province, a well-documented survey of the history of film making which
shows events, activities and interests of the people of British Columbia
through the years until World War II. With over 1000 entries, Colin Browne
has presented a detailed description of films made during almost half a century -
newsreels, documentaries, educational films, travelogues, films promoting trade
and industry, historical events, personalities in politics and education, as
well as dramatic features made in the Province by Canadians or producers
from Hollywood. Browne has gone to the original sources and some of his
descriptions of the entries are based on his screenings of the material. The
volume should be an inspiration to persons in other provinces who may be
prompted to develop a similar catalogue. Browne also relates the B.C.
material in his survey to the Canadian film industry in general. Photo stills
in the catalogue illustrate many phases of Canadian film making.
There is detailed information on locating films in various depositories
and archives, as well as films from private collections. One problem of
concern is that very little of the footage is actually available in B.C. At-
present there are less than one hundred subjects in the B.C. Provincial Archives,
all of which should be preserved and made available. All films related to
B.C. should be deposited in an archives within the province. Films throughout
Canada could be borrowed and, with permission, copied for deposit here. Viewing
copies should be made available for all persons just as documents and other
related materials are available to the public at the Provincial Archives.
Motion pictures are the only original new art of the twentieth
century and for the first time in history do we have a visual documentation of
the times. It is hoped that this priceless material will be preserved for
the future before it is too late. Colin Browne has proved that the province
has a visual history with films that will preserve the past for future
generations.
Charles Hofmann, recently arrived to Victoria from New York, has had
professional interest in the history of film.
 -35-
WHEELER.  Esther Fraser. Banff:  Summerthought, 1978.  Pp 164, $14.95
When Arthur Wheeler died in Banff at age 83 he was known to many as "The
Grand Old Man of the Mountains", a title he had earned by devoting much of his
energetic life to increasing people's knowledge and appreciation of the
Rocky and Selkirk Mountains.
Born in Ireland in 1860 to a family of the landed gentry, he came to
Canada in 1876 and worked as an apprentice surveyor. He surveyed Indian
Reserves around Prince Albert, fought in the North West Rebellion, and
surveyed for irrigation projects in Alberta. His most important work were
the surveys begun in 1901 of the British Columbia Railway Belt which led to
the publication of the first topographical maps of the area and his classic
work, The Selkirk Range, now a valuable collector's item.
In 1906, Wheeler helped found the Alpine Club, a group dedicated to the
exploration, conservation, and recreational use of Canada's mountains. The
Club organized summer camps in British Columbia and Alberta and popularised the
sport of mountaineering.  His experience in the mountains led to his appointment in 1912 as B.C. Commissioner on the Interprovincial Boundary Commission.
During the next twelve years he worked on the surveying and marking of the Alberta-British Columbia boundary along the Great Divide.  During this period
he also initiated the Assiniboine Walking Tour that later developed
into Skyline Trail Hikers and the Trail Riders of the Canadian Rockies.  He
was also instrumental in forming a National Parks Association and fought
against the flooding of Waterton Lakes National Park and the Spray Lakes area
near Banff.  He resigned from the Alpine Club directorship in 1926 and
curtailed his surveying activities, spending summers in Banff and winters in
Sidney, Vancouver Island.  Even at the age of 71, however, he was out surveying
the Illecillewaet, Robson and Victoria glaciers and prepared an annual address
for the Alpine Club.
Wheeler was a dynamic person with a sense of social position, self-
confidence and leadership. However, as the author admits, some saw him as
imperious, crusty, and short-tempered. Nevertheless, he was generally charming
and persuasive and advised that one should never give in "except to convictions
of honour and good sense." His work, as one of the neglected second generation
of Canadian explorers, has had a lasting imprint on his followers, on institutions, and on the landscape of the mountains. This book, along with the Alpine
Club's memorial hut in Glacier National Park, is a fitting and welcome commemoration of a great Canadian.
I would recommend the book to a wide readership: western history buffs,
conservationists, cartographic historians, and climbers.  It is not a scholarly
work and could have been improved by the provision of maps, more Wheeler
photographs, and attention to style.  Nevertheless, like Fraser's previous
book, Early Explorations in the Rockies, it makes for easy reading and ties
together numerous threads of the mountain history of British Columbia and
Alberta.
John Marsh, a geographer at Trent University is presently
studying the Howse Pass route through the mountains.
 -36-
ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GHOST TOWNS AND MINING CAMPS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.  Volume I.
T.W. Paterson.  Langley:  Stagecoach Publishing Co. Lts., 1979.  Pp. 165, illus.
Ghost Towns and Mining Camps of British Columbia according to a statement
by the publisher is a "massive encyclopedic undertaking." With an estimated
300,000 to 400,000 works of text, "it is the most thoroughly researched, most
up-to-date book ever attempted on B.C. ghost towns." Volume I which appeared
in October 1979, certainly bears out this assertion. An outsize book with 165
pages and a multitude of well-chosen pictures, it features lively stories of
towns in their days of boom and of downfall.
Volume I deals with ghost towns on Vancouver Island, the Lower Mainland
and the Fraser Canyon.  Included are settlements which were once flourishing
but have now disappeared, such as Leechtown, Mount Sicker, Emory City, Port
Douglas, Hill's Bar. There are towns which have changed their economic base —
Fort Langley was once a fur-trading centre but now is a small rural town,
Yale, a trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company, a railway boon town is now
a popular tourist stop on the Trans-Canada highway.  Some places were little
more than hopeful projects such as Fort Berens, Parsonville and Marysville,
of which Paterson says:  "To-day nothing remains of any of these settlements
other than the tell-tale middens of boulders moved by the miners of old."
So comprehensive is the collection of towns that the average reader could
easily find a dozen whose very names are unknown. . How many people have heard
of Wapping, Flushing, Ogden, Brexton, Tipella City or La Joie Townsite? Or
of Little Saskatchewan which "never did amount to more than a lumber camp
even it its prime in 1937."
To many people the romantic appeal of ghost towns is found in the story o
human endeavour and achievement followed by disappearance and collapse. Much
of this spirit has been caught by Paterson, particularly in his stories of
the coal mining towns Up Island — Wellington, Extension, Cumberland, Union Bay.
The dramatic history of the Dunsmuir enterprises, the tragedies and accidents,
the strikes and labor struggles are vividly presented.  He tells of the broken
dreams of settlers at Cape Scott and Clo-oose, of Milton and Cheadle threading
their way along the Harrison-Lillooet trail, of Argonauts and California riffraff washing the gravels on the bars of the Fraser, of the frontier town of
Yale in its fur-trading days and the rip-roaring times of mining and railroad
construction. Worthy of mention are two unusual "ghosts".  One is Fort Defiance
in a sheltered cove of Clayoquot Sound where Captain Robert Gray spent the
winter of 1791-1792 building a 45 ton sloop and whaleboat.  The other is
Steamboat City in the wilds of the Skagit valley and, according to the author,
"the site of one of the province's greatest swindles."
To present his stories Paterson has used quotations from newspapers and
periodicals, excerpts from official government correspondence and from reports
of the Department of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, as well as eyewitness accounts (or bystanders' opinions) of people who were involved in the
events and whose comments have been preserved.  This makes for liveliness of
narrative but in the story of some mining camps leads to confusion when too
many statistics are presented without adequate interpretation and the glowing
statements of promoters are accepted as if they were statements of fact.  There
is also a tendency to include a large number of details about mine operation
such as how many shafts were sunk, at what depth, how much ore was taken out,
 -37-
how samples assayed each year for several years.  This could lead to judicious
skipping on the part of the reading public. Certainly a book crammed with
information, Ghost Towns and Mining Camps of British Columbia would be more
useful if it had a map pinpointing the location of these towns and camps.
Elsie Turnbull has written extensively on British Columbia
history. Her particular interest is the Kootenay region.
ABOVE THE SAND HEADS: A VIVID ACCOUNT OF LIFE ON THE DELTA OF THE FRASER
RIVER 1868-1900. T. Ellis Ladner. Burnaby, B.C.: Edna G. Ladner, 1979.
181 pages, illus., maps, $6.95.
Writing in 1973 of Leon J. Ladner's The Ladners of Ladner, I wrote,
"This reader, at least, would hatoe liked more: more of that older brother,
William H. Ladner, J.P., M.P.P., and of his sisters, Mrs. Armstrong and
Mrs. Phillips of New Westminster, the former the mistress of the first
private residence in that city; more of the next generation of Ladners growing
up on the Delta...as members of Lower Mainland society...."
Well, at least one part of that wish has been granted. Miss Edna
Ladner has put together, edited and published memoirs of her father, T.
Ellis Ladner, 1871-1958, the second son of Thomas E. Ladner and half-brother
of Leon. These memoirs had been gathered by her "over a period of 25 years"
in the form of notes written as her father reminisced of his early childhood
and young manhood prior to leaving the Delta.  She has checked some details
for accuracy but found little to change, nor has she embellished his tale
from her own researches or imagination.  Ir is a plain tale in the first
person, just as he told it to her and the rest of the family.
The most detailed part and about two-thirds of the book is to the
time of his mother's untimely death on his twelfth birthday, 1883. Let
no one say details from so early in life cannot be reliable. Children
notice and remember details that adults ignore. His description of his
first home, of rough fir one-by-twelve from floor to eaves with battens on
the outside to cover the cracks and cheesecloth tacked to the inside
to be covered with wallpaper that can bulge when the wind is strong enough,
is exactly as I remember my own pre-school home.  Everything, fields,
fences, board-walks (Ladner was flat and muddy), barns and sheds, cattle
and horses, boys' chores, household and dairy equipment, all are there in
stark, realistic detail.  I don't think it was just nostalgia that made
me delight in the book.
Tom Ladner remarried a year after the boy's mother died but Ellis
tells us nothing about his step-mother, not even her name. I do know that
she was a girl of eighteen and that Leon Ladner was her son.  The father
had by now begun to reap profits from his Delta Cannery, built himself a new
and expensive house, and drove a high-stepping horse and cart.  This was
the father Leon Ladner knew and admired because he had started out from
 -38-
Cornwall as a boy of fifteen to seek his fortune in the mining fields of
Wisconsin, California and British Columbia and found one in Fraser River
salmon.  Ellis seems rather to see him as a pioneer farmer who had to work
himself, his wife and his family like slaves to get a good start in a new
land.  This son had little life of his own until at the age of twenty-eight
or twenty-nine he quit the cannery and went to California to assert his
independence and get an income of his own.  It is interesting that neither
of the half-brothers indicates any knowledge of the other's existence.
Miss Ladner must be given, I think, more credit than she claims.
She has turned her father's miscellaneous notes into a very presentable
and readable and indeed enjoyable little soft-covered book, well illustrated
with maps and photographs strategically scattered through the text.  Perhaps
she could now be encouraged to make her own contribution to local and
family history, an article or two if not a book, on Burnaby.
Mr. Gibbard has served at different times as President of the
Vancouver and British Columbia Historical Societies.
NANAIMO RETROSPECTIVE:  THE FIRST CENTURY.  Blanche Norcross, co-ord. ed.
Nanaimo:  Nanaimo Historical Society, 1979.  Pp. xxi, 158, illus.,  $6.50.
As British Columbia's cities go, Nanaimo is among the best served
by historicans, academic and amateur alike. There is an impressive community
museum filled with extensive collections of documents, artifacts, and
displays; there are many heritage structures in the area, including the
famous HBC Bastion and scores of nineteenth century dwellings; there are
several citizens' groups actively dedicated to the preservation and interpretation of the region's remarkable past, not the least of which is the
Nanaimo Historical Society, compilers and publishers of this fascinating
anthology of documents, oral history interviews, and short essays.  That
such accounts continue to be produced is not surprising given the interests
of so many of Nanaimo's citizens in their local heritage and the exciting
history of Vancouver Island's eastern shores.  This anthology reveals in
small part, the city's fabric is both rich and strong and undoubtedly equal
to the civic challenges ahead.
Confidence in Nanaimo's future is justified in large measure by
reading of the hardships faced by its citizens in the hundred years after
1850, and of the steps its pioneers and later arrivals took to overcome
their difficulties - many inspiring accounts of which are found in the brief
pages of Nanaimo Retrospective.  The editors did well to begin this book
by publishing many original documents pertaining to Nanaimo's earliest days.
There are, for instance, copies of the correspondence between Governor James
Douglas and Joseph McKay, officer-in-charge of the first mining venture.
McKay, no complainer, had a truly difficult task in establishing the colliery,
not the least of which were severe shortages of labour, tools, and provisions.
 -39-
Douglas gave little except encouragement, forcing Nanaimo to be all but
self-sufficient from the outset. Other pioneers - miners and merchants -
are also represented by documentary accounts, while the unassuming public
servants - teachers, librarians, health officials, harbourmasters - tell
mainly through recorded interviews what problems they faced.
Nanaimo was a class-conscious society before 1950. At the top were
the coal barons like Robert Dunsmuir and his offspring, followed by professionals, successful businessmen, white labour, and finally the Oriental
colliers, of which Nanaimo and the surrounding communities had many.
Women played an especially important role throughout the formative
century for they were the improvisors, a legion of wives, mothers, volunteers,
and providers in whose hands the city flourished within the sharper
boundaries carved-out of the forest and ground by the industrial entrepreneurs and workers.
What is told in Nanaimo Retrospective is not the economic or even
the social history of the community. Rather it is the personal experiences
of folk whose optimism, dedication, and very often good humour is at once
the substance and spirit of this highly entertaining collection of writings.
Moreover, Nanaimo Retrospective is unusual for its mix of sources: as
mentioned there are reprints of key original documents judiciously selected
from a wide range of available materials. There are edited oral history
interviews conducted mainly by Wm. Barraclough and Alan Burdock in the
1950's - 1960's who had excellent eyes for a subject, though their
technique and stamina were limited, resulting in accounts, while charming
and informative, that tend to whet, not satisfy, the readers's appetite.
There are edited versions of talks to the Society given by pioneers and
later chroniclers.  Some of the writings are those of professionals who
recorded their own activities or those of their institutions.  Finally,
there are essays by historians like Blanche Norcross, Henry Poikonen,
T.D. Sale and Pamela Mar who clearly have spent many months researching
to produce facts and insights worthy of more scholarly works.  Overall the
effect is excellent, making Nanaimo Retrospective a very valuable contribution to B.C.'s historiography.
If this volume is not fully satisfying to students of B.C. history,
it mainly will be due to its lack of a bibliography or references in the
text for much new data is contained, and it would have been useful to note
the sources.  Similarly, it is suspected that considerable amounts of the
details for some writings were gathered from the Provincial Archives
"Vertical Files", a notoriously suspect source that tends to perpetuate
commonplace historical fallacies.  Nonetheless, the collection succeeds
admirably, and the editors must be contratulated for bringing together into
one volume a wide array of minor, though invaluable accounts.
Daniel T. Gallacher, curator of Modern History at the Provincial
Museum recently completed a maior study of the Vancouver Island
coal mining industry.
 -40-
C.D. HOWE: A BIOGRAPHY, Robert Bothwell & William Kilbourn. Toronto:
McClelland and Stewart, 1979.  Pp. 354, illus., $19.95.
The appearance of this biography of one of the principal architects
of Canada today is most timely.  Canadians and non-Canadians interested in
Canadian affairs will welcome it as the first major attempt to provide an
historical perspective of a great man and his age. Commissioned and funded
by the CD. Howe Foundation (now the CD. Howe Institute) but not an "authorized biography", the authors' purpose is to show how "Howe's twenty-two years
in government changed the course of his own country's history, and radically
affected the life of every Canadian in the second half of the twentieth
century.  His remarkable career and character are central to the story of
modern Canada." (page 13)
It is difficult today, especially for those born since the end of
the war, to appreciate what a powerful figure Howe was. As a young
bureaucrat in External Affairs, I soon learned that if you wished to ensure
easy and safe passage of your project up to and through Cabinet you would
be well advised to see that your friends in Trade and Commerce obtained
Howe's concurrence!
That Howe was the right man in the right place at the right time
there can be no doubt. His vision, pragmatism and never failing optimism,
not to mention supreme confidence in himself and ability to find men of
uncommon competence to work with (or should be be "for"?) him as, for
example, H.R. MacMillan, were positive assets but like all great figures
he had faults and weaknesses. A highly controversial figure in his lifetime,
Howe will no doubt remain so even though the passions he aroused have largely
died down. Herein lies a paradox. What his contemporaries criticized were
not so much his policies but the means he used to implement them and certain
flaws in his personality.  Today, it is the reverse. His policies,
particularly his strong advocacy of foreign (mainly U.S.) investment in
Canada's economic development, widely accepted at that time, are today more
critically scrutinized as we live with their consequences. We are concerned
about the existence of Crown corporations, many of which he created, and
the role of government in business, the foreign domination of our resource
industries and the heavy dependence on the U.S. market for our exports.
We are less conscious of Howe's impatience with his critics, his failure
to understand "Pahlament", his dictatorial methods and penchant for having
his own way.
A major criticism that can be made of this biography is that the
authors leave us wishing for more. We would like to know more about what
made "CD." tick. What enabled him to so dominate the Ottawa scene? Why
was he held in such awe by his supporters and a favourite target of his
critics even though many of them admired him? We would like to know more
of Howe's thinking and his rationale for his policies and concern for
their effect.  The traditional view that his New England upbringing, his
M.I.T. education, and his friendship with U.S. business leaders does not
provide the answers we need as background to the debate being waged today
on both sides of the border of issues such as a continental approach to
 -41-
the energy crisis, a feee trade arrangement and sectoral agreements like
the Auto Pact. The reader would also like to hear more about Howe's
relations with the two Prime Ministers he served, especially King, and with
Cabinet colleagues such as Claxton, Pearson, lis lay and Abbott with whom
he was so closely associated. Many clues to all these and other points are
given us but the reader yearns for the authors to develop further
their insights.
As clearly the last word has not yet been said on this remarkable
man, not all of the authors' judgements will be accepted. While they are
not blind to some of Howe's faults and uncritical of same of his actions
(here too, one would wish for more probing), the balance sheet is distinctly
favourable. That Howe was a giant in an age of giants is indisputable.
More definitive evaluation will be possible with further research into
the mass of material already or soon to be available to the historian.
Meahwhile, Messrs. Bothwell and Kilbourn have given us a highly readable
and comprehensive overview of CD. Howe's extraordinary career and a
valuable contribution to the growing literature on the makers of modern
Canada.
Freeman Tovell is Foreign Service Visitor at the University
of Victoria.
 MEMBER SOCIETIES
Alberni District Museum and Historical Society, Mrs. C Holt, Box 284, Port Alberni
V9Y 7M7.  723-3006.
Atlin Historical Society, Mrs. Christine Dickenson, Box 111, Atlin, VOW 1A0.
BCHA, Gulf Islands Branch, Elsie Brown, R.R. #1, Mayne Island, VON 2J0.
BCHA, Victoria Branch, Frances Gundry, 255 Niagara, Victoria, V8V 1G4.  385-6353.
Burnaby Historical Society, Ethel Derrick, 8027-17th Ave., Burnaby, V3N 1M5.
521-6936.
Campbell River & District Historical Society, Julie 0'Sullivan, 1235 Island
Highway, Campbell River, VOW 2C7.
Cariboo Historical Museum Society, Reg Beck, Box 16, Glen Drive, Fox Mountain,
R.R. 2, Williams Lake.
Chemainus Valley Historical Society, Mrs. B.W. Dickie, Box 172, Chemainus,
VOR 1K0.  246-9510.
Cowichan Historical Society, H.T.H. Fleetwood, Riverside Road, Cowichan Station.
Creston & District Historical and Museum Society, Mrs. Margaret Gidluck, Box 164,
Creston, VOB 1G0.  428-2838.
District #69 Historical Society, Mrs. Mildred Kurtz, Box 74, Parksville, VOR ISO.
248-6763.
Elphinstone Pioneer Museum Society, Box 755, Gibsons, VON 1V0.  886-2064.
Golden & District Historical Society, Fred Bjarnason, Box 992, Golden, V0A 1H0.
Historical Association of East Kootenay, Mrs. A.E. Oliver, 670 Rotary Drive,
Kimberley, V0A 1E3.  427-3446.
Kettle River Museum Society, Alice Evans, Midway, V0H 1M0.  449-2413.
Maple Ridge & Pitt Meadows Historical Society, Mrs. T. Mutas, 12375-244th Street,
Maple Ridge, V2X 6X5.
Nanaimo Historical Society, Linda Fulton, 1855 Latimer Road, Nanaimo, V9S 2W3.
Nootka Sound Historical Society, Beverly Roberts, Box 712, Gold River, V0P 1G0.
North Shore Historical Society, David Grubbe, 815 West 20th Street, North Vancouver,
V7P 2B5.
Princeton & District Pioneer Museum, Margaret Stoneberg, Box 687, Princeton,
VOX 1W0.  295-3362.
Sidney & North Saanich Historical Society, Mrs. Ray Joy, 10719 Bayfield Road,
R.R. #3, Sidney, V8L 3P9.  656-3719.
La Societe historique franco colombienne, Anna Beaulieu, 1204 - 1560 Burnaby St.,
Vancouver, V6G 1X3.
Trail Historical Society, Mrs. M.T. Jory, Box 405, Trail, V1R 4L7.  368-5602.
Vancouver Historical Society, Irene Tanco, Box 3071, Vancouver, V6V 3X6.  685-1157.
Wells Historical Society, Sharon Brown, Box 244, Wells, V0K 2R0.
Windermere District Historical Society, Mrs. E. Stevens, Box 784, Invermere,
V0A 1K0.

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