British Columbia History

BC Historical News 1979

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 B.C. HISTORICAL
NEWS
VOLUME 12, NO. 4 THE BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
Honorary Patron: His Honor, The Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia,
Henry P. Bell-Irving.
Honorary President:  Anne Stevenson, Box 4570, Williams Lake, V2G 2V6.
Officers
President:
Ruth Barnett, 680 Pinecrest Rd., Campbell River, V9W 3P3
287-8097 (res.)
1st Vice-President:
Barbara Stannard, 211-450 Stewart Ave., Nanaimo V9S 5E9
754-6195 (res.)
2nd Vice-President:
Winnifred Weir, Box 774, Invermere, VOA 1K0
342-9562 (res.)
Secretary:
Arlene Bramhall, 5152 Grafton Court, Burnaby V5H 1M7
433-7176 (res.)
Treasurer:
Michael Halleran, 8-1711 Duchess, Victoria, V8R 4W2
598-5883 (res.)
Recording Secretary:
Margaret Stoneberg, Box 687, Princeton, VOX 1W0
295-3362 (res.)
Members at large:
Len McCann, Vancouver Maritime Museum, 1905 Ogden Street,
Vancouver,
736-9411 (bus.)
Frank Street, 6176 Walker Street, Burnaby, V5E 3B4
521-4529 (res.)
Past President:
Helen Akrigg, 4633 West 8th Ave., Vancouver, V6R 2A6
228-8606 (res.)
Ex Officio:
A.R. Turner, Provincial Archivist, Victoria, V8V 1X4
387-3621 (bus.)
Kent Haworth, co-editor of B.C. Historical News
387-6671 (bus.)
Patricia Roy, co-editor of B.C. Historical News
477-6911, local 4793 (bus.) BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL NEWS
Vol. 12,   No. -4 Summer 1979
Second-class mail registration number 4447.
Published fail, winter, spring, and summer by the British Columbia Historical
Association, P.O. Box 1738, Victoria, B.C. V8W 2Y3.  (Printed by D.A. Fotoprint Ltd.,
747 Fort Street, Victoria, V8W 3E9.)
The B.C. Historical Association gratefully acknowledges the financial assistance
of the B.C. Cultural Fund, the Koerner Foundation, and the Hamber Foundation.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Guest Editorial Anne Stevenson 2
Captain Inskip, R.N., and British Columbia Helen B. Akrigg 3
The Bell-Irving land surveyors in British Columbia G.S. Andrews 11
Alfred Pendrell Waddington and the "Bute Inlet Route" John 0. Spittle 16
Old Trails and Routes in British Columbia:
The HBC 1849 Brigade Trail - Fort Hope to Kamloops R.C. Harris 23
Reginald CR. Tweed Ruth Barnett 27
Convention Report Anne Yandle 27
News from the Branches 30
Bulletin Board 33
Book Reviews:
Rattenbury Barry Downs 35
Victoria, a Primer for Regional History.. .etc J.M.S. Careless 36
Professional Land Surveyors of British Columbia...etc...Geoff Castle 37
Camas Chronicles of James Bay.. .etc Derek Pethick 39
Pioneers, Pedlars and Prayer Shawls... etc Michael Halleran.... 40
The Best of Canada West Anne Stevenson 41
Tribute Jacqueline Gresko.. .42
Biographical Details:  Ruth Barnett, President B.C.H.A 44 -2-
A GUEST EDITORIAL:
THE HERITAGE TRUST ADVISORY BOARD AND THE BCHA,
The objectives of the B.C. Historical Association and the Heritage Trust
are exactly the same — namely, the preservation of the history of our province
below and above the ground sites, artifacts, trails and the related history.
Therefore it is most disappointing that the B.C. Historical Association,
despite numerous requests, no longer has representation on the Advisory
Board of the Heritage Trust. A very necessary point of contact with all
British Columbia no longer exists.
Two aspirations of the B.C. Historical Association must be:
1. representation on the Heritage Trust Advisory Board
2. a survey of the province by trained historians and archaeologists
with a goodly amount of rapport with the public to discover, to
assess, to set priorities of preservation, of marking or whatever may be required for local and Heritage Trust consideration.
The destruction of historic/archaeological material throughout the
province, particularly in remote regions, is beyond belief. The scattered
Historical Associations throughout the province are performing dedicated
services in spite of many frustrations and little or no outside help.
Local people trust local people with information, artifacts, documents,
directions to sites.  The point of contact for this information to be
delivered to the Heritage Trust jrould be the B.C. Historical Association
representative.  Grass roots information could be heard and assessed.
BCHA branches also would be of great help and benefit to the professional
historian/archaeologist in the survey of the province. Old timers and
not-so-old timers, have a distrust of what they consider "bureaucratic
snooping", but through a friendly local intermediary, perhaps, interviews
might be granted, stories taped, sites and objects shown. The B.C. Historical
Association has many contacts throughout the province with a rich source
of information which could be used to prevent wanton and/or careless
destruction of historical property such as the ploughing under, despite
warnings to Victoria, of Fort Alexandria.
The preservation of our history requires quick and decisive action, now.
The B.C. Historical Association is willing to help, and deserves representation on the Heritage Trust Advisory Board.
Anne Stevenson
Williams Lake, B.C. -3-
PRESIDENTIAL   ADDRESS
CAPTAIN G.H. INSKIP, R.N., AND BRITISH COLUMBIA
George Hastings Inskip was born in 1823, went to sea in the merchant
service in 1839, and in 1843 joined the Royal Navy as master's assistant
or navigation midshipman.  During most of his naval career he was associated
with the survey branch, serving on such ships as HMS Rattlesnake when it surveyed Australian waters, HMS Virago attached to the Pacific Station 1851-55,
and HMS Saracen on the China Station.  For a number of years he was also
engaged in surveys around the British Isles. Retiring from the Royal Navy
with the rank of Captain in 1874, he lived an active life in Plymouth until
his death in 1915 at the age of ninety-one.
I first became aware of the name of Inskip when my husband and I were
starting research for our book on British Columbia place names. Walbran's
indispensable British Columbia Coast Names told us that Inskip passage, point
and channel (all in the Queen Charlottes) were named after Captain G.H.
Inskip, and that Inskip island in Esquimalt harbour is named after his older
brother, the Rev. Robert Mills Inskip who served on the Fisgard when it
was stationed at Esquimalt in 1843-47. Later, when we were doing research at
the office of the Hydrographer of the Navy in Taunton, Somerset, we came
across excellent charts of some British Columbia harbours made by Captain
G.H. Inskip.
For a few years I had no occasion to think again about Captain Inskip.
Then in the spring of 1974 the £wo of us were working in Ottawa in the office
of the Canadian Permanent Committee on Geographical Names. Here in an old
file we came across a copy of a letter dated 3 June 1905, written by Captain
Inskip in response to a request for information from Captain Walbran. We
glanced over it and, seeing it had place name material in it, asked for a
xerox copy.  This was put into a bundle of similar material and brought back
to British Columbia.
Later that fall of 1974 I reread the letter. Not only were there
references to the origin of some place names but there was other interesting
material.  Several short passages may be quoted:
It was under Commander Prevost we first visited B.C. We paid two
visits to Port Simpson, which was then known as Port McLoughlin.
The H.B.C. had a fort there (Fort Simpson) which was of the usual
quadrangular shape, built of timber.  I see in my R.B. I say, "This
place is called the London of the North.  The native village is very
extensive and at this time (May) there are a great many natives here -4-
from other parts." On our second visit in the next month (June)
we beached the ship to repair damage done to her keel by striking
a sunken rock in the Cowitchen Pass (Porlier Pass) on the East
side of Vancouver Island which was then quite unsurveyed.  During
the time we were at work repairing damages, the 17th June to the
12th July, 1853, I took advantage of every opportunity when the
men could be spared to make a survey of the harbour which the
Admiralty published.
Also interesting was a statement about the Queen Charlottes.
With regard to Queen Charlotte Islands, they were, until from
information I got from the Hudson Bay Company and the visit of the
Virago to Rose Harbour and Skidegate, considered to be only one
island.  It proved, however, to consist of three islands. The
largest or Northern we called Graham after Sir James Graham who
was at the time 1st Lord of the Admiralty, the middle island
Moresby after Sir Fairfax Moresby the Admiral in Command of the
Pacific Station, and the Southern Island Prevost after the
Commander of the Virago.
I think you can understand how this sort of primary material excites
a researcher. Here was a first-hand account of when it was ascertained that
the so-called Queen Charlotte Island was in fact a number of islands. More
important, there was a very interesting lead for me in the phrase, "I see
in my R.B." The R.B. could only be a Remark Book which each ship was required
to keep, and naval officers often entitled their own diaries "Private Remark
Book".  (The ship's log was strictly an account of the ship's movements,
weather encountered, etc.  and is usually of minimal interest to a researcher.)
Inskip's Remark Book obviously contained details of the visits to the British
Columbia coast made in 1853 and 1854 by HMS Virago.
In this letter also was evidence that Inskip's Remark Book was extant in
1905. Was there a chance that it might well be in existence seventy years
later? Several circumstances encouraged me to think it might be possible to
trace it — the name of Inskip is not too common and therefore much easier to
trace than, say, Brown; and I did have the address in Plymouth where the
Captain had lived in 1905.  Discouraging factors were the terrible destruction
wrought upon Plymouth in World War II, and the distressing frequency with
which important personal papers get destroyed by family or executors after
a man dies.  I can think of no better example of this than the burning of all
of Captain Walbran's research papers and correspondence files by his family
soon after his death. What a treasure trove these would have been for
researchers into British Columbia history.'
My first letter of enquiry was addressed simply to the Librarian,
Plymouth Public Library, Plymouth, England. His reply was very prompt.
Captain Inskip had died on 8 March 1915 and was buried in Plymouth.  The -5-
obituary notice listed the names of the four daughters, only one married, her
husband being a former vicar of the church Inskip attended. The clergyman
son of this vicar had been active in the Church Missionary Society and it was
suggested that I write to this Society. This I did. At the same time I wrote
to the two main relevant repositories in Great Britain, the National Maritime
Museum in Greenwich and the Public Record Office, asking if they had any
diaries or other manuscipt material of Captain Inskip. The latter two
enquiries drew blanks, but the Church Missionary Society replied saying that,
when the Rev. Leonard Caley had died recently, the letter of condolence was
sent to a Miss E. Caley of Surbiton.
A letter of enquiry was sent off immediately to Miss Caley who soon
replied:
Many thanks for your letter which arrived today — literally
"out of the blue"'. How amazing that you should have tracked me
down'. I do congratulate you on your detective work, and hope
you may find some reward from the results.
Capt. George Inskip was my maternal grandfather.... There
is no one else so far as I know who has the information you are
looking for, but I believe you will find the Records you want
here!
I am glad to tell you that I have the following still in
my possession:  G.H.I.'s Private Remark Books
3
August 1851 - June 1853
June 1853 - July 1855
The first of these includes a voyage via the Pacific Islands (and
Pitcairn Island) to Vancouver I., the coast of B.C., and Queen
Charlotte's I., and this is continued in the second volume....
All the other Remark Books & Diaries (except one Diary 1848-49)
were given away by my last surviving Aunt before she died (in
1948), so it is quite remarkable that these two volumes which remain
should contain the information you appear to want. They are very
detailed, & take a lot of reading, being in fine handwriting, now
a bit faded.' However, they are fascinating, and almost make one
feel one was there at the time!
Imagine my delight when I read Miss Caley's letter.  It so happened that
we were going to England in a few months' time and one of the first things we did
was go out to Surbiton and have lunch with Miss Caley.  We found her a very
friendly elderly lady who was so pleased to have been contacted by people who had
a real interest in the Remark Books. They were, as she said, detailed and
interesting reading, and in a very legible hand. She lent them to us so that we
would have time to read them, especially the material relating to British Columbia.
It did not take us long to realize that it would be wonderful if British
Columbia could eventually acquire these Remark Books, and so we mentioned it to
Miss Caley. She was a little hesitant — we were most welcome to get a microfilm or xerox copy made of them, but beyond that she was not too sure. Recently -6-
she had read an account of how wealthy American institutions and private collectors
were buying and taking back to the United States many fine items of historical
importance. She felt, in a way, that the Remark Books themselves should stay
in England, although she did recognize that they would be appreciated in British
Columbia. I suggested that we talk the problem over with Rear-Admiral P.W. Brock
(one of the five sons of the late Dean Brock of the University of British
Columbia). Admiral Brock was at that time a Director of the National Maritime
Museum and had done quite a lot of research on the Royal Navy ships on the
B.C. coast. He was pleased that I had been able to uncover these diaries.
After some thought he suggested that, as the National Maritime Museum at
Greenwich had so much in the way of manuscript materials, the Remark Books
should go to British Columbia where they would be much more valued, but that
a microfilm copy be deposited in the National Maritime Museum so that researchers
in England would have access to the material.
We again visited Miss Caley just before our return home. She was
perfectly agreeable to Admiral Brock's suggestion, gave us the Remark Books
and left it to us to decide which institution should be given them.  The Provincial Archives wgre happy to receive them, and last summer we personally
delivered the promised microfilm to the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich.
Just one more thing should be mentioned — about ten minutes before we
left Miss Caley's flat she took out of a china cabinet a little ivory carving
about 4*2 inches high — this was a miniature representation of her grandfather,
carved by an Indian artist during Captain Inskip's visit on the British Columbia
coast. It bore a marked resemblance to a photograph Miss Caley had of Captain
Inskip. We were very interested in the little carving1, not only because it
was of Captain Inskip but because we could not remember having seen anything
like it before. She said she would send us photographs of it.
Now for some comment upon the Inskip Remark Books and the information
they contain. Briefly, the two volumes cover the voyage of HMS Virago from her
commissioning in August 1851 to her decommissioning exactly four years
later in Plymouth.  During this time the ship was attached to the Royal Navy's
Pacific Station which then had its headquarters at Valparaiso. The Virago
frequently steamed up and down the west coasts of both South and North America
and went more than once to such exotic places as Tahiti, Pitcairn Island and the
Sandwich Islands (today's Hawaii).  Is it any wonder that, after visiting such
places, the men serving in the Royal Navy considered our coast cold, barren and
inhospitable?
I must say that at first reading of the British Columbia section I was a
little disappointed - so much of the diary was devoted to detailed descriptions
of the coastline and to the difficulties of navigation. But of course this
was only to be expected. Inskip, as the ship's "Master", was in charge of
the actual sailing of the Virago, and as knowledge of the coast was very
limited indeed in 1853 he was anxious to note as much helpful information as
possible.  Fortunately, he also carefully recorded his impressions of subjects -7-
more interesting for a modern historian — the Indians, the Hudson's Bay
Company forts, and episodes that occurred during Virago's time on our coast.
It is difficult to choose among Inskip's vivid descriptive passages the
ones to quote here, but as the focus of this convention is on the history of
the Nanaimo district, I will confine myself to this area. HMS Virago first
visited Nanaimo on May 1st, 1853.  For his comments I quote from the Remark
Book:
...we proceeded at once round the South end of Protection Island,
and on to Commercial Inlet, which is formed in the SW part of the
available anchorage of the Harbour by a small Island; we dropped our
anchor just outside, & hauled our stern in by warps to the Trees at
6 AM. The Co. Schooner "Recovery" was also in the cove, as a sort of
guard ship for the men working the Coal mines & also to purchase any
furs the Indians might bring.  It is on the Western side of this
cove the Coals are worked, the Mouth of the Mine being only a few
feet from the Water. A Wooden Jetty enables the Boats to go alongside
& take them in — with a little outlay it could be made a most
convenient coaling depot. The Coal is of very good quality & the
seam from 6 to 9 ft. deep — they have sunk shafts two miles in the
bush & have hit on the same seam.  There is also coal on Newcastle
Island, so I have no doubt but what the whole of the Country within some miles has a bed of Coal under it.  The Co. have only a few
men employed, but I think if they shipped it off to San Francisco they
would find it pay — they could also send some to the Sandwich Islands
& I have no doubt find a good market....  There are not many natives
here but those that are, are similar to the Esquimalt natives.
There are a few white women living with their Husbands who belong
to the Coal works & their Children, but the houses are very poor &
I cannot say clean.  I should think it a very miserable place expecially
in winter Months — the Summer is very pleasant.  Deer can be
purchased cheap & Salmon in abundance.
Went on shore but could not walk far with any pleasure.  It appears
the Indians think we are like themselves in different tribes & that
we belong to the "Angry or Fighting" tribe — some time since a Padlock
was stolen from the "Recovery" and the natives were terribly afraid
we had come up about it.  They have a great dread of a Man of War on
account of the grape shot which they imagine will kill Round a Tree or
Stone.
In July 1853 the Virago again visits Nanaimo to take on coal.  Once again
I quote Inskip:
Indian women & girls busy with their canoes bringing off coals.
I went to the new vein not long opened.  It is in a small bight on
the West side just without the Creek — they have only dug about -8-
30 yds in, the seam is about 7 feet square & close to the water — it
could not well be more convenient for boating off or by running a
jetty out for shipping. A little farther off is a Salt Spring close
to a river — it is a little way in the bush in a water course. The
spring is very small but there is 9 per cent of salt in it.
The Virago visited Nanaimo for the last time in October 1854, en route home
to England after the ill-fated attack on the Siberian port of Petropavlovsk.
Captain Inskip wrote:
We noticed several new houses but they look very much as though
they were all cast in the same mould, a door in the middle & a little
window on each side, a few having an outhouse stuck on the back part —
nothing except the Natives' huts could be more rude or simple. The
Cos. schooner Recovery does not keep guard now, so the superintendent
lives on shore. There is a slight improvement in the interior of some
(houses) but those the Miners live in with the native women are
stinking, the whole lot apparently living like so many heathens.
An Engine has been erected since our last visit, which pumps out
the Mine, brings up the Coal etc. They think the seam they are at
present working is nearly done on this side, and are sinking a shaft
on the little Id. that forms the East side of the Cove to fetch it
again. There is also Coal on Newcastle Id but they don't know the
quality of it yet, not having worked far enough. They have also sunk
a shaft below the seam they are at present using & come to more Coal,
but fancy it is too near the bottom of the Coal Basin to be worth
working....  The weather being fine, walked out to the Water Mill at
the head of the little river that runs round at the back of the
settlement. At this season the water is scarce & they can only work
it for a short time in the day, having to constantly wait for the
Cistern & Reservoir to refill. ^It has but one up & down saw at
present, but they intend fitting a Circular one also.  They think they
will be able to work it about 9 months in the year which is not so
bad.  It is wanted very badly here & will pay well, wood being in
abundance.
Captain Inskip faithfully records his impressions of the coastal Indians. He
notes how precarious and uncertain life is among the Indians — and let me
emphasize that intermittent warfare was usual among the Indians long before the
white man came to the coast, and persisted for almost a century after.
In 1863 Dr. Edward Boggs, assistant surgeon, R.N., made the following
observation about Nanaimo:  "The population consists almost entirely of
miners and Indians, and is generally healthy.  It is worthy of remark
that those miners who have English wives generally have their houses in
a dirty slatternly condition, while, on the other hand, those among the
miners who have married Hyday (Haida) or Tsimshean women have their houses
kept patterns of cleanliness, neatness, and comfort;  this is not the
case, however, when a man is simply co-habiting with an Indian squaw,
then dirt and discomfort reign supreme." -9-
In July 1853 the Virago was tied up in Nanaimo coaling when a highly dramatic
episode occurred:
About 7 AM a Canoe came alongside in a most awful state — the
Indians immediately on coming near us began to say that they were
Chimsyans (Fort Simpson's). It appears they had left Victoria &
were on their way home, when just outside Newcastle Id at the
entrance of the Harbour they were fired into by a number of Indians
in a large Canoe. Two poor mortals were shot right through the
Brain & one had the back of his head grased by a ball....  They
were strangers here & afraid of the Indians so they sought shelter
under our protecting wings. One of the unfortunate men was a
Brother of near relation of Legake (Legaic) the principal Chief at
Fort Simpson — a Tannass Tyee or small Chief;  the other was the
Husband of a Woman the only one in the Canoe, they consisted of
5 men and one woman.  They were in a dreadful fright & the poor
woman in a deplorable state.  There was no hope for either of them —
we spread a Mat on deck & made pillows of their blankets & there laid
them to die for nothing could be done....
The Indians that shot them belonged to the Seshalt tribe on the
opposite shore about Desolation Sound — we could not make out the
reason as this is the first season ever the Chimsyans have come down
here to work. Some say it was to plunder & make slaves — others it
is in retaliation for an Indian shot by some Northern Indians & that
they did not discriminate between the Chimsyans & them, looking
upon all Northern Indians as alike....  They are afraid to go on so
will return to their friends at Victoria and go back in a body.  It
was truly pitiable to see the little stock of Treasures (to them)
that they had collected at Victoria by their labour and barter — a
few blankets — some looking glasses — Trade Cotton — Bottles of
Treacle — Powder & Shot etc. — & to fancy what pleasure the two
poor victims have felt in looking it over & all to be so suddenly
ended — but at the same time the chances are they would have thought
just as little of butchering the other party if they had been a chance
of gaining by it....
Unfortunately, time and space do not permit me to quote further from the
Inskip diary but the above descriptions of life in the Nanaimo area 125 years
ago are good illustrations of how valuable diaries and letters written
by observant newcomers are to researchers and writers of history.
But this is not quite the end of my account of Captain Inskip and
British Columbia.  Earlier I mentioned that Miss Caley, Captain Inskip's
granddaughter, had shown us the small carved bust of Inskip done by British
Columbia Indians.  Concerning this bust, Inskip wrote in his diary while
the ship was at Port Macloughlin (Fort Simpson):
Two natives, Brothers who had taken the name of Johnston, carved
on Ivory or Bone wonderfully well for untutored savages especially
allowing for the tools they had to use, all being of the heaviest -10-
description — they succeeded remarkably well in making several most
excellent likenesses which were finished in a manner that would do
credit to many a professed hand. We supplied the material, generally
a Whales Tooth, & their price was Two Shirts or Dollars. Perhaps an
Old Jacket or Pair of Blue Trowsers not mended would answer as well.
When I showed a photograph of the Inskip carving to Peter Macnair,
Curator of Ethnology at the Provincial Museum, he confirmed our first impression
that this was a very unusual item and he enquired as to its whereabouts. I
replied that it was in private hands in England. He then remarked that the Museum
would be very interested in acquiring it, and I promised to look into the
matter. Last summer my husband and I once again were in England and visited
Miss Caley.  I told her of the interest of the Provincial Museum and she said
she would be very happy to see it return to British Columbia, something her
grandfather would have approved. In fact, she wanted to give it to me right
then.  I refused to take it, saying she should think it over. We arranged,
however, to meet in two weeks, at which time she handed the carving to me,
carefully packaged.
Earlier at the Captain Cook Conference held at Simon Fraser University I
had talked briefly to Mr. Jonathan King, Assistant Keeper of the Department of
Ethnography of the British Museum, who had suggested that I call around when
next in London to check out several things. Accordingly I took the little
carving to show him — he was very interested in it, said that it was made from
walrus tusk, and took down from his shelf an acquisitions book. He immediately
turned to a page which had a rough sketch of a similar bust, obviously carved by.
the same craftsman, and a notation:  "Bust of donor carved by a Stickeen Indian,
Fort Rupert, 1860.  Presented by Capt. G. Reid, R.N."
Mr. King said he was not aware pf any other similar carving, and that
the value of the Inskip bust was enhanced first by the documentation in the
Private Remark Book, and secondly by the existence of the similar carving in
the British Museum.  I am pleased to say negotiations have been completed and
the ivory bust of Captain Inskip is now a valued acquisition of the Provincial
Museum.
And so ends the story of how a chance happening upon a copy of a letter in
an old file in Ottawa, together with luck and persistence and the generosity of
Miss Caley, has resulted in our Provincial Archives and Provincial Museum each
acquiring choice items relating to our coast in 1853-54 - before the name of
British Columbia had come into being.
Helen B. Akrigg -11-
THE BELL-IRVING LAND SURVEYORS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
The appointment of the Hon. Henry Pybus Bell-Irving, DSO, OBE, ED, to the
vice-regal office for British Columbia on May 18, 1978, brings into fitting
prominence his own distinguished merits and those of his large and remarkable
family. The Bell-Irvings have been creditably and widely entrenched in the
development of this province since 1883 in a broad array of activities including
engineering, medicine, law, the fishing industry, finance and real estate.
Three Bell-Irvings were authorized B.C. land surveyors.  The connection between
land surveying and Government House, in this case, indirect, is not without
precedent. Sir Joseph W. Trutch, CE, LS, Surveyor General (1864-1871) was the
province's first Lieutenant-Governor (1871-1876) and the Hon. Edgar Dewdney,
LS, held the office betweeen 1892 and 1897. This is an amazing accomplishment
for a small profession with currently less than 300 practising members, compared
to the thousands in law, medicine, engineering, divinity and the other professions .
The numerous Bell-Irvings in British Columbia are descendants of Henry
Bell-Irving (cl830-1870) and his wife Wilhemina (nee Ogle) incumbents of
"Milkbank',' a large estate on the Milk River near Lockerbie, Dumfriesshire,
Scotland. Henry's ancestors received title to their land in 1549 from Mary of
GuiseV(L515-1560), mother of Mary, Queen of Scots, for loyal services in the
Border Wars. The name Bell-Irving was assumed after a marriage to Thomas Bell
of "Strands" on the Milk River where his family had also been settled for generations. Henry had substantial investments abroad including an interest in
Jardine-Matheson Company, a family connection, inHongKong and sugar plantations
in British Guyana.
Henry's untimely death when his children were yet minors was followed by
heavy financial losses to his estate and the assignment of his Milkbank home to a
cousin, John Bell-Irving. This provoked his sons, already well educated, to
seek their fortunes abroad. The eldest, Henry Ogle (1856-1931), who assumed
the role of head of the family, emigrated to Canada in 1882.  The next year, his
mother and the rest of the family followed, settling mostly in the Cochrane
vicinity west of Calgary.-*-   Duncan (1857-1929), the second eldest, had studied
medicine at Glasgow and Heidleberg before a sojourn in British Guyana (1880-1882)
and became the first member of the family to reach the Pacific Coast in 1883 as
medical officer for the federal Department of Marine and Fisheries. After a
visit to Australia, he returned to Vancouver to become the first medical practitioner in that newly incorporated city. He married Ethel Hulbert in London
in 1887 and returned with her to Vancouver.  Their two sons, Duncan Peter and
Robert ("Robin") later became B.C. Land Surveyors, emulating their uncle, Henry
Ogle.
William Bell-Irving, the younger brother of Henry Ogle and Duncan, settled at
Cochrane. He married Helen Beattie, a sister of Henry Ogle's wife.  Some of his
descendants settled on Denman Island and a great-grandson is presently believed
to be interested in qualifying as a B.C. Land Surveyor. William died in Cuba
where his wife's family owned sugar plantations. -12-
Henry Ogle Bell-^Irving was born January 26, 1856 at "Milkbank". He
attended Merchiston Castle School in Edinburgh and at Karlsruhe qualified in
engineering and allied subjects.  In emigrating to Canada in 1882, he crossed
the Atlantic in a vessel nick-named the "Rolling Polly," suggesting he divided
his time between his bunk and the ship's rail.  Reaching Winnipeg in the autumn,
he joined the CPR on location and construction as surveyor-engineer working
mostly in the Rocky and Selkirk Mountains. While hiking the trail alone in the
vicinity of Revelstoke he was beset by outlaws who took all his valuables except
his survey instruments.  In the fall of 1885 he made his way to the coast and
arrived on October 4 at Burrard Inlet.  In this exciting environment where the
extension of the CPR from Port Moody, 12 miles further east, was confidently
expected, Henry found a ready market for his talents as surveyor, engineer
and architect.
After the "Great Fire" of June 1886 in which he lost his professional
instruments and other valuables, he set up a general store and business office at
the corner of Carrall and Water streets in partnership with R.C Tatlow, later
Richard McBride's Finance Minister.  Foreseeing the potential export trade
from the new port of Vancouver, Henry and R.H. Patterson chartered the 897 ton
clipper, Titania in 1889, importing a cargo of water and gas pipe, hardware, and
liquor from Britain and exporting a full load of canned sockeye salmon.  This
venture demonstrated the need for the sound commercial organization of the fishing
and canning industry, so in 1891 Bell-Irving went to Britain to organize the Anglo-
British Columbia Packing Company financed mainly by his Scottish relatives with
H. Bell-Irving & Co. Ltd. as Vancouver agents. His success in the fishing
industry led to expansion in real estate and insurance.  In these fields, his
sons and his brother Duncan, the doctor, also participated. Concurrently, he took
an active part in the vibrant public life of Vancouver.  Elected an alderman in
January 1888, he became chairman of the Board of Works and activated many civic
developments including drawing up specifications for a street railway and arranging for the enhancement and preservation of Stanley Park. He was president of the
Board of Trade in 1895 and 1896.
Along with his other activities, Henry Ogle retained his identity as a
land surveyor until at least 1891.  He was one of the 83 land surveyors in a
list signed by W.S. Gore, the Surveyor General, and published in the B.C. Gazette,
January 3, 1891.  In that list he was identified as "IRVING, H. Bell-."
The records of the Surveyor General's office offer no evidence that he engaged
in Crown land surveying so it is likely he confined his surveying to the subdivision
of the primary District Lots making up the new townsite of Vancouver.  This would
offer ample scope at that time.  There is a record of his leading a survey party
in September 1888 to locate feasible crossings of the North Arm and main channel
of the Fraser River for what later became the Great Northern Railway.  He
advised his principals that their suggested point of commencement for the survey
at Point Roberts was not acceptable since it was in American territory. He
probably used one or more of the nearby International Boundary monuments established
by the Boundary Commission in 1857 and subsequent years.  He also noted that New
Westminster would vigorously oppose any crossing below that city. -13-
On February 11, 1886, Henry Ogle Bell-Irving married Isabel del Carmen Beattie
at "St. Michaels", the home of her father, Richard Beattie, in Torquay, Devon.
Mr. Beattie owned sugar plantations in Cuba where Isabel was born at Santiago,
near Havana. The newlyweds, who returned to Burrard Inlet via San Francisco
and New Westminster, took temporary residence in Black's "Brighton House" Hotel
on the Inlet from where Henry rowed three miles every day to his new architect's
office at Gastown.  Conditions must have seemed appalling to the young bride
but she proved impervious to dismay.  She assisted her husband by enscribing
his building specifications in the meticulous calligraphy then fashionable.
They were blessed with six sons and four daughters who, in their turns, had
a distinguished impact on civil and military affairs in British Columbia and
beyond.2
Henry Ogle Bell-Irving was a man of unusual vitality and versatility.
He possessed a fine artistic sensitivity and skill. One of his legacies to
the province, now safe in the Provincial Archives through the generosity of
a grandson, Ian Bell-Irving, is a collection of fifty-seven attractive and
interesting sketches, mostly water colour, which Henry made as a young man,
mainly during his surveying with the CPR.  Many are annotated with place and
date and offer valuable clues to his movements during those epic years.  Four
of the earliest, dated 1881, are scenes in Scotland. The first in Canada,
1882, is entitled, "Old Wives Lakes, Railway Engineers' Camp," At this location,
some 25 miles south west of Moose Jaw, he probably began work with the railway.
Two line sketches, "Batchelors' Hall, Regina, NWT, February, 1883" suggest
where he wintered.  Seven others in 1883 take him into the Rockies as far as
Kicking Horse and Howse Passes, the latter are winter scenes in December.
Some twenty-seven sketches done in 1884 progress from Kicking Horse Pass
westerly over Rogers Pass;  the next nine scenes, 1885, continue as far west
as Kamloops.  One of Nanaimo, October 1885, and one of Hastings Mill at
Burrard Inlet, confirm his arrival at the coast late that year.  He did four
scenes of Burrard Inlet in May and June 1886 before other preoccupations began
to interfere.  The rigorous and primitive conditions in which these numerous
paintings must have been done — outdoors in the inclement elements, alone, when
his companions were socializing in the  radiance of campfires or cabin stoves
or cozy in their bedrolls — indicate a compelling motivation in his sensitive
response to the grandeur, beauty, and novelty of the environment.  This collection,
covering six years' evolution in style and skill, displays a fine appreciation
and treatment of atmospheric perspective; distinction in alpine dynamics between
the sedimentary Rockies and the igneous upheavals of the Selkirks, the austere
purity of glacial ice and snow, vivid contrasts of sombre coniferous forests
festooned on mountain declivities and the whimsy of mountain streams plunging
forever downward under the inexorable force of gravity.
The fifth son, Alan Duncan Harry, was a prominent aviation pioneer.  In
the mid-1930's he was a principal in the Air Travel and Transport Company
of Vancouver from whom the B.C Forest Service chartered a Waco aircraft
on floats for the first provincial government air photo flying, 1936-1938.
The present Lieutenant Governor is a grandson of Henry Ogle and Isabel. -14-
It may be significant that other surveyors have displayed this same
artistic sensitivity, skill and compulsion. Examples are the late Ernest
Lamarque, DLS, BCLS, with his prolific water colors and black and white
sketches, and the field books of the late Frank Swannell, BCLS, DLS, replete
with artistic, if utilitarian, horizon sketches of distant targets and
topographic profiles.
Henry Ogle Bell-Irving's youthful ambition to make enough money to
regain clear title to his father's estate in Scotland was amply realized, but,
in the process, his roots and heart became deeply embedded in the new city of
his adoption.  He sold his equity in Milkbank to John Bell-Irving in 1895.
The remarkable life of Henry Ogle Bell-Irving terminated on Febrary 21, 1931
in Vancouver.  He left an enviable legacy in family, in professional and
business accomplishment, and in civic and cultural participation in the finest
British tradition.
The second Bell-Irving land surveyor was Duncan Peter Bell-Irving,
BCLS (No. 117, 1912). A biographical tribute to his memory appeared in the
"Roll of Honour" published by the Corporatxon of B.C. Land Surveyors in 1919
to commemorate twenty-four of its members "who made the Supreme Sacrifice for
the Cause". This praiseworthy volume being long out of print, it is appropriate
to quote in full its tribute to Duncan Peter:
Son of Dr. D. Bell-Irving, Vancouver, was born in England,
January 3rd, 1888, and came with his parents to Vancouver in
April the same year. He graduated from the Royal Military College,
Kingston, in 1908. He was articled to Mr. G.H. Dawson, B.C.L.S.,
former Surveyor-General, and obtained his commission as a British
Columbia Land Surveyor in 1912.  He entered into partnership with
the late Captain K.C.C. Taylor, D.S.0., B.C.L.S., under the firm
name of "Taylor and Bell-Irving," of Vancouver.
He was engaged on Government survey on the Nass River when war
broke out, and he immediately made arrangements whereby it was
possible for him to come to Vancouver to enlist. He went overseas
as a Lieutenant in the Canadian Engineers, and reached France in
January, 1915. On February 25th, while in charge of a working
party, he was shot by a sniper and died the same night.  He was
the first British Columbia Land Surveyor and the first British
Columbian officer killed in the war.
Major Kenneth CC  Taylor,   DSO,  BCLS   (No.   63,   1911),   Duncan Peter's
partner,   (they were evidently  classmates  at R.M.C,  Kingston),  was himself
killed "in action" on    September 11,  1916.     He was a brother of Major T.H.
Taylor,  OBE,  MC,  PLS   (No.   51,   1899).
An old  friend of  the  author recalls how as  a student  travelling on  the
CPR from his home  in Victoria  to school in Montreal  about 1930 he was
assigned to a breakfast  table with an elderly  gentleman, Mr.  Bell-Irving,
who  regaled him with a  fascinating commentary  on  locating  the  rail  route
on which  they were travelling.     So engrossed were  the  listener and the
raconteur that  the steward interrupted to announce  that  "luncheon was
now  ready  to be served,   and what would they  like?" -15-
Some thirty Field-books of Crown land surveys signed by D.P. Bell-
Irving, BCLS, are dated 1914 and relate to District Lots and Timber Leases
in the Clayoquot Land District, west coast of Vancouver Island, specifically
Jensen Bay and Mud Bay. These were evidently done before he went North to
the upper Nass river. His partner, K.CC Taylor signed the official reports
to the Surveyor General for 1913 and 1914, and probably the field-notes
for the Nass River surveys.  In checking these records it was noticed that
in 1914, Taylor surveyed Lots 1336, 1338, and 1340 on the divide between Adam
river and Schoen lake (Nimpkish river) for Dorothy, Peter and Ethel Bell-
Irving, respectively.  Duncan Peter had a sister Dorothy and his mother was
Ethel. These lots survive on current maps, but as un-alienated Crown land
in Tree Farm Licence 39.
Bell-Irving river, formerly "North Fork Nass river" was officially
named to honour Duncan Peter by the Canadian Geographic Board, March 31, 1917,
on recommendation of G.H. Dawson, Surveyor General, to Wm. Fleet Robertson,
the member of the Board for British Columbia. The reverse side of the name-
card bears an anonymous note:  "He was sent by the Gov't to survey and explore
the upper part of the Nass river including the North Fork, and when war broke
out was so engaged, being entirely out of reach of all outside communication.
A month after war started, his father in Vancouver received a telegram from
him, sent from a cabin on the Yukon Telegraph Line, — Hear there is a war -
who is fighting whom? — to which reply was sent, bringing the second telegram
to his father — Have telegraphed Ottawa offering services — see Dawson and
arrange leave. He went."
Nearly three decades later, July 24, 1945, when attention was directed
to possible road routes north through the Cassiar region, west of the Alaska
Highway, Mount Bell-Irving was also named for Duncan Peter.  This isolated
massif, 5148 feet elevation, is west of the lower Bell-Irving river and east
of Highway 37 (the Stewart-Cassiar road), as it leaves Meziadin lake northbound. It is alpine barren above 4000 feet, but without permanent snow-fields.
The summit is about five miles east of the highway and would involve a climb
of about 3000 feet from the road.
Robert ("Robin") Bell-Irving was born in his parents' home, Seaton
Street, Vancouver, July 30 1893, son of Dr. Duncan Bell-Irving and his wife
Ethel.  As well as his older brother, Duncan Peter, he had two sisters,
Agnes (Mrs. James W. Manson) and Dorothy (Mrs. Louis R. Hambridge). He
attended Queen's School, Vancouver and University School, Victoria, and
graduated from McGill University, Montreal, with a B.Sc. degree in 1914
shortly before his 21st birthday.
Official records concerning Robert's career in land surveying indicate
only that he received his BCLS Commission (No. 216) in 1920, and resigned
as a BC land surveyor in 1928.  However, relatives say that he was with his
brother on the Nass river survey in 1914 and remained on that job after his
brother had gone to war. He also could have spent one or more vacations on
survey jobs as an undergraduate. He followed his brother overseas in 1915,
serving successively with the RAF, the Royal Engineers, and finally with the
Canadian Engineers. As a result of his war service he suffered from rheumatic -16-
fever which evidently influenced him to seek alternatives to the full rigours
of land surveying. In 1921 he was registered in the BC Association of
Professional Engineers, from which he resigned in 1948.
In 1920 he joined the Powell River Co. Ltd., becoming resident
engineer in 1926. He was involved in the installation of the large "No. 7
newsprint machine" and the first 25,000 hp hydro-electric power development.
In 1932 he was transferred to Vancouver as Assistant General Manager,
became First Vice-president in 1944, and a Director of the company in 1949.
In 1920 Robert married Kathleen Rose, daughter of Henry Holgate Watson,
in Vancouver.  They had four sons, Peter and Robin W., both medical doctors,
Brian, "Killed in action" as pilot in the Fleet Air Arm, RCN, while serving
on HMCS Bonaventure and Duncan Henry, a lawyer. Robert ("Robin") Bell-Irving,
BCLS, P. Eng., died in Vancouver, July 3 1949. His widow and three sons"
survive.
The three Bell-Irving land surveyors in British Columbia, briefly
portrayed above, exemplify the fact that those qualities and talents which
attract young men to the land surveying profession, offering the challenge
of adventure and survival in the wilderness, concurrently with high intellectual
demands, both mathematical and jurisdictional, as well as rigorous integrity,
- are those same qualities which fit a man to play an examplary part in
society, in a broad array of endeavour far beyond the narrow limits of
surveying.4
J     ° G.S. Andrews
4.
In preparing the above, the author is gratefully indebted to His Honour,
the Lieutenant Governor and his cousin, Elizabeth, Mrs. D.A. O'Kiely,
for kind encouragement and much family information, not otherwise available.
Lt. Col. Andrews, himself a former Surveyor General of British
Columbia is the author of the recently published cumulative
nominal role of the professional land surveyors of British
Columbia.
***********************************************
ALFRED PENDRELL WADDINGTON AND THE "BUTE INLET ROUTE"
Ed. Note:  In 1977 the author, John 0. Spittle, collaborated with
Adrian Kershaw of Okanagan College, Kelowna in organizing
an expedition to re-trace Alfred Waddington's Route of 1862 from the
head of Bute Inlet to Fort Alexandria. Mr. Spittle's slide presentation at the March, 1979 meeting of the Victoria Historical Society
showed many sections of Waddington's ill-fated wagon road discovered -17-
and documented by the expedition. His accompanying historical
background was largely taken from the official report and reproduced with kind permission of the authors. Copies of the
complete report are available from Okanagan College, 1000 KLO Rd.,
Kelowna, V1Y 4X8 at $6.00.
For over a thousand years members of the Waddington Family have played
a significant role in the course of human affairs. Their founder,1 Duke of
Wada, is said to have built Mulgrave Castle in the eighth Century.  Walter,
Lord of Waddington, rode with the Black Prince in 1356 and Richard Waddington
became premier of France in 1859. Another branch of the family, the Penderels,
assisted Charles II to escape Cromwell's army following the battle of
Worcester in 1651.
Alfred Waddington was born in London, England, October 2, 1801, the
sixth son of William Waddington, a prosperous Nottinghamshire landowner. His
mother was a daughter of Henry Sykes who had established cotton mills at St.
Remi-sur-1'Avre, France in 1791.  After attending schools in both England and
France and spending two years at university in Germany, Alfred embarked upon
a long series of unsuccessful business ventures. Finally, in 1850 he sailed
for California to join the rush of miners,to the goldfields.  It is not
known whether he actually mined for gold, but a few years later he was listed
in the San Francisco Directory as a partner in the grocery firm of Dulip
and Waddington.
As the California deposits became exhausted, word was received of new
discoveries in the Fraser River to the north and a mass exodus of miners quickly followed. In the spring of 1858 Alfred Waddington joined them to open a
branch of his firm in Victoria on"Vancouver Island. By this time he was
57 years of age and undoubtedly one of the oldest as well as the best educated
of those to arrive in the colony.  Nevertheless, his interests were not exclusively mercantile for he made and published a series of guide maps of the
"Northern Coal and Gold Regions comprehending Fraser River"  of which the
San Francisco Bulletin reported "no other map we have seen approaches it in
value...no miner should be without it...."
4.
Arthur Mee, "Waddington," The King's England:  Yorkshire - West Riding,
rev. ed., London, pp. 283-4.
W. Kaye Lamb, "Waddington, Alfred Pendrell," Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. X, (Toronto, 1972), pp. 696-8. Waddington rarely used his
middle name and there is some uncertainty as to the correct spelling.
His ancestors spelled it Penderel; the Admiralty, Pendrell (Sound) and
the City of Vancouver, Pendrell (Street).
R.L. Reid, K.C. claimed that Waddington in all probability first visited
Brazil. ("Alfred Waddington", Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada,
1932, pp. 13-27) .
H.H. Bancroft, in his History of British Columbia 1792-1877 (San Francisco,
1890), claimed that Waddington was a "one time Mariposa miner." -18-
Almost immediately, Waddington became active in politics opposing the
authoritarian ways of Governor James Douglas and he took up the cause of
disgruntled miners who were beginning to leave the country as the placer
deposits in the lower Fraser became worked out. In an effort to check this
exodus and re-establish the good name of Vancouver Island he wrote The Fraser
Mines Vindicated, or The History of Four Months - the first book to be published in the colony.  In 1860 he was elected to the'House of Assembly and
in 1862 helped draft the charter of the city of Victoria. Waddington also
published the first printed map of the city but is best remembered for his
efforts to open up a route to the mainland colony interior — a project on
which he almost entirely devoted his remaining years.
By 1861 the more enterprising miners had pushed on some 650 km. north
to the rich deposits of Williams Creek in the heart of the Cariboo.  The
principal obstacle to communication, the canyon of the Fraser River beyond
Hope, discouraged the majority who were obliged to travel_an alternative
route by way of the Lillooet River and a string of lakes.  Waddington was
one of the first to appreciate that if a route could be found from the head
of one of the many inlets,indenting the iiOi.Lb.west coast, the overland distance
could be greatly reduced.   Between the inlets and the gold fields lay the
Coast Range of mountains, its peaks higher than any in the Canadian Rockies,
its glaciers feeding un-navigable rivers with inpenetrable canyons and dense
rain forest covering the lower slopes.
Lieut. Palmer, R.E., acting on instructions from Douglas, examined the
route from North Bentinck Arm to Fort Alexandria  and subsequently informed
his commanding officer, Col. R.C. Moody, R.E., Chief Commissioner of Lands
and Works for the mainland colony "with great pleasure" that construction of
a road would be "perfectly feasible."
10,
San Francisco Directory 1856 and 1858.  Dulip and Waddington, Grocers,
SW corner, Dupont and Broadway.
A Correct Map of the Northern Coal and Gold Regions comprehending FRAZER
RIVER carefully compiled from the latest data and personal observation by
A. Waddington, San Francisco, April 1858. Within one month it sold in four
revised editions.  Only one copy each of the first and fourth edition are
known to have survived.
San Francisco Evening Bulletin, May 3, 1858, p. 3.
Technically Cameron's Rules of Practice, printed two days earlier in
Victoria was the first book but it is not usually regarded a book aimed
at the general public.
In 1858 the Harrison-Lillooet route became the principal means of access
to the upper Fraser river. When the Cariboo     through the Fraser
Canyon was completed in 1863 it was virtually abandoned.
The coastline itself had been accurately charted by Captain George Vancouver
some fifty years earlier. -19-
But the voyage from Victoria to Bentinck Arm was some 800 kilometres either
through the tricky waters of Johnstone Strait or along the unprotected west
coast of Vancouver Island. Waddington claimed that a route from the head of
Bute Inlet would be "incomparably superior" since it terminated at the
southern end of Johnstone Strait and-would result in a saving of some 400
kilometres on the overall distance.   After visiting Bute Inlet in 1861
with a reconnaissance party he returned to Victoria with a plan to establish
a port at the head of the Inlet  and build a road from it along the valley
of the Homatko River and across the Chilcotin plateau to Fort Alexandria
on the Fraser River — a total overland distance of some 260 kilometres.
The following year, after negotiating with Governor Douglas, he was granted
a charter to construct a bridle path with the right to collect tolls and
a few weeks later agreement was reached for its conversion to a wagon road.
Throughout 1862 his surveying party under H.O. Tiedemann laid out the
route  and the construction crew completed some 53 kilometres of road.
Sixty-six bridges were required including one 28 and another 17 metres long,
both in single spans, on this stretch alone. Before the season was over,
the surveyors encountered their r■>' •- * pajor obstacle in the form of a 2 km
long canyon with precipitous walls out of which any road would have to be
blasted.   Since the terms of the charter called for the road to be completed
in 1863, Waddington requested and was granted a twelve month extension.
To finance the project he formed the "Bute Inlet Wagon Road Company" with
an initial issue of 500 shares at $100 each. He later complained that less
than half this amount had been subscribed.
The construction crew returned to Bute Inlet in 1863 to find ten of
the bridges swept away in the spring freshets and a number of the others
damaged. All had to be repaired or replaced before work on the road could
be resumed.   To by-pass the insuperable obstacle of the canyon walls, they
were obliged to construct a winding trail climbing some 500 metres over a
spur of the mountain.   No progress whatsoever was made during the season
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Palmer in his official report and accompanying maps spells it "Alexander"
- a mistake which James Douglas quickly brought to the attention of Moody.
Colonial Government Correspondence, Palmer to Moody, August 27, 1862,
Provincial Archives of British Columbia.
Other inlets - Jervis, Toba, Knight's, Loughborough and Howe Sound -
all had their advocates, but Bute clearly had the advantage if a
practicable route could be found.
The townsite was laid out by P.J. Leech, 2nd Corp., R.E. in September 1863.
Tiedemann's Journal of Exploration for a Trail from the Head of Bute
Inlet to Fort Alexandria in the year 1862 and the reconnaissance sketch
maps are preserved in the Provincial Archives of British Columbia.
Tiedemann's route followed the east branch of the Homathko to Tatlayoko
Lake. However, one of the survey crew convinced Waddington that the
west branch (today named Mosley Creek) was a better choice. -20-
and Waddington returned to Victoria to find himself the target of angry
criticism.  The 'Wagon Road Company' was broke and to continue the project
he was forced to purchase the Company at auction,1raising the necessary
money by selling off his properties in Victoria.
In April 1864 the construction crew was back at work when the fiaal
blow came. A party of Chilcotin Indians led by their chief Klattasen
systematically attacked the work parties. Of the seventeen employed along
the Homathko River at the time, only three survived. Some time later three
more men were killed while en route by way of Bentinck Arm to work on the
northern end of the Bute Inlet road.   Waddington unsuccessfully tried to
obtain compensation from the government and was finally forced to abandon
his scheme. In 1865, when badly in need of a livelihood, he was appointed
the first Superintendent of Schools for Vancouver Island.
Within two years, Waddington was at work on an even more grandiose
scheme. The colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia had just
united and many could visualize Confederation with the eastern provinces
of British North America.  The trans- continental railway to California was
nearing completion and Waddington was concerned that Oriental trade with
Britain would be diverted through the United States. In 1866, through friends
in England, he sought British government support in creating an "all
British" overland route. His scheme was to construct a "traction line" or
tramway over the Bute Inlet route, to have steamers ply 325 kilometres up
the Fraser River and then to build a wagon road through the Yellowhead Pass
to the prairies.  Funds had already been made available for opening a route
from Lake Superior to Red River Settlement.  The following year Waddington
left for London to promote his scheme. He never returned to British Columbia.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
Officially named Waddington Canyon in 1928.
Neville Shanks, Waddington.  Port Hardy, 1975, pp. 37-38.
This spur had unofficially been named Waddington Mountain by the road
crew and should not be confused with Mount Waddington which was named
in 1928.
British Colonist, Victoria, January 13, 1864.
For a scholarly examination of this uprising see E.S. Hewlett,"The Chilcotin
Uprising," BC Studies, No. 19 (Autumn 1973), pp. 50-72.  There is of
course an endless supply of dramatized versions of the massacre to be
found at regular intervals in week-end and monthly magazines - which
appear to be largely the product of the authors' imagination.
Klattasen can be found with more variations in spelling than Pendrell, this
being the most common in Victoria at the time.  Today his name is perpetuated in Klattasine Creek which drains into the Homathko at the south
end of Waddington Canyon. -21-
His first public appearance in London, an address to the Royal Geographic Society in March 1868,  gained the interest of a number of influential members who raised the matter in the House of Commons which subsequently appointed a commission of enquiry. Later that year he published
a pamphlet entitled Overland Route through British North America. This
was essentially a reiteration of his earlier address to the Royal Geographical Society but he was now envisioning an "all-rail" route across Canada.
In 1869, after the Hudson's Bay Company had relinquished its territorial
rights on the prairies, the scene of action moved to Canada's capital and
the following year Waddington arrived in Ottawa to continue his cause.
Early in 1871 he published a "second edition" of his 1869 pamphlet in which
he now considered carrying the line across to Vancouver Island and thence
south to Esquimalt. On July 20, 1871 British Columbia entered Confederation
with the assurance that a railway would be completed coast-to-coast within
ten years. Meanwhile, Waddington was visiting New York and London, supposedly
on behalf of the government, to lay before his associates full details of his
scheme. He returned to Ottawa that winter to await the spring opening of
Parliament when he contracted smallpox and died February 27, 1872. He is
buried in St. James cemetery on the outskirts of Hull, Quebec.
By 1872, Sandford Fleming, Engineer-in-Chief for the Canadian Pacific
Railway was committed to finding a suitable route through the mountain ranges
of British Columbia.  Fleming had settled on Yellowhead Pass as the most
practicable route through the Rocky Mountains and he dispatched Marcus Smith
to examine the line to Bute Inlet. H.O. Tiedemann, who had laid out the
original line of^the wagon road for Waddington, was hired to re-survey the
western section.   Two seasons were spent along the Homathko and in his
final report to Fleming, Smith concluded that "Mr. Waddington may have underrated the difficulties of constructing a road or railway through so rough a
country, but his plans... appear to have been honestly prepared as no attempt,
was made to show by them the route to be less difficult than it really is."
Regardless of whether the overriding considerations were topographical or
political the route finally chosen -for the railway followed the Fraser Canyon
and terminated at Burrard Inlet — much to the chagrin of the citizens of
Victoria.
The railway survey marked the last attempt to establish a coast-interior 2c
route along this corridor. Today* the only road to penetrate the coast range
from the Chilcotin plateau terminates at Bella Coola at the head of North
Bentinck Arm.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
Although longer, the Bentinck Arm route was nevertheless quite passable
without difficulty for much of the year and regularly travelled by Indians.
A. Waddington, "On the Geography and Mountain Passes of British Columbia
in Connection with an Overland Route," Journal of the Royal Geographic
Society, Vol. XXXVIII (1863), pp. 118-128.
An interesting and informative account of this survey is to be found in
Diary of a Surveyor engaged on the C.P.R. Survey - Homathko River, etc.
Route 1872 by Geo. Hargreaves.  Transcript in Provincial Archives of B.C.
Canadian Pacific Railway, Sandford Fleming, Engineer-in-Chief, Report of
Progress on the Explorations and Surveys up to January, 1874. Ottawa, 1874.
Appendix H, pp. 174-198.
Highway 20. -22- -23-
OLD TRAILS AND ROUTES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA     by r,c. Harris
THE HBC 18-49 BRIGADE TRAIL     FORT HOPE TO KAMLOOPS
COLLINS GULCH SECTION
This section of HBC trail may be eliminated by clearout logging and
open pit coal mining. Consequently, Harley Hatfield and friends have
thoroughly explored the route over the last several years so that the trail
will at least be recorded by mapping. The Collins Gulch section lies
between HBC Camp 4 (Lodestone Lake) up on the Tulameen Plateau, and Camp
5 (Campement des Femmes) down across the Tulameen River, in what is now the
Rabbitt Ranch, DL 151.
The HBC trail here followed -in Indian hunting trail, which ran along
or near the divide between the Granite Greek and Tulameen River basins, as
far east as Collins Gulch.  The trail(s) then went down the right bank of
the Gulch.
A.C. Anderson first recorded the route during his 1846 exploration for
an all-British route from the sea to Fort Kamloops (Thompson's River Post).
The regular Columbia-Okanagan route was then threatened by the setting of
the U.S. northwest boundary at the 49th parallel.  After crossing the
Cascade Divide on June 3, 1846, Anderson discovered and named the Punch
Bowl, at the source of the Tulameen River. He made a tedious descent of
the Tulameen, noting how it trended more and more to the right, as far as
Otter Flats (now Tulameen village). Here, he met Blackeyes, a respected
Indian chief, who explained how Anderson should have cut across the high
country (Tulameen Plateau) inside the big bend of the Tulameen River.  Blackeyes'
hunting trail went this way, and, but for the snow, Anderson would have seen
it.
In 1849, after a false start from the Fraser Canyon, the HBC incorporated
much of Blackeyes' trail in their new "horse portage" from Fort Hope to
Kamloops.  From the summit of the Tulameen Plateau, Blackeyes* Portage was
followed for over 20 kilometres, down Collins Gulch and up the east side
of Otter Mountain and Otter Lake.  In August 1858, W.W. de Lacy built his
Whatcom Trail from Bellingham Bay in Washington Territory, following Blackeyes'
trail northeast from the Punch Bowl until he joined the 1849 HBC trail on
the Tulameen Plateau.  This intersection is marked on the old maps in
references 2 and 3.
Also in 1858, theU.S. North West Boundary Survey was in full swing.
Topographic sketches and maps of a wide belt of country along the 49th parallel were made.  Some show the HBC and Whatcom trails, and their joint
continuation north, past Otter Lake. -24-
The following year, Lt. H.A. Palmer, R.E., with several distinguished
companions (Macdonald, Begbie, O'Reilly and Bushby) travelled from Hope, down
the Collins Gulch section of trail.  Palmer, with Macdonald, was on an official
reconnaissance of the Colony as far east as Fort Colvile, an HBC post now in
Washington Territory.  The others turned north to Kamloops at Campement des
Femmes. Palmer's report and map help us identify the unnamed creek whereby
the HBC trail descended from the Tulameen Plateau to Campement des Femmes.
Both the U.S. boundary maps and Palmer's map show the zigzags in the trail
in the latter part of the descent.
The "gulch" in Collins Gulch shows U.S. influence.  The name first comes
into the news when the creek was a short-lived source of placer gold, following the 1884 rush to Granite Creek, a few miles south.  In the 1890's, some
development was done on a coal prospect halfway up Collins Gulch.  The bottom
(zigzag) section of the HBC trail, N to 0 on the accompanying map, was rebuilt
as a 4 foot wide trail for rawhiding coal down to the miners along the
Tulameen River and tributaries.  This well aligned and properly constructed
trail is extant, though encumbered with fallen timber on the zigzags.
The Collins Gulch watershed was selectively horse logged for years with
little evident damage.  It was an important source of pit props for the
Blakeburn mine.  This era is represented by the Barnes cabin and stable
on the east fork of Collins Gulch (K on the map.).
In 1949, a narrow mining road, which can still be followed, was built
north from the Blakeburn road and round the contour to the coal prospect in
the Gulch.  Three adits were driven, and a 50 ton timber coal bin was erected.
A test load of coal reached the Hotel Vancouver before this development faded.
The last 30 years have been fairly quiet on the Tulameen Plateau and Collins
Gulch, except for clearout logging tpwards Lodestone Lake, bulldozer trenching
for coal east of Hamilton Hill, and summer grazing by cattle from the
Princeton district.
The route on the HBC trail may be followed on the accompanying map.  It
has also been recorded, at 1:5,000, on a set of contour plans prepared in
1977 for coal explorations.  To reach point A, the upper end of the trail
ooveredby this report, drive up the Blakeburn/Slate Creek access road to
km 12.7 (Granite City is km 0.  There are boards every kilometre).  On the
north side at km 12.7, is an occasionally occupied log cabin.  Opposite,
across  the creek, the HBC trail, as a well defined groove, comes down the
wooded hill to the south,  from Lodestone.  It crosses the creek, a minor
tributary of Blakeburn Creek (and hence of Granite Creek).
At the ford, the trail turns east immediately and passes under the
sawdust pile of a vanished mill.  It can be followed a half kilometre east
before disappearing under the forest access road, at a sharp bend round a
gravel spur, B.  The trail reappears above the access road on the hillside
at the km 12 board, C, contouring through open jackpine and grass for a kilometre to the gully, D, where the Cedar Ck (Owls Head) trail takes off up the -£.
south west slopes of Hamilton Hill.  This trail formed an alternative descent
to the Tulameen after about 1860, when old maps show the main trail to
Kamloops was rebuilt up the west side of Otter Lake.
The HBC trail continues east, rounding the bare south end of Hamilton
Hill on a descending traverse, and eventually disappearing under the road
again at E, an alder patch. The HBC trail is next identified leading northeast from a point 60 metres down the side road at F. Point F is very close
to the source of the creek occupying Collins Gulch.  From here a continuous
trail, sketchy in parts, leads almost to the mouth of Collins Gulch, keeping
generally on the right bank, and high above the middle (canyon) section of
the Gulch.  The next kilometre of trail passes through a landscape of subdued
gravel ridges and mounds, generally clothed in open, parklike jackpine
forest, with grassy slopes facing south. Spruce, willow and alder jungles
occupy the hollows.
The trail leads through what is still recognisable as an aisle in the
jackpines, fording upper Collins Gulch creek at G, then descending a gravel
spur to cross a small divide at H.  Now the trail runs over a gravel ridge,
turning east to a corduroy ford at J. Here the trail recrosses Collins Gulch
creek, which is seasonal to this point, and continues east along an old
melt-water channel with steep grassy slopes on the left side. The channel
and trail cross the two tributaries of the east fork of Collins Gulch creek,
arriving at the ruins of the Barnes' stable and cabin, K, in less than a
kilometre. Behind the Barnes cabin, the trail crosses a low shoulder to
rejoin the bank of the east fork, which is now entering the canyon or gulch
stage. The trail follows the right or east bank, generally within sight or
sound of the water, until if fords the Gulch one kilometre above its mouth
at the Tulameen River.  Beyond this ford, the trail is lost in bulldozing
for placer mining and logging.
Nearing the coal prospect at L, the trail makes its first zigzag, a
very short one, before joining the coal mining road for half a kilometre.
Opposite the west fork, which may be recognised by the conspicuous rock
spur on its north side, the HBC trail, and its successor the coal trail,
leave the 1949 mining road at M, on a one kilometre descending traverse.
Point M gives a good view up Otter Lake.  First the slender HBC trail runs
just below the more robust coal trail, but after 300 metres it crosses to the
upper side.  The two trails appear to coincide over the zigzag or switchback
section.
The first switchback, N, is the point 600 feet above the Tulameen River,
where Palmer reported being able to see along three valleys — east and west
on the Tulameen, and north on Otter Lake.  After 4 switchbacks, the trail
is down to the creek, which it crosses at a point 20 metres in elevation
above the Tulameen River.
We have not identified the old crossing of the Tulameen River, but can
recommend it be forded only at low water.  Should the descent be made down
the HBC trail to the Tulameen River, the return could be made by walking 2^
kilometres up the Tulameen River, and picking up the Cedar Creek trail. -26-
Selected references:
1. A.C. Anderson
(a) typed transcript "History of the Northwest Coast" includes journals
of his explorations.
(received from E.A. Anderson, his grandson)
(b) Sketch map of exploration from Hope to Otter Lake June 1846, shows
portage recommended by Blackeyes. PABC. Keyed to journal.
(c) fragment of manuscript map: PABC S615p BC A545S shows Blackeyes'
Portage.
(d) 1867 "Map of a portion of the Colony of British Columbia" shows
trail zigzagging down to Campement des Femmes. PABC 0 615p BC
A545m 1867 f
2. U.S. North West Boundary Survey
(a) U.S. National Archives RG 76, Series 69, Map (Misc) 2
E. Gibb 1860  1 in = 8 miles
(b) U.S. National Archives RG 76 Series 68 #2 1:120,000; shows
HBC and Whatcom trail and their junction.
(c) U.S. National Archives RG 76 <*~r,.es 66, Western Sec. Campbell
and Parke, published 1867.  (surveyed 1857 to 1861) .
3. Lt. Palmer and the Royal Engineers
(a) 22T1, Roads and Trails, 1 in - 5 miles
"Sketch of route from Fort Hope to Fort Colville, traced from
Lt. Palmer's map".  Initialled by R.C. Moody.
(b) Palmer's report.
(c) Arrowsmith's engraving of "Map of a portion of British Columbia
compiled from the surveys and explorations of the Royal Navy
and Royal Engineers, at the camp, New Westminster. Dated November
24, 1859.
4. B.C. Minister of Mines: Annual Reports:
(a) 1886 (for 1885): gold placer mining discovery claim granted on
p. 494 Collins Gulch
(b) 1902 (for 1901): reports visit to the coal prospect up Collins
p. 177 Gulch
(c) 1949 p. A302 : a 3 mile truck road built to the coal prospect
5. Geological Survey of Canada
(a) topographic map #47A, publication #1195, 1 in = 1 mile
surveyed 1908, 1909, shows the trail down lower Collins
Gulch (and up Cedar Creek).
(b) Topo/geological map #48A, publication #1198, 2 in - 1 mile
surveyed 1908, 1908 shows trail down Collins Gulch to larger
scale.
(c) both the above maps accompany GSC Memoir 26 by Charles Camsell,
1910.  Collins Gulch is mentioned on p. 133, 134. -27-
REGINALD CR. Tv€ED
Reginald CR. Tweed, B.A., B.Ed., died in Campbell River at age 71
on May 27, 1979. After serving in the Second World War with the R.C.A.F.,
Rex, as he was known, taught university and commercial courses to incapacitated veterans at Shaughnessy Hospital. He later moved to Campbell River
where he taught in the public school system until his retirement.
Rex's long interest in history led him to become.president of the
Campbell River and District Historical Society in 1963. He continued his
active involvement in the society in a variety of capacities until early
this year. He also served for three years as a vice-president of the
B.C.H.A. His many friends were pleased that he was able to attend the
1979 convention in Nanaimo. He was extremely delighted by the visits
and lectures about the early coal mining days for he had taught in the
small coal mining community of Extension during the depression.
Rex was also active in the Cnmpbell River Rotary Club and Canadian
Legion. He will be missed for his kindliness, patience, and great tact,
and his scholarly knowledge of history. We extend to his wife, Jennie, and
his son, John, our deepest sympathy. He will be remembered fondly by his
many pupils, colleagues and friends of the B.C.H.A.
Ruth Barnett
CONVENTION REPORT
Coal mining, fisheries, shipping, costumes, heritage buildings - these
topics dominated our discussions at the 1979 British Columbia Historical
Association Convention, held in Nanaimo, May 10th to 13th.
The eager, early arrivals started out on Thursday afternoon with a visit
to Gabriola Island to see the old millstone quarry.  Since it was Provincial
Election Day, the planned visit to the museum and petroglyphs had to be
cancelled since polling was taking place in the museum.
On Thursday evening the delegates, growing in numbers by this time,
watched a short film on heritage buildings in Nanaimo, after which there
was an informal gathering to meet old friends and make some new ones.
On Friday morning the Convention proper started with a solid morning
of local history.  Elizabeth Forrester, Department of Georgaphy, Malaspina
College, set the scene with a talk on the geography of Nanaimo, illustrated
with numerous maps.  She described coal mining activities, sandstone quarrying
and the development of Nanaimo and a commercial centre and port;  Michael
Healy of the Pacific Biological Station outlined the past, present and future -28-
of the Nanaimo harbour facilities; and Robert Turner, a curator at the
Provincial Museum, gave a history of the development of the C.P.R. steamship
service on the coast, illustrated by slides of many of the well known Princess ships.
The speaker at Friday's lunch meeting was Doug Franklin, who filled
in the background on his recently published book, Victoria: A Primer for
Regional History in Architecture, which he wrote with Martin Segger.
Members of the Nanaimo Historical Society conducted small groups on
a heritage walk, after which we were rushed off for a tour of the Pacific
Biological Station.
Entertainment on Friday evening was a fashion show "A Hundred Years
of Nanaimo Costume".  For over an hour we were treated to a quick succession
of costumes from the 1850's to the 1940's, modelled by a group of Nanaimo
volunteers and ably introduced by the President of the Nanaimo Society,
Barbara Stannard, who has been responsible for the collection and care of
these costumes in the local museum.
Coal mining was the lesson on Saturday morning, when we set out for
Ladysmith. At Morden Mine, Albert Steele told us some stories of his
experiences there in the mine. Ray Knight and John Gourlay met us at
Ladysmith and showed us a selection of artifacts and photographs from the
old mining operations.
The Annual General Meeting took place on Saturday afternoon, immediately
after the address of the President, Helen Akrigg, who told us an exciting
detective story of how she and her husband traced down the journal of
Captain George Inskip, British navigator who visited Nanaimo on the H.M.S.
Virago between 1853 and 1854.
For the grand finale on Saturday evening, an excellent buffet dinner
was served, after which Russell Irvine, head of the government's Heritage
Conservation Branch described the activities of his office. The evening
was rounded out by the Nanaimo Tidesmen who entertained the company with
a varied programme of barbershop songs.
Sunday morning found a few energetic stalwarts left who took a harbour
tour, to finish off a convention which could be agreed by all to be second to
none. The thanks of all who attended the Convention are extended to Mrs.
Barbara Stannard and her committee members:  Mrs. Emily Kneen, Mrs. Elva
Deno, Mr. Barry Hardcastle and Mr. Henry Poikonen.
Anne Yandle,
Vancouver, B.C. -29-
CONVENTION POSTSCRIPT
Linda Fulton, the secretary of the Nanaimo Branch, has asked us to
confirm for the benefit of those who were on convention tours that the
Nanaimo Court House is indeed a Rattenbury design of 1895.
CANADIAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION AWARD
During the annual banquet, the Canadian Historical Association's
Certificate of Merit was presented to Anne Yandle for the work she and
her late husband, Phil, did in editing and publishing the B.C. Historical
News from 1968 to 1977.  These awards are presented annually for distinguished
contributions to regional history in Canada.
CONVENTION BUSINESS
Among the by-laws passed at the annual general meeting was the addition
of the Recording Secretary to the table officers and a provision to allow
more flexibility in the timing of the annual general meeting. Member societies should also note that dues, treasurers' reports (including lists of
all members in good standing and current officers) should be forwarded to
the Treasurer by October 31st of each year.
Winnifred Weir reported progress in organizing the Kootenay-Columbia
Headquarters zone of the B.C. Historical Association.  The idea of zones
is catching on; several branches reported co-operation with neighbouring
societies.
Ruth Barnett, the secretary, reported that the table officers approved
the Burnaby Historical Society's request to publish the edited proceedings
of the 1977 BCHA conference. In response to requests from the District 69
Historical Society, the Council unsuccessfully petitioned the Minister of
Lands, Parks, and Housing to have the Parks Branch acquire the historic
Craig Farm near Parksville for public use.
The Council will consider a project of asking suitable authorities to
mark the homes of British Columbia premiers with appropriate plaques.
Michael Halleran, the treasurer reported receipts of $5,810.97,
including $1,054.00 in dues and disbursements of $7,605.11.  The major
expense is the B.C. Historical News which cost $3,600.76.  The association
has assets of $7,605.11 including a debenture, a term deposit, and its
bank balance. -30-
NEWS.FROM THE BRANCHES
CHEMAINUS   The Chemainus Valley Historical Society is not a large group
but, what they lack in numbers, they make up in enthusiasm.
During the last four years, under the able leadership of Lillian Gustafson,
the members have written the history of the Chemainus Valley including the
town of Chemainus, Crofton, Westholme and Kuper, Thetis and Reid Islands.
A great deal of time and effort was spent locating "old timers" and their
descendants and each family was asked to write their own story.  It was slow
going at first but the concept finally caught on and the hard cover book,
Memories of the Chamainus Valley, a History of the People was published by
Moriss Printing, Victoria. To introduce the book the Chemainus Valley
Historical Society had a tea in Chemainus on Sunday, October 22, 1978.
The committee catered for two hundred; so popular was the book that over
four hundred showed up.  The book is available by writing to Box 172,
Chamainus, B.C. VOR 1K0 and enclosing a cheque or money order for ten
dollars per copy plus postage.
Now that the book is a reality, we are not hibernating;  Chemainus still
needs a museum. At our April 30, 1979 meeting everyone enjoyed a talk by
Dr. Jacque Mar of Nanaimo who spoke on Chinese emigration. In August we are
invited to join the Victoria Branch in an outing to the Forest Museum in
Duncan.
Grace Dickie
NANAIMO  recently elected a new executive. President, Barbara Stannard;
First Vice-President, Pamela Mar; Second Vice-President, Henry
Poikonen; Treasurer, Emily Kneen; Recording Secretary, Priscilla
Vipond; Corresponding Secretary, Linda Fulton; Membership, Elva
Deno.
VICTORIA  The Victoria Section's officers for 1979-80 are President, Ruth
Chambers; 1st Vice-President, Rev. Geoff Smith;  2nd Vice-President;
Ken Leeming; Recording Secretary, Frances Gundry; Corresponding
Secretary, Tom Carrington; Treasurer, Bruce Winsby.
The first project planned for 1979-80 is to photograph in black and
white the headstones in Pioneer Square on Quadra Street, next to Christ Church
Cathedral. An inscription, easily read by passers by, explains that the
Quadra Street Cemetery originated in 1858 after the closure of Victoria's
first cemetery located near Douglas and Johnson Streets.  It was set aside
prior to 1853 by James Douglas, chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Company,
and again reserved by him in 1858, acting as the Governor of the Colony of
Vancouver Island. When Ross Bay Cemetery opened in 1873, burials ceased
at the Quadra Street Cemetery which was converted into a public park in 1909
and dedicated i.i 1939 when the title was transferred from the province to
the city.
Ruth Chambers -31-
(Ed. note:  Thanks to the kindness of the executive we have received copies
of the annual reports from some of the branches. The edited versions of
these printed below prove that the branches are alive and well. We repeat
our request that each branch appoint one member to send us quarterly
reports of branch activities mentioning special projects, guest speakers,
outings and so forth. The reports need not be long, a paragraph or two
is ideal. Publication deadlines for 1979-80 are September 1, November 15
February 15, and May 15.)
ANNUAL REPORTS
ALBERNI DISTRICT MUSEUM AND HISTORICAL SOCIETY is pleased to report
the publication of
Place Names of the Alberni Valley,  (reviewed in the News, v.12 no. 4.)
Three members, Dorrit MacLeod, Helen Ford, and Genvieve Joyce, who have been
serving as editors for several years were honoured and thanked for their
efforts at the November "Book Launching" meeting.
There have been staff changes in the Museum. We are developing a good
working relationship with John Mitchell, Program Co-ordinator, and Nathalie
MacFarlane, Program Leader. Carol Tysdale was the continuing staff member
during the transition period.
The monthly, programmes have included a variety of topics.  Dr. Jacque
Mar of Nanaimo presented a challenging talk on the history of the Chinese
people on Vancouver Island;  John Mitchell gave a view of farming on the
prairies which brought back memories to many in the audience; Joan Frohn-
Neilson presented a report on her trip to Mainland China and illustrated
it with fine slides and mementoes.  A programme on Pacific Rim Park outlined the growth of its camping, hiking, and study potential; a session
on the history and growth of the Alberni District Co-operative recalled the
early farming activities in the valley, the formation of the Co-op and its
growth to a firm place in the business life of the community.
Marjorie Lindsay
BURNABY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 1978 was a year of "participation" for
members.  Early in the year the society
honoured the 150th anniversary of the birth of Robert Burnaby, the namesake
of the municipality, with the performance of a short play, "Robert Burnaby
Comes Alive" in the James Cowan Theatre.  As part of a larger community
committee, the Society sponsored an oil painting of Robert Burnaby by one
of the members and presented it to the Municipal Council.
The regular monthly meetings heard speakers on a variety of subjects
ranging from Genealogy to historical trails radiating from New Westminster.
The Society looks forward to the early publication of the 1977 Conference
papers, From Glaciers to the Present on the Fraser River. -32-
CHEMAINUS  VALLEY  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY      Among the guest speakers at
the regular meetings of the
Society were Mrs.   C.E. Low of Nanaimo who gave an interesting slide presentation
on heritage houses, Tom Lloyd of the Provincial Archaeological Department,
and Robert Griffin of  the B.C.  Forest Museum at Duncan.     Members also
enjoyed a tour of Victoria's heritage houses as  guests of  the Hallmark
Society.
EAST   KOOTENAY  HISTORICAL  ASSOCIATION    The Association includes members
in the Cranbrook and Kimberley
areas.     During the year they    held field trips  to various historical points
of interest,  attended to the upkeep of historical sites such as  the Fort
Steele cemetery and commemmorated pioneer citizens.    More than sixty people
attended the annual luncheon general meeting at Kimberley.
SOCIETE HISTORIQUE  FRANCO-COLOMBIENNE     The Societe was founded
following a resolution
adopted at the 1976 annual meeting of the Fe'de'ration des Franco-Colombiens,
at which a desire was expressed to write the history of French-Canadians in
British Columbia.  To this end the Societe has assigned itself the task to
do research in public and private archives, to establish a central source of
information on the French fact in British Columbia and to publicize the
knowledge gathered thereby.  The Societe" has an office on the second floor
at 9 East Broadway, Vancouver, B.C.  V5Y 1P1 (879-3911) and is staffed on
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday from 9:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m.  The Socie'te- operates presently on a grant from the Secretary of State although all work is
done by volunteer help from the members.
The Societe welcomes all contributions of historical data including
documents, photographs and anecdotes attesting to the French-speaking
contribution to the development of the province.  The Societe has already
benefitted from the generosity and sincere interest of its members and of
individuals of the two founding cultures.
As part of its programme to share the knowledge it accumulates, the
Socie'te' has reprinted copies of the first French newspaper in what is now
British Columbia published briefly in 1858 in Victoria.  It has also
translated into French excerpts of a paper written by Glen Cowley, a student
at Simon Fraser University, about French-Canadians in B.C. With the help of
a student employment programme this summer, the Societe is also expanding
its research into the various regions of the province where the French-
Canadian presence was felt and is Still living.       Anna Bea lieu
NANAIMO  The branch had an especially busy year hosting the B.C.H.A. convention in May and completing "The Book".  In addition, members
had a field trip to Courtenay and its museum by E.&.N. Dayliner. A visit
from Helen Akrigg, president of the B.C.H.A. and a talk by Flo McGirr highlighted the branch's anniversary.  Other contributors to programmes during
the year were Cuthbert Brown, Mr. Minafee, Jack Roth, Pamela Mar, Stella and
Gibb Stevens, and Barry Hardcastle.  The society also conducted the ceremony -33-
at Pioneer Rock commemmorating the landing of the settlers from the Princess
Royal and held a luncheon honouring the Captain Cook Bi-Centennial.
The Ethel Barraclough Bursary was presented to Colleen Wilson of Cedar
Junior Secondary School.  Books were distributed to all elementary schools
in District 68 in memory of Mr. and Mrs. Barraclough.
Barbara Stannard
WINDERMERE DISTRICT HISTORICAL SOCITEY  has channelled its activity
this year into moving and
renovating the station museum.  It is to be opened officially on June 23, 1979.
Winnifred H. Weir
BULLETIN BOARD
FUR TRADE HISTORY
A four day conference on the North American fur trade will be held
October 1-4, 1981 at Grand Portage, Minnesota, and at Old Fort William,
Thunder Bay, Ontario. The conference will include papers on the fur trade,
a visit to restored North West Company facilities at Grand Portage, exhibits
of fur trade paintings, documents and artifacts and optional side trips. If
you would like further information, write to the 1981 Fur Trade Conference,
The Minnesota Historical Society, 690 Cedar Street, St. Paul, Minnesota,
USA 55101
W,E. IRELAND SCHOLARSHIP FUND
The University of Victoria has announced the establishment of a fund to
endow two scholarships of $1,000 each for outstanding students in Music and
History.  Contributions to the fund are tax deductible and should be sent to:
Mr. David Angus, Chairman, Willard E. Ireland Scholarship Fund, c/o
University of Victoria, P.O. Box 1700, Victoria, B.C. V8W 2Y2.
PROFESSIONAL TRAINING FOR ARTS ADMINISTRATION
The Banff Centre School of Management announces a series of seminars in
cultural resources management "for upwardly mobile arts administrators".  For
further information write:  Garth Henderson, Manager, Cultural Resources
Management, The Banff Centre, Box 1020, Banff, Alberta, T0L 0C0. -34-
SEMINAR ON PUBLISHING LOCAL HISTORY
The American Association for State and Local History is holding a seminar
on historical publications in Nashville, Tennessee, August 12-17, 1979. Applications, including letters of recommendation, must be received by June 27th.
For further information write to AASLH Seminar, 1400 Eighth Avenue, South,
Nashville, Tennessee, USA 37203.
"HOME HELPS" ANYONE?
I am engaged in research for a book on immigrant women who came to
Canada between 1870 and 1940 and worked in private homes. Because of the
scarcity of domestic servants - and of women - in Canada, over 250,000 women
from the British Isles and continental Europe were encouraged to come to
Canada, provided they would work in homes for at least a short time.
British Columbia was a favoured destination for British "home helps" many
of whom were placed on both the mainland and Vancouver Island through
agencies such as Queen Mary's Coronation Hostel in Vancouver and the
Princess Patricia Ranch.
The lives of these women are seldom revealed in the historical records.
Personal recollections are the best source of information regarding the
reasons for immigration, conditions of work, and experiences in Canada.
Therefore, I wish to ask your help in locating women who might share their
experiences of immigration and household work with me by correspondence
and/or personal interviews.  It would also be useful to me to receive any
family or local recollections of such women.
I plan to be in British Columbia in late October and early November
and would like to arrange interviews for that time. If you are able to
assist me, please write to: Professor Marilyn Barber
Department of History
Carleton University
Ottawa, Ontario, K1S 5B6
UNDER NEW MANAGEMENT
The News has a new circulation manager, Cathy Henderson, who also types
the News for us.  Our Treasurer, Michael Halleran, who was courageous enough
to accept this responsibility when the present editors took on the News,
has handed over the subscription list to Cathy.  The editors are grateful
to Michael for his years' work and we are pleased that Cathy is willing to
carry on for us.  Any matters regarding your subscription to the News should
be addressed to:  Cathy Henderson
Circulation Manager
B.C. Historical News
Box 1738
Victoria,   B.C.       V8W 2Y3 -35-
NEW PROVINCIAL ARCHIVIST
We have just heard that John Bovey, presently the Provincial Archivist
of Manitoba, has been appointed to succeed Allan R. Turner as Provincial
Archivist of British Columbia. We believe Mr. Bovey will take up his new
post on September 1, 1979. More details of the appointment will appear in
the next issue of the News.
BOOK REVIEWS
RATTENBURY, Terry Reksten.  Victoria:  Sono Nis Press, 1978. pp 204, illus.,
$12.95
Over the past ten years there has been a good deal of public concern
over the loss of heritage buildings and a surge of interest in the architects
who created them. Now scholars are busy having a second look at the nineteenth
and early twentieth century and it is for them and for the interested layman
that a book dealing with the life and accomplishments of men like Francis
Mawson Rattenbury is so important.
Rattenbury, like Samuel Maclure, was one of the most prolific and
influential architects of his time. Both their practices flourished in the
building boom period before the First World War and both men relied
heavily on social contacts and enthusiastic patrons for much of their work.
In terms of architectural creativity and power in the province of British
Columbia, perhaps only Arthur Erickson is their equal today. Terry Reksten
reveals Rattenbury as a man virtually unknown some seventy years after
designing many of the province's most important landmarks.  These include
the Parliament Buildings, the Empress Hotel and Victoria's CP. Steamship terminal
and the Courthouses of Vancouver, Nelson and Nanaimo, all of which are still
standing. Her factual and entertaining biography becomes all the more
readable as "Ratz's" strong will, deviousness and tempestuous life unfolds
chapter by chapter.
The author has divided the book into two distinctive parts - one,
directed towards Rattenbury's early and mid life, his architecture, bold
schematics, and loves of that period, and the second, the latter years of
decline and inactivity in England which culminated in murder, a sensational
trial and suicide. The early chapters are charged with Rattenbury's energy,
ambition and his visions of grand projects.  Reksten continually reminds us
that "thinking big was Rattenbury's forte".
It is fascinating to learn that when not winning the major competitions
or commissions of the day, Rattenbury was busy as entrepreneur confidently
creating his own enterprises at first in the Yukon and later as a land
speculator in the Nechako Valley. At one stage of his life he served as
Reeve of Oak Bay and during that period had much to do with preserving the
natural features of the Uplands, Victoria's finest suburb. -36-
It is unfortunate that the author did not have access to much of the
architect's drawings and correspondence lost in a fire in 1910.  Further documentation might well have allowed a more extensive analysis of Rattenbury's
architectural and planning theories, revealing a personal design process and
exposing other influences which could well have affected his thinking and approach to building.  Did Rattenbury in his extensive travels discuss work with
other architects or correspond with them as Maclure did with Frank Lloyd Wright?
Perhaps even more of interest lies hidden behind his eclectic style and grand
Planning schemes. We can hope that this volume will cause further examination
of Rattenbury's work and ideas.  The view that his designs were not particularly
original or creative should be re-considered especially at a time when architects, planners and historians are seriously re-evaluating the Victorian and
Beaux-Arts aesthetic.
Terry Reksten's well researched and well written biography then, is
most welcome.  She has provided new insights into the life and aspirations of
a master builder just at the time when the art of architecture and the importance
of building setting are experiencing a long overdue renaissance.
Barry Downs
Barry Downs is a practicing architect with a special interest in
heritage preservation. He is completing a manuscript for publication on church buildings in the 18th and 19th Century in B.C.
**********
VICTORIA, A PRIMER FOR REGIONAL HISTORY IN ARCHITECTURE, 1843-1929, by Martin
Segger (text) and Douglas Franklin (photographs). A Pilgrim Guide to Historic
Architecture (Watkins Glen, 1979) pp. 377.
This strikes me as the best handbook on the historical architecture of
a Canadian city that I have seen to date. Not that that is a very bold remark.
The field is fairly spotty, ranging from some excellent works on historic
Canadian urban architecture that are really of coffee-table dimensions, and
scarcely portable, to brief tour guides that are too often amateurish, or
essentially promotions of a Chamber of Commerce sort.  The Segger-Franklin
book, however, is both authoritatively written and instructively detailed,
while being at the same time clear, expressive and explanatory for the ordinary
observer. Beyond that, it is handsomely illustrated, and every well-chosen
illustration pays off. It is perhaps near the upper limit of being portable -
it is certainly not a pocket book - and a viewer would have to give it close
attention to reap its real rewards while ambling about Victoria.  One probably
should not try to absorb its full contents en route, for any one of the four
major tours described (say, while waiting for the city's pedestrian-crossing
lights to change). He would be wiser to read sections in advance, or to reexamine them reflectively afterward. Yet, given the heed and respect the work - 37 -
deserves, it could make building-gazing in Victoria a rich experience for the
inhabitant as well as the visitor.
To continue in such terms would make this sound more like a publisher's
blurb than an impartial review. But further features merit votes of approval.
There is a useful introductory section to provide the historical context for
the tours and structures that are covered, dealing with the urban development
of Victoria from its found, its ambience, amenities and architects. There
are tour maps, building-by-building descriptions of the routes to be followed — before the structures are individually discussed — and at the end
biographies of architects, a bibliography, and a glossary of architectural
terms. One could hardly think of a more complete organization; and the tours
themselves, of the business centre, James Bay, churches and residences, leave
out little of past architectural worth. Or so it seems to me, after some
ten years of roaming over Victoria at one time or another. I wish I had had
the book then!
My only criticisms are pretty minor: first, the title, "Victoria a primer
for regional history in architecture". Those elsewhere in British Columbia,
or whether in true capital fashion the city is arrogating the term "region"
to itself. I suppose, however, that one may argue that Victoria is indeed
a regional little world in itself, and certainly its architecture does have
affinities that could make it an instructive primer for similar building
exploration in areas across the waters from the blessed Saanich Peninsula.
Second, there might have been more attention given to industrial, technological,
workaday, or even humble, aspects of Victoria's built environment. As it is,
the book is rather a collection of "gems" (a few still paste to me). Yet
again one might contend that this is a study in the arts, fine and applied;
not of wharves, rails and workshop streetscapes. Finally, while scant errors
come to mind, there is one that stirs my Upper Canadian blood against the
cosy island citizens with their backs to the continent. Since when was John
Graves Simcoe a government of the Hudson's Bay Company (P.151)?
In any case, these plainly are very little matters. The book is first rate,
and merits a wide use.
J.M.S. Careless
Department of History
University of Toronto
PROFESSIONAL LAND SURVEYORS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA:  CUMULATIVE NOMINAL ROLL
G.S. Andrews. Victoria: Corporation of Land Surveyors of the Province of
British Columbia, 4th ed., 1978. Pp xix, 57, $3.00 PP.
The history of British Columbia has been traced in terms of the Fur
Trade, Exploration, and the Gold Rushes of 1858 and 1898. Railway development,
land settlement, resource exploitation and urban growth have all been featured
in the chronicles of events. But each of these approaches has a common element
- surveying. Fur trading routes were traversed and plotted on maps; the coast
had to be charted; mining claims had to be surveyed; and land subdivision
surveys are yet another manifestation of orderly growth and development. - 38
Compilations of lists appear on "Best Sellers" charts. Therefore, the
PROFESSIONAL LAND SURVEYORS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA: CUMULATIVE NOMINAL ROLL is
assured of success because it consists of a number of lists. However, had
it not been prepared by Gerald Smedley Andrews, MBE, it would have lacked
the finishing touches of a special pride of workmanship and attention to
detail characteristic of a careful artist. Known affectionately by his very
many friends simply as "Gerry", his quiet and unassuming manner disguises
an enquiring mind and a natural talent for innovation, hard work and a keen
appreciation for historical perspective. G.S. Andrews has the distinction of
holding the position of Surveyor-General of British Columbia for 1951 to 1968,
the longest continuing office held by any Surveyor-General of the province,
and his varied and interesting experiences have resulted in a certain respect
and enthusiasm for those in the surveying profession. This, combined with
his personal knowledge of people and events, is evident in the introduction.
Readers of B.C. HISTORICAL NEWS who have read G.S. Andrews' writings on
surveying in British Columbia will not be disappointed with this book, but
should bear in mind that it is neither a history nor a bibliography, as the
author points out. It does not pretend to be either. It is a book of lists,
supported by useful appendices of which there are twenty-four. Maritime
Surveys are taken back to Bartolome Ferrelo, in 1543, before Sir Francis Drake.
The names of the ships are listed. British Admiralty surveys list captains
and their ships together with dates. Canadian Hydrographic surveyors are listed
as are the names of the relevant vessels. A list Of explorers is included.
Personnel in the fieldwork in the boundary surveys are listed showing the
seasons individuals worked. The Royal Engineers, "Columbia Detachment",
officers and survey and cartographic tradesmen are listed together with a
summary of their surveys. Collins1 Overland Telegraph, railway survey and
reconnaissance surveyors are not forgotten, bringing the total listed to approximately 1500.
Names are key words. Lists of names and dates permit much to be recorded
in a small space but sometimes raise more questions than answers. Many answers
will not be found in this compact book. There may be some readers who would
point to the Royal Engineers, "Columbia Detachment" survey summary and find
surveys missing. Others might wonder why some near-professional surveyors'
names are missing when others are mentioned. The sum total of shortcomings
must be very small compared to the virtues of the book which is an invaluable
tool, not only for the historian of matters British Columbian, but for anyone
interested in Canadiana.
PROFESSIONAL LAND SURVEYORS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA: CUMULATIVE.NOMINAL ROLL
     - - _ i        I,, i - '  - -
has reached out far beyond the earlier editions and has emerged as a most
reliable source leading to a complete history of British Columbia through
the lives and work of the surveyors whether they are "men of the sea", "landlubbers", or air-borne.
Geoff Castle, Head,
Map Division,
B.C. Provincial Archives - 39 -
CAMAS CHRONICLES OF JAMES BAY, VICTORIA, BRITISH COLUMBIA
Camas Historical Group. Victoria: Evergreen Press. 1978.
Pp. 165, illus., $9.95
In recent years, histories of a particular community or area of British
Columbia have become increasingly common. Often they represent the collective efforts of several contributors. This well-printed and well-illustrated
book combines the most usual merits and defects of such works. Its principal
merit is that it contains many interesting accounts of bygone days by old-
timers who in many cases recall being told about even earlier times by their
parents.  Its defects are a lack of coherent organization and a certain
carelessness about names and dates.
James Bay may justifiably claim to be the first part of B.C. to have
adopted a recognizably urban way of life. Some communities, such as Fort
Langley, founded in 1827, came into existence earlier. Victoria, however,
though not founded till 1843, became the capital of a British colony in 1849
and at once began to model itself on the British communities from which most
of its earliest settlers had come. Thus long before the tourist bureau coined
the slogan, the city was indeed in many respects "a little bit of old England
on the shores of the Pacific."
Because it was the capital, first of a crown colony and later of a
Canadian province, many prominent citizens had their homes in James Bay,
which before the mud-flats were filled in and the Empress Hotel built,
included an area around the present museum. Sir James Douglas, for example,
had his home on the southern shore of the bay and his son-in-law's Dr. Helmcken's
home stood and still stands, near by. Other well-known figures who lived in
James Bay included Bishop Cridge, Emily Carr, Robert Dunsmuir, David Spencer,
William Pendray, and numerous politicians and judges. This book contains
interesting recollections of most of them, as well as many details of the day
-to-day life of humbler folk.
There are also accounts of Indian life before the arrival of the white man.
as well as guides to the numerous parks and buildings of historical significance
in the area. The development of the region's athletic, cultural and educational
life is also outlined in some detail. There are brief biographies of many
people who contributed to the development of the area, as well as of all the
provincial premiers of this century. By the time one has finished the book,
one has learned a great deal about this interesting corner of the province,
as well as realizing its important contributions to the development of this area.
The book is not without its faults. Some topicsj such as the general
history of the area are taken up, dropped for a time, and then resumed at some
other point in the book. Some statements in the book are contradicted by
others. For examnle. we are told in one place that the last of the bridges
across James Bay "was replaced by the present causeway in 1892"; elsewhere,
we read that "by 1900, plans were started for a causeway to take the place
of the wooden bridge."
The Reformed Episcopal Church was not built in 1873, as Dean Cridge was
still a member of the Anglican church throughout that year. The last of
the "bird-cages" did not burn down in 1959, and the Point Ellice bridge did
not collapse in 1895. Dr. Helmcken was not elected to the first B.C.
Legislature in 1855, as elections for it were not held until 1856. - 40 -
Street names, such as Marifield and Elliott, are variously spelled,
as are the steamers Sophia and Clallam. One old-timer "remembers when Sir
James Douglas lived in "Fairview" at the corner of Quebec and Menzies streets";
however, Sir James has been dead for over a century, and "Fairview" was
actually the home of Robert Dunsmuir. Margaret Ormsby's well-known work is
not called "British Columbia's History".  It was not the Collegiate School,
but Corrig College, that was operated by Dr. and Mrs. Church, and which
stood at the corner of Douglas and Niagara.
For all that, this is a work to be recommended, and it Is to be hoped
not only that it will be widely read, but that citizens of other communities
will be encouraged to produce similar works. Nearly every part of our
province has made its distinctive contributions to the tapestry of B.C.
life, and we should capture them in print before it is too late.
Derek Pethick
PIONEERS, PEDLARS, AND PRAYER SHAWLS: THE JEWISH COMMUNITIES IN BRITISH
COLUMBIA AND THE YUKON
Cyril Edel Lenoff. Victoria: Sono Nis Press, 1978, pp.255, illus, $15.00
Pioneers, Pedlars, and Prayer Shawls is not so much a narrative history
of Canada's westermost Jewish communities but rather a "family album"
with accompanying descriptive essays. This form allows an economical
survey of the varied individuals and institutions which have played
a role in the history of the area (a task which in a narrative form
would require a multi-volume &..udy) but continuity between topics suffers.
Nevertheless, this book belongs in any collection of ethnic or western
history.
The varied roots ot British Columbia Jewish population encompass all
classes, from the colonial eleite with their connections to the Anglo-
Jewish aristocracy to penniless refugees from European pogroms, and all
shades of religious, philosophical and political points of view. As a
result, British Columbia's Jews have become well enough integrated in
society at large that the Jewish contribution to our past has become
obscured. People are remembered as politicians, industrialists, farmers
or whatever, but their membership in the Jewish community and its influence
on their lives has been forgotten. The well-footnoted essays accompanying
the photographs open a window into part of the past which has been obscurbed,
it is honed that this book will serve as an introduction to riches of Jewish
local history and as an inspiration for more detailed and specialized research.
Michael F. H. Halleran -41-
THE BEST OF CANADA WEST. N.L. Barlee. Langley, B.C.:  Stagecoach Publishing,
1978. pp. 192, maps, illus., $5.95.
Born in Grand Forks, B.C., N.L. (Bill) Barlee grew up in the historic
Boundary country. He later lived in Rossland, Kelowna, and now makes his
home in Summerland. In 1967, Barlee, a history teacher, conceived Canada West
Magazine, a quarterly, telling authenticated stories of the West in an informal,
conversational style. The Best of Canada West is a compilation of Barlee's
articles written from 1969 to 1977.
Cheap paper may reduce the clarity of some of the well-chosen pictures
but the modest price is well worth this occasional loss. Added interest and
information are imparted by the author's drawings of collectors' items and
Indian artifacts. Introduced by "Yukon Diary", the articles are well researched
folk legends. Barlee is eminently suited to write of ghost towns, of the rapid
growth and swift decay of gold and silver mines and of colourful characters drawn
with the flavour of on the spot reporting.  The Best of Canada West is the kind
of history of British Columbia that needed to be written. Peopled with living
characters in a living atmosphere, the mining camps form the background of
an exciting, roistering time in the history of our province.  Such phrases as
"hit the trail", "lead down north", and "rang with the sound of teamsters,
boomers, and roustabouts" project the setting.
Readers are also made aware of the vulnerability of mining towns to
fire. That dread word "fire" spelled the end of many a mining town. Barlee
writes of such boom towns as Cascade, "the Gateway City", the dream of a brash
young millionaire from Butte, Montana who wanted to build a railvoad and smelter
in the West Kootanay. By 1895 the townsite plan had been filed and "as the
town took on an air of permanency, the original tents rapidly gave way to the
first wooden false front buildings." By 1898, the Columbia and Western Railroad,
now owned by the C.P.R., had reached Cascade. The town was teeming with activity
— hotels, newspapers, 1,000 inhabitants, night and day bustle, hammering, and
the babbling of diverse nationalities. Alas, at the zenith of activities, the
promise of the boom town was not fulfilled;  the C.P.R. smelter was postponed,
then abandoned; mineral claims failed to come up to expected assay results,
cheaper railroad services damaged the teamsters' prospects; and freighting,
"the reason for Cascade's existence," disappeared. In 1899, a sudden unexplained
fire swept along First Avenue; two years later, another fire levelled the
remainder of the city. Today, only a few old inhabitants can recall the boom
days of "the Gateway City."
"The biggest police officer in the West" is another vivid article. In
brawling, gambling Yale in 1881, Big John Kirkup of the B.C. Police was, "a
good man to leave alone in a row." By 1894 he was dispensing justice from
Revelstoke to Nelson.  In Rossland, an axe murderer received only one year
imprisonment from a "sympathetic jury." Governed by "Miners' Law," Rossland
was a challenge met by Kirkup — few cases reached the courts.  They were dealt
with by "Kirkup's Law." Graphic is the picture drawn by Barlee of this hero
of B.C. history.
Barlee tells of "The Lost Platinum Cache," 'The Lost Gold Bars of Camp
McKinney," of Father Pat, an Anglican priest who rode the back woods and whose
death caused "burly hardrock miners" to weep "openly and unashamedly." He writes
of Old Bob Lowery, an editor who "had an unerring capacity to choose the right
town at the wrong time." For over a quarter of a century he published newspapers in dozens of towns. Among his quotable comments were: "Fernie Free
Press has become a nerveless prostitute, " "A man with a thousand dollars could
make more stir in Ainsworth than he could with a million in New York," "The -42-
more you hate the articles in this journal the more you are in need of them".
Who says history is dull?
The only article deserving adverse criticism is "The Chilcotin War." The
Chilcotin War is more than an exciting tale of conflict. A more detailed explanation of under current rivalries and footnoted references would have made
this article stronger; but that kind of explanation and argument would have
been out of harmony with Barlee's style. Nonetheless, Barlee does whet the
appetite to read about the whole tragic event in greater depth.
The Best of- Canada West will appeal to readers of all ages.  It should
be placed in every school library. Young people would thus be made aware of
the folk heroes, our historic sites and artifacts, of ghost towns ravaged, of
precious objects of our past now lost forever. Barlee has heightened an
awareness of our heritage and an appreciation of it.
Anne Stevenson
************
TRIBUTE (St. Andrew's Church, Fort Langley). Marjorie Rosberg, n.p. 1977.
pp. 143, illus., map.
Marjorie Rosberg's Tribute, the history of St. Andrew's United Church in
Fort Langley comes wrapped in a slip announcing:
A pioneer story of Fort Langley —
fur trading post,
site of the proclamation of British Columbia,
home of St. Andrew's Church community
"Langley pioneered much that was to become distinctive
of British Columbia."
Tribute represents much of what is distinctive about local history work in this
province.
The origin and contents of St. Andrew's Church history are typical examples
of the genre. During the 1975 celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the
United Church of Canada, Fred Kingston, minister of the Fort Langley congregation,
assembled its records and asked that a history be written from them. Marjorie
Rosberg, who had only been a resident of the community and member of the church
for one year, took up the challenge, as she says, "because local history
interests me so much." Ten senior members of St. Andrew's Board formed a
committee which assisted her in research and obtained a New Horizons grant for
publication. Of this group Marguerite Kirkham became the author's co-worker.
Together the volunteer historians have compiled a capsule history of Fort Langley
and St. Andrew's Church from fur trade through gold rush and agricultural
settlement periods. They employ the recollections of Reverend Alexander Dunn,
pioneer Scots Presbyterian minister in the Fraser Valley to describe the
foundation of the congregation and the building of St. Andrew's Church in 1885. -43-
They use its minute books to detail the life of the parish until it joined the
United Church iii 1925. Brief descriptions of particular church members
complement the narrative and abstracts of congregational reports and interviews with longtime church members bring the history up to 1977. The last
chapter salutes the work of the ladies' organizations and affiliated congregations,
It also memorializes the efforts of the Native Sons to preserve Fort Langley
as an historic site. Rosberg and her co-worker enhance their book by including
a map of Langley municipality showing various district locations, vintage
photographs, modern sketches, and poems by old timers and by themselves.
The fine points of the style and contents of Tribute, like those of most
local histories produced in British Columbia, are offset by deficiencies of
composition. The table of contents indicates chapters with chronological organization but the mixing of selections from congregational records on particular
periods and rambling pioneer reminiscences results in disorganization.  The
work of St. Andrew's congregation in the Great War has to be sought in the
"1910 to 1919" chapter as well as in sections on particular families.  One
has to look in "1926 to 1929" to find a note that the W.A. to the Canadian
Letion placed a tablet in St. Andrew's church in 1931 as a memorial to the
"local young men who lost their lives in the 1914-1918 war." Furthermore,
nowhere in Tribute is there mention of one of the most remarkable features of
the landscape of Fort Langley village, the community cemetery adjacent to
St. Andrew's.  It contains the local cenotaph, special sections for veterans,
for Indians, for old timers and for modern graves.  Five Japanese Canadians
are buried in the latter area. Why? Except in the mid-nineteenth century
beginnings of the history the authors do not give context to their narrative.
They merely record parochial events.  They do not relate these events to those
in the history of other communities in British Columbia or Canada.
A wide range of sources are available, however, to writers of local
history in Fort Langley and other Fraser Valley towns. Public, college and
university libraries are within commuting distance. The compilers of Tribute
might have checked these for Wilson Duff's 1952 ethnography on The Upper Stalo.
Then they would not have described local Indians as "tribes" who "lived a
primitive and simple life" until the white men came, and they would not have
ignored the neighbouring McMillan Island band and their Roman Catholic church.
They might also have surveyed the New Westminster British Columbian coverage
of Langley district events, particularly the 1894 and 1948 floods on the Fraser
River, topics they omit entirely.
Despite these flaws Tribute exists.  It provides those interested in local
history with something to read. That it is not something better is not entirely
the fault of the authors. Other reviewers have pointed out that in British    1
Columbia 'big' historians neglect 'little' historians to the detriment of both,
and that the provincial government is remiss in not funding an agency to assist
writers of local history.  Another aspect of local history wants remark. In
lm     CR. Elliott, "Book Reviews," BC Studies No. 9 (Spring, 1971), pp. 55-59.
2
CW. Humphries, "The Writing of Local History," BC Studies No. 22 (Summer,
1974), pp. 71-75. -44-
this province, historical efforts have been directed at centennials of 'the
pioneers' and the production of a book on them or the preservation of one of
their buildings. The volunteers then get the library to shelve their work or
the curator to run it. There needs to be more consistent effort to collect
and preserve local history especially twentieth century material.  The Tribute
committee should donate their collection of records, reminiscences and photographs to the Langley Centennial Museum — if they have not already done so —
and then continue collecting information about the heritage of their church
and community.
Jacqueline Gresko
Douglas College.
****************
Biographical Details: Ruth Barnett, president.
Ruth Evelyn Barnett, BA (UBC), history major
eldest dauthter late Magistrate G.H. Pidcock and Eleanor Pidcock of Courtenay.
Lived first six years at Quathiaski Cove, then in Courtenay until entered teaching
to work in Wells, Prince George and Alberni. In 1942 married Thomas S. Barnett,
MP for Comox-Alberni, 1953-1958, 1962-1974, mayor of Campbell River since 1976.
Son, Paul, at home; daughter, Nancy Bosomworth, Vancouver.
Taught, chiefly art and social studies
Lived ten years in Ottawa, active there in Parliamentary Wives' Association,
studied anthropology at Carleton University, French and art.
Member federal executive NDP Women's Committees until these were phased out.
President: Soroptimist Club of the Alberni Valley 1958-61.
Mitlenatch Field Naturalist Society, 1973-75.
Campbell River and District Historical Society, 1973-75.
Chairman:  Convention committee 1975 BCHA.
Advisory committee for the establishment of a community college on
the northern half of the island.
BC Background:
Great-grandfather: Captain Henry Smith employed by Rithet's, Victoria.
Grand-parents: William A. and CP. Starrett, Silver Creek (near Hope)
Alice and Reginald H. Pidcock, Indian agent, Kwawkewlth Agency,
Fort Rupert, Alert Bay, Quathiaski Cove
Great-uncles:  Harry Guillod, first Indian agent West Coast Agency, Uclulet,
Port Alberni
Ashdown Green, DLS, amateur ichthyologist, Victoria.
Major interests: modern social and political history, gardening and bird watching. MEMBER SOCIETIES
Alberni District Museum and Historical Society, Mrs. C Holt, Box 284, Port Alberni,
V9Y 7M7.  723-3006.
Atlin Historical Society, Mrs. Christine Dickenson, Box 111, Atlin,  VOW 1A0.
BCHA, Gulf Islands Branch, Helen Claxton, Port Washington, VON 2T0.
BCHA, Victoria Branch, Frances Gundry, 244 Niagara, Victoria, V8V 1G4.  385-6353.
Burnaby Historical Society, Ethel Derrick, 8027-17th Ave., Burnaby, V3N 1M5.
521-6936.
'Campbell River & District Historical Society, Julie O'Sullivan, 1235 Island Highway,
Campbell River, VOW 2C7.
Cariboo Historical Museum Society, Reg Beck, Box 16, Glen Drive, Fox Mountain,
R.R. #2, Williams Lake, B.C.
Chemainus Valley Historical Society, Mrs. E. Pederson, P.O. Box 172, Chemainus,
VOR 1K0.  245-3205.
Cowichan Historical Society, W.T. H. Fleetwood, Riverside Road, Cowichan Station.
Creston & District Historical and Museum Society, Mrs. Margaret Gidluck, Box 164,
Creston, VOB 1G0.  428-2838.
District #69 Historical Society, Mrs. Mildred Kurtz, Box 74, Parksville, VOR ISO.
248-6763.
Elphinstone Pioneer Museum Society, Box 755, Gibsons, VON 1V0. (886-2064)
Golden & District Historical Society, May Yurik, Box 992, Golden, VOA 1H0.
Historical Association of East Kootenay, Mrs. A.E. Oliver, 670 Rotary Dr., Kimberley,
VOA 1E3.  427-3446.
Kettle River Museum Society, Alice Evans, Midway, V0H 1M0 449-2413.
Maple Ridge & Pitt Meadows Historical Society, Mrs. T. Mutas, 12375-244th Street,
Maple Ridge, V2X 6X5.
Nanaimo Historical Society, Linda Fulton, 1855 Latimer Road, Nanaimo, V9S 2W3.
Nootka Sound Historical Society, Beverly Roberts, Box 712, Gold River, V0P 1G0.
North Shore Historical Society, David Grubhe, 815 West 20th Street, North Vancouver,
V7P 2B5
Princeton & District Pioneer Museum, Margaret Stoneberg, Box 687, Princeton, VOX 1W0.
295-3362.
Sidney & North Saanich Historical Society, Mrs. Ray Joy, 10719 Bayfield Road,
R.R. #3, Sidney, V8L 3P9.  656-3719.
La Societe" historique franco colombienne, Anna Beaulieu, 1204 - 1560 Burnaby St.,
Vancouver, V6G 1X3.
Trail Historical Society, Mrs. M.T. Jory, Box 405, Trail, V1R 4L7.  368-5602.
Vancouver Historical Society, Irene Tanco, Box 3071, Vancouver, V6V 3X6.  685-1157.
Wells Historical Society, Sharon Brown, Box 244, Wells V0K 2R0.
Windermere District Historical Society, Mrs. E. Stevens, Box 784, Invermere,
VOA 1K0

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