British Columbia History

British Columbia Historical News 1990

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Volume 23,  No. 2
Spring 1990
ISSN 0045-2963
British Columbia
Historical News
Journal of the B.C. Historical Federation
***** ********
Member Societies and their secretaries are responsible for seeing that the correct address for their society is up-to-date.
Please send any change to both the Treasurer and the Editor at the addresses inside the back cover. The Annual Return
as at October 31st should include telephone numbers for contact.
Members' dues for the year 1988/89 were paid by the following Members Societies:
Alberni District Historical Society, Box 284, Port Alberni, B.C. V9Y 7M7
Atlin Historical Society, RO. Box 111, Atlin, B.C. VOW 1A0
BCHF - Gulf Island Branch, c/o Marian Worrall, Mayne Island, VON 2J0
BCHF - Victoria Section, c/o Charlene Rees, 2 - 224 Superior Street, Victoria, B.C. V8V 1T3
Burnaby Historical Society, 4521 Watling Street, Burnaby, B.C. V5J 1V7
Chemainus Valley Historical Society, P.O. Box 172, Chemainus, B.C. VOR 1K0
Cowichan Historical Society, P.O. Box 1014, Duncan, B.C. V9L 3Y2
District 69 Historical Society, RO. Box 3014, Parksville, B.C. VOR 2S0
East Kootenay Historical Association, RO. Box 74, Cranbrook, B.C. V1C 4H6
Golden & District Historical Society, Box 992, Golden, B.C. VOA 1 HO
Ladysmith Historical Society, Box 11, Ladysmith, B.C. VOR 2E0
Lantzville Historical Society, Box 501, Lantzville, B.C. VOR 2H0
Nanaimo Historical Society, P.O. Box 933, Station 'A', Nanaimo, B.C. V9R 5N2
North Shore Historical Society, 623 East 10th Street, North Vancouver, B.C. V7L 2E9
North Shuswap Historical Society, P.O. Box 22, Celista, B.C. VOE 1 LO
Princeton & District Pioneer Museum and Archives, Box 687, Princeton, B.C. VOX 1 WO
Qualicum Beach Historical & Museum Society, c/o Mrs. Cora Skipsey, RO. Box 352, Qualicum Beach, B.C. VOR 2T0
Saltspring Island Historical Society, RO. Box 705, Ganges, B.C. VOS 1E0
Sidney and North Saanich Historical Society, P.O. Box 2404, Sidney, B.C. V8L 3Y3
Silvery Slocan Historical Society, P.O. Box 301, New Denver, B.C. VOG 1S0
Trail Historical Society, P.O. Box 405, Trail, B.C. V1R 4L7
Vancouver Historical Society, P.O. Box 3071, Vancouver, B.C. V6B 3X6
Affiliated Groups
B.C. Museum of Mining, P.O. Box 155, Britannia Beach, B.C. VON 1 JO
City of White Rock Museum Archives Society, 1030 Martin Street, White Rock, B.C. V4B 5E3
Fort Steele Heritage Park, Fort Steele, B.C. VOB 1N0
The Hallmark Society, 207 Government Street, Victoria, B.C. V8V 2K8
Nanaimo Centennial Museum Society, 100 Cameron Road, Nanaimo, B.C. V9R 2X1
Second Class registration number 4447
Published fall, winter, spring, and summer by the British Columbia Historical Federation, P.O. Box 35326, Station E,
Vancouver, B.C. V6M 4G5. A Charitable Society recognized under the Income Tax Act.
Subscriptions: Institutional, $16.00 per year; Individual (non-members), $8.00.
Financially assisted by the Ministry of Municipal Affairs, Recreation and Culture through the British
Columbia Heritage Trust and British Columbia   Lotteries.
Back issues of the British Columbia Historical News are available in microform from Micromedia Ltd., 158 Peari St., Toronto,
Ontario M5H1L3-Micromedia also publishes the Canadian Magazine Index and the Canadian Business Index.
Indexed in the Canadian Periodical Index. BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL NEWS
Volume 23, No. 2
Journal of the B.C. Historical Federation
We are deeply indebted to a Kelowna resident, Winston A. Shilvock, for making the
"Okanagan Special" possible. This gentleman introduced himself in August 1988 as "a
friend of the Historical News." He has contributed articles, and advice, for previous issues and now has collected articles, illustrations and fillers which are presented in the
following pages.
Many of the stories are new, and a few are
favorites from annual Reports of the
Okanagan Historical Society, which the current editor, Bob Cowan selected. The executive of the Okanagan Historical Society has
graciously granted permission to the B.C.
Historical News to print these articles in the
Spring 1990 edition. The source of each article from OHS Reports is indicated beside the
authors name in the table of Contents on this
page. Naomi Miller
Map of the Okanagan
on page 36
Cover Credit:
The John Innes painting "H.B.Co. Fur
Brigade Passing Okanagan Lake" is reproduced with permission from the Native
Daughters of B.C. who sell postcards of this
and other B.C. historical scenes at the Old
Hastings Mill Museum in Vancouver.
The H.B.Co. collected furs from throughout
New Caledonia. The Brigade started from
Fort Alexandria, paused at Fort Kamloops
where great bands of horses were maintained
to serve as fresh mounts and pack animals.
They travelled across dun-colored hills,
passed Grand Prairie (Westwold) to the
shores of Lake Okanagan. The travellers
skirted the west side of the lake and followed
the Okanagan River to Fort Okanogan, where
the horses would be pastured and the brigade
took to boats for the trip down the Columbian
River to Fort Vancouver
At the head of the annual brigade, following
the guides, rode the Chief Factor of the district. Custom dictated that he wear a high
beaver hat, collar to the ears, ruffled shirt,
and a coat of dark blue or black. When camp
was made, his fire was the first lighted; his
tent the first erected; and when entering or
leaving a fort, three guns were fired as a salute in his honor.
The young man riding with the Chief
Factor is James Douglas, who, at age 27,
was enroute to his posting to Fort Vancouver
in 1830.
| Contents
| Features
Table of Contents & Editorial
j  Camp Fairview
by Hester E. White
OHS Reports #12 (1946) p. 59-66
gjj   Brief History of the Town of Oliver
« by Constance Seeley
|  Appreciation - Leonard Norris
by Margaret Ormsby
| OHS Reports #11 (1945) p. 15-19
|  Vernon Celebrates
by Edna Oram
OHS Reports #47 (1983) p. 29-30
m  Soldiers of the Soil
m by William Ruhmann
OHS Reports #47 (1983) p. 68-76
i  Penticton - The Beginning
by A. David MacDonald
i   On to Okanagan in Cartoons
by E.A. Harris
|  The Okanagan - Nicola Connections of the 1830's
by R.C. Harris
Armstrong: From Celery to Cheese
« by Judy Riemche
j  The Role of Enderby in Early Okanagan History
4o by Bob Cowan
|  Commando Bay
» by Winston Shilvock
Private Schools in the Okanagan
by Winston Shilvock
«  John Moore Robinson
by Winston Shilvock
i  Development of the Orchard Industry 1890-1940
g by David Dendy
g OHS Reports #38 (1974) p. 68-73
j»  Gems from the Archives
Spring, 1990
P  Writing Competition - 1989
News & Notes
gj BookShelf: Book Reviews
j2j Stein; The Way of the River-by George Newell
| Recent Publications
| Writing Competition Giiidlines
Back Cover
Manuscripts and correspondence for the editor are to be sent to PO. Box 105, Wasa, B.C. VOB 2K0
Correspondence regarding subscriptions are to be directed to the subscription secretary (see inside back cover)
B.C. Historical News Colonial Osoyoos
Few of Osoyoos's resident retirees
or its summer visitors enjoying our
sun, sand and water realize that the
whole of British Columbia's southern
interior was once administered from
this very place.
The Bill making British Columbia
a crown colony was passed by the
British House of Commons on
August 2, 1858. However, even before that James Douglas, alarmed
by the influx of miners who spread
north in the aftermath of the 1849
California gold rush, had used all
the powers vested in him as
Governor of Vancouver Island and
Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay
Company at Victoria to assert
British sovereignty and to keep law
and order. Once the territory had officially become a colony and Douglas
its Governor, with the proviso that
he sever his connection with the
Hudson's Bay Company, the
Imperial Government selected officers for the major posts including
Matthew Baillie Begbie, Judge;
Chartres Brew, Inspector of Police;
and W.A.G. Young, Colonial
Douglas had made his first official
mention of gold on the upper
Columbia in April 1856 although
even before this gold had been purchased discreetly from native
Indians by the Hudson's Bay
Company. However in 1858 the secret was out and by the end of May
it was estimated that there were
10,000 miners on the Fraser River.
In October 1859 a Canadian,
Adam Beam, while travelling from
Colville to Similkameen discovered
gold at Rock Creek. He began mining May 7, 1860. By October there
were 500 miners at Rock Creek and
ten miles down stream where
Boundary Creek emptied into the
Colville (Kettle) River. In the spring
of 1860, Douglas moved William
George Cox from the District of
Kamloops, where he had been
by Jean Webber
Magistrate, to Rock Creek where he
was to keep law and order, sell miner's licences, and collect customs
both on the Similkameen and in the
In the fall of 1860 Governor
Douglas visited the region, stopping
at Keremeos September 21 where a
Hudson's Bay post and farm had
been developed subsequent to the
signing of the Oregon Boundary
Treaty in 1846. By the 24th he was
at Osoyoos. One cannot help wondering if he visited Hiram F Smith
(Okanogan Smith) who had carried
mail for the Hudson's Bay Company
between Fort Hope and Fort
Okanogan. In 1855 Smith had decided to settle on the shores of Sooyoos Lake not knowing whether his
land was in British territory or
American. Perhaps in 1860
Douglas was able to monitor the
progress of Smith's apple orchard
grown from scions which he had carried in from Hope in 1857.
Douglas arrived at Rock Creek on
September 25 where he addressed a
company of miners the next day. By
October 5 he was at Hope on his
way back to Victoria. Douglas must
have been impressed with Cox's
work for he made him a Gold
Commissioner and promised him assistance with his administrative duties. The assistant was to be John
Carmichael Haynes who became
Deputy Collector of Customs at the
newly opened customs port of
Keremeos. But more of Haynes
The strategically placed Gold
Commissioners were the agents in
the field of the Colonial Government.
They kept law and order with a
minimum of police assistance and no
jails; they collected government revenues; they oversaw public works;
they registered land preemptions;
they attended to Indian affairs.
Douglas had Cox mark off Indian
reservations   throughout   the
John Carmichael Haynes, 1831-1888.
Okanagan in consultation with the
Indians. The sketch map of the reserve at the head of Okanagan Lake
was dated June 30 and was sent to
the government with Cox's report
written at Rock Creek and dated
July 4!
A Gold Commissioner was expected to write frequent and full reports
to the Colonial Secretary in which he
not only dealt with current business
but also reported on the general
state of the country: climatic features, geographical features, flora
and fauna, soil and timber resources, and the state of settlement if
any. Such dispatches are a rich
source of historical detail.
While Cox was stationed at Rock
Creek American and British
Boundary Commissions were busy
surveying the 49th Parallel and
marking the boundary. Twice Cox
mentions them. On December 9,
1860 he wrote: "I also perceive that
the English Commissioners have
built their monuments more than
200 yards south of those built by
their American companions." Then
on April 27, 1861 we find: "The
American Boundary Commission
passed through here (Rock Creek)
yesterday en route to Osoyoos to
rectify some error connected with the
parallel by them committed, I presume. The English Commission has
proceeded eastward." Now
Okanogan Smith could be certain
RC. Historical News that his land was in the United
States. Instructions were sent to
Cox and Haynes to see that the
markers erected along the boundary
were not interfered with.2
Cox, in his official reports, frequently referred to the order and
peace in the camp. One finds this
rather surprising considering that in
the eighteen months or so of Cox's
posting at Rock Creek there was a
shooting over a land dispute in
which the murderer escaped; the
knifing of a white man by an Indian
after which the Indian was captured
and lynched at the traverse or ford
at the south end of Osoyoos Lake;
the kidnapping of a miner's child by
an Indian (the child was rescued);
the drumming out of town of a
young Englishman caught robbing
sluice boxes; and the forced departure of a gambler only too ready to
relieve miners of their hard-earned
By November 15, 1861 the rush
was all over. The miners had moved
north to Mission Creek, Cherry
Creek and even to the Cariboo. Cox
was moved to a more active field.
His deputy and assistant, Haynes,
John Carmichael Haynes arrived
from his native Ireland in Victoria on
Christmas Day 1858. He was carrying an introduction to Chartres
Brew and testimonial letters from
the Mayor and Chief Magistrate of
the City of Cork. By the fall of 1859
Haynes was Chief Constable at Yale
and was already being noticed for
his efficiency and integrity. From
Yale he was posted to Keremeos as
Deputy Customs Officer to man the
newly opened port.
In April of 1861 Haynes reported
to the Colonial Secretary that he
had seized sixteen horses laden with
liquors, tobaccos, cigars, candles and
other items useful for sale in the
Cariboo all to the value of several
thousand dollars. The party, which
had avoided paying duty, were overtaken at Okanagan Falls. When an
appeal was made to Cox, the Gold
commissioner allowed the group to
keep one pack-horse and each man
to keep a horse and saddle along
with enough food to get him to the
Cariboo. Haynes was highly commended for his part by the Colonial
Office but Cox was reprimanded and
told that he personally would have
to pay for the horses he had let the
men keep.
In September 1861 Cox received
permission to build a Customs house
at Osoyoos. This decision confirmed
the importance of the corridor to the
central and northern interior which
had been discovered by David Stuart
in 1811 and used by the fur brigades of thirty-five years. The
building was to be made of logs,
20x30 feet and 10 feet high, chinked
and daubed, logs hewn outside and
in. The floor was to be of boards
nailed down. There were to be: one
good strong batten door with strong
door post and knob, two rooms with
doors and knobs, four windows, two
with twelve lights and two with six.
The cost was not to exceed 130
pounds. The house was located at
the north end of Osoyoos Lake on a
knoll which afforded a commanding
view of trails on both sides of the
lake, not far from the present cemetery.
When Cox was moved from the district Haynes was made Gold
Commissioner. The great iron safe
weighing 1200 pounds which Cox
had brought into Rock Creek by way
of the Dalles was moved down to the
Osoyoos Customs house.
Livestock, destined to be driven to
the Cariboo over the old fur brigade
trail, was the principal customs
item. Records for 1861 and 1862
Jan. 1 to Oct. 19,1861
Oct. 19 to Apr.
30, 1862
May      963
June   1065
July      461
Aug.      141
Sept.      172
Oct.         54
Dec.         12
3396     4817      778     1371
In 1865 Haynes had the Customs
house moved to a more central
location about one half a mile west of
the bridge over the narrows. The
original shake roof was to be replaced
by a shingle roof. A cellar was to be
added as well as a section containing
a dining room, kitchen, two cells and
a small room. This work was done
under contract by S.T. Marshall for
$750. Again the great safe must
have been moved for we have Mrs.
Chrestenza Kruger's dramatic
description of the fire which
destroyed this second customs house
in 1878: "One day in April 1878, we
noticed the customs house on fire.
Mr. Kruger jumped on a horse and
galloped over to assist, arriving just
about the time when the Haynes
family became aware of the fire. The
iron safe which Cox brought into Rock
Creek in 1860 was in the house and
Haynes was much concerned about it
as it held a lot of money and all his
valuable papers. The safe weighed
about 1200 pounds, but my husband
soon solved the problem. He was a
big man, standing over six feet and
weighing about 290 pounds, and so
he tumbled the safe end over end out
through the door to a place of safety,
fortunately, the joists and flooring
In 1864 Haynes received an
appointment as Stipendiary
Magistrate. Gold had been
discovered on Wild Horse Creek near
today's Fort Steele and an
undisciplined horde of miners had
rushed to the spot. Already one
murder had occurred. Haynes was
dispatched to the East Kootenay to
establish order. The very day on
which his instructions arrived
Haynes set out with one man and
five horses. But how was one to get
there through what appeared to be a
trackless wilderness of mountains,
swift rivers and lakes? Haynes
headed for Colville where he could get
information from old Hudson's Bay
Company hands.
When Colonial Secretary Arthur N.
Birch visited Wild Horse camp at the
end of September he reported as
follows: "I arrived within six weeks of
Mr. Haynes' residence in the district
RC. Historical News to find the mining laws of the
Colony in full force, all customs
duties paid, no pistols to be seen
and everything as quiet and orderly
as it could possibly be in the most
civilized district of the land, and
much to the surprise of many of the
miners who recalled the early days
of mining in the State of California.
Haynes1 accounts show that he has
collected over sixteen thousand
dollars between August 10th and
September 30th, and which he kept
in a valise in his office. "'■'
One result of this report was the
Governor Douglas appointed
Haynes a member of the Legislative
Council of British Columbia. A
further honour was conferred in
1866 when Haynes was made a
County Court Judge, hence the
widely used popular name. Judge
Another effect of the Wild Horse
Creek strike was that, in order to
facilitate communication, a contract
was made with Edgar Dewdney to
extend his trail through the
Similkameen. over the Okanagan,
through the Boundary country to the
Kootenays. Included in the contract
was the first bridge over the narrows
of Osoyoos Lake, a structure five
feet in width with loose split rails for
a deck. During high water the loose
rails were removed and travellers
walked the stringers while their
horses swam."
No doubt it was the Dewdney trail
and bridge which precipitated the
move of the Customs house to its
new location. A crossroads had been
established. In 1866 the Hudson's
Bay Company, appreciating the
change in circumstances, established
a trading post just west of the
bridge. Roderick Finlaison, Chief
Factor, hired Theodore Kruger to
manage the post. Kruger was born
a British subject in Hanover which in
1829 belonged to the British crown.
Now with the bridge, the Customs
house and the trading post the
foundations of the future town had
been laid.
As with Cox one of Haynes's duties
was  the  registration  of land
preemptions, an expanding task in
the 1860's. In 1866 when A.L.
Fortune and three Overlander
friends wished to stake preemptions
at Enderby they were told that they
must register with J.C. Haynes,
Gold Commissioner at Osoyoos.7
In 1864 Sir James Douglas retired
as Governor of the Crown Colonies of
Vancouver Island and British
Columbia. The new administration
wasted little time in cutting back
Indian reserves as laid out by Cox
whom they believed to have been
overly generous. Haynes, in 1865,
took to the field with Chief Nicola in
attendance and negotiated
substantial cut-backs. One report
with sketch was written in his tent
at the head of Okanagan Lake in
the very late fall.
In 1871 British Columbia entered
the Confederation of Canada. The
colonial days were over. Colonial
officials became provincial agents.
One change in 1871 which would
have been very noticeable in Osoyoos
was the selling of the Hudson's Bay
Company posts in both Osoyoos and
Keremeos to Barrington Price. Two
years later Price sold the Osoyoos
store to Theodore Kruger who in
1884 became Osoyoos's first Post
After the fire of 1878 Haynes built
a fine house on the east side of the
lake, a house presently inhabited by
Doug and Dorothy Fraser. One
room was used for an office. A
provincial map published some time
after 1884 shows and names
"Osoyoos Lake", "Haynes Customs"
at the location of the new house, but
no "Osoyoos".
After the sudden death of John
Carmichael Haynes in 1888
temporary arrangements were made
concerning his official duties. Then
in 1889 Theodore Kruger was made
Customs Officer of Osoyoos and in
1890 C.A.R. Lambly became
Government Agent. Lambly served
at Osoyoos until 1898 at which time
the government office was moved to
the new and flourishing hard-rock
mining community of Fairview.
That move of the Provincial Agent
to Fairview signalled the end of
Osoyoos's glory days.
Jean Webber is a retired educator, former
editor of the OJt.S. Report and president of
the Osoyoos I Oliver Branch of the Okanagan
Historical Society. Jean Webber won two
Certificates of Merit for Best Article in the
B.C. Historical News - 1986, and Best
Anthology in the B.CH.F. Writing
Competition for 1986.
Colonial Papers, B.C. Provincial Archives
Fraser, Dorothy -    A Short History and Discription of
Osoyoos. 1967
Fraser, George F. - TheStary of Osoyocs. 19S2
Okanagan Historical Society.
«thReportil935>; I2thReportil9481:
15th Report 11951); 17th Report H9S3i.
Ormsby. Margaret A. -
British Columbia! a History. 1958
Pethick, Derek -      James Douglas Servant of Two Empires
Smith, Dorothy Blakey -
James Douglas Father of British Columbia.
1. OHS Report #17: p 49-56
2. OHS #6: 198-199
3. Ibid
4. OHS #8: 77
5. G. Fraser p 76
«. [bid p 88
7.     OHS #6:276
House built on the east side of Osoyoos Lake
by John Carmichael Haynes 1878-1882. The
house as viewed from the south 1985.
Second Customs Office and Official Residence
destroyed by fire, 1878.
RC. Historical News Camp Fairview
Years ago when "one-armed Reed"
and his partner, Ryan, placer miners came on the scene, a beautiful
limpid stream frolicked down the
gulch, casting a cooling freshness
upon all around, but revealing nothing of the hidden riches which it
passed on its way from its source
high up on the mountain-side. The
name "Reed Creek" is the only evidence left to show that they were
the first to discover gold in this vicinity. In 1887 Fred Gwatkins and
George Sheenan put in the first
stakes on the Stemwinder, which became known as the discovery claim.
On the main ledges on the eastern
side of a low range of mountains
separating the Okanagan and
Similkameen Valleys, 700 feet above
the Okanagan River, a number of
valuable claims were recorded.
Indeed, the recording mining claims
eventually extended over an area of
30 miles, for many were staked under the old mining law which permitted the location of extension
claims without requiring mineral to
be in sight.
It would be a useless effort to attempt to enumerate all claims. I
will mention the major holdings.
There was the Stemwinder; the
Morning Star, taken up in 1898 by
Thomas Woodland, Steve Mangott,
and Danny McEachern; the Evening
Star, held by Harry Rose who also
had a fraction of the Morning Star
and the August; the Rattler, first
owned by H. Mankind who sold it to
a company which put up a five-
stamp mill, and which was later
bought by the Stratheyre Mining
Company; the Ontario owned by
Dune Carmichael; the Wynn M.
owned by Harry Simpson; the Wide
West which lay across the gulch
from the Brown Bear, owned at first
by Jon Stevens and Mat Hodder,
and eventually by the Stratheyre
Company; the Joe Dandy, taken up
by Hester E. White
by W Poole and Evan Morris and
sold later to Patrick and Clemens;
and the Tin Horn, the Smuggler, the
Black Diamond and the Wild Horse.
After the finding of several well-
defined veins of gold ore, a large
amount of English and American
capital was invested in the mines
and several stamp-mills were set
up. The Stratheyre was an English
company which sent out James
Atwood and Harry Reynolds in
1892, and which, on Atwood's recommendation purchased Brown
Bear located in 1887 by George
Wilkinson and Joe Bromley.
For nearly twenty years the camp
at Fairview flourished. In 1893
when a great amount of ore was produced at Fairview, there was considerable settlement. Starting up the
gulch in that year, one would be welcomed at its mouth by Mr. F.R.
Kline, owner of the Golden Gate
Hotel, a well-built log house of two
stories. On the left side was Miner's
Rest, owned and operated by Mr.
and Mrs. Evan Morris. It was here
that many of the "cousin Jacks",
Cornish miners would gather to
have a rip-roaring time. Miner's and
prospector's cabins would be found
as one proceeded up the gulch.
Ahead, and situated at a sharp turn
in the road, where it left the course
of Reed Creek to wind around the
hill, was the stamp-mill. Blue
House, the residence of the
Stratheyre Mining Company's representatives, Messrs. Atwood and
Reynolds, was on the eminence overlooking the quartz mill, and commanded a beautiful panoramic view
of the Okanagan Valley to the
south. It was the view here which
caused the name "Fairview" to be
chosen. From this point one could
overlook Okanagan Valley, hemmed
in by hills and mountains, with the
river meandering through the low
land, through Haynes Meadows and
losing itself in the glistening waters
of Osoyoos Lake. At this time cattle
were grazing here and there amidst
sage-brush and grease-wood.
Near the Blue House was the residence of Dr. Ben Boyce, the popular
physician of the camp, who had been
brought to the west by the
Stratheyre Mining Company.
Farther up the road was W.T.
Thompson's store which carried a
large stock of goods suitable for miners' needs. Thompson was a
"Boston Man" who had been around
mining camps since his boyhood.
Past numerous shafts and tunnel
mouths of various mines was J.
Moffatt's Saloon. Still farther along
was WT. Shatford's store with EH.
The Big Teepee Hotel in Fairview.
RC. Historical News French in charge. At the head of the
gulch was the store of Tommy
Elliott, the pioneer merchant who
still caters to miners.
When the writer arrived back in
the Okanagan from England on
January 21, 1895, the stage pulled
up in front of the Golden Gate, and
the passengers were greeted by
Tommy Elliott and James
Adamson, now the hosts, and miners galore. After wine and chicken
lunch we left with "Mexican Joe",
the driver, for Osoyoos. Fairview
had changed by this time. The
Stratheyre Company had pulled up
its stakes and gone and Steve
Mangott was running Morning Star
ore through the Stratheyre mill.
Fairview quartz was tricky; in pockets the ore was very rich and
streaks of gold were plainly visible,
but then it would disappear. In
1897 eastern capital came in when
the Fairview Gold Mining Company
leased or purchased claims and commenced work on the Stemwinder.
This company built the three story
Fairview Hotel known as the "Big
Teepee" on the flat below the gulch
and laid out a townsite. Soon there
were livery stables, offices, a drug
store, a butcher shop, and W.T.
Shatford's store was moved down
the gulch. Jim Schubert built the
new government building; C.A.R.
Lambly, Government Agent, and his
family were moved from Osoyoos.
J.R. Brown, the Assessor, built a cottage nearby. As Fairview boomed
again the Bassett Brothers' freight
teams were often needed to haul the
huge loads up to the mines. For a
short time, five mills were active: the
Stemwinder, the Joe Dandy, the Tin
Horn, the Smuggler and the
Soon after Dr. Boyce had moved to
Kelowna, Dr. R.B. White arrived in
camp on May 24, 1897. Dr. White's
first patient was Mike Moon, a
freighter, whose badly crushed leg
necessitated amputation. The operation was performed in the doctor's
office, with the assistance of Tony
Genn. Mike was cared for by the
doctor in his office and nursed back
to health.   On another occasion the
doctor was called to attend Old
Edward, an Indian, who had been
attacked by another Indian while he
was asleep in a tent down near the
river. Old Edward's leg had been
smashed with a gun. Dr. White amputated the leg on the ground in the
tent, with the assistance of Mr.
Bate. When Edward recovered, a
collection was made for an artificial
leg. Some years later, after the
Indian's death, his old wife Jenny
rode into Fairview one day with the
leg hanging over the saddle. She
had brought it to sell and wanted
$80 for it.
Tragedy had stalked down the
gulch in 1893 when a diphtheria epidemic took the lives of some of the
small children. In November 1902,
gloom was cast over the whole countryside when the "Big Teepee" was
destroyed by fire with loss of life.
The following year the large livery
stable was burned, and thirty valuable horses were lost.
The tragedy of 1902 was really
the beginning of the end of Fairview.
But as long as the camp flourished,
the settlers had many good times.
Many dances were held at Elliott's
Hall where Paddy Atkins (known as
the "Man that stole the boots")
played the piano into the wee small
hours. The Marks Brothers staged
Vncle Tom's Cabin" in Elliott's Hall
and thrilled the crowd. Pauline
Johnson with Walter McRae gave a
most entertaining performance at
the "Teepee". Isobel Kerr was a
charming     elocutionist. A
ventriloquist with many shabby
dolls drew a crowd; and some
Italians with trained white bears
caused excitement, especially when
some "over-joyed" cowboys roped the
bears and took them down the
The miners at the Stemwinder
gave a unique dance on one occasion. The company was to operate a
cyanide plant for reduction of ore,
and four vats, 36 feet in diameter,
and 10 feet deep were beautifully
built and finished. The miners
asked all inhabitants to a supper
dance. The floors were polished; the
fiddlers were on a platform between
two tubs, and there was enough
room for four qudrille sets and a
good caller for the dances. Some
conscientious objectors preferred not
to dance, but played games and
romped in the second vat, which was
known ever after as the "Methodist
After 1906 little mining was done
and the place was soon deserted.
The Guggenheim interests held the
Susie for many years; the Granby
people studied the field. Britannia,
Premier, and Hecla interests all cast
enquiring eyes at Fairview; but the
Consolidated Mining and Smelting
Company in time procured most of
the ground, for they needed the particular quartz at Fairview with its
silica as a flux in the smelter in
Trail. With the high value of gold
and better price for silver, Fairview
is more than paying its way. All
the dumps at the old mine have
been trucked away.
Few people are left who experienced the thrills and chills of
Fairview. The little creek has lost
its song and its skirts of green along
its banks have died with time. Still,
memory lives on of the good old
Fairview Days.
The site of the former mining town of
Fairview is situated 2 miles south-west
of Oliver on the road to Cawston. Turn
up the street (7th) at the traffic light.
Drive until you reach the information
sign re Fairview. This was erected by
the Oliver-Osoyoos Historical Society
on the two lots owned by the
Okanagan Historical Society and which
was the site of the Fairview
Presbyterian Church. You will find picnic tables there so you can enjoy the
fantastic view.
Hester Emily WhUe -1877-1963
Hester was the eldest daughter of Judge
J.C. Haynes. She spent her childhood in
Osoyoos, some school years in Victoria, and
some in England. In 1897 she married
CAM. Lambly, Government Agent first in
Osoyoos then in Camp Fairview. Lambly
died in 1907 and Hester married Dr. R.B.
White in 1908. She later lived in Penticton,
where she was a member of many community
organizations, and a very valued member of
the Okanagan Historical Society.
RC. Historical News Brief history of the
Town of Oliver
by Constance Seeley
The British Columbia government
made a survey of the land south of
Mclntyre Bluff to the United States
border, and in 1919 they advanced
the idea of placing the South
Okanagan under irrigation with the
purpose of supplying farm land to
ex-servicemen from the First World
War. The project came into effect in
1921 under Premier 'Honest John
Oliver' for whom the town of Oliver
was named. The Oliver district was
the hub of excitement from 1920 to
1924 when men from all walks of
life came to lend their energies to
the construction of the irrigation project. The engineers' camp was situated where now stands the Oliver
and District Arena.
On completion of the project the engineers' camp was abandoned and
settlement began in earnest. Where
previously nothing but pine trees,
clumps of sagebrush and bunch
grass grew and large herds of cattle
roamed, now those who purchased
land could grow crops.
Although apples had been grown
in the Okanagan Valley since the
mid 1800's, Pete Mclntyre was the
first to experiment with growing apples in the Oliver area on his property at the foot of the bluff named for
The year 1921 marked the sale of
the first land in the Oliver District.
In 1922 the government planted
300 acres known as the development area. This rocky land was replanted every year until 1928 when
it was sold to the Apex Orchard Co.,
of Kelowna. In those days it was
said that many people believed an
apple tree was an annual plant because each tree was replaced annually. While waiting for their orchard
to bear fruit many of the settlers
worked for the season on the development area, picking rocks and
throwing them into piles, irrigating
the trees and hoeing around them.
Some of the farmers grew cantaloupe, watermelon, cucumbers, tomatoes and even the tobacco industry was given a try. The Oliver Coop formed in 1923 had a membership of 25 growers.
Vic Fairweather, one of the first
businessmen in Oliver, recalls only
four buildings when he arrived in
1921. He soon discovered there was
a need for goods and set up a second
hand store on the site of the present
Royal Bank. J.K. Anderson built
the first grocery store; Carl Collen
opened a dry goods store across the
street. Major Thompson operated a
real estate office where Tuck's Cafe
now stands. Harry Nash built a billiard hall beside Collen's. By 1922
Oliver had a bake shop, Dr. Geo.
Kearney had an office, and there
was Elliott's restaurant, Bill
Raincocks butcher shop, the R.W.
Smith drugstore, Charlie Jones
butcher shop, Shorty Knight and
Slim Archibald's garage, a bank, Al
Rynd and Bill Foster's barbershop,
Mrs. Hill's restaurant, Elmer
Johnson's garage; a liquor store,
post office and blacksmith shop.
Harry Fairweather brought the
Oliver Hotel from New Westminster
by truck and train in 1921. The
first church service was held in Carl
Collen's store, later the United
Church was built. The first school
which later became a garage and
shelter for Rev. Feir's cow was the
first formal classroom. In 1922 'the
little red schoolhouse' was built and
used for about five years. Two
teachers taught grades 1 to 8 in the
two rooms.
Later a school was built at
Testalinda Creek with volunteer labour and material scrounged from
the Bucket of Blood Hotel at
Fairview, thus affording convenience
for the children in the rural area.
By 1926 the population of Oliver
was 500 with 60 school children.
The Community Hall had been
built and partially funded by the engineers and local help during the
construction of the irrigation project.
The once arid desert land has indeed borne fruit and become a thriving community.
Constance Seeley was a long time
resident of Oliver. She now resides
in Ottawa.
he word "Okanagan"
was first written by David
Thompson on July 6,
1811, when he recorded,
". . .a fine view and see
high woody mountains of
the Oachenawawgan
River." Since then there
have been 35 other ways
of spelling the name but
all have disappeared except two. In British
Columbia the word is
spelled Okanagan and in
Washington State,
RC. Historical News An Appreciation
by Dr. Margaret A. Ormsby
With the death of Mr. Leonard
Norris on April  18th,  1945, the
Okanagan    Historical    Society
suffered a great blow, for it lost its
founder and its mentor.  The Society
was started in Vernon on September
4th, 1925, after Mr. Norris had
injected   into   a   group   of  his
townsmen and old friends some of
the enthusiasm he had for the study
of local history.   It was he who did
most of the hard work in the
Society and assumed the
responsibility of seeing that
sufficient   material   was
collected so that the Reports
were issued regularly.    He
persuaded pioneers in the
Valley    to     write     their
reminiscences, revised and
edited articles submitted to
him, did research in topics in
the wider field of British
Columbia history, encouraged
young     historians     and
scientists to write for the
Reports, made arrangements
with the publishers, did the
proof-reading and arranged
for the distribution of the
Reports.   His was the spirit
that breathed life into the
activities of the Society, and
there could be no better
memorial to him than this Report
which represents the work of his last
It is unfortunate and sad that
more is not known of the life of a
man who served the province of
British Columbia well and who
helped to fill in the pages of British
Columbia History. Long before he
was known as an historian, Mr.
Norris had won for himself a
reputation as an outstanding public
official. But he was the last to draw
attention to the quality of his work
or to expect credit or thanks for it.
Those who worked with him knew
that he was a man of fine fibre,
representing many of the qualities
which he admired most in the
Okanagan pioneer, but they
discovered little about his background or his experiences.
Occasionally he would be reminded
of past events which he considered
amusing or ridiculous, then he
would recount them with delicacy
Leonard Norris, the founder of the Okanagan Historical
and discernment. He never retailed
gossip or slander, he was kindly
and appreciative in speaking of others although he could be indignant
about injustices or wrong-doings and
he always understated his own accomplishments.
The early years of Mr. Norris' life
were spent in Ontario. He was born
on a farm near Brampton in 1865,
not far from the land now occupied
by the Dale Nurseries. He was nine
years of age when his family moved
to Langley Prairie, and a young
man of seventeen when he first came
to the Okanagan Valley in 1882.
From the first he found delight in
the natural charm of the Okanagan,
and he always spoke with warmth
of the beauty of the bunchgrass hills
and of the lakes that reflected it.
Some of his feelings he expressed in
poems which he wrote in his later
life.    At first he had no intention of
settling in the Okanagan Valley,
but he came to admire the qualities
of the pioneer settlers and to
appreciate the hospitality he
found in their homes.    He
worked first on ranches in the
Lumby  District,   then  in
December 1887, he decided to
pre-empt land in the vicinity
of Round Lake, just off the
Vernon-Kamloops Road.
Thoreau's philosophy and
way of life appealed to him,
and he was convinced that in
farming a small piece of land
and in living close to nature,
personal happiness could be
attained.    But as events
turned out, he was to live a
different kind of life.
He had hardly taken up his
land, when he was asked to
be Provincial Police Constable
at Lansdowne. He was
reluctant, but was finally
persuaded when he was promised
that the appointment would be
temporary, and that he would soon
be replaced. Once he had entered
public service, he found it difficult to
break away - new duties and
responsibilities were pressed on him,
and he was soon embarked on a
career as a public servant. In July,
1890, he was asked to become
Collector of the Provincial Revenue
Tax, and after the death of Moses
Lumby, he was appointed in
October, 1893, Government Agent at
Vernon.    He was the third man to
RC. Historical News
8 hold this office, and he established
what will probably become a record
for long tenure. When he retired in
1926, he had served thirty-three
years as Government Agent.
Old-timers will recall the
enthusiasm Mr. Norris had for his
work and the thoroughness with
which he carried it out. They can tell
amusing stories of his pursuit of
fugitives, while he was still Police
Constable, and how on occasion he
was outwitted. They know the
respect he had for individual worth,
and how little real crime he thought
existed in mining settlements or in
other parts of the Valley. He had a
very strong sense of justice, as
persons who were sometimes hauled
into the Magistrate's court can
testify, and he was very much in
favour of having misunderstandings
settled in private and without
outside intervention. One of his
favourite stories was the chase after
Smart Alec, following the murder in
the Cherry Creek mining field, but
this must have taken place while he
was still a farm-hand in the Lumby
district and before he had
responsibility for bringing criminals
to justice. As Police Constable, his
duties sometimes took him as far
north as Enderby and sometimes as
far south as Penticton, so he came to
know settlers throughout the whole
length of the Okanagan Valley.
After 1890, he was more closely
identified with people in the Vernon
district. He knew Vernon before it
was incorporated in 1862, while it
was still called "Priest's Valley",
and he lived to see it grow from a
settlement of four or five scattered
houses to its present size of six or
seven thousand. More than any
other man, he had his finger upon
the pulse of life in the community.
For he was not only Magistrate, but
Collector of Land and other Taxes,
Registrar of the County Court and
District Registrar of the Supreme
Court, Registrar of Voters, Judge of
the small Debts Court, Official
Administrator, and Registrar of
Vital Statistics. He must have
known something of the private
affairs of almost every individual,
but he was never known to betray a
confidence or to give out information
which might cause unhappiness.
Whatever knowledge came to him,
he regarded it in a purely
impersonal and objective light -
except in one respect. Although he
believed that every person should
stand on his own feet, he could not
remain unconcerned when there was
suffering. More than one family
experienced the bounty of his
generous nature and found it
difficult to express adequate thanks,
for Mr. Norris was not one to look for
returns or to want public
acknowledgement of his good works.
During his lifetime, Mr. Norris saw
the character of farming change in
the Okanagan Valley, after the
coming of the railroad, the cattle
ranches were broken up and fruit
farming started. He was keenly
interested in the experiments in
co-operative marketing and in the
technical improvements which were
made in the growing of fruit. He
took pride in these changes, yet
always felt that more attention
should be paid to producing fruit at
lower cost for the benefit of the
prairie farmer. He thought, too,
that a high degree of specialization
might embarrass the farmer in
times of depression, and he had a
nostalgic fondness for mixed farming
which he had known in Ontario and
in his early days in the Okanagan.
His chief interest, however lay in
recording the events of the past so
that they would become known to
the new settlers in the Valley and to
those who knew little of the romance
of the early days of the interior of
British Columbia. He turned his
attention to this work after his
retirement from office. He had
already read widely in the field of
Canadian and British Columbia
history, and now he did research at
the Provincial Archives and in the
Provincial Library at Victoria, and
started to write. While he was
primarily interested in writing the
history of the Okanagan Valley, his
horizon was by no means limited to
this study. For one thing, he
decided to acquire some knowledge
of the French language, and to
perfect his grasp, he subscribed to
newspapers published in Quebec,
and bought phonograph records to
hear the spoken word. He had an
excellent library of historical works,
but he also read poetry and collected
phonograph records. During these
years, he indulged in all the
pleasures which go with the
cultivation of a fine mind. As a
result he had a remarkable fund of
knowledge and the ability to inspire
others with his enthusiasm for great
works of literature and music.
As a historian, he made a very
real contribution to our knowledge of
local history, and his work won
acknowledgement and acclaim in
the east as well as in the west. Its
great appeal, of course, was to the
people of the Okanagan Valley, for
here were recorded the stories of the
early settlers, the adventures and
vicissitudes of their arduous lives.
The spirit that permeates all his
writings, reflects something of the
quality of the man himself - for he
reveals his kindly feeling towards
his fellow men, his high moral
standards, his patience with and
amusement at human foibles, and
his great sincerity. It was typical of
him that he should have preferred to
write of the exploits and
achievements of others, rather than
of his own important work as one of
the real founders of the Okanagan
Valley. We can count that as our
great loss, for his character as
revealed in his life and work would
have held inspiration for many.
The Okanagan Historical Society has
prepared, with financial assistance
from B.C. Heritage Trust, a plaque
honoring Leonard Norris. The plaque
will be affixed to the wall of the
Courthouse in Vernon following the
O.H.S. Annual meeting in May 1990.
Dr. Margaret Ormsby was born and grew
up near Vernon. She was on the Faculty of
History at UJJ.C. far many years, author of
British Columbia: A History 1958 and
President of the B.C. Historical Federation in
RC. Historical News Vernon Celebrates Ninety Years
of Incorporation
by Edna Oram
Thursday afternoon, December 30,
1982, people flocked to the
Recreation Centre to celebrate
Vernon's 90th birthday. The city
was the first to be incorporated in
the Okanagan Valley, the charter
for incorporation being granted
December 30, 1892.
They came early, greeted friends,
welcomed holiday visitors they
hadn't seen for years and settled in
for an afternoon of light entertainment by choirs, bands, dancers, and
ethnic performers.
Activity for the children was at the
outdoor skating rink and the indoor
swimming pool but you can swim
and skate anytime so the children
drifted in and out of the auditorium
to watch the colourful swirl of the entertainers. In a corner of the auditorium three pre-schoolers put on a
spontaneous dance of their own.
People for whom this was a working
day, dropped in for a few minutes
and lingered on.
In formal dress of the 1890's, Ian
MacLean was a great master of ceremonies. Mayor Hanson gave the
welcoming address. Good Citizens
and Freemen of the city, including
100 year old Guy Bagnall, were invited to place of honor on stage and
individually introduced. Winners of
the birthday cake contest were announced. The cakes were cut with a
piece for everyone and a cup of tea or
coffee to enjoy while they mingled
with the crowd.
Royce Moore, Chairman, and his
Birthday Celebration Committee
came up with an afternoon of fun
well suited to the multicultural talents and the friendliness of
For the ensuing six weeks, visitors
enjoyed displays in the Greater
Vernon Museum and Art Gallery,
the foyer of City Hall and in a main
street display prepared by the
Friends of History, showing photographs and stories of the early
days. Copies of an illustrated history - Ninety Years of Vernon - are
still selling well.
The first permanent settler was
Luc Girouard who, in 1867, preempted land which today encompasses the central core of the city.
Other settlers followed, mostly from
the British Isles. They brought with
them traditions of law and order,
culture, sports, pride in themselves
and a strong sense of community responsibility that remain the cornerstone of life today.
The tiny hamlet of forty people in
1888 was in the right place at the
right time and had settlers with the
foresight to take advantage of the
coming of the railway to Sicamous in
1885 and to Vernon and Okanagan
Landing in 1892. The railways and
the development of a connecting boat
service for travel south opened the
southern part of the valley to settlers.
For years Vernon was the centre of
all provincial and federal government services and was a distribution
point for movement of people and
supplies up and down the valley.
Today Vernon is a bustling city of
some 20,000 and a distribution and
shopping centre for over 75,000 area
A provincial Heritage Trust official
says that Vernon has more historic
buildings than any other valley city.
In addition to the beautiful provincial court house, the CPR railway
station, Park and Bearisto School
and many private homes, there are
eighteen buildings within the central
core awaiting historic restoration.
There are in business today eight
firms founded in 1892, some into the
fourth generation of the founding
family. Many descendants of early
settlers live in the original homes of
their grandparents.
Superimposed on the base of settlers from the British Isles are more
residents of varied ethnic background than in any other city.
Emigrants are coming from uncertain futures in Europe and Asia.
Retirees come for the salubrious climate. Young families come to get
away from the stress of life in large
metropolitan areas. Vernon is truly
Vernon has no desire to become a
large industrial city. There is no
large single employer of labor.
There are many low-profile small
businesses, craft workers, service industries and ever growing businesses catering to tourists. Volunteer
associations provide health, educational, religious, cultural, sport and
social services. There is a relatively
sound economic base affected only
marginally by world events. It's just
a pleasant place in which to live and
raise a family.
In 1904, on a trip from Manitoba
to the coast, Sam Poison stopped
over in Vernon, with the result that
he wired his family "get ready to
move. I've found the Garden of
Eden." He is remembered today as
the donor of the land for the Vernon
Jubilee Hospital and for the park
that bears his name. Those born in
Vernon take the good life here for
granted. Newcomers agree with Mr.
Edna Oram was a Social Worker in Vernon,
She served as Treasurer of the Okanagan
Historical Society from 1976-79.
RC. Historical News
10 Soldiers of the Soil 1914-1919
by William Ruhmann
It was summer and I was happy
to be visiting my grandparents in
Kelowna. Then one day I came
home to find Grandma weeping -
Grandpa angry! Germany had attacked Russia! England and France
had declared war on Germany.
The next day, August 5, 1914, my
grandparents put me on board the
paddle-wheeler && Sicamous for my
trip back to Vernon. My homecoming as I remember, was rather restrained. Questions about my visit
seemed perfunctory. There were no
smiling faces - the shock of war was
already changing our lives. The
newspaper headlines were:
youth of the land fun, games and
laughter were lost.
Squadrons of the Okanagan
Valley reserve regiment, the 30th
British Columbia Horse which consisted of more than 500 cavalrymen,
were called into active service. A
training camp was established on
Mission Hill south of Vernon. Row
on row of white bell tents were a constant reminder that our soldiers
were in training.
After establishment of this camp,
an internment camp for enemy aliens was constructed. The new camp
was ten acres, enclosed by a high
barbed-wire fence, located at the intersection of 27th Street (Mara
Avenue) and 43rd Avenue. Soldiers
Walked on guard duty between the
sentry boxes. Each guard would call
out the hour and, on a descending
note, "All's Well!" How the internees and townspeople endured that
hourly call for more than four years
is impossible to say. Each day there
was a changing of the guard. Those
at the internment camp were replaced by a new unit from Mission
A marching group with drum and
trumpet band was formed in 1916 to
escort the guard unit. It was
trained and lead by Sgt. Tommy
Vaughn; adult members were W.
Western and A.G. Treadgold (of
Kelowna), and Marriott, Pruitt and
Newell. The rest were high school
boys from Vernon.
Trumpeters: Corporal Spence
Newell, Lance Corporal Frank
Marriott, Walter "Wally" Mattock,
Robert "Bert" Mattock, Ted Pruitt,
William May, Horace Foote, Alan
Robey, A.G. "Bert" Treadgold,
Wilfred Phillips, Cecil Phillips.
Side Drums: Willfred Moffat, Stuart
Jenkins, Leslie Dodd, Sidney
Briard, Homer Conn, Albert "Spud"
Murphy, W Western.
Bass Drummer: Maurice Mitchell.
In December 1916, a fourteen year
old high school boy, Thomas E.
Jessett, joined the 30th B.C. Horse
Regiment. Because of his self-
taught stenographic skill, he quickly
advanced to Orderly Room Corporal.
Tom, with a glint in his eye, years
later commented, "My rank caused
problems at home-Dad was just a
private in the same regiment."
The battalions in training on the
Hill grew as recruits from throughout the Province arrived by troop
trains. Soon there were soldiers everywhere! They were marching on
the parade ground, attacking dummies in bayonet drills, performing
long marches in full packs and
shooting on the rifle ranges. Those
in the Signal Corps practiced sending messages with flags and, when
the sun was shining, by heliograph.
At night, messages went from one
hill to another by lights blinking
dots and dashes. Boys who had
learned the Morse Code made clandestine watches - hoping to intercept
a secret communication.
During the summer of 1916 a
group of ten schoolboys organized to
deliver the daily paper to men in the
camp. This was strictly a business
venture. They made arrangements
to have the two town jitneys (Model
T Fords with the tops removed) at
the station when the noon train arrived from Vancouver. Each boy
grabbed fifty papers when the bundled newspapers were thrown out of
the baggage car. They jumped
aboard the jitneys for a noisy race to
the Hill, down Barnard Avenue and
up 32nd Street (Seventh Street) with
horns blowing. They raced to the
camp gate where the soldiers were
eagerly waiting.
Men in uniform were everywhere -
on Barnard Avenue Saturday evening, at church on Sunday, as
guests in homes, relaxing on the
beach at Kalamalka Lake. Four
battalions trained at the Central
Mobilization Camp at Vernon. By
the winter of 1916, the 2nd
Canadian Mounted Rifles, the
Okanagan's own battalion, and the
172nd Battalion, called the Rocky
Mountain Rangers, were overseas.
The 158th, Duke of Connaught's
Own Rifles left in November. Still
training on the Hill was the 225th
Battalion made up of recruits from
the Kootenay and Boundary regions. Four years of close contact
with soldiers had a noticeable effect
on the youth of the community.
Almost every boy collected momen-
tos such as officers' swagger sticks
and bronze hat badges from various
The war was seriously depleting
the work force of the Okanagan
Valley. More than 22% of the manpower had enlisted. At that time
the fruit crops were the mainstay of
the area. Harvesting the apple
crops, and other agricultural products, became a problem.    On
RC. Historical News January 4, 1917 Thomas Richmond,
chairman of the Farmers' Institute,
reported that the Department of
Agriculture was advocating the establishment of training schools to
teach high school boys and girls how
to pack apples. Making boxes in the
packing houses was a job that boys
enjoyed. (Hammer damaged
thumbs were proudly exhibited.)
At a Consumers League meeting
in Vancouver it was proposed that
women from that area help with the
harvest of the apple crop in the
Okanagan. "What kind of dress
would be worn in the orchards?"
asked a woman. "Overalls," someone shouted. There was a ripple of
laughter. "Yes," said the chairman,
"this would be one time when women will be permitted to wear
During the Easter vacation six of
us boys had a job picking up prun-
ings in an orchard on Silver Star
Road. Our employer transported us
in a very crowded Model T Ford.
Charlie White and I got a summer
job on a twenty acre orchard on
Swan Lake Road three miles north
of town. Our first job was to pull
weeds from rows of navy beans
planted between the orchard trees.
Kytes also wanted other chores done
so they boarded me to save the six
mile daily walk. I split firewood,
hilled half an acre of potatoes, and
helped prepare the packing house
for apples. Some trees were an early variety of apple so picking started
mid-summer. My mother joined
some other women with this first
picking. Hornets harassed our pickers, so I volunteered to burn out the
nests. At dusk when all the insects
were home for the night I used a
birchbark torch on the end of a stick.
(Incredibly I survived without a
sting.) Pickers were paid four or five
cents per 55 pound orchard box; an
energetic boy could pick 60 or more
boxes in a ten hour day. Many older
boys worked in packing houses operating hand trucks to move boxes of
packed fruit into storage or into boxcars for shipping; box making was
piece work done as time permitted.
Some lads helped with haying, milk
ing and care of livestock.    Farm
work became our war effort in 1917.
The 30th B.C. Horse, along with
the drum and trumpet band, was
disbanded early in 1918. Those
over sixteen and those too old or too
disabled to serve overseas were
transferred to the 11th Battalion
Canadian Garrison Regiment. They
were stationed at the internment
camp doing guard duty.
Trumpeters Alan Robey, Horace G.
Foote, and Robert Mattock served as
buglers. In December Robey followed Corporal Thomas Jessett into
the position of Orderly Room
Corporal under Major Nash. Robey
served as a guard in the transfer of
the last war prisoners to Europe,
and was able to visit relatives in
England before returning to Vernon.
formed in March 1918 as part of a
federal plan to increase food supplies. Boys 13 to 18 years of age
were registered with the
Department of Agriculture under
Deputy Minister William E. Scott.
Rev. J.H. Miller of Cloverdale was
appointed head of the B.C. sector.
Thirty-four Vernon boys, out of 130
in the Okanagan Valley, had registered in April. In spring, as farming
activity accelerated, some of the SOS
boys were excused from school to
start jobs assigned to them. Some of
us worked on Saturdays. I recall
working with Thomas Richmond,
President of the Farmers' Institute.
He plowed and harrowed a vacant
lot while my friends and I cut potatoes for seeding. We followed each
furrow planting the potatoes. When
this lot was finished I rode with Mr.
Richmond on the wagon to a fenced
lot at the east end of Pine street
(39th Avenue) near the 12th Street
intersection. When this lot was
plowed and harrowed I was given a
bag of navy beans to plant. I kept
close watch on my bean patch. One
Saturday I discovered that cutworms were levelling my crop.
Catastrophe! What could I do? I
went to the entymology office in the
Court House for help. They prepared a bucket of poison bait-bran
mixed with molasses and sprinkled
with Paris Green (copper arsenite).
Up and down the rows I spread this
toxic lunch for the worms. I don't
know if the worms ate the bait because of its beautiful green colour or
because they liked the molasses.
My bean patch was saved!
That summer the government sent
a bean thresher through the
Okanagan Valley to harvest the
enormous crop. The Hon. E.D.
Barrow, Minister of Agriculture,
travelled with the thresher and operated it. This, he said, was an ideal
opportunity to get away from the
political scene at the Provincial capital.
When school closed in June, I was
hired as chore boy at the Vernon
Orchards, a 250 acre fruit ranch on
the east side of Swan Lake. Pol
LeGuen, a native of Brittany,
France, was manager of the orchard
and Frank Lucas was foreman. (Pol
LeGuen, though a naturalized
British subject, was called up by
France to serve on the front in his
old regiment. He was invalided
home in 1915.) Ranch teamsters
were Len Rice, Jack Brown, and Len
Parent. Farmhands that summer
were Camillo and Angello
Gaspardoni. We lived in a two story
bunkhouse. The "plumbing" was
outside and water was by bucket
from a hand pump at the horse
trough. The washstand was on the
porch and the dining room was in
the manager's residence. Our cook
was Mrs. Jane Roze. I was paid
$15 a month to milk two Holstein
cows, clean the barn, care for a saddle horse and a driving horse, tend
several pigs, help with fruit harvesting and haying. When school reopened, after milking the cows, feeding the pigs, cleaning my share of
the barn and having breakfast I
would hitch Caesar to the democrat
and drive to school with the three
Lucas children, Bill, Dorothy and
Donald, as well as Bernie Roze, the
son of our cook. I was in eighth
In 1918 the influenza epidemic
swept   across   Canada  and   on
October 21 our school was closed.
Now life on the ranch became boring.
RC Historical News
12 There wasn't much to do between
the 6:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. milk-
ings. To pass the time I would go
down to the lake and trap musk-
rats. I did very well until the lake
froze over. Harry Blurton, a trapper
and fur buyer from Enderby, came
by every few weeks to buy my pelts
at 20 cents each.
Len Rice, a teamster who lived in
the bunkhouse, had his own saddle
horse, a wild, mean animal sixteen
hands high. His brother Harry often
visited. On Hallowe'en the two of
them invited me to ride into town
with them. Each wore a big Stetson
hat; Len had bat-wing chaps and
Harry wore black angora long haired
ones. Their spurs jungled and their
horses pranced. I felt a bit subdued
- me with my grade school knickers
riding Queenie who had the
"heaves". We attracted a lot of attention. After entertaining the intermission crowd at the theatre we
rode down Coldstream Avenue to
33rd. I was told to ride down 33rd
to the next intersection and wait.
We were in Chinatown. The street
was alive with Chinamen. (The immigrant Chinese work force in
Vernon was estimated at 500). On
each side of the street were unpaint-
ed, boxlike two-storey buildings.
They were dimly lit. In the background unfamiliar tones of a
stringed instrument were heard and
there was the drone of singsong voices in the air. A couple of men were
seated on a porch with lighted
punks in hand sucking on their gurgling water pipes. Noise coming
from one building told us that a
gambling game was underway. As
I rode down the street doors opened
and men came out to investigate.
Then two "phantom horsemen"
emerged from the shadows, their
horses rearing and plunging in an
apparent uncontrolled charge. The
men standing in the street lunged in
all directions. The commotion was
unbelievable! When Len and Harry
reached me they were laughing so
hard they could hardly speak. "We
sure broke up their fan-tan game,
didn't we?"
November brought cold weather.  I
had just received my new heavy belted jacket from the T. Eaton Co. It
cost me nearly a month's pay, but
when school opened again my trips
to school would be more comfortable.
One morning I was given the job of
taking a wagon load of harness to
town for repair. As I drove down
Barnard Avenue I thought it
strangely deserted. I backed the
wagon into the sidewalk in front of
the Okanagan Harness and
Saddlery Co., across from the
Empress Theatre. I dragged a set
of harness into the store, hoping for
help from the two men in the back of
the shop. Suddenly a huge explosion shook the area. I jumped to
stop my team from bolting. At that
moment, the two men dashed out of
the shop and ran in the direction of
the blast. The once deserted street
was now alive with excited people. I
quieted my team and dragged the
rest of the harness into the shop. As
I turned to leave I saw my team and
wagon going up the street at a dead
run. There was another explosion.
Then I heard the fire bell clanging
madly, and the church bells at the
Presbyterian and Anglican churches
on Mara Avenue.
"My team, my team-some one's
stealing my team and my brand
new jacket in the wagon!" I shouted.
The horses disappeared around the
corner at the Post Office. I ran as
best I could with cleated rubber
boots, oversocks with tassels that
gyrated as I moved. Another explosion, this time in the Post Office
Block. I made the turn and saw a
group of men in front of the Police
station; there was the Mayor, City
Clerk and some aldermen. I ran
past them to Chief Constable R.N.
Clerke, who was wearing his cavalry
officer's uniform. "They stole my
team - didn't you see them?" The
fire bell was clanging - there was
another explosion - Chief Clerke had
an odd expression on his face. "The
war is over Billy-boy. We're
celebrating. Don't you understand?
the war is over."
Mayor Shatford put his hand on
my shoulder. "Billy-boy, we are
celebrating.   We are going to build a
big bonfire across the street. 1
suppose someone took your team to
get wood for the fire. Don't worry,
you'll get it back." "But," I said, "1
have to Jiaul a load of oats back to
the ranch." I still hadn't realized
that the war was over. The Mayor
took me over to the Police Station
and telephoned my boss, Pol
LeGuen. "Pol," he said, "have you
heard the news? wonderful isn't it.
Say, your Billy-boy is here with me -
eh - Bill is here with me. We would
like to borrow his team to help build
a bonfire for tlie celebration this evening.   Thanks, Pol."
"Well, Bill, we're all fixed up. We
can use your team and you have the
day off." That day, Monday
November 11, 1918, I made the big
jump from "Billy-boy", fourth grade
marbles champion to eighth grade
Behind the Royal Bank Jim
Vallance and Jim Silver were exploding dynamite. Once, deciding to
make a bigger bang, they enlarged
the powder charge. Unfortunately
several windows in nearby buildings
were shattered. My friends and I
were fascinated. But it was getting
cold, and since my toque and new
coat were in the wagon I headed for
home missing a parade in the afternoon and bonfire in the evening.
Those boys who had signed up for
soldiers of the Soil were recognized
at a ceremony at the Court House.
Dr. K.C. MacDonald, M.L.A., congratulated the boys and presented
each with a small bronze lapel button provided by the Dominion
Government. 1, 671 British
Columbia boys took part in the
Soldiers of the Soil program while
many others worked on farms unaware of the requirement to sign up
and thus did not receive public recognition.
William Ruhmann prepared this article as
part of a project for the Vernon Museum. He
lived in Lake Oswego, Oregon in the latter
part of his life.
Many assisted with recollections covering the activities of
Vernon boys during the war years.
The Vernon News 1914 through 1919.
Corporal Tom Jessett is now a Canon in the Epicopal Church
in Seattle.    Further recollections are on file in the Vernon
RC. Historical News Penticton - TTie Beginning
by A, David MacDonald
Seventy-five years - not a long
time in the history of western
Canada, an even shorter chaper in
the history of Canada, a fleeting moment in recorded history. But the
seventy-five years since the incorporation of Penticton (1908-1983) have
been matched by an acceleration of
change unknown in previous times.
Yet many threads remain which link
the present community to its roots.
Geologists tell us that the last
remnant of the ice age disappeared
from the Southern Interior about
9,000 years ago. The great ice
sheets which covered North America
advanced and retreated, shaping
the country as they moved. Periods
of low temperatures were separated
by periods of relatively warm, mild
weather during which great sheets
of ice either shrank or disappeared
The last major glacial episode to
affect the Southern Interior did not
begin until about 19,000 years ago
when the Cordilleran Ice Mass filled
RC Historical News
the Okanagan Valley and covered
the mountains to the east and west.
Picture an ice field covering the valley to the height of Brent Mountain
(2,203 metres)!
The retreat of this ice mass was
accompanied by the development of
glacial lakes along the edge and in
front of the retreating ice. To the
south of Penticton, possibly at
Mclntyre Bluff, a blockage occured,
allowing the development of Glacial
Lake Penticton. It was in this glacial lake that the layered silts
(varved clays) which created the
characteristic clay cliffs of the
area were laid down.
Within a few hundred years of the
disappearance of the glacial lake,
the valley sides were covered by vegetation. Lodgepole pine dominated
the upper, wetter valley sides while
Ponderosa pine dominated the drier,
lower valley floor. A warm, dry period was to follow which saw a decrease in the number of trees and an
increase in the grasses and sage
brush which greeted the first inhabitants.
Prior to the arrival of the white
man, the valley was inhabited by
the Okanagan Indians, a branch of
the Interior Salish. The origin of the
native people has piqued the curiosity of scholars and lay persons alike.
Speculation on a matter of this kind
is always based on slender evidence.
Some believe that the original home
of the Indians lay to the west, that
they had come onto the American
continent by way of the Pacific.
Support for this theory comes from
linguistic studies. Attempts have
been made to establish a time arrival but this is too speculative.
Archeological studies in the Osoyoos
area set the pre-history of the area
at about 3,500 years before the
The Okanagan Indians were traditionally a hunting and gathering society. Hunters might travel alone,
but group hunting was an important source of food and large band hunts
were organized four times a year.
Large game such as deer, elk, bighorn sheep and bear were plentiful
while goat and moose were found occasionally. Fishing had both social
and economic significance, the rapids in Okanagan River at Okanagan
Falls being a favorite spot at which
to gather during the salmon run.
Berry picking in season and collecting roots for drying added to the
food supply. However, by the time
the white settlers arrived the
Indians had become proficient stock
raisers and were growing crops,
thus they knew the value of agricultural land. Their main village which
they called Pen-tik-tan, was located
on the east bank of the Okanagan
River and extended from the south
end of Railway Street to the
Fairview Road bridge.
Archeological research tells us that
the site accommodated the largest
concentration of population in the
Okanagan Valley. The choice was
logical, being midway in the valley's
chain of lakes which provided easy
transportation by dugout canoes
and rafts in summer and over the ice
in winter. The river at this point
consisted of a half-mile stretch of
gravel shoals providing easy fording. The campsite was well sheltered, fuel was abundant and game
abounded. Materials for the manufacture of weapons, baskets, ropes
and garments were close at hand.
The name Penticton is derived
from the language of the Okanagan
Indians but its exact meaning has
been interpreted in several ways, all
of which centre around the word
"permanent." The village on
Okanagan River between Okanagan
and Skaha Lakes was a permanent
Indian camp when the first white
man arrived. The Indians referred
to the camp as 'pentktn', permanent
camp; linguists have analyzed the
word as 'pen-tk-in' meaning 'always-
time-place.' Some persons believe
that it was the constant flow of water in the river which accounted for
the use of the term. In late spring
and early summer, the small creeks
feeding the main lakes and river
rose in flood but by mid-summer the
flow of the water has been attached
to the site itself, a 'permanent'
abode or 'place to stay forever'
Whatever the exact meaning, both
Indian and white settler agreed that
it was a highly desirable place to
This was written by A David MacDonald,
editor of "1908-1983 75 Penticton - Years to
Remember" as an introduction to a publication sponsored by the City of Penticton to
commemorate its 76th Anniversary.
OGOPOGO's a mythical creature —
Okanagan Lake's special feature. Some
say they have seen His coils, scaly green,
Others scoff - (though one viewer's a
E.A. Harris
RC. Historical News The Okanagan-Nicola
Connector of the 1830 's
by R,C. Harris
The southern interior of British
Columbia was first explored for the
fur trade from the south, when
David Stuart started from the
Columbia River late in 1811. By
1813, using Indian trails, two main
routes from the Columbia basin to
Kamloops had been examined.
What became the first main trail ran
up the west side of Okanagan Lake
and round by Monte Lake to
Kamloops. The other, more important in later years, ran up
Similkameen River and Otter Creek,
reaching Kamloops via Nicola and
Stump lakes, 131415.
Though both routes made easy
crossing of the Columbia divide, they
were somewhat circuitous. Using
other Indian trails, a shortcut was
developed between the two main
trails for use by light and express
traffic, see accompanying sketch
map. This cutoff headed northwest
from near today's Peachland, via
upper Nicola River and Chapperon
Lake, to join the Similkameen-
Kamloops trail at Stump Lake. The
cutoff was impractical for heavy
pack trains. Not only were parts of
the trail steep and narrow, but it
climbed to 5500 ft. elevation, and
the snow lay late.
It was 90 miles to Kamloops from
the site of Peachland, using the cutoff, a saving of 40 miles, or two
days, compared with going by the
head of Okanagan Lake. Alexander
Ross travelled twice from Fort
Okanagan to Kamloops in 1812, going by the head of the lake, taking
ten days each time. AC Anderson,
in his 1867 map 5, shows the nine
traditional camps on the journey.
This confirms that ten days were
still allowed for the journey, and
suggests that Ross as early as 1812
was travelling on well established
Archibald Macdonald's 1827 map
\ from the early fur trade days
shows that the territory of the
Okanagan Indians reached north
and west of Okanagan Lake and
over the Columbia divide to include
Nicola Lake and the upper Nicola
country. The cuttoff trail of interest
to the HBCo lay entirely within this
territory. The Handbook of Indians
of Canada 9, states that the Upper
Nicola Indian Reserves are assigned
to the Okanagan Indians; for example:
"Spahamin (Upper Nicola). An
Okanagan village situated at
Douglas Lake, 11 miles from
Nina Woolliams, writing of the
Douglas cattle ranch 10, gives several instances of long established travel over the Columbia divide between
the Okanagan and the Nicola.
Using today's place names, the
cutoff left the regular brigade trail
along Okanagan Lake at Trepanier
Creek, just north of Peachland. It
ran up the east side to the forks of
the creek, where the trail also
forked, passing on either side of
massive Mount Gottfriedsen, formerly known as Mount Swara or
Hatheume. The two parts rejoined
on the upper Nicola River, following
the right bank northwesterly, passing to the left of Chapperon Lake,
then to the left of Glimpse Lake,
then north to the left side of Peter
Hope Lake, whence it descended to
the east slopes of Stump Lake.
Here it joined the other main trail of
the fur trade. 14
From Stump Lake, this trail continued north, deep in the valley of
"Lake River", today's Campbell
Creek. At Richie Lake the trail
climbed north on to the plateau,
passing between Brigade Lake and
Brigade Hill, but closer to the lake,
maintaining a northerly course before descending Peterson Creek to
Kamloops. Before the arrival of the
Canadian Pacific Railway,
Kamloops was north of Thompson
Looking at the early maps;
Archibald Macdonald, 1827, 1 shows
the extent of the Okanagans' territory, and the trail up the
Similkameen, past Nicola Lake to
Kamloops. On this he notes "Mr
Archd McDonald's trail in Oct.
1826". Samuel Black, c.1833, 2
gives more detail, showing the cuttoff trail in addition to the main
trails. He names the cutoff as "Rout
to Jacques River by SB". ("SB" was
the South Branch of Thompson's
River, i.e. it was Nicola River).
Jacques River or Riviere de Jacques
was the old name for Trepanier
Creek, and was named for Jacques
Black 2>4 also shows the trail passing either side of "Snow Monte"
(Mount Gottfriedsen), and he shows
Nicola River rising from a lake
(Hatheume) and flowing first east,
then north. This interpretation remained until the 1930s, when the
name "Nicola River" was moved to a
tributary from the northeast, where
it remains today. Other locations
for Nicola River have been Spahomin
Creek, flowing from Pennask Lake
to Douglas Lake, 6> 7> and Alocin
Creek, which is 'Nicola' reversed.
AC Anderson shows the cutoff trail
on his 1867 map 5, as a dashed line,
whereas all other trails are solid
lines. Along the trail, he wrote
"Trail to Okn Lake - Snow lies xxx
Summit". One word is obscured by
Anderson's heavy line for
"Watershed of the Columbia".
Many geographic features have
changed names in the last 100
years; some of these old names are
shown on the accompanying map in
capital letters. Settlers and surveyors came and went.    "Rivers" were
RC Historical News
16 921
$\b KAMLOOPS Kqmloap   ; \fc "Thompson River
%i (THOMSONS RIVER POST).       1 and Kamloops
82 L
l>x^6        11612-1647   0c^\RiE   ^
5rump LakeX
\     ^p_      . Rush LV*
■limpse L "^ .
|lDIZ-lrM7    ^
Nicola Lake
'Salmon (FISH)
&..» ?»;
fQoilcnena Ck
louqlae, Lake
...GOVERNORS R,       kj
i?/f MAtCDONMDS R, 4^?qAic>m;n
Shorrs Ck        S
■ de/Q
<4  R I8&&,
ey Lake
Lake    ^
X/l     CP\
fa  l
W     1
±f a/
z «
0 5 10 miles      — CUTOFF TRAIL ^
Qrarr\eX Lake]
15      20 km
H 1..
92 H
turrenf names are^ in lower case, lettering.
Ri Oer       8£E
RC. Historical News moved, and renamed "Creeks".
Many of the early names were
French; the working language of the
fur trade was Canadian French.
In May of 1989, Ray Findlay, Bill
Sanderson, Harley Hatfield, Ken
Favrholdt and Bob Harris looked for
the trail up Trepanier Creek. A
good section of trail was found up
the east fork, leading to the abandoned Lacoma dam. There was not
time to cross and continue up to the
divide. Later, a section of the westerly branch was found on top, as yet
untouched by the extensive clearcut
logging nearby. The south slopes of
Mount Gottfriedsen may have been
too steep for logging, and we expect
to find more of the trail there in
Meanwhile, four-lane Coquihalla
III, the latest "Okanagan
Connector", is nearing completion.
This crosses Trepanier Creek low
down, and runs up its south side,
passing over the Columbia divide
and heading due west over an earlier location of Nicola River, and past
Pennask Mountain. It joins the ancient Similkameen-Kamloops trail
(now Highway 5A) near Aspen
One or other of the trails past
Mount Gottfriedsen was shown on
government maps until the 1960s,
by which time the trails had been
supplanted by easier routes, mostly
logging access.
The old trails here no longer have
commercial significance, but are interesting to hikers and historians.
1. 1827. Archibald Macdonald. "Sketch map of
Thompson's River District".
2. c. 1833. Undated, untitled, worn and folded
manuscript map of Thompson's River District,
attributed to Samuel Black. Shows rivers,
lakes and trails; and mountains by shading.
Probably the basis for several of the following
3. 1861. Royal Engineers.  "BRITISH
From a Map in the possession of H. E. GOV
DOUGLAS, CB. made in 1836 by S. Black
Esq. H.B. Company's Service ... "This copy of
Black's map, presumably a fair copy of 2
above, is lost.
4. 1862. Gust[avu]s Epner. "Map of the GOLD
place names on this map make an interesting
5. 1867. AC. Anderson. "Map of a portion of the
Colony of BRITISH COLUMBIA Compiled
from various sources, including original Notes
from personal explorations between the years
1832 and 1861".
6. 1877, 1882. G.M. Dawson. "GEOLOGICAL
MAP of a portion of the Southern Interior of
7. 1930. Department of Lands, B.C. Map No. 4N
PENTICTON. Shows the trail west of Mount
Gottfriedsen, but not up the East Fork
(Lacoma). This trail crossed "Nicola River",
which at that time rose southwest of Mount
8. 1960. Department of Lands and Forests, B.C.
Sheet 82 E/NW, KELOWNA, Second Status.
Shows the trail up Lacoma, the east fork, continuing on the west side of the creek beyond
the dam to Cameo (Cameron) Lake, just over
the divide. The trail passes both sides of
Cameo Lake. This is the last government map
to show either branch of the trail past Mount
CANADA. Geographic Board, Canada.
10. 1979. Nina Woolliams. 'Cattle Ranch. Tlie
Story at the Douglas Lake Cattle Company".
11. 1978 November.
"Blackeyes and 1849 HBC Trail"
12. 1979 Summer
"The HBC 1849 Brigade Trail. Fort Hope to
Kamloops. Collins Gulch Section"
13. 1980 Fall.
"The Hope-Nicola Trail, 1875-1918"
14. 198S Spring.
"The Brigade Trail. Nicola Lake to Kamloops"
16.     1989 Summer.
"Fur Trade Trails. Princeton to Nicola Lake"
The Chinese who came to the Okanagan Valley in mid 1800s
were very efficient at panning gold and one of their sites was on
Mission Creek where it flows through Gallagher's Canyon.
One day a cloudburst roared through the canyon and one of the
Chinese workers was caught in the flood and drowned. When his
body was recovered it was buried beside the stream on the present
day golf course.
About 16 years later a sheepherder named Clegg pre-empted
land and built a cabin close to the grave. Then strange thing began
to happen. Every night when he doused his lantern he was visited
by a ghostly Chinese image with a pigtail hanging down his back.
After numerous ghostly visitations, Clegg became fed up and appealed to the boss Chinaman in Kelowna, Lim Yun, who lived on
Abbott Street where the Underhill Clinic is today.
"That Chinaman you got buried up at my place?"
"Yes, we know him."
"Well he keeps coming to my place and wants to get out."
A couple of weeks went by and nothing was done, so Clegg again
visited Lim Yun and said, "That man you got buried up at my place
says if you donl come up and take him away he's coming to town."
The next morning a party of Chinese arrived in the canyon and
took away their compatriot. History doesn't record what happened, but since it was the Chinese custom in those days to ship
remains back to China, that is probably what happened. In any
case Clegg had no more wraithy visits and that was the end of the
Ghost of Gallagher's Canyon.
- Win Shilvock
RC. Historical News
Although it had no building, no name, no postmaster and no
postmark, it routed the mail and sold stamps for ten years and
earned the distinction of being Canada's smallest post office.
Thomas Alva Wood (Wood Lake) gave his middle name Alva to
the post office named Alvaston which was established in 1909,
where Winfield is now. But it was set up a half mile from the
Kelowna-Vernon mail coach route which followed today's Highway
97, and thereby hangs our story.
The stage had a schedule to keep and the driver refused to travel a mile out of his way to the post office to deliver and pick up the
mail. The problem was quickly overcome, however, by the local
residents when they acquired a large packing case with a lid on top
and set it up by the side of the road where the stage would pass.
The driver then agreed to deliver and pick up the mail.
From 1909 to 1919, the postmasters of Alvaston P.O., A.
Chatterhorn; H. Horsnell and C. Lodge, cooperated with this arrangement and obligingly took the outgoing mail to the packing
case and picked up the incoming mail to be distributed from the official post office.
Individual pieces of outgoing mail were allowed to be left in the
packing case rather than go through the regular post office and for
the convenience of the sender, an empty four-pound jam tin containing a dollar or two in stamps was kept inside and money for
stamps taken would be left in the tin.
This bizarre arrangement worked splendidly throughout the
whole decade that the Alvaston post office existed and it's recorded that never was the privilege abused. No mail, money or stamps
were ever stolen from the jam tin post office. - Win Shilvock
18 Armstrong: From Celery to Cheese
Armstrong held its 90th annual
Interior Provincial Exhibition (IPE)
in September. For nearly a century,
this yearly celebration has recognized the integral link between the
people of Armstrong and
Spallumcheen, and the land.
In the earliest history of the area,
when settlers came to the swampy
lowland country, they came to farm.
People were farming in the Knob
Hill and Round Prairie areas when
Robert Wood, Daniel Rabbitt and
E.C. Cargill founded the town.
Those three men, trading under the
name of E.C. Cargill Co., were harvesting fir and cottonwood from the
In 1887, the area known as "The
Swamp" surrounded the island of
land where Armstrong was eventually established. In that year the
swamp was drained and the black
soil left behind was planted in vegetables. It was the beginning of a
change in the direction and the character of the town, and led to the
city's new nickname - Celery City.
The first established settlement
had been at Lansdowne, about three
miles northeast of the present city of
Armstrong. The coming of the
Shuswap & Okanagan railway line
in 1891 changed the location of the
townsite, and brought many changes in the lives of the people.
Settlers wanted to call their town
Aberdeen, but when the railway
came through, the name of
Armstrong was erected at the station house. The name was in honour of Mr. Heaton-Armstrong, a
banker who had arranged the issue
of bonds to finance the Shuswap and
Okanagan Railroad. Townspeople
held on to their chosen name of
Aberdeen until the Post Office was
built and when it too was named
Armstrong, Aberdeen faded. When
it became obvious that Armstrong
would be the centre of commerce, the
settlement of Lansdowne itself
moved to the Armstrong townsite, in
1892. The Anglican church, St.
James, was moved from Lansdowne
by Judy Riemche
to its present site on Patterson Ave.,
where it's still serving the people of
Farmers had followed the fur traders who were the first to settle in
B.C. They came from Britain,
Western Europe, from eastern
Canada and the United States, and
with them they brought their own
familiar types and varieties of livestock, and their own farming methods. Each came with their own variety of seeds and plants, poultry
and animals. Over the years they
discovered which produced better in
the soil and climate of the area, and
those observations resulted in more
efficient and successful farming techniques.
Rapid change followed the laying
of the railway lines. The municipality of Spallumcheen was organized
and a council elected. A grist mill
was built beside the railway line,
processing and shipping locally-
grown wheat. C. Brewer built a major sawmill at the east end of town,
which was later purchased by T.K.
Smith. And these were the days
when farmers saw the first of many
threshing machines rolling through
the fields of golden grain.
In 1900, the IPE was established
as a table fair under the leadership
of Donald Matheson, who served as
president for the next 14 years. It
was the producers' way of celebrating the industry that played a major
role in the lives of the settlers, but it
was also a way of comparing agricultural methods, not only among
the local producers, but with farmers
from the surrounding towns.
By 1903 the population of
Armstrong proper had reached over
500. Three of the largest industries
in town included the Okanagan
Flour Mill Co., the Farmers
Exchange and the Okanagan
Creamery Association. Four churches, an elementary and a high school,
and several lodges (including Odd
Fellows, Foresters, Orangemen and
the Masons) had large memberships.    The Armstrong Advertiser
had been reporting on all these since
One of the major crops grown was
hay, but harvests included berries of
several kinds (strawberries, raspberries and black currants), potatoes,
and turnips. Orchards were thriving, and the Egg and Poultry Co-op
had been established to grade and
market eggs and processed fowl.
Vegetable production attracted
hard-working Chinese families, who
came in 1907. Where other had
seen only black muck in the drained
swamp grounds, the Chinese saw
gold in the production of celery, lettuce and cabbage. Their faith in
their own hard work saw its own
harvest when five packing houses
were built to process the vegetables
and ship them to the prairie provinces and west to the coastal cities.
The Chinese lived near their land,
in buildings on Okanagan Street.
Foster Whitaker, who came to
Armstrong in 1910, remembers a
large building near Spallumcheen's
newly-established road paving plant
which housed about 100 Chinese.
More Chinese buildings lined the
street to the corner north of the paving plant, and in the general vicinity. He said, at the peak, there were
more Chinese adults over 21 than
When Alex Adair arrived in the
city in 1911 to start his merchant
tailor business, there were "two hotels, a theatre, two grocery stores,
two butcher shops, two drug stores,
a confectionery, a bakery, two livery
stables, dry goods store, gent's furnishings, pool hall, five or six churches, a harness shop, blacksmith shop
and various emporiums," according
to his daughter. The elementary
and high schools were well established, and the first cottage hospital
on Patterson Ave. was nearing the
end of its time. A new hospital was
built in 1912, with Dr. Van Kleek
the first doctor.
Peggy Adair Landon, who came to
Armstrong with her father in 1911,
said:   "When we first came, Messers
B.C. Historical News Daykin and Jackson ran a successful flour mill, but the chief job opportunities were at the lumber yard
and sawmills, the Creamery, and
the packing houses."
On March 31, 1913, the City of
Armstrong was incorporated, formally separating itself as an entity
apart from the Municipality of
After the first World War, with
Germany and Holland rebuilding
their own agricultrual industries,
the bottom fell out of the seed market, and Armstrong's Seed Co-op
closed. Small farms were in trouble
as jobs became more readily available in industry, and that caused
both remaining packing houses to
close. Cheap produce from
California and Washington guaranteed the loss of Armstrong's vegetable markets, and imported eggs did
the same to the egg industry. But
that still didn't daunt many of the
A fire destroyed the Chinese section of town in 1912 but didn't hold
back the production of vegetables.
While production of celery and some
of the other vegetables growing in
the area had declined, the discovery
that asparagus grew well in
Armstrong created an expansion in
that direction. Soon Armstrong became one of the major asparagus
growing districts in the country.
Hog production also survived, and
with the increase in asparagus,
growers had a strong basis on which
to build. Ranchers and cattlemen
who were raising pure breeding animals improved the strains and continued successfully. Mechanization,
specialization, and new technology
meant successful farming.
Automatic feeding systems, seeding
and thrashing machines came into
general use, changing the family
farm forever.
This was also a time of revolution
in the dairy industry. Smaller herds
gave way to larger ones, milking
parlours were made more efficient,
with several cows being milked at
one time by automatic milking machines. The herds themselves were
changed through new breeding
methods that enabled cattle to make
more efficient use of feed to create
RC. Historical News
more milk per animal. The dairy industry was served by a creamery established by local farmers which has
evolved to become the Armstrong
Cheese plant.
As agriculture grew, new related
industries sprang up in the town-
site. Feed and supply stores were
established, with Buckerfield's the
first. Charlie Hoover built an alfalfa
mill (where the Pea Growers now
stands) to grind alfalfa, and he operated Inland Flour Mills, later purchased, in 1946, by Buckerfield's .
When the CNR brought in its branch
line in 1924, there were four trains
coming through the town every day,
bringing in necessities and taking
away farm products to markets both
east and west. Farm machinery
and equipment sales outlets were
built to service the growing trend toward mechanization on the farm.
Each winter, hundreds of tons of
ice were hauled in from Otter Lake
by teams of horses and sleighs.
They were stored in straw and sawdust, kept ready for packing fresh
vegetables. By 1925 there were four
packing houses in Armstrong, with
a Chinese shipping office (Wong
Chong & Co.) established later near
the stockyards.
Throughout those years, the expansion and changes in the industry
were reflected each year at the IPE.
Farmers continued to bring their
new varieties of stock and produce,
and their innovative ideas, to the
fair. The need for expansion was increased by the burning of the cattle
barn on the fairgrounds in 1925.
Over the next four years, Fair directors bought more land and built a
sheep barn, poultry barn and two
more 30 x 100-foot barns to house
the swelling interest in exhibiting.
The Depression and War years
brought the Armstrong area the
same hard times as every other part
of the ocuntry went through. Times
changed, markets dwindled, and
many of the Chinese moved away,
leaving the economy at its weakest.
But the pursuit of agriculture continued. The IPE reflected the changes,
and served as a reminder of the
strength of the land. In 1930 the
IPE Association held its first class B
show; by 1938 further land was
added to the grounds, the livestock
buildings and grandstand were rearranged to make room for a quarter-
mile race track and 200 feet of box
And agriculture, like the fair, has
continued to endure and grow. The
days following World War II saw
rapid price hikes, and again consumers and farmers alike had to respond to a changing environment.
The first hay balers were used in the
district in the late 1940s, and more
mechanization meant higher initial
costs to farmers. It also gave them
the means to become more efficient,
and to remain in the industry.
Changes in the railroad system
also had its effect on agriculture.
Throughout the early history of
Armstrong, farmers depended on the
railway to ship their goods, but during the 1950s costs for shipping
were rising. That, combined with
the fact better highways were being
constructed to connect Armstrong
with major markets both east and
west, brought about changes in how
goods were shipped. The last passenger train pulled out of Armstrong
okn March 16, 1957, a service no
longer felt necessary because of the
completion of Highway 97 the preceding year. In March of 1958,
steam locomotive number 4308
made its final run through the city,
and an era ended.
Farming continues to be the backbone of the Armstrong economy.
Dairymen supply Armstrong Cheese
with milk for its operation, and
there is a flourishing poultry market. Hatcheries, breeders, and poultry farm supply Colonial Farms and
Starbird Enterprises, and egg producers are a growing industry
The city has benefitted through
the many related industries that
serve those involved in agriculture,
and logging continues to contribute
to the economy. This year, (1989)
the city again paid tribute to its beginnings with the IPE, and 50,000
people, the largest crowd ever, joined
in the celebration.
Judy Riemche is a feature writer with the
Secretary of the Armstrong/Enderby OHS
branch The Bole of Enderby in Early
Okanagan History
Enderby played a pivotal role in
the development of the Okanagan
Valley. Situated on the west bank
of the Spallumcheen or Shuswap
River, it was located at a point
where the river changed its westerly
flow to a northerly direction, emptying into Mara Lake. It was a mile
south of this point that Alexander
Leslie Fortune, an Overlander, preempted land in 1866, thus becoming
the first white settler in the north
This geographical quirk made the
bend in the river an ideal stopping
spot for steamboats from Kamloops
shipping supplies to settlers in the
south. It was from this point that
goods could be transhipped to the
head of Okanagan Lake, a distance
of twenty miles.
In 1871 Fredrick Brent bought
mill-stones, iron frame and hopper
in San Francisco for his flour mill
near Okanagan Mission. They arrived by sailing ship in Victoria,
where they were re-shipped to Yale.
They travelled by freight wagon to
Savona's Ferry where they were
again placed on a steamboat. They
progressed through the Thompson
River system, Shuswap Lake, and
then up the Shuswap River to
Fortune's Landing. From there they
were taken overland to the head of
Okanagan Lake near Cornelius
O'Keefe's ranch. A rowboat took
them to Lequime's Landing where
they were off-loaded and skidded by
stone-boat four miles inland. ' The
connection at Fortune's Landing
was central to the success of this
marathon adventure.
Recognizing the importance of this
spot on the river, Thomas and
Robert Lambly pre-empted the 320
acres to the west and north of the
Spallumcheen Band Reserve in
1876. They built a large warehouse. Thomas Lambly was made
Commissioner of Lands and Works
by Bob Cowan
for the Okanagan Polling division,
and had his office initially in part of
the warehouse. The site became
known as Lambly's Landing or
Steamboat Landing.
The large ranches to the south continued to grow and prosper. They
had considerable success with wheat
and other cereal cultivation. To mill
their crop the farmers had to take
their product to the Fortune mill (no
relation to A.L. Fortune) in
Kamloops or the Brent mill near
Okanagan Mission.
With the completion of the CPR
mainline in 1885, it did not seem
unreasonable that a flour mill could
be built at Lambly's to handle the
wheat production in the
Spallumcheen and transport the finished product to Sicamous by boat.
Messers. Lawes and Rashdale constructed a five story roller mill on
the river bank in 1887. Mr. Lawes
had come from an old milling family
in the neighborhood of Salisbury,
Wiltshire, England. More recently
he had managed a mill in Oregon.
A.S. Farwell reported to the provin
cial government (June 9, 1887) on
the viability of the Okanagan for future development if a rail line was
extended from Sicamous to
Okanagan Landing with the following:
Messers. Lawes and Rashdale expect to have their mill in running order by the first of August next.
They inform me that they have
1,500 tons of last years's wheat on
hand, which quantity is sufficient to
supply the mill at its full capacity
for four months. The cost of the mill
on the day it starts work will be over
$60,000. I mention this fact to
show Mr. Lawes' firm belief in the
wheat growing capacity of the district in the first place, and his confidence in being able to manufacture
an article of flour which will compete
successfully with that imported from
Oregon, in the second.
If Messers. Lawes and Rashdale
succeed in stopping the drain on the
resources of the province for bread
stuff, amounting annually to over
$200,000.00, they will deserve the
thanks of the community at large. 2
Columbia Flour Mill, Enderby. Jack Bailey delivering flour, circa 1892.
RC. Historical News Without the aid of rail transportation, Messers. Lawes and Rashdale
had great difficulty getting their finished product to Sicamous with any
regularity. At one point, Web
Wright, local teamster and owner of
the Enderby Hotel, attempted to
take a load of flour to Sicamous over
the frozen river and lake only to lose
his team under the ice at the
Sicamous narrows.
By 1888 the Lawes and Rashdale
mill was in receivership. Mr. R.P
Rithet, a Victoria businessman, purchased the mill. Mr. Rithet was a
major shareholder in the proposed
Shuswap and Okanagan Railway
that would connect Sicamous with
Okanagan Landing. He, together
with Moses Lumby (owner of the
large ranch south of town, later
known as the Stepney Ranch), was
instrumental in persuading the provincial government to become financially committed to the Shuswap
and the Okanagan Railway.
It seemed clear that the railway
was coming, and the little settlement on the river would be the hub
of the construction. A post office was
slated to open in Mr. Harvey's
General Store. But what name
would appear on the post mark?
Would it be Steamboat Landing or
Lambly's Landing or Belvedere
(Mrs. Lambly's preference)? At a literary gathering at Mrs. Lawes'
home, the group became excited by a
Jean Englow poem about a rising
tide of water. The villagers were
saved by the chiming of church bells
playing the tune "The Brides of
Enderby". When the post office
opened that fall, many local residents were surprised that they lived
in Enderby. 3
Enderby was the centre for the
Shuswap and Okanagan construction crews. The scow, the Red Star,
plied the river carrying railway construction material south and flour
from the mill north. Mr. Rithet also
owned the Red Star.
The completion of the railway in
1891 marked the end of an era for
Enderby. No longer was Enderby
pivotal for the shipment of goods
into the Okanagan. While products
such as flour (and later lumber)
could more easily be shipped from
Enderby, the town could now be easily by-passed. Enderby's growth
and importance became inversely
proportional to the development and
importance of other Okanagan cities
such as Vernon or Kelowna.
Bob Cowan is chairman of the Enderby and
District Museum Society, and current editor of
1. F.M. Buckland. Ogopogo's Vigil p. 43
2. A.S. Farwell - June 9,1887 Report p. 22
3. OHS Reports #6 p. 22 & 24
The paddle wheeler, the "Red Star" (in background) and the barge, the "Colonel".
May 25, 1908
Royal Salute 9:45 a. m.
The booming oi canon and chorus of whistles will
welcome the city's guests
10 o'clock—sharp
Indian Canoe race, 3-paddles—1st,
$4.50;  2nd. $1.60.
10.20 o'clock
White   Man's  Canoe   race,   2-pad-
dles—1st,  $4;   2nd,  $2.
10.40 o'clock
Single Cauoe race, white man's,
for the amateur championship ot the
11 o'clock
Klootchuiaa'a   Canoe   race,   3-paddles—1st, $6; 2nd, $3.
11 .'J0 o'clock
Log   Rolling   contest—One   prize,
11.40 o'clock
Walking Greasy Pole—$5.
12 o'clock
Launch race, open to all—Trophy.
BASEBALL: Vernon-Aroutrong-Enilerby
Captains will draw for  the bye.     The first fiaiue
will be callud at 11:80 a, m.;  tho sucond at the
conclusion of the lacrosse match In the afternoon.
LACROSSE: Armstrong v». Veruon
Came called at 1*0 p. in.
RACING: First race called at 42W p. m. in all
tnun's races an entrance fee of 25c wUl be chars:ed.
Four to enter, three to start.
100-yanls, open to all—1st, $4;
2nd.  $2.
Half-inilB. opeu to all—1st, $4;
2nd, $2.
Fat Man's race, over 200-lbg,—
1st, $4;  2nd, $2.
Obstacle race, for boyB, 16 and
under—1st, $3; 2nd, $2.
Sack race, boys under 12—1st, fl;
2nd, 50c.
KlpoUibmau's race—1st,  $2;  2nd,
Wheelbarrow race, blindfolded—
1st, $4; 2nd, $2.
Girl's race, 75 yards, open to all—
1st. 12; 2nd, 1.
Rel^y- race, i men, must he bona
fide residents of the town they represent—Medals.
Tug-of-war, married vs. single
men Box 50 cigars.
Grand Ball in Evening
Accommodation for 2O0 on the floor.   Combined
hull routn of the BeU block engaged.       Following
the days sports,  and as a prelude to tlie Grand
Ball, a street celebration of All Fools Hour will be
held.   The Enderby hand will open the frolic from
the band stand at 8 o'clock.    Everybody is
invited to participate In the frolic.
masked or unmasked.   Have
all the fun yon want
until the day wc
B.C. Historical News
22 Commandos in the Okanagan Valley
by Win Shilvock
During the 1939-45 world war, the
British war cabinet operated an organization called Special Operations
Executive (SOE) which trained commandos to function behind enemy
lines in Europe. Few people ever
knew that these covert activities
also operated in the peaceful
Okanagan Valley in British
The action began in 1944 when attention was directed more closely to
activities in the South Pacific. In
April, Major Hugh John Legg, who
worked with the SOE for some years
in England, was ordered to
Vancouver to set up the organization.
Since Occidentals wouldn't fit into
Asian setting, a search began for
Chinese men who would volunteer
for this very perilous assignment.
Many Chinese had enlisted in the
Canadian army and from these several dozen quickly volunteered, but
only 12 were required to fill the establishment.
The names of these intrepid men
were; Tom Lock, Eddie Chow, Henry
Wong, Raymond Low, John Ko,
Doug Jung, W.L. Wong and
Norman Wong. The remaining four,
Roy Chan, James Shiu, Norman
Low and Louie King would receive
the Military Medal for their heroic
actions in combat. All were given
the NCO rank of Sergeant.
Secrecy was important to the mission so a secluded spot on the east
side of Okanagan Lake was chosen
for the training area. It was a small
bay directly opposite today's government campsites between
Summerland and Peachland. No
roads led to the site and access was
gained to it only by water.
At this time it was known as
Dunrobin Bay after L.R. Dunrobin
who had pre-empted the area many
years  before.     After  the  war,
however, when the story leaked out,
local custom changed the name to
Commando Bay, a name that is now
preserved forever as part of
Okanagan Mountain Park.
In addition to the volunteers, the
party that arrived in Pentiction via
the Kettle Valley Railway from
Vancouver on the first of May, comprised Major Legg, two Canadian
sergeants who were trained in explosives and sabotage and Mr. & Mrs.
Francis Kendall. Mrs. Kendall was
Chinese and the couple had lived for
many years in the Far East.
Besides contributing a knowledge of
the country the commandos would
operate in, Kendall was also a demolition expert.
At this point a curious fact was
discovered. Since the trainees were
all Chinese it was assumed they all
spoke Chinese, but such wasn't the
case. Eight of the 12 had been
raised in families that spoke only
English at home, so Mrs. Kendall
set up classes to teach her compatriots the rudiments of their native language.
By the middle of May, with a
wharf constructed and a campsite
set up, a rigorous training schedule
was put into effect.
Only four months had been allotted for training so the schedule was
rigid and intense. Every one was
up and in the lake at six a.m.
Then it was discovered that none of
the boys could swim. This was
quickly taken in hand and by the
end of the course all excelled in the
art. Brisk exercises were next and
following breakfast from seven to
seven-thirty, a half-hour clean up
took place. Except for time out for
meals, training went from 8 a.m. to
9 p.m.
The basic instructions were self-
preservation and sabotage which
meant being able to kill the other
fellow before he killed you. It was
necessary to know radio telegraphy
and this was carried out on the lake-
shore north and south of the camp.
Sabotage required demolition and
many thumps, booms and crumps
were heard day and night by the
residents on the west side of
Okanagan Lake. The benches above
the camp took a pounding and an
abandoned cabin in Wild Horse
Canyon was annihilated.
Secrecy forbade movement too far
from the training area, but twice in
the four-month period everyone
crossed the lake to Paradise Ranch
and picked fruit for a few hours.
The routine was also broken when
General George Pearkes, GOC
Pacific Command, spent a week-end
at the camp to see how things were
Training was completed the first of
September, 1944, and the commandos shifted to B.C. coastal waters for
undersea exercises. This was quickly completed, and after a circuitous
journey via New Guinea to dodge enemy action, the party arrived in
Australia.   Here, at another secret
Commandos (L.toR.) Louie King, Jim Shiu
and Eddie Chow. Courtesy Penticton
Museum & Archives.
RC. Historical News SOE camp, parachute training was
The moment of truth came when
they were parachuted into the interi-
time to retake the area after the
bombs were dropped on Japan in
August 1945.
Despite the manifold perils of the
Commando Bay - Okanagan Lake. Photo
or of Borneo among the native head-
hunters. The combination of trained
commandos and natives who knew
the jungle and were skilled in the
art of quick killing worked extremely
well. So well, that in two months
the Japanese were forced from the
interior to the coast.
The radio telegraphy training received in the Okanagan now became
very important. From the continuous
reports that were sent, the Allies
knew exactly the whereabouts of the
Japanese on Borneo when it came
Courtesy Penticton Museum and Archives.
jungle and many encounters with
the enemy, all 12 men survived.
However, Norman Low, who won the
Military Medal, was wounded and
despite several years of hospital
treatment died in 1960.
The operation was so secret that
no official records were ever kept and
for 44 years any recognition of the
part played by these men in the
Pacific was was masked with silence. Although many details will
never be known, enough came to
light over the years so that Parks
B.C. was able to erect a memorial at
Commando Bay extolling the deeds
of the 12 intrepid Chinese-Canadian
volunteers. The ceremony was held
on September 17, 1988.
Wing Won, although now 87 years
old, was able to attend. He had lied
about his age and although he was
43 at the time, was able to keep up
to the grinding pace required of a
Another veteran in attendance, at
the age of 64, was Doug Jung.
After his discharge Jung spearheaded the Chinese community in
Vancouver to obtain the Chinese
right to vote. If we were good
enough to fight for our country (there
were 400 Chinese-Canadians in the
armed forces) we were certainly good
enough to vote. In 1947 the franchise was acquired.
Jung also studied law, and in
1953 when his compatriots were allowed to be called to the British
Columbia Bar, he became the third
such lawyer to qualify. He was then
attracted to politics and became the
first Chinese in Canada to become
an MP, serving Vancouver Centre
from 1957 to 1962.
Although the memory of events
fades with time, there will always
be a small reminder at Commando
Bay on Okanagan Lake of the exploits of 12 brave men who played
an integral part in the war in the
South Pacific.
Our story of buried treasure takes place near the log house
where John and Susan Allison (Allison Pass) lived at Sunnyside,
just east of today's Westbank. The house still stands at the corner of Sunnyside and Boucherie Roads.
When Allison's cattle were all but wiped out in the frightful winter
of 1879-80 he was forced to sell his property and move back to his
old home at Vermillion Forks (Princeton).
The purchaser was a grizzled cowpuncher named John Phillips
who, the following year went into partnership with Hugh Armstrong,
a tough bullheaded Irishman who came from the Oregon Territory.
Armstrong had just sold some property down south for a considerable amount of gold which he was carrying when he arrived at
Sunnyside. Not knowing what to do with it he buried it but kept secret its location.
The cattle-ranch partnership carried on amicably until 1886
when the two men had a falling out and agreed to divide the stock
and horses and sell the property. All went well until a vicious argument erupted over who owned a certain halter.  No decision had
been reached when on March 28,1886, Phillips became ill and went
to bed in his cabin which was near the Allison house where
Armstrong lived.
For some time Armstrong stewed over the halter matter and having worked himself into a state of almost frenzy, decided something should be done about it. Picking up a large stick he crossed
to Phillips' cabin, determined to get the matter settled. When the
burly Irishman exploded through the door, wielding a stick, Phillips
panicked, grabbed a nearby rifle, fired and Armstrong dropped
After a lengthy trial in Kamloops, a jury decided Phillips acted in
self-defence and he was acquitted of a murder charge. It was suggested, though, that he might have done in Armstrong in order to
get the gold. But he had never been told the secret and Armstrong
took the location of the treasure to his grave.
So somewhere around the south side of Boucherie Mountain is
buried a lot of gold. To this day no one has found it.
- Win Shilvock
B.C. Historical News
24 Private Schools in the Okanagan
by Winston A. Shilvock
In the early days of the Okanagan
Valley there was a plethora of private schools but most had a comparatively short life, due mainly to financial problems.
The schools grew out of a need for
discipline; religious education; athletic facilities; small classes that
gave personal instruction; more desirable companions, and personal
supervision 24 hours a day for
boarders. A large percentage of the
youngsters came from the Coast, for
oddly, few private schools existed
The first record of a "private"
school is when F. Adrian Myers began what he called a "College" in
his home in Vernon in 1893. This
failed to develop and it was followed
in 1905 by a school in the
Coldstream run by the Reverend St.
John Mildmay. This, too, didn't
last long.
Two years later, in 1907, the enterprising Okanagan Baptist
College was founded at West
Summerland. Although it existed
for only eight years it left a lasting
impression on local education.
The main building was three and
one-half stories high, heated with
hot water and had full electric
lighting. There was accommodation
for 50 boarders, seven teachers and
the household staff; a large chapel,
music room, principal's office and a
dining room to seat 100.
A gymnasium and large women's
residence were added the following
year. All this was built 600 feet up
on the side of Giant's Head
Mountain, providing a magnificent
view over the town and Okanagan
The project had an auspicious
start when almost immediately the
enrollment was 71 pupils. They
came from as far away as Ontario,
Saskatchewan, Alberta and the B.C.
Coast. The first few years were very
successful, but when a depression
hit in 1912 and the war started in
1914, attendance declined rapidly
and indebtedness rose sharply.
The future looked bleak and despite an affiliation with McMasters
University, in the Fall of 1915 the
Baptist Union of Western Canada
decided to close the college and write
off the many tens of thousands of
dollars invested.
The gymnasium became a fruit
packing house but today is a Youth
Centre in Summerland and the
women's residence became a Home
for the Friendless. The two largest
buildings remained, but in 1941 one
was destroyed by fire and off and on
for the next 47 years the other
served as a restaurant. Finally, in
July, 1988, the last vestige of the
Okanagan Baptist College vanished
when the building was moved to
Penticton to serve as a restaurant
and pub.
Almost in step with the
Summerland venture was an attempt by a Miss Bloomfield to establish a co-ed day school at Okanagan
Mission in 1908. Little is known of
this effort except that it ceased to
operate in 1909 and the peak attendance is thought to have been about
10 pupils.
In 1908 A.H. Scriven established a
non-denominational boys school in
North Vancouver, called Chesterfield
School. However, in 1912 his wife
became seriously ill and was told to
move to a drier climate. The school
was sold and a move made to the
Okanagan Valley where Scriven, his
senior teacher, W.J. Bennett, and
Matron, Mrs. T.W. Harvey, began
another Chesterfield School in
Shortly after the opening in
October, 1912, the Scriven's decided
to  return  to  England  and  Mr.
Bennett and Mrs. Harvey took over
as joint owner.
The school was never very successful financially and, as with the
Baptist College, the depression of
1912 and war of 1914 caused a decline in attendance. However, the
two owners managed to carry on until 1924 when they married each
other and returned to North
Vancouver, again joining Scriven
who had returned to Canada and
started Kingsley School.
The record shows, that in the 12
years it operated, Chesterfield
School in Kelowna graduated 71
boys. Attesting to the excellent education received, many of the young
people became famous in future
years and made names for themselves in the military, politics and
the professions.
The private schools that were most
successful in the Valley were two
that began within a year of each
other in Vernon.
St. Michael's School was started in
1913 by Miss Maud LeGallais to
cater to girls aged eight to 18. It began in two houses, but by 1921 it
had prospered to the extent that a
new, large, three-story building was
able to be built on five acres of land
on a hill overlooking Vernon.
It had four dormitories and an infirmary, class rooms and rooms for
music, dancing and dramatics.
From the start it had the blessing of
the Anglican Church and back in
1917 was designated "The Bishop's
School of the Diocese of Kootenay".
Conformity in dress was required
and all girls wore a tunic, silk blouse
and blazer. Bloomers were worn for
sports for shorts were unheard of for
young ladies in those days.
Physical fitness was stressed and
there was a well equipped gymnasium. In the surrounding acreage
grass hockey, tennis, badminton
B.C Historical News and cricket were played. The cricket
team often competed successfully
with one from the nearby boys
Financial problems arose during
the depression of the 1930s and St.
Michael's School was forced to close
in 1937. It was turned into an
apartment block which, when deterioration later set in, was torn down
and a condominium complex was
built on the site. It's called St.
Michael's Court which today carries
on the proud memory of the school.
The Vernon Preparatory School for
boys was founded by the Rev. A.C.
Mackie and his brother. H.R
Mackie, January 13, 1914, and began in a small house in the
Coldstream with packing crates for
It catered to boys eight to 15
years of age and covered grades one
to 10. On opening there were five
students which grew in number
when a maximum of 63 was reached
in 1921. When the brothers retired
in 1946 they had educated 456 boys
during a 32-year period.
The school was run in a typical
English spartan manner and great
emphasis was placed on physical fitness. The men were graduates from
St. John's School, Leatherhead, and
the Rev. A.C. also from Corpus
Christi College, Cambridge and
Durham University. They were well
grounded in the rigid Old Country
methods of schooling.
"Mackie's" as it was affectionately
called, never made much money but
it did construct several buildings for
dormitories, classrooms and a
gymnasium. It also acquired land
for great sporting events and in
1921 the graceful St. Nicholas
Chapel was dedicated to the religious aspects of education. A well-
stocked library provided reference
books on manifold subjects.
An unfortunate incident happened
in 1927 when one of the boys was
bitten by a rattlesnake and died.
Rev. Mackie swore a vendetta on the
creatures and is reputed to have
killed more than 4,000 during the
rest of his life.
In 1946 C.M.W.C. Twite took over
and ran the school until 1953 when
it was incorporated as an
Educational Trust.    It gradually
went downhill, however, and in the
mid 1960s was closed permanently
and became a home for the elderly
The last private school to start
and the only one still in operation is
the Okanagan Adventist Academy.
In 1917 Robert Clayton, a
Seventh-Day Adventist, opened a
family school in his home in
Rutland. In time the facilities became too small and in 1920 a move
was made to a nearby hotel where a
co-ed boarding academy was established.
At the same time property was
purchased in Rutland and in 1925 a
school was built to handle all grades
up to Grade 10. This was known as
the Rutland Junior Academy.
Growth continued and the school
was expanded and in 1944 Grades
11 and 12 were added and the
name changed to the Rutland
Finally, in 1968, the building in
use today was built and the name
changed to the Okanagan Adventist
Academy which is carrying on the
educational traditions established
by Robert Clayton.
John Moore Robinson
Three towns in the Okanagan
Valley in British Columbia owe their
existence to the workings of the spirit world, a long-dead Sioux Indian
chief and the considerable foresight
and unbounded energy of John
Moore Robinson.
"J.M.," as Robinson was invariably called was born of English stock
in Ontario in 1855. A good education was obtained in Canada and
the United States when he moved
west to Winnipeg, Manitoba. By the
time J.M. was 33 he had been a
school teacher, a newspaper reporter
and owned three newspapers in
by Win Shilvock
Portage la Prairie and Brandon. He
had also found the time and stamina
to be Grand Master of the Orange
Lodge and a member of the
Manitoba Legislature.
In 1888 Robinson made a trip to
the Kootenays in southern British
Columbia to investigate several mining operations. Then, continuing
westward he came to the
Similkameen Valley which extends
for 70 miles between Princeton and
Okanagan Lake. He took an immediate liking to the countiy and determined this was the place to search
for gold.  It took some time, however,
to organize his affairs in Manitoba
and it wasn't until 1897 that he was
able to carry out his plans.
Robinson was keenly interested in
the occult so when he formed a mining company from among his
Manitoba associates, one of the six
directors was a Mr. Anderson, a
clairvoyant. Diamond drills and
scanners were unknown in those
days and J.M. reasoned that
Anderson could invoke the aid of the
spirit world to locate the mother
The spirits didn't cooperate, however, and the venture failed.   One day
B.C. Historical News
26 while looking over the situation near
Okanagan Lake, Robinson had
lunch with Charles Lambly who ran
a cattle operation at Trepanier
Creek and had a few fruit trees for
his personal use. When some luscious peaches were served for dessert and Robinson learned they had
been grown just a few yards away,
his agile mind jumped at the
idea of developing the land
commercially to grow fruit of
all kinds - apples, pears,
plums, cherries and grapes.
Up to now Ontario was the
only area in Canada to grow
fruit commercially.
Not one to dally when he
got an idea, he discarded the
mining venture and with the
help of some more
Winnipegonians, in 1898
founded the Peachland
Townsite Co. Ltd. Extensive
blocks of land were purchased
from early pre-emptors and
divided into 10-acre fruit lots.
With irrigation water guaranteed from Deep Creek, the
lots sold for $100 an acre,
Through intensive promotion back east, immigration
surged following the first carload of settlers who arrived
May 6,  1898.    So rapid was
the flow that in December that year
a post office was opened and at the
request of Robinson was named
While all this was going on J.M.
had been surveying the country immediately south of Peachland.
Some pre-emptions were being
worked in the Trout Creek area, but
the benches to the west were practically virgin territory since no irrigation was available. He reasoned
that if water could be provided the
land would be as good or better than
what he had already developed.
In 1902 the Summerland
Development Co. Ltd was incorporated and with the help of a
$75,000 loan from Sir Thomas
Shaughnessy of CPR fame, acquired
a huge block of land owned by
George N. Barclay of Barclay's
English bank, along with several
marginal pre-emptions. With the
construction of an extensive irrigation system things began to hum
and as more settlers flowed into the
valley a townsite was laid out on
the lakeshore.
A two-story 20-room hotel was
built; a domestic water system in-
JM. Robinson.
stalled; a hydro-electric plant was
constructed, making Summerland
the first community in the
Okanagan Valley to have electric
lights. In November, 1902, a post
office was opened and at Robinson's
suggestion was named
"Summerland." By the end of 1906
the population warranted incorporation and Robinson was elected the
first reeve,
Never content with his accomplishments he looked south for further
property to develop but was thwarted by the cattle baron, Tom Ellis,
who owned the land. However, Ellis
agreed to sell 12,000 acres directly
across the lake from Summerland
and in 1905, 3,000 acres were developed into 10-acre lots. This venture
also boomed and in 1907 a post office was opened.
In naming this new development
J.M. toyed with the idea of calling it
Brighton Beach in honor of the
English locale of his family.
However, the matter was settled one
night when a seance was held in the
tent home of J.S. Gillespie whose
wife was a noted medium.
In 1931 Robinson wrote to a friend
explaining what happened.
"The question of the name
NARAMATA has been identified with claims of spiritualism and I hesitate to explain
it to you as you will not know
what I'm talking about unless you, too, have spent the
last 30 or 40 years trying to
investigate the subject."
He went on to say that Mrs.
Gillespie was entered by the
spirit of a Sioux Indian chief
named Big Moose who spoke
of his beloved wife, calling her
meant "Smile of Manitou."
Robinson then continued, "I
decided this was a good
name for our village." The
unnecessary letters were
dropped and NARAMATA
came into being.
Of the three towns established by Robinson,
Naramata appealed to him
the most and in 1907 he gave up
the spacious family home in
Summerland, and with his wife, five
daughters and three sons, moved
across the lake where he lived until
passing away February 23, 1943.
None of the three towns he founded has grown to a metropolis, but
they are, and probably always will
be, quiet, comfortable places to live.
Through them the dynamic, visionary John Moore Robinson attracted
more settlers to the Okanagan
Valley than any other person.
RC. Historical News The Development of the Orchard
Industry in the Okanagan Valley, 1890-1914
by David Dendy
Fruit has been grown in the
Okanagan almost as long as the
area has been settled. The Oblate
Fathers planted apple trees at the
Okanagan Mission in 1863, and
small orchards were laid out by other settlers, such as George Whelan
and Alfred Postill at Kelowna in
1875-76. But these were small
plantings, intended only to supply
fruit for the ranchers themselves.
There were no serious attempts at
commercial fruit-growing in the
Okanagan until the 1890s.
Basically, the small production
was a result of the lack of transportation facilities. The completion of
the CPR. in 1885 really did little
to alter the situation, for the line
was forty miles or more north of the
best fruit lands at Vernon and
south. While relatively imperishable grain and cattle could withstand
such a trip in a wagon or afoot, fruit
could not.
All this was changed by the
Shuswap and Okanagan Railway
which was completed from Sicamous
through Vernon to Okanagan Lake
on May 12, 1892. But fruit was not
king of the land yet.
The man who brought fruit to attention and prominence, more than
any other, was the Earl of Aberdeen,
Governor General of Canada from
1893 to 1898. In the fall of 1890 he
bought 480 acres at Okanagan
Mission (later named the
'Guisachan' Ranch) and in 1891 the
Coldstream Ranch of Forbes G
Vernon, an estate of over 13,000
acres. Lord Aberdeen was an innovative man, and in 1892 planted
out 200 acres at each of his ranches
to orchard, as well as experimenting
with hops. Some of the farmers in
the valley, inspired by this example,
also planted fruit trees. By 1893
roughly 75,000 trees, mostly apples
Early ditch and flume
had been planted in the Yale-
Cariboo district, largely at Kelowna
and Vernon.
But this burst of energy did not
last. One very significant check on
the expansion of the industry in the
Okanagan was the continent-wide
depression which commenced in late
1893 and lasted for five years. Such
conditions were not conducive to ventures requiring large capital expenditures, and fruit growing fell into
that category. Lady Aberdeen, for
example, wrote that the prospective
orchardist needed a capital of not
less than £ 500 so as to afford to
buy twenty acres, plant it, put up a
house, and live for the four or five
years before the trees produced a
Development was also slowed by
the fact that so much of the best
land was part of huge properties of
the original cattle ranchers, and until they decided to sell there was no
possibility of extensive fruit growing.
Lord Aberdeen attempted to alleviate the problem by subdividing part
irrigation, circa 1890's.
of his Coldstream Ranch in 1893,
and the Okanagan Land
Development Company also sold
some lands in smaller plots, but
most of the land was still locked up
in huge ranches.
Other problems beset the infant industry as well. Many went into orcharding with the belief that all that
had to be done was to plant the
trees, which would take care of
themselves, and to collect the profits. Even Lord Aberdeen's experiments suffered from this assumption. In 1896 the 'Guisachan'
orchard had to be pulled out, and
the original plantings at Coldstream
were also not very successful. It
was not until the turn of the century
and the coming into bearing of the
replanted areas, that the
Coldstream estate could again be
pointed out as an example of the
success of orcharding, as can be seen
from the fruit production statistics:
25 tons in 1897, 150 in 1898, 100
in 1899 and 279 in 1900.
A final problem was that of finding
RC. Historical News
28 markets for the fruit and getting it
to them. As early as 1894 the manager of the Coldstream Ranch complained that Lack of markets we
consider the greatest drawback to
farming in this district, and also the
high freight rates. The first sales,
of course, were local. The miners at
Fairview and Camp McKinney in
the southern Okanagan provided a
market for some fruit, particularly
from Summerland and south, but
these camps were not large and
could certainly not absorb the crop
from further north.
The prairies were another matter.
Most of the fruit sold there came
from the United States. The
Canadian fruit which was sold on
the prairies was almost entirely
from Nova Scotia and Ontario,
which had the transportation advantage of cheap Great Lakes
shipping. Freight rates were very
high on the CPR., and only very
slowly was it pressured into reducing them; for example, it cost six
cents per pound in 1895 on fruit expressed from Vancouver to
Winnipeg, and by 1899 this rate
had been reduced to two and a quarter cents. By 1901 rates had been
cut to the point where apples could
be shipped from points in the
Okanagan to Calgary for only
eighty-five cents per hundred
The time was ripe for renewed interest in Okanagan fruit lands.
British Columbia was emerging
from the economic doldrums, and
the older orchards were now producing enough to show that fruit growing could be profitable.
Surprisingly, it was a prairie man
who first took advantage of the new
conditions. J.M. Robinson came
from Manitoba to prospect for gold
near Peachland. The mining venture was a failure, but Robinson was
impressed by the fruit he found
there. In 1899 he started selling
fruit lands at Peachland to wheat
farmers from the prairies, who were
entranced by the combination of favourable climate, sport, and easy
living. When he had finished selling
the land available at Peachland he
moved on to wider fields, and in
1903 incorporated the Summerland
Development Company.
Others, noting the trend of the
times, were quick to follow
Robinson's example. W.R. Pooley
and E.M. Carruthers had been engaged in the real estate business at
Kelowna since 1902 and in 1904
they combined with T.W. Stirling to
form the Kelowna Lands and
Orchard Co., which bought 6,743
acres from the Lequime family for
$65,000. This land was quickly
provided with roads and irrigation,
and placed on the market at prices
from $100 to $200 per acre. In
1905 the Southern Okanagan Land
Company, a similar enterprise, was
incorporated at Penticton to buy the
huge Ellis estate and subdivide it.
The great Okanagan land boom was
An illustration of the boom can be
seen in the statistics of fruit acreage
in British Columbia: in 1901 there
were 7,430 acres planted. In 1904
there were 13,340, and in 1905 a total of 29,000, almost all of the expansion being in the Okanagan.
"This increase in acreage for 1905
meant the planting of about
1,000,000 young trees." It should
be noted that most of the first buyers were settlers from Manitoba and
the prairies who were well off, but
who had had enough of prairie
weather. Only later was there an
influx of English settlers, lured out
to farm the colonies by expensive advertisements promising large returns and appealing for British immigrants.
The promoters of Okanagan lands
continued to boost their holdings,
promising great profits: After a
maximum wait of five years, I understand the settler may look forward with reasonable certainty to a
net income of from $100 to $150 per
acre, after all expenses of cultivation
have been paid. Some advertisements went higher, speaking of income from a ten-acre orchard as
£600 or even £700 per annum.
By 1911 scepticism was rising,
particularly among those who found
that the land they had been sold did
not match up to the promises, one
man, who had bought an orchard
from the Coldstream Estate, then
sold out and returned to Britain in
1911 reported: It was impossible
not to be struck with the obvious,
shall I say, lack of riches everywhere. I met man after man, some
of whom had been fifteen or twenty
years in the country, but never a one
of them had done much more than
keep his head above water.
The sceptics were confirmed in
1912. By this time many of the new
orchards were coming into bearing.
A heavy crop in the Okanagan coincided with similar heavy crops in
Washington and Oregon, and the result was that the usual markets on
the Canadian prairies were glutted
with the American surplus at low
prices, and the Okanagan fruit,
which came onto the market later
than the American crop, was put at
an enormous disadvantage, with resultant disastrously low prices.
One result if the disaster of 1912
was that the growers decided that
cooperation was a must if they were
to survive. The only cooperative organization previously extant, the
Okanagan Fruit Union, had been
formed in 1908 and had operated on
a small scale, but was forced to go
into liquidation as a result of the
1912 debacle. A new organization,
Okanagan United Growers Ltd.,
was formed in May of 1913. This
venture was more successful, and
managed to hold a large portion of
the market until 1923, when a new
and larger cooperative association
was set up.
As far as land sales were concerned, the damage had been done.
Although the promoters tried to
keep the boom going the customers
no longer appeared. Conditions
were aggravated by the collapse of
the province-wide real estate and investment market at the beginning of
1913. After 1912 land sales
dropped off to almost nothing, and
the land companies were left in severe difficulties, for few of them had
sold more than a third of their irrigable lands. They had been depending on the revenue from sales of land
RC. Historical News to pay for the building and repair of
their rather makeshift irrigation
works, now, with sales vanishing,
they had still to maintain these expensive systems for the settlers who
bought land already, and who had
been promised cheap water as an inducement to purchase.
Despite the shortcomings of the
land promoters, they fulfilled a valuable function in the development of
the Okanagan valley. They
changed the complexion of the land
from that of extensive to that of intensive agriculture, and firmly established orcharding as a major economic activity. The fruit industry of
the Okanagan had grown to the
point where it accounted for the vast
majority of the province's output,
producing in 1913 over twenty million pounds of fruit, worth to the
farmers more than $640,000 and
with 30,000 people dependent on
the success or failure of the crop or
Fruit growing had become the established and important industry of the
David Dendy is a graduate of the
University of British Columbia. He is now
teaching in the Department of History at
Okanagan College in Kelowna,
In Memoriam
Barbara Stannard, Honorary Life Member of the B.C. Historical Federation,
passed away in Nanaimo on Saturday, March 24, 1990. Mrs. Stannard
was a valued member of the staff at the Nanaimo Centennial Museum for
many years. She was President of the B.CH.F. from 1981 - 84. She assisted
the implementation of the Competition for Writers of B.C. History. It is
suggested that donations in her memory be made to the
B.CH.F. Writing Competition Fund.
Donations should be sent to:
The Treasurer - B.C. Historical Federation
Mr. F. Sleigh
EO. Box 29
Deroche, B.C V0M 1G0
r                          1 «
This "Okanagan Special" issue of the B.C.                                                          SUBSCRIPTIONS
Historical News is reaching history buffs all over   '
the province. For those reading this magazine for  i
the first time we will briefly define our editorial
theme; Summer and Winter editions are a   .
potpourri of B c., History Tho Fall 1990 thorne is     ADDRESS _	
"Because of the War" which may refer to the   |
effects of any war since 1858. Articles are being                                                                                                 POSTAL CODE
sought for "Because of the War*, deadline July   1
15, 1990. A projected theme for 1991 is "B.C.'s   ■ qicj ppoM
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Federation see the form on p. 35. Readers who   , Mai1 y°ur che(1ue t0;
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V.                                                           1                                                                                                                   J
RC. Historical News
30 Gems from the Archives
Miniu   tic   iiiiii   tiitn
Hi 10 WSJ.   BRITISH   C D L U M 81 *.   CSNJOA
Shown are 3 examples of fruit box labels that
were used in packaging.   There were many
different kinds.
Labels courtesy of the British Columbia Orchard
Industry Museum in Kelowna
LV-. ,• YivCl
At the turn of the century,
tobacco growing was a major
industry in the Kelowna area.
During the harvest, cut tobacco
leaves would be pierced onto a
four foot piece of wooden lathe by
way of a removeable spear-head -
such as the one pictured here.
Once the lathe was full, it was
hung in a vented tobacco barn
where the leaves would dry and
The artifact pictured is part of
the Kelowna Museum's Permanent
Photo courtesy the Kelowna Museum.
Research by Connie Liebholz
9mateur  9quatic association's
fteconb annual
Etjunftap, fulp2l,l9l0.
RC. Historical News Writing Competition -1989
The following books were submitted for the seventh annual Competition for Writers of B.C. History. Books are listed in the
order in which they were submitted for judging. Books are for sale at local bookstores or may be obtained by writing to the
address given below the title.
Lieutenant-Governor's Medal
Best History for Juniors
Best Anthology
The Russian-American Telegraph:
by Rosemary Neering
$22.95 - 244 pp - Hard Cover
ISBN  0-920663-07-9
Horsdal and Schubart Publishers Ltd.,
PO. Box 1, Ganges, B.C.  VOS 1E0
The story of the Collins Overland Telegraph
John J. Ellis with Charles Lillard
$12.95 - 125 pp - Soft Cover
ISBN  0-920501-17-6
Orca Book Publishers, PO. Box 5626, Stn. B.
Victoria, B.C. V8R6S4
History of the Fernwood District, Victoria, since
THE COAL COAST! by Eric Newsome
$13.95 - 195 pp - Soft Cover
ISBN 0-920501-11-7 (Hard cover $26.95
ISBN  0-920501-25-7)
Orca Book Publishers, PO. Box 5626, Stn. B.
Victoria, B.C. V8R 6S4
Drama and conflict of coal mining in B.C.,
British Columbia, 1875-78:
Ed Douglas - L. Cole and Bradley J. Lockner
$70.00 2 volume set.  Vol. 1 296 pp 1875-6
Vol. 2 297-611 pp 1877-8
ISBN   0-7748-0276-6 & 07748-0286-3
University of B.C. Press, 303-6344 Memorial
Rd.  Vancouver, B.C.  V6T 1W5
The first ninety years.
by Elizabeth Bell-Irving
$21.00 - 273 pp - Hard Cover, plus $2 p & p
ISBN  0-9693399-0-1
Crofton House School, 3200 West 41st Ave.,
Vancouver, B.C. V6N 3E1
The school's history since 1898
$11.95, postpaid - 192 pp - Soft Cover
ISBN 0-919763-12-x
Cappis Press, 1119 Oscar St.
Victoria, V8V 2X3
Obtainable from: Milestone Publications, PO.
Box 35548, Stn. E, Vancouver, B.C. V6M 4G8
or WetCoast Ventures, Box 94, Tofino, B.C.
Mine finding on Vancouver Island described.
ISLAND: by Olivia Fletcher
$17.95 - 150 pp - Soft Cover
ISBN 0-9693960-0-7
Apple Press, Hornby Island, VOR 1Z0
The historical geography and growth of
Hornby Island
B.C. Politicians and Chinese and Japanese
Immigrants, 1858-1914:  by Patricia E. Roy
$37.95 - 327 pp - Hard Cover
ISBN  0-7748-0330-4
University of B.C. Press, 303-6344 Memorial
Rd.,  Vancouver, B.C.  V6T 1W5
Changing attitudes towards Asian
by Ed. John Hayman
$29.95 - 211 pp - Hard Cover
University of B.C. Press, 303-6344 Memorial
Rd., Vancouver, B.C.  V6T 1W5
Selections from Brown's 1864 Journals
ASSU OF CAPE MUDGE: Harry Assu with
Joy Inglis
$29.95 - 163 pp - Cloth Cover
ISBN   0-7748-0333-9
(Soft Cover, $19.95, ISBN 0-7748-0341-x)
University of B.C. Press, 303-6344 Memorial
Rd., Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1W5
Personal recollections of an Indian Coastal
Chief together with Indian legends.
and Shirlee Smith Matheson
$26.95 - 403 pp - Hard Cover
ISBN 0-920490-92-1  (Soft Cover $17.95,
ISBN  0-920490-91-3)
Detselig Enterprises Ltd., P.O. Box G 399,
Calgary, Alberta T3A 2G3
Effects on the Hudson's Hope area of building
the W.A.C. Bennett Dam.
Joanne Drake-Terry
$29.95 - 341 pp - Soft Cover
ISBN  0-88925-925-9
Lillooet Tribal Council Press
PO. Box 1420, Lillooet, B.C.  VOK 1V0
The Lillooet chronicle the theft of their land
Jessie Aim Smith, as told to J. Meryl
Campbell and Audrey Ward
$9.95 - 128 pp - Soft Cover
ISBN  0-929069-00-5
Sonotek Publishing,  PO. Box 1725, Merritt,
B.C. V0K2B0
Pioneer Life and the Spence's Bridge
Orchards, 1853-1946
Gordon W Carefoot
$6.95 - 72 pp - Soft Cover
Published by the author.  Copies from Mrs.
Robin Schatz, PO. Box 464, Cultus Lake,
B.C. VOX 1H0
Terms garnered from loggers across Canada
$9.95 - 156 pp - Soft Cover
ISBN  0-920501-30-3
Orca Book Publishers, Box 5626, Stn. B.
Victoria, B.C. V8S 3H9
A dictionary of B.C. words and phrases.
1990 AND COUNTING: Ed. John
McTaggart, for the Sharon History Book
Committee, Chairman Norman Sheritt.
$25.00 - 183 pp - Hard Cover
Published by Sharon United Church History
Book Committee.
Obtainable from: Richard Chell
507 - 21973 48th Ave.,
Langley, B.C. V3A 3N1   Add $3.00 postage
History of Sharon United Church, Murrayville
Stephens, and D.E. Watson
$49.95 - 471 pp - Hard Cover
ISBN  0-919537-10-3
Ptarmigan Press Ltd., Campbell River, B.C.
Obtainable from: Campbell River Museum and
Archives, 1235 Island Highway, Campbell
River, V9W 2C7 Attn.: Irene Ross.
A history of the Campbell River district.
Illustrated History: by Nicola Valley Archives
$14.95 - 120 pp - Soft Cover
ISBN 0-929069-01-3
Sonotek Publishing, PO. Box 1752, Merritt,
B.C. VOK 2B0 Obtainable from: Sandhill
Book Marketing, Box 197, Stn. A, Kelowna,
V1Y 7N5
Accounts of the pioneers and life in the area.
BRASS ROOTS by Amy Campbell
$12.95 - 68 pp - Soft Cover (plus p & p)
ISBN 0-9694313-0-9
Published by Amy Campbell, 3681 Place Rd.,
Nanaimo, B.C. V9T 1M9
A history of the Nanimo Concert Band since
RC Historical News
$10.00 - 86 pp- Soft Cover
Published by Guardian Angels Parish
Anniversary Book Committee, 1161
Broughton St., Vancouver, B.C. V6G 2B3
40th Anniversary of Guardian Angels Parish
World of an Okanagan Storyteller,  by Harry
Robinson, Edited by Wendy Wickwire.
$18.95 - 319 pp - Soft Cover
ISBN  0-88922-273-8
Talon Books, 201-1019 East Cordova,
Vancouver, B.C. V6A 1M8
Indian stories and legends by a native storyteller
by Charles Lillard
$18.95 - 318 pp - Hard Cover
ISBN   1-55039-016-3
Sono Nis Press, 1745 Blanshard St., Victoria,
B.C. V8W2J8
A documentary history of the Queen
Charlotte Islands 1859-1906.
COLUMBIA 1850-1950: by Dale Mcintosh
$29.95 - 296 pp - Hard Cover
Sono Nis Press, 1745 Blanshard St, Victoria,
B.C. V8W2J8
"The first complete music history in B.C."
by Peter Corley Smith
$18.95 - 244 pp - Soft Cover
ISBN  0-55039-020-1
Sono Nis Press, 1745 Blanshard St. Victoria,
B.C. V8W2J8
B.C.'s Aviation Pioneers, 1910-1930
OUR HISTORY: University Women's Club of
Prince George.
$10.00 - 144 pp - plus separate map - Spiral
bound - (add $1.50 p & p)
ISBN 0-921087-06-3
University Women's Club of Prince George,
c/o Community Arts Council, Studio 2880,
2880, 15th Ave.,
Prince George, B.C. V2M 1T1
The orinin and history of street names in the
by Peter Corley Smith
148 pp - Soft Cover
Crown Publications Inc., 546 Yates St.
Victoria, B.C. V8W 1K8
The first 100 years of the Provincial Museum
MacPherson for the Arrow Lakes Historical
$25.00 - 216 pp - Hard Cover
ISBN  0-9694236-0-8
Arrow Lakes Historical Society, PO. Box
584, Nakusp, B.C. VOG 1R0
First volume in a series to commemorate the
centennial of Nakusp.
Six provincial historical societies participated in a meeting held October 25, 1989
in the Hotel Vancouver in conjunction
with the Heritage Canada 1989
Conference. In the reporting of the functioning and financing of the provincial
organizations, the following facts
Historical Society of Alberta -
Membership of 2000.
Annual fee $15.
Government grant of $23,000 to assist
with financing the publication of a quarterly magazine, newsletter and a series
of books.
Saskatchewan Historical and
Folklore Society -
Annual fee $20. Single, $30. Family.
Annual Budget of $300,000 - 45% of
which comes from lotteries.
Society has an office with 3 full time, 3
part time staff. They publish a quarterly
magazine, mark heritage farms and
businesses, offer school programs, an annual writing competition and have an
oral history project.
Manitoba Historical Society -
Membership of 700
Government grant of $6000 to assist
with publication of a twice yearly magazine.
Government assistance for special projects, and an office with one full time
secretary and a part time Executive
Ontario Historical Society -
Membership of 3000.
Annual fee $40.
A million dollar budget - 1/3 of which is a
government grant. Society has a permanent office, Executive Director and 7
staff members. Publishes a quarterly
magazine and a newsletter; gives 300
workshops annually; arranges travelling
displays, school programs, heritage conservation advice, and multicultural programs.
Federation of Historical Societies of
Quebec -
Membership of 80 societies - almost
20,000 members.
This society was given a large endowment by the government and operates
mainly on annual interest from this
Publishes a quarterly magazine - occasional government supplemental grants.
British Columbia Historical
Federation - Membership-23 local societies -1,800 Annual fee $1
Subscription cost to members of member
societies - $5 (Local members pay between $2 and $20 local dues)
Government grant $2000 to assist with
publication of quarterly magazine. This
society also has an annual Writing
Competition, Scholarship, and offers
short term loans to a member or society
to assist with publishing cost.
David McCrady of Penticton received
the 1989 B.C. Historical Scholarship. A
presentation $500 award was made at
the November meeting of the Victoria
Branch of the B.C.H.E. David is a serious young man who began his post-
secondary career studying political science at the Kelowna campus of
Okanagan College. The highlight of his
student years there was attending, with
four other Okanagan College students,
the 1988 North American Model United
Nations held in Toronto. In the fall of
1988 he enrolled in the honours history
program at the University of Victoria.
He is concentrating on research to document native/white relations in the
Okanagan \folley. David sends sincere
thanks to those in the B.C. Historical
Federation who made this scholarship a
viable entity.
The B.C. Church History Group held
its founding meeting in September, 1989.
They are still setting objectives and arranging for exchange of information.
Anyone interested in this group is asked
to contact Rod Fowler at 420-3316, Tom
Lascelles at 736-9363, or Jacqueline
Gresko at 520-5466
We are happy to report that the
Heritage Trust has increased our grant
to $2000 for each of the next two years.
Unfortunately this will not be enough to
balance our budget as all our costs continue to mount. During the coming year,
the cost of publishing each copy of the
News will reach $1.75 or $7 per annual
subscription. This means that our rates
will have to be increased to at least $7
for members subscribers. Non-members
pay $8, institutions $16.
As you consider this increase in price,
we would remind you that the magazine
has increased from 28 to 36 pages and
now contains twice as many articles as it
did in the past. For this we thank our
editor's contacts and commitment.
We have three new members on the
Publishing Committee: Tony Farr
(Saltspring), Penny McDonald (North
Vancouver) and Margaret Matovich
(Burnaby). Margaret has undertaken
the onerous task of keeping our books,
thus relieving some of the load of the
Federation treasurer.
Finally a reminder to branch treasurers that we should like to have cheques
covering subscription renewals sent directly to the Subscription Secretary,
Nancy Peter; Federation membership
fees continue to go to the Treasurer.
The Burnaby Historical Society
Scholarship, given by Dr. and Mrs
Blythe Eagles in honour of Evelyn
Salisbury, is a new, annual award of approximately $500 to a fourth year under
graduate student enrolled in a major or
an honours program that specializes in
the history of British Columbia.
Candidates should apply in writing, outlining their studies to date, including a
current academic transcript and letter of
recommendation from two professors,
such application to be submitted by June
15th to:
The WI. will mark its centennial in
1997. Historical Societies and Museums
are urged to commence recording the
history of their local Women's Institute
while older members are still here to
flesh out information available in min
ute books and records. There was a time
when the Women's Institute was the only
meeting place for women, other than
their church. The W.L, valuable to both
urban and rural members, was supported
by the Provincial Ministry of Agriculture
from 1911 onward. Organizations with
aural history programs should be aware
of the potential for commemoration of
the WI. in 1997.
The Annual Meeting of the Canadian
Historical Association will be held May
27-29, 1990 in Victoria. For details contact Chairperson, Dr. Patricia Roy,
Department of History, University of
Victoria, B.C. V8W 2Y2
Treat yourself or a friend. Buy a
Subscription to the B.C. HISTORICAL
NEWS for only $8 per year in Canada, $12
per year outside Canada. Mail your
cheque today to:
Subscription Secretary
5928 Baffin Place,
Burnaby, B.C.
V5H 3S8
Do you know a British Columbian who
has demonstrated outstanding achievement, excellence or distinction in any
field of endeavor benefiting the people of
the Province or elsewhere? Here's your
opportunity to do something about it.
You can nominate that person to the
Order of British Columbia. Nominations
will be considered by an Advisory
Council. Honorary Chairperson is the
Lieutenant-Governor of B.C. To nominate someone, simply write for a brochure and nomination form to:
Order of British Columbia
Honors and Awards Secretariat
c/o Deputy Provincial Secretary
Parliament Buildings
Victoria, B.C.   V8V 1X4
Contact your nearest Government
Agent's Office
The Likely Cemetery (Restoration)
Society would like to receive ANY information pertaining to the identity of
graves; or names of persons buried at
Quesnel Forks, Keithly Creek, Snowshoe
Creek, or other gravesites in this area.
Also sought are xerox copies of any pre-
1975 photos of cemeteries or graves in
this area. (14 graves have been restored
at three sites in 1989.) Write to:
Secretary Lucy Robinson, Box 1952,
Likely, B.C. VOL 1N0 (604)790-2468.
GRAND FORKS - MAY 10-13, 1990
The Boundary Historical Society has
planned a full program for delegates at
the B.C. Historical Federation
Conference. There will be talks on
Doukhobour history, mining, smelting,
agriculture, and the Cascade power project. There will be a Doukhobour dinner
and an awards banquet. Guest speaker
at the banquet is Bill Barlee, M.L.A. and
historian. Deadline for registration is
May 1, 1990. All members and friends of
historical societies are invited.
Registration forms are available from
Branch Secretaries or from Boundary
Historical Society. Phone 442-3865 or
442-3283 for further information.
A proposal has been made that the
B.CH.F. compile and publish a book on
lesser known "characters" and benefactors in B.C. history. This sounds like a
fascinating project. Can we assemble a
production team? Anyone interested in
participating in the selecting and editing
please contact Naomi Miller in Wasa.
(Phone 422-3594)
Help is needed to compile a history of
agriculture in this province prior to
1920. The researcher seeks prepared articles on horticultural activities, plus
wishing to prepare a bibliography of material available for future researchers.
Please notify:
Sharon Rempel
R.R  1
Keremeos, B.C. VOX 1N0
Phone: (604) 499-5172
if you have any books, journals, diaries,
photos, brochures or details of crops, varieties grown, garden designs, or other
RC. Historical News
34 Book Shelf
Books for review and book reviews should be sent directly to the book review editor;
Anne Yandle, 3450 West 20th Ave., Vancouver, B.C.  V6S 1E4.
Stein; The Way of the River.
Michael M'Gonigle and Wendy
Wickwire. Vancouver B.C.
Talonbooks, 1988.   Pp. 192,
Illustrated, Maps, Notes.   $39.95
The Stein river valley has in recent
years become a focus for public debate in British Columbia and Stan;
The Way of the River is a contribution to that debate. The valley, tributary to the Fraser and a few miles
to the north and west of the village
of Lytton, is well defined, a distinct
watershed cut off by mountains and
ridges and is, the authors argue, "a
unique North American ecological
and cultural treasure." Its proximity to the major population centres of
the Lower Mainland and the fact
that the valley is essentially untouched by agriculture, mining, or
forestry have combined to make its
protection a cause for conservationists.
This book is a compilation of writings, photographs, drawings and
paintings, and maps, and a narrative by the authors which serves as
a connective and provides the background for the other materials.
There are four main sections to the
book. The first deals with the human history, both native and non-
native; the second with the geology
and the natural life; the third with
developments since about 1900; and
the final section, "The Journey
Ahead", with some thoughts on the
future of the valley and its surrounding area. In addition there are a
foreword by David Suzuki of TV
fame, a preface by Chief Ruby
Dunstan of the Lytton Indian Band,
an introduction by the authors, and
an epilogue by John McCandless the
"Stein Coordinator" for the Lytton
and Mount Currie Indian Bands.
To bring together such a wide variety of materials requires that most
careful design controls and the publishers and their designers have, on
the whole, succeeded admirably.
The cumulative impression is good.
The various items are well integrated so that the reader ends with a
strong and vivid impression of both
the human and the natural history
of the valley. However, as is usually
the case, the merits of the elements
differ greatly. Some quotations are
of the very highest quality, for example a section selected from the
presentation of Roy Mason of the
Federation of Mountain Clubs, to the
provincial government in 1973 (p.
124). Others have little literary or
other value, and repeat only the
most mundane of observations. The
gobbledegook of government bureaucracy approaches the ridiculous in a
quotation (p. 126) from a 1976 report on the valley.
There are a few shortcomings
which appear to be unnecessary.
The maps are not listed in a table of
contents and one must search the
pages in order to find them. They
are often difficult to read, most especially the historical ones. There are
minor design problems; for example,
a photograph featuring Harlan
Smith appears on page 39 with the
major text for Smith on page 36,
while a photograph of James Teit on
page 37 is separated from the text
on Teit on page 39 - since the photos
are much the same size, I wonder at
the arrangement. Reading the
"Stein Declaration" of the Lytton
and Mount Currie Bands, an interesting and illuminating document,
requires a magnifying glass.
Primarily Stein; The Way of the
River is a political document produced to promote the preservation of
the valley, and its language and its
presentation reflect that. The preservationists' and the authors' opposition, the enemy, is "The Global
Intruder", modern industrial development. "At issue", the authors
argue, "from the Stein watershed to
the Amazon basin is not just how we
manage the land base, but who ultimately controls it."
George Newell.
B.C.H.F., Victoria
 1 <
The British Columbia Historical  (               APPLICATION    FOR    ASSOCIATE    MEMBERSHIP
Federation was traditionally comprised
of local historical societies. In 1988 the '
constitution was amended tn nrpatfi  | NAME
Associate Members.   Associates are ■
provincial organization and participate in '
Ihe lun of the Annual Conference BUT |                                                                        ■-»#«#■«*.»»«*
do not have access to a branch society.   ,
We invite new readers to become
Associate Members for $10 per year.       1 Man this form (or a photocopy thereof) with a cheque for $10 to:
This is $2 for Membership and $8 for a |
subscription to the B.C. Historical               Membership Chairman,     Mrs. M. Haslam
News quarterly magazine.                      '            Box 10'   Cowichan Bay, B.C.   VOR 1 NO
A Progression of Judges;
a history of the Supreme Court of
British Columbia.
David R. Verchere. University of
British Columbia Press, 1988.
This book focuses on the Supreme
Court's colorful and sometimes controversial judges. At the same time
it chronicles the metamorphosis of
the two young colonies - the Colony
of Vancouver Island and the Colony
of British Columbia - from a rough
frontier to a sophisticated province,
as it is reflected in the maturing of
the judicial system and growth of
the legal profession.
Itinerant Canadian
William F. Duthie. Victoria, Orca
Book Publishers, 1989. Pp. 193,
Illustrated   $13.95
William F Duthie recalls his family's journeys - from the frontier mining communities in the Kootenays
to the historical towns of New
Brunswick. Beginning with his
great grandparents' world of the
late 1800's, Duthie writes from a
personal perspective of the turn of
the century and the 1920's, the
Great Depression and World War II,
and the turbulent years that followed.
Heritage Landscapes in British
Columbia; a Guide to their identification, documentation and preservation.
Douglas Paterson. Vancouver,
Landscape Architecture Program,
University of British Columbia,
1989 Pp. 78, Illustrated
This publication is intended to
serve as a general guide to the identification, documentation and preservation of heritage landscapes
throughout British Columbia. It is
hoped that it will not only increase
the general awareness of the importance of heritage landscape preser
RC. Historical News
vation but will give various communities and interest groups a sense of
how to begin the process of preserving heritage landscapes.
Shared Memories; The Old School
Dorothy M. Marryatt. Victoria,
B.C., 1989. (1616 Agnew Ave.,
Victoria, B.C. V8V 5M6.)  Pp.60.
Stories of the area from McBride in
the east to Vanderhoof in the west -
milltown and farming communities.
Shuswap Chronicles, 1989, Vol. 2
Published by the North Shuswap
Historical Society, Celista, B.C.  VOE
1L0 Pp. 44
This second volume contains articles on Adams Lake, early schools of
North Shuswap, post offices, homesteads of the north Shuswap, and a
variety of reminiscences of early
100 Anniversary; Vancouver District
LabourCouncU,  1889-1989,
Adele Perry.   Vancouver 1989.
Pp. 71.
Pictorial history of the Vancouver
District Labour Council and its
"NORTH   % \Lakr
Bed* II-
Honorary Patron:
Honorary President: Mrs. Clare McAllister
His Honour, the Honourable David C. Lam, CM, LL.D., Lieutenant-Governor
of British Columbia
1st Vice President
2nd Vice President
Recording Secretary
Past President
John D. Spittle, 1241 Mount Crown Road, North Vancouver, B.C. V7R 1R9
Myrtle Haslam, P.O. Box 10, Cowichan Bay, B.C. VOR 1N0
Dorothy Crosby, 33662 Northcote Crescent, Mission, B.C. V2V 5V2
T. Don Sale, 262 Juniper Street, Nanaimo, B.C. V9S 1X4
Shirley Cuthbertson, 306 - 225 Belleville Street, Victoria, B.C. V8V 4T9
387-2486 (business), 382-0288 (residence)
Francis Sleigh, Box 29, Deroche, B.C. VOM 1 GO
Margaret Stoneberg, RO. Box 687, Princeton, B.C. VOX 1W0
Alice Glanville, P.O. Box 746, Grand Forks, B.C. VOH 1H0
Naomi Miller
Naomi Miller, Box 105, Wasa, B.C. VOB 2K0
Chairmen of Committees
Archivist Margaret Stoneburg
Publications Assistance Helen Akrigg, 8-2575 Tolmie Street, Vancouver, B.C. V6R 4M1
(not involved with
B.C. Historical News)
B.C. Historical News
Publishing Committee
Subscription Secretary
Book Review Editor
Heritage Cemeteries
Lieutenant- Governor's
Award Committee
Scholarship Committee
Historic Trails
and Markers
Loans are available for publications, Please contact
Helen Akrigg prior to submitting manuscript.
Ann W. Johnston, R.R. 1, Mayne Island, B.C. VON 2J0
Nancy Peter, 5928 Baffin Place, Burnaby, B.C. V5H 3S8     437-6115
Anne Yandle, 3450 West 20th Avenue, Vancouver V6S 1E4
228-4879 (business) 733-6484 (residence)
John D. Adams, 628 Battery Street, Victoria, B.C.
V8V1E5     342-2895
Pamela Mar, RO. Box 933, Nanaimo, B.C. V9R 5N2
Evelyn Salisbury, 5406 Manor Street, Burnaby, B.C. V5G 1B7     298-5777
John D. Spittle The British Columbia Historical News
EO. Box 35326 Stn. E.
Vancouver, B.C.
V6M 4G5
Second Class Mail
Registration No. 4447
British Columbia Historical Federation
The British Columbia Historical Federation invites submissions of books or articles for the
eighth annual Competition for Writers of B.C. History.
Any book dealing with any facet of British Columbia history, published in 1990, is eligible.
The work may be a community history, a biography, a record of a project or an organization, or
personal recollections giving glimpses of the past. Name, dates, and places with relevant maps
or pictures turn a story into "history".
The judges are looking for fresh presentations of historical information (especially if prepared
by amateur historians) with appropriate illustrations, careful proof reading, an adequate index, table of contents and bibliography. Winners will be chosen in the following categories:
1) Best History Book by an individual writer (Lieutenant - Governor's
Medal for Historical Writing).
2) Best History as prepared by a group (Eg. Bunch Grass to Barbed
Wire was published by Rose Hill Farmers Institute)
3) Best History for Junior Readers.
Awards are given where entries warrant, (i.e. a lone entry in group 2 or 3 will not
automatically be given a prize.)
Winners will receive a monetary award, a Certificate of Merit, considerable publicity, and an
invitation to the Annual B.C. Historical Federation Conference in Cowichan in May 1991.
Deadline for 1990 books is January 31, 1991, BUT submissions are requested as soon as possible after publication. Those submitting books should include name, address, telephone number, selling price of the book, and an address from which the book may be ordered if a reader
has to shop by mail.   Send to:       B.C. Historical Writing Competition
EO. Box 933, Nanaimo, B.C. V9R 5N2
There will also be an award for Best article published in the British Columbia Historical
News. This prize is reserved for amateur historians and/or undergraduate or graduate students.
Articles should be no more than 2,500 words, substantiated with footnotes if possible, accompanied by photographs if available, and typed double spaced.    (Photos will be returned.)
Deadlines for quarterly issues are February 15, May 15, August 15, and November 15. Please
send articles directly to:
The Editor, B.C. Historical News
PO. Box 105, Wasa, B.C.  VOB 2K0


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