British Columbia History

BC Historical News Mar 1, 1976

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Vol. 9 No. 2
ISSN 0045-2963
February 1976
Published November, February, April and June each year by
the British Columbia Historical Association, and distributed
free to members of all affiliated societies by the secretaries
of their respective societies.  Subscription rate to non-
members; $5.00 Canadian per year, including postage, directly
from the Editor, Mr P.A. Yandle, 3450 West 20th Avenue,
Vancouver, B.C. V6S IE4.
Deadline for submissions %   the 10th day of each month of issue.
Executive 1975-76
Hon. Patron:
Hon o President:
Past Presidents
1st Vice-President:
2nd Vice-President;
Secretary i
Recording Secretary:
Executive members:
Lieut-Gov. Walter Owen
Dr Margaret Ormsby
Mr Frank Street
Col. G.S. Andrews
Mr Jack Roff
Mr Alf Slocomb
Miss Jill Rowland, #203, 4800
Arbutus, Vancouver V6J 4A5
Dr Patricia Roy
Me & Mrs P.A. Yandle
Mr Kent Haworth
Mr Donald New
Mr Rex Tweed
Editorial 2
Minutes 3
Society Notes & Comments 4
Obituary 7
Jottings 8
B.C. Books of Interest 9
Reports from the Provincial Archives 11
Book Reviews:
The Warm Land, by E. Blanche Norcross 12
People from our side, by Peter Pitseolak 13
British Columbia Chronicle, by G.P.V. & H. Akrigg  14
Selections from Picturesque Canada 15
Reminiscences of Dr J. S. Helmcken 16
David Thompson, by James K. Smith 18
Ghost town trails of the Yukon, by D. Sawatsky 19
Red Serge Wives, ed by Joy Duncan 20
Letter to the Editor 20
Pender Island Portage 21
Renewed Interest in Baillie-Grohman, by D= Kay 23
The cover series for Volume 9, drawn by Robert Genn,
depicts Indian canoes. This issue features canoes of the
Coast Salish. 2
Recently France declared a ban on the use of any English
words, in use in the French language, for reporting and
official use.  How many times a day do we use vords that have
infiltrated the English language merely through repetitious
use?  If we eliminated all the foreign language words and
phrases it would reduce the language to a state of complete
breakdown.  But what about those other words that have crept
in by constant use?  The ad-men have a theory that has been
highly successful, that if the word or phrase is repeated often
enough it will become a household word.  The industry has
Siven us such words as "frig" that was not derived as a contraction of the word "refrigerator", but from the trade name
of one of the very successful pioneer refrigerator brands
"Frigidaire".  There are many more, such as "Pyrex", a trade
name that has become synonymous with any glass, oven-heat
resistant, household product.
People in history have left behind some very strange words
for our everyday use.  What about the word  "sandwich1" that
has so many connotations?  It came into being in the 18th m
century through John Montagu, the 4th Earl of Sandwich (1/1-3-
1792), who was loath to leave the gaming tables for food.  It
was noted by his intimates, this strange method of taking food
without leaving the tables, and so it was the lowly sandwich
was born.  However this was not the Esri's only claim to
posterity, for the Hawaiian Islands first bore his name.
This group was named the Sandwich Islands by Captain Cook, who
made their discovery in 1778 and felt it fitting to name them
in honour of the Earl of Sandwich who was Fi*-st Lord of the
Admiralty et   that time.  It is ironic that this man's mismanagement of the Navy was largely responsible lor the failure
of the British in the American Revolution, or, depending en
the point of view, the American War of Independence.  Just
how long the Earl's name remained associated with these islands
tends to be rather obscure, but in 1898 when the islands were
annexed by the U.S.A. they were by then referred to as the
Hawaiian Islands.  The first Governor was Sanford B. Dole, who
had previously been president of the republic set up in 1894
on the deposition of Queen Liliuokalani.  Those amongst us
who weathered the great depression of the 1930's can never
forget Dole pineapple juice, one of the few exotic luxuries
one could afford.
Having come up to the time of the great depression, what
about the "Bennett Buggy", named in honour of the reigning
Prime Minister of Canada, R.B. Bennett?  For those who have
lived beyond this decade the "Bennett Buggy" was the family car
of the farmers that could not be maintained, pewer driven, fc.
economic reasons, and so became horse drawn.  In spite of the
adage that history repeats itself, this is in no ray a prophecy,
for common sense dictates "where, are the horses?"
*********** 3
Minutes of the Council Meeting of the British Columbia
Historical Association held in: the Board Room of the Provincial
Museum, Victoria, B.C., Sunday, February 8th, 1976 at 1.30 p.m.
Present:  Frank Street, President; Jill Rowland, Acting Corresponding Secretary; Jack Roff, 1st Vice-President; Alf Slocomb,
2nd Vice-President; G.S. Andrews, Past President; Kent Haworth,
Treasurer; Donald New and Rex Tweed, Executive Members; Patricia
Roy, Recording Secretary, Alan Turner, Provincial Archivist;
Ruth Barnett,, Campbell River; James McCook, Victoria; Deirdre
Norman, Vancouver; Reg Millway, Burnaby: Gene Joyce, Port Alberni;
J. Len Nicholls, Nanaimo; Robert Watt, Vancouver; Ken Leeming,
Victoria, and a number of members of the convention committees
of the Victoria Branch.
Moved, R. Tweed; seconded, A- Slocomb: that the minutes be
adopted as circulated.
J. Rowland read a letter from the Federation of Mountaineering Clubs of B.C. outlining their brief to the Provincial
Government concerning the preservation of historic trails.  J.
Roff agreed to act as chairman of a committee to study the brief
on behalf of the B.C.H.A.  Moved, R. Tweed; seconded, J. Roff,
that the Association send a letter to the Federation supporting
their proposal in principle.   .Carried.
J.  Rowland acknowledged a letter from Mabel Jordon thanking
the Association for its letter of smypathy on the death of her
K. Leeming outlined the general plans of the Victoria
Branch for the convention on June 3-5, 1976, which will be based
on the University of Victoria campus.  George Turner presented
a time-table of the events scheduled:
Thursday, June 3 - Registration, 8-10 p.m. at
Craigdarroch Castle, with a tour of the Castle
led by J.K. Nesbitt, and refreshments.
Friday, June 4
Morning - Guided tours of the Provincial Museum and
; Parliament Buildings.
Afternoon - Walking tour of the city
Evening - Butchart's Gardens
Saturday June 5
9 a.m. - Old Council meeting
10 a.m. - Annual General Meeting
3 p.m. - Tea at Government House
7.30 p.m. - Banquet, with Ainslie Helmcken as guest speaker.
Several possible post-convention tours are being considered.
They include a Gulf Islands cruise, a trip on the Esquimalt and
Nanaimo Railway, and a journey to Port Townsend, Washington. K. Leeming reported on behalf of the Constitution and
By-Laws Committee.  His report provoked considerable discussion
especially on the question of whether or not all those present
at the Annual General Meeting or only those who are properly
accredited delegates from their branches should vote.
K. Leeming moved; A. Slocomb seconded: that the suggested
amendments to the Constitution as submitted by the Constitution
and By-Laws Committee be presented to the Annual General Meeting
for approval.  Carried,.
J. Rowland stated she had received a letter from the
Bowen Island Historians seeking affiliation with the B.C.
Historical Association.  She suggested that Council concur in
the request by referring their acceptance for affiliation
to the Annual General Meeting.  R. Tweed moved; J. Roff seconded:
that we refer the application for affiliation to the Annual
General Meeting.  Carried.
K. Leeming reported on the work of the Nominating Committee,
The meeting adjourned at 3.25. p.m.
ALBERNI  Genevieve Joyce was elected President at the
beginning of the 1975-76 season and has presided over regular
meetings since last fall.  Also elected were Gerry Jamieson
and Doreen MacLeod, Vice-Presidents, Alice Riley, Secretary,
and Anne Holt, Treasurer.
In September the programme at the Society's; meeting
featured a film show and commentary by Armour and Helen Ford,
in which the members and guests were presented with views and
information on the Canadian Arctic.  The local couple had made
their Arctic journey during the 1975 summer with other students
in a U.B.C. Continuing Education programme.  The Northwest
Territories were the subject when B.C. Gillies, a former N.W.T.
supervisor of education, presented slides and told of the schools
of the far north.  Provincial Archivist Allan Turner was the
speaker in November-..?
An urban development-granted programme now underway at
Alberni District Museum was the subject in January when members
of the group, along with Curator John Sendey, told of the research
being carried out on the early period of settlement in Alberni
CAMPBELL RIVER   In September it was decided to hold general
membership meetings, except for the annual meeting, if and when
a sufficiently interesting programme had been prepared, along witt
as little routine business as is possible, inasmuch as the
executive council meets monthly, and the trustees responsible for
the operation of the Museum meet separately with the cusator also. The Society was again successful in procuring an LIP grant,
Genesis II, devoted to building up our archives on local history.
Six people are employed, and the director; John Ackroyd, uses
imaginative publicity in the local press and the community Television
Programmes for general meetings were: Lorothy Payne Richardson
telling of pioneer days on Saturna Island.  A T.V. presentation
is being prepared of these reminiscences.  James Sewid, hereditary chief of the Nimpkish,discussed the Law of the Sea con=
ferences, which he attended as an observer.  A showing of the
Curtis film, 'In the Wake of the War Canoe', made near Fort
Rupert in 1913, also took place.
Representations made to the Municipal Council and to the
Regional Board for the establishment of Heritage Advisory
Committees have so far failed, having foundered on the question
of financial compensation.
The substantial surplus from the B.C.H.A. convention as
reported by Registrar Mary Ashley, is to be used for the purpose
of publishing local history.
The Society suffered a severe loss when Ms Alice Evans
resigned after 6 years as treasurer.  During that time she saw
the budget  grow from $800 to $29,000 yearly.  The presentation
of a carving by Dennis Hanuse and a dinner for her and her
husband carried our best wishes with them to their new home in
Midway.  January saw a wine and cheese party for the volunteers
who worked for the convention, in the museum shop, and the cataloguing of the archives stored in the museum; and a coffee party
for members of the Municipal Couacil, which subsidizes the
museum and the Visitors Information Centre very largely.
The Provincial Archives sent Alan Specht to give us a
workshop in recording aural/oral history, and the Society has
joined the Canadian Oral History Association.
NANAIMO  In November the Society marked the 121st anniversary
of passengers landing in Nanaimo from the Princess Roy-xl.  Mr
Barraclough, in recording the event, recounted how the  Hudson's
Bay ship Princess Royal left England on June 1, 1854, sailing
around Cape Horn to a port in the Hawaiian Islands, then to
Esquimalt.  The passengers transferred to the Beaver  and Recovery
and landed in Nanaimo at 11 a.m. November 27, 1854.
The Society was treated to two fascinating talks on 'hobbies'
to end and begin the years.  In November Lt. E.B. Colwell, who
has long collected medals and decorations, brought along some of
his treasures and shared their histories.  It was a revelation
to most of us to hear how the history of a medal can be traced
and what a lot of research has to go into amaasing a collection.
For any society looking for a different kind of programme, a medal
collector could well provide it.  In January, Mr Don McAllister,
a member who is an antique dealer in Nanaimo, gave us an absorbing
evening.  He had set out some hundred items from bygone days and
gave a brief account of each.  Enjoining members to pick up
things and inspect them, he stressed that a itiques were there to
be enjoyed.  He also spoke on the need to strengthen generally
Heritage By-laws, so that what little of value is being left to
us can be preserved.
We have no further news of Haslam Hall, but at least it is
still standing and inhabited. WEST KOOTENAY  Our activities during the fall and winter months
have been mostly focussed on moving our quarters from the
Memorial Centre, although there was nothing actually to move
except an idea!  It had been suggested that this fairly large
room might be developed as a Museum and meeting-place, but there
were drawbacks.  Then an ofifierjggme from City Hall: The former
Trail police station, an adjunct of the City Hall, is now undergoing alterations designed to provide the city with a modest
museum and the society with a permanent home.  In the meantime
we have bean enjoying the comforts of the Council Chambers for
our meetings.  Incidentally, preparing the "nest" of rooms for
our use has meant some hard labour on the part of some of our
male members.
President A.K. Macleod asked members to publicize the project
and to encourage donations or loans of historical pictures and
artifacts for display.  Noting that security was excellent, Mr
Macleod said that the police lockup (4 cells) would be retained
as is - complete with graffiti.  The cells are first class
exhibits as well as deterrents to thieves of artifacts, he said.
One welcome change from dirty work was an invitation to join
.the Arts Club to hear Mr Thomas Reid, a well-known old-timer,
speak on "The History of Music in Trail"; he had many amusing
storieu and pictures of the lively bands and vocalists of those
early days.
A brief mention of Trail's 75th birthday as a City, to be
celebrated June 30-July 1st this year:  In preparation for this,
Mr Craig Andrews of the Arts-History Faculty at Selkirk College
has bean working on a film-document in collaboration with
cinematographer Bob Tarplett.  A videotaped segment highlighting
Trail's history, with photographic stills, accompanied by narration was previewed at a recent meeting of the Trail Historical.
VICTORIA  At their January meeting Mr Douglas Cole, History
Department, Simon Fraser University, spoke on the topic "The
heroic years of B.C. art".  Dr Dorothy Blakey Smith gave an
address in February on "An early Victorian boyhood iri London".
WINDERMERE  We had two field trips, one to the Shuswap Cemetery
near Athalmer and the other to the Earl Grey Cabin, which still
stands in a rather neglected condition near the entrance to
the Earl Grey Pass.
During the summer months the Society received a grant
from the Student Community Programme, which enabled one of our
members, Mrs Kathleen McKenzie, to carry out an archaeological
dig at two local sites that are slated to become subdivisions.
This undertaking proved very successful, yielding many indication.'
of an early Indian habitation.  Part of this grant was used to
improve the museum itself, under the direction of Mrs W. Weir.
Much work was done to put our archival papers in better order,
and we were able to keep the Museum open to the public daily
during July and August.During this time a new exhibit was put
in relating to the mining history of the area, and two week-long
special displays were held at the end of the season, one
featuring the work and activities of pioneer women and the other
devoted to Indian life, artifacts and handcraft. In September the C.P.R. had an unfortunate derailment in
front of the Lake Windermere Station, and the station building,
a lovely log structure, was badly damaged.  THE C.P.R. decided
not to repair it and our society immediately launched a campaign
to raise sufficient money to remove it from the station site.
With the help of another government grant, which the local
people matched with donations of money, volunteer labour and
the use of necessary equipment, we were able to meet the requirements of the C.P.R. for the removal of the building, and all
through the fall the volunteers, under the untiring leadership of
our President, Mr Arnor Larson, worked to prepare the building
for its journey up the hill to the Village of Invermere, where
the village is creating a public park.  Problems arose during the
first attempt, but the second effort on December 29th was successful.  No firm plans for the building have been made as yet, but it
it our hope that we can make it a centre for community cultural
interests as a means of saying thank you to all those who so
generously supported us in our efforts to save this historic
log structure.
The death occurred December 24th, 1975, at Calgary, Alberta,
of Mr Benjamin Marsh Jordon, beloved husband of Mrs Mabel
Jordon, 1015 Cameron Ave. S.W., Calgary.  Besides his wife,
he is survived by two sons, John B., Vancouver, B.C. and James M.
Cache Creek, B.C., five grandchildren and one great grandchild,
also three sisters in England, Mrs J. Burgess, C.B.E., Miss
Isabel S. Jordon and Mrs C.H. Ruddock.
Born in England, in Dover, Mr Jordon came to Canada in
1919 and lived and worked at Perry Creek for some years.The
home they lived in on the banks of Perry Creek is still in the
family possession.  Mr Jordon had resided in Calgary for many
years and at the time of his death was a consultant for Steel
Brothers Canada Limited, with whom he had previously been a
director before his retirement in 1968.
He was a staunch supporter of the Historical Association
of East Kootenay, and in fact was one of the original members
along with Mrs Jordon.  They helped the first working gang of
the Association with their first project - cleaning up the old
Wild Horse cemetery above Fort Steele, work which he thoroughly
enjoyed.  Likewise with the provincial body of the Association,
he spared nothing to get his wife to all the meetings and
conventions, particularly when she held various offices in the
Association, including that of President.
Mrs Jordon states in a recent letter:  "He encouraged me
in my modest efforts at writing and sometimes helped with research,
Wish he could have lived to read my latest effort in an English
magazine on Manitoba."
Dave Kay.
************ JOTTINGS
Just recently a catalogue entitled Books from.British
Columbia has been compiled by the British Columbia Publishers
Group.  It is the first of its kinr! and lists some 470 titles
from 37 different publishers.  It may be obtainel free from
Sally Bryer, B.C. Publishers Group, Ste 1, 393 Pemberton Ave.,
North Vancouver, V7P 2R6.
From the Public Archives of Canada a booklet has recently
been Issued listing their holdings of Material Relevant to
British Columbia Labour History in R.G. 27, Canada Department
of Labour Records.  Inquiries should be addressed to: Public
Archives of Canada, 395 Wellington St., Ottawa K1A 0N3.
Nanaimo Harbour News, Dec. 1975: "When coal was discovered
in 1850, North of Victoria,  the Hudson's Bay Co. established a
post.  James Douglas sent J.D. Pemberton to what was called
"Wenthuysen Inlet" but he kept spelling the name incorrectly and
referred to it as "that place.   Pemberton in 1853 suggested
Nanaimo from the Indian name "S'neny-mo" which had become
"Nanymo".  However the H.B.C. chose "Colvilletown", and it was
not until May 26, 1866 that the Legislature legally changed
the name to Nanaimo.
From The British Columbia Road Runner, Fall 1975: The
Department of Highways have ten new rest stop signs designed
by the Archaeological Sites Advisory Board and eight display
signs that have material prepared by the Historic Sites Advisory
Board.  The Signs are 8 feet wide and 4 feet high; illustrations
and text are embedded in an opaque fibre-reinforced plastic
which has a high resistance to weather and vandalism.  Each
sign comprises approximately 150 words of text, together with
three colour combination photographs and drawings.
From The American Printing History AssociationiL'etter No. a
Dec. 1975.  Two companies have announced successfully produced
all-plastic cases for hard cover books, replacing, paste-board.
The first all-plastic book is a novel called Billy Boy, by Wm
Wood, published by Morrow last July..  (Is this^ the book of the
future? Ed.)  And this other piece of interesting information:
"The earliest authenticated strike of workers in U.S.A. in a
single trade occurred in 1786 when Philadelphia printers gained
a minimum wage of $6 per week.
From Vancouver Home Show 1976: At the junction of the Skeena
and Bulkley Rivers, an authentic Gitskan Indian Village has been
built in detail, similar to one that stood on the site when the
firfet explorers came.  Construction of five communal houses was
completed for visitors in 1969 and a sixth house has since been
added.  There are five totem poles in the village and two more
at the adjacent campground entrance.  The village is named Ksan,
which means Skeena in the regional Indian r.ongue.
Harley Hatfield of Pe.iticton: a very fine eight page brief
for a proposed Manning Park extension.  This is a well written
and thoroughly prepared submission with all pertinent facts 9
and details documented.  Of particular interest is the historical background presented for the preservation of the Dewdney
Trail, the Hudson Bay Trail, the Whatcom Trail and the Brigade
Trail, which are encompassed in this additional parkland that
should be included in Manning Park.  Any member interested in
this truly historical project shoulfl write to the Okanagan
Parks Society, P.O. Box 787, Summerland, B.C. VOH 1Z0.
B.C. BOOKS OF INTEREST, by F. Woodward
BAPTIE, Susan. First growth: the story of the B.C. Forest
Products. Vancouver, B.C. Forest Products Ltd., 1975. 286 pp.,
ill. $12.50; $8.50 paper.
BERKH, Vasilii N.  A chronological history of the discovery of
the Aleutian Islands or the exploits of the Russian merchants
with a supplement of historical data on the fur trade, ed. by
Richard A. Pierce. Kingston, Limestone Press, 1974. 127 p $6.00.
BRITISH COLUMBIA. Dept. of Travel Industry. The "Royal Hudson"
and the story of railroading in B.C. Victoria, 1975. 47 p. $1.
CAMPBELL, Marjorie W. Northwest to the sea: a biography of
WillianMcGillivray. Eoronto/Vancouver, Clarke Irwin, 1975.
230 pp., illus. $12.50.
CARIBOO; the newly discovered gold fields of B.C... by a returned
digger.... Fairfield, Wash. Ye Galleon Press, 1975. 76 p. $6.
CARTER, William H. North American medical practices & burial
customs. (London,Ont., Namind Printers, 1973) 109 p. illus.
CHAPMAN, Roger. No time on our side. Sidney, Gray's Pub., 1975.
.168 pp., illus. $8.50.
DAVIES, David L. English Bay Branch, CPR, Vancouver. (B.C. rail
guides no. 8) Vancouver, Can. Railway Hist.Ass. 1975. 26 p. $1.75
DAVIS, Chuck. Chuck Davis' guide to Vancouver. Revised 1975-76.
Vancouver, J.J. Douglas, 1975. 220 p. ill. $3.95.
DAWDY, Doris 0. Artists of the American west: a bibliographical
dictionary. Chicago, Sage Books, 1974. 275 p. $12.50.
DUFF, Wilson. Images;, stone: B.C. - thirty centuries of Northwest
Coast Indian sculpture. Don Mills, Oxford U.P, 1975. 191 pp.
illus. $14.95; $7.95 paper.
EDWARDS, Margaret H. A bibliography of B.C., years of growth
1900-1950. Victoria, University of Victoria, 1975. 446 p. $30.
EMERY, Maud. A seagull's cry. Surrey, Nunaga, 1975. 152 p. $7.95.
FEDEROVA, Svetlana G. The Russian population in Alaska and California: late 18th century - 1867; translated by Richard A.
Pierce and Alton S. Donnelly, Kingston, Limestone, 1973. 376 p.
FITZGERALD, Kathleen. Here comes tomorrow. Vernon, Vernon Interior
Printers, 1974?  99 p., illus. $4.95.
FRANKLIN, Benjamin. Passport to glory; Benjamin Franklin and
Captain Cook; Tacoma, Washington State American Revolution
Bicentennial Commission, 1975. 4 pp. $2.50.
GALLINS, Glenn. A guide to the incorporation and operation of a
society in B.C.; prepared for the Vancouver Community Legal
Assistance Society.... (Vancouver) 1974. 50 pp. 10
GOULD, Jan. Women of British Columbia. Saanichton, Hancock
House, 1975. 224 p., illus. $14.95.
HASKET1, Patrick. The Wilkes Expedition in Puget Sound; 1841;
Olympia, Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education,
1974. 61 p., $5.00.
HAYS, H.R. Children of the raven; the seven Indian nations
of the Northwest Coast. N.Y. McGraw Hill, 1975. 314 p. illus.
HILL, Leslie, comp. The tokens of B.C. and the Yukon: a supplement; Vancouver, Vancouver Numismatic Society, 1973.
28 pp.,  $1 .00.
HILSON, Stephen E.  Exploring Puget Sound and B.C. Holland,
Mich. Van Winkle Pub.Co. 1975. 107 p. illus.$24.95 $19.95 US
HOGARTH, Paul. Artists on horseback; the old west in illustrated journalism: 1857-1900. N.Y. Watson-Guptill Pubns,
1972. 288 p. $17.50.
HUNT, William R. North of 53; the wild days of the Alaska-Yukon
mining frontier 1870-1914. N.Y. Macmillan, 1974. 328 p. $12.95
HUTCHESON, Sydney. The curse and other stories. Castlegar,
Cotinneh Books, 1973. 127 pp. illus.
JACKSON, William H. Handloggers. Anchorage, Alaska Northwest
Pub. Co., 1974. 251 p. illus. $4.95.
KERNAGHAN, Eileen and Patrick. The upper left-hand corner; a
writer's guide to the markets of northwestern Canada and the
U.S. Vancouver, J.J. Douglas, 1975. 160 p. $7.95.
KHLEBNIKOV, K.T. Baranov: chief manager of the Russian colonies
in America; ed. by Richard Pierce. Kingtson, Limestone Pr.,
1973. 140 p. $6.00.
KUSHNER, Howard I. Conflict on the Northwest Coast; American-
Russian rivalry in the Pacific Northwest, 1790-1867. West-
port Conn. Greenwood Press, 1975. 227 p. illus. $13.95.
MacEWAN, Grant. ... And mighty women too: stories of notable
western Canadian women. Saskatoon, Western Producer Prairie
Books, 1975. 307 p. illus. $10.00; $5.00'
MARLATT, Daphne. Steveston recollected: a Japanese-Canadian
history. Victoria, Provincial ARchives, Aural History-
Division, 1975. 104 p. illus. $3.00.
MILNE, Jack. Trading for milady's furs. Saskatoon, Western
Producer Prairie BooJLs, 1975. 252 p. $9.95.
MUTHANNA, I.M.  People of India in North America. Bangalore,
Lotus Printers, 1975. 459 p  illus. $14.00.
N0WELL, Iris, comp. Cross-country skiing in B.C. Toronto,
Grey de Pencier Books, 1975. 80 p. illus. $2.25.
PAGE;, Frank C, Silvery mists of B.C. the loves of science.
Vancouver, Lions Publishing Co., 1975. 66 p. illus.
PATERSON, T.W. Ghost town trails of Vancouver Island. LaigLey,
Stagecoach Publishing Co. 1975. 167 p. illus. $5.95.
RUSSELL, Andy. The Rockies. Edmonton, Hurtig, 1975. 160 p.,
illus. $20.00.
SCOTT, Jack. Sweat and struggle; working class struggles in
Canada. V.l 1789-1899. Vancouver, New Star Books, 1974.
209 p., IjlIus. $8.00; $2.95 paper.
SIMPSON, Sir George. Simpson's 1828 journey to the Columbia....
edited by E.E. Rich...(Hudson's Bay Reco-d Society, Pub'n
No. 10)  Nendeln/Liechtenstein, Kraus Reprint, 1968. ■277 p.
SMAILL, Gordon. Squamish Chief guide. Vancouver, Bill Lupul _
Marlene Smaill, 1975. 115 p. illus. $4.95. 11
STENZEL, Franz. James Madison Alden: Yankee artist of the
Pacific coast, 1854-1860. Fort Worth, Amon Carter Museum,
1975. 209 pp., illus. $25.00.
STEWART, Dave. Boating B.C.'s inland sea; Sidney, Saltaire,
1975. 160 pp., illus. $3.95.
   Okanagan back roads. Sidne,y, Saltaire, 1975. 2 v. illus,
TAYLOR, G.W. Timber; a history of the forest industry of B.C,
Vancouver, J.J. Douglas, 1975. 220 p., illus. $10.95.
THOMPSON, Margaret E. The Baptist story in western Canada.
Calgary, Baptist Union, 1974. 527 p., $12.95.
TURNER, Dick. Nahanni. Saanichton, Hancock House, 1975.
286 p., illus. $9.95.
VAUGHN, J.B. The wandering years. Saanichton, Hancock House,
1975. 250 p., $3.95.
WATT, Robert D.  To the country and beyond; a memoir of Alexander Greer and his descendants. Vancouver, 1975.  138 p.,
illus. $10.00.
Archives News
Recent acquisitions of the Manuscripts and Public
Records Division include approximately 20 metres of records
from Star Shipbuilding, (Mercer) Ltd. of New Westminster;
the records include general correspondence files, work record
files on over 300 ships built during the years 1927 to 1970,
photographs of ships, launching ceremonies and shipyard
activities, and a detailed series of ships' plans;  a microfilm copy of the minute books, 1918-1974 of the B.C. Amateur
Hockey Association; correspondence, notes and personal papers
of Laura Jamieson, M.L.A. and Juvenile Court Judge; uiaries,
1908-65, of Thomas M. & Daisy Edwards, dairy farmers and
members of the Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association,
Chilliwack, B.C.; minute book, proceedings of first annual
convention, briefs and reports of International Woodworkers
of America. Local 1-367, Haney, B.cT  Probate files for
January 1893 to July 1966 were transferred from the Vancouver
Court House to the Provincial Archives in December 1975.
Aural History News
The Aural History Programme (Provincial Archives of B.C.)
has collected more than 2,000 hours of tape recorded material
relating to the political history of B.C.  The bulk of the
material (about 2000 hours) is comprised of the recordings of
the proceedings of the Legislative Assembly, beginning with
the 1970 session.  The material was initially recorded in connection with the production of a verbatim report of the proceedings of the Legislature, but was not suitable for permanent preservation.  The Aural History Programme is presently
re-recording this material on high quality one-hour reels for
permanent preservation and easier access. 12
Public speeches, radio broadcasts and news conferences
have also been preserved.  The largest  group of recordings
(about 100 hours) are the public speeches and press conferences of former Premier David Barrett.  Other recordings
include B.C. Premiers Patullo, Hart, Johnson, W.A.C. Bennett,
and W.R. Bennett, as well as Gordon Gibson Jr., T.C. Douglas
and some provincial radio campaign material.
Perhaps the most valuable historical sources are the tape
recorded interviews.  These include sessions with federal
politicians H.H. Stevens, Grace Maclnnis and George Pearkes;
Coalitionists Douglas Turnbull and Captain John Cates; Socreds
Ray Williston, Wesley Black, Robert Bonner, W.N. Chant, Eric
Martin, Lew King, P.A, Gaglardi, Herb Bruch, John Tisdalle,
and Donald Smith; and CCF/NDP politicians Robert Strachan,
Harold Winch, Lois Haggen, Arthur Turner, Dorothy Steeves and
Rae Eddie.  Several  of the interviews are lengthy (up to 30
hours) and most have been transcribed.
THE WARM LAND: A history of Cowichan, by E. Blanche Norcross.
Revised edition. Duncan, Island Books, 1975. 130 pp., illus.
(There is also a limited numbered edition of 125 copies bound
in Skivertext, autographed by the author, and designed for
presentation purposes. $25.00.  Available from the author,
710 Hamilton Avenue, Nanaimo, V9R 4G6.)
This book is a factual account of the history of Vancouver Island's Cowichan Valley, written with the warp, familiarity of one who is a descendant of one of its pioneers.  In
linking the people and events of the area, the story follows
easily from the Hudson's Bay Company trading schooners, through
and beyond the space age when William Carpenter, M.D., a
native of the valley is feted on his return from attending
to the first moon walkers.
It is a revision of the first 1959 edition and it contains several new chapters and additional illustrations so that
with the striking totem design on the cover and superior type
of paper and binding, the book is a useful reference and also
would make an attractive gift.
Fittingly enough, the book opens with the legends and
lore of the mighty Cowichan Indians - a powerful influence in
those early days.  The arrival of the whites and the "civilizing" influence of the churches and missionaries are told at
length.  Communication by road was a tenuous thing, we are
told, and when the railway came, the Valley had its own style
of welcome for Sir John A. Macdonald and Robert Dunsmuir. 13
Chapters on early industries in the valley, logging,
mining, fishing and various types of farming, show careful
research of many sources and provide the background of several
concerns, still active in the area.  The persistent efforts and
foibles of those developing local self government are told with
detail and with gentle forbearance.
Continuing beyond the 1940's the reader is caught up in
the more furious pace of events, characteristic of the age, where
the individual is buried in coils of regulatory boards and committees so that the  significance of events becomes out of focus.
Two chapters of special interest recall several  communities and public places which flourished and faded - Fair-
bridge Farms, and its underprivileged English youngsters; Mayo,
the Sikh village and the Somenos Church, which had but one
service - the funeral of its builder and architect.  This is
followed by an excellent appendix giving brief biographies of
many valley pioneers.
If criticism is to be made, it would be to regret that in
a comprehensive history of this sort, there is no subject index
to assist the reader to more easily locate the many . gams of
information **hich the author has unearthed so capably, for our
Jack Roff.
Mr Roff is First Vice-President of the B.C. Historical Ass'n.
PEOPLE FROM OUR SIDE; an Inuit record of Seekooseelak - the
land of the people of Cape Dorset.  A life story with photographs by Peter Pitseolak and oral biography by Dorothy Eber.
Edmonton, Hurtig, 1975. 166 pp. illus. $12.50; $8.95 paper.
I have just read "People from our Side" and I am Impressed
It is noteworthy in these days of coffee table books about
every subject under the sun that a book of this  calibre
should come along; it is earthy and very real.
Peter Pitseolak has told his story well and Ann Hanson
has obviously done the translation with no small amount of
sincere understanding of the Inuit people.
The book has a fine sense of truth about it, and although
some readers may find cause to shudder at the occsaional
cruelty of some individuals, it must be remembered that the
Arctic is both beautiful  and cruel - its people are cast in
the same mould.
Very good reading for all ages and especially for
students of the Inuit.
Anthony Carter.
Mr Carter is a Vancouver author, photographer and
publisher. 14
BRITISH COLUMBIA CHRONICLE 1778-1846: Adventures by Sea and
Land, by G.P.V. and Helen B. Akrigg. Vancouver, Discovery
Press, 1975. xv and 429 ppi, illus. $14.95.
This work from the pens and press of the authors Akrigg
chronicles the progress of whites in the area now known as
British Columbia from Cook's landfall to what the authors call
"the loss of southern Columbia" in 1846.  The authors provide
us with no preface or introduction; but in the course of the
work the reader discovers for himself the book's purpose: to
provide a history of the area by principal dates.  Thus for
1778, after dismissing the Spaniards Perez, Hezeta and Quadra,
we are given an account of Cook, his background, accomplishments, and his Nootka visit.  Entries for 1779 and 1780 complete the voyage under the headnotes "Cook's sailors learn
the value of their furs" and "Cook's ships return home".
Already the pattern appears: 1781, 1782, 1783, 1784, etc.
right through to 1846.  Given this framework a table of contents
is neither needed nor provided.  Apart from the fact that
historians since Herodotus have been avoiding the chronicler's
approach and instead engaging in more sophisticated methodology, this work may underscore the complaints of some students
of history, that "history by dates" is boring.
Still, the diligent reader will find within this volume
material of interest and importance, even if the interpretations are those of the authors alone and somewhat unmindful
of many of the monographic studies included in their lengthy
bibliography.  The essay "The Hudson's Bay Company", sandwiched between entries for 1821 and 1822, is a clear and concise description of Company operations, continental and maritime, during its generation of imperium  on the Pacific slope.
Here the Company's Indian policy is exhibited as one of firmness
and fairness (p.208), yet later in the entry fo*- 1328 we are
treated to an account of a Company retaliatory raid by Chief
Trader A.R. McLeod to revenge the murder by Clallum Indians
of Company Clerk Alexander McKenzie and four engage's travelling between Forts Langley and Vancouver.  The McLeod party
killed two families of Clallum Indians, and afterwards the
schooner Cadboro fired on and destroyed canoes and lodges of
Clallum Indians near Port Townsend.  Merchant venturing brought
gratuitous aggravations on the frontier and from these events
were deduced the laws of war, to paraphrase the words of a
Colonial Secretary of that era.  Another date of significance,
1839, brings a good description of how the Company leased the
Russian "panhandle", an event which allowed the Bay traders to
diversify even further their trade on the distant north coast
and adjacent interior, develop the agricultural potential of
Puget Sound through a subsidiary, and buttress British claims
to the north bank Of the Columbia River.
Yet for all its intentions of checkmating American settlement in and designs on the vast triangle lying northwest of
the Columbia River to the Pacific, the Company could not keep
"Southern Columbia" in the Anglo-American treaty of 1846, and
in their epilogue the Akriggs address themselves to the question
as to why Canada, "a kingdom  yet unborn", was denied the area 15
which is now Washington State.  "It is outrageous", they conclude, "what the Americans extorted by threats and bluster.  The
Washingtonians of today are friendly and decent neighbours;
but one must be haunted by a certain sadness when one thinks
on what might have been".  Thus the "brief lament for our lost
kingdom ... a goodly, goodly land.  Now forever lost", (p.406)
In all it is the counterpart of certain American wish-fulfillment that they should have had all to 54°40  - polemical and
not very good history.  Retracing their theme back through the
book, we find David Thompson a failure for not securing the
mouth of the Columbia for the Nor'westers in advance of the
Astorians, Captain William Black of H.M.S. Racoon "absurd  in
taking the post as a conquest of war, Dr John McLoughlin a
collaborator in league with Americans and sympathetic to their
political objectives, and Lord Aberdeen a weak man and unfit
to be Foreign Secretary of a great power dealing with Manifest
Destiny.  Paradoxically they were all at the time British subjects pursuing - for Crown or Company or both - imperial
objects.  Fortunately we are spared the usual view of Captain
the Honorable John Gordon of the British frigate America -
that owing to his indifference the Oregon Country was lost
because the salmon would not rise to the fly.  This book should
appeal to those Canadians who seek villains  particularly
British villains, in order to explain why the present Dominion
is not larger than it ought to have been - according to the
Akriggs.  The province's history from Cook's arrival to the
gaining of sovereignty over the present area of British Columbia is admittedly a grand theme; but both the form, content
and tone of this volume leave us waiting for a temperate
treatment in other hands. _ ,
Barry M. Gough
Dr Gough is Associate Professor of History at Wilfrid Laurier
University, Waterloo, Ontario.
SELECTIONS FROM PICTURESQUE CANADA; an affectionate look back.
Edmonton, Hurtig, 1975.  84 pp., illus. $17.95.
In 1882 a. monumental subscription series appeared called
Picturesque Canada; thirty-six issues in all; 880 pages
burgeoning with factual data, national folk-tales and depictive
engravings.  Picturesque Canada; an affectionate look back is
a latter day condensation of the engravings from this opus.
It has been compiled and selected by Charles M. Nelles of the
Pandora Publishing Co. of Victoria.
Picturesque Canada, 1882 was apparently an expensive sales
brochure curr "coffee table" book of the day.  It depicts an
emerging Canada on the one hand, trying to look as sophisticated and civilized as possible to the hesitant European
immigrant, and, on the other, suggesting the possibility of
adventure and danger, as well as fortune, particularly in the
west.  Thus we see a sculling match in Toronto Harbour looking 16
for all the world like the Henley regatta, while Queen Street,
dotted with trotting hansoms, looks like an afternoon in the
Tuleries.  Old Quebec is depicted, as now, as a delightfully
backward cultural microcosm offering diversion and amusement
for the new Canadian.
The railway was coming, of course, and for the strong of
will, the entrepreneurs, it is the west which challenges.  Here
is the wild rugged beauty of the Frazer Canyon, or the canyon
of the Homatheo, rendered in the Hudson River School style.
The old steam paddle-wheeler ascends to Yale, where fortune
beckons beyond the misty mountains.  And a lonely prospector's
cabin in winter where men shot at nearby deer while women swoon
to see blood.
But always we turn the page and are led back to security;
the security of the British presence.  "H.M.S. Shah anchored
at the naval base at Esquimalt".  Victoria is described as "the
most charming little city in America, - in no city north of
San Francisco can you get a dinner such as is served daily at
the Driard House".
The engravings are of the standard style popular and
practical in the 1830-1890 period.  The most notable Canadian
engravers of the time were Fred Schell and Lucius O'Brien and
these two are well represented.  The engravings themselves
are well reproduced by lithography on good stock with probably
very little loss of definition.  The book should be a welcome
addition to any picture book library of Canadiana, but more than
anything it puts one in mind to keep an eye open for an original
set of the 1882 volumes.
Robert Genn
Mr Genn, a prominent B.C. artist designs the covers of the News.
by Dorothy Blakey Smith, with an introduction by W. Kaye
Lamb.  Vancouver, University of British Columbia Press,
1975.  xiii, 396 pp., illus. $18.95.
The reminiscences of Dr John Sebastian Helmcken have been
studied for years by British Columbia researchers; now Dorothy
Blakey Smith as editor and the University of B.C. Press have
made them available for everyone.  Together they have produced an excellent book for students of our province's history,
The price may deter many; perhaps a paperback edition might
be produced at a later date.
From W. Kaye Lamb's introduction to the detailed index
at the back, the book is divided into sections which are good
for quick reference, and are as easy for browsing as to read
from beginning to end.  There is a chronological table which
points out the main dates in Helmcken's life.  The appendix
contains the Helmcken genealogy, plus the articles which 17
appeared in the Daily Colonist between the years 1887 and 1891,
then concludes with his diary of the Confederation Negotiations, edited by Willard E. Ireland.
Footnotes are the bane of my reading, although I know
they are necessary; often publishers put them either at the
end of the chapter or at the end of the book; either way you
are always flipping back and forth, losing the continuity of
your reading.  References here, however, are at the bottom of
each page and the reader can refer to each reference easily as
the text is read.
Helmcken tells of his boyhood in London, every day events,
going to school and the work he did at home under the discipline of his mother.  His father was sickly and died when
Helmcken was 14.  He writes of his job as a delivery boy, delivering medicines for a doctor, how he works until he assists in
packaging the medicines and eventually trains in Guy's Hospital
in London to be a doctor.  To take training as a doctor in
those days was not easy when one did not have money.  One sentence in the book points to his family's financial struggles.
Most of the students were well off and could celebrate their
success; the day Helmcken received his certificate " ... others
went to the theatre or elsewhere, but I having no money perhaps
to spend, returned home and shewed Mother my certificate...".
Helmcken spent 18 months travelling to the Far East as
ship's doctor before receiving his Hudson's Bay assignment to
Victoria.  Except for his trip to Ottawa as a Confederation
delegare he did not leave the west coast again.
His political life covers from 1856 when he is first
elected to the Legislature on Vancouver Island until 1871 when
British Columbia entered Confederation.  Only 15 years, but
vital years.  First the two colonies, Vancouver Island and
British Columbia are separate, then they amalgamate, join Confederation, setting policies which affect our government today.
His story ends at this point in his life.  Of his family life
there is little mention, although he does tell some of the
problems when he built his house which today is the Museum.
A diary, such as this, to have value, requires the work of
a dedicated scholar, and to this end i_ is a tribute to the
scholarship of Dorothy Blakey Smith that she has produced such
a fine transcription of the original handwriting, together
with the meticulous research that was required to produce
such complete footnotes and references.
In spite of the admirable assessment of this man by Dr
Kaye Lamb in his introduction, we will still have to wait for
a complete biography.  I understand his grandson Ainslie
Helmcken, Victoria City Archivist, and his great-great-granddaughter, Gail, are planning to write one.
Here in one compact volume we have a source book for many
events of British Columbia history and I would urge everyone
to put it on their 'must read' list.
Doreen Imredy
Mrs Imredy is a member of the Vancouver Historical Society
********** 18
DAVID THOMPSON,  by James K. Smith. Don Mills, Fitzhenry &
Whiteside, 1975. 62 pp., illus. $2.25.
James K. Smith is no stranger to the life of David Thompson.  He first wrote his biography under the same title for
Oxford University Press in 1971.  But this 1975 paperback differs
greatly in that its picture painting use of adjectives, its
tight writing, its palatable explanations, its pages studded
with maps, photographs, sketches, reprints from Thompson's
journals, and questions, are all directed towards school students.  This is one in a new series of biographies entitled
"The Canadians".
It is said that to write for a younger audience one must
write better than one would for adults.  Smith clearly does
this, making David Thompson excellent reading for any age group,
no matter how deep or shallow the interest.
From the very first page, as David Thompson journeys to
Hudson's Bay Company's Churchill Factory, he becomes alive.  It
is 1784 and he is fourteen.  Obliquely mentioning Thompson's
life prior to 1784, Smith takes us through his years of adventure, achievements, toil and final poverty.  He was a remarkable
man of many parts: fur trader, surveyor, mapmaker, explorer,
husband, father, author; and in the words of J.B. Tyrrell, the
man who made Thompson's forgotten accomplishments known, "the
greatest land geographer who ever lived".
David Thompson made five invaluable contributions to Canada.  In 1798 when the boundary question was in progress he
established that the 49th parallel, assumed to cross the headwaters of the Mississippi River, did not in fact do so.  He discovered two passes through the Rockies: the Howse Pass in 1807
and the Athabasca Pass in 1811.  Also in 1811, after discovering
the elusive Columbia River, he became the first white man to
travel its length.  His 1813-1814 "Map of the North-West Territory" was the basis of Canadian maps for over one hundred years.
His unpublished autobiography describing his life during 28
years with first the Hudson's Bay Com pany and later the North
West Company, 1784-1812, illuminates well that period in
Canada's history.
Smith deals with all these points, giving four of them the
emphasis they deserve.  Yet surprisingly, he hurries through
the Columbia River journey in one paragraph, a great disappointment.  Thompson's few errors and moments of self-centredness
are also given space by this unbiased historian.  In Thompson's
youth, his wide interests led him to examine a mosquito under
microscope, to study the habits of polar bears, and to marvel
at the instincts of migrating birds.  Smith develops these
items well.
Living so near the river which Simon Fraser named for
Thompson, being a fellow Welshman, and finding that his journeys
have so closely affected many areas of British Columbia, including my own, I have always felt an affinity to this great man.
Though bitterly disappointed in the front cover illustration,
I would heartily recommend this book to anyone interested in
Canadian or British Columbian history, and would deem it a must 19
for all those curious about David Thompson's life of achievement .
Nina G. Woolliams
Mrs Woolliams is a member of the Kamloops Museum Association.
Stagecoach Publishing Co., 1975. 120 pp., illus. $4.95.
"Yukon" has become a household word.  The vast, bleak
territory has been endlessly documented, wildly romanticized
in fiction, and not infrequently exploited in fact.  One of the
silliest and most misleading pieces of journalism I ever read
ppeared in the British 6unday Times when that august journal
sent a reporter to do a story on the Yukon.  Something in the
air up there seems to inspire writers to flip their lids - and
I say this as one who has done a stint in the Yukon and must
share the guilt.
All the more credit, then, to Don Sawatsky for producing
this highly readable and often fascinating book in a manner
that makes the subject seem fresh as paint.  Even if you think
you know all about the Yukon and don't want to hear any more,
you'll find facts and anecdotes here which are worthy of note.
Writer Sawatsky digs deep.  His painstaking history starts
in 1670s when King Charles II of England granted a Royal Charter
to the "Honourable Adventurers" who claimed the territory of
Rupert's Land.  One hundred and eighty years later, Robert
Campbell crossed into the Yukon to explore, and to launch
lucrative trade with the Indian peoples.  Actually the Russians
were among the first white men to venture as far as the Klondike, but they did not pursue their exploration.  (One wonders
how history might have been changed, if they had.)  The book
covers everything that happened from the first tentative expeditions to the 1920's, and is generously illustrated with excellent photographs.  (One of them shows what half a million dollars
looks like in the shape of real gold bricks - a mind-boggling
sight.)  There are anecdotes in plenty, some poignant, some
horrifying, some funny.  My favourite concerns the "Tarnished
Doves" of Dawson City, a bunch of swinging ladies who helped
to relieve the miners of their gold in exchange for services
rendered.  In fact businesslike prostitution continued to flourish in the area until the early 1950's, when some telltale
wrote a letter of protest to the Federal Government in Ottawa.
The Mounties were ordered to move in and put paid to the fun and
games, thus ending yet another chapter in Yufaon history.
I enjoyed this book.  The writer has done his homework,
and the result is not only a good source of reference, but
"a good read" as well. _    _   , . .
June Franklin
June Franklin is the author of three books, a former journalist,
and is now employed as publicist for the Vancouver Museums and
Planetarium.    ************** 20
RED SERGE WIVES, edited by Joy Duncan. Edmonton, Centennial
Book Committee, 1974. 249 pp., illus. $8.50.
This book is a collection of fifty short stories, most of
them written by wives of members of the Royal Canadian Mounted
Police stationed in Alberta.  Although the stories are not
chronologically arranged, they subtly give the reader the
history of Alberta from 1875 to the late 1950's.  The editor's
contribution, entitled "They Also Served", based on scanty
references, gives some insight as to what kind of young ladies
chose to become policemen's wives in a wilderness country.  Each
of the subsequent contributions describes an event as recalled
by its author.  The final chapter, entitled "A Cry from the
Heart", consists of excerpts from the writings of Alice West.
Mrs West's diary notes, brief and descriptive, are a summation
of what all the other authorsare trying to expre-s.  Because
the lives of these women had many similarities, the various
accounts have a tendency to be repetitious.  This is less
obvious with leisure reading than with reading the book at one
sitting.  In these snatches of history, the reader is made aware
of the important role that women played iu establishing and
maintaining a law-abiding society in a new country.  They were
an important part of the "Force".  Loyalty, versatility, physical
and emotional strength were expected and received from them,
but were not officially recognized.  This collection is a documentation of their contribution.  Women reading this book will
gain respect for these women because of their contribution to
Canada's history.  Men who read it will find respect for women
in general.
Arlene Bramhall
Mrs Bramhall is a member of the Burnaby Historical Society.
"Dear Sir,  In reading Mr Kent Haworth's curious review of the
Klanak Press edition of The Great Gold Fields of Cariboo I was
struck by the failure of the reviewer to appreciate the importance of new editions of British Columbiana.  As one who has
suffered greatly from having to toil over cheaply and consequently poorly produced facsimiles of works dealing with the
early history of the province (I describe it variously as Coles
complaint, Hurtig infirmity, Ye Galleon Press indisposition,
etc.), I am appreciative of the clarity and quality of this new
edition, which at $17.50, is not published at an exorbitant
selling price.  Whereas the antiquated formats of the reprints
of several publishers currently exploiting our passions for
Canadiana tend to turn students away, new editions are likely
to reverse this trend.  If one student will have been attracted
to the history of the province by this fact, I will be pleased.
(In my experience, I have noted that those who bemoan the
paucity of Canadiana are often the first to complain of the
price of that available - a curious but nonetheless Canadian
practice which tells us a lot about ourselves). 21
In complaining of the fact that the foldout map in the old
edition does not appear exactly in the new, but is "relegated"
to the end papers, Mr Haworth reveals his ignorance of the technological changes in the printing industry which do not permit,
except at great cost, the "tipping in" process so common a
century ago.  With respect to his objections to the title page
which he describes as "flashy", I believe that it is in fact
beautiful in its typography, especially its 3-tone colour, and
is another one of the splendid features of this volume which
its printer, Charlie Morriss, described as the most beautiful
he had ever produced.
But above all, I think that Mr Haworth's consumer report
on The Great Gold Fields of Cariboo fails to understand that to
have prepared a definitive edition along say Champlain Society
or Hudson's Bay Record Society lines was never the publisher's
intention.  It was, rather, to prepare a new unnumbered limited
edition of the finest quality, unencumbered by scholarly apparatus, but having a foreword of an appropriate introductory
nature.  In my opinion, the publishers succeeded admirably and
I look forward to seeing other collectors' items of this sort
appearing from Klanak Press.     Yours truly, Barry M. Gough,
Associate Professor, Dept. of History, Wilfrid Laurier University
Mrs Claxton, of Pender Island, has sent us the following notes
on the Pender Island Portage:
On the roadside just before reaching the Pender Island Canal,
a cairn now stands bearing the Parks Board plaque which reads:
"Pender Island Portage.  Near this point passed an ancient trail
over which Indians portaged their canoes between Browning and
Bedwell Harbours.  Across this neck of land, pioneer settlers
dragged their boats on skids for visits between the scattered
island families and to shorten the journey to Sidney by sail
or row boat.  In 1903, at local request, the Federal Government constructed the nearby canal dividing Pender Island."
This is, I think, the first plaque of its kind on the Gulf
Islands and was initiated by the Gulf Islands Branch of the B.C.
Historical Association at the suggestion of Mrs Herbert
Spalding who, in 1970 found that her grandchildren did not know
that there had ever been a portage at the Canal.
After much correspondence and delay, the cairn was built
by two descendents of South Pender Island's pioneer, A.H. Spalding: his son, Herbert, and grandson, Major Wyman Irving, with
the help of other residents.  On the night of its completion,
just after Christmas 1974, vandals wrenched the plaque from its
setting and took it away.  When hope of its recovery had almost
been lost, it appeared undamaged, in the Spalding's drive
early on Good Friday morning, and is now installed once more.
Well remembered by members of the Historical Association
will be Mrs Freeman (nee Beatrice Spalding) who is among those 22
who approached the Portage from Bedwell Harbour and who, in 1955
was guest speaker at the opening of the Bridge re-connecting
the two parts of the island.
Following are two accounts, one by Dr A.M. Menzies, and
the other by Mrs Winnifred Spalding.
DR A.M. MENZIES:  The present islands of North Pender and South
Pender were at one time joined together by a narrow neck of land
commonly known as the Portage, with a space clear of trees or
other obstruction, across which boats could be transported
by the pushem-pulem method, thus saving a long journey around
the south end by sea.  An old Indian legend maintained that the
original water-way had been filled in by local Indians as a protection from raiding tribes from the North, but material excavated by the dredges building the canal did not bear this out.
When pupils of the Pender Island School were ready to take
their high-school entrance examinations, the nearest place where
these were held was at Sidney, and they extended over a period
of two days, making it necessary to stay overnight.  The problem
was to find such overnight accommodation.  Mr Martin Brackett,
who had spent some months on Pender, had been given considerable
assistance by my father, had taken up residence in Sidney after
leaving the Island.  He was living as a bachelor in a house
that he had acquired there.  My father wrote him to see if he
could put me up while I wrote the examinations.
Mr Brackett was afflicted with Jacksonian disease, sometimes called Shaking Palsy, and was unable to write, so came in
his skiff, landing at Browning Harbour, then to our home late
at night.  Next morning I learned that I was to go with him to
Sidney and stay overnight with him to complete the examinations.
We left home early for Mr Alec Bracket's home and rowed the
skiff to the Portage, followed by Mr Bracket in his boat with
my father.  It was a struggle getting the skiff up the bank,
then across with the help of a few pieces of driftwood used as
skids, and into the water on the Bedwell Harbour side-.  We
stopped for lunch on Moresby Island, then on to Sidney in the
afternooti.  On Monday I felt sick, mostly from sunburn, but
successfully completed the examinations on Tuesday and Wednesday.  This was in 1902.
WINIFRED A. SPALDING:  When I came to South Pender as a bride
in 1926, the Portage was the scene of many Sunday picnics where
family and friends gathered.  We lived in the valley and it took
about 15 minutes to walk to the wharf with all oar lunches, bathing suits, books etc. and half an hour by boat - the old Cassiar
a 24 foot launch - that took us all comfortably to the Portage.
Here we unloaded on the beach and scattered to hunt for Indian
artifacts, bathe or lie in the sun until lunch time when a fire
had to be lit to boil a billy for tea.  And after lunch, more
lazy hours before it was time to go home and milk the cows.
My sons knew this spot as little children, but it came as a
shock to me in the late '60's to realize that my grandchildren
knew none of this past history of the Portage - the area was
always spoken of as the Canal!........
*********** 23
Back in 1956 the B.C. Historical Quarterly published a
very complete story: "Kootenay Reclamation and Colonization
and William Adolph Baillie-Grohman", by Mrs Mabel Jordon of
Calgary, later President of the B.C. Historical Association.
Much of this dealt with the Baillie-Grohman Canal at Canal
Flats in East Kootenay.
In recent years, renewed interest in the old canal and its
early history has been aroused with the announced possibility
of the B.C. Hydro actually planning to do what Baillie-Grohman
had proposed to do almost 100 years ago - diverting the flood-
waters of the fast-flowing Kootenay River into the headwaters
of the Columbia system at the lake of the same name.  It is
still a most controversial issue, and those opposed to the
scheme have organized a society to fight it.
It is felt that a brief look again at the history of the
old canal will be of interest now, along with a report on
present plans for a walking trail and park development at the
site of the canal by the Historical Association of East Kootenay and the Regional District in the area.
It all began back in 1882 when a well-to-do English sportsman and author, W.A. Baillie-Grohman and "Teddy" Roosevelt,
later President of the U.S.A., were on a big-game hunting
expedition in the Purcell Range of the Kootenay Country.  They
came over a ridge of mountains and saw below them a beautiful
green lush valley with rich flats on either side of a broad
river which flowed into a lake a short distance down stream.
It was the Kootenay River and Lake, and the flats are now generally referred to as the Creston Flats.  They were both impressed with the possibilities for farming and land settlement that
this broad flat valley presented, and agreed that something
should be done about it.  But on talking to the Indians and
odd white settlers of the area at that time, Grohman learned
that the lovely flat was flooded almost every spring and early
summer by the high spring run-off of the Kootenay River, making
it impossible to cultivate the land.  Grohman decided something could be done about .this.
He knew that some 200 miles up river at McGUlivray's
Portage, which is now known as Canal Flats, the Kootenay River
and the source of the Columbia River in Columbia Lake were
only slightly more than a mile apart.  He conceived the idea
of diverting the flood waters of the Kootenay into the Columbia
Lake and River, and thus end the flooding of those lovely
flats away down river in the Creston Valley.  He had visions of
bringing out settlers from England to develop many farms, and
in :time a whole community.  He figured some 48,000 acres of
rich loam land were involved.  In later years some 28,000 acres
were dyked, and are actually under cultivation now, mostly to
Grohman's scheme met with the approval of the British
Columbia Provincial Government, but instead of money, he was to
be given a grant of all the land in the valley between the 24
International border and the Kootenay Lake.  Of course Grohman
planned to sell this land to settlers to recompense him for
building the ditch from the Kootenay to the Columbia at Canal
It was just at this time that the Canadian Pacific Railway interests had decided to build their main line through the
Rogers Pass, and they objected to Grohman's scheme which would
be certain to flood sections of their tracks north of Golden,
where the Columbia River ran close to the lines surveyed for
the railway.
There followed much correspondence and controversy back
and forth between the Provincial Government, Baillie-Grohman,
che settlers and others around Golden on the Columbia below
the lake, and the Dominion Government who had control of navigable waterways.  This demanded several trips by Grohman to
Here follows, in part, a portion of an interesting
petition against Grohman's proposal, signed by some thirty
settlers, miners, farmers, tradesmen and merchants of the
Golden area.  In this later day perhaps it may supply the
present opposition to this diversion with another arrow for
their quiver, in protesting to B.C. Hydro and the Government.
This petition is taken from Mrs Jordon's article and it states:
"The petition of the inhabitants of the 5th Siding of the
Canadian Pacific West, otherwise known as Golden City, and
other settlers in the Upper Columbia Valley:
"That your petitioners view with alarm a certain public
official notice posted here, dated Nov. 3, 1885, having
reference to the diversion of the Kootenay River or a
portion thereof into the valley of the Columbia ....
"That the Kootenay River traverses United States territory
for about one hundred and fifty miles and re-enters Canada
before its junction with the Columbia, and its diversion
might lead to foreigh complaints of damages to navigation,
limiting water power, sanitary and other causes.
"That the lands in the shorter distance, on the Kootenay
River, partially reclaimed by the diversion, would be
greatly overbalanced by the sure damage to those in the
greater distance of the Columbia.
"That the volume of water in the Kootenay is considerably
greater at all times than that passing down the Columbia,
and the former is travelling at a far greater velocity.
"That from the above consideration and the fact of the very
slight fall of the Columbia River, between the lakes and
Golden City,we are sure, if sufficient water be diverted
from the Kootenay into the Columbia to produce any beneficial
.■effects in reclaiming lands on the former, that the water
in the latter will be very considerably raised along the
Columbia Valley.  The Columbia River having such a slight
fall and low banks would be unable to carry off this great
addition and would therefore overflow all the low lands 25
adjoining it.  Now those low lands are the hay lands of the
district.  We submit that these hay lands are of the utmost
importance to the farming, ranching and general interests
of the valley.  Stock in this country has to be fed on hay
during at least three months of the winter, and we venture
to state that no settler would take up land, nor would those
settled hold their homesteads in this valley unless they were
sure of being able to cut the necessary hay to winter their
stock.  The destruction of these lands we regard as a
certainty if this diversion takes place.
"Much greater damage and ruin may be contemplated, such as
flooding towns and destroying townsites, also damaging railroad properties, depending on the height to which the water
may rise.... That much valuable timber will be destroyed.
"That it will also preclude the making of a roadway through
the country giving access to the detached bench lands which
are favoured by climate and soil for the growth of cereals."
GROHMAN WAS NOT THE FIRST - Here's another interesting
piece of information from that same article telling of a not-
so-well-known, still earlier attempt to divert the Kootenay
waters into the Columbia, again at Canal Flats; it was for
reclaiming, not land that time, but gold - Mrs Jordon writes.
"By his own admission, Grohman was not the first to try to
divert the Kootenay into the Columbia by means of a  canal.
At the same place some nineteen years earlier, during the
gold excitement at Wild Horse Creek, twenty-five men had
commenced working there with the same end in view but for
a different purpose.  They hoped to divert the entire
Kootenay River so that they could wash for gold in the
river-bed.  They expected to complete their project in one
season, but shortage of provisions and funds prevented them
from carrying it out".
And now, back .to the 1880's: The Dominion Government
finally cancelled the diversion project, giving Grohman
instead title to more land, some 30,000 acres in the Upper
Kootenay Valley below Elko.  Just what he ever did with them,
we have never heard.
As an added sop, Grohman was also allowed to build a
small canal with a gate at the upper end and a lock lower
down, to take care of the ten feet difference in the level of
the Kootenay River and Columbia Lake.  Part of this agreement
was that n_o waters were ever to flow from the Kootenay River
into the Columbia, except when boats were passing through.
The canal was to connect the two rivers and provide transportation for the river-boats, which were just getting under
way, from one river to the other.  Allegedly this would make
it possible to travel by river-boat all the way from Jennings,
Montana, to Golden on the Columbia.  The restrictions created
such a small canal and lock that they were insufficient in
size to accommodate the larger boats which soon appeared on
the river. 26
Mrs Jordon tells of some of the problems of building
the canal, as follows:
"To facilitate the construction of the necessary
buildings and of the timber lock; a small steam sawmill
was ordered, which was shipped from Brantford, Ontario, to
Golden, at considerable cost.  Golden was on the C.P.R.
mainline just constructed, and was the nearest railway
point, and there the sawmill and other necessary equipment
was loaded on an improvised barge for the journey up the
Columbia to Canal Flats.  At its best, water transportation
on the Columbia was slow, and it was particularly so in the
late summer when the water-level was low.  Since wood was
used to fire the boilur of the barge, a boiler which
previously had been part of a steam-pkrigh used in Manitoba,
frequent stops had to be made to replenish the fuel supply.
The barge ran aground so many times that it became
routine to unload, push it off the sand bar, unload what
was left on the boat, go back for the first part, reload,
and start again.  From the time the barge left Golden 23
days elapsed before the machinery was nnloaded, for the
last time, at its destination.
"There a small setfclement grew up, which was named Grohman
A store and post office, a hotel of sorts, the sawmill, and
aarious other buildings appeared.  Gangs of men began digging the Kootenay Canal, using horses and scrapers.  There
was also a unique brigade of Chinamen which operated something like a human conveyor-belt, pushing odd looking side-
dumping wheelbarrows.  The work of excavating was comparatively easy; the material to be moved was mostly gravel
which contained no boulders of any formidable size.  The
actual dimensions of the canal were 6,700 feet long and
45 feet wide; of the lock, 100 feet long and 30 feet wide.
On July 29, 1889, just within the two years allowed,
the canal works were completed.  The 30,000 acres promised
were crown-granted accordingly, and the canal became public
property.  The cost had been excessive - over $100,000,
more than twice the amount estimated in the prospectus."
Actually, only two boats ever went through the canal locks.
The last, the North Star, was too wide and too long and Captain
Armstrong practically destroyed the lock in order to get the
boat through.  This, added to the fact that by the time the
canal was constructed, the railways made it just about obsolete. 27
possible the development of the Creston Valley Flats wheat
fields, as we know them today.  The Libby Dam has now taken
care of flood dangers on those flats.
As for Baillie-Grohman, around 1891 he finally gave up
and returned to England, thoroughly disillusioned and disgusted,
leaving behind the sawmill and the small settlement of houses
and other buildings.  These were all near the old lock site.
Practically all -were destroyed by a huge forest fire, which
swept through the area some forty or more years ago.  Since
then the canal has been completely neglected, until very
recently, although in 1948 during high water the Kootenay
burst through the blockades in the old canal and swept on to
the Columbia for a time, washing out the highway bridge over
the canal and flooding much land.  (I know, I waited for some
two and a half hours while work crews built a temporary bridge.)
In the spring of 1974, the East Kootenay Historical
Association and other interested folks had a meeting with Dr
Wm. (Bill) Trout, Vice-President and Treasurer of the American
Canal Society.  Their objective is the preservation and
restoration of old canals all over the continent.  Bill made a
trip here, on hearing something of this canal, and was greatly
impressed and intrigued with the history of the canal.  At a
meeting later of interested people in Cranbrook, he recommended
that a walking trail, at least, be cleared alongside  what is
left of the old water-way and lock, and perhaps a picnic
table or two, with garbage facilities, toilets, etc., also
signs set up telling in brief the story of the old canal.
The Historical Association, together with the boys from
the Fort Steele Historic Park project, decided to take up
Trout's suggestion, but first had to determine just who
actually controlled the 150 foot wide strip of canal reserve
which was still in effect.  After much delay, phone callw,
letters and personal visits, it was determined that the
Provincial Lands Department held the title.  Permission to
proceed with the trail was at first refused, but after further
correspondence with higher-ups, it was granted.  There was a
proviso that consent must also be obtained from the B.C. Hydro,
who had been given until 1984 to make a study of doing, almost
100 years later, what Grohman had wanted to do earlier, i.e.
turn the flood-waters of the Kootenay into the Columbia, but
this time the water would be stored behind the Mica Dam to be
released for power purposes down stream as required.
Although this is a very contentious issue right now, B.C.
Hydro has given us permission to build that walk-way, stating
that if they do decide to go ahead with the plan  (and that it
is still very questionable) a different course for their new
waterway, or possibly a pipeline will be built some quarter mile
further cast of the old canal, which they assured us would not
be interfered with.  So now we have their O.K. to build this
"Walk Through History", as it is planned to call it. 28
It was after this that the Historical Association decided
to go ahead at least with clearing a walking trail alongside
the old canal, from the locks to the Kootenay River.  This has
been done, thanks to a few hard-working volunteer members of
the Association, under Field Supervisor, Bob Jeffrey.  Others
were Albert Oliver, Jeff Stokes, Roy Linnell, Tom Leighton and
Davd Frame.  Some signs have been made by the boys at Fort
Steele, others to follow.  An entrance arch has been made from
material kindly donated by a local firm, Crestbrook Forest
Industries, and some of those volunteers again helped Bob
to erect it.
The Regional District of East Kootenay is seriously considering co-operation with the Historical Association in
setting up a public picnic site there, with picnic tables,
garbage disposal, toilets and servicing the area.  This is
subject to the approval of the powers that be at the coast and
will be governed by the interest shown in the district.
When Bill Trout was informed last fall of progress up to
that time, he wrote a very nice letter in reply, part of which
is as follows:
"The Historical Association of East Kootenay and those who
helped certainly deserve a round of applause from the
American Canal Society.  An amazing job, and a lesson in how
to get things done.  Your letter reads like an adventure or
mystery story and I hope it will be all right to quote from
it in our next issue of 'American Canals', especially the
part about British Columbia Hydro Corporation and their
plan to do what Baillie-Grohman wanted to do a century ago -
fortunately without disturbing the old canal." Wm. Trout.
Mention should also be made that Crestbrook Forest
Industries have been most co-operative and have offered land
close to the old locks (which they own) for picnic,
parking lot, etc.  They have promised the use of a bull-dozer
in the spring to level out a few low spots on the walking
trail.  The start of the trail is also on their land, which
they have granted permission to use.  We certainly owe them a
vote of thanks.  Thanks are also due John Grant and Mr Hall
who surveyed and relocated the limits of that 150 foot canal
reserve for us, and to Mr Leamaster for supplying tools, etc.,
for this.  Fred Netherton and the boys at Fort Steele have
made signs for us, and promised more.  Altogether we feel we
have had a lot of co-operation from many interested people, and
all seem to approve the project.
Mr Kay is Secretary of the East Kootenay Historical Assoc'n.


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