British Columbia History

BC Historical News Nov 30, 1969

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Vol, 3 No. 1 November, 1969
Published November, February, April and June each year by the
British Columbia Historical Association. Subscription rates: Free
to members of all affiliated societies, or $3.50 per year Including
postage,.directly from the editor, P.A. Yandle, 3450 West' 20th
Avenue, Vancouver 8, B.C.
In my rambles around British Columbia I find a complete lack
and disregard by many of our elected officials for the preservation
:and restoration of our historic heritage. To those elected officials
who are trying, please accept my apologies. Reluctantly I have come
to the conclusion that to be historically minded one must also be
politically minded, inasmuch as most projects become "hot political
potatoes". The Olympic Games are adding more events for competition
at each session of the games, so that it should not be too long
before they include an entry for Political High Jumping. Recently
many records have been broken in this event and I think Canada should
be able to establish some medal winners in this field. The basic
requirements should establish that a competitor must be able to-
stand on both sides of a "hot political potato" at the same time,
and be also able to ride it without getting burnt, at the same
time running off at the mouth in meaningless verbiage loud enough
to drown out all other competitors.
' Politicians are fond of quoting historical happenings to
provide precedents, yet why is it that they are so reluctant to try
to preserve some of it. We have so much of historic value in this
province, and it is either slowly decaying, pieces taken to the
detriment of the whole by souvenir hunters, or being destroyed by
outright vandalism. Of what use is it to declare something a .
historic site without protecting the "it" or "whatever" that brought
about this declaration. Restoration can do both - preserve and
protect - and even help the financial side, which seems to be of
such importance whenever preservation or restoration is suggested,
through tourism.
All affiliated societies should be taking stock of what they
have locally, and take steps to ensure its - protection and preservation. When it is gone or despoiled it is GONE, and the facsimile
never means the same thing. Be sure to read the Council Minutes
because the name Nootka will, I'm sure, appear many times in future
issues of the News.
The Convention dates have been set and a tentative programme
also appears in the minutes. It will be held in Nanaimo, on May 28th,
29th and 30th, with the Shoreline Hotel as Convention headquarters.
At the Convention in Penticton I suggested a "Letters flo the
Editor" spot in the "News" and so far I have received one. Here it
is: - 2 -
Dear Mr Editor: Last May at the B.C. Historical Convention at
Penticton you., suggested that a "Letters to the Editor" column be
established in the.BiC.. Historical News. It -seems like a good Idea
to me, so here is my contributions-
First of all, I want to say that, other than the annual
meeting at Cranbrook in 1965, the Penticton "do" was the first
Provincial Convention my wife and I had attended, and we enjoyed
it very much indeed. We got acquainted with a lot of very wonderful
people of similar interests to our own, and enjoyed the spontaneous
friendliness of everyone,
The various trips around the Okanagan Valley, for which much .
of the credit goes to our Mrs Bowes, were a revelation to me.
Although I had driven through the Valley many times before, I got
to know the area so much better than I ever had before. To para>-
phrase an old saying —"What does he know of the Okanagan who only
the highway knows?"
We have had a-good summer here in our beautiful East Kootenay,
with several field trips with our neighbours to the south, east and
north —Bonners Ferry, .Idaho; Fernie and -the- Windermere country—
but more of that in pur annual report.
Our membership is still growing, and—please take note when
shipping the next B.C. Historical News copies to us—even sending
only one to a family, we will require about 80 copies. So	
...:  -And now, a very big thanks to you, Mr Editor, and your good
wife, for a big job well done in turning out-those issues of our.
very ownrpublication, which-1 know our members away out here in this
far corner of B.C. really,do appreciate, Having spent something
over 50 years of my life in-a newspaper office, I have a pretty fair
idea of the amount of labour involved; Sincerely yours, Dave Kay,
Secretary_, Historical-Association of East Kootenay,
MINUTES of .the Second Council Meeting of the British Columbia
Historical Assoc-iation, held on November l6th at lo30 pem. at 3450
West .20th A venue, Vancouver. Present: Mrs Mabel Jordon, pres. (East
Kootenay);- Mr\RY Brammall, Vice-Pres. (Vancouver); Mrs R. Brammall,
Treas. ('Vancouver); Mr P„ Yandle, Secretary (Vancouver); Mr D. New,
Past.PTes. (Gulf Islands); Mr D. Schon (Nanaimo); Mr H.B. Nash
(Victoria); Mrs E. Adams (Alberni &Dist.).
Guest:, Mr T.;-Bartroli, Dept, of Hispanic and Italian Studies, U.B.C.
. ■•,. -The meeting was called to order at 1.45 p.m. by the President
and the minutes of the last Council Meeting were read and adopted
on motion. '- :,.......,-..-
Arising out of the minutes the secretary reported that he had
carried out the directive from Council and made formal requests to - 3 -
Lieutenant Governor J.R. Nicholson and Dr Margaret Ormsby to be our
Honorary Patron and Honorary President respectively. Both graciously
acknowledged that they would be pleased to accept our invitation.
Correspondence was read dealing with a grant of $500 that had
been made to Mrs Kathleen Dalzell of Prince Rupert by the Leon and
Thea Koerner Foundation through our Association. The purpose of the
grant was to assist Mrs Dalzell in further research for her second
volume on the Queen Charlotte Islands. All monies had been transferred, and a reply received thanking the Association acid promising
to make a full report on the use of the money by not later than
September 1st, 1970.
The Secretary read correspondence between himself and Dr
Kenneth Strand, President of Simon Fraser University, that had been
sanctioned by the President of the B.C. Historical Association,
protesting against a rumour that an American professor was being
considered to head a department of Canadian Studies being set up by
S.F.U. Dr Strand assured the Association that the Department was
still in the discussion stage, and further assured us that "if this
program is adopted and approved by our Senate, it would be my hope
that a prominent Canadian historian would be appointed",
A letter from the Victoria Branch with a proposal from one of
their members concerning NOotka was set over to the second item on
the Agenda.
The first item on the Agenda for which the. Council "Meeting
had been called was now open for discussion - preliminary arrangements
for the Convention to be held in Nanaimo in 1970. Mr Schon outlined
that it was proposed to hold the Convention on May 28th, 29th and
30th, and the Shoreline Hotel would be the Convention headquarters.
Flans had been made so far to follow the pattern set in Penticton
in 1969. The Convention would start on Thursday evening with
registration, to be followed by a wine and cheese party at 7.30 p.m.
Friday would commence with registration from 9,00 a.Pi, - 10,00 a.m.,
and a sitting of Council at this same time. The Annual General
Meeting would follow from 10,00 a.m. - .12,00 noon. A luncheon would
follow, at which time the President would give her address , and
another' guest might be included who would speak to the General
Meeting. The afternoon would still leave Sufficient time for a
short field trip and can evening session with a guest speaker, commencing at 8.00 p.m. The new Council would hold a session,at 5.00 p.m.
Saturday would be given over to a full day's field trip, which would
start at the Bastion going south taking in historical points of interest on the way and arriving at the Cowichan Forest Museum at Duncan
in time for a box lunch. The afternoon would be rounded out at the
Museum and the return to Nanaimo for the Banquet and guest speaker
at 7.00 p.m. Council was fully in accord with the plans thus far
and considerable discussion took place regarding speakers and
dignfEGries to be invited. Proposals for a theme for the Convention
were considered and it was approved that it should be ''Coals to
Timber in 100 Years". - 4 -
The second item on the Agenda was opened for discussion.
The letter from Victoria dealt with a proposal that consideration
be given to approach the Provincial and Federal Governments that
the restoration of Nootka as the birthplace of British Columbia
should be seriously considered in the near future. The Secretary
stated that although this letter had been written many months ago
he did not receive it until after the notices for this Council
Meeting had been sent out. However the idea had appealed to him
so much that he had done some preliminary investigation with Mrs
Yandle as to the best qualified authority on Nootka, and it was
through her, and with the permission of the President, that he had
sent an invitation to Mr Bartroli to attend the Council Meeting and
express his views on the feasibility of such a project. MT Bartroli
brought with him a collection of pictures, contemporary and current,
which helped to establish an idea of what Nootka looked like at the
time it was occupied by the Spanish. Mr Bartroli who has done
extensive research,not only in British Columbia, but also in Spain,
Mexico and California, had some few years ago prepared a report on
what could be done towards the Spanish restoration. It was his
opinion that certain legalities would have to be attended to, not
only as to ownership of the land, but also as to who has jurisdiction
in the area. He felt reasonably sure that the Spanish and Mexican
Governments would wish to participate in such a project, and might
provide much of the period arms, cannons, uniforms, etc., necessary
to such a project. Nootka is becoming much more accessible with
a good road to Gold River now open and with available logging roads
its day of isolation is fast drawing to a close. Considerable
discussion produced a most enthusiastic feeling from Council that
this is a project of considerable interest to all its affiliated
members and a historic site of the' greatest importance to all of
British Columbia.
It was moved Yandle, seconded New, That this Council be on
record as being in full accord with the restoration of Nootka and
that ways and means be started immediately toward such a restoration. - Carried.
The Secretary requested permission to purchase new stationery,
and in collaboration with the President a new and more appealing
mast heading made. This was granted on motion. Moved Mrs Brammall,
seconded Nash. As Editor, the Secretary asked permission to trade
in the existing typewriter on an electric model better suited to
stencil cutting. Moved Brammall, seconded Schon, that this- request
be granted. *• Carried.
Council expressed its regrets on hearing that Mr Bracewell
had suffered a slight heart attack, and wish him a speedy recovery.
Meeting adjourned on motion at 5.00 p,m„ - 5 -
NORTHWESTERN APPROACHES - The first century of books, by R,D. Hilton
Smith, with a foreword by Samuel Rothstein. Victoria, Adelphi
' Book Shop, 1969. 67 pages, illus. & index. $6.50. .
Compared to what is being done by public, bodies and private
individuals in other provinces and states on this continent, British
Columbia in recent years has lagged conspicuously behind in the publication of material devoted to our regional history. This is neither
the time nor the place for a post-mortem, however.
Until recently students and collectors of British Columbiana
did not even have available anything to speak of in the way of reference works or bibliographies exclusively devoted to the Pacific
Other than the long list of books in Volume I of Howay and
Scholefield, about the only other attempt at a more or less comprehensive bibliography was .made, not by a historian or librarian, bat
by an engineer, Arthur V. White. Although it leans to the technical
wide, White's compilation is still useful. It appeared in WATER
POWERS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, published in Ottawa in 1919.
But it was not until last year when the University of. Victoria
published the first volume of what will be our definitive M^lio-
graphy that we could" boast of the real thing! Mrs Lowther's volume^
LAYING THE FOUNDATIONS, deals with the period from 1849 to 1899-
Two other volumes are in course of preparation, one for the present
cen&ury and the other for the period from the early-explorations
up to I848,.
It is this early period in our history that now forms the
subject cf another important nbook about books'' of British Columbia
and the Pacific Northwest. It also has been produeed in Victoria,
RoD. Hilton Smith, the well-known bookseller, collector, and
librarian, in his NORTHWESTERN APPROACHES, has provided us with a
valuable and sprightly account of the first explorations and voyages
made in this remote part of the globe. This is a valuable work of
reference, a bibliography, and a historical study rolled into one
concise paakage. Enlivened with wit, and written for the general
reader as well as for the specialist, NORTHWESTERN APPROACHES fills
a vexy evident need.
■ It had its beginning in a series of lectures given by Mr
Hilton Smith in 1966, in which he described the early exploration
of this region and discussed the related books, all of which» at
least in their original editions, are now sought after by collectors.
The book is divided into five sections, headed by an introduction outlining the. ear"y historical development of the Pacific
N0rthwest- and describing some of the general reference works which
can be consulted for further information. Mr Smith maises a strong
plea for the reprinting of Walbran's COAST NAMES. - 6 -
Then follow separate chapters on the expeditions sent out
by the Spaniards and the Russians, the British, the French, and
finally the Americans. The book concludes with a detailed listing
of 80 titles and an index. There are twelve well-chosen full-page
illustrations. Designed by Charles Morriss and printed irr Victoria
by the Morriss Printing Company Ltd., this book is another examj'Is.
of the outstanding work that we have come to expect from this firm.
Gordon E, Bowes.
Mr Bowes is a member of the Vancouver Historical Society„ Until
last year he was an Executive Member of the B.C. Historical Association, serving on Council for many years, and is also a past-
President of the Vancouver Society. In 1963 he published his book
Peace River Chronicles.
Golden & District Historical Society
Last spring the Golden & District Historical Society staged
a "March for a Museum'1 which produ.-ed a fund of almost f10,000
towards the building of a museum in Golden,-"'
This Walkathon was held on May 25th, 1969, from Parson, 23
miles south, to the Golden Community Park. Everything seemed to
conspire to make this event a tremendous success. It was the first
to be held in this area, and a very energetic Committee canvassed
local businesses and Service clubs for support; they arranged three
rest stops at residences along the route, where free refreshments
were served by willing helpers, and free pop at the finishing
point. Safety was ensured by placing ?;arning signs provided by the
Highways Department, R.C.M.P. patrolled the road and a First Aid
Car manned by local R.ffl. volunteers dealt with minor injuries,
mainly blisters. Weary walkers were picked up by a bus provided
by the Lions, and check points were established at every mile.
For weeks beforehand walkers and joggers could be seen at
all hours preparing for the event, and many a pound of surplus fat
vanished in the process! Entries came pcuring in from young and
old, many with multiple pledges signed. At first some had scoffed
at the cra2y notion of walking, but as interest and support snowballed they changed their tune and it seemed that everyone waa
helping in one way or another. Bets and challenges helped to swell
the tide, but those who walked and trained gained the most •- in
pledges for the Museum and no less in good health for themselves.
The great day came after a sultry week, and a night of storm
cooled and cleared the air. The "early-birds" were on their way
at 5,30 a.m, with a cool breeze rolling back the clouds to reveal
the snow-capped peaks on either hand. Surely this is one -f the
loveliest stretches of countryside along the valley of this great
Columbia River. - 7 -
All told 501 persons, large and small, young and old, walked
in this march. At the official start from the Parson Hall at 8 a.m.
Mrs Ellen Cameron welcomed all present, \*rished the walkers a pleasant
journey, then presented Mr Jim Chabot, M.L.A. and Mr W. Zazaxlak,
.Mayor of Golden, with Museum March straw hats, the latest In fashion!
Mr Chabot said he intended to walk all the way, which he did, (if
somewhat painfully), as did Mr Zazulak, who spoke briefly of the
terrific response so evident. Mr Bill Dainard, the M.C. asked Mr
Edward Feus to give the walkers a few pointers. This veteran Swiss
guide, now 83, said for all to remember that we were out for a
morning walk, 'set your pace, enjoy yourself and jog along'. Then
with a few instructions the countdown began, the flags came down
and the March for the Museum was on!
John Carswell and Jerry Frisk were the first to check in at
the Park, followed by Joe Pacsay, who arrived in record time, 4 hours
and 11 minutes. The youngest walker, Heather Reissevoort, 2|- years
old, walked 5 miles, earning $100 in pledges. The most unusual
walker was 'that dog Finch'. Along the way the rest stops provided
welcome refreshments, and the "Chatty Car" patrolled up and down
cheering on the now straggling line. By mid-afternoon many were
walking in bare or stockinged feet to ease the pain of blisters,
but an amazing total of 328 actually completed the 23 mile hike,
114 made 10 miles or more, a truly wonderful record..
The day ended with the Square Dance Group swinging it up.
The Pender Island "Delve-In"
On June 7th and Sth, 1969, Pender Island held a delightful
"Delve-In" exhibition in Port Washington. Hall, North Fender Isd.
A panorama of island treasures greeted visitors as they entered,
each exhibit artistically displayed on long tables set against
the brown wood walls. There were relics of pioneer days; collections
of sea, plant and insect life; rocks and fossils from the geological
past; Indian artifacts; and a. hundred more bits and pieces, making
a fascinating mosaic of island life from earliest times. The onerous
job of cataloguing, identifying and arranging exhibits was carried
out with finesse and skill by Mrs C. Claxton and Miss M. McKechnie.
Typical of the interest shown by Pender Island "old-timers"
was the- fine display presented by Mr Victor Menzies. He had spent
many weeks of research among his "souvenirs"; and stood by in his
corner at the Hall to answer questions and delight visitors with
tales and anecdotes of pioneer- days.
Under the guidance of Mr A. Traunweiser, Principal of Pender
School, the students explored many facets of the island's history,
taking part in field trips, collecting specimens and organising data.
The- senior students made a colourful contribution to the exhibit with
large paintings of the old ships which had sailed the Gulf in days
gone by. - 8 -
An Indian playlet, arranged and directed by Miss Norma
Douglas, was presented by pupils from Pender School at hourly
intervals each day. The play told of the creation of the world by
the Sun-god and Moon-goddess, according to Salish Indian legend.
The beautiful story was interwoven with the theme of world-brotherhood, presented in costume on a darkened stage lit by floodlights.
The Provincial Government has declared the petroglyphs near
Cranbrook an historic site, and herewith is the announcement from
the B.C. Gazette, July 10th, 1969. It is to be hoped that these
legal words will keep the vandals away. We think a fence would do
a better job. Maybe the pen is mightier.
Pursuant to the powers conferred upon me by section 3 (2) of the
Archaeological and Historic Sites Protection Act, I hereby designate
.the-foil owing lands - namely, Block 5, Lot 4836, Plan F 67, Kootenay LandLDistrict - as a historic site within the meaning of the
said Act. Dated at the City of Victoria this 23rd day of June,
1969. W.D, Black, Provincial" Secretary."
The Annual Field Day was held on June 14th. A very interesting itinerary was arranged by Miss Norcross. The first stop was
the Cowichan Valley Forest Museum, situated on Drinkwater Road
which was named for two respected pioneers, Lillian and Joseph
Drinkwater. The site also includes the first school-community
hall in the valley. In the same vicinity two churches of historic
significance were visited - St. Peters Anglican Church at Quamichan,
surrounded by wild flowers for which the site was chosen, and the
Old Stone Church in the Comiaken Hill area. The first church on
this site was built in 1858 or 9 - a log structure - and ten years
later was replaced by the present building.
Our route through the Indian Reserve took us past the old
Corfield Farm where Robert Service once minded the store and Post
Office and told the young Corfield boys blood curdling yarns in
his free time. Just beyond the little bridge are markers recording
the landing of the first band of settlers in 1862 and Robert
Service's sojourn in the valley. Our last stop was at the Marriner
House. It is the oldest house in the district, built in 1866.
The Society's first meeting in September had Miss Bea
Hamilton as guest speaker. She is a native of Salt Spring Island
and has recently published a book by Mitchell Press entitled "Salt
Spring Island". - 9 -
In October our President, Mr J.T. Parker, gave us an address
entitled/'Early School Days in Nanaimo", and took us from the first
sohaols .in the area up to 1924.
The Society concluded their 1968-69 season with a talk by
Mrs Marya (Fiamengo) Hardman, who told us what it was like to grow
up as a Yugoslav in Vancouver, and how the geography and history
of Yugoslavia has influenced the spirit of the people and followed
them to the new world. Mrs Hardman illustrated her feelings by
reading some of her poetry.
The annual outing in June was a picnic at Maple Ridge Park
followed by a tour of Westminster Abbey near Mission City. The
Benedictine monks were very hospitable, and the members enjoyed
seeing round the lovely buildings and hearing some of the history
of the Order and its work in British Columbia.
The 1969-70 season opened in September with a talk given by
one of our own members, Dr G.P.V, Akrigg, who, with his wife, has
recently published a book 1001 British Columbia Place Names. Place
names are fascinating and often offer baffling clues to the story
of the past. i)r Akrigg shared with us,-some of his experiences in
playing detective. In October we sailed into the past with Dr Barry
Gough to hear about "Britannia's British Columbia: the Royal Navy
and the Fraser River Gold Rush", and the parts they played in the
evolution of the Crown Colony of British Columbia.
A small article in the Vancouver Sun on July 7th &aught my
attention. It made reference to a group of Bowen Island residents
whp are searching for facts about the Island's past. They are
looking for anecdotes, pictures, or any information about the
Island. If anyone has anything of this nature, please send it to
Mrs A.D. Ross, Bowen Island, B.C. - 10 -
The following essay was submitted in the University Section
of the B.C. Historical Association Centennial Scholarship Competition
in 1968. It was written by R.J.A. Spooner of the University of
It was all because of a sermon preached by the
Reverend William Sheldon Reece, that Dean Edward
Cridge took violent reaction and eventually bolted
from the Church of England. The conflict finally
dragged itself into the Supreme Court of British
Columbia, seeing Dean Cridge thrown from his
position and later adopting the Reformed Episcopal
faith. The conflict centred around two opposing
views of the Church, the 'High Church' that Bishop
Hills advocated and the 'Low Church' of Dean Edward
Cridge  Today, Edward Cridge's Church of Our Lord
stands in Victoria in commemoration of its bold
Vancouver Island, a colony sponsored by the Hudson's Bay
Company in the lB50's, was regarded in its ear}y years by the
Colonial and Continental Society, The Church Missionary Society,
and The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, as a promising
field in which to forward their religious doctrines. Through the
government agencies of that time, an inter-related Church-State
relationship flourished. With the discovery of gold on the mainland
in 1858, and the appointment of James Douglas^- as governor of the
new crown colony of British Columbia, came an increasing demand
for more clergy.
Every religious denomination has had its share of rebels.
Sucji was Edward Cridge of the Church of England in British Columbia.
Edward Cridge was born at Bratton Fleming, North Devon, on December
17, 1817. After receiving his degree from Saint Peter's (Peterhouse)
Cambridge, he served as schoolmaster at the Endowed Grammar School
in South Molton, Devon (England). Ordained in I848 Deacon of Norwich
Cathedral, and advanced to the priesthood on February 24th, 1850,
he travelled to West Ham in 1851. Upon hearing of a vacancy in the
chaplainship in far-off Victoria, and through the influential aid
of the Vicar of West Ham, Edward Cridge secured the chaplainship of
Christ Church Cathedral in 1855 as an employee of the Hudson's Bay
Company. For three years till the arrival of additional clergy he
was the sole Protestant cleric west of Winnipeg and north of San
Francisco. Shortly after his"arrival, in 1856, he was elected the
first inspector of colonial schools. Thus, while he was still the
chaplain, he and his wife became responsible for the education of
the H.F.Co. employees' children. He initiated the founding of the
Royal Jubilee Hospital after Edward Cridge found a sick man lying
in the garden outside his residence. He and his wife "became a very
proved for goodness and beneficence".  A very outspoken personality - 11 -
who stood up for what he thought right and fair, Edward Cridge was
an Evangelical of unswerving devotion, the "Grand Old Man of British
Columbia"^ and the "father of the Church in the colony, possessing
the respect of everyone for his faithfullness...".^ Adept in the
vital missionary work that was to be initiated in the rough and
backward mining areas of the mainland and the Island predominated
by the Navy at Esquimalt, the Hudson's Bay Co. men, and the independent settlers under the Puget Sound Agricultural Co., Edward
Cridge was to persist in his work until his death in 1913, in his
95th year.
Edward Cridge joined the Colonial and Continental Society in
1858. It held to the 'Low Church' philosophy believing that all
and every form of church service, mattins included, could be
preached on Sundays. The opposed view of the Oxford Movement held
to the belief that only the. Eucharist should be taken on Sundays.
To a major portion of the Anglican clergy, the Colonial and Continental Society was regarded as the "Evangelical Movement" within
the established Anglican Church, In one of his many letters to the
society,-' Edward Cridge made reference to preaching to some two
or three hundred transient miners in the open air congregations.
He recommended that, if it wanted to win more parishioners, the
society send two more clergy,- one to Victoria and the other to the
gold diggings up the Fraser River. Within two months of Edward
Cridge',s correspondence, -{the society sent Reverend W. Burton
C$«ickmer, Curate of Marylebone, In a letter post marked the 4th of
October 1858, Edward Cridge writes, "I am endeavoring to fulfill ,
my own ministry as I best can, continuing the open air services".
On the following February', the 7th, Cridge expressed the vital
importance of British Columbia as the scene of inspiration of the
Redeemer's Kingdom. 'Accompanied by Reverend J. Gammage in June of
1858, he travelled to the gold fields. It influenced Edward Cridge
sufficiently for him to discourage the society from sending any
additional clergy into-the God-forsaken interior. At this stage,
Edward Cridge occupied the Rectorship of Christ Church Cathedral
in Victoria.
In:the 1870's, Edward Cridge and the first Bishop of the
area, Bishop Hills, the Bishop of Columbia, were unfortunately to
come to a disagreement sparking a bitter two year conflict that
divided the populace of Victoria. It resulted in Edward Cridge's
secession with several hundred of his followers from the Church of
Bishop Hills, a supporter of the Society for the Propagation
of the Gospel, the opposition to the Catholic revivalist movement
and" supporter of the Oxford Movement, was "ignorant of his fellow
man".^ This .attitude prevented the Bishop from the friendship that
was so necessary with Dean Cridge, "He had> moreover, an innate
love of order and seemliness, perhaps natural in a born administrator,
that contributed to a sense of clerical dignity and propriety".
It was Bishop Hills who had the distinction of being the first
clergyman in British Columbia not to accept any financial aid from
the colonial government under Governor James Douglas' leadership,
having to go to England at four different times in qjuest of financial aid. - 12 -
Despite the differences between the religious sentiments, the
Bishop held to his 'High Church' philosophy and Edward Cridge to
the 'Low Church' without open conflict. Collating Edward Cridge to
the Deanship of Christ Church Cathedral in 1865 w«s made "only as
an act of justice to the senior clergyman of the diocese and the
■minister of the church named to be the cathedral".  Years passed
without a formal break off of relations between the two, even a
letter marked the 14th day of December 1870 from the Bishop,
congratulated Dean Edward Cridge on his excellent sermon on Spiritualism.
The real spark to the conflict was a sermon preached by the
Venerable William Sheldon Reece,10 M<A., Archdeacon of Vancouver
and advocate of the Oxford Movement, on the ceremonious occasion of
the solemn consecration of the new Cathedral on the evening of
Thursday December 5th, 1872. The sermon concerned the Oxford
Movement. It stressed the importance of the spiritual unity of the
Church, its divine origin and its possession of supernatural powers
through its priesthood, the historic episcopate deriving its powers
from the apostles. Both the Archdeacon and Bishop Hills were
Tractarians or 'High Churchmen', following in the steps of the
opponents of Puritanism, Andrewes and Laud, retaining much pre-
Reformation doctrine and practice in the Church. The Tractarians
upheld the efficacy of Scripture, the Bible was never intended to be
the only standard of reference relied upon. It was in contrast that
the Evangelicals had a low opinion of the sacrament, dogma and
liturgy, and denied the historic episcopate  The Evangelicals were
soon alarmed at the Romanizing tendencies in the Tractarion writings.
The Evangelicals held that the Bible was "the sole rule of faith
and practice",11 and that the doctrine of apostolic succession,
which, maintained that bishops were successors of the apostles sand
carriers in their office of the tradition and authority of the
Church (maintained by the Tractarians) was unapproachable on the
grounds that it gave the ministry sacredotal powers and that it was
contrary to the Scripture. The belief of the Evangelicalists was
that man could reach God through faith alone, but the Tractarians
considered the sacraments the very core of worship, through which
it is 'the will of Christ that grace shall be imparted to those who
communicate in the spirit and after the forms which He ordained.
The-sermon in reality was in praise of the Oxford Movement and the
.commendation of the new life which Catholic Revival brought to the
Church. It suggested that reverence and devotion be deepened and
increased by the degree of formality and ceremonialism in the
Churah service.
• To this, Dean Cridge took violent exception, and in announcinj
the closing hymn, "remarked in a voice trembling with emotion" that1-2
nas your Pastor, after what me  have, just heard I feel it Is my duty
to raise my yoice in protest against it*  During the 17 years
that.I have officiated as your Pastor in this Spot, this is the
first, time Ritualism has been preached here; and I pray Almighty
. G;d it may be the last.-.So far as I can prevent it, it shall be
the last!?1.   Dean Cridge made his first error by denouncing the
.sermon publicly, and because of the presence, of such influential
clergymen as Bishop Morris1^ of Oregon and others, the tragic - 13 -
incident could not be overlooked. An excited congregation then
filed out of the Gnurch after the recessional and vehemently discussed the topic. Bishop Hills wrote to Cridge chastening him for
"a grave offence against the laws Ecclesiastical and the Statute
Law of the Realm, in disturbing the order of public worship, and in
using irritating words respecting a brother clergyman who was present
and who had performed a duty assigned to him".1-' Bishop Hills
■believed that correspondence was much superior in etiquette than to
meeting first hand and discussing the issue. Letters were sent to
the "Colonist" :and the "Standard" newspapers, perhaps many instigated by the Dean himself condemning.the Archdeacon for a sermon
"indiscreet and in very bad taste",1" but other literature was
certainly sent by his loyal supporters. A letter from Bishop Hills
on December 14th censured the Dean for his action in the Cathedral,
but no letter of response came from the Dean.
For eight months there was silence in both party circles.
Unfortunately in July of 1873 a misunderstanding arose when the
visitational rights of the Bishop to the Cathedral were repealed
by the Church Wardens. It culminated in a long and dreary succession of correspondence. It was at this time that Bishop Hills
was attempting to form a Synod, which Dean Cridge inadvisedly
disagreed with, "How any clergyman of the Church of England can
consistently hold so extreme an opinion"1' was the question that
the Bishop now raised, about Edward Cridge. Again the debate as to
whether "Dean Cridge was convinced that the Bishop's censure was
unjust and' aimed at suppressing Evangelical doctrine"18 came to the
limelight. "1 could net go to the length of joining in a resolution
that it is at present desirable to take steps to form a sj'nod."^
Peculiarly enough, a greater portion of jean Cridge's congregation were anti-synod. Regretfully for Dean Cridge, an open
letter to the Bishop, postmarked the 9th of January, 1874> was
published In Victoria's two newspapers. It said, in effect, that
"every local congregation with its accepted pastor is a complete
church, (the word and sacraments being duly administered therein);
that a Diocese is no necessary part of a Church and the Bishop has
no authority over a particular congregation".
The Bishop, not repressing retaliatory measures, was to take
the sermon at Christ Church Cathedral' on the 27th of.January; but
at the' last moment changed the direction of his car riage and went
to St. John's Church instead. He preached that the Church, the
Church of England, within its written constitution comprised the
Bishop, Clergy, and laymen. The Bishop in his office was to set
in order all matters'''on a diocesan level. The binding principle
was of contact, the laity represented the congregation and was to
be bound by whatever was agreed upon by all in Synod with the
Bishop; Also the' objective of apply&ng the canons and laws of the
Provincial Synod (Church of England) was that there had been no
just grounds for disunion or even disapproval in the. time of the
Apostles, making a subtle reference to Dean Cridge's break with
the Bishop.
The disagreement was widened in scope when the visitation - 14 -
to the cathedral was denied the Bishop.    He replied to Dean Cridge
on the 14th of July.
Bishop's Censure, July 14th, 1874
My dear Sir,
Ten days having elapsed without any intimation of regret or
apology for your conduct in reference to and on the 3d inst., I am
forced to the painful necessity of initiating proceedings for your
defiance of the Episcopal authority, and of the laws of the Church,
contrary to your ordination vow, and your oath of canonical obedience,
Deeply pained to be compelled to take this course, I now
offer you before formal steps are begun, the opportunity of acknowledging your fault, expressing regret, and submitting yourself in
future to lawful authority.
I am faithfully yours
G'. Columbia
Reason ceased to operate with the Dean, determined to win his case
at all costs.
To this end, Dean Edward Cridge rallied his forces in- April
of 1874-at the annual vestry meeting. It was noticed that "Cridge
bore great bitterness"  and that an attempt to throw him out of
the Church establishment would mean an even more determined fight
over the issue. The Dean's opposition and disregard for the vested
powers of the Bishop continued. Dean Cridge blatantly refused the
Bishop's right of visitation to the Cathedral on the 3rd of July.
A refusal by the Dean to present the Registers culminated in a
heated argument which lasted some twenty minutes in the Chapel of
Christ Church Cathedral. Eventually on the 27th of August, 1874, a
final warning was issued by an Ecclesiastical Court composed of the
Bishop, two of his honorable clergy, and two British Columbia County
Court Judges.
Dean Cridge appeared before the Court on the 10th September,
the Bishop presiding as judge, which saw 17 articles setting forth
the case against him:
1. That Mr Cridge had offended against the laws ecclesiastical.
2. That he had refused to acknowledge the Bishop's authority.
3. That he had neglected to comply with the Bishop's lawful
4. That he had obstructed the Bishop in the performance of
his Episcopal office and function.
5. Breaches of propriety and discipline.
6. Disturbing the congregation.
7. Attacking a brother clergyman before the congregation.
8. public repudiation of the Bishop's censure.
9. Attack upon Episcopacy.
10. Refusal to explain.
11. Refusal of the return of Visitation Articles of Inquiry.
12. Denial of the Bishop's authority of Visitation.
13. Refusal to produce the Registers. - 15 -
14. Declared the Bishop to have denied the Queen's supremacy.
15. . Denial of the Bishop's right and discretion as to preaching
in Christ Church Cathedral.
16. Declared the Bishop a seceder from the Church of England.
17. Admonished Dean Edward Cridge for his behaviour in the
Cathedral on December 7, 1872.23.
Because of the Dean's persevering nature, a previous letter of July
14th, 1874 from Bishop Hills had gone unheeded. It had yielded to
the Dean a last chance to apologize before initiating proceedings
against him.
For. five days, the 10th, 11th, 12th, 14th, and the 17th of
September 1874, the trial of Dean Edward Cridge continued, meeting
precisely at 10.30 a.m. on each date. Cridge presented no defence,
but presented three protests, all spontaneous speeches delivered on
the first and second days of the trial, attempting to delay the
proceedings of the court in order to establish the court's legality
to his own satisfaction. In Court the Dean collected his wits and
declared.that "when any attempt is made to defame my ministry, or
intrude, upon my office, which I have received in trust for the
Church, as well as for myself, .1 shall not hesitate, if I believe the
interests of religion require it, to give it to the light of day.
I stood up as I believed, for my master and my church, in defence
of the ministry which had been entrusted to me". *
On the last day of the trial, Dean Cridge expounded eight
reasons why he declined to plead to the court. Bishop Hills as
Incumbent Judge delivered "Our judgement in the present proceedings,
therefore, is that tho licence granted by us on the 17th of September, i860, to the said Reverend E. Cridge, be revoked; that he be
suspended from his aforesaid office and position of Dean, until he
submit himself to lawful authority, and that he be administered to
so submit himself in the future."25
On the last day of the trial a near riot occurred which almost
demolished the court premises. There was hissing and booing as the
judgement was read to the court. The following day, a letter from
the congregation was sent to the Doan, expressing their attitude.
. "We, the undersigned.members of your congregation and
other friends, desire to place on record our esteem and respect
for you, and our high appreciation of your labours in the
cause of true religion during the last 19 years. We respectively a£«ure you of our deep sympathy in the present
On September 21st, Dean Edward Cridge's licence was. formally
revoked. In spite of the Dean's unfortunate situation, he was
backed strongly by the Church Wardens and Church Committee, writing
the Dean:
Dear Sir,
We the undersigned members of the Church Committee of
Christ Church respectively assure you of deep sympathy - 16 -
in the present crisis and earnestly beg you to continue your
duty at Christ Church as heretofore unless removed by due
course of law.2'
In a letter from Bishop Hills, to be delivered no later than
the 22nd September 1874, the Dean was advised to acknowledge his
unmistakable errors.    Again no reply was forwarded.    On the 18th
of the f olloYiring month Dean Cridge was arraigned to the Supreme
Court of British Columbia..
All parties then agreed to settle the matter in the Supreme
Court.    On the 22nd October the trial opened, lasting for three
full days.    The Bishop was supported by his Chaplain, Reverend F.F.
Gubbell, and Dean Cridge by the Church Wardens of Christ Church,
McCreight ° appearing for the prosecution and Robertson for the
defence.    In spite of Dean Cridge's perseverance, he was convicted
by the Supreme Court in a judgement handed down by Mr Justice Gray2*
on the 28th and 29th April, 1875,
Unfortunately the Church of England was losing a man faithful
to the Redeemer's cause.    It \vas found necessary by the Court to
have Dean Edward Cridge's licence revoked, effective on the 18th May,
in order to restrain him from preaching or officiating in Christ
Church or in the immediate Diocese as a Minister of the Church of
England, because he failed to conform to the discipline and government of the United Church of England and Ireland.    To make the
injunction perpetual,  it was taken before the Assize Court, with
J. Hamilton Gray officiating.
For Dean Cridge, the share of costs in the court proceedings
were nil, but a sum of $845.42 was charged for the Ecclesiastical
trial of'which $751.00 was paid by Bishop Hills;  and a sum of $1369.00
for Supreme Court costs toward \ifhich $500.00 from Governor James
Douglas was donated under the explicit condition that Dean Cridge
be set free from all liabilities.
A hasty letter of apologies was drafted by Dean Cridge, but
Bishop Hills found it to be entirely unacceptable.    At this stage
in the conflict, Dean Cridge seriously contemplated turning his
faith to the Reformed Episcopal Church lately organized in the
Dominion of Canada and first initiated by its founder, George David
Cummins,™ vdio as Assistant Bishop of Kentucky was concerned over
the growth of Trao.barianism.    Thus on the 10th November 1873, Cridge
resigned his position and embarked upon the organization of a new
ecclesiastical body - the Reformed Episcopal Church.    "I firmly
believed that this school (Tractarianism) was not a growth developing from seeds within the system, but a parasite fastening upon it
from without and threatening its very life."31
Three days after Judge Begbie's-^    judgement,  a vestry meeting
was called of tho Church Wardens.    The rebel Dean disclosed his
intentions and it was decided to have a meeting of the congregation
on the 29th October.    Present at the meeting was Senator W.L.
Macdonald,33 along with 75% of the congregation.    At the meeting
it was agreed that the congregation shouiffl organize themselves - 17 -
into a Church united with the Free Episcopal Church of England and
the Reformed Episcopal Church of Canada and the United States. It
Was unanimously agreed that the Reverend Edward Cridge be asked to
be tjielr Pastor and that he communicate immediately with Bishop
.Cummins, in .preparation for the admission of the congregation into
that communion... On-the following Sunday, the 1st November, Reverend
.Cridge. and h'is congregation occupied their Pandora Street Church-^
to the delight of the congregation, and above all, Dean Edward Cridge.
With, the move to the Pandora Street Church came the Church
Wardens, the Church Committee, a greater part of the congregation,
the organist, sexton, and all but two of the choir. For Bishop
Hills this .meant preaching to on almost empty church,'Christ Church
Cathedral, with the frequent disrupting noises made by Edward
Cridge's congregation as they packed away the furniture to furnish
their own Pandora Street Church. The new Pandora Street Church was
consecrated on the 18th January, 1876.
A number of letters were sent to Cummins and the application
to become a member of the Reformed Episcopal Church was granted with
Joy in April of the following year. At the General Council held at
Chicago the f olloviting May 11, 1876, Dean Cridge was consecrated
Missionary Bishop of the Reformed Episcopal Church in the Missionary
Jurisdiction of the Pacific.^
On December 23, 1874, the decision, to build a larger church
was. undertaken - Sir James Douglas offering a site on Humbolt
Street. He would donate the site and l/lO of any sum up to
$10,000 for a structure. Immediately subscribers donated some
$3,100 and within three weeks $6,050.00 had been collected. It was
.certain that Edward Cridge and his congregation would'. en j oy new
premises sooner than they had thought.
For Bishop Hills, the threat of Dean Cridge's' resignation
and the formation of his own Church was incredible, and some measure
to stop Dean Cridge from doing so had to be instituted. Above all
to save a fellow clergyman from breaking from the Anglican Chinch
was Bishop Hills' primary interest. It was his hope that he could
persuade Cridge to admit his wrong actions and show his extreme and
most humble loyalty to the satisfaction of the Bishop - the ultimate
result being that Cridge might receive a licence for the Pandora
Street Church congregation as a Church of England Community. But
Cridge's principles were opposed to the 'High' Anglican Church views
of the Bishop. No proposals from the Bishop could convince Edward
Cridge to reconcile his position with the British Columbia section
of the Church of England. Now.-as a Bishop of the Reformed Episcopal
Church, backed strongly by his congregation, Cridge was able to give
full expression of his beliefs
The unfortunate incident culminated in the deeper theological
split between Bishop Hills and Cridge, Hills was. a moderate 'High'
Churchman, not Qxtreme, although he had been trained in the thought
of the Oxford Movement. Cridge was "an almost Militant Evangelical,
he was a strict Sabbatarian and believed that no sports or similar
amusements should be held on the Lord's Day",36 Before the dispute - 18 -
had broken anew, Bishop Hills had recognized Cridge's capabilities
exclaiming, "I am very fortunate in Mr Cridge, the original Clergyman here. He is a truly good man, sincere and devout Christian.
He enters into all my plans, and is a great support to me".   But
in the following years of their acquaintance, before the opening
of the rift loomed up, a disagreement in 1862 did occur; "I trust
your lordship will believe me when I say that I have never entertained
nor in any way (consciously) expressed a desire ... to hold the
living of Christ Church irrespective of subjection to Ecclesiastical
Discipline and Doctrine".3° The Bishop was generous in his judgement of Edward Cridge, giving Cridge a multitude of opportunities
to redeem himself. It was unfortunate for Dean Cridge that his
temper could not have been curtailed, otherwise the whole issue
would never have arisen.
That the populace of Victoria liked Edward Cridge bo a greater
extent than Bishop Hills is apparent in the Church records.39
Cridge      Hills    Other Clergy
Baptisms 339 23        46
Marriages 112 15        19
Burials 262 1       264
Even Judge Begbie's attitude toward Edward Cridge was manifest in
his sympathy for him, but admitted that Cridge openly violated the
law and had to be punished accordingly.
A shattering number of secessionists joined Bishop Cridge in
his cause. The only churches of the Reformed Episcopal Church in
British Columbia are The Church of Our Lord in Victoria, St. Paul's
in New Westminster, and St. Margaret's at the corner of Windermere
and Georgia in the City of Vancouver. Dean Cridge's faith has
continued through the years, maintaining its profound belief in the
'Low' Anglican Church philosophy, striving against her opponent,
the High Anglican Church of British Columbia.
Declaration of Principles of the Reformed Episcopal Church
1. The Reformed Episcopal Church, holding 'the faith onee
delivered to the saints'; declares its belief in the Holy
Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as the Word of God,
and the sole Rule of Faith and Practice; in the Creed, commonly
called the Apostles' Creed; in the Divine institution of the
Sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's. Supper; and in the doctrines
of grace substantially as they are set forth in the Thirty-Nine
Articles of Religion.
2. This Church, retaining a Liturgy which shall not be imperative
or repressive of freedom in prayer, accepts the Book of Common
■ Prayer, as it was revised, proposed, and recommended for use
by the General Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church,
A.D. 1785, reserving full liberty to alter, abridge, enlarge - 19 -
and amend the same, as may seem most the edification of the people,  'provided that the substance of the faith
be kept entire'.
3.    This.Church recognizes and adheres to Episcopacyj not as of
Divine right, but as a very ancient and desirable form of
.-■ Church polity.
4V This"Church condemns ard rejects the following erroneous and
strange doctrines as contrary to God's word.
FIRST. That the Church of Christ exists only in one order
or form of ecclesiastical polity.
SECOND. That Christian ministers are  'priests'- In another
-.sense than that in which .all-believers are a 'royal priesthood
THIRD..:That the Lord's Tqble is an altar on which an oblation
of the Body and Blood of Christ is offered anew to the Father.
■FOURTH. That the Presence of Christ in the Lord's Supper is
a presence in the elements of bread and wine.
FIFTH. That regeneration is inseparably connected with Baptism.
Cited in Benjamin Aycrigg. Memoirs of the Reformed Episcopal Church
and the Protestant Episcopal Church .... New York,  1876;  p.122-123.
The Free Church of England Publications Committee. A history of the
Free Church of England otherwise called the Reformed Episcopal
Church. Bungat, England,  I960,  p.71-72.
1. Sir James Douglas, 1893-1877.  A servant of the Hudson's Bay Co.
from, his youth, was responsible for the establishment of Fort
.Victoria in 1843.    In 1849 he made it his headquarters and moved
there from Fort Vancouver.    In that year also he was appointed
Agent for the Puget's Sound Agricultural Company.    He became
Governor.of Vancouver Island in 1851 and of British Columbia in
1858^ in which year he retired and was knighted in .recognition
of .-his services.    W.N.Sage. Sir James Douglas and British
'Columbia.' Toronto, U,   of Toronto Press,  1930.
2. J^B.Good,   'The utmost bounds of the west'; pioneer jottings of
forty years,; missionary .reminiscences of the .out ^yest Pacific
• coast,7t'Ar7D'."~l8ol to A.D.  1900.    n.p. Typescript" in Archives of
British Columbia.
3-   Edgar Fawcett. Reminiscences of Bishop Cridge.1922. Typescript
.   in the Archives of British Columbia.
4.    Columbia Mission Report,  1861,  p.29.
5.• Letter written by Edward Cridge, July 5,  1848, from a series of
~_   letters contained in the Provincial Synod Archives, Anglican
Theological College Library. - 20 -
6. File of literature filed under 'Dean Edward Cridge'. Provincial
Synod Archives, Anglican'Theological College Library.
7. Cockburn, George H. Livingstone, Kible and the Canadian Church,
The Canadian Churchman. December 31, 1936, p.765.
8. Sage. The early days of tho Church of England oh tho Pacific
slope, 1579-1879, The Journal of the Canadian Church Historical
Society V.2, June 1953, p.1-17
9. F.A. Peake. Tho Anglican Church in British Columbia. Vancouver,
Mitchell Press, 1959, p.79.
10. William Sheldon Reeco. M.A., 1830-1904, arrived in Victoria in
1862. For tho first four years he was Vice-Principal of tho
Collegiate School and had clerical duties at Craigflower. In
1866 ho moved to Cowichan, which area he served until he left
the province in 1873. From 1868 until 1873 he was Archdeacon
of Vancouver. Simpson, D.H. Henry Press Wright... B.C. Historical
Quarterly Vol. 14, Ju3y-0ct. 1955, p.168.
H. Article-1, "Declaration of Principles of the Reformed Episcopal
. Church"; cited in the Free Church'of England Publication Committee,
A History of the Free Church of England otherwise called the
Reformed Episcopal Church, Bungay, England, I960, p.71.
12. F.A. Peake. The Anglican Church in British Columbia. Vancouver,
Mitchell Press, 1959.
13. Extract of letter datud December 18, 1872, from H.P.P. Crease
' to Edward Cridge, quoting "as nearly" as he could remember
Cridge's words and actions at the evening service on December 5,
-1872. -MS. copy in Cridge, Correspondence and papers relating to
■Christ Church Cathedral, 1870-1874.
14. Bishop- Mnrris Benjamin Wistar Morris, D.D., 1819-1906, was
consecrated in 1868 the second Bishop of the Episcopal Church in
Oregon. He had jurisdiction over tho whole of Washington
Territory. In 1880 the diocese was split; he continued as Bishop
of Oregon and another clergyman was consecrated Bishop of Washington. T.E. Jesset, Bishop M rris and the Episcopal Church in
Western Washington. Pacific Northwest Quarterly V.39, July 1948,
p.200-213. Who's-Who in America 1912-1913, V.7 p.lA-90.
15. Hills to Cridge, December 7, 1872, Cited in Trial of the Very
Reverend Edward Cridge, Rector and Dean of Christ Church Cathedral,
Victoria. Documents, evidence, correspondence and judgement, as
used and given in the Bishop's Court .and in the Supreme Court
of the province, before the Honourable Chief Justice Begbie on
application for injunction on 24th 0ctober, 1874, and find
judgement by Mr Justice Gray on 18th May, 1875. Anglican Prov-
- incial'Synod Archives, Anglican Theological College Library.
16. BpitishColonist, December Sth,  1872. - 21 -
17. Hills to Cridge, N0v. 1, 1873. Cited in Trials..,., p,39, ms. in
Cridge papers, 1870-1874.
18. Dioklnson, S. Cridge and Hills. B.A. ossay, Univ.  of Victoria, 196A.
19. Cridge to the Church Wardens of Christ Church, January 3,  1874.
Ms.  copy in Cridge papers, 1870-1874.
20. F.A. Peake. Tho Anglican Church in B.C. Vancouver, Mitchell Press, 1959
21. Hills to Cridge, July 14th, 1874. Cited in-Trials... p.56. Ms.
in Cridge papers, 1870-1874.
22. F.A. Poako. The Anglican Church in B.C.
23.-  Hills to Cridge, September 10,  1874,  cited in Trials... Ms.  in
Cridge papers, 1870-1874.
24. F.A. Peake. The Anglican Church in B.C.
25. Judgement in the case of the Very Reverend Edward Cridge. Cited
' in Trials ... p.58.
26. Printed notice in Cridge papers, 1870-1874. Ms.  notes dated
September 18, 1874, in Cridge papers, 1870-1874.
27. C.C.C.M.B.  p.151 dated September 24, 1874-
28. McCreight. John Foster, d.  1913. Prime minister of B.C.,  1871-72,
was a native of Ireland who came to B.C. by way of Australia and
began the practice of law in Victoria in i860.    In 1871 he was
selected by Joseph Trutch, the lieutenant-governor of B.C. to
head the first provincial administration as prime minister and
attorney general.    He resigned at the end of 1872; and from 1880-
1897 he was a justice of the Supreme Court of B.C.    After his
retirement from the Bench, he lived in England, and died at Hastings,
* on N0vember 18,  1913.    W.N.Sage. John Foster McCreight. Trans.
Royal Soc.  of Can.  1940.
29. Gray, J. • Hamilton-,- 1814-1889, was born in Bermuda and educated
in Nova-Scotia.    In 1837 he was celled to the Bar of New Brunswick
and in 1853 was appointed Q.C    From 1856 to 1857 he was Attorney-
"' General 'and Premier of New Brunswick.    He arrived in Victoria in
October-1872 and was sworn in as'Judge of the Supreme Court on
October 31st.    Bt.Colonist June 30, July 27> Oct.  27. & 31,  1872.
"30.    CumminsT George David, the Assistant Bishop of Kentucky, concerned over growth of Tra'ctarianism in his time;  bn Nov.  10, 1873
he resigned his position and embarked upon the organization of a
new body, the Reformed Episcopal Church.
31.    G.D. Cummins. Following the Light;  a statement of the author's
experiences resulting in a change of viexus... Philadelphia,
J.A. Moore,  1876, p.8.    Bound in A Collection of Pamphlets with
reference to the  ...Reformed Episcopal Church. Phila, 1876. .    - 22 -
32. Begbie, Sir Matthew Baillie, 1819^1894, frontier judge, was born
in Edinburgh in 1819,    Ho was educated at St. Peter's College,
Cambridge and was called to the English Bar from Lincoln's Inn in
I844.    For 14 years he practised lav; in England,- then in 1858 he
was appointed a judge in the crown colony of British Columbia.
In this capacity he played a signal part in preserving law and order
on the mainland of B.C. during the days of the gold rush; in 1866,
on tho union of B.C. and Vancouver Island he became chief justice
of the mainland of B.C.  and in 1870 chief justice of the province
of B.C.    This position he retained until his death in Victoria
on June 11,  1894-    W.K.  Lamb, ed.    Memoirs and documents relating
to Judge Begbie. B.C.  Hist. Quarterly. 1941.    R.G. MacBeth. A
famous frontier judge. Can.Mag. 1918. S, Banwell. A frontier
judge. Toronto, 1938.
33. Macdonald, William John, 1832-1916, Senator of Canada,, was born
in the Isle of Skye on Nov.  29,  1832,    He was privately educated
and went to Vancouver Island in the service of the Hudson's Bay
Co., In 1851.    From 1859 to 1866 he sat in the Legislative Assembly of Vancouver Island,  and from 1866 to 1871 in the Legislative
Council of B.C.    On the entrance  of B.C.  into Confederation in
1871 he was appointed to the Senate of. Canada,  and ho continued
as a Senator until 1915. He died in Victoria in 1916. He published his. reminiscences in a pamphlet entitled A Pioneer, Vic.
1915, Morgan. Can.Men. 1912. Can. who's who, 1910. J.B. Kerr.
Biographical diet,   of well-known British Columbians, V^n.  1890.
34-    Pandora Street Church was erected in 1862 and called at first
The First Presbyterian Church,    Shortly after it was deserted
and the Presbyterian congregation used the St. Andrew's Church
on Courtenay Street,    The Church remained deserted;    Christ
Church -congregation used it temporarily in 1870 while the new
Church was being built after tho fire.  Bt.Colonist Mar17,  1876.
35.    Herbert B. Turner to Cridge, May 21,  1875. Loc.  sit.
-36.    W.H. Thomas to Cridge, Nov.  26,  1873. Ms.  in Cridge^ Corrosp,
and papers relating to Christ Church Cathedral,  in Archives of B.C.
37. Columbia Mission Report., 1872,  cited in.F.A. Peake, The Anglican
Church in British Columbia. Vancouver,  1959, p.79.
38. Cridge to Hills, Jan. 30, 1862. Ms copy in Cridge, Corresp.
and-papers relating to Christ Church Cathedral,  1855-1870,  in
Archives of B.C.
39. Christ Church Cathedral.   Parish registers; Baptisms, 1836-1886;
.- Marriages, 1837-1872; Burials, 1837-1872. Photostat and
■   transcripts in Archives of B.C.


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