British Columbia History

British Columbia Historical News 1990

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ISSN 0045-2963
Volume 22, No. 1
Winter 1989
British Columbia
Historical News
Journal of the B.C. Historical Federation
Parliament Buildings
Provincial Museum
Government House
Beaeon Hill Park
STORE 79 Johnson St.
Oak Bay
Esquimalt Dry Dock
Curio Dealers in Victoria
Dewdney Trail through the Kootenays MEMBER SOCIETIES
Member Societies and their secretaries are responsible for seeing that the correct address for their society is up-to-date.
Please send any change to both the Treasurer and the Editor at the addresses given at the bottom of this page. The
Annual Return as at October 31st should include telephone numbers for contact.
Members' dues for the year 1987/88 were paid by the following Members Societies:
Alberni District Historical Society, Box 284, Port Alberni, B.C. V9Y 7M7
Atlin Historical Society, RO. Box 111, Atlin, B.C. VOW 1A0
BCHF - Gulf Island Branch, c/o Marian Worrall, Mayne Island, VON 2J0
BCHF - Victoria Section, c/o Charlene Rees, 2 - 224 Superior Street, Victoria, B.C. V8V 1T3
Burnaby Historical Society, 5406 Manor Street, Burnaby, B.C. V5G 1B7
Chemainus Valley Historical Society, P.O. Box 172, Chemainus, B.C. VOR 1KO
Cowichan Historical Society, P.O. Box 1014, Duncan, B.C. V9L 3Y2
District 69 Historical Society, P.O. Box 3014, Parksville, B.C. VOR 2S0
East Kootenay Historical Association, RO. Box 74, Cranbrook, B.C. V1C 4H6
Fraser Lake Historical Society, P.O. Box 57, Fraser Lake, B.C. VOJ 1S0
Galiano Historical and Cultural Society, RO. Box 10, Galiano, B.C. VON 1P0
Golden & District Historical Society, Box 992, Golden, B.C. VOA 1H0
Ladysmith Historical Society, Box 11, Ladysmith, B.C. VOR 2E0
Lantzville Historical Society, c/o Susan Crayston, Box 76, Lantzville, B.C. VOR 2H0
Mission Historical Society, 33201 2nd Avenue, Mission, B.C. V2V 1J9
Nanaimo Historical Society, P.O. Box 933, Station 'A', Nanaimo, B.C. V9R 5N2
Nanooa Historical and Museum Society, R.R.1, Box 22, Marina Way, Nanoose Bay, B.C. VOR 2R0
North Shuswap Historical Society, P.O. Box 22, Celista, B.C. VOE 1 LO
Princeton & District Pioneer Museum and Archives, Box 687, Princeton, B.C. VOX 1W0
Qualicum Beach Historical & Museum Society, c/o Mrs. Cora Skipsey, RO. Box 352, Qualicum Beach, B.C. VOR 2T0
Saltspring Island Historical Society, RO. Box 705, Ganges, B.C. VOS 1 EO
Sidney and North Saanich Historical Society, P.O. Box 2404, Sidney, B.C. V8L 3Y3
Silvery Slocan Historical Society, P.O. Box 301, New Denver, B.C. VOG 1S0
Trail Historical Society, P.O. Box 405, Trail, B.C. V1R 4L7
Valemont Historic Society, RO. Box 850, Valemount, B.C. VOE 2A0
Vancouver Historical Society, P.O. Box 3071, Vancouver, B.C. V6B 3X6
Affiliated Groups
B.C. Museum of Mining, P.O. Box 155, Britannia Beach, B.C. VON 1J0
City of White Rock Museum Archives Society, 1030 Martin Street, White Rock, B.C. V4B 5E3
Fort Steele Heritage Park, Fort Steele, B.C. VOB 1N0
The Hallmark Society, 207 Government Street, Victoria, B.C. V8V 2K8
Nanaimo Centennial Museum Society, 100 Cameron Road, Nanaimo, B.C. V9R 2X1
Lasqueti Island Historical Society, Lasqueti Island, B.C. VOR 2J0
Second Class registration number 4447
Published fall, winter, spring, and summer by the British Columbia Historical Federation, P.O. Box 35326, Station E,
Vancouver, B.C. V6M 4G5. A Charitable Society recognized under the Income Tax Act.
Subscriptions: Institutional, $16.00 per year; Individual (non-members), $8.00.
Financially assisted by the Government of British Columbia through the British Columbia Heritage
Back issues of the British Columbia Historical News are available from Micromedia Ltd., 158 Pearl St., Toronto,
Ontario M5H 1L3 - Micromedia also publishes the Canadian Magazine Index and the Canadian Business Index.
Indexed in the Canadian Periodical Index. British Columbia
Historical New
Volume 22, No. 1
Winter, 1989
Journal of the B.C. Historical Federation
Features Page
Packers and Packhorses of Stewart
by Carle Jones 2
The Dewdney Trail Through the Kootenays
by Frank Merriam 7
The Johnson Street Gang:
British Columbia's Early Indian Art Dealers
by Ron Hawker 10
Marianne & Amelia Kinbasket
by Shelagh Dehart 14
Affair of the Magistrates
by Helen M. Coyle 17
Primo Galiano
by Ralph Brine 18
The Old Murray Church
by Joan Bellinger 22
News From Branches 23
BookShelf: Book Reviews
Journal of a Voyage with Bering
review by Dr. W Kaye Lamb 26
The Harrison - Chehalis Challenge; a Brief History of the Forest
Industry around Harrison Lake and the Chehalis Valley
review by John Gibbard 27
Island in the Creek
review by Peggy Imredy 28
People of the Snow: the Story of Kitimat 28
From Snowshoes to Politics 29
review by George Newell
Federation Affairs
Report from Officers 30
Writing Competition & Convention '89 31
Scholarship Winners & News Publishing Committee Report 32
The Spring '89 issue is on the
theme "Education". Several articles have come in and more
have been promised so that we
may glimpse our history from
rural schools, private schools, a
city high school, and special educational programs.
We are still requesting articles for the Fall issue -
"Memories of the 1930's".
Trampers of historic trails
will welcome the return of
maps and articles by R.C.
Harris, commencing in the next
The featured articles herein
are on diverse topics set at
widely scattered locales. The
Packers is a colorful story recounted in the vernacular, and
The Johnson Street Gang was
prepared as a term paper for
an M.A. degree. We hope that
our readers will appreciate the
Naomi Miller
Manuscripts and correspondence for the editor are to be sent to PO. Box 105, Wasa, B.C. VOB 2K0
Correspondence regarding subscriptions are to be directed to the subscription secretary (see inside back cover)
B.C. Historical News Packers and Packhorses
Of Stewart
by Carle Jones
In June 1934 I stepped ashore
in Stewart on the northern B.C.
Coast. I had just left my childhood
home on the flat prairies in the
parched, almost treeless
Saskatchewan parkland belt.
Suddenly I found myself in the
midst of steep, heavily forested
mountains with huge blue glaciers,
snow covered slopes topped by barren rocky peaks, and always within
sound of the glistening little
streams that tumbled down from
the melting snows above. The contrast left me awestricken. The salt
tanged smell of the sea with its relentless tides promised interesting
beachcombing adventures. The people were all friendly, with interesting backgrounds, but they casually
used phases of speech which were
unfamiliar to me.
The only familiar things in
sight were some horses roaming the
tidal flats and wandering around in
town. Coming from a farm I had
been raised with horses; they were
part of the family. We raised and
trained them. They were always
under control, and their individualities blended into their use in teams.
These Stewart pack horses were different. I struck up a friendship with
a man named Ray Cyr from Pincher
Creek, Alberta. He understood
them. Between him and the pack
horses I was given a whole new education.
First of all the packhorses were
survivors, born and raised in the
wilderness of the Caribou country.
The weak and stupid ones never
B.C. Historical News
reached working age so the horses I
found up there were smart and
tough, worked as they were with almost no physical control, we had to
control them by voice once we had
taught them our language.
Mountain bred, they were as surefooted as goats. Some were used as
saddle horses, some broke to harness for freight teams and all were
used to carry packs. And the packs
were anything that anyone would
pay to have moved from here to
there over narrow trails on the steep
mountain sides, the packs were secured with the famous Diamond
As with the farm horses they all
knew their names which often derived from an individual's tricks or
appearance. "Buttons" would watch
for his chance then reach out and
snip a button off your shirt from as
neat as you please, sometimes he
would get his teeth full of chest hair
which earned him a good slap on
the nose and a bawling out which
didn't deter him at all on the next
opportunity. "Snap" would reach
around while you were adjusting his
pack and snip the hip pocket off
your pants, sometimes he would go
a little too deep with dire consequences for both. A blue roan with
china eyes was of course called
In the early summer of 1934
Crawford Transfer got a contract to
move a lot of machinery over the
Missouri Ridge to the portal of an
underground gold mill the CM. & S.
were building. This was to be a
twenty-two mile horse packing job,
four trips a day. Bill Crawford of
Crawford Transfer had been born in
Phoenix, B.C., worked with horses
in many mining areas of the province before coming to Stewart: here
he turned the more active part of
the business over to his sons-in-law
Bill Esstelmont and Lew Behnson.
In preparation for this they
brought in about a dozen head of
green bronc's from the Caribou to
add to their existing string.
Everything came to Stewart by
boat in those days, either C.N. or
Union Steamships. When those
bronc's were unloaded off the C.N.S.
Prince George early one morning
they were trainsick, seasick and
confused so it wasn't too difficult to
get them the two miles to their new
home on the tidal flats at Stewart.
All the horses had to be shod because of the rocky and icy trails
they would be working on. Getting
the shoes on that bunch of horses
was quite a circus, but it also got
them used to being handled.
Most of the bunch were in their
prime, but there was one grey that
we were sure the Caribou cowboys
had thrown into the bunch for a joke
on us. He was old, wild and smart,
and in his only previous experience
with men they had hurt him with a
branding iron. He fought us every
inch of the way and we only got the
shoes on him by stretching him
across the Blacksmith Shop floor
with a block and tackle, helpless he
would still bite and we had to throw
a blanket over his head and sit on it
to prevent anyone getting hurt.
Finally one morning we threw
the packsaddles and some horse-
feed in a truck and head and tailed
the string up to the Big Missouri
Next morning bright and early
we saddled up and started putting
pay loads on them, another circus,
but we didn't do too bad till we got
to the old grey. He wasn't about to
suffer any more indignities and we
were wasting too much time so we
loaded him with some heavy green
pit props that were lying around, Packtrain leaving Marmot Glacier
with a ton of coal. 1938.
four inches in diameter and eight
feet long. The load came up over his
head so he couldn't rear, it stuck out
on both sides so he couldn't roll over,
it was too heavy to buck with and
tied with a double diamond, he just
couldn't get rid of it, though he sure
When the string was headed up
the trail he fought his way to the
lead and he held that spot all the
years I knew him. When we got
over the hill we unpacked all the
horses except the old grey, he was
still playing games so we said "Let
him carry it back".
Same thing again at noon when
we watered and fed the horses and
loosened some of the cinches to let
them rest. We watered and fed the
grey but we couldn't touch his pack
without more games; the packers
were in no mood to play. That afternoon he carried his load both ways
and we didn't even offer to take it
off till that night when the horses
were unsaddled watered and fed.
We rubbed their backs and checked
them for saddle sores and girth
galls and checked their shoes, all
except the old grey, we never were
able to pick up one of his feet unless
there was something wrong with it.
Next morning he accepted his pay
Fred Young and Ray Cyr loading ore on "Babe" at Mountian Bay Mine,
Stewart, B.C. 1937.
load like a veteran and took his self
appointed place in the lead.
He turned out to be one of our
best lead horses, when we were
chasing and not leading a string
we would sometimes have four or
five horses between us and the leader and sometimes he would get
quite a ways ahead, when we knew
of a fork in the trail on the first trip
over on a new job we would have to
make our way up to the leader to
show him which fork to take, not always easy on those narrow trails to
get past those bulging packs and
spooky horses. We didn't have to do
that with the old grey. When he
came to a fork in the trail he would
wait till he knew you could see him,
then he would step out and if you
hollered he would pull his foot back
and go on up the other fork. He was
a natural snow bucker; if he got
bogged down in snow or mud he
didn't panic or fight or give up but
would very patiently figure his way
out and let you help him. We called
him "Grey Eagle".
Fred Young and Jack Rennie of
Stewart Cartage sure had some nice
well broke horses. Fred's saddle
mare was a beautiful clean limbed
Bay with an intelligent eye named
"Goldie". She was a real friend and
really knew her job. Jack Rennie's
favourite for a long time was a fies-
ty little grey named "Danny". He
didn't have anything left to learn
about helping you work a pack-
One of their teams was a pair of
fairly heavy set Sorrels named
"Dempsey" and "Jeff", Dempsey
was a lead horse and Jeff was number two and he would fight any
horse that tried to take Dempsey's
place at the head of the string.
You had to be careful loading a
string to get them in their proper order otherwise you had a battle on
your hands until they got themselves sorted out. Those narrow
trails were no place for a battle, if a
horse fell or got pushed over the
edge it was sometimes lost due to
injury. One horse I knew of fell into
a crevasse on the Marmot Glacier,
her body came out in the creek at
the toe of the Glacier some years
later, perfectly preserved by the ice.
Stewart Cartage got a contract
to haul some ten foot lengths of
wooden wire-wrapped eight inch
pipe up to the Molly B. Mine for
John Haahti or "John the Finn" as
he was known. This property was
just across the Bear River from
Stewart. The river was low, not
swimming deep for a horse, so with
Dempsey and Jeff and Bess and
Kid fourup on a freight wagon we
hauled the pipe across the river to
the foot of Mt. Rainey
The switchback trail up to the
mine was too crooked and crowded
past trees and boulders to haul the
pipe up with "Go-Devils" a drag
with short runners under the front
end pulled by one horse, too heavy
to lead two to a horse for a balanced
load. So Fred got a bright idea, he
built two little swivel bolsters on
two sawbuck saddles. We loaded a
length of pipe on Dempsey and Jeff
B.C. Historical News one end on each horse and headed
them up the trail, we almost went
crazy trying to help those two horses get that load around those narrow switch backs but finally made it
without hurting a horse. We gave
the horses a few oats and went
down for another length of pipe, after that was loaded we had our best
idea of the day, we headed old
Dempsey up the trail and took a
shortcut to the top. Left to themselves the horses seemed almost to
talk to each other as they inched
that awkward load around the
steep narrow corners, not fast but
patiently and surely with an occasional shout of encouragement till
they got to the mine where we waited for them. We unloaded and fed
them some more oats and went
down for another load which they
handled the same way. Those two
horses carried a couple of hundred
feet of pipe up that hill practically
by themselves.
"Bess" and "Kid" were fairly
heavy black horses, old Bess's hind
end would just about fill up a whole
barn door, she was wide. Kid was,
like his name, a big good natured
kid who would follow Bess anywhere.
We were Rawhiding Ore down
from the United Empire Mine north
of Stewart. The trail was about four
thousand foot drop in four miles and
steep in places (the only access till
they put the tram in) the snow trail
was good. A load was about a ton of
sacked ore wrapped in a green cow
or horsehide and pulled by one
horse. On the steeper pitches the
horse would sit on the front of the
load and balance and steer with it's
front feet, no way to stop or even
slow down much, one miss-step and
the whole shebang would roll to the
bottom. They didn't make many
mistakes and we felt that the old-
timers seemed to enjoy it.
Three of us on this job, six horses. One morning we were prying the
frozen loads loose and heading
them down the mountain when Mr.
Billy Dann came along. Billy Dann
was the Mine promoter and he had
been up for a visit and to gather
RC. Historical News
more fuel for his promotion fires. He
had decided to go down that morning and thought it would be nice to
ride down so he hopped on the front
of a load. Bill Stewart said "I don't
think that would be a very good
place to ride Mr. Dann", but Billy
insisted " I will be quite comfortable
here" and he clapped his mittened
hands and clucked to the horse.
We pried the load loose and old
Bess headed down the hill, at first
steep pitch she sat right down on
Billy's lap and there she stayed for
most of the four thousand feet. Billy
was in trouble, with a ton of ore behind him and almost a ton of horse
in front he could only scream and
pound futilely on old Bess's rump.
She was too busy keeping her balance to be distracted and made it
safely to the bottom. Billy was
walking quite well in a couple of
days and he even bought us all a
Jack Rennie was probably one of
the best horsemen and Packers in
this or any other country. As a
Muleteer in the Canadian Army
Siberian Contingent that was sent
to Murmansk during the First
World War and through service in
the N.W.M. Police he had a very interesting career in handling horses.
He always favoured the military
type of packsaddle because it was
easier on the horses than the
Sawbuck saddle in general use. His
horses seemed to understand and
returned his affection for them. He
liked a drink but that was no excuse
to neglect or abuse a horse nor
would he allow any liquor out on a
packtrain, except maybe a small
mickey of rum to make a hot rum at
the end of a long cold wet day's ride
to liven us up enough to care for our
horses before getting our supper.
The horses came first.
One Fall Jack got caught with
two horses by a seven foot fall of
snow up on Texas Creek where he
was go-deviling out some ore. There
wasn't much grub for him or the
horses, no hope of anyone coming in
for days, the snow would be there
till Spring with more to come any
time, four miles to the Premier Mine
Road might as well have been to the
moon. He didn't want to leave his
horses, they might starve before he
could make it back to them (providing he could make it out).
He decided to try to get them
out. There were several narrow
Kapoc mattress's in the deserted
bunkhouse so he carried some of
them out and laid them in a line on
the snow and led his horses onto
them, then he picked up the first
mattresses and carried them ahead,
floundering in the deep snow he repeated this maneuver for forty-eight
hours and succeeded in getting his
horses down to the Premier road
and safety. The mattresses were
torn to shreds by the sharp shoes of
the horses and Jack was dead beat,
but he saved his horses.
Herb Charlton, Big Jock
Morrison and Charlie Beale were
well known packers around
Stewart. On one joo Rennie had
three or four men camping at the
mouth of the Marmot River, packing
ore out of the Marmot Engineer
Mine and other small mines on the
Marmot River and Katy Ryan
Creek. The men were sleeping in a
small tent on the beach, they were
working hard, the days were long
and after a couple of weeks they
were getting pretty edgy. One evening as they sat around their fire
smoking and retelling their stories
of problems with particular horses,
bad pieces of trail and peculiar
loads that had to be packed. They
looked across the salt chuck to the
lights of Hyder B.C. and Hyder
Alaska. Those twinkling lights got
too much for Herb and he decided to
pay them a visit, he got a rowboat
and rowed across accompanied by
the joshing of the other men.
Later that night they were
aroused by a heavy black figure
fumbling and snuffling around in
the dark tent and trampling on
their legs. Jack pulled his feet out
from under the blankets and aimed
a mighty kick at the intruder as he
roared "Get out of here you drunken
son of a bitch." As his bare feet hit a
furry hide instead of his wayward
packer he realized that he had Packtrain with building supplies.
Marmot River-1926.
kicked a large Black Bear. The kick
bowled the Bear right out of the tent
and it took off for the tall timber
with no harm to anyone.
One Christmas the town decided to erect a large Christmas Tree
at the intersection of the two principal streets, the tree was lit and
somebody set up a washtub at it's
base to serve as a Punchbowl, as
each celebrant came along to sample the punch he would add the remaining contents of his private bottle to improve the flavour. Needless
to say the contents of that punchbowl got pretty potent. One of John
Campbell's cows came along and
took several big gulps of the mixture
and got tighter than hooty owl,
staggering about and causing great
hilarity among the onlookers.
Big Jock was pretty well along
with his Christmas celebration
when he approached the punchbowl
After several generous samples he
decided this would be a good place
to take a nap, he hadn't been asleep
very long when Charlie Beale came
along with some cronies. They decided after due consultation at the
top of their voices that they should
play some trick on Big Jock, Charlie
got out his knife and cut Jock's tin
pants off just above the knees.
When Big Jock woke up a little
while latter he stood up and realized that his pants were too short
so he stooped over to pull them
down thus exposing a large area of
Stanfields Golden Fleece, when he
straightened up the pants were still
too short so he stooped over to pull
them down again, after several of
Horses on snowshoes at Big Missouri Mine, June-1939.
these trials and errors he decided
that there was some skulduggery
going on and his big temper flared
at being the butt of somebody's
crude sense of humour, he looked
around for the culprit and maybe because he was laughing so loud decided that Charlie was the cause of
his embarrassment. Breathing Fire
and Brimstone he staggered after
Charlie who managed to get on a
horse and took off on the Hyder
road. Big Jock got another horse
and lit out after him.
Somehow Charlie managed to
stay on his horse and in the lead,
all the way past Hyder and up to
Thirteen Mile on the Premier Mine
road. By this time they had sobered
up a little and Jock in his short
pants had cooled off so by mutual
agreement they spent the rest of
their holiday partaking of the hospitality of Dago Marie's Roadhouse.
Built leanto against the east
side of Young and Rennie's barn, beside the Bear River, was their
Blacksmith Shop. Every year in
March Fred would go out to the
shop with kegs of new and unformed horseshoes and fire up his
forge. As you approached the shop
you could hear the tap, tap, tap of
his hammer striking lightly on the
anvil. When you entered the shop
there would be Fred tapping away
at a red hot horseshoe, busy with
his forge and anvil and sometimes
bursting into a bit of song as he prepared new shoes for their dozen or
so horses, getting ready for the upcoming work season. The air would
be filled with the smell of Forge fire
and hot iron, a good smell. Around
the inside walls of the shop, about
four feet off the floor a 2x4 was
nailed to the studding, by May on
this board would be hung about
fourteen sets of new horseshoes,
four shoes to a set, all with sharpened caulks, ready to go but with no
names attached.
The horses went barefoot in the
winter, in the barn or roaming the
tidal flats except the ones that were
working which were shod with very
sharp caulked shoes known as
sharpshod, to gain footing on the
icy winter roads and trails. Finally
one day Fred, always congenial
would quietly suggest that we bring
Kate, Jip or some other named
horse into the shop and as the horse
was brought in he would go to that
array of horseshoes on the wall and
select a set, the horses feet were
trimmed and the new shoes nailed
on, they always fit with very little
adjustment, no two horses feet are
exactly the same but Fred had them
all memorized. He always had a
few sets of general size shoes on
hand and we always carried a
couple of these shoes tied onto our
saddles for temporary replacement
if a horse lost a shoe on the trail. If
we were working away from home
we would get word down to Fred to
send up a new shoe for Babe's left
hind foot or whatever and when the
B.C. Historical News shoe arrived it always fit.
On winter trails the horses were
not packed but pulled go-devils or
rawhides or were teamed on freight
sleighs. The day would start early
when the snow was frozen and well
set, about one or two o'clock in the
morning, by eight or nine o'clock the
snow would soften and the horses
feet would punch through. When
this happened the horse would stop
and wait for us to come and put on
his Snowshoes. The Snowshoes we
used were of two different types,
one was called a pipe and chain
shoe, it was made of a fourteen inch
circle of pipe with two cross chains,
the horses foot was strapped to the
centre of the cross chains. The other
type was made of laminated wood,
three gouges were made in the top
of the snowshoe to fit the caulks of
the horseshoe. A U shaped bolt fitted over the horses hoof and
through the snowshoe where it was
fastened with two burrs and washers. It was a disaster if you lost
your little Crescent wrench in the
snow. To train a horse to wear
Snowshoes was really quite easy,
you just put the Snowshoes on him
and turned him loose in the yard to
figure it out for himself. Some horses never got very good at it but
most of them soon learned not to
overstep and trip themselves. They
seemed to understand the advantage of wearing the Snowshoes.
Sometimes we would tell visitors
that the horses got so smart they
would carry a stick in their mouths
to knock the snow off the snowshoes
if they got too heavy.
One of my favourite horses was
a little Bay with a blaze and white
stocking known as 'Old Missouri'.
He was really too small for a pack-
horse but was feisty, tough and
smart. Like many of the men in
that country he was a loner and
didn't mind being away from other
horses so was used as a chore horse
around the Big Missouri camp and
was a pet of all the miners.
When the CM. & S. drove the
tunnel through the Missouri Ridge
to the portal of their underground
Gold Mill it was just under a mile in
RC. Historical News
length and all hand tramming because there was no power yet for an
electric 'Locie'. Somebody suggested
they use Old Missouri for a Pit
Pony. He was equipped with a
Carbide Miners Lamp in his bridle
and hitched to a little train of three
ore cars by a ring on his singletree
which slid on a horizontal hook near
the front of the first car; when he
stepped off the track to the left the
ring slid off the hook and he was
unhitched. The ore cars were side
dumping Vee cars with a fifth wheel
on the side which rode up on a ramp
on the dumping block to empty the
car, it was very difficult to push the
heavy cars up on the dumping
block, but if you hit it fast enough
the momentum would carry the car
up the ramp and it would dump itself. Old Missouri soon learned that
if he came out of the mine at a dead
run the cars would just ride up on
the dumping block by themselves,
so he would come galloping out of
the drift and step off to the side and
watch his train go by. One of the
workmen would come over and
check his lamp and hook to the other end of his train and send him in
for another load.
We tried all kinds of tricks to
get him to pull a fourth car even
empty but he would just balk. If his
lamp went out he would wait for
someone to come along and relight
it for him then he would carry on.
He didn't have a driver except for
the first few days. He knew all
about lunch boxes and he loved cake
and cookies, after he had popped
open a carelessly left lunch box the
owner usually had to get a new one.
Sure he had a few wrecks but what
railroader hasn't.
In the summer of 1936 it was
decided to take a couple of horses
into the Unuk River to do some
packing for the Premier Mining
Company. Harold Berg and Sam
Kirkpatrick headed in with Danny
and Baldy. It took them eighteen
very difficult days to make that one
hundred miles from the mouth of
the river. All their problems weren't
with the terrain. One evening as
they were making camp Harold had
gone to the creek for a pail of water
and as he got back he found a large
Black Bear making a meal of their
grubpile, his rifle was leaning
against a couple of sacks of oats on
which the bears two cubs were playing cock-of-the-rock. With the cussing of the men and racket Harold
was making with a stick on the
bucket, plus the fuss the horses
were making, the Bear decided to
take her family to a quieter place
for supper.
On another occasion a horse
was needed to do some packing
from a lake that could only be
reached by air. So a horse was bundled up with ropes till he looked almost like a mummy and manhandled into a floatplane. With Bill
Crawford sitting near his head with
a singlejack in case he got a foot
loose he made the flight safely to
the lake where he was pushed out
of the plane and hauled ashore before he drowned. The ropes were
taken off and he went to work. Just
another day in the life of a
On a trip into the Salmon Gold
property the packer was Lee
Cockran, a rather small but strong
and wiry man who was very ingenious about getting awkward loads
up on top of packhorses. The horses
were loaded with grub for the Drill
camp, all done up in egg crates and
wooden orange boxes covered with
the usual canvas tarp. In one place
the trail crossed a steep hardpacked
snow slide which extended down
about a thousand feet to the Salmon
All the horses made it safely
across that snowslide except
'Chink', he fell and rolled on his
pack demolishing the wooden
crates. When he got back on his feet
he didn't like the new feel of his
pack so decided to get rid of it.
Every time he bucked his rump
would smack up under the shattered crates and several cans of tomatoes or whatever would shoot
into the air and go rolling down the
slide, I saved most of them but the
little yellow vinegar keg that had
been his top pack took off rolling and bounding to the bottom, too far
to fetch it back.
When 'Chink' settled down we
gathered up the groceries and
wrapped them in the tarp to make
a pack. We found that the lid had
come off a tin of orange marmalade
and Chink was smeared with the
stuff from his tail to the tip of his
ears, the saddle and lash ropes
were so slippery with orange marmalade that it was almost impossible to get a grip on them to tie down
the load. I never knew a can of
Orange Marmalade could spread so
All the tales of the Hardiness
and Intelligence and yes, the
Cussedness of the Packers and
Packhorses can never be told. But
whenever and wherever you meet a
packer he will have more tales to
add to the lore of the Packhorses.
String refers to line of horses in single file, a Packtrain head and
tailed. The halter of each horse is
tied to the tail of the horse ahead of
it. Usually only used to move a
string of unloaded horses along a
Tin Pants. Protective clothing made
of heavy canvas duck material also
known as 'Bone Dries.'
Mucking Sheet A metal plate placed
on the floor of a mine to receive the
broken rock or 'Muck' of blasting.
Carl Jones stayed in the Stewart area doing
a variety of jobs until he joined the army in
W.W.II. He worked in Warfield, Saskatoon,
Crowsnest Pass, and Mica Creek prior to
moving to Creston in 1967. He is involved in
many community groups in Creston, including the Historical and Museum Society.
The Dewdney Trail Through
The Kootenays
by Frank Merriam
Edgar Dewdney was commissioned by Governor Douglas to
create "a mule trail with grades
that could accommodate wagon road
status at a later date." The first section of this trail was built in 1860
between Hope and Princeton, and
extended to a mining camp at Rock
Creek in 1861. A gold find in the
East Kootenay prompted the government to engage Dewdney to extend his trail in 1865 to Fisherville
on Wild Horse Creek. This east-west
route through southern B.C. ultimately became Highway #3.
Although the chief purpose of the
trail was to give merchants in
Victoria and New Westminister access to markets in mining camps, it
became a factor in opening up many
areas to homesteaders.
The writer will quote from archival documents to explain the problems that Edgar Dewdney faced in
his search for a trail through the
Kootenays. Excerpts from letters
and documents are italicized: commentary is in regular type. The
Edgar Dewdney, 1865.
PABC HP12677
main document is an end-of-year
project letter and accounting in
Dewdney's handwriting forwarded
to Joseph Trutch, a Minister in the
Colonial Government of James
"I have the honor to inform you
that in accordance with instructions
received from His Excellence the
Governor, I left New Westminster on
the 12th of April, 1865 in charge of
a party to explore the country between Soyoos Lake, and Wild Horse
Creek for the purpose of deciding
upon the best line for a mule trail between those two points, also to superintend its immediate construction, as well as other works more
fully described in my letter of instruction dated 10th April, 1865.
The House, the Chief Commissioner
of L & Wand Surveyor General."
This gives a brief outline of the
duties Edgar had to carry out. The
instructions described the grades he
was to install (which were not more
than 129c.) In other letters he re-
RC. Historical News lates his necessity to lay out much
steeper grades to accommodate the
steep mountain terain. "My operation commenced at Soyoos Lake
from which place I set out with my
party on 13th of May.
I had previously visited Mr.
Angus McDonald of the Hudson Bay
Company at Colville to obtain from
him information regarding the different routs (sic) I proposed exploring, and with which he was acquainted; from him I received much
valuable information."
Dewdney indicates his trail or
line through this section started at
Soyoos Lake and was part of the
east west line forming the Southern
Crossroads at Osoyoos. He refers to
earlier discussions (1864) with
Angus McDonald, Chief Factor Fort
Colville, Senior over Chief Traders
Joseph Hardisty of Fort Sheppard
and Joseph McKay at Fort
"In my previous reports from
Fort Sheppard and Koutenais Lake
dated respectively May 28th and
June 2nd, I described what my success had been in following what I
supposed to be the line indicated by
Mr. McDonald; up Boundary Creek
to its Forks then eastward to the
Ichivoniton (or north fork of Kettle
River) crossing about ten miles from
its mouth, then through a divide at
the north side of the largest mountain in that neighborhood, called
McDonald's Mountain, to the
Columbia River."
He made a preliminary traverse
to find a route further north of the
international Boundary. He trekked
through todays Greenwood and the
East Fork of Boundary Creek,
Jewell Creek and Jewell Lake, over
into Pass Creek and down across
the Inchivoniton (Granby River) ten
miles north of Grand Forks, northwestward to the north of
McDonalds' Mountain (Mt.
Gladstone) and arrived on the
Arrow Lakes near Renata.
'You will find I was unsuccessful in this section. Had I found on
the east side on the Columbia, a
practicable line for a road to
Koutenais in connection with this I
should have made a further exploration of McDonalds Pass. On my arrival at Kootenais Lake from the
Columbia River, a Description of
which exploration I forwarded in a
report dated June 20, I was in
hopes I had succeeded but subsequent examination convinced me
that no feasible divide existed by
which a trail could be continued,
without following the Lake to its
northern end and about 20 miles up
the stream flowing into it from the
northwest, then striking across the
Old Indian Trail to the headwaters
of the Columbia..."
Edgar indicated his disappointment at not finding an eastern pass
from todays Castlegar through the
Selkirks to Kootenay Lake. He went
up the Kootenay River via the steep
Indian trail through dense undergrowth, along the many falls, to the
west arm of the lake. He sent reconnaissance teams up to Rose Pass,
Fry Creek and Hammel Creek,
north to Glazier Creek and the
Kinbasket Trail of the early 1800's
over Jumbo Pass to the Windermere
"As I mentioned in my report of
June 20th I considered this a long
expensive line and one that would
not have carried out the object of my
expedition. I consequently gave up
all idea of it and proceeded southward to the lower end of the lake."
This is where Dewdney decided
to search for a line further south in
the Cascades and Selkirks. He
moved his crew to the south end of
Kootenay, or the early white man's
name - Flatbow Lake. Flatbow being a direct reference to the sturgeon-nosed canoe the Indians used
here, only found elsewhere in the
Amur River Swamps in Siberia.
"Here I instructed Mesers
Turner to return to the Columbia
and examine the valleys through
which the Hudson Bay Company
had constructed a rough trail, and
through which I was informed horses had travelled the previous year
and also if favorably impressed with
it to blaze that line at once."
From here he sends Mr. Turner
with a small crew back to Fort
Sheppard through Summit Creek,
Lost Creek, Salmon River and to the
mouth of the Pend 0 Reille across
the Columbia from the Hudson Bay
Co. Post. This trail had been reopened by H.B.C. men in 1864. This
route was also explored previously
by the Palliser Expedition in 1859
when they despaired of a commercial crossing of the Koutenais bottom lands.
"I, with the remainder of my
party continued to explore the country between the east side of the
Lake and the valley of the Mooyie
along which the trail to Wild Horse
Creek runs.
I considered this in every respect fit for a road, being almost level and with good feed. I arrived at
Wild Horse Creek on the 13th of
June as I was satisfied that the
only continuous line of communication between Soyoos Lake and
Koutenais, north of the 49th parallel and south of the upper end of the
Arrow Lakes was as follows. I determined to commence work at
The rest of the crew, including
Mr.Mepps and Mr. Howell (two of
Dewdney's immediate Deputies)
went east from the Creston area to
Fisherville on the Wild Horse River.
He mentions the trail in the valley
of the Moyie. This, of course, is the
line established by David Thompson
in 1808 later became part of the
Walla Walla Fur Brigade Trail.
"Starting from Soyoos Lake, I
follow generally the old trail at
Boundary Creek, crossing it about 3
miles from its junction with the
Kettle River, thence to the Columbia
via the trail known as McKays', but
making such deviations (sic) as
were necessary to avoid bad grades
-- this section I estimate at 110
This and following paragraphs
explain where Edgar Dewdney decided to install his famous trail. I
will use todays names to show the
actual traverse through the
Boundary and Kootenays. From
RC. Historical News
8 Osoyoos to Boundary Falls, some
three miles northeast of Midway.
From here it goes almost straight
east to Grand Forks (Grande
Prairie) and then again on Hwy. #3
to Cascade. It enters the Rossland
Range via Chandler Creek to
O'Farrel and Alder Creeks, and
through a low pass some two miles
south of the mile high Santa Rosa
Pass. They went down the south
fork of Santa Rosa Creek across Big
Sheep Creek and just to the north of
Mt. Sophia, to the south fork of
Sophia Creek and descended to
Little Sheep Creek, up this and over
into Trail Creek, thence down to
Trail. I believe both the Creek and
city were named after the trail.
McKays line is a reference to the
work done by Joseph McKay in
years previous for the Hudson Bay
Co. This line was Fur Brigade status and "Devuations" were necessary to bring it up to wagon road
"I crossed the Columbia about
two miles above the Boundary line
and keeping down its east bank
half a mile, leave it and continued
up the Pend 0 Reille and Little
Salmon River, then down the valley
of Summit Creek to Koutenais
Lake; this section I estimate at 64
From Trail the route led down
the Columbia to Fort Sheppard and
crossed to the Pend O Reille one
half mile upriver, up the Pend 0
Reille to the Salmon and up this to
Lost Creek; up and up to the summit of the Selkirk, the trails highest
elevation (over 600 feet), down the
north fort of Summit Creek. From
the summit No. 3 Highway covers
most of the line all the way to
Cranbrook. Near the mouth of
Summit Creek, Edgar had to turn
north some four miles to the narrowest and highest land across the
Koutenais Swamps, known in the
early days as Lone Tree Ridge.-
"Here I met with the only difficulty on the whole line, which was,
to determine at what point it was
most advisable to establish a crossing. The valley of the Koutenais is
here about three miles in width and
at high water is almost entirely
overflowed and I found that the
high water crossing of which I had
been informed, and upon which I
was depending, was a few hundred
yards below the Boundary line; after several days search I was compelled to adopt the present one,
which will require rather a large
outlay to make it a convenient and
permanent crossing; an estimate of
this and other required work I shall
give you before closing my report."
This paragraph tells of the first
crossing of the Kootenay Swamps
by an artery of commerce. It was
the first joining of the East and
West Kootenays by wagon road,
thus starting the first white man's
development of the Creston Valley.
The Great Northern Railroad
pushed ahead with plans to offset
the transportation values of the
Colonial Trail. The Canadian
Railroad, which I believe was the secret mission of Pallisers' work, opposed the move and great court battles were waged. In a separate
letter, Dewdney explains in full his
problems to find a bit of solid
ground to cross this valley. He estimated this crossing at $8000.00 including a ferry.
"On leaving Koutenais Lake I
follow up Goat River about twenty
miles and leaving it turn eastward
along occasional meadows to the
trail on Mooyie River which I join
about eight miles north of the
Boundary line and continuing along
the old trail reach Wild Horse Creek
in an estimated distance of one hundred miles from Koutenais Lake."
This adds to paragraph seven.
In still another Dewdney letter, he
explains a contract with William
Fernie for him to build the line from
Wild Horse to the Kootenay Flats
into a wagon road. Fernie's letter of
October 1865 indicated completion
including corduory across to the
Kootenay River. This road went up
the Peavine River from the north
end of Moyie Lake into the southwest of Cranbrook, and right
through to the site of Galbraith's
Ferry at Fort Steele. Brevity has
created an almost capsule look to
my stories and comments. There
were many other historical events in
direct connection with the installation of the Dewdney Trail, especially in connection with the Hudson
Bay Co. both before and after. This
would transform this story to at
least a pocket book edition. Its effect
was more profound on the Creston
Valley than any other community
that appeared along the route.
Many of the early settlers and
squatters came in over the trail
from both directions to start the
farming, mining and logging of early commerce. The first attempts at
reclamation of the flats by Baillie
Grohman were assisted by the ease
of access. Men and machines have
overcome the problems of the
Kootenay Swamps. The Highway
goes through on a causeway south
of that ferry which linked east and
west for many years. Visitors may
still walk on a piece of Dewdney's
trail beside the Creston Valley
Wildlife reserve. There your imagination can take you back to 1865.
Frank Merriam lives in the Creston
Valley where he has been active in several
groups, and projects. He was a Scouter for
many years; served on the Creston Valley
Wildlife Management Board; devotes hours
to the Creston & District Museum and was
Editor for the publishing of a history of
Wynndel. He walked mUes, pored over old
maps, and spent weeks at the provincial and
HB.C Archives to familiarize himself with
the Dewdney TraU.
RC. Historical News The Johnson Street Gang:
British Columbia's Early
Indian Art Dealers
by Ronald W. Hawker
The curio dealer played an important role in the dissemination of
Northwest Coast art in the late
nineteenth century. Since most
Northwest Coast art came out of
British Columbia and since Victoria
was the main trade center, not only
for British Columbia, but for the entire Pacific Northwest, it is not surprising that the city had the largest
population of dealers on the Pacific
Coast between the years 1880-1912.
The curio dealers' significance is
two-fold. First, they were essential
to museum collectors as suppliers of
valuable artifacts. They often provided the necessary contacts for collection in the field as well since many
dealers had spent time as traders in
the northern, more isolated areas.
Second, the curio dealers catered to
the nineteenth century's growing
tourist industry, often providing the
only avenue for purchase for the casual private collector and the souvenir-seeking tourist.
Tourism in modern terms is essentially a Victoria invention. The
Industrial Revolution and its accompanying boom in urbanization created two new sectors of English society. The first was an urban
population that became the principal
market for the passenger railway
and for the popular excursion associated with it. The second was a
new class of fundholders and financial intermediaries, whose wealth
was not committed to land and who
formed the market for trade and
tourism as soon as the supply of
RC. Historical News
transport made travel possible. The
North Atlantic trade between Britain
and North America, developed pri-
. marily by this second new class in
the mid-nineteenth century, played
a decisive role in encouraging transatlantic passenger lines, eastern
North America was within only five
or six days of European ports. 1
Tourism in western Canada began in the early 1870's and was
closely associated with the railroad
as the Canadian Pacific Railway
used tourism and luxurious accommodations to promote immigration
in the west and to pay for its expen-
sive mountain passes. By the
1880's, tourism had become a significant concern on the west coast as
transportation connections were improved with the completion of the
CPR's transcontinental line in 1886
and the implementation of a trans-
Pacific ocean liner route from
Vancouver to Hong Kong in 1889.2
The railway in particular brought
the new class of British transatlantic travelers to western Canada.
In the early 1880's, following
American political stabilization in
the immediate post-Civil War period, there was also a resurgence in
the Alaskan economy and a tour of
the inside passage between
Washington state and Alaska was
instigated. Originating in an
American port, such as San
Francisco, Portland, Tacoma,
Seattle or Port Townsend, this trip
made announced stops at the
Canadian ports of Victoria and
Nanaimo.   It  also  made  unan-
nounced stops at smaller Canadian
communities like Port Essington,
Port Simpson and later Prince
Rupert before continuing on to Fort
Wringel (later called Wrangell),
Juneau and Douglas. On its way
home, it made a brief stop at Sitka.
The entire round trip took thirty
days from San Francisco and its
popularity grew dramatically over
the decade. In 1884, the line reported 1,650 sight-seers; by 1890, this
figure had jumped to 5,007.3
Although Victoria did not have a
coherent formal policy towards tourist promotion until the Tourist
Development Agency was founded
in 19014, it held a strategic position
in both these schemes. It had long
been the port of entry for all settlers, missionaries, adventurers and
gold seekers heading north and had
originally been designated as the
Pacific terminus for the CPR's transcontinental line. When this honour
had fallen to Vancouver, the CPR
continued to promote tourism in
Victoria through a maritime connection between Vancouver and Victoria
and later through the construction
of a large, luxurious Chateau-style
hotel on the Victoria harbor front.
Victoria was also conveniently located at the halfway point between
San Francisco and Alaska. This
made it an important stopover on
the inside passage tour and local
merchants made every effort to take
advantage of the burgeoning tourist
trade. It is no coincidence that the
first curio dealer appeared in
Victoria in the early 1880's, just as
the tourist trade was beginning to
emerge as an important economic
The Industrial Revolution,
which created a tourist market
through improvements in transportation and the expansion of a
wealthy middle class, also contributed to the field of museum collecting. With a wealthier, more educated and better-traveled middle class
came an interest in the surrounding
world and its varied cultures, both
past and present. Rooted essentially in the eighteenth century interest
in archaeology and the classical past, the attraction was expanded
in the nineteenth century to include
the non-European world. This is due
in part to the increased immigration
of British citizens to other parts of
the British Empire and their subsequent exposure to outside cultures.
The Northwest Coast, with its rich
and sophisticated Indian culture
and art, became an area of interest
to ethnological museums and by
late in the century, there was reportedly more Northwest Coast art
on the eastern American seaboard
than there was on the Pacific Coast.
The Industrial Revolution also
improved national and civic economies and more money was now
available for cultural and scientific
endeavours. This, coupled with private philanthropy, moved artistic,
ethnological and scientific collections
into the public domain. Douglas
Cole writes of museum collecting in
the Pacific Northwest:
The period of most intense collecting on the coast coincided with
the great growth of museums of all
kinds. In the late nineteenth century national, civic, and academic
pride had combined with governmental aid to science and culture,
and more particularly with an enormous outpouring of capitalist philanthropy, to bring about the foundation or expansion of an incredible
number of institutions devoted to
the exhibiting of scientific and artistic objects.5
Victoria was again the port of
entry for museum collectors. It was
the center for transportation to the
north and provided the collectors
with contacts and guides. In turn,
the intense period of museum collecting in the 1880's led to the installation of Northwest Coast exhibits in major metropolitan museums
and at important national and international expositions.6 These
events, along with the foundation of
a Provincial Museum in Victoria in
1886, encouraged an awareness of
Indian art and undoubtedly helped
create the curio market in Victoria.
The Curio Dealers in Victoria
In the period between 1880 and
1912, there were five companies or
stores active in the curio business in
Victoria. The individuals involved in
the business were Andrew Alfred
Aaronson, John J. Hart, Jacob
Issac, Henri Stadthagen, and
Samuel Kirschberg and his partner
Frederick Landsberg.
AA. Aaronson
Andrew Alfred Aaronson was active in Victoria as early as 1882. He
was listed throughout his career as
a pawnbroker and his store was located at 75 and 79 Johnson Street.
Aaronson, like most of the dealers,
seems to have had a colourful personality. He was familiarly known
as 'uncle'. At a Colonial and Indian
exhibition in 1886, he dressed in a
buckskin suit with a wide sombrero
and told the British press at the exposition that he was in charge of
B.C. Indian curios, that he was
known as "Wild Dick', and that he
was "...employed to hunt the recalcitrant Indian to his forest retreat."7
This report was greeted with a mixture of skepticism and amusement
on behalf of the local press, who replied: "Fancy Aaronson hunting
While Aaronson did not dedicate
himself solely to the curio business,
he did make some important sales.
He sold material to James Terry, a
private collector associated with the
American Museum, George Dawson,
a geologist from Montreal with the
Canadian Geological Survey who, in
1898, bought a collection from
Aaronson that was sent to Ottawa
under the direction of the Field
Museum, and CT. Currelly, the director of the Royal Ontario
Museum.9 Aaronson appears to
have retired in 1905.
Very little information is presently available on Jacob Isaac. He
owned Isaac and Company as early
as 1884 and was listed in the directory as a general dealer in merchandise at 36 Johnson Street. In 1886,
the Indian Commissioner Israel W
Powell, who had earlier helped assemble a collection for the American
centennial exhibition in
Philadelphia and who had been active in collecting for the American
Museum of Natural History in New
York, arranged a shipment of
Tsimshian and Nisga'a articles to
New York from the Nass and
Skeena Rivers through Isaac. The
shipment was valued at $90.10 By
1887, he was listed as a dealer in
furs, robes and Indian curios and in
1889, his shop, called the Indian
Bazaar, was located at 43 Johnson
Street. He seems to have left the curio business in the early 1890's
since from 1890 to 1895 he was listed as either a clothier or the owner
of a California auction store.
John J. Hart
John J. Hart was in British
Columbia at least as early as 1859.
He was a merchant in Fort Hope, n
before returning to work in Victoria
sometime in 1861. Hart, another
colourful personality, was sometimes involved in less than legitimate business deals. In September,
1861, he was arrested for selling
shoes and boots stolen from the cargo ship The True Briton.12 While
Hart was found not guilty in
November of the same year, since he
was apparently unaware that the
goods were stolen 13, in 1864 he
was fined $500 for operating a business and having liquor on Indian reserve land in Comox on northern
Vancouver Island.14
Hart was in the curio business
in Victoria as early as 1882 when
he was listed in the directory as a
dealer in furs, guns and Indian curios. By 1887, he was specializing in
curios and his business became
known as the Indian Bazaar. In
1889, he formed a partnership with
Jacob Isaac and was listed in the
annual directory with J. Isaac and
Company at 43 Johnson Street. He
bought Isaac out the following year.
He is recorded as the sole proprietor
of the Indian Bazaar (also known
simply as the Bazaar) in the 1890
directory. Hart probably retired or
at least left the curio trade in 1899
or 1900.
Hart published a small booklet
through his company in 1894. A
mixture of Indian mythological stories, advertising and questionable
RC. Historical News history, this booklet was aimed primarily at the tourist population. He
boasts that the Indian Bazaar had
the "... largest and finest assortment of curios on the Pacific Coast"
and that it was "... the only Indian
bazaar in Victoria." He then 'respectfully' invites the public, "... especially tourists..." to visit and inspect his stock.
In his advertising, he also
strived to equate the Northwest
Coast tribes with past civilizations
more familiar to visiting European
and American tourists. For example, he claims a resemblance in
speech patterns between Indian and
Phonecian languages, assuring the
reader that this was solid evidence
for contact and exchange of ideas between the two cultures. The booklet
also contains descriptions of artifacts at the Indian Bazaar, including one of a forty foot totem pole
from Skidegate on the Queen
Charlotte Islands. Again his pitch
was aimed at equating the Haida
with a better known ancient civilization. He writes: "... it is probable it
will be sent to London, and set up
next to Cleopatra's needle; so that a
specimen of ancient Egyptian and
Haidah work can be seen side by
Franz Boas is known to have
bought masks and cedar bark rings
from Hart's Indian Bazaar in 189415
and according to Hart's booklet, the
company also sent a number of
goods to the World Exhibition in
Chicago in 1893.
Henri Stadthagen
Stadthagen was active in
Victoria at least as early as 1901
when he was mentioned in a British
Colonist report on a visit by the
Duke and Duchess of York. The article, date October 5, 1901, mentions that a group of Haida Indians,
who had come to see the Duke and
Duchess, were giving public performances in order to raise money for
their return trip to the Queen
Charlotte Islands. Their two performances had only netted $22 and
they were forced to sell dancing
clothes, curios and baskets to
Stadthagen. Probably relieved to be
able to return home, they gave him
a farewell potlatch dance. The article also mentions that the Duchess
patronized Stadthagen's shop.
Stadthagen, whose shop was located at 79 (see front cover) and
then at 621 Johnson Street, frequently used newspaper reports of
royal visits to his store in his advertising. In addition to the Duchess of
Wales, Prince and Princess
Colloredo-Mannsfield bought curios
and baskets from him in December
While Stadthagen occasionally
enjoyed royal patronage, he was not
always celebrated by more serious
collectors for his fair deals. In the
summer of 1907, James Whitbread
Gleisher, Fellow of Trinity College,
Cambridge, bought some artifacts
for his friend Baron Anatole von
Hugel and the Baron's Cambridge
University Museum of Archaeology
and Ethnology. After corresponding
with von Hugel, Gleisher bought a
four-figure totem pole for the museum that Stadthagen claimed belonged to the frog tribe of Vancouver
Island's Nootka Indians. This designation was meaningless as it apparently had been carved from a telegraph pole by a resident of the
Victoria Songhees Reserve known as
"Nutka Jack'17
Stadthagen's advertising mate
rial was obviously aimed at the tourist market as well. In addition to
carrying reports of royal visits, his
promotional cards emphasized that
".. Indians never make two articles
alike, so beware of the fake stuff... I
have no stories to lie to you for
which you have to pay extra." He
also claimed that his store carried
over 5,000 objects.
According to Cole, Stadthagen
left the curio business in 1911 because of the increased difficulty of
supply.18 He actually left Victoria for
Los Angeles in 1910, although much
of his left-over stock was stored at
his sister-in-law's house in town.
Since the duty was too high to import his collection to California, in
1922 he attempted to sell a large
portion of it to CF. Newcombe and
the British Columbia Provincial
Samuel Kirschberg
and Frederick Landsberg
Kirschberg and Landsberg
opened a pawnbrokerage in Victoria
in 1887. By 1890, their shop was a
combination loan office/curio boutique. In the early 1890's, the business expanded and Kirschberg ran
the Victoria loan office and curio
shop while Landsberg took care of
their Vancouver men's clothing store.
Kirschberg dropped out of the business in 1894 and was jailed as a
debtor in 189920. Landsberg, a refu-
Artifacts from the Landsberg Collection.     pn 9748
RC Historical News
12 Sold By Aaronson.
PN 1275
gee Polish Jew who had arrived in
Victoria in 1884, continued as proprietor of the Victoria Loan Office
and curio shop (also known as the
Indian Bazaar) until 1911, when,
as Henri Stadthagen had done the
year before, he left the curio business because of increasing supply
These two operated on a larger
scale than the other Victoria dealers
(for illustrations of material sold by
Landsberg, see accompanying photo). In 1896, Kirschberg shipped a
collection of artifacts from the central coast and Thompson River
Areas to New York where he hoped
to take advantage of higher prices.
Unfortunately, the steamer carrying
the collection caught fire and the
shipment suffered some damage. It
was offered for sale as salvage
when Franz Boas bought all but ten
pieces for $800.22
Landsberg also seems to have
had the best rapport with the museum collectors as they repeatedly
made major purchases from his
shop. He was reported to have
shipped five cases of curios to the
museum at the University of
Pensylvania in 190023. In 1903,
Dorsey and the Field Museum in
Chicago bought $500 worth of goods
from him and another $200 worth
the following year. In 1914 and
1915, although Landsberg had officially left the business, Samuel A.
Barrett, the first curator at the
Milwaukee Public Museum, made
two large purchases, including a
model of Chief Skidegate's house
and two coppers24.
Museums and museum collecting became a major theme in
Landsberg's advertising campaigns.
Reports of these major sales were often leaked to the local press.
Particularly in 1903, newspaper articles complained about the loss of
native Indian relics to the United
States. In one such report, an anonymous visitor from New York complained that a large portion of
Indian artifacts were being housed
in American institutions like the
Museum of Natural History in New
York and the Smithsonian Institute
in Washington.
/ have seen the grand collection
in the possession of Mr. Landsberg
of this city, and such assiduity as he
has shown in the gathering and
classifying of these rare specimens
is worthy of the warmest praise. I
estimate his collection to be worth
not less than $20,000, but I am led
to believe that as he is desirous of
leaving the country, he has offered
the collection at a far lower figure
than that, and that it has been declined. It will be a sad day for
British Columbia if that noble collection be allowed to join those in
New York and Washington, and I
understand both institutions are
very eager to purchase.25
The tone of the interview suggests that the report was planted
by Landsberg. The praise of his
business practices is one-sided.
There is no anger directed towards
him as an unscrupulous businessman. After all, he was responsible
for the sale of these large collections
to the American museums. It is also
interesting that the anonymous visitor felt he was capable of estimating the worth of Landsberg's collection when, earlier in the article, he
claimed that he had to check the
museum placards in New York to
make sure the articles were really
from British Columbia.
Cole feels that Landsberg exploited the local press in order to encourage a local market for his material.26 In some respects, he might
have been successful. The CPR's
Empress Hotel bought a set of totem poles through Landsberg for its
lobby27. In 1906, he obtained permission from the tourist association
to open an Indian Exhibition28.
From this point on, his business letterhead bears the title: 'Landsberg's
Free Museum.' While his free museum was aimed at the tourist market, it is important that the Tourist
Development Agency and the people
of Victoria felt officially for the first
time that Indian culture was of high
enough market quality to act as a
promotional device in attracting
tourism. This was the first step in
local acceptance and encouragement
of local indigenous art.
The first Indian art dealers in
Pacific Northwest were centered primarily in Victoria, British Columbia.
Their colourful personalities were in
step with the frontier atmosphere of
the community at that time. Often
having worked at the outlying trading posts, they had direct connections with Indian artists and
agents along the coast and were instrumental in providing goods to
purchasing agents for the larger
museums and other collecting institutions.
In turn, the museums were important in promoting an awareness
of Northwest Coast Indian art
among the general public throughout North America and Europe. The
curio dealers sought to take advantage of this awareness as Victoria
RG Historical News began to put greater economic emphasis on tourism. The dealers also
attempted to equate local Indian
art with civilizations more familiar
to tourists such as those of ancient
Egypt and Phonecia. Promotional
material published by the dealers
themselves often referred to the relationship between their businesses
and the museums, implying that a
tourist could buy an artifact of the
same quality as one owned by the
Smithsonian Institute, and to own
an artifact from the Northwest
Coast was similar to owning, for example, an ancient Greek vase. This
ploy seems to have been economically viable enough to have gained official sanction from Victoria Tourist
Development Agency. While native
Indians were not treated any better
than they had been before, by 1903
to 1906 it is evident that Euro-
Canadians had recognized the
drawing power and economic value
of their art. As far as the white man
was concerned, the number of white
residents in British Columbia,
Indian Christianization and the
slow pacification of Indian land
claims eliminated the Indians as a
threat. Their traditions could now
be used to further the economic prosperity of the region. The economic
and political atmosphere in the
province and the direct involvement
of the dealers thus promoted an appreciation of local indigenous art.
Although dealing in Native art
frequently began as a side venture,
the market proved lucrative and
most dealers soon chose to concentrate their business efforts on selling Native artifacts. The most prosperous period was in the last
decade of the nineteenth century. At
this time, the market was big
enough to allow for four shops at
one time. This competition encouraged more creative marketing techniques and led to the publication of
advertising materials such as
pamphlets and postcards. The more
successful dealers, like Stadthagen
and Landsberg, also leaked news of
large sales to the local media, hoping to establish a legitimate reputation and to encourage local interest
and patronage.
The promotional material published by Landsberg in particular,
including his manipulation of the local press, encouraged the recognition of Indian art as part of British
Columbia's official heritage.
Although Landsberg's motives were
primarily commercial, his newspaper articles and selling policies
helped spark a genuine concern for
the loss of Indian relics to foreign,
particularly American, collectors.
This was reflected in public concerns
over the British Columbia Provincial
Museum's buying policies and probably contributed to the increase in
its budgets for Northwest Coast artifacts.
Ron Hawker prepared this paper while
he was a student at University of Victoria.
Since obtaining his AfA. in History, he has
moved to Japan where he and his wife are
teachers of English at a college in
1. A.G. Burkart and S. Medlik, Tburismi Past, Present
and Future, London: Heinemann 1974, pp. 5-22
2. EdwardJ. Hart, The Selling of Canada, The CPR and
the Beginning) of Canadian Tourism, Banff: Altitude
3. Ted C. Hinckley, "The Inside Passage: A Popular
Gilded Age Tour," Pacific Northwest Quarter^ Volume
56, No. 2, April 1965, pp. 69-71.
4. Charles Lillard, Seven Shilhiip A Years The History
af^fancouverldBnd,Horsdal and Schubert 1986, p.
5. Douglas Cole, Captured Heritas* The Scramhle for
Northwest Coast Artifacts, Douglas and Mclntyre
1985, p. 287.
6. Ibid, pp. 90-92.
7. British Colontat, August 10,1886, p. 3.
8. Ddd.p.3.
9. Cole, Captured Heritage, pp. 84-85, 181-182, 197, 290.
10. Cole, Captured Heritage, pp. 83.
11. Victoria Gazette, April 14,1859.
12. British Colonist, September 16,1861, p. 3.
13. Ibid, November 13,1861, p3.
14. Md,December31,1864,p.3
15. Cole, Captured Heritage* p. 137.
16. British Colonist, December 14,1904, p.5.
17. Cole, Captured Heritage, p. 233-234.
18. Ibid, p. 246.
19. Henri Stadthagen to CF. Newcombe, November 28,
1922, volume 5, file 136, Newcombe Papers.
20. British Colonist, March 12,1899, p.5
21. Cole, Captured Heritage, p. 246.
22. Ibid, pp. 145-146.
23. British Colonist, September 16,1900, p. 5
24. Cole, Captured Heritage, p. 197, 247-248.
25. British Colonist, August 7,1903
26. Cole, Captured Heritage*
27. Cole, Captured Heritage.
28. Frederick Landsberg to CF., December 4,1906,
Volume 4, file 92, Newcombe Papers.
& Amelia
by Shelagh Dehart
Marianne, wife of Chief Pierre
Kinbasket, was not born yet when
the Shuswap men first went to
"Kinbasket Country" in the
Columbia Valley. Pierre was a
young boy when he came to the Big
Bend country with his father on one
of the early trips. There were times
when Marianne spoke wistfully of
her life as a child with her brothers
and half sisters, "Oh my beautiful
lakes. There they sit without me. I
am here because I have to be where
my husband is." The lakes she was
referring to are Adams Lake,
Shuswap Lake, and Kamloops
Lake. Their permanent homes were
at Adams Lake but they roamed
around Sicamous, Kamloops,
Enderby and eastward. They
stayed clear of the Vernon and
Penticton Indians because they
were hostile toward them. In winter
they lived in pit houses covered with
timbers, insulated with birch bark,
and entered by a ladder placed in
the smoke hole. Close to their pit
home there would be storage pits -
clay cellars lined with birchbark
where dried meat and berries were
She was ten years old when she
was baptized by a Catholic priest.
His name was Per Sak (Per usually
means Father). Her father had two
wives. The priest told him he had to
keep only one wife. That was the
saddest day in her young life; a
great shock to the family, She often
said it was as if Death had come to
claim their other mother. Marianne
believed in native superstitions
when she was young, but became a
very religious person when she
joined the Catholic Faith.
When they were married, her
RC. Historical News
14 husband told her he was taking her
to a beautiful country. She was
frightened because she was going to
Kootenay country and one of her
cousins had been kidnapped from
Adams Lake by some Kootenays.
They came on horses through the
Rogers Pass following a narrow
trail. Some parts of the trail were
steep rocky slopes which were made
passable with a lashed corduroy of
trees known as "horse ladders". Her
new home was somewhere south of
Golden. Their first child was born
before they came to settle at
Stoddart's Creek near Athalmere.
She had four girls. A baby boy died
and that ended the line of hereditary chiefs. At the time of Father
Fouquet and Brother Burns three of
her daughters were sent to St.
Eugene Mission School. They were
Amelia, Angelique and Rosalee.
Most foods were boiled but some
had to be roasted. Roots for winter
use were baked on hot rocks in the
ground. They used elk meat, moose,
deer, sheep, goat, beaver (fresh
only), marmot, bear, and porcupine;
dog-teeth daisies, tiger lilies, bitter-
root (the bulbs only), wild carrots so
sweet and crisp eaten raw, wild potatoes, onions, saskatoon and so
many kinds of berries. They used
bitterroots to thicken saskatoon
stew, and in other dishes too. The
old people never used salt or sugar
on food. During the winter they had
to soak food overnight to prepare to
cook the next day. Dry meat and
corn took two days soaking to make
them eatable. For tea they used
Hudson Bay tea, broth, or many
kinds of leaves from trees - some of
these had to be dried. They had no
use for "dirty meat" meaning pork,
horsemeat, chickens and eggs,
though they sometimes gathered
duck or goose eggs. A treat was the
inner bark of young pine trees in
spring time. Fun food was soap berry whip. The hostess puts soap berry juice in a dish and whips it with
a wad of soft grass. When thick her
guests sit all around her and start
eating it from the dish with forked
sticks. If they have enough to eat of
it - all is well. But if it begins to look
low and they know that there is not
going to be enough to satisfy their
appetite, the air gets thick and uncomfortable. The hostess, if she's
quick enough, suddenly leaps away
from the group and runs for her life.
If they catch her they rub her face
and head with her grass whipper
and crown her with her dish. Her
screams, the noise and laughter,
one can imagine!
Chief Pierre lost his sight while
still a robust man due to an injury
to his eyes. Marianne helped her
blind husband to clear land. He dug
out boulders, sawed trees and logs.
Marianne directed him with,
"Higher," "Lower", "A bit to the
right", "Left" or "Jump to the
right." Poor man, he got hit on the
head one time from a falling limb
and his wife came close to tears to
see him hurt.
They used goose grease for skin
lotion; balsam tree resin for skin
troubles; juice of a certain kind of juniper needles for laxative. The
chiefs wife had been a midwife before she left her country and continued her job until the doctors came to
the valley. She brought into this
world the first white child born in
the Windermere country. The son of
Jack Taynton was born at Sinclair
(now called Radium). They named
him after his Uncle Bill Taynton,
formally known as William Sinclair
because he was born at Sinclair.
Marianne pulled out her own teeth
when she had to.
Marianne lived at Kinbasket
Lake with her cousins when the
men went there to hunt caribou.
While there they looked after graves
left during previous camps there.
She never went to the prairies with
her husband because there was always the danger of running into
Blackfoot bands. She had seen returning buffalo hunters badly
wounded on her first trip to Fort
Steele. Her mind was set that she
would have nothing to do with future trips to the prairies.
The Kinbaskets had a little
chapel in the log cabin that they
built.   Even   in   her   eighties,
Marianne Kinbasket walked the
three miles to church winter and
summer. When she left home to live
with her daughter Amelia, somebody went into the empty housed
and took all the framed holy pictures, vases, statues, and rosaries
from the chapel. Taken as well were
treasured old letters from Father
Coccola and Bob Galbraith, post
cards and other items. The correspondence between Pierre and his
friends was done by daughter
Rosalee when the old chief lost his
Marianne loved animals. She
talked to them and they seemed to
understand. When she called them
by the name they came running,
even squirrels became friends. She
had two pet beavers in a pond by
her house; they were tame. One day
a white man came and opened the
dam; away the beavers went, sailing down the creek to the Columbia
River which was only half a mile
from her home. Marianne was kind
and very patient. She had time to
comfort and wipe away the tears of
young and old, to taste water from
each pailful (lard pail) of water that
her grandchild brought in from the
creek just to please her. If she was
home when a cowboy or hunter
stopped at her cabin he was sure to
get a cup of tea and all the bread
and butter he could eat. She made
her own butter and baked her own
bread. Many times she served tea to
Bob Galbraith, the Indian agent.
When her husband died she
lived first with her daughter
Rosalee. When Rosalee was killed
by a horse, she went to live with another daughter, Amelia. One day
she was clearing a part of her land,
said she didn't feel like her old self,
and took to her bed. She died seven
days later in August 1933 at age
Amelia Kinbasket was born in
the Columbia Valley. She went to
school at the age of fifteen to the St.
Eugene Mission school, then a
frame building close to the St.
Mary's River bridge. There she met
RC. Historical News Father Fouquet, Brother Burns and
the nuns. The students had to learn
the English language (from French
Canadian nuns) and do all the
housework. They were given lessons
on how to cook, bake, preserve meat
and fruit, knit sew and crochet. She
managed third grade in three years
but had to leave school at eighteen
because that was the law of the
Amelia worked as a helper or
baby-sitter for some of the early settlers in the Windermere Valley. She
was married in 1903 by Father
Nicholas Coccola to William Hobbs
Palmer from Amherst, Nova Scotia.
They lived in a teepee for a time till
they were able to buy land at
Stoddart's Creek. They cleared the
land with hard work and good old
dynamite. Amelia raised cattle,
hogs, chickens, saddle horses and
Percherons. The horses were sold to
road camps along with potatoes,
vegetables, meat, butter and eggs.
She did mending for road gangs
and tanned deer hides to make
clothing. (The Shuswaps didn't do
beadwork in the old days. They copied that kind of work from the
Kootenays in later years. Her mother tells of Shuswaps diving into
Adams Lake for colored beads, but
they were used for necklaces only.)
Amelia and her husband
trapped fur bearing animals in the
first years of their marriage.
William was soon able to purchase
enough tools and land at Wilmer,
B.C. where he set up a blacksmith
shop where he was kept busy for
years. Amelia kept the trapline going besides her other business.
Although she had only a grade
three education she was good at addition and subtraction. We suppose
this stems from every day dealings
that had been going on for years.
When a fur buyer handed her money for some muscrat pelts, she
scoffed and said, "Pshaw! Can't you
Amelia and her husband were
two busy people. She spent much
time with her own affairs and he
had his own jobs. When she was
younger, too busy to manage her
home, a native girl was live-in babysitter and housekeeper. There was
always a handyman living in the
old log house, behind the main
house, usually these were men happy to have a place to stay and work
for their board.
Around 1928 Palmer sold his
business in Wilmer when motorized
farm machinery and cars became
numerous in the Windermere country. He then went to work for the
Government as Grader man with
his team of Percherons. Wages were
low. From then on he went downhill.
Amelia had seven daughters.
She sent them all to the St. Eugene
Mission School near Cranbrook.
They were to learn the Catholic
Faith and not follow their father's
nonsense. He was a non-believer but
had promised the priest that he
would join the church; that he never
did. She hoped or wished that her
daughters would marry native men.
Only one daughter did; she married
a Kootenay whom she met at St.
Eugene's Mission.
Amelia Palmer was a person
who moved fast in more ways than
one. IMPATIENT! She would never
repeat an order or command to her
children. "Why waste my breath?"
The leather strap was always on
the wall ready for use if needed.
One thing Amelia was never happy
with was the root cellar that her
husband had built. "An Indian cellar is best!" She dug this herself.
When finished it was a hole in the
ground eleven or twelve feet deep,
about 35 or 40 feet in circumference
at the bottom but a narrow opening
at the top. She used a pick and
shovel, put the gravel in a bucket,
sent it up on a cable on a pulley
hung from a tripod over the hole.
Her saddle horse attached to the
cable pulled it up when she yelled
"Git ap". She then climbed out of
the hole by her ladder and emptied
the bucket. It took her a year to finish the cellar.
In the '30's she occasionally had
families camp at her place and pas
ture their horses in her lower field.
She fed many people, men especially, who came to her door for food
and lodgings, She would have her
husband take them to the barn and
put them up in the hay loft. Some
came in old cars. One prairie family
had a milk cow on a rope tied behind the wagon. These people were
coming from the "dust bowls" of
Alberta and Saskatchewan on their
way to a better land.
Things don't always go smoothly with most of us. So it was with
Bill and Amelia. Come election
times they were sure to have disagreements about the candidates. He
was always Liberal and she
thought the Conservative Party was
best We have known them go their
separate ways to the polls at
Athalmere on voting day. Once he
drove away without her, so she
jumped on her saddle horse, took
the short-cut along the C.P.R.
tracks, and voted before him.
Another time he drove away to the
polls alone and she followed him in
her old Ford Car. Amelia had a trick
up her sleeve: if she wanted to talk
to her people about something that
neither her husband or children
should hear she conversed in
Chinook. Despite the bickering,
Amelia missed her husband after
his death. She seemed to lose interest in everything. She sold most of
her cattle and horses and sold her
property - 309 acres to a son-in-law
for $1.00, then sat around saying
"Any socks need mending?" and "I
am good for nothing!". This hard
working, vigorous woman died in
Windermere and District Hospital
in June 1957 at the age of seventy-
Author Shelagh Dehart recalls that her
mother seemed cold and too busy to spend
time with her children. Young Shelagh loved
her grandparents and was loved in return.
Grandmother Marianne designated Shelagh
as the Kinbasket family historian, a role she
has fulfilled for most of her 70+ years.
RC Historical News
16 Affair of the Magistrates
by Helen M. Coyle
In the hurly-burly world of the
Fraser Valley Gold Rush it became
apparent to James Douglas that
some instrument of law and order
was necessary. He asked for and received help from the House of
Commons in London. Thus it was
that the Royal Engineers arrived in
Victoria in October, November and
December 1858. Two sections of the
engineers and Governor Douglas
proceeded to Langley; where on the
fifteenth of November 1858, the official birth of the Province of British
Columbia occurred.
The first military service of the
Royal Engineers was the following
At Yale was a resident
Magistrate Whannell. Two miles
further down the river at Hill's Bar
was another resident Magistrate,
Perrier. Between these two
Magistrates there was bitter jealousy.
On Christmas Day, Farrell, a
miner at Hill's Bar, went up to Yale
to celebrate. He imbibed much too
freely. As he strolled down the street
he saw a Negro, Dickson by name,
standing by the door of his own barber shop. Farrell, heavily loaded
with Christmas spirit and an aggressive nature committed a serious
and unprovoked attack on Dickson.
The news travelled quickly to
Hill's Bar. Here Magistrate Perrier
decided that Farrell resided at Hill's
Bar and should have imbibed at
home and decided to investigate the
incident; despite the fact that it had
not occurred in his jurisdiction. He
sent a constable to Yale with a war
rant for the arrest of Farrell.
Before the constable had been
able to reach Yale, Farrell had been
arrested and locked up for contempt
by a constable on the advice of the
Yale Magistrate Whannel. When the
constable from Hill's Bar reached
Yale with the warrant he was also
arrested and locked up for contempt
of court for daring to enter Yale for
such a purpose. The Yale
Magistrate thought this was a reflection on his impartiality. This action enraged the Magistrate at Hill's
Bar. To further complicate matters,
Ned McGowan of Hill's Bar presumed to advise Magistrate Perrier.
Ned McGowan had been a judge in
California. The Magistrate took Mr.
McGowan's advice. The Hill's Bar
Magistrate issued an arrest for the
Yale Magistrate, Whannell, and his
constable for contempt in arresting
the Hill's Bar constable.
On a "posse conitatus" from the
Bar, McGowan and his friends entered the town of Yale, arrested the
Yale Magistrate and his constable,
opened the jail, released the Hill's
Bar constable and took possession of
the original offender.
When the whole matter came before the Hill's Bar Magistrate heavy
fines were assessed. Whannell, the
Magistrate from Yale, was fined for
contempt of court.
This type of action was not acceptable to Whannell. He send word
to Governor Douglas at Victoria that
Ned McGowan, whom he depicted as
a renegade of renegades, was not to
overthrow British power in the colony.   The  Governor  called  upon
Colonel Moody to put down a supposed rebellion. Twenty-five sappers
under Captain Grant as well as a
party of bluejackets and marines
made their way up to Yale. They
were accompanied by Chief Justice
Begbie to dispense justice; they also
took with them a field-piece - not
knowing what to expect.
When the whole company
reached Yale, all the pertinent facts
of ":Ned McGowan's War" were revealed. The result of this "comic opera" was that Ned McGowan entered into an elaborate and
successful defence of his conduct in
the whole affair. After showing the
Chief Justice and the officers how to
pan for "pay dirt", McGowan hosted
them to a champagne lunch in his
hut. But both Magistrates lost their
The Royal Engineers returned
to Langley with never a shot fired,
and ":Ned McGowan's War" became
only an amusing anecdote.
Note: Mrs. Coyle researched this
while she lived in Chilliwack. She
now resides in Princeton where she
has served as Curator of the
Princeton Museum since 1979.
Royal Engineers in British Columbia 1858 -1863.
His Honour Frederick Howby
Richard Wolfenden, Victoria, B.C. 1910
RC Historical News Primo
by Ralph Brine
I wonder how many Galianoites
realize that our 'sceptered isle' was
not the first in B.C. waters to be
named after Commander Dionisis
Alcala Galiano of the Spanish Navy.
And further that Valdes Island our
immediate neighbour to northward
also had a forerunner. The unearthing of this bit of geographical trivia
began last winter upon receipt of a
letter from a relative in England.
The missive was to point my wife
and I onto a sleuthing foray which
at first seemed like a wild goose-
chase but ultimately turned out to
be a journey of discovery
The instigator of our investigation was Peter Bowsher, a member
of London's legal profession and,
like myself, somewhat of a history
buff. While engaged in research
work he had come across a copy of
an Act of Britain's Parliament which
stated that a sum of £150,000 was
to be allocated as a temporary advance to the Government of British
Columbia, Canada. The intent of
the loan was to enable the
Government of British Columbia to
set aside specified properties and
make them available to impoverished Scottish crofters. It was hoped
that these fresh and hungry immigrants could be employed in a newly financed deep-sea fisheries industry proposed for B.C.'s west coast.
In  June  of 1892  the  British
1897 Map by OB. Martin - Chief Commissioner of Hands and Works. P.A-B.C. No. CM/W29
RC Historical News
lo Parliament passed an Act and the
B.C. Legislature passed two Acts
laying out the conditions relative to
their purpose. Peter sent along copies of the three Bills in question,
mentioning that "Galiano' could be
found on Schedule A of B.C.'s second
In his letter Peter expressed the
desire to contact descendants of the
settlers who had come out under
this scheme. He was looking for letters, family reminiscences and photographs that might relate to the
relatively recent migration. If we
could provide some local contacts he
would endeavour to trace the family
connections from his end. He concluded with: "Is this of any interest
to you or has it all been researched
before? I see from the telephone directory that there are many Mes
and Macs on Galiano -—."
To say that my interest was
aroused would be putting it mildly.
Marney and I, as members of the
Gulf Islands Chapter of the B.C.
Historical Federation, had attended
several lectures sponsored by the society and had talked to fellow members whose Gulf Island ancestry
went back as far as the mid 19th
century. However we couldn't recall
anyone making reference to a government sponsored, land settlement
immigration policy of that era. I
opened our 'A Gulf Island
Patchwork' put out by the B.C.
Historical Federation as well as
Marie Elliott's 'Mayne Island and
the Outer Gulf Islands, A History',
to no avail. I contacted Marie Elliott
by telephone thinking that perhaps
she had unearthed some relevant
material since her publication. She
confessed that what I was reporting
was all news to her. She suggested
a trip to the B.C. Archives in
Victoria might be helpful.
I phoned several old time families from Galiano and Mayne such
as the Stewards, the Robsons, Mary
Harding and Wibur Deacon; I drew
a blank. They all knew of longstanding residents with Scottish
backgrounds but the arrival times
didn't jibe with the 1890's period.
None of them had heard of
hordes of Mighty Macs invading the
Gulf Islands. The rhetorical question I got back was, "I thought crofters were farmers, not fishermen?"
The only fishing industry around
this area with racial connotations
were the Japanese with their salter-
ies. Peter was right in saying that
there seemed to be a good smattering of Mes and Macs aboard Galiano
but by and large their immigration
papers are stamped 'Kerrisdale',
'Shaughnessy' or some other minor
fiefdom on the lower mainland of
The final phone call I made was
to Alistair Ross, an active member
of the north-end Galiano
Community. As his name implies,
Alistair has Highland blood in his
veins. Although the founder of
Scottish Country Dancing on
Galiano and with a keen interest in
local history, like the others, he had
no knowledge of any massive transfer of Scots from their crofts to the
rocky shores of Galiano. However
since he was contributing news from
the North End to the Galiano chapter of the Driftwood, the weekly
newspaper published in Ganges on
Saltspring Island, he said he would
bring the matter to public attention
by inserting a 'search' article in his
With that our investigation
ceased until the spring of '88.
Waiting for us on our return was a
handwritten letter from a Mr. W.
Norton of Vancouver who had this to
say: "I have been given a clipping
from the Driftwood of Jan. 27 in
which your friend in England appeals for information regarding the
crofters who emigrated under the
British Scheme as the B.C. Gov't
failed to accept the British loan.
The only crofters who came to
Canada with Gov't assistance settled in the prairies in 1888 and
1889. An article on the proposed
B.C scheme appeared in B.C.
Studies about 5 years ago. The author was Jill Wade. Sorry to be the
bearer of bad news but I thought
your friend might appreciate know
ing. Yours', etc.
Well if Mr. Norton was right it
certainly explains why Gulf
Islanders hadn't been struck with a
Celtic cultural shock. If such a thing
had occurred we might have become
another Cape Breton with tartans
drying on the clotheslines and attendance at Gaelic night school
classes 'de rigueur'.
I re-read the documents Peter
had sent. Coming across the reference to "Galiano' again it stated under the heading Goletas Channel to
Quatsino Sound: "The unallotted
portions of townships 30 and 39
and west half of 28, townships 41,
42, 35, 34 and 22 with the Cox,
Lanz, Galiano, Balaclava, Hirst and
Gordon Group of Islands."
Suddenly the light came on. I
wasn't sure about Goletas channel
but I did know that Quatsino Sound
was on the north west coast of
Vancouver Island, far removed from
our Galiano between Porlier and
Active passes. A quick look at chart
#3001 for Vancouver Island confirmed that the area in question
was indeed the northern tip of
Vancouver Island and some of the
islands such as Cox, Lanz and
Balaclava are shown. However in
spite of the scale of about three
miles to the inch, I could find no
sign of a Galiano. Either the chart
was of too small a scale and
Galiano a mere unlabeled dot or
some clerk of the Legislature had
made a mistake, or there had been
a name change.
We now had two reasons to visit
the B.C. Archives - to search in the
library for Jill Wade's article and
the Map Room to track down the
anomaly of another Galiano. In the
library we soon located Jill Wade's
report in the Spring of 82 edition of
B.C. Studies #53 and had a copy
made of it. But upstairs in the map
room we found the solution to that
'other' Galiano. An Arrowsmith map
of the 1850's showed, off the north
eastern tip of Vancouver Island, just
below the 51st parallel of latitude
and about 300 miles to northward
of our residence, two adjacent is
RC. Historical News lands called Valdes and Galiano.
What a shock! Aware that 'our
Galiano had been named after the
first European known to have seen
our verdant shores it was a bit of a
come-down to find out that we were
not, as it were, "originals', after all.
It was Galiano himself who had
named the first one. The B.C. Pilot
of 1898 had this to say of Galiano:
"The largest of the islands on the
north side of Goletas channel, is
nearly 8 miles long and 3 1/2 broad.
Mt. Lemon, a remarkable peak of
conical shape 1,200 feet high, arises
near its south-west part and Magin
saddle consisting of two peaks. 700
and 800 feet high, is situated at
less than one mile from the western
extreme of the island. — The south
side of Galiano is high, steep-to,
and cliffy; —.
If our Galiano looks like an upside-down Scottish 'crummoch' the
upstart Galiano is shaped like an
equilateral triangle. A check with a
modern map indicated that the two
islands in question are now Hope
instead of Valdes and Nigei in place
of Galiano. The channel that separates them from Vancouver Island is
still called Goletas, a name supplied by Galiano which was Spanish
for 'schooner'. The Sutil and
Mexicana under his command were
both schooner-rigged. Other maps
indicated that Valdes had been
changed to Hope by 1866 but that
the Galiano switch didn't take place
until 1900, as indicated by Captain
John Walbran's 'B.C. Coast Names'.
In it he gives "Nigei' as a footnote
to Galiano Island. Following that
heading one learns that: "The name
of this island previous to 1900 was
Galiano, given by the Spanish explorers Galiano and Valdes in 1792.
It was changed to Nigei by the
Geographic Board of Canada to
avoid duplication of names, there
being another Galiano island
named by Capt. Richards in 1859 to
the southward of the Strait of
Everything seemed clear to us
at last. In going over the material of
his   legal   research   the   name
"Galiano" must have leapt out at
RC Historical News
Peter, knowing as he did that we
lived on a 'Galiano Island'. Since
that was the only name familiar to
him he would naturally assume it
was part of the Gulf Island group in
the Strait of Georgia, approached by
ferries from the mainland and
Vancouver Island. And further, having just read that financial arrangements for transplanting Scots to
Galiano - a bit of 'scotch on the
rocks', had been passed by both institutions, the one in Great Britain
and the other in B.C., he would
again naturally assume that such
legislation would amount to a fait d'
accompli. How was he to know that
our mutual 'ships-of-state' had wobbled a bit as democratic ships are
wont to do. Continuing with a naval
analogy one might say that their
political edicts when labeled as
boats of the Fleet have a tendency
to run aground on many unseen
shoals. At the last moment they
may suddenly veer off on some new
tack or perhaps founder and sink altogether into oblivion. The latter
happenstance was the subject of Jill
Wade's paper, 'The "Gigantic
Scheme"; Crofter immigration and
Deep-Sea Fisheries Development for
British Columbia (1887-1893)'.
Jill Wade's story is an interesting and well documented one of seventeen pages. The gist of it is that
the British Government was interested in making a token assistance
to impoverished hill farmers of
Scotland, who, for various reasons
were causing disturbances in 1883
that came to be called the 'Crofters
War'. As it was, and is, the way of
governments, a commission was appointed to study the matter and
draw up a report. One of the recommendations from the committee was
for a state assisted emigration plan
for displaced crofters and cottars,
particularly those from the northern
Hebrides and adjacent coasts of
Ross and Sutherland, the centre of
the disturbances.
Meanwhile on this side of the
Atlantic an enterprising immigrant
by the name of Alexander Begg
(who Jill Wade reported as "having
pursued a varied and eventful ca
reer as teacher; journalist and civil
servant during his forty years in
Canada") had been reading accounts of the social problems of his
homeland in the local newspapers.
A descendant of Caithness crofters,
partly out of sympathy for his relations who were under duress and
perhaps for more worldly designs,
he put together a proposal for crofter colonization and presented it to
B.C.'s Lieutenant Governor. In the
fullness of time the cabinet, then the
Legislature agreed to the proposition and appointed Begg the emigration commissioner, without pay.
Begg journeyed to the Old Country
and endeavoured to enlist the support of Scottish philanthropists.
Finding none he then approached
Lord Lothian, Cabinet Secretary for
Scotland. He rather liked the idea
and promptly steered the measure
through the proper channels,
Presto, Alexander Begg had a deal.
The British Government agreed to
advance a loan of £150,000 to the
B.C. Government for transferring up
to twelve hundred and fifty crofter
families to the west coast of
Vancouver Island.
Both governments hemmed and
hawed for awhile with not a great
deal happening. Then Begg hustled
around the financial district of
London and succeeded in gaining
the interest of a Major William
Clark and a Colonel WJ. Engeldue.
The two entrepreneurs laid the nucleus for The Vancouver Island
Development Syndicate. Its role
was that of a commercial enterprise
to sponsor both a fishing industry
off the west coast of B.C. for the
crofters to be employed in as well as
a land development company to
parcel out bits and pieces to the arriving immigrants. With all the necessary measures in place, in 1892
both governments received royal assent for the appropriate Acts.
In order to bring in an outside
organization to run the rather large
undertaking, the Provincial
Government had to draw up quite
an attractive agreement for the developers. They were to be granted
up to half a million acres of public lands along portions of the coasts of
Vancouver Island and the Queen
Charlotte Islands and the mainland. The syndicate tried for a million and a third acres but they settled for the lesser amount. They
were also given a ten year moratorium on taxes. All in all the venture
seemed like a neat package that
should enable the developers to attract some risk capital.
John Robson, Premier of B.C. at
that time and an ardent supporter
of the project, initiated the phrase
the "Gigantic Scheme". He was invited to London to help in the final
agreement between the three concerned parties.
Then on the 30th of June the
figurative ship that was to rescue
the crofters ran into foul weather.
John Robson, the main push behind
the scheme, died that day. The ship
now pilotless ran helplessly before
any contrary winds that blew. The
first ill wind was political. The debate in Parliament had turned into
a typically democratic game with
leaders of the two parties having to
choose sides. Salisbury who was in
power was supportive of the plan so
naturally Gladstone, the leader of
the opposition party opposed it. In
that summer's election Gladstone
carried the day. The new government immediately reneged on the
Following this reversal of the
political winds the Syndicate had
trouble raising the necessary capital
to put things in motion. Finally, at
home, without the strong support
from Robson, the numbers of nays
gained an ascendancy over the
yeas. Many members of the
Legislature feared the political risks
involved in backing a commercial
project with taxpayers money.
Would that they could show such restraint today Others objected to the
grand 'give-away' of land and the
tax exemptions, as had been done
within living memory by both the
Imperial and the National
Governments when they had doled
out millions of acres of land to the
HBC and to the CPR.
By the winter of 1892 Begg's and
Robson's "Gigantic Scheme" was
dead, never to be revived. The coves
and hillsides of the West Coast
wouldn't become havens for the wild
men of the Highlands after all. The
skirl of the pipes and the gutturals
of the Gaelic would not be competing with the tom-toms and soft sibilants of the natives. The eagles and
ravens could rest undisturbed for a
few more years.
There is a postscript to add to
this Gulf Island 'mystery-name-
contest' that entails yet another mix
up of nomenclature. In the process
of putting together this tale I had
penned a letter to W Kaye Lamb,
the former Dominion Archivist of
Canada who had recently undergone some rather trying surgery. I
gave him a brief synopsis of this article. Dr. Lamb, who, in the words of
writer Peter Newman, is the foremost living authority on early North
West Canadianna, penned a reply
which said, in part:
"I can add a detail or two to the
Crofter story. Years ago there were
two men by the name of Alexander
Begg who were confused very frequently. Both were historians. To
add to the problem of keeping them
apart, both published histories in
the same year, 1894. One published
a History of British Columbia and
the other wrote a three-volume
History of the North West. By the
time I arrived at the Archives in
Victoria (prior to his appointments
as Librarian for U.B.C. and subsequently to Ottawa as Dominion
Archivist) 50 or so years ago, confusion between the two had become so
much of a nuisance that I asked
Madge Wolfenden (now Madge
Hamilton) to try and sort them out.
This she did in a very useful article
in the B.C. Historical Quarterly for
April 1937.
"All this is relevant because one
of the Beggs was involved in the
Crofter scheme. This was the Begg
who wrote the 'History of B.C.' He
was born in Scotland in 1825 and
came to Canada (Ontario) in 1846. I
quote the two bits of Madge's article
that are of interest in the present
'During a visit to his native land
in 1872, Alexander Begg was appointed Emigration Commissioner
in Scotland for the Province of
Ontario, with headquarters in
Glasgow. By virtue of his lectures
throughout Scotland, he succeeded
in persuading thousands of Crofters
to settle in Canada, where the
Government allowed them to purchase farms on easy terms.	
'[In 1888] he was appointed
Emigration Commissioner for the
British Columbia Government to investigate the possibilities of settling
Scottish Crofters on Vancouver
Island, a scheme which was eventually abandoned as impracticable. By
virtue of his government appointment he appended the initials CC.
(Crofter Commissioner) to his name,
in order to distinguish himself from
his namesake.'
"On the title-page of 'History of
B.C.' his name as author is given as
"Alexander Begg, CC."
So there you have it - a triple-
header comedy of errors with mistaken identities of islands,
Government edicts and historians,
all in one telling.
Perhaps one good thing has
come out of all this historical minutiae. If our relative from England
had known that the scheme was 'a
loan that never was' or if he had
been aware that the Galiano of
Goletas channel was not the
Galiano of Trincomali channel, why
we would not have found out that
this 'sceptred isle' that we live on is
merely Secundo Galiano rather that
Primo Galiano and this story may
never have been written.
The author is a hobby farmer
living on Porlier Pass Road on
RC Historical News The Old Murray Church
Murray Church repainted
Quilchena Hotel
Photo by Bern Bellinger
The old Murray Church in the
Nicola Valley has been restored by
loving hands. One hundred and ten
years of history had worn the ancient structure both inside and outside.
It is a great attraction for history buffs and tourists alike, and as
the new Coquihalla Highway has
opened much of the territory there
are more and more visitors.
A cluster of well matured buildings on Highway #5, are highlighted by a little steepled church and its
Built with a great deal of community effort, St. Andrews
Presbyterian Church was established in 1876. With a bell cast in
England and a stained glass window constructed by pioneer A.E.
Howse, it was quite resplendent. A
Reverend George Murray was sent
from Scotland to be the only
Presbyterian minister in B.C. His
parish was quite a revelation to
him, as he had to travel over a 600
mile area by horseback.
In the early days the church
RC Historical News
was used by both the Presbyterians
and the Methodists, and for a short
time by the Anglicans. Now an
United Church it is a colorful chapel
for ceremonies and weddings.
The Nicola Valley also has an
interesting past, and part of this is
related to the old Quilchena Hotel,
built in 1908 by Joseph Guichon. He
established it as a refuge for thirsty
cattlemen and for railroad men - but
the railroad never came.
The landmark was opened with
a great celebration drawing the populace from ranches and homes in
the valley. Unfortunately it was later closed until the 1950's when a
Guichon grandson, Guy Rose reopened and restored the hotel. Many
of the original furnishings are still
there - iron bed, wash stands, and
even a square grand piano. The
hostel, open spring, summer and
fall, offers a chance to relax into the
simplicity of ranch life, play the
nine hole golf course, or study the
bullet holes in the oak bar!
Nicola Lake and River were
named after a famous Indian chief
with a reputation; he had seventeen
Photo byBette Grace
wives. His unpronounceable name
was Hwistesmetxquen, or walking
grizzly bear. The early fur traders
found it easier to call him Nicholas.
In September, 1976, a 100th
anniversary service of the Murray
Church was held and very well attended. Through the years it had
been helped along the way - in 1926
it was reshingled and redecorated,
in 1965 the Merritt Kiwanis Club
had a cement foundation put in
place and they installed electric wiring. Later the fence was repaired
and just recently the 'comfortable
comfy little church' has received further tender loving care.
The old Murray Church is a
much appreciated little church in
the wildwood, where pioneers rest
in peace. News From Branches
Bicentenary of the Chinese
at Nootka
Following a year of intensive
historical, geographical and nomen-
clatural research, a suitable mountain was chosen to name in honour
of the Chinese settlers who largely
made up Captain John Meares' expedition to Nootka in 1788.
Over a period of six months enquiries had been made in the area
to verify that there was no known
name for the selected mountain.
Nevertheless, a few days before the
ceremony the native Indians protested that they really did have a
name, but having no written language, it was never recorded. To
avoid aggravating the ongoing confrontation at nearby Strathcona
Park, the naming was deferred.
Instead, the government proclaimed the following week of May
15 to 21st, "The Chinese Heritage
Week" in British Columbia. The ceremony took place on the
Bicentenary Day of May 13th,
1988, at the Parliament Buildings
in Victoria.
Among the dignitaries officiating at the ceremony were Elwood
Veitch, the Provincial Secretary; Bill
Reid, Minister of Tourism,
Recreation and Culture; and Bruce
Strachan, Minister of Environment
and Parks. The B.C. Historical
Federation was represented by 1st
Vice President, Mrs. Myrtle
Haslam, and Nanaimo was officially represented by Mayor Frank Ney
and Mr. Dave Stupich, MLA, together with a large contingent from its
historical and museum societies.
Historical and Chinese cultural
groups from Vancouver Island and
the lower Mainland were also at the
ceremony and a special guest was
Brian Watkins, the British Consul-
Mr. Strachan said that the government is actively seeking a suit
able mountain to name in order to
permanently commemorate these
Chinese pioneers.
It was disappointing that the
Vancouver news did not consider the
event of public interest. However,
Vancouver Island and the Chinese
language newspapers carried full
reports internationally.
Canada Post, having issued
Captain Cook and Captain
Vancouver stamps in the last ten
years, would not consider producing
further commemorative for west
coast history.
Jacque Mar,
Chairman, Bicentenary Project
Boundary Historical
To all members living outside
the Boundary District.
The annual picnic was held on
June 19 at the newly renovated
Fruitova School. The directors of the
Doukhobor Society of British
Columbia were very gracious hosts.
John Malloff, a former student of
Fruitova, gave a splendid description of life in the Doukhobor villages. We have a video of his excellent
presentation, thanks to Michael
Linley. The tour of the flour mill
was very interesting also.
The Executive spent considerable time on the Legion's proposal to
move the Phoenix Cenotaph to
Greenwood. We opposed the removal of this historic monument. We are
excited to announce that the
Boundary Historical Report #11 is
completed. The Publications
Committee hopes that you will enjoy the stories of our pioneers. We
have reached the stage in our history where we are celebrating centennials, two of which are recorded in
our 11th Report 100 years of postal
service in the Boundary and the beginnings of Carson in 1888.
Members of the Executive are
President Rose Gobeil, 1st V Pres.,
Stan Bubar, 2nd V Pres. L.
Sandner, 3rd V Pres. B. Bowron,
Secretary A. Glanville, Treasurer A.
Clapper, Membership and
Publications J. Glanville.
The Boundary Historical Society
plans to host the B.C. Historical
Federation in May 1990 at Grand
Alice Glanville
Tne Chemainus Valley
Historical Society
The Chemainus Valley
Historical Society was started in
1963 by Harry Olsen, the author of
Water Over the Wheel, and R.R.
(Dick) Pattison who was the owner
of Pattison Pharmacy. There were
24 charter members of the Society
and three of them were present at
the June meeting, namely, Audrey
Gin and Jack Howe of Chemainus
and Bill Stein of Nanaimo. One of
the best known of the charter members was H.R. MacMillan. At the
bottom of the original list of the
charter members, Harry Olsen
wrote "Mrs. Mollie Robinson was at
this time declared the first
Honorary President in recognition of
past efforts to preserve and record
local history."
Over fifty people crowded into
the lounge at the Harbor View
Apartments in Chemainus on June
RC Historical News 27th to celebrate the 25th
Anniversary of the Chemainus
Valley Historical Society. A short
business meeting was held presided
over by the President, Grace Dickie,
who welcomed members and visitors
from Victoria to Nanaimo. Everyone
was asked to rise individually and
introduce themselves.
Mayor Rex Hollett and Mrs.
Hollett were present and, when
called upon, Mr. Hollett brought
greetings from North Cowichan
Municipality and talked about the
beginning of the Historical Society
when Harry Olsen and Dick
Pattison were prominent figures in
the community.
Every year the Society gives a
three hundred dollar Bursary to a
student graduating from the
Chenainus Secondary School and
this year the award was won by
Jennifer Smith of Crofton, daughter
of Mr. and Mrs. Wes Smith. Jennifer
and her mother were guests at the
meeting and a cheque was presented to Jennifer by the Vice President
Gwen Hunter.
A "Show and Tell" evening had
originally been planned for June but
was postponed until the September
meeting. However, great interest
was shown in a picture of the 50th
Anniversary of the Victoria Lumber
Company taken in 1939, also a picture donated by Joe Sandland
showing 14 well remembered
Chemainus veterans of World War
Following the meeting everyone
was invited to sample the large
Anniversary cake as well as attractively arranged cheese trays plus
coffee and fruit punch.
Among those attending were
Mr. and Mrs. Dennis Beddows of
Victoria. Mrs. Beddows was formerly Geri Pattison, daughter of Dick
Pattison. Also present was Mrs.
May Wood of Duncan, daughter of
the late Mollie Robinson who was a
well known journalist in the area.
Mrs. Harry Olsen was unable to attend so Geri Beddows and May
Wood were asked to cut the anniversary cake.
RC Historical News
Burnaby Historical Society
The executive and members of
Burnaby Historical have been very
busy in the last two years. They
have been represented at B.C. H.F.
gatherings, Heritage Society of B.C.
meetings, Burnaby Municipal
Council, Burnaby Arts Council, and
with plans for twinning Burnaby
with Kushiro, Japan and
Loughborough, England. This
Society will host the 1992
Convention of the B.C. Historical
Federation, and they have invited
the Historical Society of Alberta to
make this a joint meeting (reflecting
the success of the joint meeting held
in Banff, May 1988.)
BHS President Evelyn Salisbury
represented the Society in the
Mayor's official party during a visit
to Loughborough, England, in July
1987. The Burnaby Teachers Choir
and private citizens were entertained by the Mayor and Mayoress
of Loughborough, and the local
Technical College. A plaque was unveiled above the tombstone of Robert
Burnaby. A member of BHS, in
1959, discovered and saved the
tombstone from demolition as grave
markers were being carted to the
dump when the overgrown churchyard was to be converted to lawn.
President Evelyn Salisbury
chose Heritage Week 1988 to make
a sixth appeal to Burnaby Council
requesting the establishment of a
Burnaby Heritage Advisory
Committee. Request granted.
There have been many successful meetings with outings and/or
guest speakers. The LOVE HOUSE
has been moved to Heritage Village,
saved from imminent demolition by
the intervention of BHS.
Evelyn Salisbury
East Kootenay Historical
Summer outings in 1987 came
in perfect weather following considerable advance publicity.
Attendance by members and interested citizens gave tour guides a
pleasant challenge. Bill Selby led
the tour in May on the south end of
the Spirit Trail (which runs between
Fairmont and Canal Flats on the
east side of Columbia Lake.): Vince
Downey arranged our visit to
Moyie: Skip Fennessy took us to
Isadore Canyon and the site of
Rampart Station.: Albert Oliver
gave us an excellent outing up
Perry Creek: and Vice President
Verdun Casselman led fifty visitors
up Wild Horse Creek to the carefully
marked area where a goldrush
started in 1864.
Guest of honor at the fall meeting was Frank Merriam of Creston
who had received an Award of Merit
from the B.C. Museums Association
a few days earlier. Frank has contributed to saving and recording history in the East Kootenays in many
Honored at the Spring 1988
meeting and luncheon were Bill and
Marjean Selby. These hard working
longtime members of our organization earned their meal by telling of
a recent visit to Kenya.
Summer 1988 saw equal publicity but poorer weather for scheduled
outings. Those that attended the
May outing to Grasmere had the
pleasure of the company of several
members of the Tobacco Valley
Historical group from Eureka and
Rexford, Montana. The St. Eugene
Mission Church and old Mission
school were displayed by members
of the St. Mary's Band. Bill Quaile
and John Kinnear hosted a visit to
Fernie and Hosmer.
Authors of this year's local history books were guests at the Fall
1988 meeting. Verdun Casselman
published Ties to Water, the history
of Bull River: Derryl White wrote
Fort Steele; Here History Lives and
Ellen Dixson represented a
Committee that prepared Moyie
Last but not least, a few volunteers from East Kootenay Historical
Association have undertaken the
duties of labelling, bundling and
mailing the B.C. Historical News
now originating in Cranbrook.
Edward Engel History Awareness Month
in Prince George
The Local History Committee of
the Prince George Public Library
held a series of programs in
February 1988 to salute the health
care in the community. The public
enjoyed speakers and slides on:
Five decades of medical history.
Remininscences about nursing
in Prince George in years past
A panel of Dentists discussing
the dentists and dentistry in earlier
A review of hospitals, emergencies, epidemics, native and white catastrophes.
These programs were well attended. The local newspaper participated by publishing several articles,
and putting out a weekend supplement largely devoted to the early
years of medical service to Prince
Information on history of skiing
Jorgen Dahlie is presently
working on a social history of skiing
in the Pacific Northwest with the
major emphasis on the period from
1915 to 1945. There is a special focus on the link between
Scandinavian immigrants and the
development of nordic skiing. He
would welcome information on ski
clubs, club projects, tournaments
and the like. Write to him at: 1141
Lawson Anvenue, West Vancouver.
Nanaimo Historical Society
Celebrates Its 35th Birthday
Long-serving members were
honored in September, 1988 as the
Nanaimo Historical Society celebrated its 35th anniversary.
Special invitations went out to
members from the 50's, 60's and
70's and to friends and relatives.
Minutes of first Historical
(left to right) Len NichoUs, Mildred Couture,
Peggy NichoUs and Mayor Frank Ney.
Meeting held June 20th, 1953 in
the Parish Hall of St. Paul's
Anglican Church was read. The first
President was Mr. J. C. McGregor.
Two of the founding members were
present, Mrs. Lillian Dixon and Mr.
T.D. Sale.
Displayed on the walls were resumes of Mr. J.C. McGregor, and
the officers of 1953. Also short histories of various families who came on
the "Princess Royal" in 1854.
(Researched and prepared by Peggy
Life membership scrolls were
presented to J. Len Nicholls, Past
President, Peggy Nicholls and to
Mildred Couture. Nanaimo
Historical Society's President, Mrs.
Daphne Paterson presented Mayor
Frank Ney with an honorary membership certificate in recognition of
his concern and interest in
Nanaimo's history.
A framed photograph was given
to Dr. Jacque Mar in Recognition of
his work in commemorating the bicentennial of the arrival of the first
Chinese on the West Coast of
Vancouver Island. The active participation in the work of the Society by
Pamela Mar, a Past President was
recognized by the presentation of a
hand-crafted inkstand with pen and
Many members and visitors entertained the meeting with anecdotes and stories of the past in
The concluding event was the
cutting of a birthday cake by Bill
McGregor, son of the first president
of the Society, and Mrs. Edna Ince.
Daphne Patterson
September 9th, 1988
Nanaimo, B.C.
Research Guide for Okanagan
The Central Okanagan Records
Survey is Part 1 of the Okanagan
Similkameen - Shuswap Records Survey.
This 123 page volume was published
Okanagan College Press in 1988. The
work was sponsored by the Social
Science and Humanities Research
Council of Canada under a Canadian
Studies Research Tolls grant. Historians
wishing to consult this volume may find
it in many libraries, or order a copy for
$10.00 from: History Department,
Okanagan College, 1000 KLO Road,
Kelowna, B.C. V1Y 4X8.
Research for this project was lead by
Dr. Duane Thomson, with the help of
Dr. Maurice Williams, historian, and
Kathleen Barlee, archivist. The publication lists the location of thousands of
documents ranging in scope from
Hospital Auxiliaries to Fruit Processing
Plants and private collections to Tribal
Council Records.
RC Historical News Bookshelf
"Books tbr review and book reviews should be sent dh^«tiy to the book review editor,
Anne Yandle, 3450 West 20th Ave., Vancouver, B. C. V6S 1E4."
Journal of a Voyage with Bering,
George Wilhelm Steller, edited by
O.W. Frost. Stanford University
Press, 1988. viii, 252 P. illus.,
maps, bibliography. $28.50
1991 will mark the 250th anniversary of the discovery of the
Northwest Coast of America by the
Bering expedition of 1741, and this
has prompted the publication of a
new edition of the journal of George
Wilhelm Steller, the German physician-naturalist who accompanied
Bering. A surprising variety of documents relating to Bering's voyage in
the St. Peter has survived, but
Steller's journal, though colored by a
strong prejudice against naval personnel, is perhaps the most interesting of them all.
The text has a curious history.
Steller wrote it in 1743, just three
years before his death in 1746 at
the early age of 37. It seems not to
have attracted much attention until
late in the century when Peter
Simon Pallas, a prominent naturalist, published a "reorganized, largely rewritten" version. In 1917 Frank
A. Golder found a copy of Steller's
original manuscript in Petrograd
and secured a photostat for the
Library of Congress. An English
translation was included by Golder
in the documentary collection entitled Bering's Voyages, published in
1922-25, but for some reason this
was based on the Pallas printed version and references to the original
were confined to footnotes. This new
edition can therefore claim to be "the
first English translation based completely on a surviving copy of
Steller's manuscript."
Steller was highly intelligent
and the range of his studies at sev-
RC Historical News
eral universities had included theology, philosophy, medicine, botany
and other natural sciences. But he
was a loner and arrogant in manner; and he was soon at loggerheads
with naval personnel, who chose to
ignore his expertise. In Golder's
words, "they hated him and he despised them." Matters did not improve when, after six weeks at sea,
Cape St. Elias on Kayak Island
loomed up ahead, with the mainland of America visible in the distance. Having located the continent,
Bering's sole object seems to have
been to return as quick as possible
to Kamchatka. Only shortage of water compelled him to allow two parties to land on the island. After an
altercation with Bering, Steller was
included in one of them, but his
shore time was limited to a few
hours - a maddening experience for a
naturalist making a first contact
with a land never before visited by a
scientist. When he begged for more
shore time, he was told to return to
the ship or be left stranded.
Later, homeward bound, the St,
Peter blundered into a Shumagin
Island, in the Aleutian chain, and
brief contacts were made with the
native Aleuts. Later still, after
storms and scurvy had taken a
heavy toll, the ship ran aground on
what became Bering Island - treeless and uninhabited, but teeming
with animal and bird life. Here, in a
measure, Steller came into his own.
Bering died within a few weeks and
Waxell and Khitrov, the ship's other
officers, were seriously ill. Steller, by
example, demonstrated means of
providing food and shelter and, more
important, saved the lives of many
of the crew by urging them to combat scurvy by eating salad greens
and fresh meat. (Previously he had
cured it by the use of scurvy grass,
gathered on the Shumagin Islands,
which Frost thinks was "probably
the first time in the history of nautical medicine that a ship's physician
successfully treated scurvy") The
best source of meat proved to be the
North Pacific manatee or sea cow, a
huge mammal then plentiful but
soon hunted to extinction by Russian
fur traders. It was the prize item
amongst the hundreds of plants and
many land and sea creatures that
Steller contrived to note and describe
in spite of most difficult conditions.
For some months the marooned
expedition was uncertain whether it
was on an island or had reached
some remote part of the Kamchatka
peninsula. By April 1742 this question had been settled, and the survivors set about building a smaller
craft with timbers from the wreck of
the St. Peter. St. Peter the lesser
was launched in the middle of
August and arrived safely in Avacha
Bay at the end of the month.
Despite Steller's efforts, only 46 of
the original ship's company of 78 returned to port.
The introduction is interesting
and informative and the same can
be said of the 40 pages of notes.
Frost has found Steller a fascinating
character. The maps are excellent.
The translation reads easily, but
once or twice a phase jerks it into
the 20th century. Thus Steller is
credited with having remarked that
he helped the survivors on Bering
Island "even though it was not in
my job description".
W. Kaye Lamb
Dr. Lamb, former Dominion
Archivist, is Honorary President of
the British Columbia Historical
Federation.. The Harrison-Cheehalis Challenge;
a brief history of the Forest
Industry around Harrison Lake and
the Chehalis Valley. Arnold M.
McCombs and Wilfrid W.
Chittenden. Harrison Hot Springs,
B.C., Treeline Publishing Company,
1988. 136 p. $15.00
Fiction with forest settings,
handbooks of forest biology and
technology, and forest surveys and
policy studies have been with us for
a long time in B.C., but personal
histories of any forest regions, apart
from promotional pamphlets of a
few industrial giants, are "like
hens' teeth". Here at last is one covering the whole history of one forest
area from beginnings in the early
1860's to the present, 1988. Both of
the authors have been engaged in
logging, mainly in the area, since
their boyhood skid-greasing or whis-
tle-punking days, and have known
personally many of its dominant
figures; however, there is nothing
promotional about the book.
As the authors say in the introduction, "The confines of a book of
this size preclude detailing every
happening and development in the
area. The book attempts to discuss
in sufficient detail, however, the major events, companies, and individuals to allow the reader to appreciate
some of the characters involved and
some of the flavor of what was happening at the time." Even in dealing with lumber and shingle mills in
the area and with steamboats on
the lake, the book is confined almost
exclusively to the influences these
had on the logging.
Some readers may have trouble
understanding technical terms relatively new to the industry, yet so familiar to the authors that they have
not thought to explain them. For example, since truck logging became a
mode, the length of the bunks became of importance. "Bunks?" Ah
yes, cross-beams of wood or steel
across the bed of the truck to support the logs laid lengthwise of the
truck and held securely between vertical stakes at both ends of the
bunks by chains around the load.
And what is a "cold deck?" A loose
pile of logs stored on the ground just
as dumped there by trucks, tractors
or cable "yarders". Tractors, called
"cats", short for caterpillars, are
common yarders now, meaning they
are used to haul logs from where
they were felled to a road-end or
loading deck. Cat yarders usually
have steel arches with tackle at the
summit to lift the front of the
"drag" of logs clear of the ground for
ease of hauling. It may be permanently attached to the rear of the
cat (a cat-arch) or close-hitched to it
on its own wheels (cat and arch).
The reader will soon accustom himself to these and other terms, but
one still puzzles this reviewer: what
is an "adverse road"?
The authors were obviously dependent on secondary materials to
start their story, for most of which
they were forced to rely on their own
memories and experiences - they are
not old men -and the memories of
friends connected in one way or another with logging in the two parallel valleys tributary to the Fraser by
way of the Harrison River, Harrison
Lake with its numerous tributary
streams and the Chehalis River
with its lake of the same name and
several tributaries. In Chapter 1
they simply inform us of the building of the first sawmill in B.C. by
the Hudson's Bay Co. in Victoria,
1848, followed by three other independent ones at Yale, Hope and
Douglas to serve those on their way
to the goldfields, around 1860.
Chapter 2 is also introductory,
sketching rapidly the shifts from
skid-road logging with oxen, then
with horses, then with steam "donkeys" for yarding, and railways to
replace the skid-roads and horses,
all in coast forest outside their area.
It also traces changes in provincial
forest policy from selling forest
licenses, which enabled speculators
to buy and sell timber without producing anything, to the "Forest
Act" of 1912 which created the
Forest Branch in the Department of
Lands, mainly for fire prevention,
but also to measure and collect for
timber taken from crown lands.
Chapter 3 summarizes the history
of steamboats on Harrison Lake,
from the gold-rush days to their replacement by tugs and launches
with internal combustion engines by
the 1920's.
The rest of the book deals more
directly and in detail with its subject as indicated by the following
chapter headings: 4, Sawmills and
shingle mills (1890-1948); 5,
Logging railroads (1920-1943); 6,
Trucks, wooden roads, and chutes
(1920-1945); 7, Early operators
(1890's-1945); The Independents
dominate (1945-1965); 9, CEP. -
Harrison Mills Division (1943-
present); 10, Present situation
(1988). Everything in these chapters originated or was still going on
within living memory
There are two further chapters,
one called "Miscellaneous" which,
apart from a note on the B.C. Forest
Service, is really the conclusion of
Chapter 3, with the advent of aeroplanes and helicopters; the other
chapter "Remnants of the Past"
tells where you may find relics not
only of logging and lumbering, but
also fishing, mining, trading and
social activities - a good tourist
guide to the area. The notes on
place names (water only) included
in chapter 11 might better have
been left for another appendix.
There are six appendices: a list
of interviewees and photograph
credits; three maps together showing the area in some detail in addition to the frontispiece map of the
Fraser Valley; a timber lease document of 1892 which shows how little of a human story can be found in
two and a half pages of legal jargon; a list of timber berths in the
area in the 1920's, with areas and
locations; a list of quote holders of
1962 with allowable annual cuts;
and a "General discussion of steam
donkeys". The information in this
last appendix might well have been
given at appropriate points in the
book but steam donkey buffs will
probably prefer this way.
The concentration on logging is
not just a predilection of the authors. Whereas small mills scattered through the coast woods were
RC. Historical News common at the turn of the century,
today milling is largely concentrated in large company plants on the
lower Fraser and around the Gulf of
Georgia. Logs for these mills are
transported by water over great distances and sorted to be made into
lumber, plywood or paper. Logs
from the Harrison area are mainly
so used. Where better to see the
modernization of the forest industry
than there?
NOTE: The most frequently
mentioned surname in the book is
Trethewey, father, five sons and
three grandsons. What is not mentioned is that Earle Brett, owner of
Brett Motors in Chilliwack and also
of several logging outfits on
Harrison Lake and first owner of
Lakeside Sawmills at Harrison Hot
Springs was also of this family. His
mother was a sister of the five
brothers names on page 51.
John Gibbard
John Gibbard, Professor
Emeritus at the University of B.C.,
is a member of the Vancouver
Historical Society.
Island in the Creek, the Granville
Island Story. Catherine Gourley.
Madeira Park, Harbour Publishing,
1988. 96 p. $14.95.
For visitors and newcomers to
Vancouver, Island in the Creek will
give a quick overview to Vancouver's
past as well as a history of
Granville Island. The book is easy
to read, and has many excellent
photographs, which may entice people to read a more thorough history
of our city.
Catherine Gourley has condensed the facts of Vancouver's
growth in relation to the rise of
Granville Island, to the way we see
the Island today.
One small point: on page 44
Gourley refers to the Prime
Minister's declaration of war on the
wireless on September 3, 1939. I
myself heard that announcement,
while living in Nanaimo, but we
called it radio at that time.
In her acknowledgements I
would rather have seen an acknowledgement to the Vancouver
Centennial Bibliography, published
by the Vancouver Historical Society,
as it was the publication consulted,
rather than members of the Society.
This is a trendy book for a
trendy place.
Peggy Imredy
Peggy Imredy is Past-President
of the Vancouver Historical Society.
People of the Snow: the Story of
Kitimat. John Kendrick. Toronto,
NC Press Limited, 1987. 179 p. illus., maps. $12.95
From Snowshoes to Politics. Cyril
Shelford. Victoria, Orca Book
Publishers, 1987. 289 p. illus.
In his preface to People of the
Snow, Kendrick writes that "This
book is the story of the sequence of
events that led to the creation of
Kitimat," and that it is also "a narrative of events the author has witnessed or in which he has participated." These comments
summarizes the matter of the work.
Kendrick is ideally positioned to
write about the founding of Kitimat.
He assisted in water surveys in
Ootsa Lake region of central B.C. in
the 1930's, long before the possibility of situating an aluminum smelter at Kitimat was recognized. After
the Second World War he was again
in the region, employed in the investigations into the possibilities of diversion of waters to enable large
scale hydro generation at tidewater
and then, when Alcan became involved, with the building of the
dams, the power plant at Kemano,
the transportation of power to a mill
site, the construction of the smelter
at Kitimat and the community adjacent to the mill. He stayed to live in
the new town.
For People of the Snow Kendrick
exploits his proximity to these
events. Essentially it is an autobiographical account, and a large part
of the attractiveness of the book lies
in that fact. He gives his readers his
own opinions freely and in doing so
he does not mince his words. One
need not agree with him. Of his
1937 wanderings in the vicinity of
Ootsa he writes: ":We were members of a survey party, an obsolete
form of human endeavour,: an observation which ignores that survey
parties of one kind or another, albeit
not of the precise nature of those of
the thirties and forties, are out in
the wilds of the province each year.
A couple of pages later he notes
that "Exploring British Columbia
was a slow fumbling business, often
producing results of doubtful accuracy," an assessment which ignores
that, faced with an awesome task,
the land and other surveyors of the
province were not only dedicated
outdoorsmen but also of marked
competence in their professional
work. On another occasion he writes
that "one survey camp story is
much like another," in spite of his
own stories which are often vivid
and interesting, and one man
whose way of life apparently did
not fit Kendrick's criteria he sums
up with "a strange existence for a
man admired by everyone he met."
One senses after a while that
Kendrick likes to make such personal observations off-the-cuff, in an almost cavalier tone, to spice up the
narrative. They certainly do that.
Kendrick's style is to introduce
each of his principal participants
with a short sketch, a few observations. This is a difficult thing for an
author to bring off consistently. He
succeeds by and large. One character he depicts as "a small man and
given to sitting in corners, but when
he spoke everyone listened." He
draws a wonderful picture of the
man sent in by Alcan to ease relations with those who were to be dislocated by the flooding of the areas
around Ootsa Lake. The dealings
with the residents had not gone
well, the big city men being unable
to empathize with the locals. Deep
antagonisms had developed.  "We
RC Historical News
28 then found Fred Rowland," he recounts, and Rowland
"agreed that he should go and
live at Ootsa Lake and try to salvage the situation. Fred had a sad
face, and a great capacity for looking sympathetic without actually
giving anything away.
Fred rented a house; it was one
of the log houses we had used as a
base for our survey parties. The rent
was later cited as evidence that the
property had valuable commercial
prospects. Fred dealt with this by
saying 'Oh, I don't think so.' Fred
being Fred, this was accepted."
There are many such fine episodes in the book. Kendrick's description of the building of the trans-
mission line from Kemano to
Kitimat, and of the problems of
maintaining it, are good history, a
fitting treatment of what he describes as "the best piece of engineering with which I have ever been
It is his ability to present clearly and simply, in language understandable to the layman, which is
most valuable in Kendrick's book.
Engineers have not often given such
vivid accounts of their experiences.
When he is discussing the planning
of the community of Kitimat, and
the social situation in the new town,
he is somewhat uncomfortable, not
quite at ease with his subject.
Included are sixteen pages of
photographs, two maps, an interesting bibliography, and an index.
Cyril Shelford's From
Snowshoes to Politics takes a more
conventional autobiographical form
than does Kendrick's book; where
Kendrick treats with a segment of
his life, Shelford follows, in sequence, the major periods of his. In
the first section of his book (54
pgs.), Shelford traces the years of
his youth in the Ootsa Lake region;
in the second (64 pgs.), his years in
the army during the Second World
War, principally with the invasion
of Sicily and the drive up the Italian
peninsula; and in the final section
(153 pgs.), the post-war years and
his political career in the B.C,
Legislature during which he served
as Minister of Agriculture. The story
is, as he promises the reader in his
introduction, of "a very eventful
life." It is a well paced account
crammed with rich detail.
The tone of the book is in large
part established by Shelford's inclusion of numerous short accounts of
people and incidents. Often these
seem to be included for their anecdotal interest alone, though many are
accompanied by "messages." The
result is something approaching the
homilies of a warmed-up preacher or
an Aesop. "If there is a message in
my life story," he writes, ":it is that
where there is determination, there
is hope, and that what may be seen
as a disadvantage, can often be
used to advantage." His own great
disadvantage ~ as he sees it - is
that he "never actually went to
school in the normal way," and
didn't "go on to higher education."
He wishes, however, to share his
lessons. His mother advises him,
"You never raise your stature by
tearing down the other fellow," to
which Shelford adds, "I often wish
our political leaders today would accept my mother's philosophy."
Another story prompts him to admonish his reader: "don't rely on
people until they are out to the test
and you know how they will stand."
He is something of a crusader, and
returns from the war "with the determination to do what I could to
make the world a better place to live
in." There are penetrating analyses
of political acquaintances: W.A.C.
Bennett's "mind worked so fast
when it came to politics that no one
I knew could keep up with him."
The son and heir to the political
leadership, Bill Bennet, does not
fare so well. Shelford has some interesting comments on the Bob
Sommers case, and on the weaknesses of our political system.
Throughout the book Shelford is
direct in his comments. The peace
movement of the 1930's and the
weaknesses of the politicians were
to blame for the inadequate state of
the defences of Canada and Britain
and so caused the loss of thousands
of lives. Pacifists were "either naive
idiots or in the enemy camp trying
purposely to weaken the nation."
Towards the end Shelford criticizes,
among others, the environmentalists ("wide-eyed radicals"), the
C.B.C. ("didn't appear remotely interested in the truth"), the churches
(for their political activities), public
opinion polls, the parliamentary
system. No holds barred. All wonderful stuff.
Through it all Shelford moves
his narrative well — and there is
good continuity. Photographs are
dispersed and are valuable complements to the text. There is an
"Index of names" which is incomplete and is more a pretense than
anything else. It has no useful purpose, and is not nearly complete for
the limited number of persons listed
in it. The misspelling of names is
disturbing. Minister of Lands, E.T.
Kenney, is spelled Kenny, as is the
dam named after him; Shelford has
Dease Island Tunnel for Deas
Island Tunnel, Kergan and Evett
for Kergin and Evitt, Sergeant for
members of the Sargent family of
Hazelton, Branka for Angelo
Branca. Throughout, Stuart River is
spelled Stewart, and then mention
is made of the "Granuoluc Mine,
north of Stuart," presumably the
Granduc outside Stewart. I am reminded of one character on the
Prairies who "wouldn't give a damn
for a man who couldn't spell a word
more than one way." There are
many other inaccuracies which
ought to have been eliminated. Ed.
Schreyer is listed as Lieutenant
Governor rather than Governor
General, and in an unfortunate paragraph on page 8, someone called
Simpson of the Hudson's Bay
Company is credited with the establishment of Fort St. James.
Naturally these inaccuracies cause
the reader to be suspicious of things
which cannot readily be checked. On
page 6, he states that his uncle
took the paddle-steamer from Port
Edward to Hazelton in 1912; quite
possibly, however it's much more
probably he would have taken the
boat from nearby Prince Rupert or
from Port Essington. The reader
RC Historical News must wonder.
People of the Snow and From
Snowshoes to Politics are very personal books, written with the clearly
stated opinions and feelings of their
authors. Neither is cold impersonal
history. They have the bumps and
warts of their authors, and that is
as it ought to be.
A New Council
John Spittle has represented
the B.C. Historical Federation at a
series of meetings with delegates
from other heritage oriented organizations. All attending gained considerable understanding of each
groups objectives and programs.
The exchange of ideas served to reduce duplication of effort in some areas, and promote cooperation wherever possible. The participating
organizations are: B.C. Museums
Association, Heritage Society of
B.C., Archaeological Society of B.C.,
Underwater Archaeologists, B.C.
Archivists, and our British Columbia
Historical Federation. The presidents of these organizations prepared the following statement to define a new Heritage Council.
Statement On The Organization
of The Heritage Council of British
Dated: June 27th, 1988
Name: The name shall be the
Heritage Council of British
Functions of the Heritage Council of
British Columbia
1. To review and recommend on
heritage related policy issues
and legislation as proposed by
government or as advocated by
the heritage community.
2. To share and disseminate information among the representatives to the Council who would
take such information back or
bring it forward from their respective groups.
Federation Affairs
Organization of the Heritage
Council of British Columbia
1. Basis of organization: Non-
incorporated ie. "informal" body
comprised of representatives
from heritage organizations.
2. Basis of membership: Mandate
of member organizations must
refer to a province-wide provision of heritage service.
3. Representation: Each member
organization has one representative which shall be the
President or President-
4. Operations: There will be quarterly meetings. Extraordinary
Meetings may be called by the
Chair to respond to urgent concerns. The co-ordinating role/
chair will be rotated annually
among the member organizations.
Government liaison:
The Heritage Council in its official
capacities   will   relate   to   the
Assistant Deputy Minister of the
Ministry responsible for heritage.
A Report from
1st Vice President
Myrtle Haslam
who attended the
Heritage Canada Conference
held September 7 -10,1988
in Charlottetown,
Prince Edward Island
1. Meeting of Provincial Historical
Societies - September 7, 1988 .
Attending were representatives
from Alberta, Saskatchewan,
Manitoba, Ontario, Nova Scotia, the
Chairman of the Board of Governors
of Heritage Canada sat in.
Reports were given by the
Items discussed were-the challenge of funding publications, designation of historic structures,
awards, standards and funding.
The need for accurate research programs to enhance special events in
the museum/heritage community
and the role of historical societies in
providing the facts. The topic was of
concern to all historians.
Selling Canada to Canadians -
Preservation of the McLaughlin
House, possibly to be demolished for
a parking lot. Request copies of letters to our General Motors dealers.
The next meeting will be held in
Vancouver at Heritage Canada
We will request a room for our
use the day prior to registration for
the Heritage Canada Conference.
Myrtle Haslam has been asked to
chair the next meeting as we are
the host province.
2.    Heritage Canada Conference-
Managing Our Cities - The New
September 7 - Wednesday evening, Anne of Green Gables Musical
at the Confederation Centre of the
September 8, 9 a.m. - 12:30
p.m. - Mary-Liz Bayer hosted
Provincial and Territorial
Representatives Day. I spoke for
approximately 60 - 90 seconds on
our Federation and the Cowichan
Chemainus Eco Museum. Written
reports on both were submitted.
Jacques Dalibard presented a
News Release and requested all
representatives write letters to your
M.P. with a copy to Ian Sinclair
Lobster feast and tour of Anne
of      Green   Gables   House   in
RC Historical News
30 Cavendish.
September 8, 2-4 p.m.
Workshops-planning, political process developers, citizen groups and
September 9 - Guest speakers:
Mayor of Quebec City, former Chief
Planner with the City of Toronto,
formed director of Architecture and
Urban Design for City of Toronto,
President of Heritage Ottawa and
Historic Ottawa Development Inc.
and Vice President of Historic
Properties Ltd. of Halifax. Evening -
Mayor's reception at restored City
Hall, followed by dinner at historic
September 10 - Walking and
bus tours of the City of
Charlottetown 2.4 p.m. - Annual
General Meeting, new Governors
elected 7-10 p.m. - Banquet and
Awards Presentation - Audio-Visual
presentation of award winning projects of host province.
Gabrielle Leger Medal, Lt.
Governors Medal for heritage work.
Convention ' 89
Remember the dates
May 11-13, 1989
B. C. Historical Federation - Victoria Branch will host the
annual conference at the New Convention Centre.
Registration forms from your local society.
Jim Spilsbury - one of the winners of the 87 Writing Competition
receives his certificate from Don Sale.
Writing Competition
The British Columbia Historical
Federation invites submissions for
its annual Competition for Writers
of B.C. History.
Any book, published in 1989,
with historical content is eligible.
The work may be community history, biography, record of a project, industry or organization, or personal
recollections giving glimpses of the
past. Names, dates, and places
turn a story into "history".
The Judges are looking for fresh
presentations of historical information with appropriate illustrations,
careful proof reading, an adequate
index, table of contents and bibliography. Monetary prizes are offered
in the following categories.:
1.    Best History Book by an individual author (This is eligible
for the Lieutenant - Governor's
2. Best Anthology.
3. Special Award - for the author or
editor of an outstanding book.
All books receive considerable
publicity. Those submitting books
should include name, address, telephone number, cost of book, and an
address from where the book may be
ordered if the reader has to shop by
mail. Books should be mailed as
soon as possible after publications
British Columbia Historical
c/o Mrs. Naomi Miller
Box 105
Wasa, B.C. VOB 2K0
Deadline for 1989 books is
January 31,  1990.
There is also an award for Best
Article each year submitted and published   in   the  British Columbia
Historical News Articles of up to
2500 words, substantiated with
footnotes if possible, and accompanied by photographs and maps if
available, are welcomed.
(Photographs will be returned).
Deadlines for submission are
September 1, December 1, March 1,
and June 1. Articles should be
typed, double spaced and mailed to:
The Editor
B.C. Historical News
Box 105 Wasa, B.C. VOB 2K0
Winners in all categories will be
invited to the annual conference in
Grand Forks in May 1990.
RC. Historical News Dan Marshall, a University of
Victoria student in 4th year history,
receives the B.C. Historical Federation s first scholarship award from.
Myrtle Haslam, Vice President.
Daniel Patrick Marshall, 26,
of Cobble Hill was presented
with the first annual B.C.
Historical Federation Scholarship at a meeting of the
Cowichan Historical Society
on December 8, 1988. The
award of $500 was well deserved as this University of
Victoria student has undertaken some interesting research
projects on topics such as
whether the Bute Inlet Route
was dismissed for political
rather than engineering reasons when the Canadian
Pacific Railway approached
the west coast; and the role of
early social organizations in
the development of B.C.
Marshall's interest in our prov-
Publishing Committee
The Committee, which currently consists of Naomi Miller, Anne
Yandle, Nancy Peter, Arthur Lower, Thelma Lower, Mary Rawson,
Daphne Sleigh, Margaret Waddington, Ann Johnston, and John
Spittle, exofficio, met in November. We were concerned to hear that the
Heritage Trust may not be renewing our grant (currently $1,000 a
year.) after 1989, and are seeking clarification about this.
Naomi Miller, our Editor, now has her first issue on Women
Pioneers under her belt, and it appears to be a very popular one. The
difficulties associated with establishing a new production team are
also evident, but we are confident that the proof-reading and other
problems will be overcome.
Naomi has asked me to once again thank Margaret Waddington
who sent long and detailed instructions on how to meet the complex
Post Office requirements. Edward and Georgina Engel and Verdun
Casselman spent many hours mastering the mailing process and we
are grateful for their efforts. Undoubtedly we also owe many thanks to
Peter Miller for his help in this enterprise.
Ann W. Johnston
ince's history was fostered by
family roots dating back to the
Gold Rush in 1858. Part of his
pursuit of history led him to
collecting old bottles, but he enjoys outdoor sports, playing
the piano and dabbling in electronics. This 4th yea]- student
was so encouraged by receipt of
this award that he is now contemplating graduate studies in
B.C. History.
Check your mailing label. If
the top right digits are 22-1,
this will be your last issue of
the Historical News unless you
renew your subscription/
In Memorium
Donald Arthur New, long time
resident of Galiano Island, passed
away December 10, 1988 at the
age of 93. He was predeceased by
his wife, Nanette, in March 1988.
Mr. New was active in many Gulf
Island community organizations,
and is a past president of the B.C.
Historical Federation. Donations
to St. Margaret's Anglican Church,
Galiano, or the B.CH.F.
Scholarship fund would be appreciate.
RC Historical News
Honorary Patron:
Honorary President:
His Honour, the Honourable Robert G. Rogers, Lieutenant-Governor of
British Columbia
Dr. W. Kaye Lamb
1st Vice President
2nd Vice President
Recording Secretary
Past President
John D. Spittle, 1241 Mount Crown Road, North Vancouver, B.C. V7R 1R9
988-4565 (residence)
Myrtle Haslam, P.O. Box 10, Cowichan Bay, B.C. VOR 1N0
748-8397 (residence)
Dorothy Crosby, 33662 Northcote Crescent, Mission, B.C. V2V 5V2
T. Don Sale, 262 Juniper Street, Nanaimo, B.C. V9S 1X4
753-2067 (residence)
Shirley Cuthbertson, 306 - 225 Belleville Street, Victoria, B.C. V8V 4T9
387-2407 (business), 382-0288 (residence)
Francis Sleigh, Box 29, Deroche, B.C. V0M 1G0
Margaret Stoneberg, P.O. Box 687, Princeton, B.C. VOX 1W0
295-3362 (residence)
Alice Glanville, P.O. Box 746, Grand Forks, B.C. V0H 1H0
Naomi Miller
Naomi Miller, Box 105, Wasa, B.C. VOB 2K0
Chairmen of Committees
Publications Assistance Helen Akrigg, 8-2575 Tolmie Street, Vancouver, B.C. V6R 4M1
Loans are available for publications, Please contact
Helen Akrigg prior to submitting manuscript.
(not involved with
B.C. Historical News)
Historic Trails
and Markers
B.C. Historical News
Publishing Committee
Subscription Secretary
Book Review Editor
Heritage Cemeteries
Lieutenant- Governor's
Award Committee
John D. Spittle
Ann W. Johnston, R.R. 1, Mayne Island, B.C. VON 2J0
539-2888 (Residence)
Nancy Peter, 5928 Baffin Place, Burnaby, B.C. V5H 3S8   437-6115
Anne Yandle, 3450 West 20th Avenue, Vancouver V6S 1E4      733-6484 (res.)
228-4879 (business)
John D. Adams, 628 Battery Street, Victoria, B.C.
V8V1E5     342-2895 (res.)
Naomi Miller The British Columbia Historical News
RO. Box 35326 Stn. E.
Vancouver, B.C.
V6M 4G5
Second Class Mail
Registration No. 4447
Why not join the British Columbia Historical
Federation and receive the British Columbia
Historical News regularly?
The BCHF is composed of member societies in all
parts of the province. By joining your local society
you receive not only a subscription to British
Columbia Historical News, but the opportunity to
participate in a program of talks and field trips,
and to meet others interested in British Columbia's
history and the BCHF's annual convention.
For information, contact your local society (address
on the inside front cover)... No local society in your
area? Perhaps you might think of forming one. For
information contact the secretary of the BCHF (address inside back cover.)


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