British Columbia History

BC Historical News Apr 30, 1974

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Vol. 7 No. 3 April 1974
Published November, February, April and June each year by the
British Columbia Historical Association, and distributed free to
members of all affiliated societies by the secretaries of their
respective societies. Subscription rate to non-members: $3.50 per
year, including postage, directly from the Editor, Mr P.A. Yandle,
3450 West 20th Avenue, Vancouver, B.C. V6S 1E4.
N.B. DEADLINES FOR SUBMISSIONS: The 1.0th Day of Month of Issue.
Executive 1973-1974
Hon. Patron: Lieut-Gov. Walter Owen
Hon. President: Dr Margaret Ormsby
President: Col. G.S. Andrews
Past President: Mr H.R. Brammall
1st Vice-President: Mr F. Street
2nd Vice-President: Mr J. Roff
Secretary: Mr P.A. Yandle
Recording Secretary: Mr R. Watt
Editors:, Mr & Mrs P.A. Yandle
Treasurer: Miss J. Rowland
Executive members: Mrs Clare McAllister
Mr H.B. Nash
Editorial 2
Society N0tes & Comments 3
B.C Books of Interest 4
Jottings 5
Maple Ridge, a history of settlement 6
Mission on the Fraser 8
(The Overlanders and other N. Thompson travellers
(The Mighty Company:Kamloops and the HBC
(Ship Ahoy: Paddlewheelers of ;the Thompson 10
New Westminster: the early ye«rs 1.1.
The Cape Scott Story 12
Birk's Clock, by Doreen Imredy 1.3
B.C's Air Survey Story, Pt.III, by G.S. Andrews 15
Book announcement - Golden Hist.Soe 22
List of affiliated societies 22
The cover series for Volume 7, drawn by Robert Genn, is focused
on the newest affiliates of our Association. This issue salutes
Atlin with a picture of an old sternwheeler. Would any of the Atlin
members like to identify it? 2
In a space of just six days the Vancouver Sun has come up with the
following headlines:- "Old City Museum faces threat" - April 3rd;
"Rathie dealt wharf plan 'death blow', says Pendakur" - April 6th;
"Buildings worthless" - April 8th; "Fisherman's wharfsite 'fire-trap',
says 1973 report made by fire chief" - April 9th.
Now all this journalistic effort regarding the fate of some of
Vancouver's historic buildings points out the need for some kind of united
effort on the part of the various levels of Government. The April 3rd
headline regarding the old Carnegie Library building at Main and Hastings
indicates that the Vancouver City Council wants to now demolish a building
covered by the Historic Sites Protection Act of 1.972, on which they had
voted a year ago to spend $697,000 for renovation. They now think it
would be better to tear it down and put up another more utilitarian
building at a cost of $900,000. This, of course, is only an estimate and
estimates are usually doubled to arrive at actual construction costs.
Some bright individual on the city board of administration says "The
building cannot be regarded as an architectural gem". He no doubt considers
the two new monstrosities at Granville and Georgia to be "architectural
gems". The last and most appalling suggestion is that they ask Provincial
Secretary Ernie Hall to grant a demolition permit. How can a body display
so much incompetence and then ask one man to be a sacrificial lamb for them?
The next three headlines concern the demolition of buildings on a
docksite at the foot of Columbia Street, and within the confines of Gastown,
which have been ordered to be demolished by the National Harbours Board,
a Federal Government agency. A few years ago Gastown was declared an
Historic Site and all its buildings were protected by the' Historic Sites
Protection Act. Now it appears that the buildings to be demolished had
been considered as a possible site for use as a proposed fishermen's wharf
by Alderman Pendakur, head of the City's Waterfront Committee. There is
neither space nor time to go into all the 'sordid and tragic details'
contained in this affair, but it did involve the Federal Government, through
the jurisdiction of the National Harbours Board, the civic government of
the City of Vancouver through Alderman Pendakur, and the Provincial
Government indirectly through a report made by the B.C Research Council on
February 1.1th 1972, and a report by A.T. Walker, an inspector with the
office of the Fire Marshal, Dept. of the Attorney General.
It is unbelievable that so much time and effort is wasted because
there has been an absolute lack of any communication between these various
Heads of Government, and also a complete divergence of opinion with
regard to this property. How then can we poor unfortunates in the B.C.
Historical Association from all over this province, hope to save anything
of our heritage unless we keep ourselves well informed of what is worth
keeping, whether it be in Atlin, the Kootenays, or the far reaches of
Vancouver Island? It is imperative that we keep ourwelves fully informed
at all times and make the proper authorities aware of our opinions when
they indulge in such capricious acts against our best interests. It is
only by this means that we as an Association can fully discharge our
responsibilities. 3
Note: Society's Secretaries are reminded that the deadline for submissions is the 10th of the month of issue of the News.
GULF ISLANDS At the first meeting of the year which was held on Saturna
Island on March 1.0th, Mrs Beth Hill gave a lecture on petroglyphs, a rock
art carried on by B.C Indians on the. west coast and in the interior.
Areas where the petroglyphs have been found are. Bella Coola, Port Neville,
Jump across Creek, Jack Point at Nanaimo, West Coast Trails,. Sooke, Thetis
Island, Georgeson Bay and Helen's Point on Mayne Island. Mrs Hill has
■written, with the help of her husband, a book on petroglyphs which will
be called "Spirit in Stone", which should be in the bookstores in the near
WEST KOOTENAY The February meeting took the form of an "Old Time1' meeting,
at which students from J. Lloyd Crowe Senior Secondary School and Trail
Junior Secondary School recorded the stories on tape. Storytellers of the
evening included Mrs J.H. Young who came to Trail in 1.895, Miss D. L.
Schofield whose family arrived in 1.899, and Mrs A.R. McCarthy who was born
and raised in Trail. At the Annual General Meeting in March the following
officers were elected: Mr A.K. Macleod.Pres.; Mr M.R. Landucci, Vice«Pres;
Mrs Ralph Cook, Sec.Treas.; Miss Vivian Swanson Programme Chairman; Miss
Erica .Johnson, Phoning Committee. The speaker of the evening was David J.
Williams, Chairman of Aviation Technology at Selkirk College^ He showed
slides and spoke of his experiences as a commercial bush pilot in Northwestern British Columbia, the Yukon and Alaska.
• NANAIMO Mr Ken Baxter, Instructor in Anthropology at Malaspino College,
spoke at the February meeting on the customs and culture of the Coastal
Salish Indians. In March the Vice-President, Mr Len NichoUs, spoke on
his visit to South America last year when he visited sites both ancient and
modern in Brazil and Peru. He illustrated his talk \-rith  slides showing
the fascinating and colourful village and town scenes, the ancient church
architecture and tho excavated Inca sites high in the Andes. At this
meeting, which was the Annual General Meeting, Miss E. Norcross was
reelected President, Mr Len Nicholls and Mrs Isabel Rowe Vice-Presidents,
Mrs Pamela Mar Secretary, Mr Harold Haworth Treasurer.
The Society is sad to report the death last month of Mir R. Edwards,
a former President of the Society.
PORT ALBERNI In February the Society was addressed by Mr Bud Frost, former
member of the B.C. Provincial Police and now Conservation Officer. His
father had been policeman and Indian agent in Alberni in the early 1.900's.
Mr Frost told of the men who policed this area up to the time of amalga-
:mation of the Twin Cities, and reminded his audience that the Provincial
Police were organized 15 years before the R.C.M.P. "As Conservationist he
had p enetrated many rarely visited areas of the Island, and his slides were
of wild life and land endangered by the encroachment of industry. In March
Col. G.S. Andrews and Major George Nicholson gave a talk entitled "Cassiar
Commentary", which was a distillation of trips made, into this little known
corner of the province from before World War II to the present,
.VANCOUVER On February 27th an address was given by Deryck Holdsworth, a
graduate student at U.B.C, who spoke on "California Bungalows and the
Architecture of Vancouver" to a joint meeting of the Vancouver and Burnabv Societies. On March 27th Vic Waters spoke on "Vancouver Radio in the 20's".
This was followed by the Annual General Meeting at which 60 new members
were reported to have joined. New executive includes: Robert Watt, President;
Angela Thacker, Vice-Pres.; Charles Maior, Treas.; Sheelagh Draper, Sec
On April 6th the Incorporation Day Dinner was held at the Stanley Park
Pavilion, attended by over 80 people. The Society presented its first
award of merit to the University Women's Club of Vancouver for their contribution to historic preservation in Hycroft. The banquet speaker was
Mr J.D. Herbert, Director of the Centennial Museum.
The Society notes with regret the death of Mr Frank Edwards, a longtime member of the Vancouver Historical Society, and a forme:. President
of the World Ship Society of Western Canada.
VICTORIA Member James McCook entertained the Victoria Branch at their
February meeting by a recount of his research on the eating habits of early
fur traders and travellers in the great Northwest, under the title, "High
Living on Western Trails". Professor Sydney G. Pettit of the History Dept.,
University of Victoria, speaker at the March meeting, presented an interesting review of the activities of Captain Edward Langford during his tenure
as Bailiff of the Hudson's Bay Company farm at Esquimalt, usually referred
to as Colwood Farm.
B.C BOOKS OF INTEREST, by Frances Woodward'
ABRAHAM, Dorothy, Hoots from a brown owl. Victoria, 1973. 1-6 pp.
ADAMS, John W. The Gitskan potlatch: population flux, resource ownership and reciprocity. Toronto, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1.973« 132 p. $2.95.
AFFLECK, Edward L. A history of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of
B.C. Vancouver, E.L. Affleck, 1.973. 36 (1.4) pp. illus. $2,00.
-ATKINSON, Kathy. and others. As it was - Mission City and district. -Tsawwa-
ssen, Simple Thoughts Press, 1.973. 105 pp. illus.'
CHANCE, David H. Influences of the Hudson's Bay Company on the cultures of
the Colvile District. Moscow, Idaho, Northwest Anthropological Research
Notes, 1973. 1.66 pp. illus. (Memoir No. 2)
CRAMOND, Mike, A bear behind; illus, by Helmut Hirnschell. Vancouver,
Trendex Publications, 1.973. 209 PP- illus. $5.95-
CZ0L0WSKI, Ted. B.C calling; K.Van.', Tad Pub. 1973- 1-44 pp, illus. $5-95.
  ' Vancouver calling; N.Va'n., Tad Pub., 1.972. 96 pp. illus. $4.9§.
   Victoria calling; N.Van., Tad Pub., 1973. 94 pp. illus. $4.95°
DAVIS, Chuck. Chuck Davis1 guide to Vancouver. Vancouver, J.J, Douglas,
1973. 226 pp. illus. $2.95,
GEOLOGICAL ASSOC OF CANADA. Cordilleran Sect. Vancouver geology; a short
■ guide,... prepared by Dr Gerhard H. Eisbacher. Van. 1973. 56 pp. illus. $1.00.
LAZEO, Laurence Andrew. Lost treasure in B.C: a history of lost mirija.s.&
buried or sunken treasure... Burnaby, Western Heritage, 1973.. 48 pp.. illus.$!..<
LIDSTER, Norman. No time for why. Vancouver, Versatile Pub. 1.972. 235 pp. $4.45.'
McLOUGHLIN, John. John McLoughlin's business correspondence, 1.847-48; edited
by Wm R. Sampson. Seattle, U. of Wash.. Press, 1.973. 256 pp. illus. $1.2.50-
McNAUGHTON, Margaret. Overland to Cariboo.... introduction by Victor Kopwood.
Vancouver, J.J. Douglas, 1.973. 176 pp. illus. $6.95.
■ ■NORTH', George. A ripple, a wave: the story of union organizatiori In the B.C
fishing industry. Van,, Fisherman Pub. Soc, 1.974. 57  pp. illus. $5.
PATERSON,-T.W. Murder: brutal, bizarre and unsolved mysteries of the Northwest, Victoria, Solitaire Pubns., 1.973. 72 pp. illus. $1.95.
PAUL, Virginia. This was cattle ranching yesterday and today, Seattle,
Superior PUb., 1973 • 192 pp. illus..' $ 13.95 •' OBERG, Kalervo. The social economy of the Tlingit Indians; foreword by
Wilson Duff. Seattle, U. of Wash Press, 1.973. 144 pp. illus. $8.50.
SCOTT, Jack. Sweat and struggle: working class struggles in Canada, Vol. 1,
1789-1899. Vancouver, New Star Books, 1.974. 209 pp. illus.  $6,00.
TAPPAGEV. Margy Augusta. The days of Augusta. Vancouver, J.J. Douglas,
1973. 79 PP. illus. $6.95.
VENTRESS, Cora. Peacemakers of the North Peace, Fort St. John, 1.974.
From the Vancouver Stan, April Sth in itters to the Editor was a
letter from Dr G.P.VAkrigg,  "I was saddened to read of the decision to
change the name of Kinbasket Lake to McNaughton Lake". Dr Akrigg gives
the history of the naming of Kinbasket Lake by Walter Moberly more than a
century ago, for an Indian Chief of the Shuswaps, whom he encount ered
shortly after crossing the Columbia River. In Moberly's account of the
episode, "We ran many rapids . . . then came to a lake which I named Kinbasket Lake, much to the old chief's delight". Dr Akrigg says "Fortunately
there is a simple solution - Let it (Mica Creek Dam) be renamed McNaughton
Dam and let old Chief Kinbasket keep his lake". ----- How do you feel
about this Golden? Do you think Dr Akrigg ?s suggestion, is a good one and
are you as a Society going to do anything about it? (Ed.)
In Vol. 3 No. 2, February 1970 the News published an article by
Michael Robinson entitled "Rose Skuki", which was her account of her life
in the Lytton district. At that time all that was known of her birth
was that she was born in the 1.870's. It is with regret that the News notes
her passing at the age of 95, in a private hospital in Surrey,  She died
on March 22nd and is survived by a grandson, Corby, and a granddaughter,
Mrs Mary Williams, and three greatgrandchildren. Internment took place in
the Indian Cemetery at Lytton.
From Vancouver member John Raybould come • a News Release from the
Dept. of Recreation and Conservation - "Cole Island to become part of Fort
Rodd'Hill National Historic Park"., Cole Island, one of the few remaining
historic sites of Esquimalt Harbour still accessible to the public, is a
rocky outcrop, 1.50 yards by 75 yards. It served as a naval power and
munitions magazine from i860 to 1.938. It could be.shelled only from within
the harbour and was far enough from centres of activity that little damage
would result from accident or sabotage. Also included in the park is the
Fisgard Lighthouse.
A letter from Toronto asks "Could you tell me how to find one or two
owners of former one-room school houses in B.C. that are being used as
dwellings, community halls, stores, or whatever? We are not looking for
schools that have been professionally restored for museums." Please write
to the Editor of the News if you have any information. BOOK REVIEWS
MAPLE RIDGE, a history of settlement, edited by' ;3heila Nickols, et al.
Produced and published by Maple Ridge BRAnch, Canadian Federation of University
Women; available .by mail order from Municipal Hall, Maple Ridge, B.C 1.20 pp.
1972. $3-50.
Time rolls its ceaseless course. The race of yore,
That danced our infancy upon their knee,
And told our marvelling boyhood legends store,
Of their strange ventures happ'd by land or sea.
How are they blotted from the things that bel
It is true that the various B.C anniversaries of recent years have
witnessed the publication of several local histories, but one can only wish
there were more before it is too late. Of the first settlers along the banks
of the lower Fraser not one remains, and the second generation who remember
them are dwindling fast.
One splendid example of what could be done is the work of the ladies of
the Maple Ridge Branch of the Canadian Federation of University Women. Fourteen
of them, all resident in the area, have done an excellenc job of inquiry and
research into the settlement and development of their municipality, interviewing over a hundred long-time residents, reading some twenty books of local and
provincial history, studying all the local memoirs and manuscripts they could
find (amazingly, it was more than a dozen), and examining minutely local and
other newspaper files, Council, School Board, Agricultural Association and
Consumers' Cooperative minute books, church and school records, directories,
tax rolls and land registries. Local resources were supplemented by others
found, in New Westminster, at the University of British Columbia, in the
Provincial Archives and even the Devon County Librarv in England,
From the materials thus harvested, six of the women, Sheila Nickols, Ed,,
Violet Bokstrom, Isabelle MacDonald, Grace Mussallem, Daphne Sleigh and Margaret Smith, have written a logically arranged and highly readable "history of
settlement". The book opens with a chapter on the beginnings of settlement,
down to the mid-'eighties and the coming of the railway. From there to recent
times there is a separate chapter for each of the seven communities which make
up the municipal district: Haney, Hammond, Albion, Whonnock,- Ruskin, Yennadon
and Webster's Corners. The ninth chapter seems at first glance almost out-cf-
place: "The Finnish People of Webster's Corners". It. was written in English
by Violet Bokstrom, but based on a Finnish work of a year or so earlier,
written by Minda Katt.inen in response to local urging that this early Twentieth
Century social experiment - it was an offshoot of the idealistic Sointula
community of the 1.890's on Malcolm Island in the Queen Charlotte Strait - should
be recorded while some of those who had participated in it from its beginning
in I.905 and of whom only four now survived were still there with their memories.
It was Mrs Bokstrom's presentation of this essay, a complete entity in itself,
that inspired her fellow University Women to undertake the larger project. The
remainingthree chapters- return to the municipality as a whole in specialized
treatment of Schools, the Abernethy and Laugheed Logging Company, and Municipal
There are two further items one -could wish to have had included, ooth
suggested by that chapter on the Finnish community. Its ethnic character reminds
J.  Scott: The Lady of the Lake, Canto Third, opening lines. 7
one that there were numerous Japanese farmers in Maple Ridge, especially in
the-inter-war decades; its socio-economic aspect recalls an earlier similar,
but decidedly English, community, Ruskin, named after the English essayist,
John Ruskin, art and social critic But why ask for the moon? The Japanese
community could only be done from Japanese sources, and the people concerned
left no records and in the early 'forties were forcibly scattered far and
wide. The ladies have done the best they could in the circumstances. Practically all that is locally known about the Ruskin experiment is included in
the chapter by that name, and it is doubtful whether anywhere, even in
England, any further record will now be found.
Slips, of course, were bound to occur. It is too bad, for example,
that William Henry Newton, whose widow, Mrs Mohun, was a partner in the
Hammond real-estate "development", was not mentioned along with the other
Hudson's Bay Company people who were the very first to take up agriculture
in what was to become Maple Ridge. Primarily an agriculturist, he began his
successful farm at Keatsie while still in charge at Fort Langley, where he
was credited with bringing the company's agriculture to its maximum development just on the eve of the Fraser River Gold Rusn and consequent settlement.
Both he and his wife do figure elsewhere later in the book.
"Wife" brings us back to the fact that this is a work of women, excepting only the maps - a most valuable feature! - which are mainly the work of
Francis Sleigh, M.R.A.I.C., and the printing (lithograph) and binding done by
the Fraser Valley Record of Mission City. Printing errors are rare and the
pictures - another valuable feature - are clear and well placed. The feminine
touch is most gratifying in that it gives more than the usual cursory attention
to home and social life, the interests of children, and the importance of
pioneer wcmen who, as one of them wrote in her memoirs, "left more comfortable
conditions . . . and came with husbands and families into the forests, lived
in little cabins that were not even weather-proof, did without, . . , lived far
from each other, tried to keep the children fit . . . far from a doctor, , , ,
helped clear away the brush and plant some domesticated tree or bush,
walked long distances to church, , . . were kind and hospitable . , . They
held the fort, stayed on the place, and made new homes".
- 2. I could, however, add one small note from personal experience. In
1912 or 1913 I and my younger brother explored, as boys will, a tall
timber industrial structure on the abandoned Ruskin site. It was only about
eight feet square, the equivalent of four or five storeys high with a series
of stairways winding to a platform at the top. The central space, four feet
square, was clear from a hole in the top platform to a lined cistern at the
bottom. After discussing it with our father we concluded that it was most
likely a shot tower. From what I have seen and learned of shot towers since,
though they were all of masonry, I have no doubt we were right. When and
why was it built? How much was it used and when abandoned? I have never
seen or heard any mention of it since.
3. Quoted from the memoirs of Mrs Alex Stevenson at p.8.
John (Gibbard.
Mr Gibbard is a member of the Vancouver Historical Society. 8
MISSION ON THE FRASER: Patterns of a small city's progress, by John ■
Cherrington, Vancouver, Mitchell Press, 1.974. 21.4 pp. illus. $4.25.
For several reasons I'could hardly wait to read John Cherringtonls
Mission on the Fraser. I wrote my 1.969 U.B.C graduating esssay on the
history of Roman Catholic Missionary Effort and Indian acculturation in the
Lower Fraser Valley between 1.860 and 1910. I became fascinated with the story
of the Stalo peoples, Saint Mary's Mission and the district and city which
grew up there in the late 1.9th century. As a teacher of local history at
Douglas College, I naturally welcomed Cherrington's book. I hoped it would
be a resource for my own research, for student essays, for student and amateur
history field trips and projects. Mission on the Fraser destroyed each of
these expectations. So deeply did this book disappoint me that, as I read
it over, I asked myself why I had ever or could ever have ertertained such
hopes of a local history. Probably it was because Mission on the Fraser sits
on my bookshelves next to Maple Ridge: a History of Settlement, a history
which is serving as a cornerstone for community-wide involvement in Maple
Ridge's centennial year celebrations. I have strong doubts as a student,
teacher and lover of Mission local history that Cherrington's Mission on
the Fraser could ever serve such purposes.
Any student of Mission area history would be frustrated reading this
book, which lacks maps, footnotes and bibliography to explain and support
its text, Cherrington might have easily Included photocopies of old Mission
area maps or even, a modern road map. As. a U.B.C history graduate he should
not, easily have excluded references or a source list from a history book,
even a popular one. Perhaps Mitchell Press's neglect of the editorial
responsibilities of publishing lies behind these omissions and helps to
account for those in proofreading and indexing. Errors in spelling and
typography abound in Mission on the Fraser, e.g. Premier "Davey" on p.4l
and "Davis" on. p.48 for Premier Theodore Davie; Solon "Law" for Solon Low
on p.1.66; "that it" for that is, on p.206. The index omits reference to
Cherrington's comments on berry farmer Shook employing Doukhobors fron the
Kootenays as pickers during World War I (p.83); Japanese and "Hindu" families
moving into the region in the 1890's (pp. 70, 73, 157, 158); the government's establishing of a special hospital camp for transients with venereal
disease at Deroche during the 1.930's (p. 1.36); or Halford Wilson's propaganda against the Japanese in 1.942 (p. 1.59). The photographs lack sources
and the caption for two pictures is inaccurate, "Early views of Missidn
City (about 1907)" Actually the top photograph was taken after 1912, which
is why it shows Gibbard's boyhood home in the foreground. However,
according to Professor Gibbard- the picture was printed backwards. Why was
Gibbard not hired as publisher's reader by Mitchell Press for this work?
If these technical criticisms are too minor to justify Mitchell Presses
hiring publisher's readers for popular local history books, other major
criticisms of Cherrington's book centre on his selection and use of source
Personally," though I may find it flattering that Cherrington lifts so
much from my U.B.C. graduating essay on Roman Catholic missionary effort and
Indian acculturation in the the Fraser Valley for his first chapter on the
history of Sairit Mary's Mission, it is painful to find an interpretation
arrived at after long research and discussion with Father G. Forbes, o.m.i.,
garbled to such an extent. Cherrington incorrectly implies that Oblate
missionaries opposed agricultural and industrial training for Indian youth
at Saint Mary's Mission School (p.7), and incorrectly states that the school
was as "crowded as ever" in the 1.900's (p.73) • He does not mention the Sisters of Saint Ann whose work at the mission schools was crucial to their
•limited success. He overlooks the early Methodist competitors of the Roman
Catholic missionaries in the valley and the persistence of Stalo or Lower
Fraser Valiey Indians' social and religious ways, particularly winter
dancing, as factors which worked against the Catholicization and assimilation
of Fraser Valley Indians.
Cherringtonss selective interpretation of Indian and missionary history
in his first chapter is a good overture to the rest of his book, its sources
and biases. Although the title and introduction announce its contents as
"patterns of a small city's progress", Cherrington writes a traditional
chronicle of Mission district's past rather than an objective social history.
Why? He seems to have based his work on a few standard printed sources,
some unacknowledged selections from theses, his university lecture notes, a
little reading of the Mission City newspaper and discussions with a small
number' of "pioneer" citizens. ■ He does not seem to have even wanted to consult
the rich variety of sources available to the modern local history researcher,
especially the university trained one with access to archives, libraries,
etc John Cherrington would have written a different, a better history of
Mission had he studied maps of the district, oral history, and photograph
collections, the Weekly Columbian, cemeterj* headstones; or had he conferred with
those studying the ethnic and architectural heritage of Fraser Valley communities.
'If Cherrington had read more widely, his history would be a more objective
interpretation of Mission's past and would promote community wide understanding
of that past. He only hints at the Chinese, Japanese, East Indian, French
Canadian, or Russian pioneer contribution to the development of Mission, for
example the importance of East Indians in forest industries. He consistently
employs but does not explain terms like "Jap" and "Hindu". He does not clarify
why a. Chinatown existed in Mission City or why the Japanese were evacuated from
the area in 1.942. Members o£ Mission's Liberal, Social Credit and New Democratic party organizations will find his discussion of their predecessors1
destructive role in local political history no less mystifying and no less
discomfitting. On page 1.34 Cherrington.lumps together "Russian Communism".
"Social Credit" and the C.C.F. as some of the radical solutions advocated by
"political activists" for the "militant" unemploved during the 1.930's. Cherrington treats the activities of "feminists and hippies'' (p.1.87) , women and
youths even more rudely than he.does those of ethnic groups or non-Conservative
political groups. Women are frequently objects of his jokes and young people
the objects of his sermonizing asides on the moral decline of contemporary
society. His narrow political interpretation of Mission area history implies
that its progress from wilderness .to suburban city came mainly from the efforts
of "rugged individualists", White Anglo-Saxon Protestant and Conservative males.
He thus slights the contributions made to that progress by Indian or European
wives and juvenile relatives, Oriental labourers, and non-Conservative politicians,
Some parts of Cherrington's narrative do indicate the contribution he
could make to a rounded interpretation of the history of Mission and district.
He does discuss the history of municipal administration and graphically describes
what the Depression and the 1948 flood meant to city fathers and the whole
community. However, his bias leads him to neglect aspects of Mission history
which make it an interesting contrast with that of neighbouring municipalities
in the Valley, for example, the importance of women in municipal politics.
One would think such aspects should have been discussed in a local history
written by a university history graduate who has been a candidate for political
office himself. Even if Cherrington's political preferences kept him from
discussing these kinds of questions he might, for the sake of scholarly and 10
popular audieneee, have listed further readings on Mission history which do
discuss them.
Other students wanting to study Mission area history, teachers wanting
to explain it to their classes, and amateurs wanting to get involved in history
field trips or preservation projects will find this book a disappointing interpretation of, and a frustrating source on the growth of Mission City and
district. It is local history in its older, smaller style, political chron-
• icle. Perhaps it will provohe a more modern, a more generous and useful
interpretation of Mission's history in the context of Fraser Valley history
and social history in general,
Jacqueline Gresko.
Mrs Gresko is Vice-President of the Vancouver Historical Society.
Museum, 207 Seymour St., Kamloops V2C 2E7, 1973, 15 PP- illus. $1.00 + postage.
THE MIGHTY COMPANY: KAMLOOPS AND THE H.B.C, by Mary Balf. Kamloops Museum,
1973. 15 PP. $1.00 + postage.
Museum, 12 pp, 1973. $1.00 + postage.
The Kamloops Museum Association had a difficult task ahead of them when
they decided to choose three topics on which to publish informative booklets
available to Museum visitors. Mary Balf, their ve.ry active curator had these
published in the summer of '73.
"The Mighty Company": J.J. Astor's Pacific Fur Company was bought out by the
North West Company in 1.813, one year after both had set up rival trading
posts at tne site of present Kamloops. In 1.821, the Hudson Bay Company and
the Nor-Westers amalgamated, retaining the former name and all employees.
Murder of one Chief Trader, the 'accidental' killing of another, and a near
Indian uprising all added to the excitement of this interior trading post. We
are told of the men who served there, their lives through the time of f^r
trading, the New Caledonia brigade trail days, the Gold Rush days, and-the
surveying of the C.P.R., until "the glamour of the fur-trade yielded to the
efficiency of a modern establishment".
"The Overlanders" The North Thompson River route from Kamloops going north
and east to the pass through the Rockies known as Tete Jaune Cache was first
used by the Indians. Mary Balf tells us of the white men who have used this
route. First came the fur traders, followed by the miners in the '60's.
then the Overlanders. This is an excellent overall view of the diversity of
that long journey. A small hunting party following in 1.863, found they were
hunting out of necessity, not pleasure. The choice of the Roger's Pass for
the C.P.R. meant rejection of the Yelbwhead, It was not until 1.915 that
this route became known1 for comfortable travelling, not until the Canadian
Northern Railway adopted the route.
"Ship Ahoy" This tells the story of the best available form of transport for
passengers, mail, provisions, coal and timber, before the C.P.R. took over
the task, "In 1.885 steamer transport was at the height of its glory on the
Thompson waterways." This romantic form of travel appealed to Governor-General
and Lady Dufferin; Van Horne, Onderdonk and Trutch; Bishop and Mrs Sillitoe.
From the Marten to the Spallumcheen, Lady Dufferin to the Peerless, Mrs Balf
describes the lives of these steamers including at times the sad obituaries.
Most of the paddlewheelers were primarily designed for passengers but they were
"doomed to extinction". Talking of the Thompson, built in 1.895, Mary Balf 11
' says, "... she had to swallow her pride and turn to logging," and this was
the way with many of Thompson's sisters.
Mrs Balf gives us a feel for the times, plenty of detail and amusing
anecdotes. The presentation is pleasing, the coffee-coloured covers providing an antique background for two excellent photographs and the reprint of
an old map. A more detailed map might have provided more interest but the
lack of it is more than certainly due to the limited resources with which
these booklets were published at all. They add favourabl* to the growing
libraries of British Columbiana.
Nina G. Woolliams
Mrs Woolliams, of Douglas Lake, is a member of the Kamloops Museum Association.
NEW WESTMINSTER: THE EARLY YEARS 1858-1.898, by Alan Woodland. New Westminster,
Nunaga Pub. Co. 1.973. 72 pp. illus. $3.95.
Alan Woodland's book is the latest 'look' and I mean 'look' at the short
and colourful past of the Royal City. Being largely visual, it has none of
the tedium one often associates with the history studies of early youth.
Brevity ds the keynote. In this age of the quick acting capsule approach
to life it is indeed a capsule history giving almost instant relief to
those with a history deficiency.
The reviewer would have liked some small additions. The inclusion of
more and clearer maps so that present day New Westminster might be superimposed theron and the current backdrop of concrete jungle rolled up, if
only in the mind's eye, to reveal the exact location of this or that building.
We all forget so quickly. Some of us remember the old gaol as it was.
• (See fig. 1.02). The wooden bridges on Clarkeson Street that spanned the
ravines that in the beginning ran down to the river, are only memories.  We
are no longer certain where they really were, or if they really were, or are
they but dreams ? A map or two would brighten the fading memory, but then
perhaps there are none.
The work consists of 72 pages with 1.18 illustrations.  Key links have
been skillfully lifted from the chain of events that resulted in the New
Westminster of 1898. The political manouvering and controversy that developed between the colonies of B.C. and Vancouver Island is covered in the
brief text, often with humour. Th\srivalry was frequently demonstrated in
the press of the day, as is shown in many quotes. As there was no' gaol
prior to I.86I, all prisoners were housed in Victoria, which gave the Columbian
La chance to make reference to "a small island on the Pacific coast, lying
to the West, of us, which we heretofore used as a penal colony".
Pictures, which make up 80% of the book, emphasize people. The hardships, the hopes, the ambitions, the pleasures are all here. The efforts to
create a social order in the wilderness are illustrated in fine old photos of
ox logging at Fraser Mils, of the cricket team, of an early May Day, of
soldiers, steam boat captains, of community picnics and finally the tragedy
and disaster of the great fire with its example of courage and fortitude in
the rebuilding.
This book not only merits a place on the shelves of the public libraries,
the schools and the lay historian, but should also find a place in the
barber shops, .the doctor's and densits's offices, among the tattered remnants
of Playboy, Time and 1968 Reader's Digest, so that the laziest, the most
apathetic and even the downright disinterested might glean at a glance, enough
to at least appear to know something of our fascinating and colourful history.
Mr Street is Vice-Pres. of the B.C. Historical Assoc    i'ranK **• ^reex- 1.2
THE CAPE SCOTT STORY, by Lester R. Peterson. Vancouver, Mitchell Press,
1974. 1.25 pp. illus. $3.95.
The Cape Scott area, scene of a little-known and long-forgotten
episode in the settlement of B.C. has recently been created a Class A
Provincial Park. Cape Scott pokes a fingertip of land into the fierce
storms of the Pacific at the northern end of Vancouver Island. It is rated
as one of the most scenic and naturally diverse regions of British Columbia's
west coast.
This little book is a worthwhile addition to the list of regional
histories which have been written in recent years. It is a charming story
of pioneers for the casual reader and a valuable reference guide for the
serious student of local history.
This is a very personal history. Peterson's family were among the
original settlers at the Cape. His parents were the first and only couple
to be married in the San Josef church in 19l6. He spent his boyhood there
and later ran a trapline and paddled the lonely lakes with his partners.
Peterson's family arrived with a group of Danish settlers in I896.
This was during a period at the turn of the century when the federal and
provincial governments, desj. orate for settlers, encouraged groups of
settlers to form small colonies on the rugged west coast. The Norwegian
settlement at Bella Coola and the Finnish settlement at Sointula remain as
evidence of this policy. All suffered from bureaucratic neglect, and-
though Bella Coola ano Sointula survived, the Danish colony at Cape Scott
withered and died.
Much of the book chronicles the gradual decline of the colony, despite
the herculean efforts of the Danes to keep it alive. The story is rife
with broken promises by government officials and politicians. Promised roads,
schools, and steamship connections, the Danes had to depend upon an arduous
pack trail hacked through forest and muskeg and their own sms.ll vessel for
supplies. Repeated requests for assistance were ignored. After a dozen
years of struggle, the settlers began to move off to more accessible areas
around Holberg and Quatsinc
By the 1.930's, virtually all the original settlers had left the north
end, abandoning many years of work. They had built a dyke to create
pasture land, cleared the forest for fields, built houses, a church and a
school. Because the government did not build the promised road, the region
remained undeveloped, and gradually reverted to its original state. The
only relics remaining are the ruined cabins and the flowers that have
seeded themselves from the settlers' gardens.
The book has been assembled from archival sources, Peterson's own
memories, and recollections of surviving members of the colony. It reflects
its piecemeal origin. Often the chronology is vague and confusing. Names
and facts seem to appear simply because the author knew of them, and not
because they were worthy of record in themselves. Nevertheless, it is a
conscientious and painstaking effort to record the fast disappearing pioneer
heritage of our province.
R.C.R. Tweed.
Mr Tweed is a member of the Campbell River Historical Society. 13
by Doreen Imredy
"If you want to know the time, ask a policeman," runs an old saying.
These words are meaningless to-day but in November 1.905 they were the
first words in a news story announcing that Vancouver would soon have
a public clock.
We take-public clocks for granted, they are there when we need them.
They are placed everywhere for the convenience of the public. We seldom
think about the clock when we look, mentally we note the time - we are
early or late - we stand waiting at Birks' clock noting the hands moving
steadily forward.
A bit of Victoriana in a modern city, an anachronism, even so Birks'
clock is one of the few objects which give character to Vancouver.
We will go back to the beginning, when life was much simpler and
Vancouver was waiting for the clock to be erected.
George E. Trorey had a flourishing jewellery store in Vancouver.
In 1893 he first located at 1.02 East Cordova, then with the westward move
away from Gastown, in 1900 he started another store at the corner of
Granville and Hastings where the Royal Bank is located to-day*
For one year he operated the two stores. When business prospered in
his new shop, he closed the Cordova Street store. Although he carried a
wide range of stock, clocks and watches were his biggest interest. He
xtfas the official C.P.R. watch inspector and had as many as ten watchmakers
working for him.
As his fifth year in the new location approached and always mindful
of good advertising, the idea of a public clock to stand on Trorey's corner
was an inspiration. He did not own the building where his store was
located, therefore to have the clock separate from the shop was necessary.
Mr Trorey was familiar with the E. Howard and Company of Boston,
U.S.A. They were noted not only for their clocks and watches but also
for time arid combination locks. Whatever they manufactured was of the
highest quality.
The city fathers had to give permission for the clock to stand on
the curb. This they cheerfully granted and allowed the clock to be placed
in such a position as to be seen from either Granville or Hastings Streets.
Travellers using the C.P.R. station and docks at the foot of Granville had
the added convenience of being able to check the time when approaching
the terminals.
Mr Hadden, owner of the building, was making alterations in the basement of the store. The clock would not be placed in position until these
were completed at the end of January, 1906.
The clock was manufactured especially for Mr Trorey by the Boston
firm. The structure was of ornamental iron work and about twenty feet high,
and its four dials were approximately three feet in diameter. The total
cost, which seems like a bargain today, was between one and two thousand dollars, 1.4
The makers guaranteed the clock would keep exact time to within two
seconds per day and it still does so to-day. Although the clock is a manual
one, (it is wound with a key), it was fitted with a time light automatically
turning off the lamp which lights the faces, at dawn. Also incorporated
is a small heating - element used during cold weather to offset any dampness
that may occur.
The clock originally had the name Trorey on the face. Within a year of
the clock being erected, George E. Trorey amalgamated with Henry Birks and
Son of Montreal, The Birks company was older than Trorey's by fourteen
years although Mr Trorey had a store in Toronto in the 1.880's.
In 1.909 Birks bought the property on the southeast, corner of Granville
and Georgia, In the fall of 1.91.2 construction started on the ten storey,
million dollar building. When Birks were putting their finishing touches to
the new building, they wanted to- have the clock, - their local trademark, -
moved along to the new store. It must have been a great shock when in fey, 191-3,
permission to move the clock to the new location was refused. In September,
of the same year, the city relented, and permission was granted to move the
clock. This happened in good time for the opening of the new store on
Monday, November 10, 1.913.
For several years the two stores were in operation and Mr Trorey stayed
on as manager into 1.914. The clock by then had become a landmark in downtown
Vancouver. Meantime other clocks were erected. The post office clock at
Granville and Hastings in 1.909 was installed by Birks, 1.912 saw the erection
of the Vanoouver Block timepiece. Although all of these are more visible
and impressive as to size, it is Birks' clock which has the affection of
Vancouver citizens.
During the Second World War, November 1.943, when the fifth war loan was
being publicized, the faces of all public clocks in Vancouver were covered
with signs, 'Time to buy an extra bond!' It was the photo of Birks' clock
which appeared in the paper for the publicity.
Allen Fotheringham, while at U.B.C in 1952, was kidnapped and chained to
the clock when he wrote an article arousing the ire of the engineers.
The clock was still not destined, to stand in peace. In 1.957 the city
works department started to widen Georgia Street. On May 20th the works of
the clock were removed to .guard them against damage while the blasting was
being done in that block. Three and a half months later when the work was completed and the pillar moved six feet nearer the store, the clock was back in
operation. People Could once more say 'Meet rae at Birks' clock1.
Tender, loving care is given Birr, a' clock as is fitting for an unique
68-year old piece of history. Once a week Birks' watchmaker winds it. Every
eighteen months a thorough cleaning of the works is done. Still faithful to
the guarantee of the maker, it keeps accurate time.
An early newspaper, the Vancouver World, said in its Saturday, November
25, 1905 issue, "The enterprise.of the firm in providing at such cost'an
addition to what must be properly termed the public convenience of the city
is to be highly commended".. A sentiment acknowledged to-day by all who check
the time by Birks' clock.
This type of clock belongs to a vanishing species. Other cities have
legislated them-put of existence. The majority of street or sidewalk clocks,
:■--,. 15
still around, are on the west coast of this continent. Maybe we are lucky
here on the coast that we fell behind in modernizing our cities. Some of
the buildings and objects which give this city a character are spared the
demolition squad. Through the foresight of the sentimental agitators our
descendents will be able to meet under Eirks' clock.
Mrs Imredy is a member of the Vancouver Historical Society
Part III ' by G.S. Andrews.
The year 1.936 was historic because it marked the beginning of provincial air photo flying. It happened suddenly, and was not anticipated.
The operation was infantile in size, and was by no means pleasing to the
eye, but it was destined; to take firm root, and grow. Late September, an
urgent demand for forest cover information of. a logged over tract near
Nanaimo was passed down the line of command, from high level. No air photo
cover existed for it, and I was asked what could be done, I replied that
if we could get an aircraft, a camera, some film, and a day or two for
installation, we would give it a try. Word of this got to the ear of E.CW.
("Ted") Dobbin, pilot for the Air Travel & Transport Co. of Vancouver, who
combined some, skilful lobbying with having an ingenious brother, Frank, who
scrounged an old War I air camera and installed it in the company's Waco
aircraft, on floats (CF-AZN). For a view finder, I adapted my 9x12 cm Zeiss-
Ikon plate camera, frosted glass for the image, with the lens wide open at
f4.5« This aimed vertically downward through a small hole in the floor and
gave an image of the ground, moving slowly across the plate, as we flew along.
It served to show what was being photographed In the large camera, and with
a stop-watch, indicated the proper interval between exposures. It also
indicated "crab" effect from cross winds. The old air camera operated with
an inertia hand-crank device, interval between exposures being governed by
how fast the crank was turned. It also had a "suction" back to hold the
film flat against the focal plane, vacuum beirig derived from a venturi tube
out in the slip stream. It didn't work too. well, so most of the photos were
not in sharp focus, Howesver, the overlaps and exposures were mostly O.K.
Though horrible in my opinion, the photos did the job, and. the urgency was
"contained". As I remember, we based the aircraft at Rose Bay in Esquimalt,
and it required several flights, with some gaps to be flown later. To and
from our base, I used my old Franklin (air-cooled) sedan, and remember how
quietly it seemed to purr, returning to town after the sustained roar of the
aircraft in flight. This job demonstrated that we could obtain air photos
when and where required, and that good results depencfed on good equipment.
The "divine right" of the R.C.A.F. as sole and sacred source of (government)
air photos had been challenged, if ever so humbly.
In January 1.937, thanks to a small residue from the CL. Pack bursary,
accompanied by my old friend, Frank C Swannell, B.C.L.S., I attended the
annual Forestry meeting in Ottawa, where air survey contacts were renewed
and extended, Then at Windsor, I took delivery of a brand new little Ford
V.-8 "60" sedanr in which we crossed to Detroit, and'headed south. At
Chattanooga we stopped to see the Zeiss Multiplex stereoplotter in operation
at offices of the Tennessee Valley Authority, under direction of Russel K.
Bean. Similar contacts were made at New Orleans, San Diego, Los Angeles, San
Francisco and Sacramento. The U.S. Geological Survey had a productive air . 1.6
• survey office at Sacramento under direction of George S. Druhot, Finally
at Portland, Oregon, we had another Session with Vic Flach and Lage Wernstedt. At this time, Lage was perfecting his new stereoplotter for vertical
air photos, ingeniously simple, with provision for tilt and scale adjustments. The mathematics governing his machine were almost identical with
those for my plotter, but the mechanics were quite different. Wernstedt and
Swannell were close in age and compatible in spirit. A warm friendship with
Wernstedt and his family, germinating at this time*was to grow and bear
rich fruits in the years following.
On the premise that we could obtain air photos as, and when required,
demonstrated in 1.936,. I submitted a strong and detailed recommendation, 20
March, 1.937, that the Forest Branch purchase a modern "Eagle III" air camera
outfit, available at modest cost in England. The low cost was partly due to
small camera size, taking 5*5  inch negatives on rollfilm 55  feet long (115
exposures). It was electrically (and/or windmill) driven, and activated by
an intervalometer control unit (E.C.B.), in circuit, which could be set for
any exposure Interval from, say, 5 to 60 seconds. Photos would be enlarged
to 8 x 8 inch (later 9x9 inch) prints, comparable with the 7x9 inch
contact format from American cameras, four times the bulk and weight, and
taore than twice the cost. The quote for the "Eagle III" outfit was $1,768,
compared to $3,925 for the Fairchild "K3B" outfit, both f.o.b. factory. With
Mulholland's support, the order was duly placed with the Williamson Mfg. Co.
in London, who advised delivery could not be expected before late-June.
In top priority for the Forest Surveys programme, 1937, were the Queen
Charlotte Islands, home of the giant Sitka spruce forests. In 1933-34 the
R.C.A.F. had photographed the west coast, from Cape St. James north to Ingraham Bay, on Graham Island, including Moresby and associated islands north to
Selwyn Inlet.  The balance, some 2,200 square miles, about half the total area,
was to be our programme, with the new camera equipment, feasible if the equipment was not unduly delayed. The early field .season was spent on forest lookout photography, already described, in the East Kootenays, results of the
previous year being fully satisfactory. I was glad to have Doug Macdougal
again to assist with this interesting work, which lasted till the camera
equipment arrived from England, early July. Meanwhile a contract with Air
Travel & Transport Co* of Vancouver, for the flying was arranged, with Ted
Dobbin to pilot the same little Waco on floats, "CF-:AZN".
On arrival of the new camera equipment, early July, the company in Van-
ir was alei
my Field Diary^
couver was alerted to prepare for Immediate installation. Here we turn to
"8-Vli-37 to 1.3: VICTORIA - Preparations for QC Project - Check Camera
"Shipment - Test Electric Drive - Filters not yet arrived from Williamson -
Film not yet arrived from Booth.
1.4-VII-37 WEDNESDAY: Left Victoria for Vane 'r via Sidney-Steveston with
car + camera equipment. Lunch Airport.
15-VII-37'THURSDAY:'To Airport - Coates Ltd (Cecil Coates) with Camera
Eq't, Commence installation in plane.
1.6t-VII-37 FRIDAY: Ilford films arrived Victoria - To airport consulting on
installation - Long dist, to Tait (W.R. Tait, Property Clerk, Dept. Lands,
44. Andrews, G.S. "Air Sur Field - 1937" (Diary), Author's private papers. 17
17-VII-37 SATURDAY: 2 Rolls Ilford film arr. from Victoria. Purchased K2
and Wratten #1.2 light filters for 5-inch + 8-inch lenses. To airport -
installation continues. Fitted Wratten # 1.2 gelatin filters into camera,
both lenses - seems satisfactory.
19-VII-37 MONDAY: Camera installation proceeding. Plane overhaul not yet
complete. Bought Log forms.
20-VII-37 TUESDAY: Airplane ready 3.30 p.m. Rented storage battery. Test-
Flight completed 5«30. Leave midnight boat for Victoria, Wired Hodgins
about supply of 12-volt Batteries in Pr Rupert. Wired McAllister to
prepare for develop, of test film.
21.-VII-37 WEDNESDAY: Victoria. Test film developed am. Wire from Hodgins
no batteries available in Rupert. Requisition (ed) 3 Continental 1.2-volt
Batteries, Left midnight boat for Vancouver. Test film OK.
22-VII-37 THURSDAY: Left Van'cr 1.1 am by plane - Dobbin - Mrs D - Barney D
- Terry D + GSA with camera, film etc. Weather fine. Lunch Alert Bay -
■ Refuel at Bella Bella. Weather overcast Bella Bella to Prince Rupert.
Arrive Pr Rup about 6 pm - Flying time 5 hrs 1.0 min.
Thus the "QCI" project was launched. I was somewhat taken aback when Dobbin
crowded his "Mrs" and the two teen-age boys into the small Waco, along with
the impedimenta and myself, perhaps overloading and necessitating the stop at
Bella Bella to refuel. At least, the family should contribute to morale,
which they did. However, this little trick was typical of Ted's attitude
throughout the job ahead. We should bearer grateful for bis lobbying skill,
tipping support at high level in our favour at a critical time, - and without
question he was one of the most skilful "bush" pilots in my experience. He
was quite the "glamour boy", I believe he got his "Wings" at the close of the
First War, but was too young to go overseas. Our exacting work suffered
appreciably from this trait. We had much to learn about air survey flying
contracts, This one, beyond the rate per flying hour, was vague in the
extreme. Such was my concern for the project's success, however, that I
grimly "took it on the chin" to some extent.
Prince Rupert hospitality, extending into the "wee small hours" each
morning, was new to me, but "old hat" for Ted who took to it like a duck to
water, literally in the liquid sense. This, with notorious Prince Rupert
weather, providing excuses not to. fly, rather prolonged our stay there.
Conditions were good eriough the day. after arrival to make a "recce" f-light
over the Charlottes, and the next day. to do our first photo-flight over
cottonwood stands up the Skeena valley from Telegraph Point to Kitsilas
Canyon. My Diary^ is descriptive:
"24-VII-37 SATURDAY: Pr Rupert. Ceiling apparent 1.0,000 ft at Rupert.
Weather report from Terrace light cloud at 1.0,000. Took off 1.1.42 with
Sawyer Hope E.C.W. + G.S.A. for Skeena photography. Flew at 10,000 -
light cloud at 1.2,000.' Commenced photo operations at 1.2.45 . . . Electric
control for camera jammed twice on return trips over Terrace - second time
could not get it going so operated by wind power + hand release for rest
of flight. Possibly one gap on up trip at film change and 2 gaps on down
flight when E.CB. jammed. Should be ample lateral overlap. Camera worked
fine in other respects, Light conditions variable . . . Windmill froze
again on return trip. On water at Rupert - 1.5 o'clock. 1.8
Opened E.CB. and got it working again. Apparently a jam in the timing
switch. Tested drain on battery with Ammeter - using windmill the E.CB.
drains less than 2 amps, and at shutter release 5 amps for an instant only.
Windmill lever free again. Hodgins left 7 P»i via CN.R. Steamer for Van'cr
+ Victoria. Took Roll # 1.0 and # 12 with. Plan starting for Pt Clements
After another day's delay we flew across Hecate Strait, with full load,
to land at Port Clements in Masset Inlet, Graham Island, about noon, Monday
26 September. The aircraft was moored to a float anchored behind a small
breakwater, with room to swing with the wind in a full circle, but requiring
a dingy'to reach it. Ample accommodation was rented from A.R. Mallory, J.P.,
Postmaster and Road Foreman, in a separate building on his premises nearby.
The Dobbins, en famille, took the upper floor while I had a work room and
bunk on ground level, it was only a couple of minutes walk to the B.C. cafe
at the foot of the wharf, and operated by a fine old Chinaman, Mah Wing with
hig huge dog, Billie.
.....Next day Dobbin was advised by telegram that he and his aircraft were to
be temporarily requisitioned to service the Governor General's trip with a
large party, into the Tweedsmuir Park area. This was a bitter pill for me
to swallow, having strong political astrihgency. He took off on 5 August and
was away till the 29th. Weather was such that during the 25-day interlude
we lost only two good photographic days, and possibly three partial days,
but we could ill afford even this loss. It was an unforgivable transgression
in the sacred air survey credo which was to" govern our operations in later
years. Meanwhile, I kept busy familiarising myself with the intricacies of
the.: new camera equipment, finalised a detail flight plan for the project, and
getting round the countryside, asopportune. I managed a 1.0-day visit with
Bill Hall and his forest survey party on the M.V. "B.C. Forester" working
south of. Queen Charlotte City. There I was able to see something of the
magnificent Sitka.Spruce forests and Allison's logging operations at
Cumshewa, all of which was to good effect for subsequent interpretation of
the air photos we hoped to obtain.
Immediately after Dobbin's return, we had a succession of six photographic
days, but only three were utilized, two being too windy for take-off and one
lost by Ted's failure to return from an overnight party at Tlell. I was
learning the hard way. A typical diary record follows:
"31-VIII-37 TUESDAY: Another photographic day - ready to start at 7.30
am, with Intention of making 2 flights + try to pick up Hall at Cumshewa.
Plane not ready to go' up till 8.30 am. No evident reason for delay . . .
Very strong cross-wind from N.W. interfered with navigating on E-W strips.
Completed strip 6 and camera jammed again on strip 7« Found it to be
reduction gear drive; so put in the hand drive . . . winding by hand for
remainder of flight. Looped around to get the gap on strip 6. Exposure
tally on film magazine functioned improperly causing difficulty checking
amount of film us.e'd. Electric Control exposure ially also gave trouble by
jumping 2 or more counts on each expPsure. This added to difficulty of
operations. Occasionally the E.CB. stopped, but by vigilant watching and
tapping kept it going throughout. Further trouble by stop-watch refusing to
start sometimes. Also noticed that film seems to be winding too loosely on
take-up spool. Larded back at Port Clements at 1.2.30 noon. Dobbin says
too rough to take off again.     ',
In pm started to repair camera - working till midnight, and finally
traced the trouble with the reduction gear drive to the pawl catch failing
to take the load. 19
Further found that grease on the switch drum of the main drive in the
camera body was causing multiple connections to the counter in the E.CB.,
causing the jump tallies. This was easily remedied by cleaning. The
lever operating the magazine pressure plate release and dashpot was also
riding down on the switch drum, causing grease and dirt to accumulate on
the drum. The reason for this is that the roller attached to the lever
+ riding on the main gear cam seems to be worn, allowing the lever to ride
too low at the bottom of the cam pit.
Launch "Wallondra" in port with Falconer on board, this morning.
"Lilliam D" with Jack Scott + Smith(engineer) came in about 3 Vm-
Wind increasing from NW in afternoon, blowing up a stiff sea, too bad
for another attempt to take off with plane . . . difficulty in keeping it
moored to the float. About 5 pm plane broke loose + Dobbin had to drive
it ashore to avoid crack-up. Finally moored it to the breakwater with
5 lines."
Mid September we had another succession of four good photo-days, all
utilized, then two weeks of cloud, rain and storm, till another break of
two fairly good days, 1 and 2 October, which completed the essentials of the
job. Next day we packed up and, after quite touching farewells from the
good citizens of Port "Clements, flew back to Prince Rupert, the shortest
crossing of Hecate Strait. Had we not lost the precious days in August,
the job would have terminated mid-September, and in better light. In our
northern latitudes, light intensity and duration fall off rapidly after mid-
September. The prime ingredient of any photography is ample light, and air
photography demands short exposures to offset vibration and movement in
flight. Where the vertical element of ground character is significant, such as
in B.C's forests and mountains, in late September, the low sun, even at
noon, accentuates shadows, which obscure important detail.
The time waiting for photo weather was not idle. Many hours, often
into midnight and later were spent diagnosing obscure mechanical and electrical troubles with the camera equipment. After each photo flight, in addition
to servicing the instruments, exposed film had to be removed and packaged
for shipment, and fresh film loaded in the magazines. Detail film reports
of light and exposure variations, and ground covered had to be completed.
Exposed film was shipped on the old C.N. steamer "Prince Charles" which
docked at Port Clements fortnightly. All possible preparations were made for
hoped-for photo flights "tomorrow".  There are no Sundays or holidays if the
weather is benign. The various photo strips, fully- or partially completed
must be plotted on the operation map, with notes for reflying gaps caused
by camera troubles or slight deviations from course. Weather vigilance was
a constant preoccupation, getting weather reports by phone directly to Tlell
Dead Tree and Queen Charlotte City to the south and west, and indirectly by
radio from Masset, Langara, and Prince Rupert. Constant scanning of the sky
in all directions from Port Clements developed a chronic cririk in my neck,
An innocent subterfuge was contrived with Bill Hall when his vessel was docked
at Queen Charlotte City overnight, for about ten days. Sharp at 7 a.m. I would
lift the receiver of our phone without winding the bell crank, and say "Bill,
are you there?" Most days he would answer, giving me a weather synopsis
there. This saved waking the operator, whose work day began at 8 a.m., and
of course the toll charge, an example of civil servants, in the field, saving
provincial expenditures but reducing federal revenues.
Bill Hall contrived to spend a few days with me at Port Clements, when
I was able to give him a recce flight over his territory to the south, on a
non-photo day. He reciprocated by giving expert help in diagnosis and remedy
of camera troubles, with talents'no doubt inherited from his father (also) 20
William Hall, well known watchmaker in Victoria for many years.
Friendships made with the kind folk in this remote settlement, happily
endure to this day. Some have passed on, including our nearest neighbours,
"Curly" Rice and "Cougar" Leyden, retired loggers who kept bachelors' hall
across the road, like two well weathered pieces of driftwood washed up on the
beach. To supplement their modest pension it was alleged they trafficked in
"legitimate" goods, imported from the government liquor vendor in Prince
Rupert, and at one time complained to the local magistrate that "illegitimate" moonshine was being peddled by a competitor down the plank road. At
interludes, they would do • a bit of "profit taking" on the premises. One
morning I met Cougar with a livid bruised face, and he explained that "last
night that g— d  road came right up and hit me in the face". Short,
broad and muscular, his sepulchral voice seemed to originate from the ground
below his feet. When we were finally ready to leave, and packing up, there
was at least one case of empty gin bottles stacked outside our premises,
which the Dobbins had accumulated, and when Ted asked Cougar if they were of
any value to him, he replied in the affirmative. I came along as he was
carrying the cases across the road, and he remarked "If these'D— battles
were full, they wouldn't be half as heavy J"
Port Clements was the girlhood home of Mrs Kathleen E. Dalzell, author
of two encyclopaedic books on the Queen Charlotte Islands ~>»^. Her father,
Trevor L. Williams first came to the'Islands in 1.908. He became known as
"T.L." Williams when forest ranger at Burns Lake. "T.L." is also the abbreviation for "timber limit". He later returned to settle and raise his family
at Port Clements. He and his wife were gracious hosts to the air survey
detachment in 1937. On my last visit to the Charlottes in 1964, I was
pleased to find "T.L." Williams hale and hearty in his 85th year, and learned
recently from Mrs Dalzell that her father, now well into his nineties,
still rides his bicycle for his mail and groceries.
After arriving in Prince RUpert from Port Clements on 3 October, local
weather and hospitality again'combined to delay our departure for the south„
Finally, on the evening of the 6th, I took passage on the CP.S.S, "Princess
Louise", southbound from Skagway to Vancouver, arriving in the morning of
the 8th, in time for the day boat for Victoria, complete with baggage,
exposed film, records, etc. Dobbin finally flew down to Vancouver on the
13th, On the "Louise" I had the pleasure to meet S.G. Gamble and A.C Tuttle,
of the Canadian Geological Survey,'en route to Ottawa, after a season in the
Yukon, These fine gentlemen were to become prominently associated in my
professional life to follow.
The Queen Charlotte job was a good breaking-in to this type of operation,
with valuable lessons learned the hard way, and perhaps the best, by
experience. From the photo-altitude of 10,000 feet, just about the operational ceiling of the Waco, with 5-inch lens, negative scale was 1/24,000
and the 8x8 inch enlarged prints were l/l5,000, a reasonable compromise
between economy and detail interpretation, for .timber types and topography.
At that altitude, oxygen for aircrew was not really necessary, but would have
been if higher. The mountainous Moresby Island area was shockingly rugged
for a novice, but in event of engine failure, sufficient water expanse was
always within gliding distance for a forced landing, which fortunately did
not occur. In spite of its reputation in some quarters, the 5-cylinder radial
45, Dalzell, Kathleen E. "The Queen Charlotte Islands - 1774-1966", CM.
Adams, Terrace, B.C., I.968.
46. "The Queen Charlotte Islands, Book 2, Place Names" 1.973. 21.
Jacobs engine gave no trouble. The old 1.927 provincial map of the islands,
at 4 miles per inch had sufficient reliable detail in the coastline of
■inlets and many islands, to serve well as a flight map for the photo-strips,
except on one or two days when low fog lying along the coast obscured this
valuable information. Detail in the interior of the maps was vague or
nonexistent. They were also vague along the west coast of botfe Moresby
and Graham Islands, but there we were able to plot manuscript detail from
newly compiled hydrographic charts based on the earlier R.C.A.F. air
photos. We learned that to have no spare units and parts for the camera
equipment was false economy. It was evident that the aircrew should be
three instead of two. . The third man, acting as observer-navigator would
allow the pilot to concentrate on keeping the aircraft level, and at a
constant altitude without having to check landmarks, poorly visible from
his position, with the map, for corrections to course. The camera operator
could give all his attention to camera operation, exposure interval, light
variations, drift angle, film magazine changes, as well as the all important
flight log. Full technical and procedural details for this specialized
work are given in my official report for the season.^7
Processing of the 1.937 air photography, some 25 rolls of film, and
2700 8x8 inch prints (covering a net total of 2400 square miles), was done
by Messrs Carey and McAllister, photographers, in Victoria, There were
teething troubles, with home-made equipment, contrived for the purpose. Money
was not available for expensive imported apparatus. For the film, an enormous cylindrical reel was built, to rotate over a trough fitted below containing the chemical solutions, developer, stop bath, fixer and wash: in
succession. The film was wound on the reel, spirally, and processed in
total darkness. For sufficient space, at first, the reel was installed and
light proofed, in the attic of Carey's recently built home, the pride of his
newly acquired bride. In spite of precautions, the liquid elements defied
control, and vivid seepage patterns spread over the ceiling of the elegant
dining-room below. Poignant strain on marital harmony was mitigated by
moving the whole show to the basement, where light-proofing had to be
repeated. Later a compact box tank, in which the film was wound back and
forth on two spools, in the solutions, -proved more, convenient, and the reel
served only for drying the film. To this day, I am still reminded by these
gentlemen how fastidious and demanding I was for the utmost in photo quality.
Their successors in later years sustained the same- hard scrutiny, but results
fully justified it.
Plotting of some .2,700 new air photos in the' office called for moderately
augmented staff, who had to be initiated. Orderly procedures and meticulous
attention to detail were the byword. Recruits were carefully selected and
trained, with gratifying results. A.C. Kinnear and John H. Benton were taken
on as charter members of the new Air Survey .Section. Another need was space,
so the Section was installed in several rooms rented on the top floor of the
Belmont Building in Victoria. Kinnear reminded me recently that some of the
longer air photo radial plots had to be oriented through doorways from room to
room, for preliminary lay-down. More stereoscopes of our own design were made
in the D.P.W. carpfenter shop by a superb craftsman, Mr."Len" Ball.
47. Andrews, G.S. "Report, Air Survey Operations, 1.937" Forest Br. Vict. 1.937*
AUTHOR'S COMMENT:  "The foregoing is subject to revision for which the author
reserves copyright. He takes this opportunity to thank the Editors of the
News for publication cf the first three instalments, but is reluctant to impose
on them for additional space to cover the remainder of "B.C.'s Air Survey
Story", now in course of preparation, which could run to several instalments.
Perhaps the whole Story, revised and with illustrations, appendices and
a map or two, may appear under one cover, in the not too distant future." 22
The following announcement of a new publication by the Golden Historical
Society has just been received by the Editor.
SHERIFF REDGRAVE/NAKIMU CAVES. Two in one booklet. 30 pp. illus. $1.00.
Published by Golden and District Historical Society, Box 992, Golden, B.C
The first section of this booklet presents a delightful,, short
historical sketch of the travels and life of Stephen Redgrave, Sheriff
of Kootenay. The author, Margaret Woods, former schoolteacher of Golden,
mentions briefly Redgrave's early adventures with the C.P.R, and Overland
trek but deals mainly with hie later duties as Sheriff of Kootenay at
Donald, B.C. from 1.884 to 1903« There are interesting anecdotes and much
local flavour of the Golden-Donald area in this account of the "Munchausen
of the Rockies".
Dr John Marsh of Trent University, Ontario gives us an accurate
account of the discovery, development and later closure of the Nakimu
Caves, situated in the Rogers Pass near the old Glacier House. From
1904 when they were first discovered by Charles Deutschman and described
as a "mammoth cave find" until the peak year of 191.8, a great deal of
time and money was spent by the Dominion Government, and Deutschman was
appointed caretaker to develop them for the benefit of tourists and
naturalists. However, from 1919 on, economic conditions did not appear
to warrant proper upkeep of the caves and they began to deteriorate until
they were finally closed in 1.933* Unfortunately for cave-lovers, the
entrances were sealed by the Parks Branch in I960 and entry is now illegal.
Mrs Noel Thompson, Golden Historical Society
List of Societies Affiliated with the B.C. Historical Association
Alberni & District. Mrs H. Ford, 203 - 19 Johnston Rd., Port Alberni.
Atlin. Mrs T. 0. Connolly, Box 11.1, Atlin, B.C
Burnaby. Mrs F. Street, 61.76 Walker Ave., Burnaby, B.C.
Campbell River. Mrs T.S. Barnett, P.O. Box 1.01, Campbell River V9W 4Z9.
Creston. Mrs Marg. Gidluck, P.O. Box 11.23, Creston, B.C. V0B 1G0.
Golden. Mrs Jean L. Dakin, Box 992, Golden, B.C.
Gulf Islands. Mrs Clare MaAllister, R.R.I., Galiano Island, B.C. VON IPO.
East Kootenay. Mr D. Kay, 921 S. 4th St., Cranbrook, B.C; VIC 1H6.
West Kootenay. Mrs Ralph Cook, 1362 Birch Ave., Trail, B.C
Nanaimo. Mrs J. Mar, 242 Cilaire Drive, Nanaimo, B.C.
Vancouver.Mrs Sheelagh Draper, Box 3071, Vancouver, B.C.
Victoria. Mr A»0. Slocomb, 1564 Oakcrest Drive, Victoria, B..C
Windermere. Mrs B.G. Walker, Box 354, Invermere, B.C- . 23
CRANBROOK, B.C. May 23rd - 25th, 1974
President: Mr Henry Mayberry Secretary: Mr David Kay
THURSDAY, 23rd May
8.00 a.m.  LIBBY DM EUS TRIP - Departure, to visit the Kootenay -
Flathead Indian country of David Thompson, Sinclairs,
Phillipps, MacDonald, DeSmet, Findlay, Morijeau, and the
old Missoula-Kalispell trail.
9.00 a.m.  Breakfast with the Sinclairs and the good people of Grasmere
on the old frontier.
1.0.30 a.m.  Meet our hosts and American friends at Roosville on the U.S.
border, and visit the grave of Michael Phillipps.
1.1.00 a.m. After crossing the border a short stop will be made at Eureka
to visit the Pioneer Village on the old Missoula Trail before
continuing on.
1.2.00 noon  LIBBY DAM where we are due to stop to rest and view the Dam
and all that it entails.
1.00 p.m.  Arrive at Libby City where we will be hosted by our good
American friends to lunch and enjoy their hospitality.
2.30 p.m.  Depart for Kingsgate via Idaho, which is a beautftul drive.
5.30 p.m.  Due back at Cranbrook.
NOTE: This is a most rewarding trip and everything should be
done to include it with this conference.
7.00 p.m.  Registration and wine and cheese social gathering at The
Towne and Country Inn.
FRIDAY, 24th fey
9.00 a.m.  Meeting of the Old Council, and registration at The Towne &
Country Inn.
10.00 a.m.  ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING - Col. G.S. Andrews presiding.
12.00 noon Meeting concludes.
1.2.15 p.,m. Departure for Fort Steele where there will be a box lunch
provided at the Opera House building.
1.00 p.m.  Welcome by Mr Struan Robertson, Park Supervisor, and outline
of Park functions, etc., explained.
1.30 p.m.  President's Address - Col. G.S. Andrews.
2.15 p.m.  Random tours and visit to the Museum Park area. Choice of
tours and hikes to Wild Horse, Fisherville, Toneyville, and
gold fields. (Riding horses available for hire.) 24
5,00 p.m.  Return to Cranbrook.
NOTE - No dinner arrangements, and this is late shopping
hours in Cranbrook.
7.30 p.m.  Address by Mrs Winifred Weir on Father De Smet's visit and
trip from St. Mary's Mission in Montana, up the David Thompson
route and Blaeberry Pass to Rocky Mountain House in 1.845 .
This is to be followed by a presentation and commentary of
coloured slides by Mrs Marjean Noble on the David Thompson
trek over the Rocky Mountain pass in 1.807•
Social hour and refreshments follow. .
SATURDAY, 25th May
9.00 a.m.  Departure for the Bavarian City of Kimberley, highest city
in Canada. Our hosts will be the Kimberley and Marysville
section of the East Kootenay Historical Association. There
will be many points of interest to visit, such as: the North
Star Alpine and Ski area, with probably a ride on chair lift;
the Bavarian Village; tour of the concentrator, steel plant
and fertilizer area, etc Along the way we will be treated
to an appetizing lunch. This is going to be a day to remember.
k-,00 p.m.  Return to Cranbrook.
6.00 p.m.  Meeting of New Council at Towne & Country Inn.
6.30 p.m.  No-host Social Hour at Towne &  Country Inn.
8 00 p.m.  ANNUAL DINNER - M.C, Col. G.S. Andrews, President.
Guest speaker - Mr David Turner of Heritage Park, Calgarj*,
************** TRAVELLING TO CRANBROOK *************
-Jill Rowland,- Treasurer, has made enquiries from Pacific Western Airlines
regarding group air travel. A letter has gone out to the secretaries of
all societies, with complete details. Briefly they are:.
Any group of 1.5 or more can have a group fare. The group must leave
together but may return individually within seven days of travel,
Pacific Western Airlines flies daily into Cranbrook. The group fare,
Vancouver-Cranbrook and return is $66 per person. The group fare,
Victoria-Cranbrook and return is $70 per person.
PWA flights: Vancouver - Cranbrook   7.45 a.m. arr, Cranbrook 1.0.15 a.m.
or  5-15 P.m. arr. Cranbrook 7«50 p.m.
(on Sunda^craribrook - Vancouver   8.05 a.m. arr. Vancouver. 8.35 a.m.
or  6,50 p.m. arr. Vancouver 7«20 p.m.
a PWA flight from Victoria which would hook up with the 5«15 p.m, flight
from Vancouver is flight 695 Victoria - Vancouver 3«30 p.m. arr. Van 3»55 p.m.
These flights are changeable but will give an idea of the time involved,
Please get in touch with your Secretary if you wish to arrange a group
air flight, or bus or car pool. (i.e. Secretary of your local Society) BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
Please mail'ALL REGISTRATIONS, together with covering cheque to:
Mr Allan W. Hunter, Committee Chairman,
P.O. Box 22, Cranbrook, B.C. VIC 4H6. Phone 426-2455.
Deadline for registration is May 1.4th, please.
NAME (print)   .
ADDRESS (print) 	
REGISTRATION FEE (All participants) $2.00 	
Towne & Country Inn . . . $1.5.00 single
$1.8.00 double
$20.00 double and cot
Sandman Inn     $1.3.00 single
$1.6.00 double
$1.8.00 double (twin beds)
$21.00 2 double (four guests)
NOTE: The bus and field trips will most likely be departing
from the Sandman Inn as well as from the Towne & Country Inn.
If you wish to reserve accommodation, an ADVANCE DEPOSIT
of $10.00 may be included with your Registration. Please
indicate by underlining one of the above and X the box.     $
PROGRAMME Please check those events you wish to attend.
THURSDAY, 23rd May
Libby Dam and Montana-Idaho trip $10.00     $
FRIDAY, 24th May
Fort Steele Trip, including lunch .... $ 6.00     $
Father De Smet travelogue .... & refreshments
$ 1.00     $
SATURDAY, 25th May
Kimberley Trip, including lunch   $6.00      $_
Annual Banquet, Towne & Country Inn ... $6.00      $
TOTAL    $
For further information please write to the Committee Chairman.


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