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British Columbia Historical Association Report and Proceedings 1925

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British Columbia Historical Association
(Organized October 31st, 1922)
Affiliated with the Canadian Historical Association
Second Annual
Report and Proceedings
'Help us to save the things that go ;
We are the gleaners after time."
—Austin Dobson
For the Year ended October 11th,
 British Columbia Historical Association
(Organized October 31st, 1922)
Affiliated with the Canadian Historical Association
Second Annual
Report and Proceedings
"Help us to save the things that go ;
We are the gleaners after time."
—Austin Dobson
For the Year ended October 11th,
VICTORIA, MAY 9th AND 10th, 1924.
Only those who were resident in British Columbia in 1871 or prior to that date were included in this group.
Mrs. J. Moore.
Mrs. Redgrave.
George Fry.
Wm. Duck.
Ernest Haines.
Gus  I lawk.
I'liil J. Hall.
T. X. Hibben.
Miss Jessie Cameron.
Edwin I (alley.
G. Gerow.
Wm. Watson.
Mrs. w. G. Cameron.
W. G. Cameron.
Fred Ella.
Mrs.  Neshitt.
Mrs. George Chadsey.
W. H. Hone.
Mrs. Wm. (liadsey.
Mrs. J. Keith.
Mrs. Wm. Chadsey.
Mrs. Clark.
T. F. Yorke.
2I>. J. McL. Muirhead.
30. Brian T. Drake.
31. John H. Ashwell.
32. Hugh Hamilton.
34. Wm. Adams.
33. (Jus Gowen.
86. Mrs. Morley.
37. Mrs. Meaner.
38. M. Dean.
3!). Fred Turgoose.
4<). Sam Eastman.
41. J. Stewart.
42. E. 10. Wool Ion.
43. Mrs. J. F. Smith.
44. Mrs. Hugh Wilson.
45. Mrs. Eenwlek.
40. Mis. McMicking.
47. Mrs. Edwin Dalley.
4S. A. Vigelius.
4!). Mrs. A. Whittier.
50. ("apt. Christenson.
53. Mrs. E. Crimp.
54. — Haines.
55. Mrs.  Hiscocks.
50. Miss A. Huxiable.
57. Mrs.  Marshall.
58. Mrs. Dr. Henderson.
59. Horatio Webb.
00. F. W. Adams.
61, Major W. H. Laugley.
62. Harry Ella.
(13. Mrs. Simpson.
(>4. J. Meldriiin.
65. Herbert  Kent.
66. Mrs. J. Meldrum.
68. Mrs. Phil Davis.
<>!). D. Thompson.
71. Edwin Johns.
72. Mrs. Mary Murphy.
73. Phil Da vies.
75. Mrs. Wm. Goepel.
7(1. Root. Jamieson.
7!». Mrs. Michael.
SI. James CeSSford.
83. Alex. Frquhart, Comox.
S5. Mrs.  I. Johnson.
86. C. E. Redfern.
S7. Wm. D. Carter.
SS. I.indley Crease.
SO. Miss Woods.
00. E. J. White.
01. F. B, Pemberton.
02. John Braden.
03. Alex.   Monro.
04. James Williy.
05. Wm. Murray.
07. I'. Jaekman.
OS. Mrs. Max Dean.
Oil. A. Semple. 100. Louis Duval.
100  107. Mrs. Duval.
101. George Jay. 10S. James Pottinger.
102  100. Mrs. Chris Spencer.
103  110	
104  111. Chris.  Spencer.
105. W. Franklin. 112. Mrs. DeVeulle.
114. Mrs. .las. Porter.
115. Mrs. T. C. Hubbard.
11(>. J. I.. Smith. Shnwuignii.
117. Mrs. J. I.. Smith.
118. Mrs. Thos. Hubbard.
110. Otto Weilcr.
20. Mrs. Rathoni.
21. Frank Partridge.
23. John Switeer.
24. George Whitfield.
Mrs. .1. <;. Brown.
127. .Mrs. Tom Watson
12S. Mrs. F. Bowser.
125). John Hall.
130. Rev. C. M. Tate.
132. Mrs. 0. Hastings.
133. Mark   Bate.
134. Miss T. Robertson. 101.
135  162.
136. Miss Elizabeth Carr. 163.
137. Mrs. Brown.   (Pioneer 164.
St.. X. Park St.) 165.
188. Miss Emily Carr. 100.
130. J. Dassonville. 107.
140. Tom  Alexander. 168.
141. Albert. Argyle. 100.
142. Alex. McKenzie. 170.
143  171.
144  172.
145. Mrs. A. C. Boyce. 173.
I4(i. George Harvey. 174.
147. Chas. Weiler. 175.
14S. Henry Ilearns. 17(1.
140  177.
150. Mrs. Monk. 178.
151. Walter   Chambers. 170.
152. James Schubert. 180.
153. Mrs. Alex. Irquhart. 181.
154. Mrs. Harry Heale. 182.
155. S. T. Michell. 188.
150. Miss Annie Fawcett. 1S4.
157. V. G. Claudet. 1S5.
15S.  Wm. Wilby. ISC.
150.  Robert  Bland. 187.
160. Goo. P. Carter. 188.
— Evans.
George Cruikshanks.
Michael Finnerty.
A. H. Maynard.
C. C. Pemberton.
George Bush-by.
Mrs. J. D. Hclmckon.
Alphonse Hautier.
Mrs. Dennis Harris.
Mrs W. Higgins.
Airs. A. Smith.
J. Smith (Royal Oak).
Miss Brenda Peers.
James  Porter.
Mrs. Anderson.
Mrs. McKenzie.
Mrs. Bissett.
Mrs. McCurdy.
Charles Lombard.
Mrs. Dinsley.
John league.
H. Borde.
Capt. John Irving.
Edward Wall.
Fred   Came.
Mrs. R. Butler.
R, T. Williams.
192. John Moore.
103. Mrs. Johnson.
194. Mrs. Holmes.
105. Mrs. Richardson.
100. Mrs. Townsend.
197. Mrs.  Lyall.
19X. Billy Wale.
109. J. R. Anderson.
200. Mrs. F. M. McLaren.
201. G. B. Martin.
202. Phil  Smith.
203. Mrs. C. Carson.
204. Mrs. Susan I.. Allison.
205. Mrs. Emilia Hood.
200. Mrs. P. Ae. Irving.
207. Mrs.  Ileyland. .
20S. Mrs. Arthur Crogan.
200. Joe Wriglesworth.
210. Mrs. T. B. Humphries.
211. Mrs.  Comrtenay.
212. Mrs. Keith.
213. Miss Einlayson.
List of Officers  S
Secretary's Report -  7
British Columbia Pioneer Reunion:   Official Report  9
Unveiling of Memorial Tablet at Nootka Sound.    By the Editor  17
Chairman's Address.    By Judge Howay  22
The Lieutenant-Governor's Address -  27
Professor W. N. Sage's Address: The First Spanish Settlement at Nootka,  29
Librarian and Archivist J. Forsyth's Address  33
Mr. Victor B. Harrison's Address to the Indians -  35
Bibliographical Notes and Book Reviews  36
Obituary Notices  42
List of Members  44
comprising representatives from the Historical Association and the Victoria Posts of
Native Sons and Daughters of British Columbia. Having decided that such a gathering should be confined to those who had been resident in British Columbia in 1871, the
year of Confederation, or prior to that date, the next step was to obtain as complete
a list as possible of all surviving with this residence qualification. The medium of
the press was freely used for giving publicity to the movement, and to avoid overlooking any person the Committee published a list of names, at the same time inviting
those whose names did not appear on this list to communicate with the Secretary.
Notwithstanding this invitation, a number failed to respond in time to arrange for
reservations, and the Committee could not be responsible for any who were disappointed in this way. About 600 names were obtained, a number far exceeding the
expectations of the Committee. Of this number, about 300 from all over the Province
and outside points attended the Reunion.
The Archives Department took the opportunity at this time to have pioneers fill
up personal record forms. These have now been indexed and bound in book form.
Along with these records the Department received numerous additions to its Pioneer
photograph collection.
As a souvenir of the event a large number of copies of the Pioneer group photograph, with key to the names of the people represented, have been printed for distribution among the pioneers, the members of the Historical Association, the representatives
of the local Posts of Native Sons and Daughters, and the Lady Douglas Chapter of
the I.O.D.E.
Accompanying this report will be found the full proceedings as taken down by the
official stenographer at the Pioneer Banquet on May 9th.
The ceremony of unveiling the monument at Nootka Sound on August 13th was
of extreme interest. In the Historical Association's party there were twenty-one
persons who journeyed to Nootka Sound to witness the ceremony. Leaving Victoria
on Sunday evening, August 10th, Nootka was reached at midnight of the 12th. The
following morning the party, along with the passengers from the S.S. " Princess
Maquinna," boarded the Canadian Government Fisheries patrol-boat " Malaspina " and
were taken to Friendly Cove. Upon arrival at the cove a scene was witnessed similar
to that which took place in 1778, when Captain Cook made his first acquaintance with
this Coast. Two canoes with natives set out from shore, one manned by women and
the other with men in ceremonial dress. The canoes were paddled round the ship three
times to the accompaniment of a chant of welcome, as was their custom of old.
Michael Brown, who was in one of the canoes, gave an address welcoming His Honour
the Lieutenant-Governor, W. C. Nichol, and party to their territory, to which His
Honour made a fitting reply. The party then transhipped to a motor-launch and scow
which had been kindly furnished by Mr. W. R. Lord for the purpose of getting close
inshore and near the rock upon which the monument stands. The ceremony itself
was held on board the launch, as the monument is somewhat inaccessible by land.
The proceedings were opened by His Honour Judge Howay, who as President of
the British Columbia Historical Association, as well as Western representative of
the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, who provided the monument,
gave the introductory speech, indicating the historic significance of the occasion, and
thereupon called on His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor to perform the unveiling
ceremony. At a given signal the Union Jack which covered the monument was withdrawn and a salute of nine guns was fired from the Canadian Government Fisheries
patrol-boat " Malaspina." His Honour followed this with an address on the early
history associated with Nootka Sound. The others who gave short addresses on
various phases of the history of the North-west Coast were Mr. Neill, M.P. for the
district;. Professor W. N. Sage, as representative of the History Department of the
University of British Columbia; and J. Forsyth, as representative of the Provincial
Following this part of the ceremony the company proceeded on shore, where
His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor was introduced to Chief Napoleon Maquinna, a
direct descendant of the original " Maquinna," Chief of Nootka.    Mr \ ictor Harrison,
His Honour Lieutenant-Governor W. C. Nichol.
Hon. President:
The Hon. J. D. MacLean.
Judge F. W. Howay.
First Vice-President: Second Vice-President:
Beaumont Boggs. C. C. Pemberton.
Secretary-Treasurer: Recording Secretary:
John Forsyth. Alma Russell.
Professor W. N. Sage, University of British Columbia.
F. M. Buckland. John Hosie.
Mrs. Bullen. R. L. Reid, K.C.
Mrs. Cree. Judge Robertson.
V. L. Denton. Prof. VV. N. Sage.
B. G. Hamilton. Dr. M. S. Wade.
Standing Committees:
Editorial Professor W. N. Sage, Convener.
Genealogical Mrs. E. C. Hart, Convener.
Educational Mr. V. L. Denton, Convener.
Marine, Shipping, and Indians Major F. V. Longstaff, F.R.G.S, Convener.
Victoria and District Landmarks.. Mr. C. C. Pemberton, Convener.
All correspondence should be addressed to the Secretary at the
Provincial Library and Archives, Victoria, B.C.
Annual Report and Proceedings.
By John Forsyth.
ALTHOUGH   only   two   years   in   existence,   the   British   Columbia   Historical
Association  has  made  excellent  progress, the  year  just  closed  having been
one  of  great  activity.    The  interest  which  is  being  taken  in  the  work  of
the Association  is  reflected   in  the  large  increase  in  the  membership.    There  are
now 107 members on the roll, about double the number reported last year.
In addition to the regular quarterly meetings, several special meetings were held
for the purpose of hearing addresses from authorities on some interesting topics
connected with the early history of this country, the following being a list of the
proceedings at these meetings :—
February 1st, 1924—Illustrated address by Mr. A. H. Maynard on " Old Victoria."
February 14th, 1924—Illustrated address by Hon. Mr. Justice Murphy on " The
Early History of British Columbia."
March 4th, 1924—Address by Mr. R. L. Reid on " The Assay Office and the Establishment of the Mint at New Westminster."
April  11th,  1924—Illustrated address  by  Mr.  R.  P.  Bishop  on  " The  Overland
Journey of Alex. Mackenzie in 1793 and the Identification of the Rock upon
which he wrote his Memorable Inscription."    (The Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada have agreed to mark this site and at same time publish
Mr. Bishop's paper.)
July 11th, 1924—Mr. Louis C. J. Matthews on " The Indians of the West Coast and
some of their Legends."
Several interesting committee reports were submitted at these meetings.    Major
Longstaff prepared papers on Barkley Sound, maritime affairs of the Coast, and on
the available sources of information for the study of British Columbia Indian history.
The Educational Committee, under Mr. Denton,  reported on the progress being
made in co-operating with schools in the study of local history.
Two societies have affiliated during the year. These are the University of British
Columbia Historical Society and the Art, Historical, and Scientific Association of
Vancouver; in regard to the latter, Mr. Denys Nelson acts as a correspondent and
transmits to the Archives Department all items of interest which come to his notice.
The Kamloops branch of the British Columbia Historical Association is making
good progress. Its membership is steadily increasing and some interesting papers on
local history have been presented. Such information is available to members of the
parent body.
The two outstanding events of the year were the Pioneers' Reunion, held in
Victoria on May 9th and 10th, and the ceremony at Nootka Sound on August 13th, and
these are deserving of more than passing reference.
The movement to hold a Pioneer Reunion had its origin in the Personal History
Committee of the Association, under the convenership of Mrs. E. C. Hart, and which
was formed for the purpose of collecting records of pioneer families in British Columbia, and it was thought that the best way to accomplish this object was to hold a
gathering of the pioneers and stir up interest in the collection and preservation of
historical records of the Province. The management of this event, which was the
largest of its kind ever held in this Province, was in the hands of a joint committee
as Chief Factor of the Native Sons of British Columbia, then addressed Chief Napoleon
Maquinna, Mr. Tom Deasy acting as interpreter.
The formal programme having been completed, the party proceeded to the Chief's
house, where Indian ceremonial dances were in progress. Other places of interest
visited were the chapel erected on the site where Meares' ship, the " Northwest
America," was built and launched, also the Indian cemetery and the lake mentioned
by John Jewitt in the account of his captivity at Nootka.
At noon the party left Friendly Cove and, arriving at the Cannery Wharf, boarded
the S.S. " Maquinna." which was ready to proceed north. Several members of the
party remained at Nootka as guests of Mr. Lord until the steamer's return two days
later. The opportunity was taken by those who remained to visit several places of
historic interest, which included Resolution Cove, where Captain Cook's ships were
anchored; Tahsis Indian village, so well known to readers of Jewitt's story as the
wintering-place of Chief Maquinna. Friendly Cove was also revisited, and after some
excavating several bricks forming part of the original Spanish bake-house of 1790
were unearthed and brought to Victoria as an exhibit for the Archives.
The thanks of those who attended this interesting ceremony are due to Mr. W.
Lord, proprietor of the Nootka Packing Company, who made such careful local
arrangements to ensure the success of the event, a permanent record of which will
be issued in the form of a pamphlet by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of
Report of Proceedings at Banquet at Empress Hotel, Victoria, B.C.,
May 9th, 1924.
Grace (pronounced by Mr. W. H. Kinsman, Post No. 1, Native Sons of British
Columbia) :  " For what we are about to receive may the Lord give us grateful hearts."
The Hon. Dr. J. D. MacLean, Honorary President of the British Columbia Historical Association, in the chair
The Chairman: Ladies and Gentlemen.—I will ask you to fill your glasses and
drink to the toast of His Majesty the King. (Toast drunk with the singing of the
National Anthem.)
The Chairman : Ladies and Gentlemen.—I assure you that it affords me a very
great deal of pleasure to be present here this evening. I feel highly honoured to be
presiding over this magnificent gathering of Pioneers of the Province of British
Columbia. Probably no greater honour could come to a man who is not a pioneer
himself than to be asked to preside at this great gathering.
At the outset I wish to convey to this gathering the regrets of His Honour the
Administrator of the Province and Mrs. Macdonald for their inability to be present
here this evening. I also have a message from His Honour Judge Howay, regretting
his unavoidable absence. I also hold in my hand a telegram from a man whose name
and whose family have been well known and long connected with the history of
British Columbia. I hold here a telegram from the Hon. Dr. Tolmie, dated Ottawa,
May 9th.    The telegram reads as follows:—
'' Heartiest greetings and congratulations to the old-timers of British Columbia
on occasion of their reunion. Only the length of the trail prevents my personal
participation, but can assure you am with you in spirit. Please don't tell any fish
stories.—S. F. Tolmie."
Now, ladies and gentlemen, when I was first invited to preside at this meeting
this evening it was my intention to deliver a speech of some length, because I felt
that this was an occasion when almost any length of time was not too great in order
to be able to tell of the glories of the past, in so far as the Pioneers of British
Columbia were concerned. However, the evening is warm and I notice that a great
many of the young men  and  their young women  here have been  looking  at their
programmes and thinking it is getting nearly 9 o'clock, and I feel they want to get
the dance in progress, so I am not going to speak for any great length.
However, I wish to say that the Historical Society of British Columbia and the
Posts of Native Sons and Native Daughters of British Columbia are entitled to all
congratulations on the magnificent success which they have made of this Pioneers'
Reunion. It is a rare thing—probably it has never happened in the history of any
country—to have 250 guests who have been here for fifty-three years and upwards
gathered under one roof. It is a magnificent tribute, first of all, to the loyalty of these
pioneers; secondly, it is probably as equally great a tribute to the magnificent physiques
which have permitted these men and women to travel, some of them several hundreds
of miles, to be present at this reunion. Speaking as I do for the people of British
Columbia this evening, I wish to assure all of them of a very hearty welcome to their
old rendezvous and stamping-ground, the City of Victoria, the capital of British
Many of the men and women who are gathered here to-night as pioneers have
played a prominent part in the early history of the Dominion and in the early history
as well of this fine Province. All of them could not play a prominent part, but
judging from the men and women I have been meeting of the pioneering class, the
reason they have not played a prominent part was that opportunity did not come their
way, because of this early group of settlers probably a better group could not be found
than these men and women in any part of the British Empire. They were men and
women who were highly educated and they had the pioneering spirit; they had the
spirit which was capable of laying the foundations truly and well of this great
What shall I say to those men and women who have come here in later years?
What shall I say to the young men and young women, the fortunate descendants of
these Pioneers? I will say this: That it is a duty that has been laid upon us, and
has been laid upon you, to maintain the standards that were so early laid down in this
great Province by the ladies and gentlemen we are here to honour to-night. They laid
the foundations of this Province in a governmental way; they laid the foundations
industrially, commercially, and agriculturally; and whatever progress we have been
able to make since those days has been largely due to the fact that the foundations of
this Province were well and securely laid.
Now, ladies and gentlemen, it is not my intention to keep you at any greater length.
I wish again to remind you of the announcement that was made from the far end of
the room, and that is that the Historical Association is extremely anxious to have the
signature of the Pioneers that are here present this evening. I would also make one
other suggestion. The Pioneers have made history in the Province; some of it is
written and fills a glorious page in the history of the British Empire. There is a great
deal of this history which has not been written, or at least, if it is written, it has not
been assembled for the information of future generations, and I am here to say that
it is the wish of the Historical Association to be enabled to secure some of this history,
which may be in the possession of some of the Pioneers, in order that it may be taken
into the archives of the Province of British Columbia, because, after all, they are the
people who have done so much to build up a great State, and surely it is well for the
future generations of this Province to have access to this history. I am just making
that suggestion to you in order that, if convenient, some of you may be able to take
advantage of it.
Now, again I wish to state that with these few remarks I am going to close. I am
going to ask now to have His Worship Mayor Hayward, himself the son of an early
Pioneer, to propose the toast of our guests.    Mayor Hayward.
Mayor Hayward: Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen,—We are gathered
together to-night around this board to do honour to the Pioneers of the early days,
and a great honour it is for us, I am sure, to do so, and to see so many of you around
this board, and may we hope that we will have many such gatherings, although time
naturally will work its way amongst you, and we who are the younger men to-day will
have the  pleasure  in  the   future  of  sitting  here  as   Pioneers,  taking  your  places.
(Laughter.) Of course some of you may have taken that a different way. Anyhow,
that is something Dr. MacLean did not do; he did not make you laugh. However,
you can take that, not in the way you are taking it, but in the way I meant it.
However, I feel sure that those who have arranged this festivity have unintentionally divided the honours, because without a doubt it is a great honour for me,
the son of a Pioneer, and a young man, to be given the honour of proposing this
toast. I think the fact of being the son of an early Pioneer and also occupying to-day
the civic position of trust that he occupied a quarter of a century ago maybe put into
the minds of those who arranged this function that I might carry it out for them.
Worthy and beloved Pioneers, it is a pleasure beyond words that I can express
to greet you, and it was a happy inspiration, I am sure, that made this reunion possible.
On behalf of the citizens of Victoria, I bid you welcome and give you a very hearty
greeting. May the recollection of those bygone days, and the fact that the opportunity
is at hand to renew acquaintances with old friends, or with the sons and daughters of
the old-timers who are passed to that bourne from which no traveller returns, cause
the desire to rise within you to stay with us for several days, and may I express the
hope that some of you formerly of Victoria may be induced to come back to spend
your later days with us. What a lot we of the younger generation have to be thankful
for to you Pioneers, you who have stood the trials and tribulations of the early days.
Well may we do honour to those who have left their native land, their parents and
friends, and come out to this young country to seek their fortunes; to hew their
homes among vast forests and streams, oftentimes surrounded with great perils, wild
animals, and the savage Indians of the early days. I notice the Honourable the Premier
is put close to the Fort, where, I am told, they put politicians in the early days, very
much the easiest mode of dealing with them, and where I am sure he would be pleased
to place some of the individuals not of the same political fold as he is.
To those hearty Pioneers, both men and women alike, those sturdy builders from
the Old Country, we owe much, and may we ever keep green the memory of your
works and those, who have gone before you, and may we from time to time gather
together the events of those early days.
Time does not permit me to review old days, and you could keep me awed with
some of the events which took place many days before I was born. However, I would
just like to state a little incident which took place a few years ago, when I had
occasion to go over to see old Dr. Helmcken, who has now passed on. Incidentally
I may mention he assisted at my entry into this world. I had to see him on a piece
of business, something which took place forty-two years previously (my sister is
present here, so I will not say much about it). I asked the Doctor, who was sitting
down listening to his daughter, Mrs. Higgins, who is on my left, reading to him—
I asked him if he could carry his mind back forty-two years, to the event on which
I was seeking some information. You should have seen the expression on the old
gentleman's face. He raised himself up in his chair, and slapped me on the back and
said:  " Young man, 82, just as easily as 42! "
Just one story of pioneering days—of the days when Herman came to Victoria.
He had given his show and was coming down Government Street, long before we had
pavements or improvements, and there was an old Indian woman trying to peddle a
basketful of clams. Professor Herman picked up a clam out of the basket and opened
a pocket-knife, opened the clam, and pulled out a dollar piece and slipped it into his
pocket. The Indian woman was rather amazed. He looked at the basket and picked,
out another one, opened it and took out a dollar piece, and he did it a third time;
but when he went to do it a fourth time, the Indian woman says: " Hello, Hello!
No more clams! " Professor Herman went up the street, and the poor old lady, she
opened every clam she had in the basket.    (Laughter.)
Worthy Pioneers, my time is up. May I just say, may we hope you will all be
spared to enjoy the evening of your life in happiness, health, and prosperity, and may
God bestow all blessings upon you for years to come.
I will ask those who are not Pioneers to fill their glasses and drink to the health
of Pioneers.    (Toast drunk.)
The Chairman: I am going to vary the programme a little. I am informed that
Miss Hart is to favour us with a vocal selection and that she is anxious to get away.
So I would ask Miss Hart to kindly favour us with this selection now.
Miss Hart here sang " Cherry Ripe," followed by " Comin' Through the Rye " and
" Little Mary Fawcett" in response to hearty applause.
Mr. Herbert Kent: Mr. Chairman, may I be permitted to take up a moment or
two to perform a pleasing ceremony. I was phoned up by a lady in the city this
afternoon, who said she wanted to present a bouquet of flowers to the oldest lady
Pioneer to-night. The lady presenting the bouquet is Miss Coupe, of the Marinello
Parlours, and Miss Alma Russell tells me that Mrs. Lyall should be the recipient of
the bouquet, having arrived in the city in the year 1853. (Bouquet presented amidst
The Chairman: Ladies and Gentlemen,—I have just had another telegram handed
to me from the Women's Auxiliary of the Pioneer Society of Vancouver, which reads
as follows:—
" The Women's Auxiliary of the Pioneer Society of Vancouver convey hearty
greetings.— (Signed) Mrs. Isaac W  Mills."
In response to the toast of the Pioneers that was so ably proposed by His Worship,
it affords me very much pleasure to call upon Mr. Mark Bate, a Pioneer of Nanaimo
under the date of 1857, to reply.    Mr. Mark Bate.
Mr. Mark Bate: Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen, Pioneers, Native Sons
and Daughters,—I am to respond to the toast of " The Pioneers," fittingly proposed
by His Worship Mayor Hayward. To be so honoured at this the first festive reunion
of British Columbia Pioneers is very gratifying.
There are occasions when we may count ourselves happy beings, and this great
gathering of Pioneers certainly is one of them. It was a happy thought, whoever
conceived it, to arrange this useful fraternal meeting—to bring together for right
royal entertainment hundreds of Pioneers from different parts of the Province—give
them an opportunity to come face to face, and renew old, or make new, acquaintances.
A noble idea, truly, to my mind, and I think all present will agree with me.
My many years' residence on Vancouver Island have been almost wholly spent at
Nanaimo—the " pay-roll" city, as the newspaper-men call it, because, I suppose, of
the big pay-sheets dealt with by the owners of our precious black diamonds. But I wish
to speak of early days—of my own experience and incidents connected therewith.
While I am fairly well acquainted with other cities and with many of their oldest
inhabitants, if I should have a bit extra to say of Nanaimo and the first settlers there,
it will be for the reason that I am familiar with that place and its people. I had
supposed, before seeing the programme for to-night, that others present would follow
me with interesting reminiscences of the sections they hail from and of their co-
dwellers.    My impression was wrong, it seems.
What of the Pioneers—the men who have resolutely played their part in the
upbuilding of this glorious Province?
I landed at Victoria on Sunday, the 18th day of January, 1857. On getting into
port, Captain Trivett, of the " Princess Royal," his officers and passengers, were
warmly greeted by the Chief Traders and staff of the Hudson's Bay Company.
Here is a query for the Colonist: Who in Victoria remembers the arrival of the
" Princess Royal" from England on the 18th day of January, 1857, bringing as
passengers Miss Robinson, Miss Bate, Miss Harcus, Dr. Benson. John Coles. Mark
Bate, Cornelius Bryant, John Kennedy, John Hall, Henry Wain, wife and child,
James Mar wick, wife and two children, Mrs. Marryman. and Peter Irvine? These
persons were assuredly pioneer stock, some of whose descendants reach the fourth
generation and are doing their share in peopling the Province to-day.
John Coles was a naval lieutenant, who had been out years before on H.M.S.
" Thetis." He came to Victoria at this time hoping to marry Miss Mary Langford,
but didn't. Captain Herbert G. Lewis did. A few years later Lieutenant Coles
married Miss Harcus, who was a niece of Captain Reid. The Coles lived at Saanich
some time.    John Kennedy was a son of Dr. Kennedy, then member for Nanaimo of
the Legislative Assembly. John Hall was the Victoria Constable. He had been to
England for a wife and came back without one, as he said, because he could not get
the girl he wanted to accompany him out here. She was willing to marry him if he
would remain in England. This proposition he declined. An amusing story was told
of Mr. Hall. A Captain Mills had brought the barque " Colinda " out from London,
put into a South American port on the way, and there illegally disposed of some ship's
stores. He was tried and convicted of the offence and given into the custody of Hall
for imprisonment in the Bastion. The prisoner was allowed out on parole on certain
days, returning at a stated hour for incarceration. One day he was quite late; the
Constable became impatient, and, when the culprit turned up, told him if was late again
he would " lock him out."
During some twelve clays' stay in Victoria I had the pleasure of meeting and getting
acquainted with many of those connected with the Hudson's Bay Company and its
affairs, all of whom were affable and accommodating gentlemen. I met John Work,
the elder, several times, covered with a heavy Inverness cape and carrying a skookum
walking-stick.    He was rather, though kindly, inquisitive—agreeable always.
The Governor's Private Secretary, Richard Golledge, rendered me some service,
and I did not forget it when, many years afterward, I was in a position to serve him.
I can in my mind's eye see Captains Dodd. McNeil. Mitchell, Swanson, and Sangster;
the Rev. Mr. Cridge, Dr. Tolmie, Dr. Johnson, and Dr. Helmcken; Mr. Roderick
Finlayson, Mr. J. W. McKay. Judge Cameron, and many others. I had the pleasure
of visiting the home of Judge Cameron at Belmont. Esquimalt. and partaking of a
delicious cup of tea with Mrs. and Miss Cameron. I have noticed in one or two of
the histories of British Columbia Judge Cameron is mentioned as having been manager,
or in some office, at Nanaimo. This is a mistake. Mr. Cameron never lived in
Nanaimo, nor did he hold office there. He was the book-keeper, with the help of a
clerk, for the " Nanaimo Establishment." The books were sent by canoe from Nanaimo
to Esquimalt to be written up. etc. My first job in the office of the Hudson's Bay
Company was copying Mr. Cameron's books for transmission to London.
I had long chats with Mr. J. W. McKay. He was the officer sent by Governor
Douglas to take charge of the coal-beds at Nanaimo in August, 1852. He was now
in charge of the Hudson's Bay Company's store within the Fort Yard, where the late
Senator McDonald and Cornelius Thorne were employed. I saw the country around
Victoria in all its pristine beauty and grandeur. The picnic-looking spaces between
the oaks, here and there, struck me as charming spots—something I had not expected
to see in this almost unknown land. I went to the farms, the Governor's, Langford's,
Skinner's. McAuly's, etc.; to Craigflower. saw the school-house and schoolmaster
there, a Mr. Clarke, who had come out in the " Princess Royal" in 1854. I am one of
those persons who believe we should never forget the names of any of these Fathers
of our country. Some of those I have mentioned were here at the founding of the
Well, on arriving at Nanaimo. or Colville Town, as it was then called, on February
1st, 1857, families of 1852-3-4 Pioneers were met. These were the people who. as
the first settlers, had gone into the wilds and endured hardships and privations that
only those who shared them can realize. They found a dense wilderness, but were
equal to the situation. They set to work with courage and cheerfulness; steadfastly
held, as some of them said, a hungry hope for the good time coming. " Hope is the
sweetest friend that ever kept a distressed soul company." To one of them, assuredly,
the ''good time" did come—the Honourable Robert Dunsmuir. They told how roughly
the houses were constructed—of the dreary look outside and cramped space inside.
How the chinks between the logs, through which the wind would sough with a shriek
of triumph, were plastered up with clay or stuffed with moss; of the interior equipage
of benches, boards, and bu lk-like bedsteads; of the Dutch oven for baking and cooking; of the drugget rush mats and rugs, made, in part, of dog's hair by Indians, used
for floor-covering. Yet in 1857 there was a brightness, a warmth of feeling in every
abode, made so by the blithesomeness. the inborn good nature, and the hospitality of
the inmates, who, when visitors dropped in, would:—
Spread out the snowy table-clotn
Upon the painted board,
And bring the best of everything
The larder could afford.
That is how I found them after their years of splendid isolation among the timber
and stumps of Colville Town.
These were the dauntless class of men and women who went before to clear the
way for others to follow. To-day their children's children are going in the footsteps
of their fathers—striking out for themselves.
Nanaimo was a mining hamlet of some forty-five buildings in 1857, to which may
be added the Indian camps. The name was scarcely known outside Vancouver Island
and the precincts of the Hudson's Bay Company's offices in London. The place was
well-nigh a terra incognita. Away from any channel of communication, weeks elapsed
without " news from home"—news which was the sweetener of a lonely existence.
Postage of a half-ounce letter to the Old Country 30 cents, and yet how gladly was an
opportunity embraced to send a letter off, and with what ecstacy a letter or newspaper
was received!
The " Beaver " came along about every six months, the " Otter " more frequently,
and an Express canoe occasionally. But ere two summers had passed, what a change!
Toot! Toot!! Toot!!! We were suddenly enlivened after what seemed the quietude
of years. Ocean steamships twice a month or more. River-steamers three or four
time a week, with hundreds, yea, thousands of eager gold-seekers on the way to Fraser
River. This was the period of the Fraser gold excitement with all its attendant effects,
when hardy pioneers of California and an impetuous host from other countries made
a rush for the placer diggings of New Caledonia.
In February, 1857, the main part—nearly the whole—of Nanaimo was composed of
the Bastion and a whitewashed row of houses standing on a rising eminence a little
way from the water-front—the grassy slope between the buildings and the harbour
looking as fresh as spring.
On entering the harbour, the " Beaver," slowly and cautiously, as was her custom,
made her way to an anchorage near the entrance to Commercial Inlet. There was no
wharf at which to tie. Good old " Beaver "! Twenty years before she had been the
first steamer to paddle the Pacific Ocean, which now bears on the bosom of its foam-
crested waves a mighty, yet steadily increasing, commerce.
The whole inhabitants nearly were descried on a hillside, curious, maybe, to get
a look at the new-comers. Once ashore the heartiness of welcome from all was something never to be forgotten.
In November, 1854, twenty-two families arrived by the " Princess Royal" from
England for Nanaimo. A few of them are still there. From this sturdy stock
Nanaimo, I think, possesses the greatest number of British Columbia Pioneers. The
anniversary of the " Princess Royal's " arrival is appropriately celebrated by Nanaimo-
ites every year—never forgotten.
To me it is inspiriting to recall—to relate—pleasing impressions formed in many
passing years. Voices and faces long silent and gone seem to come in to one's very
presence.    To think of them is like living a part of your life over again.    I feel like
Oh, that youth would leave us never!
Oh, that summer would last for ever!
Oh, that the joys we have in the spring
For ever their happy song would sing,
And music and friendship never take wing,
But stay with us for ever!
Then, ah then, if such joys were given.
Most of us mortals would feel near Heaven.
To the Pioneers, in the sunset of their days, let me say:—
What if the summer of life is past
And autumn out of hand,
The clouds of winter as they go
Reveal " The Better Land."
The Chairman: The next toast is to the visiting Native Sons and Daughters of
British Columbia Posts, proposed by Mr. Beaumont Boggs, Vice-President, British
Columbia Historical Association, and replied to by Mr. Victor Harrison, of Nanaimo,
Grand Chief Factor of the Native Sons of British Columbia.
Mr. Beaumont Boggs: Mr. Chairman and Members of the British Columbia
Historical Society,—-It has devolved upon me this evening to propose a most important
toast, the toast to the visiting members of the Posts of the Native Sons and Daughters
of British Columbia. In proposing this toast, I realize that the Sons and Daughters—
the Native Sons and Daughters of British Columbia—have very much to be proud of,
for from them some of the leading citizens of this Province have come. We have
among them those whose names will go down in the history of our country—such men
as Sir Richard McBride, the first Native Son to become Premier of this Province,
loyal to his work, loyal to his Province, and true to his friends. We have with us
still Dr. Simon Tolmie, who became Cabinet Minister under Sir Robert Borden's
Win-the-War Government, a man respected on both sides of the House, and counted
to be one of the best Ministers of Agriculture Canada has ever had. We have with
us still, from other parts of the Province, Mr. Kenneth Duncan, the honourable representative for Cowichan. We have Mr. James Yates, another Native Son, who was
called to the Cabinet by Mr. Joseph Martin. We have Mr. Harry Pooley, the member
for Esquimalt, who, following in the footsteps of his esteemed father, is still member
of the Legislature. Then we have Mr. Joseph Clearihue, who won great distinction
as a Rhodes Scholar, and who has been elected a member of the local House. Another
Native Son who has distinguished himself is Dr. John Todd, now recognized as an
authority on medical research. From the old placer-mining camp of Cariboo we have
our silver-tongued orator, Mr. Justice Murphy, recognized as one of the most respected
members of the Bar. And now we come to one of the charter members of Post
No. 1, Mr. Harry Helmcken—our Harry—a man who represented the City of Victoria
in the local Legislature; a man whose hearty laugh made you happy for hours after;
one who in the early life of your Association sent that resonant telegram to dear old
Queen Victoria, offering the loyal support of the Native Sons of British Columbia in
carrying on the war in South Africa, then in progress. That was duly replied to.
I am sure it was the same feeling of loyalty to the Mother-country that surged through
the veins of the Native Sons when, on that memorable morning of August 4th, 1914,
the clarion call came, summoning her sons to the Flag, and from every home and camp
in British Columbia poured the sons and brothers of British Columbia—and one of the
first of the band who gave up his life for the cause was a Native Son of British
Columbia!    (Applause.)
So I say to you to-night we have much to be proud of in being Native Sons.
But do not think that, having this birthright, it does not impose on you responsibility—
responsibility of loyalty to your Flag and duty to your Province; of loyalty to your
Flag that would never allow anything but the grand old Union Jack to fly in this
Province. And that responsibility, if you act as your conscience will direct you. will
preserve to this country a good, clean, honourable Government, of which no one need
be ashamed.
Now, having spoken to the Native Sons, it is more difficult to speak to the Native
Daughters. But reticent as I am, I can say how proud we are of them. We can only
say that deeds speak louder than words, for did not I come in from the far Eastern
Province of this fair Dominion and choose from among them my wife—and I chose
the best. Therefore to the Native Daughters my message is to continue to live as
your mothers did; to bring up your sons and your daughters as your mothers brought
them up—loyal, true to their Flag, true to their Province, making for this Province
a Province in which we may be proud to live. Do not be carried away by any insidious
doctrine of peace; keep only that great motto: " Peace with Honour." Peace at any
price is unworthy of those sons, the children of those older Pioneers who entered into
the unexplored fastnesses of this Western land, and with whom we have the honour
to-night to meet.
Therefore I propose to you the toast of the Native Sons and Native Daughters of
British Columbia, accompanied with the Grand Chief Factor of the Native Sons and
the Grand Chief Factor of the Native Daughters. Will you rise and fill your glasses.
(Toast to the Native Sons and Daughters.)
Mr. Victor Harrison, Nanaimo, Grand Chief Factor, Native Sons of British
Columbia: Pioneers, Native Sons and Daughters of British Columbia,—The Native
Sons of British Columbia first banded themselves together for the purpose of perpetuating the traditions of this country, and for the purpose of keeping ever green
in the memories of the inhabitants those noble men and women who pioneered this
country in the early years. Some who, for the spread of their race, left the Motherland in the old-time sailing-ships, rounding Cape Horn, the voyage taking from six to
nine months; others again coming by "prairie schooners" across the Prairie, and
reaching the shores of the great Pacific, took part in the founding of this country and
maintaining it for the Empire to which they belonged.
Such was the official purpose and object of this Order, as it was founded a quarter
of a century ago in this neighbourhood. But times have changed, scenes have changed.
Mines were opened up; timber lands were developed; fisheries and every natural
resource became used, manufactured, and dealt with in trade and commerce; and with
that progress came a great influx of immigrants to this country, and we thought we
saw signs that the spirit of our forefathers would be forgotten; we thought we saw
that good citizenship, as it was understood by them, might, with the influx of so much
immigration from distant lands, gradually pass away and die, and so it was that a new
duty came to our Society. It was the custodianship of the high principles of good
citizenship. That has necessitated our watching carefully the educational system of the
Province; watching with ever-zealous eye the halls of Legislature, whether they be
Municipal Legislature, Provincial Legislature, or Dominion Legislature, in order to
encourage and support their dealings when we deem that they are in the best interests
of this country, with the best principles, founded upon the original ideas of this wonderful people who founded this land. With this new duty it became a zealous
endeavour to see that that good citizenship was founded upon the traditions of the
history of this country. In short, a Native Son, one born in British Columbia, who
becomes a member of this Society, takes upon himself no light responsibility, for he
aims himself to be an example of good citizenship. Of party politics we have none.
Our constituency—the Province of British Columbia. Our platform—good citizenship.
Our cause—the betterment of our Province, of the Dominion, and of the Empire.
I thank you.    (Applause.)
The Chairman: Ladies and Gentlemen,—There is also coupled with this toast the
name of Miss Carlisle, of Vancouver.    I now call upon Miss Carlisle.
Miss Ethel Carlisle, Vancouver, Grand Chief Factor, Native Daughters of British
Columbia: Pioneers and Native Sons and Daughters,—It is my duty and pleasure, on
.behalf of the Native Daughters of British Columbia, to respond to the toast proposed
by the former speaker. The Native Daughters consider it a great honour to meet in
Victoria at the same time as Pioneers gathered together to celebrate fifty-three years
in British Columbia. We also consider it a great honour and privilege to meet with
the Pioneers—to meet those people who came to the Province as a Pioneer Frontier,
and who have filled it for us and made every Native Daughter proud to call herself
a native of British Columbia.    Two lines I had in mind just now:—'
Every weaver must bow his mind
To give himself to the master hand.
May the Native Daughters take up the wheel that the Pioneers have started from
the warp and woof, and weave the pattern free of all entanglements, and may we as
Native Daughters do all in our power to make of our Province of British Columbia
one great Province which ranks second to none in the Dominion of Canada.
The Native Daughters will always hold in very highest esteem the Pioneers' Society
of British Columbia, and do all in their power, using their history and their traditions
as an example, to make our Province that which it is the ambition of every Pioneer
to see it.
May the shadow of the Pioneer Society never grow less.    (Applause.)
Captain John Irving read a message of greeting in Chinook, as follows: " Ahnkuttie
—delate ahnkuttie—nika chahko okoke illahee kunamoxt hiyu Kintshautsh man pe
Boston man. Kopa chahko yahwa delate toketie kloochman. Konaway tikegh iskum
chikamin kopa delate siah—Cariboo. Kloshe tumtum kopa mesika, nika ahnkuttie
tillicums. Nika tikegh kloshe wawa mesika, okoke tenas polaklie." The translation
is as follows: " Long ago—very long ago—I came to this country along with plenty
of Britishers and Americans too. With some came their lovely ladies—some of you.
They came to get the gold-dust from far Cariboo. I wish to express my gladness on
meeting my old friends and desire for you to know it on this auspicious day and
evening before the setting of the sun."
The Chairman: Our next item is a solo by Mr. Edward White. I might say that
Mr. White is a Pioneer, and also a Pioneer in musical circles in the City of Victoria.
Solo by Mr. Edward White:  "Punchinello."    (Applause.)
The Chairman: Ladies and Gentlemen,—We are now nearing the end of our
programme. I just wish to make one or two more brief observations and announcements. First, there are about sixty-five or seventy beautifully hand-painted menu-
cards, the contribution of a representative of one of the Pioneer families, Mrs.
Fitzherbert Bullen, of the City of Victoria. These are reserved for the very oldest
timers, as there are not enough for all of the Pioneers' Society.
I also wish to call attention to the Cariboo Trail*. To many of us it is the first
time we have had any conception of what the Cariboo Trail was like, and it is very
well worth your while, after this meeting has dispersed, to pass along and have a
look at it.
Now the meeting will be closed, this part of the evening's entertainment, by
singing " Auld Lang Syne," followed by the National Anthem. I would ask you then
to rise and close the meeting.
(The guests rose and joining hands sang "Auld Lang Syne," closing with "God
Save the King." During the banquet the guests sang songs and choruses of old-time
songs from the song-sheet presented to them.)
On Wednesday, August 13th, 1924, His Honour Walter Cameron Nichol,
Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia, unveiled at Nootka Sound, Vancouver
Island, a memorial tablet to the British navigators, Captains Cook and Vancouver,
and also to the Spaniards who between 1789 and 1795 held possession of Friendly
Cove. This memorial tablet and cairn is one of the first to be erected in Western
Canada by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board. Until now the only memorial
at Nootka Sound has been the one placed there by the Washington University State
Historical Society, but at long last the people of Canada have suitably marked the
spot where British history on the North-west Pacific Coast had its real beginnings.
To His Honour Judge F. W. Howay, of New Westminster, B.C., the representative
for Western Canada on the Historic Sites and Monuments Board, is due the credit for
securing the erection of the new memorial at Nootka.
The site chosen for the cairn is striking in the extreme. It is on a small rocky
island which rises precipitously from the Pacific and guards the entrance to Nootka
Sound. A more romantic situation could hardly have been chosen. Looking seaward
from the cairn one obtains an uninterrupted view of the Pacific, stretching westward
as far as the eye can see. On the landward side is a magnificent panorama, of rock,
water, and forest.    The Indian village of Friendly Cove, situated less than a quarter
• Notk.—In the centre of the high table a very skilful reproduction of the Cariboo Trail had
been constructed by the Decorating Committee convened by Mrs. W. F. Bulten.
of a mile away, occupies the centre of the picture, and behind are forest-clad hills
rising in the background to lofty mountains.
The cairn is a solid structure of uncut stones, a pyramid, 11 feet high, on a
cement base 7 feet square. The bronze tablet, which has been placed on the seaward
side of the cairn, bears the following inscription:—
" Nootka Sound, discovered by Captain Cook in March, 1778.
In June, 1789, Spain took possession and established and maintained
a settlement until 1795. The capture of British vessels in 1789 almost
led to war, which was avoided by the Nootka Convention, 1790.
Vancouver and Quadra met here in August, 1792, to determine the
land to be restored under the convention."
Judge Howay arranged that the date of the unveiling of the memorial tablet should
coincide with that of the arrival at Nootka of the " Princess Maquinna," of the British
Columbia Coast Service of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and the officials of the
company allowed the steamer to remain at Nootka Sound for an extra half-day in
order that ample time might be provided for the ceremony. Mr. W. R. Lord, the
proprietor of the Nootka Cannery, rendered every possible assistance and most kindly
furnished the scow and tug used on the occasion. Through the kindness of Major
Motherwell, Fisheries Commissioner, H.M.C.S. " Malaspina," of the Fisheries Protection Service, was present at Nootka and took place in the proceedings. The British
Columbia Historical Association, the University of British Columbia, the Grand Lodge
of the Native Sons of British Columbia, and the Lady Douglas Chapter of the International Order of Daughters of the Empire, all sent representatives who were present
at the unveiling.
The " Princess Maquinna " left Victoria, B.C., on the evening of August 10th and
proceeded through the Strait of Juan de Fuca to the broad Pacific. Early in the
morning of August 13th she dropped anchor at Nootka Cannery, about 2 miles distant
from Friendly Cove. The " Malaspina" had already arrived from Alberni, bringing
Mr. A. W. Neill, M.P. for Comox-Alberni, and also Major Motherwell. At 9 a.m.
the Lieutenant-Governor with Judge Howay and a large party from the " Princess
Maquinna" boarded the " Malaspina" and proceeded to Friendly Cove. A general
invitation had been extended to the officers and passengers of the " Princess Maquinna "
to be present at the ceremony, and the result was gratifying in the extreme.
Just as the " Malaspina " steamed into Friendly Cove two canoe-loads of Nootka
Indians were seen pushing off from the village. As they came nearer there could be
heard rising from the canoes a monotonous chant of three notes timed to the paddle-
stroke. It was a song of welcome and goodwill to the white men. The crew of the
first canoe was composed of men, that of the second of women. All were in holiday
attire and had added an aboriginal appearance by staining their faces red with the
juice of a native berry and by wearing head-dresses of interwoven green fir twigs.
The men's canoe drew nearer, the chant rising and falling in regular cadences. It
was partly in English, for the oft-repeated word " hail" could be clearly distinguished.
In the centre of this canoe was Chief Jack, the second chief of the Nootkans, his
head concealed in a war-mask, a grotesque bird with a huge beak. A leader, seated in
the bow, beat time for the singing, holding in his hands sticks which had white feathers
attached to the ends.
The " klootchmen," or Indian women, came in the second canoe. Prominent
among them, easily distinguishable by her purple skirt, was Mrs. Napoleon Maquinna,
wife of the head chief of the Nootkans. The women were also singing, following
the lead of a prima donna who sat in the bow. They paddled more slowly than the
men, but their musical efforts were, if anything, superior.
Both canoes circled the " Malaspina," the crews keeping up a vociferous welcome.
Then Michael Brown, second chief of the neighbouring Clayoquot tribe, a third
cousin of Napoleon Maquinna, rose from his place in the men's canoe and commenced
a long harangue in his own native tongue. His booming voice at once commanded
silence  and  his  flashing  eyes  compelled  attention.   While  he  spoke  in  a  language
Monnmc-nt at Friendly Cove, Nootka Sound, showing Indian village In distance.    Photo by W. Lord, Jr.
His Honour Lieutenant-Governor W. C. Nichol greeting Chief Napoleon Maquinna
outside his lodge at Friendly Cove. The second and third figures from the left are
Victor B. Harrison, who represented the Native Sons of British Columbia, and Tom
Deasy, who acted as interpreter.    Photo by Lemm Roos.
Wreath presented by the Lady Douglas Chapter, Imperial Order of the Daughters
of the Empire, being placed on the monument at Friendly Cove. Figures from left to
right H. B. Hoffman, H. .1. S. Musket, Judge F. W. Howay, Mrs. F. Forsyth, Mrs.
Abrahams. Mr. Lord, Jr., and Dr. C. F. Newcombe.
unintelligible to the majority of his hearers, it seemed as if the mists of time had
rolled away and that we were back again with Captain Cook on the deck of the
" Resolution " looking down at the canoes of the Nootkans which surrounded the ship.
Michael Brown may have been conscious of the illusion he was creating, for he swept
his hand shoreward towards the village and appeared to be inviting us to land. At the
conclusion of his speech he added the following simple words in the white man's
" I am glad to welcome you to the country of the Nootkans, you who have
travelled so far. Chief Maquinna wishes me to welcome you. I am glad this is my
His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor made a brief reply, stating how much he
appreciated this unexpected demonstration of welcome, and then Mr. Lord spoke a
few words in Chinook, the lingua franca of the Pacific Coast Indians. Hearty cheers
were given for the Indians by the party on board the "Malaspina" and the incident,
as charming as it was spontaneous, then closed.
It was now time to proceed to the scene of the ceremony, and the guests disembarked from the " Malaspina" to the tug " Waterfall" and its attendant scow, which
were waiting in Friendly Cove. Mr. Lord took command and in a few minutes we
had passed around Lighthouse Island (San Miguel) to the little strait which separates
it from the islet which bears the cairn. Unfortunately the state of the tide did not
permit us to land and the ceremony took place on board the " Waterfall" and the scow.
Exactly at 10 a.m. Judge Howay announced that the proceedings would commence
by the singing of the first stanza of Kipling's " Recessional." The refrain " Lest we
forget, lest we forget! " seemed perfectly in keeping with the spirit of the occasion.
Judge Howay then in an able and eloquent address showed why the Historic Sites
and Landmarks Board had decided to mark this spot. He told of the difficulties
encountered in choosing the site, and paid tribute to all those who had co-operated with
him to make this occasion memorable. He thanked the Nootka Indians for their
willingness to place at the Board's disposal the quantity of land necessary for the
erection of the cairn. He then dwelt at some length upon the broader international
aspects of the Nootka Sound controversy, leaving it to the later speakers to fill in the
details. He pointed out that it was here at Nootka Sound that Spain, in 1790, received
the first blow which commenced her downfall as a colonial power in America. He
claimed that Britain based her case on two principles, now universally recognized
but then still unsettled, that discovery not followed by colonization did not confer
sovereignty over any place or region and that the seas should be open to the commerce
of all nations.
The Judge then introduced His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor, who spoke of
the arrival of Captain Cook and of his reception by the natives. His Honour also
sketched the history of Nootka Sound during the period from 1778 to 1795. At the
conclusion of his address he gave the signal at which the Union Jack covering the
monument fell away. The shrill whistles of the tug, the deep booming of the salute
fired by the " Malaspina," the shouts of the natives, and the lusty cheers of those on
board the " Waterfall" re-echoed over the broad waters of Nootka Sound.
The next speaker was Mr. A. W. Neill, M.P., who in the name of the Parliament
of Canada expressed great satisfaction at the erection of the monument. He then
spoke of Captain Cook, of the meeting of Captains Vancouver and Quadra at Friendly
Cove, and referred to the famous Indian chief Maquinna, during whose lifetime these
stirring events took place. Mr. Neill presented to the Lieutenant-Governor several
photostat reproductions of scenes at Nootka painted during the Spanish possession.
These photostats he had obtained from the Public Archives at Ottawa.
Professor W. N. Sage, of the University of British Columbia, then dealt with the
subject of the Spaniards at Nootka and read extracts from the Spanish account of
the formal act of taking possession of Friendly Cove by Martinez in 1789. Martinez,
with all the pomp and ceremony so dear to the heart of a Spanish grandee, proclaimed
the sovereignty of the King of Spain over the territory of Nootka, erected a cross,
and bestowed upon the port the name of " Santa Cruz de Nootka."    High mass was
celebrated upon a newly erected altar, the first Christian service to take place upon the
Pacific Coast of Canada. A fort was constructed by the Spaniards on San Miguel
and a settlement formed on the site of the Indian village at Friendly Cove. Maquinna
and his warriors had to find another habitation.
Mr. John Forsyth, Provincial Librarian and Archivist, told of the handing over of
Nootka to the British in 1795, and contrasted the simplicity of the procedure on that
occasion with the elaborate ceremonial of Martinez in 1789. The details of this
ceremony in 1795 have not been known until recently, when the Archives of British
Columbia obtained from the Foreign Office a copy of the report of Lieutenant Thomas
Pierce, the British representative on this occasion. From this report Mr. Forsyth read
illuminating extracts, and told of how the British flag was run up over the Spanish
fort and then both nations abandoned the settlement.
The tug and the scow were now anchored once more at Friendly Cove, the last
two addresses having been delivered on the return journey to the Cove, and the Indians
on shore were loudly welcoming His Majesty's representative with lusty " Klahowyas."
This part of the ceremony was brought to a close by singing " God save the King,"
and the party then disembarked.
The Lieutenant-Governor was the first to step ashore and was met by the
Rev. Father Charles, the priest -in charge of the mission at Friendly Cove, who conducted him to the village where Chief Napoleon Maquinna was waiting to receive
him. This chief, who is a descendant of the great Maquinna, was arrayed in his
robes of office—worn over his European clothing—a grey blanket adorned with white
feathers, and a most interesting wooden head-dress in the form of a bird. He shook
hands with His Honour with all due solemnity, and then made a long speech which
was translated by Father Charles. His Honour made a suitable reply. A lengthy
conversation then took place between the Lieutenant-Governor and Chief Napoleon,
Father Charles acting as interpreter.
At the conclusion of this conversation, Mr. Victor B. Harrison, Grand Factor of
the Native Sons of British Columbia, delivered an address to Chief Maquinna and
the assembled Indians, speaking " as a native son to native sons." Mr. Thomas Deasy,
who was for fourteen years Indian Agent at Masset, on Queen Charlotte Islands,
among the Haida, translated Mr. Harrison's address, sentence by sentence, into
Chinook.   This speech of welcome seemed to be much appreciated by the Nootkans.
The Indians now invited the white men to inspect their village and to witness some
native dances which were performed in one of the large wooden houses. By this time
the party had broken up; some of its members had gone off to visit the historic
church, and some had made their way to the old graveyard where the great chief
Maquinna lies buried. Still others were attempting to purchase totem-poles and baskets
from the Indians, who proved themselves as keen at a bargain as their ancestors had
in the days when the fur trade was in its glory.
But time was passing and soon the tug and the " Malaspina " announced in unmistakable language that the hour had arrived for the party to return to Nootka Cannery.
As the tug and barge were moving out those assembled on board sang " O Canada "
and then gave three cheers for their Indian hosts. Cheers were also given for Judge
Howay and for Mr. Lord, to whose- untiring efforts the success of this historic ceremony at Nootka Sound was so largely due.
Ladies and Gentlemen,—We read in the book of Joshua that when the Children of
Israel had passed over Jordan they raised a pile of stones, taken from the river, so
that when in the future any should ask: " What mean ye by these stones ? " they could
tell the story to which the stones bare witness.
And so to-day as we stand'on this historic spot, the first place where the white
•nan ever put his foot in our Province, and show to the face of day this pile of stones
Indians making baskets at Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island.    Photo by Lemm Eoos.
Indians selling baskets, mats, and miniature totem-poles at Nootka Sound, Vancouver
Island.    Photo by Lemm Roos.
with its tablet we can prepare in the same way to answer the question: " What mean
ye by these stones ? " It is true that the tablet itself is intended to, and to a certain
extent does, answer the question. It sets forth the salient facts which appealed to
the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada as a justification for its selection
and marking as an historic site of national importance. But after all, as every one
knows, the bare facts of history are mere dry bones.
The tablet tells us that this sound was discovered by the great Captain James Cook,
whose name stands out as one of Britain's greatest seamen—the man who made three
voyages of discovery around the world; the man who gave to us the island continent
of Australia; the man who, though born in a humble clay biggin, had at the age of 40
by sheer merit risen to command a world-encircling voyage for the British Admiralty.
It tells us that the Spaniards maintained for five years a settlement—an official settlement—on the shores of Friendly Cove, just along there where the Indian village now
stands. It tells us that here in June, 1789, the Spaniards seized some British ships and
sent their crews into captivity, and that out of this arose a dispute which almost came
to war between Britain and Spain, but which was settled by the Nootka Convention of
1790. If we went farther into that story we should find that we would be caught in
the vortex of the French Revolution, and that the great reason why Spain yielded
was because she could not obtain from France the aid upon which she relied, because
France herself had already heard the first low, deep, and dangerous rumblings of that
great cataclysm which was to overthrow the Bourbons and involve all Europe in their
downfall. And finally it tells us that Vancouver and Quadra met here in 1792 to
adjust the question of return of the land from which the Spaniards were said to have
dispossessed the English.
But when we read all this and know all this we must go still farther back. We
must to get a complete answer to the question " What mean ye by these stones ? " ask
ourselves: " Why was it that Spain established a settlement here in this little cove ? "
and " Why did the Spaniards seize the British ships, which were not war-vessels, but
mere peaceful traders seeking only to obtain the skins of the sea-otter?" We mean,
in truth and in essence, that these stones stand as a memorial to the victory of two
principles which Britain had championed from the days of Queen Elizabeth: (1.) That
the sovereignty of waste lands may be obtained by that civilized nation which first with
the consent of the natives enters into real possession, occupies, and puts them to use.
(2.) That the great oceans of the world are not, and can not be, the private property
of any nation; that they are the great highways for the intercourse of the nations.
In other words, the doctrine that we know as " The Freedom of the Seas."
These principles, which to you and me seem so self-evident, were not understood
by many nations, notably the Spaniards. To the Spanish mind the sovereignty of waste
lands belonged to the nation that discovered them, especially if some empty ceremony
like " taking possession " by planting a cross had occurred. The matter of putting the
lands to use, so important to the British mind, did not weigh with the Spaniard. So
with the second proposition. Spain believed that a great ocean like the Pacific could
be privately owned by a nation—provided that nation owned the land washed by it—
just in the same way that the Black Sea and the Caspian are the territorial waters of
It was naturally to be expected that these two principles on which such divergent
views were held must sooner or later come into conflict. But Spain's power was at
its zenith before Britain, the exponent of the opposite view, appeared above the
horizon. And thus during the seventeenth century, as the glory of Spain decreased
and her strength diminished, it seemed that the Spanish view—niay we say the narrow
view—would die of sheer inanition.
But with the advent of Carlos IV. Spain began to resume somewhat the proud
position that she had held under Carlos III. and Philip II. This was in the latter
part of the eighteenth century. Now, just at that time Captain Cook's discovery of
this region and the news his ships brought of the riches of the land in skins and furs,
especially the skin of the sea-otter, caused British vessels to resort to this coast to
gather this wealth.
Spain, with the views I have indicated, looked upon this trade as an infringement
of her territory and of her exclusive right to the commerce, navigation, and fisheries
of the Pacific. She claimed to own the whole Pacific Coast of America from Cape
Horn to Alaska. And even though her most northerly settlement was at San Francisco,
a thousand miles away, yet as she had taken " possession" formally in at least two
places, one near the Columbia River and the other in Alaska, she regarded her title
as indisputable. This ownership of the whole coast, to her, was also the ownership
of the Pacific, so that no other nation had any right to show her flag on it.
And now we have the reason that Spain seized these ships; and now we can see
what great, what momentous questions were at stake.. We can see that it was not a
question of " a few cat-skins of Nootka," as one writer put it; but it was a fight for
two principles; to the first of which we owe in great part the "overseas" dominions
of the Empire, and to the other of which we owe the control of the carrying trade of
the world.
And when the news of these seizures reached Britain the younger Pitt, who was
then at the head of the Government, saw that the clash that might have occurred at
any time in the past one hundred years had now come. He demanded, and was firm
and unmovable in the demand, that Spain should acknowledge that she was in the
wrong, that she had no right to seize these British vessels. His preparations for war
were at once made. Nootka Sound became almost as well known to the public as
London. Spain acknowledged that she was in the wrong, and abandoned her claim
of sovereignty of this part of the coast, and also abandoned her claim to the Pacific
as a " closed sea" and her claim to the exclusive commerce, navigation, and fishery
of that ocean.
The student of world history will see in this event the first sign of the falling to
pieces of the great colonial possessions of Spain. The end of that colonial dream we
all remember. It occurred when after the Spanish-American War she lost Cuba and
the Philippines.
So as we stand here to-day and remember all that this cairn and tablet stand for
we call to mind the words of Bret Harte:—
Borne on the swell of your long waves receding
I touch the further past;
I see the dying glow of Spanish glory,
Its sunset dream and last.
Before me rise the dome-shaped Mission towers,
The white Presidio,
The swart commander in his leathern jerkin,
. The priest in stole of snow.
Once more I see Portala's cross uplifting
Above the setting sun,
And past the headland northward, slowly drifting,
The freighted galleon.
But from this sad side let us turn away, and let us look at the other side of the
picture. Nootka shows the triumph of the Freedom of the Seas. And I close with
the words of Sir Henry Newbolt:—
They left us a kingdom none can take,
The realm of the circling sea,
To be ruled by the rightful sons of Blake
And the Rodneys yet to be.
Spanish Insult to the British flag at Nootka Sound, 1780.    Seizure of Captain Colnett, of the British ship " Argonaut," by
Don EstevaD Martinez, Spanish Commandant.    From an old drawing in the Provincial Archives of British Columbia.
Having been introduced by His Honour Judge Howay, His Honour the Lieutenant-
Governor spoke as follows:—
" Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen,—Our gratitude is not only due to the
Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, who have so kindly provided this
monument, but also to the native inhabitants of the district who have so generously
granted the ground for the purpose. The occasion is unique in so far that it is the
first monument to be erected west of the Rocky Mountains by the Board.
" In order that we may fully appreciate the events which are being commemorated
to-day it seems necessary that reference should be made to the earliest discovery and
occupation of the coast.
" Since the discovery of the Pacific Ocean by Balboa early in the sixteenth century
we can trace many important events which have had some influence on this country
as it is to-day.
" With the Spanish dominion established by Cortez in Mexico and dreading the
advent of other nations, the Spaniards became very active in this northern ocean.
They looked upon the Pacific as a reserve for their special benefit, having acquired
sovereignty of the seas not only by authority of Papal bulls, but by conquest and
occupation. For more than one hundred and fifty years little progress was made in
discovery by the Spaniards.
" With the acquisition of Canada by Great Britain in 1763 attention was again
directed to the probable discovery of a North-west passage, and the possibility of a
rival advancing westward across the continent was viewed with alarm by the Spaniards.
Moreover, they were much perturbed over the reported activities of the Russians in
the North.
" Stirred to action in order to establish their claim to the whole of the Pacific
Coast of North America, the Spaniards created a Marine Department at the Port of
San Bias, where arsenals and shipyards were erected, and from thence all exploratory
expeditions started for the North.
" The first of these expeditions left San Bias in the Santiago in the summer of
1774, under -the command of Juan Perez, with orders to explore as far north as the
60th parallel. Perez discovered the islands now known as the Queen Charlotte Islands,
and on his homeward voyage anchored in a C-shaped roadstead which has been
identified as being a short distance within Cape Estevan, but owing to weather conditions no landing was made. With the return of Perez to San Bias several other
expeditions set out, including one in 1775 under the command of Heceta and Quadra and
another in 1779 in charge of Arteaga; but both these were concerned chiefly with the
Alaskan Coast. In 1778 had come the great Captain James Cook on his third and last
voyage of discovery. Though the Spaniards had, as already mentioned, preceded him,
yet as these discoveries had been kept secret, Cook has always been regarded as the
discoverer of Nootka Sound.
" Having been commissioned by the British Government to examine the coast-line
in search of a passage to the eastward, Captain Cook set out in 1776, and reaching
the North-west Coast in 1778 he experienced bad weather, and passing unnoticed the
Strait of Juan de Fuca he proceeded northward, and with leaky ships sought a safe
shelter where repairs could be effected.
" Thus it was that Captain Cook in April, 1778, discovered this place, which he first
of all named King George's Sound, but later changed to Nootka under the impression
that this was the Indian name.
" Here he remained about a month refitting his ships and making a plan of the
sound. One of his midshipmen was George Vancouver, who was destined to achieve
fame in this same region.
" To Captain Cook, therefore, belongs the credit of being the first person to set
foot on the shores of what is now known as British Columbia.
" While at Nootka the natives brought him furs in exchange for articles of small
value. These furs were worn as clothing by the sailors, but on reaching China on
the voyage homeward they discovered their great value, and were on the verge of
mutiny in their desire to return to the North-west Coast for a further supply.
" It was 1780 before Cook's ships reached England and 1784 before the account
of the third voyage was published, which gave to the world the news of the rich trade
in furs obtainable in this region.
" The search for the North-west passage having been practically abandoned for
the present, the special inducement to adventurers on these coasts was a share in the
trade in furs. The first of these traders was James Hanna, an Englishman, who
sailed from China in a small vessel of 60 tons, arriving at Nootka in August, 1785.
On this voyage he got 560 sea-otter skins, which he sold in China for $20,500. He was
followed by Captain Peters in the same year, Portlock and Dixon in 1786, Barkley in
1787, and Meares in 1787, 1788, and 1789.
" On his second voyage to the Coast of North America in 1788, Meares was destined
to take an important place in the history of Nootka. The expedition was fitted out
by a company of British merchants in Canton and consisted of two ships, the ' Felice,'
in command of John Meares, and the ' Iphigenia,' commanded by William Douglas.
" On May 16th, 1788, Meares was hospitably received by Maquinna and Callicum,
the chiefs at Nootka Sound. In return for presents of copper, iron, and other articles,
Meares procured from Maquinna a piece of land at Friendly Cove, where he erected
a two-story building to serve as a dwelling, workshop, and storehouse. A strong
breastwork was thrown up round the house, with a cannon placed so as to command
the cove and the village of Nootka. Here also the keel was laid of the ' North-west
America,' the first ship to be built on the Pacific Coast north of the Spanish possessions
in California.
" During these years British ships were not the only ones engaged in this trade.
Competitors arrived from American ports and elsewhere.
" Spain became alarmed at the encroachment of foreigners, and in the years 1788
and 1790 several expeditions were sent northward to establish the sovereignty of Spain
over the whole coast. The activity of the Russians on the Alaskan Coast also created
" During the year 1789 a Spanish expedition was dispatched under Estevan Martinez
and Gonzales Lopez de Haro to take possession of Nootka Sound for the purpose of
establishing fortifications for the protection of Spanish interests.
" The Spanish commander acted in an overbearing manner towards the officers of
four British vessels, and eventually took possession of the ' Iphigenia,' ' North West
America,' ' Argonaut,' and ' Princess Royal,' and from this action arose the celebrated
Nootka affair which nearly caused war between Great Britain and Spain. The Nootka
Convention or Treaty was the outcome of this embroglio. By this treaty Spain surrendered her claim to supreme sovereignty on the North-west Coast.
" The last recorded voyage of the Spaniards to our coast was that of the schooners
' Sutil' and ' Mexicana,' commanded by Galiano and Valdes, which left San Bias for
Nootka Sound in 1792. These two vessels were met by Captain Vancouver in the Gulf
of Georgia and courtesies exchanged with their commanders.
" The coming of Captain Vancouver and his fine accomplishment outshines these
later voyages of the Spaniards, who, although practically supreme on the North-west
Coast for over two hundred years, with every inducement to explore new routes and
open up trade on these shores, were content to let it remain as an immense reserve on
the Pacific, a policy which became their undoing.
" Reference has already been made to Captain Vancouver's visit to Nootka Sound
while serving as a midshipman with Cook, who probably little thought of the prominent
part he would take in later events upon this same coast.
" In December, 1790, Captain Vancouver was appointed commander of the ' Discovery ' and dispatched to Nootka Sound. The voyage had a double purpose. Not
only was he to renew the search for a North-west passage, but instructions were also
given him to see that the terms of the Nootka Convention were carried out and ' to
receive back in form the territory which the Spaniards had seized.' In a communication from Nootka dated September 5th, 1792, Vancouver deals with the negotiations
carried on between himself and the Spanish commandant, Quadra, regarding the cession
of Nootka and the naming of the territory ' The Island of Quadra and Vancouver' in
commemoration of the meeting and friendly intercourse between these two commanders.
" To Vancouver is due the honour of being the first circumnavigator of Vancouver
Island, any claims of prior discovery of its insular character having been refuted in
the clearly presented monograph of the late Dr. C. F. Newcombe, ' First Circumnavigation of Vancouver Island,' Memoir No. 1, Archives of British Columbia.
" The countries represented in the exploration of the Pacific from the time of
Balboa included Russians, Portuguese, Spaniards, French, Americans, and British, but
to a Britisher the names of Cook and Vancouver must always stand out pre-eminently
as discoverers. Too little recognition has been given in the past to those explorers
for their services, but it will be a comforting thought for the future that the monument
which has been erected on this historic spot will help to perpetuate the memory of
those builders of Empire."
Mr. Chairman, Your Honour, Ladies and Gentlemen:—
During the historic spring of 1789, when the French Revolution was beginning,
events of international importance were taking place at Nootka Sound, on the far
North-west Coast of America. Two Spanish ships, the " Princesa" and the " San
Carlos," sailed north from the harbour of San Bias in New Spain, or Mexico, to
raise the Spanish flag at Nootka. From 1513, when Balboa had taken possession, in
the name of the Most Catholic King, of the whole Pacific Coast of America " from
the Pole Arctic to the Pole Antarctic," the Spaniards had claimed rights of sovereignty
over the entire region. True, they had not explored in North America north of Cape
Blanco, but they were determined to retain their somewhat shadowy rights over that
little-known territory. The Russians under Bering had explored the Alaskan Coast
and Captain Cook in 1778 had entered Nootka Sound. Four years previously Perez
in his expedition had sighted the Queen Charlotte Islands and also the westi coast of
Vancouver Island at Estevan, but the Spaniards had not yet taken possession of Nootka.
In 1788 two Spanish captains, Martinez and Haro, had visited the Russian settlements in Alaska and had learned of the possibility of the establishment of a Russian
post at Nootka. As a result Martinez was placed in command of the Spanish expedition sent out from San Bias to take possession of Nootka. The " Princesa " and the
" San Carlos " left New Spain on February 17th, 1789, and dropped anchor at Nootka
on May 5th. The Spaniards were instructed to occupy the port and to plant a permanent colony at Nootka, which would be a proof of the Spanish claim and would
also serve as a headquarters for spreading Christianity and Spanish influence over the
North-west Coast.
The Spaniards based their claim to Nootka upon the three following points: The
rights of sovereignty conferred upon Spain by the Papal bull of 1493, the formal act
of Balboa in 1513, and, more particularly, the voyage of Perez in 1774. The bull of
Pope Alexander VI., " Expedio Motu Proprio," as stated by Payne in the Cambridge
Modern History, although it declared that the " entire field of oceanic activity " was
open to both Spain and Portugal, contained the proviso that Spain " should approach
it by the westward passage only, and not infringe Portugal's monopoly of the African
Coast." As a result the two nations concerned fixed by agreement a line 370 leagues
west of the Cape Verde Islands as the boundary between Spanish and Portuguese
spheres of activity. As Nootka lay to the west of this line it was included in the
territory  claimed  by   Spain.    Balboa  had  formally  taken  possession  of  the  entire
Pacific Coast of North and South America. Perez had sailed as far north as the
Queen Charlotte Islands, which he had sighted between 53° and 54° north latitude.
On his return he had been prevented by a sudden storm from landing near Estevan, on
the west coast of Vancouver Island. He then made his way back to Monterey without
attempting further to explore the northern coast-line. But Perez had greatly increased
Spain's claims to the North-west Coast, in so far as he had sailed the first Spanish
ship through Pacific waters north of Cape Blanco.
When the " Princesa" and the " San Carlos" reached Nootka they found two
trading-ships, the " Iphigenia," Captain Douglas, and the " Columbia," Captain Ken-
drick. Two others, the " North-west America," built by Meares at Nootka in 1788—and
noteworthy as the first vessel constructed on the North-west Coast—and the " Washington," an American sloop commanded by Captain Gray, were both absent cruising
about in northern waters. The " Iphigenia," although " unquestionably British in
reality," was flying the Portuguese flag in order to evade the monopoly of the South
Sea and East India companies. The Spanish captain, Martinez, objected to a clause
in the Portuguese instructions to the captain of the " Iphigenia" whereby he was
ordered, " if interfered with by English, Russian, or Spanish vessels, to defend the
ship, and if superior to the attacking vessel to bring her to Macao as a pirate." After
an altercation between the two captains, Martinez seized the " Iphigenia," but restored
her to Douglas twelve days later. On June 8th the " North West America " returned
from her northern cruise and was promptly seized by Martinez. This vessel, although
really British, was also flying Portuguese colours.
In the meantime the Spaniards had constructed a workshop, a bakery, and a sort
of lodging-house at Nootka. They had also built a fort on San Miguel (Lighthouse
Island) and mounted ten guns on it. On June 24th, 1789, Martinez took formal
possession of Nootka with all due pomp and ceremony. The official report of the
Spaniards has come down to us and the following quotations are taken from that
high-sounding document:—
" In the name of the Holy Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, One True God
in three Distinct Persons, who is the creative principle and creator of all things,
without whom nothing good can be instituted, achieved, or preserved—and Whereas the
principle of everything good must be in God—and therefore it behooves us to begin
in God—for the glory and honour of HIS MOST HOLY NAME.
" Therefore Know All Men To Whom these presents and the present Chart
of Possession shall come that: To-day being Wednesday, the 24th day of June, 1789,
on the arrival of the Frigate named ' Neustra Senora del Rosario' (Alias ' La Princesa'), together with the packet-boat 'San Carlos el Filipino,' both belonging to His
Most Mighty Illustrious and Catholic Majesty Carlos the Third, King of Castile, of
Leon, of Aragon, of all the Sicilies, of Jerusalem, of Navarra, of Grenada, of Toledo,
of Valencia, of Galicia, of Majorca, of Seville, of Sardinia, of Corsica, of Cordova,
of Murcia Jaen, of the Algarves, of Algeciras, of Gibraltar, of the Canary Islands,
of the Eastern Indies and Western Islands, and of the (foreshore) first land ' Y Tierra
prime del Mare Occeano' in the Oceanic Sea, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Bologna,
of Brabant, and Milan, Count of Aspurg, Flanders, Tyrol, and Barcelona, Lord of
Biscay and Molina, The said frigate and packet-boat, by Command of His Excellency
Don Manuel Antonio Florez Maldonado Martinez de Angul y Bodguin, Knight of the
Order of Calatrava, Commander of Nolino and Laguna Rota, Lieutenant-General of
the Royal Armada, Viceroy and Captain General of New-Spain, President of the Royal
Audiencia, and Sub-Delegate General of Corres in the said Kingdom, Having sailed
from the port of San Bias, on the Southern Sea, in the Government of the Viceroy,
aforesaid, on the 17th day of February in the same year, for the purpose of discovery
along the coast from Monterey northwards. This expedition being under the command-
in-chief of Don Estevan Jose Martinez, Ensign of Marine, of the Royal Armada; and
said expedition having anchored in the port of Santa Cruz, one of the numerous
harbours contained in the Bay of San Lorenzo de Nuca, with the aforesaid frigate
of his command and the packet-boat of his following."
Martinez landed from the " Princessa" with all due ceremony, accompanied by
the officers of the ships, the troops, and the sailors, and also by two chaplains and
four missionaries of the " Order of San Francisco of the Apostolic College of San
Fernando de Mexico." The leader then took formal possession of Nootka in the
following manner: He " drew out a cross, which he worshipped devoutly on his
knees, together with all those who accompanied him." The chaplains and friars then
sang the canticle " Te Deum Laudamus." At the conclusion of the singing, Martinez
in a loud voice gave utterance to the following high-sounding, verbose proclamation:—
"In the name of His Majesty the King Don Carlos the Hid—Our Sovereign
whom may God keep many years, with an increase of our Dominions and Kingdoms,—
for the service of God, and for the good and prosperity of his vassals, and for the interests
of the mighty lords the kings, his heirs and successors, in the future, as his commander
of these ships, and by virtue of the orders and instructions which were given to me
in his royal name, by the aforesaid His Excellency the Viceroy of New-Spain, I take,
and I have taken, I seize, and I have seized possession of this soil, where I have at
present disembarked which had been formerly discovered by us, in the year 1774—and
once more, on the present day,—for all time to come, in the said Royal Name, and in
the name of the Royal Crown of Castile and Leon, as aforesaid—As if it was my own
thing, which it is, and shall be, and which really belongs to the King aforesaid, by
reason of the donation and the bull ' Expedio Motu Proprio' of our Most Holy
Father Alexander VI., Pontiff of Rome, by which he donated to Most High and
Catholic Monarchs, Ferdinand V. and Isabel his spouse, Kings of Castile and Leon,
of illustrious memory, and to their successors, and heirs—one half the world—by deed
made at Rome on the 4th day of May in the year 1493—by virtue of which these present
lands belong to the said Royal Crown of Castile and Leon, and as such I take, and
I have taken possession of these lands aforesaid, and the adjoining districts, seas,
rivers, ports, bays, gulfs, archipelagoes, and this Port of Santa Cruz, in the island
named by Martinez—among the many which are enclosed in the Bay of San Lorenzo
de Nuca—which bay is situated in latitude north 49" 33' and longitude 20" 18'—West
of the meridian of San Bias, where I am at present anchored with the said frigate
and packet-boat of my command, and I place them and they shall be placed under
the dominion, and power of the said Royal Crown of Castile and Leon as aforesaid,
and as if it was my own property, which it is."
Martinez then drew his sword " and with it counted the trees, the branches, and
the lands, he disturbed the stones on the beach and in the fields without encountering
any opposition, asking those present to be witnesses of these facts." Then the commander took a large cross on his shoulders, the crews of both ships formed up in
column and marched forward while the chaplains and friars chanted the Litany of
" Rogation." The cross was planted and a heap of stones placed at its foot, " as a
sign and in memory of the taking possession in the name of His Catholic Majesty
Carlos III., King of all Spain (whom God keep)—of all these lands and neighbouring
districts discovered, continuous and contiguous." Martinez next bestowed upon the
port the name of " Santa Cruz " or the Holy Cross.
The conclusion of the ceremony is thus described in the quaint language of Rafael
Canizares, the notary of the expedition, to whose pen we owe the elaborate Spanish,
" And when the cross was planted, they worshipped it once more and all prayed,
demanding in supplication from our Lord, Jesus Christ, that He should accept their
offering, because everything had been done for the glory and honour of his Holy Name,
and in order to exalt, and enrich our holy catholic faith—and to introduce the word
of the holy Gospel among these savage nations, which until the present time had been
kept in ignorance of the true knowledge and doctrine—which will guard them and
deliver them from the snares and perils of the Demon and from the blindness in
which they have lived,—for the salvation of their souls—after which the chaplains and
friars began chanting the Hymn ' Vexilla Regis.' Following this, a solemn high mass
was celebrated on an altar which the Commander had caused to be erected, by the
Rev. Chaplain of our frigate, Don Jose Lopez de Nava, assisted by the chaplain of
the packet-boat, Don Jose Maria Diaz, and the four friars aforesaid—this being the
first mass which was said in this land in honour of our Lord God Almighty,—and
for the extirpation of the Devil and of all idolatry. The sermon was given by the
Very Reverend Father President—Severo Patero, Apostolic Missionary of the order
of San Francisco and of the Royal College of San Ferdinando of Propaganda of the
Faith—of the City of Mexico.
" The function being concluded, the aforesaid Commander as a further sign and
testimony of the taking of possession, caused a tree to be cut, which he made into a
cross, into which he engraved the Holy Name of our Lord Jesus Christ, with four
capital letters I.N.R.I.—and wrote at the foot of the cross: Carolus tertius, Rex
Thus with all due ceremonial did Spain take formal possession of Nootka.
The post established by Martinez was by nature military rather than commercial.
The Spanish commander was determined to prevent foreign ships from trading in
what were now—to him at any rate—officially Spanish waters. Any vessels flying
alien flags were liable to seizure, especially  if there were any indications that the
Friendly Cove, Nootka Sound, showing Spanish buildings during their occupation.
officers in command were preparing to found trading-posts anywhere upon the Northwest Coast.
The " Princess Royal," a trading-vessel owned by John Meares and his associates,
came into Nootka Sound on June 15th, nine days before the formal act of taking
possession of Nootka. For some reason Martinez did not molest this vessel, but even
gave to Captain Hudson, the officer in command, " a circular letter to all Spanish
vessels to allow him to pass on his way unmolested." The " Princess Royal" left
Nootka on July 2nd, and on the same day another vessel, the " Argonaut," arrived.
Martinez at once visited the new arrival and seemed so friendly that Captain
Colnett, of the "Argonaut," sailed his ship into harbour at Friendly Cove. But the
next day a dispute arose between Colnett and Martinez which resulted in the arrest of
Colnett by the Spanish commander. The chief reason for the arrest seems to have
been that Martinez had discovered on board the " Argonaut" " the material for a sloop,
necessaries for building and equipping a trading-post, and some twenty-nine Chinese
artisans as the nucleus of a future colony which was to surround his future trading-
post—Fort Pitt."
The Spaniards took possession of the " Argonaut," hauled down the Union Jack
and hoisted the flag of Spain. Colnett and some of his crew were to be sent at once
to San Bias; the remaining captives were to follow later on the " Aranzazu," a Spanish
supply-ship, whose arrival at Nootka was daily expected. On July 13th, just as the
" Argonaut" with her prize crew and her prisoners were ready to sail for San Bias,
the " Princess Royal" reappeared in the harbour of Friendly Cove. In spite of the
fact that Martinez had allowed this boat to leave Nootka on July 2nd, the Spanish
commander now ordered her to be seized also. Both the "Argonaut" and the
" Princess Royal" were sent as prizes to San Bias, arriving there on August 15th
and August 27th respectively. Colnett afterwards complained bitterly of the treatment he received during this voyage to Mexico. He was kept a close prisoner and
not even allowed a drink of water when he asked for it during the night.
During the autumn of 1789 Martinez received orders from Florez, the Viceroy
of New Spain, to abandon the post at Nootka and to return to San Bias. Martinez
did so and reached Mexico in December of that year, having spent some time exploring
the coast and learning more of its inhabitants. Maquinna and his warriors, who had
been ejected from their village when the Spaniards took possession, now returned
rejoicing to Friendly Cove, and promptly pounced upon- anything left behind by
Martinez and his men.
So ended the first Spanish settlement at Nootka. The next year, 1790, witnessed
the foundation of the second settlement under Eliza, but the story of that venture lies
beyond the scope of this address. But Martinez had not done his work in vain.
He had planted the Spanish flag at Nootka, and by his seizure of British ships had
brought about an international situation which in 1790 almost led to war.
By J. Forsyth.
As previous speakers have given a very comprehensive account of the early history
of Nootka Sound, I shall confine my remarks to the final scenes in the settlement of
the Nootka controversy.
It has been shown that in 1789 Spain took formal possession of Nootka Sound,
erected a fort and founded a settlement, which they maintained until 1795. In the
interval a dispute arises over the seizure of British vessels by the Spaniards; satisfaction is demanded by Great Britain, and after lengthy negotiations a Convention is
signed in 1790. In accordance with the Convention, Captain Vancouver is given
authority to take over from the Spanish officer he would meet at Nootka such lands
and houses which Meares alleged had been seized by the Spaniards in 1789.
Captains Vancouver and Quadra meet at Nootka in 1792, but as each placed a
different interpretation upon the terms of the Convention, no settlement could be made
until the matter could be referred to their respective Governments.
After further negotiations between Great Britain and Spain, a declaration and
counter-declaration were drawn up and signed jointly by Lord St. Helens and the
Duke de la Alcudia, under date of January 11th, 1794. This provided for the restoration of the buildings and lands of which British subjects were alleged to have been
dispossessed. Copies of these documents were furnished to Thos. Pearce, First Lieutenant of His Majesty's Marine Forces, and to the Spanish officer, Brigadier-General
Alava, with instructions that they proceed to Nootka, where they should meet together
at or near the place on which had stood the buildings which were formerly occupied
by the subjects of His Britannic Majesty, at which place they should mutually exchange
the declaration and counter-declaration. In the latter it was left free for the subjects
of both nations to frequent the Port of Nootka and to construct temporary buildings,
but neither party was to make a permanent establishment.    Both were to assist each
other in maintaining for their subjects free access to the Port of Nootka against any
other nation which should attempt to establish there any sovereignty or dominion.
In striking contrast to the pomp and ceremony at the formal taking possession of
Nootka by the Spaniards in 1789 was the simple procedure when Great Britain took
over this territory, the details of which are set out in dispatches from Lieutenant
Pearce. These papers form part of the British Admiralty correspondence in the
possession of our Provincial Archives Department, and as two of the documents have
a direct bearing on the final settlement of the Nootka question I shall quote them
as follows:—
Monterrey, California,
Feby 14th, 1795.
" Sir,—When I did myself the honour of addressing a letter to you from the City
of Mexico. I acquainted you that Capt Vancouver had returned with His Majesty's
Ships under his command in the Month of September 1794. to the Port of Nootka,
from an Expedition on the Coast of Oualaska;   as communicated to the Vice-Roy of
New Spain by the Spanish Officer appointed for terminating the differences respecting
those territories.    I afterwards heard that that officer had left Nootka in order to pass
the winter at this place, and in consequence of this intelligence I was induced to touch
here, and yesterday I arrived at this Settlement where I found the  Spanish Officer,
Brigadier-General Alava—who delivered to me a letter he had in charge from Capt
Vancouver, who quitted this Ocean to return to England on the 1st of Decbr 1794.
" The Governor of this Establishment informs me that the Daedalus Store Ship,
on hoard of which Lord Camelford was embarked, sailed from this Bay for Europe
about the Month of Novbr 1793—and I hope his Lordship is happily arrived in England.
"From hence I shall proceed, in obedience to His Majesty's Commands, in company
with Brigadier-General Alava to the Port of Nootka—to ratify the Articles respecting
that Settlement and its dependencies, as agreed upon by the two Crowns—and I have
great hopes before the end of this Year to return to Lord Grenville the Packet which
his Lordship pleased to honour me with the care of for Lord Camelford.
" I have the honour to be
with great respect
Your most obedient
and humble servt
"(Signed) Thos Pearce,
1st Lieut, in His Majesty's
Marine Forces.
"—Anst, Esqr."
" Tepic. New Spain.    200 Leagues
to the N.W. of the City of Mexico,
April 25th, 1795.
" My Lord,—In the letter which I had the honour of addressing to Mr King from
Monterrey in California; dated February the 14th of the present year. I acquainted him
for your Grace's information with my reasons for touching at this Settlement, as also
of my having there joined Brigadier-General Alava, the Officer appointed on the part
of the Court of Spain for finally terminating the Negotiations of Nootka; I likewise
informed him that on the 1st of December 1794. Capt Vancouver with His Majesty's
Ships under his Command, quitted the Southern Ocean in order to return to Europe.
" I have now the Honor of acquainting your Grace, that in obedience to your
Instructions I proceeded from Monterrey in Company with Brig.-General Alava to the
Port of Nootka, where we arrived on the 16th of March, 1795, but not being satisfied
with the information I received from the Spanish respecting the State of the British
Buildings at the time of their possessing themselves of those territories; I declined
signing the Convention untill the Principal Chiefs of the Country could be assembled;
having met with a Mr Kendrick, an American Gentleman who had been on that Coast
ever since the year 1787, and who was perfectly conversant in the Language of the
Natives—owing to tempestuous weather the Chiefs could not be brought together untill
the 20th when on that day through the medium of Mr Kendrick, I satisfied myself
respecting the State of the Country at the time of the Spaniards arrival—preparations
were immediately made for dismantling the Fort which the Spaniards had erected on
an Island that guarded the Mouth of the Harbour, and embarking the Ordnance; by
the morning of the 28th all the Artillery were embarked; part on board of His Catholic
Majesty's Sloop of War Activo, and part on board of the San Carlos Guard Ship—
Brigadier-General Alava and myself then met, agreeable to our respective instructions,
on the place where formerly the British Buildings stood; where we Signed and
Exchanged the Declaration and Counter Declaration for restoring those Lands to His
Majesty, as agreed upon by the two Courts—after which ceremony I ordered the
British Flag to be Hoisted in token of Possession and the General gave directions for
the Troops to Embark.
" I have the Honor of inclosing a Duplicate of the Spanish Declaration, reserving
the Original with the examination of the Chiefs, and the certificate of Mr Kendrick to
lay before your Grace on my arrival.
" I beg leave further to observe to your Grace, that at the time of Assembling the
Chiefs, I informed them that in consequence of the good accounts which the King of
Great Britain had received of them from Capt Cook (whose Name is still familiar and
much respected by them) the first Discoverer of their Country, and by his other
Subjects who have since that period traded with them; His Majesty had determined
to take them under his protection—with this Account they all seemed much pleased,
observing that the English had ever been their good Friends—but were very Anxious
to know if the Spaniards should return, whether they were to be Friends with them;
from which I inferred that they had not been treated very kindly by them.
"The British Colours I ha\e committed to the Charge of Maqueena, or Maw-quee-
na. the most powerful Chief, with directions to Hoist them whenever a vessel appeared
in sight; this mark of confidence gratified him very much, and I sincerely hope that
my conduct in this respect may meet with the approbation of your Grace—I have also
left letters for the Commander of His Majesty's Ship Providence, which may be shortly
expected on the Coast.
" I have the Honor to be
My Lord
with the most profound respect
Your Grace's most obedient
and most humble Servt
"(Signed)        Thos Pearce
1st Lieut in His Majesty's Marine Forces.
" His Grace the Duke of Portland,
&c, &c, &c."
As no further controversy occurred between Britain and Spain over this territory,
and neither attempted to make permanent establishment, the contents of the above
dispatches constitute the last act in what has been termed " a comedy of errors."
Your Honour, Ladies and Gentlemen, Chief Maquinna and our Indian friends of
the West Coast of Vancouver Island,—We are assembled to commemorate the arrival
here of those great navigators of England, Captain Cook and Captain Vancouver.
We are together to-day, both the whites and the Indians, to show the goodwill between
you and ourselves in this great country. We have with us His Honour the Lieutenant-
Governor, representing the King and country to which we all belong, a Judge to
represent the law, professors, doctors, pioneers of this country, both ladies and gentle-
men. We are honoured to have in our party relatives of the first Governor of this
country, the great Sir James Douglas, now of honoured memory; he rests in the great
beyond. I appear here representing the Society known as the Native Sons of British
Columbia, an organization composed of persons who were born in this country. Some
of the most honoured members of this Society are relatives of your race and of mine.
Our Society has among its objects the preservation of historical landmarks and the
perpetuation of the traditions and early history of this Province. Your people,
especially at the place where we now stand, welcomed the early navigators who came
to this great and then little-known country to the outside world. Did you notice the
name of the steamship on which we have just come here? It is named after your
great chief Maquinna, who met and welcomed here the introduction of law and order,
which was the first great step toward introducing the Christian religion, education,
and general advancement.
Our visit to-day is to further show that the Government and the people generally
desire to further aid you. Representing the Native Sons as I do, being the Grand
Chief Factor of that Society, I point out to you that there is no distinction in the
benefits which you may derive from the Christian religion, the State, and the schools
by which we all benefit. All along the Pacific Coast there are families of your people
who have benefited, socially, morally, and intellectually, since the introduction of the
Christian religion and schools. As a Native Son speaking to Native Sons, I say there
are no differences between us which cannot be settled amicably.
We would like you to go away with the idea that the whites are anxious that
your people should increase and always remain loyal subjects of our King and country.
May you ever prosper by your trade with the whites; we believe that many more
people will come from the cities to see this historical spot. The Indian Agent has
just told us you kindly donated, of your reserve, the piece of land for the monument
just unveiled, so as to do your part in helping to keep in memory the early events
of history on this coast.
We are all pleased to be here to-day and to show you our good friendship, and
that we are eager to aid you in obtaining that health, wealth, and prosperity which
follows from obeying the laws of God and man.
During the two years of our youthful society's career several books and articles
have been published which have reference, in whole or in part, to the history of
British Columbia. One of these books, " The Far West Coast," is the work of a
member of the Association, Mr. V. L. Denton, to whom the congratulations of his
fellow-members have been warmly extended. Several of the articles are from the pen
of our worthy and indefatigable President, Judge Howay. In the annual reports of
the Canadian Historical Association have been printed certain papers, read at the
annual meetings of the Association, which deal with phases of our early history. In the
" Canadian Historical Review," the " American Historical Review," the " Quarterly of
the Oregon Historical Society," and the " Washington Historical Quarterly" articles
and reviews have appeared which have bearing on the past of this Province.
For these reasons it has been suggested that in our " Annual Report and Proceedings " a space be set apart for " Bibliographical Notes and Reviews," which will enable
our members to keep in touch with the recent publications which deal with our history.
This year the notes have been prepared by the Editor, with the able assistance of the
President, but it is hoped that in future years other members of the Society may be
induced to co-operate in this work.
It is hoped that in time these " Bibliographical Notes and Reviews " may constitute
a sort of annual " Review of Publications relating to the History of British Columbia."
Already we have in the admirable " North-west Pacific Americana " a bibliography of
the printed books which relate to the history of our Coast, but as yet no separate
bibliography for British Columbia has been compiled. This is a serious undertaking,
but in the meantime it may be possible to keep abreast of the new publications which
relate to British Columbia in our " Bibliographical Notes and Reviews."
The Far West Coast. By V. L. Denton. Toronto: J. M. Dent & Sons, Ltd. 1924.
Pp. x-291.
Members of the British Columbia Historical Association cannot fail to be interested
in this volume, which is from the pen of a fellow-member. Mr. Denton has successfully attempted to put in convenient form for use in schools the story of the early
voyages of discovery along our Coast. He has taken the well-known printed accounts
of these voyages and has rewritten them in an attractive form. He has tried to make
the characters live, and to let the reader feel the real difficulties they had to encounter.
Beginning with the legendary voyage of " that false rogue," Juan de Fuca, to the
Pacific Coast, and his alleged discovery of the Strait of Anian, Mr. Denton goes on to
tell the story of Vitus Bering and his two voyages of discovery. Then he describes
the three great voyages of Captain Cook, and deals with the discovery of Nootka
Sound in March, 1778. After that he tells of John Meares and his troubles, including
the seizure of ships at Nootka and the Nootka Convention. In conclusion he relates
the explorations and diplomacy of Captain Vancouver, 1791-1795.
All place-names have been given as they appear on modern maps, and thus the
reader is saved the confusion which often occurs when he attempts to find the exact
modern location of a place named in the original voyages. The author has also
included seven valuable maps and a dozen interesting illustrations. The book is well
printed and is of a convenient size.
Possibly rather too much space has been given to the first and second voyages of
Captain Cook, which did not directly affect the history of the Far West Coast, but
the accounts given are interesting and help us to understand the difficulties against
which Captain Cook was forced to struggle.    The book is remarkably free from errors.
One of the pleasing features of the volume is the short headings and longer
summaries placed at the heads of the chapters. These are usually very simple and
often very effective. The heading for Chapter VII., " In which the demon scurvy is
roundly trounced," is a case in point.
We welcome this volume and hope that it is only the first of many from the
same pen.
David Thompson, the Explorer. By Charles N orris Cochrane. Canadian Men of
Action Series.    Toronto: The Macmillan Company of Canada.    1924.    Pp. 173.
Professor Charles Norris Cochrane, M.A. (Oxon.), of the Ancient History Department of the University of Toronto, is the author of this interesting little volume, which
tells in simple and attractive form the life-history of David Thompson, one of the
greatest pathfinders of Western Canada. Mr. Cochrane's book is based on Mr.
J. B. Tyrrell's edition of Thompson's Narrative, published by the Champlain Society.
Thompson's Narrative is fascinating reading for the real student of North-west history,
but the average reader will welcome the new volume in the Canadian Men of Action
In this little book David Thompson lives again. The reader sees him crossing the
plains and struggling through the snows of the Rocky Mountains. One feels his
boundless energy and appreciates his astronomical accuracy. British Columbians will
be especially interested in the account of the building of " Kootanae House " in 1807
and the exploration of the Columbia in 1811. It is to be regretted that the author
falls into the old error of telling the story of the " Race to the Sea " to anticipate the
arrival of Astor's ship at the mouth of the Columbia River. Thompson in his Narrative (p. 448) states that his "object was to be at the Pacific Ocean before the month
of August." Mr. T. C. Elliott, of Walla Walla, Washington, has long ago disposed
of this legend.
But Mr. Cochrane is to be congratulated for having written this able and attractive
little book.
Sir John Macdonald. By W. S. Wallace. Canadian Statesmen Series. Toronto:
The Macmillan Company of Canada.    1924.    Pp. 132.
This charming little volume is the work of Mr. W. Stewart Wallace, M.A. (Oxon.),
Librarian of the University of Toronto, editor of the Canadian Historical Review, and
also editor of the Canadian Statesmen and Canadian Men of Action Series. This book
is clear and interesting and will appeal to the general reader who is not prepared to
wade through the official biography of Sir Joseph Pope.
British Columbian readers will be especially interested in the sixth chapter, which
deals with Macdonald's career as first Prime Minister of the Dominion of Canada,
the period in which the boundaries of Canada were extended to the Pacific, and in the
seventh chapter, which is picturesquely entitled "The Fall of Lucifer" and treats of
the Pacific Scandal. The building of the Canadian Pacific Railway is treated concisely
in pages 105-107.
We notice a couple of small errors which will doubtless be corrected in a second
edition. They hardly detract at all from the excellence of this most readable little
book, which tells in brief compass the life-history of one of Canada's greatest men.
The Inside Passage to Alaska, 1792-1920. By William Watson Woollen. Cleveland:
The Arthur H. Clarke Company.    1924.   2 vols.    Pp. 342, 318.
In the introduction it is claimed that these two volumes " trace the discoveries
made by Vancouver and other early navigators along the North-west Coast, incorporate
many interesting facts of natural history, and describe the region as Mr. Woollen found
it in the course of his own travels."    To some extent this claim is justified.
The author travelled from Seattle to Skagway and carefully noted what he saw.
He did more; he used the accounts of other travellers. Vancouver's Voyage was his
constant companion, and he also obtained information from Walbran's British Columbia
Place Names, Meany's Vancouver's Discovery of Puget Sound, and the British
Columbia Pilot. He is not always fair to Captain Vancouver, whose work he does
not seem to have fully appreciated. His knowledge of the work of the Spanish
explorers and maritime fur-traders is neither complete nor accurate.
Probably the most readable chapters in the book deal with the " interesting facts
of natural history " alluded to in the introduction. Here the author is thoroughly at
home, and he tells us of the " Trees and Shrubs of the Northwest Coast"; of " Whales
and Whale Fisheries of the Northwest Pacific"; of "The Indians of the North-west
Coast"; and of kindred topics, with great accuracy and charm. The ordinary tourist
will now appreciate the history and natural history of the Pacific Coast.
The spelling of certain words is by no means uniform, but in spite of small errors
the volumes are a valuable contribution to the subject. They are even more remarkable
when one considers that they were undertaken by a man who had reached the ripe
age of 70 years.
The Totem Poles in Stanley Park. By John C. Goodfellow. Vancouver: The Art.
Historical, and Scientific Association. 1924. Pp.
This most interesting little brochure, which is illustrated with cuts of the totem-
poles brought from Alert Bay and erected in Stanley Park, Vancouver, B.C., reflects
great credit on the author and upon the Art, Historical, and Scientific Association, of
Vancouver, B.C., under whose auspices it was issued. The story of the totem-poles is
well told, and a full explanation is given of the figures carved upon the two chief poles.
Vancouver and his Great Voyage:   The story of a Norfolk Sailor, Captain George
Vancouver,  R.N.    1757-1798.    By  G.  H.  Anderson.    King's Lynn:   Thew &
Son.    1923.    Pp. about 85.
This pamphlet is, strange enough, " the first extended biography of Captain Vancouver."    It had its origin in a series of articles published in the " Lynn Advertiser"
in 1922.    At the request of his friends the author, Mr. G.  H. Anderson, of King's
Lynn. Norfolk. England, has reprinted the articles in more permanent form, and has
included " a few illustrations and a memorandum as to the navigator's birthplace."
King's Lynn has every reason to be proud of Captain Vancouver, who was one of
its most distinguished sons. But to judge from some of Mr. Anderson's remarks,
Vancouver's birthplace has, as yet, done little to honour his memory. " It is a pity,"
he writes, '' that the man whose name has been given to an important island, to one
city in Canada and to another in the United States, should not in his native town have
been commemorated by the naming of some street or place. A good opportunity is
now offered to remedy this by the making of the proposed new road from the South
Gate, which might very well be called Vancouver Road."
In the first chapter an account is given of Vancouver's ancestors in England,
especially on the maternal side. His father, John Jasper Vancouver, was of Dutch
descent. He held the important office in King's Lynn of Deputy Collector of Customs
at King's Lynn. In the second chapter we are told the story of Vancouver's second
voyage with Cook between the years 1776 and 1780. For the next ten years he served
under Rodney and Gardiner, and at the end of 1790 was appointed to command the
" Discovery."
The story of Vancouver's famous voyage has been told for all time in Vancouver's
own account, and Mr. Anderson has merely summarized here. He takes no cognizance
at all of the new material to be found in Menzies's Journal and Bell's Journal, nor
does he mention the existence of the " sixteen logs which have been buried in the
Admiralty Office since 1795." At times he is, perhaps, a little favourable to his hero,
but that is to be expected.
The author seems to think that Fort Langley, which was not founded until 1827,
was named after a certain John Langley, a marine on the " Discovery." It is usually
considered that the fort was named after Charles Langley, a director of the Hudson's
Bay Company. Vancouver, of course, missed the mouth of the Fraser River, and so
never saw the site of Fort Langley.    But why labour the point further?
Let us hope that Vancouver Road is already to be found on the maps of King's
The Canadian Historical Association Annual Report, 1923. Published by the
Canadian National Parks Branch of the Interior Department.    Ottawa, 1923.
This annual report of the Canadian Historical Association, with which the British
Columbia Historical Association is affiliated, contains much of interest for British
Columbian readers.
The frontispiece is a photograph of the David Thompson Memorial at Windermere,
B.C., which was formally opened in 1922. A short account of the ceremonies held on
that occasion is given in the presidential address of Mr. Laurence T. Burpee. Mention
is also made of the memorial meeting held at the grave of David Thompson in Mount
Royal Cemetery in Montreal on the same day on which the Memorial Hall was opened
at Windermere. There is a pleasing allusion to the founding of our Association, and
it is also chronicled that " The British Columbia Historical Association reports that
at its last meeting it passed a resolution urging the Historic Sites and Monuments
Board to consider the erection of two monuments—one at Nootka Sound and the other
at the spot where Alexander Mackenzie reached the Pacific on his memorable overland journey."
Among the papers read at the annual meeting, two were on subjects connected
with British Columbia history. They were: The Spanish Discovery of British-
Columbia, by our President, Judge F. W. Howay, and Port Simpson and the North
West Coast, by Mr. C. Marius Barbeau, Secretary of the Canadian Historical Association. Mr. Burpee's Notes on David Thompson contained information regarding
" Kootanae House" and also concerning the opening of the new Fort Kootenay on
August 31st, 1922. A photograph of the pageant held on that occasion is included
in the report.
In the article Some Historic and Prehistoric Sites of Canada, contributed by the
Canadian National Parks Branch, reference is made to the marking of Fort Langley,
B.C. A full account of the valuable work done by the Historic Sites and Monuments
Board of Canada is also given.
The Canadian Historical Association Annual Report, 1924. Published by the
Canadian National Parks Branch of the Interior Department.    Ottawa, 1924.
The annual meeting of the Canadian Historical Association for 1924 was held in
the ancient and historic city of Quebec on May 23rd and 24th. Judge F. W. Howay
was present as a representative of our Association and Dean R. W. Brock represented
the University of British Columbia.
Among the papers presented, the following dealt with subjects connected with the
history of British Columbia: The End of Mackenzie's Overland Route to the Pacific,
by Mr. Harlan I. Smith, and Temlaham, an Indian Paradise Lost in northern British
Columbia, by Mr. C. Marius Barbeau. In addition, Judge Howay read a paper by
Professor William H. Atherton on The Study of Local History.
Mr. Burpee in his presidential address made reference to " a proposal for the
creation of a National Park at Bella Coola. on the Pacific Coast, to include the historic
spot where Alexander Mackenzie first reached salt water on his memorable expedition
overland to the Pacific in 1793." He also mentioned the desirability of preserving
" certain petroglyphs, or Indian sculptured figures, on rocks south of Bella Coola
River and at other points in the same area." Attention was also drawn to the erection
of an Indian village in Stanley Park, Vancouver, B.C., through the efforts of the
Art, Historical, and Scientific Association, of Vancouver.
One of the most interesting papers printed in the report is on the subject of
The Beaver Club and is from the pen of Mr. Laurence J. Burpee. It tells the story
of the great social club of the old Nor-Westers. This club, which had its headquarters
in Montreal, was composed of fur-traders who had spent at least one winter in the wilds.
Sir Alexander Mackenzie, Joseph Frobisher, James McGill, the founder of McGill
University, and Simon Fraser were all members of this famous club.
In the notes dealing with the activities of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board
reference is made to the erection of monuments at four historic sites in British
Columbia—Nootka Sound, Prince George, Yale, and Prospect Point, Vancouver. Of
these, the memorial at Nootka has already been unveiled. Among the sites to
" be suitably marked in due course " are included: Fort Langley; Gonzales Point in
Victoria, B.C.; Fort Kamloops; New Westminster; and Bella Coola, as being "Sir
Alexander Mackenzie's farthest point west."
The Canadian Historical Review. Volumes IV. and V. Edited by W. S. Wallace.
Toronto:   The University of Toronto Press.
In the Canadian Historical Review, Volumes IV. (1923) and V. (1924), are to
be found many interesting references to British Columbian history. There is only one
article which deals directly with the subject, Early Days of the Maritime Fur Trade on
the Northwest Coast, by Judge Howay, published in the number for March. 1923;
but two others, Some Letters of David Thompson, 'by Lawrence J. Burpee, and The
Early Choice of the Forty-Ninth Parallel as a Boundary Line, by Charles O. Paulin,
will be found interesting by all those who wish to know more about the settling of
the International Boundary between Canada and the United States.
One of the most important functions of the Canadian Historical Review is to
continue the good work done for nearly a quarter of a century by the Review of
Historical Publications Relating to Canada. Reviews of books are therefore given
due prominence. Several of these reviews deal with the history of Western Canada
or of that of the North-west Pacific Coast. As might be expected, most of them are
from the pen of Judge Howay. They include reviews of the following books: Carey,
History of Oregon; Andrews, The Story of Sitka; Newcombe, Mensies' Journal of
Vancouver's Voyage; Lewis and Phillips, The Journal of John Work, all by Judge
Howay; Bemis, Jay's Treaty: A Study in Commerce and Diplomacy, by W. N. Sage;
Innes, A History of the Canadian Pacific Railway, by Professor O. D. Skelton, of
Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario; Cochrane, David Thompson, by Mrs. J. B.
Tyrrell, of Toronto;   and an anonymous review of Golder, Bering's Voyages, Vol. I.
There are also brief notes on recent publications relating to Canada. These
include references to articles in the leading magazines and reviews.
In the number for December, 1924, the editor has included complimentary references to the celebration at Nootka Sound and to the First Annual Report and
Proceedings of our Association.
The Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society. Volumes XXIV. and XXV.
Edited by F. G. Young.    Portland, Oregon:   The Oregon Historical Society.
The Oregon Historical Society is not only the oldest but also the most distinguished historical body on the North-west Pacific Coast. Its Quarterly, which dates
from 1899, often contains information of much interest to students of the history of
British Columbia. For it should not be forgotten that before 1846 " Old Oregon "
included all the territory between California and Alaska, west of the Rocky Mountains,
and that the British trading corporation, the Hudson's Bay Company, was the master
of Oregon.
In the issue for June, 1923, Judge Howay has an important article on Letters
Relating to the Second Voyage of the Columbia. Mr. Leslie M. Scott has edited, with
an introduction, John Work's Journey from Fort Vancouver to Umpqua River and
Return in 1834, in the September, 1923, number. The original journal of John Work
is preserved in the Archives of British Columbia. In the March, 1924, issue there are
two articles—one by Mr. Ralph S. Kuykendall, Executive Secretary of the Hawaiian
Historical Commission, on James Colnett and the "Princess Royal," and one by Mr.
Amos William Hartmann, on The California and Oregon Trail, 1840-1860—which will
be found interesting. In the same issue Mr. George Verne Blue has published, with
comments, A Hudson's Bay Company Contract for Hawaiian Labour. Among the
Notes and Comment in the September, 1924, number are some pleasing references to
the Nootka Sound celebration and to the marking of Mackenzie's Rock by the Historic
Sites and Monuments Board of Canada. Mr. Fred S. Perrine has an article on
Early Days on the Willamette, which deals with the activities of the Astorians and
the Nor'-Westerners, and also quotes from the Journals of Lewis and Clark. This
article is in the December, 1924, number.
The Washington Historical Quarterly. Volumes XIV. and XV. Edited by
Edmond S. Meany. Seattle, Washington: The Washington University State
Historical Society.
This Quarterly is the official organ of our nearest neighbour, the Washington
University State Historical Society, and is edited by Professor Edmond S. Meany,
the head of the Department of History in the University of Washington. It very
often includes material of much value to British Columbians.
In the two volumes under discussion perhaps the most interesting feature is the
reproduction of the Nisqually Journal for the years 1851 and 1852. The journals of
this fur-trading post, Fort Nisqually, situated at the head of Puget Sound, are being
gradually published in this Quarterly. They throw much light upon the life of the
fur trade and contain references to Dr. William Fraser Tolmie, who was for years
in charge of the post, Sir James Douglas, John Work, and other prominent fur-traders.
In the issue for July, 1924, is printed an article by Mr. Aaron Newell on North
West and-Hudson's Bay Companies. The following sub-title shows the general scope
of the article: " The Predominating Influence of the North West Merchants of
Montreal in the Plan of Amalgamation with the Hudson Bay Company in 1821."
A complimentary reference to the formation of the British Columbia Historical
Association is to be found in the issue for January, 1923, and in the October, 1924,
number a whole page is devoted to the Nootka celebration. Professor Meany in his
" News Department" always chronicles items of interest to students of North-west
Pacific Coast history.
The Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada.   Third Series, Volume XVIlt.
In  May,  1924, Judge F. W.  Howay.  as  President of  Section  IT.  of the Royal
Society of  Canada, delivered  his presidential address on the subject of  The Earfy
Literature of the Northzvest Coast. He divided his material under the following
heads: Literature of the Spanish Voyages; Literature of the French Voyages; Literature of the American Voyages; and Literature of the English Voyages. The following
sentences from the introduction clearly explain the intention and scope of the address:—
" Few persons who have not examined carefully some of the large collections of
Northwest Americana or who have not given special attention to the subject realize
the very considerable volume of Pacific Coast literature. It is not my intention to
compile a bibliography or a catalogue of these works, but rather to touch upon some
of the voyages prior to 1800 and the underlying stories of the books and the authors.
In using the word ' literature' it must, at the outset, be understood that it is used in
a wide sense as including written or printed productions, large or small, and not as
indicating any particular standard of excellence."
Judge Howay has been eminently successful in achieving his object. What he has
given us is not a mere " Catalogue of Ships," but an interesting and concise account
of the printed books and the manuscript sources which deal with those eventful voyages
to the North-west Coast which took place during the last quarter of the eighteenth
century.    He has made a real contribution to the literature of the subject.
The American Historical Review. Volumes XXVIII. and XXIX. Edited by J.
Franklin Jameson.    New York:  The Macmillan Company.
The American Historical Review in its articles and reviews ranges over the whole
field of history from the most ancient times to the present, and does not usually devote
much space to the Pacific North-west. But in the two volumes in question there have
appeared two articles which shed light upon the story of our Province. These were:
The Odyssey of Thomas Muir, by Dr. J. Franklin Jameson and Miss Marjorie Masson,
and The Oregon Pioneers and the Boundary, by Mr. Frederick Merk. The first of
these papers is a masterly production, which as was noted in our last Annual Report,
sheds much new light upon the history of the Scottish exile, Thomas Muir. The
second also contains new material, but the author is under the impression that the
depot of the Hudson's Bay Company was shifted from Fort Vancouver to Fort Victoria
in 1845, and not in 1849 as is usually stated. It is to be admitted that the author has
made a strong case for his contention, but from evidence to be found in the Nisqually
Journal and among the manuscript sources in the British Columbia Archives it would
seem that the old date, 1849, is correct.
In the section entitled Historical News brief references to Canadian history and
to North-west Pacific Coast history are to be found.
Dr. Charles Frederick Newcombe.
In the passing of Dr. Newcombe the British Columbia Historical Association, in
common with other scientific circles throughout the American Continent, has sustained
a very great loss. He died of pneumonia on October 19th, 1924, after an illness of
two weeks
Dr. Newcombe, who was 73 years of age, was born in Newcastle-on-Tyne, and
obtained his degree at London University and later studied at several German universities. He came to the North-west Coast in 1883 and since 1889 had resided in
Victoria. He took an active interest in the work of the Provincial Museum, studied
Marine Biology, and was interested in the fossil formations of the Pacific Coast of
British Columbia. He made numerous trips to the Queen Charlotte Islands, whose
coasts he closely examined in an open rowboat which had been shipped North for
this purpose. Later he gave much of his time to the study of the native races of the
Pacific Coast and gathered together much material which now forms the Anthropological collection of the Provincial Museum.
In 1905 he arranged the Indian collections in the North-west Hall of the Field
Museum, Chicago, for Dr. Dorsey, and in so far as his knowledge of the Anthropology
of this Coast is concerned, he was of great assistance to many of the leading Anthropologists, including Dr. Franz Boas, Columbia University; Dr. Goddard, American
Museum of Natural History; Dr. Sapir and Dr. Harlan I. Smith, of the Victoria
Memorial Museum, Ottawa.
His activities also included the collection of botanical specimens, of which he
made valuable contributions to the Provincial Museum Herbarium.
In connection with the Provincial Fisheries Department, Dr. Newcombe did some
valuable research-work connected with the life-histories of the sea-lions along the
Pacific Coast. He was appointed by Dr. MacCallum, Chief of the Biological Board
of Canada, as Chairman of a Commission to report on the life-history of the sea-lion
in connection with the salmon industry of the Pacific Coast. His associates in this
work were Mr. Hamar Greenwood and Dr. McLean Fraser.
Dr. Newcombe was one of the founders of the Natural History Society of British
Columbia, to whose Proceedings he made some valuable contributions.
Upon the formation of the British Columbia Historical Association, he was elected
an honorary member as a mark of appreciation of his work in the field of historical
There was no greater authority on the early maritime history of the Pacific Coast
than Dr. Newcombe, and to which phase of the history he gave in his later years almost
undivided attention. Some of the results of his investigations in this field are given
in his publication, " The First Circumnavigation of Vancouver Island" (now out of
print), also in " Menzies' Journal of Vancouver's Voyage, April to October, 1792,"
both works having been published as Memoirs of the British Columbia Archives
Although advancing years prevented him from taking an active part in the work
of the various societies and institutions associated with his early years, yet he maintained to the last a keen interest in the historical and scientific work of the Province.
He was one of the party who attended the ceremony of unveiling the monument
at Friendly Cove, Nootka Sound, in August last year, and during his stay there
renewed his acquaintance with many of the historic landmarks of the district.
At the time of his death he was engaged in editing a second volume of the
Menzies' Journal, which, it is hoped, will be published by the Provincial Archives
Department.—J. F.
Thomas Warren Cornett.
The Historical Association has suffered a very great loss in the sudden passing
of Mr. Thomas W. Cornett, who was drowned under most tragic circumstances at
Shawnigan Lake, August 16th, 1924.
Mr. Cornett, who was a graduate of the University of Toronto, was one of the
outstanding teachers of British Columbia. He was a keen student of education and
was at all times vitally concerned in any movement which tended to improve the
educational system of the Province. In addition to his professional duties, he was
President of the Victoria Teachers' Association, Superintendent of the Metropolitan
Methodist Church Sunday-school, Secretary of the Victoria Branch of the " League
of Nations " Society, and an active and enthusiastic member of the British Columbia
Historical Association.—V. L. D.
Akehurst, Rev. H. S., English Church, Kamloops, B.C.
♦Anderson, J. R., Union Club, Victoria.
Andrews, J. E., Hudson's Bay Store, Kamloops, B.C.
Averill, A. S., 1503 Rockland Avenue, Victoria.
Bishop, R. P., Union Club, Victoria.
Blackwood, E. E., 911 Linden Avenue, Victoria.
Boggs, Beaumont, 620 Broughton Street, Victoria.
Bolton, Mrs. W. W., 316 Cook Street, Victoria.
Bone, W. H., care T. N. Hibben Co., Victoria.
,.   Bowyer, G, Kamloops, B.C.
Boyce, H. F., 190 Menzies Street, Victoria.
Bruce, Randolph, Invermere, B.C.
Buckland, F. M., Kelowna, B.C.
Bullen, Mrs. Fitzherbert, Oakdene, 924 Esquimalt Road, Victoria.
Cameron, J. S., 1409 Camosun Street, Victoria.
Carmichael, Alfred, 624 Fort Street, Victoria.
__Case, C. C, Kamloops, B.C.
Chisholm, A. J., Kingsgate, B.C.
Coddington, Mrs., 914 Metchosin Street, Victoria.
Cree, Mrs., 974 Island Road, Victoria.
Deasy, Thomas, 2715 Blackwood Street, Victoria.
Denton, V. L., 1866 Forester Street, Victoria.
^_Dunbar, C. H., Kamloops, B.C.
Eastham, J. W., Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Elliot, T. C, Walla Walla, U.S.A.
Finlayson, Miss, 1009 Terrace Avenue, Victoria.
Fletcher, James, 1124 Rockland Avenue, Victoria.
Forsyth, John, Provincial Librarian, Victoria.
Fraser, Donald A., 314 Phoenix Place, Victoria.
Gardiner, George, 1016 Pakingham Street, Victoria.
Georgeson, Mrs. Allan, Albert Head, V.I.
Hallam, Alfred, 2956 Albina Street, Victoria.
JIamilton, Basil G, Invermere, B.C.
Harris, Miss Hilda, 603 Superior Street, Victoria.
Harrison, Victor B., Nanaimo, B.C.
Hart, Mrs. E. C, 643 Courtney Street, Victoria.
Helmcken, Mrs. J. D.
Henderson, —, Victoria Book & Stationery Co., Victoria.
Higgs, W. Miller, 512 Sayward Building, Victoria.
Holmes, Major Cuthbert, Pemberton Building, Victoria.
Hosie, John, 3521 Savannah Avenue, Saanich, V.I.
Howay, His Honour Judge F. W., New Westminster, B.C.
Howson, Miss Helen E., 2648 Alberta Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Hubbell, C. S., 1001 Alaska Building, Seattle, Wash., U.S.A.
Kay, E. P., 1721 Richmond Avenue, Victoria.
Keating, C. J., 1576 North Hampshire Road, Victoria.
Kelly, W. N., Pacific Club, Victoria.
Leeson, B. W., Quatsino, V.I.
Longstaff, Major F. V., F.R.G.S., 50 Highland Drive, Victoria.
McAllan, W. J., Indian Agent, Fort Fraser, B.C.
MacKenzie, Hugh, 1039 Richardson Street, Victoria.
McGregor, Captain G, 612 Humboldt Street, Victoria.
♦McMicking, Mrs. R. B., 703 Linden Avenue, Victoria.
McTavish, —, 733 Lampson Street, Victoria.
Marsh, Fred, 2540 Windsor Road, Victoria.
Martin, Hon. Mr. Justice, Court of Appeal, Victoria.
Matheson, Charles W., Michel, B.C.
__ Matthews, A. F., School Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
Matthews, Louis C. J., Port Nitinat, V.I.
Maynard, A. H., Pandora Avenue, Victoria.
,   Murphy, Dr. H. H., Kamloops, B.C.
Neal, William J., Box 55, Duncan.
Norris, N., Vernon, B.C.
Pemberton, C. C, 1207 Douglas Street, Victoria.
Peters, E. S., Sheriff, Prince George, B.C.
Rathom, Mrs. M. H., 1415 Gladstone Avenue, Victoria.
Reid, R. L., K.C., Vancouver, B.C.
Robertson, His Honour Judge, Prince George, B.C.
Ross, Francis H., 146 Eberts Street, Victoria.
Russell, Miss Alma, 27 Boyd Street, Victoria.
Rutherford, Hon. A. C, Edmonton, Alberta.
Sage, Professor W. N., University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.
Schooling, Sir William, K.B.E., 14 Brook Green, London, England.
Shiels, Archie, Pacific American Fisheries, South Bellingham, Wash., U.S.A.
Smithj John F., Indian Office, Kamloops, B.C.
Soward, Professor F. H., University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.
Stark, W. P., 507 Victoria Avenue, Victoria.
Sylvester, C. B., 709 Yates Street, Victoria.
Terry, Miss Ilace, 1220 St. James Street, Victoria.
Thompson, R. A., Kamloops, B.C.
Thornton, Miss S. M., 410 Oswego Street, Victoria.
Tolmie, Miss Jane Work, Cloverdale Avenue, Victoria.
Tolmie, Miss Josette C, Cloverdale Avenue, Victoria.
-Tyrrell, Arthur, Box 462, Kamloops, B.C.
Tyrrell, Mrs. A. M., Kamloops, B.C.
" Unsworth, Rev. J. K., 2380 Windsor Road, Victoria.
Unsworth, Mrs., 2380 Windsor Road, Victoria.
Wade, Dr. M. S., Kamloops, B.C.
Waller, F. W., 318 Wilson Street, Victoria.
Watson, —, Hudson's Bay Co., Victoria.
Wheatley, Mrs. M. S., 1604 Jubilee Avenue, Victoria.
Young, Dr. H. E., Provincial Health Officer, Victoria.
Affiliated Societies.
Art, Historical, and Scientific Association, Vancouver, B.C.
Canadian Authors' Association, Victoria Branch.
Canadian Historical Association, Ottawa, Ont.
Lady Douglas Chapter, I.O.D.E.
Native Daughters of B.C., Post No. 3.
Natural History Society, Victoria.
University of British Columbia Historical Association.
1 Denotes honorary life members.
Printed by Chables  F.   Baxfield,  Printer to the King's  Most Excellent  Majesty.


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