British Columbia History

BC Historical News Nov 30, 1973

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Vol. 7-No. 1
November 1.973
Published November, February, April and June each year by the
British Columbia Historical Association, and distributed free to
members of all affiliated societies by the secretaries of their
respective societies. Subscription rate to non-members: $3.50 per
year, including postage, directly from the Editor, Mr P.A. Yandle,
3450 West 20th Avenue, Vancouver, B.C. V6S 1E4.
Executive 1973-1974
Hon. Patron:
Lieut-Gov. Walter
Hon. President:
Dr Margaret Ormsby
Col. G.S. Andrews
. Past President:
Mr H.R. Brammall
1st Vice-President:
Mr F. Street
2nd Vice-President:
Mr J. Roff
Mr P.A. Yandle
Recording Secretary:
Mr R. Watt
Mr ' '- Mrs P.A, Yandle
Miss J. Rowlands
Executive members:
Mrs Clare McAllister
Mr H.B. Nash
Society Notes & Comments
Book Reviews:               . .
Pioneer Days of Port Renfrew
The Charlottes
The great Kicking Horse Blunder
Winnipeg 1919
lit • ;
■■ <■>■
B.C Books of Interest
British Columbia's Air Survey Story, by G.
Smedley Andrews
The cover series for Volume 7, drawn by Robert Genn, will be
focused on the newest affiliates of our Association. This issue
will salute Campbell River with a picture of the Old Willows
Hotel, burnt down in January 1.963. EDITORIAL
There's an energy crisis - What a difference a few months can makel
And all the time the thought has always been uppermost that in spite
of man's impetuosity, social changes come slowly. Within living memory,
the pace of life has surely but steadily increased, until it reached
break-neck speed in the past few years. Now, all of a sudden, the
brakes are being applied and the impending results suggest complete
disaster or a whole new way of life for the present generation. To cope
with the situation every panic-button has been pressed: speed limits
are being dropped to what must seem like a snail's paee for highway
travel in the world's most automat ed nation. Nation after nation is
instituting a ban on Sunday pleasure driving and asking for voluntary
savings while preparations are being made for controlled rationing.
It seems strange that this situation.was not the result of a head-
on collision between two of the great world military powers, but by two
very minor power blocks. The most terrible war in the history of mankind, that was global in scope, did not siow down the pace, but did in
fact accelerate it.
No single event before in history ever created such a crisis (that
did not include a great loss of life) as did the decisior oy the Arab
nations to withhold a strategic energy resource - OIL. In a matter of
hours this decision created a threat to Mankind that could well lead to
a whole new set of values being placed upon our basic social order. We
are all,faced with a new terror weapon - international blackmail.
?A year or so ago historic and nostalgic journeys were being made
on railway lines destined to be abandoned for reasons that this kind of
travel was far too slow for passenger carrying and fit only for large
heavy freight transportation. How those abandoned rights of way could
be pressed into service in this present crisis, throughout the western
worldi Runs that were being subsidized just to keep the lines operative
have rebounded to full bookings, taking notice of Artrak's recent
announcement of the situation on the Seattle to Vancouver, B.C. run.
It not only seems that the brakes have been applied but that we
may all be taking a step back into history. Just think what a thrill
it would be to go back to the horse and buggy era. On second thoughts
it hardly bears thinking about, considering the pollution problem from
thousands of horses on our main streets. Of course the mechanical
sweeper and power flusher could keep the streets clean. But wait a
minute! Isn't there an energy crisis? Can we wait to educate a
generation of broom "mechanics"?
************** 3
A meeting of the Council of the British Columbia Historical
Association was held at the home of the President, Col. G.S. Andrews,
4325 Blenkinsop Road, Victoria, on 1.8th November 1.973.
Present were: Col. G.S. Andrews (Pres.); Mr P.A, Yandle (Sec & Editor);
Miss Jill Rowlands (Treas.); Mr R.D. Watt (Recording Sec, Vancouver);
Mrs Anne Yandle (Co-Editor); Mr R. Brammall (Past Pres.); Mr F. Street(V.Pres,
Burnaby); Mr D. New (Gulf Islands); Mr J, Roff (V.Pres.Vancouver); Mrs
C McAllister (Exec.Member); Mr H.B. Nash (Exec. Member); Mr G. German
(Victoria); Mr A. Hunter (E, Kootenay); Mr L. Nichols (Nanaimo); Mr
A. Slocomb (Victoria); Mr Kent Haworth (Prov.Archives); Mrs H. Ford
(Alberni); Mrs M. Jordon (E. Kootenay); Mrs F. Street (Visitor),
The meeting was called to order by the President at 1.55 p.m.
The Secretary moved adoption of the minutes of the previous meeting
as circulated. So declared by the President.
The President opened a discussion of plans for next year's convention
and the Secretary called upon the hosts from the East Kootenay Society
to request whatever assistance they required. Mr Hunter then reported
on the results of a meeting recently held by their group regarding th*
Discussion followed concerning a guest speaker for the Convention.
The President asked Mr Hunter, Mrs Jordon and the Secretary to prepare
a final report on this matter for the next Council meeting.
Additional discussion followed regarding locat ion of the Convention
proceedings, transportation, a proposed trip to Libby Dam and registration
fees and associated financing.
Mr Brammall reported on changes to the Constitution concerning
voting at the Annual General Meeting. The President thanked Mr Brammall
for his work and opened the discussion. He stated that he would pass
some points he had,after reviewing the Constitution,to Mr Brammall,
Further discussion followed and the President then proposed that the
same committee stand and report back at the next meeting of Council.
The Secretary reported that Mrs Anne Stevenson of Williams Lake had
been chosen as the Association's representative on the Provincial
Historic Sites Advisory Board and recommended that member societies
send relevant requests for the Board to her through the agency of the
Council. Mrs Yandle then reported that Mrs Stevenson had given her an
unofficial report for Council that the Board was still in the first
stages of organizing'and defining its work. The President asked for a
report from Mrs Stevenson regarding liaison with the Federal Historic
Sites Board,
The President brought up the subject of plans for a convention at
Nootka Sound in 1.978 to celebrate the Cook Bicentenary. Discussion
followed. The Secretary recommended that Mr Leeming be advised of the
drift of the discussions. Mr Haworth reported on the retirement of Mr Ireland from the Provincial
Archives and Library, and also on some staff changes at the Provinaial
Archives. The President then reviewed the scope of the Association's
submission to the Provincial Secretary, sent in the spring, and assessed
the progress to date on various points raised in the brief. Discussion
followed. Mr Brammall moved and Mr Yandle seconded, that the same
committee act again, following up the brief with a letter urging separation
of the two positions and appointment of the two-best-qualified men to the
posts. Discussion followed during-which the President requested that he
receive a copy of the draft letter. Question was put and the motion
agreed to.
The President opened discussion on the possibility of the Association
applying for a provincial government grant to assist the Association in
its work, and in particular with the publication of the News, Discussion
followed and there being no formal motion of action the President announced
his intention of forming a committee to report on this subject at the
next meeting.
The Secreta ry reviewed the correspondence of the Association, and
followed with a preview of the Robert Genn painting which will be awarded
to the winner of the identification contest recently concluded in the
News.  It was agreed that the President would write and thank the artist
for his very fine gift.
Discussion followed on the location and timing of the next meeting,
which will be held in Vancouver on February 1.0th, 1.974.
Mr German moved adjournment at Seconded by Mr Watt.
Motion carried.
R. Watt
Executive for 1973-74 are President: Mrs Helen Ford; Vice Pres, Mr Gerald
Jamieson; Secretary: Mrs Caroline Raikes; Treasurer: Mr Armour Ford.
A group from Alberni joined the Nanaimo Historical Society in
September for their 20th anniversary. At their own September meeting,
the Alberni Society shared the enjoyment of two summer holidays spent
in the Telegraph Creek area. Slides Were shown by Mr & Mrs E. Ruttan
and Mr & Mrs A. West.
ATLIN HISTORICAL SOCIETY A grant of $1.5,000 has been made by the Department
of Recreation and Conservation to the Society. It is expected- that most
of the money will be used for the acquisition of the old courthouse.
GULF ISLANDS BRANCH Despite a heavy snowstorm and consequent power cut.Nov.4,
Gulf Islands members assembled in the kitchen of the Saturna Island Hall.
Mrs Mary Backlund gave an account of the first lightkeeper on Mayne
Island - "Scotty" (Henry) Georgeson, her great-great-grandfather. This
pioneer jumped ship in Victoria, during the goldrush of 1.858 and his British
Columbia descendants have mow reached a sixth generation. Although he
joined others with gold fever, in the rush up-country, he returned to the coast, and married an Indian girl. They settled on Galiano Island, where
he operated a trading schooner, facilitating an exchange of commodities
between the islands. On June 1.0, 1.885 he was installed as the first
lighthouse keeper at Georgina Point on Mayne Island. Seagoing has persisted in many of Georgeson's descendants, t .e speaker herself having
been born in her father's boat. The audience reminded her of "Uncle
Henry who stood on the whale", who is portrayed in Gulf Islands Patchwork.
In thanking the speaker, the- President, Mr Donald New added his
reminiscence: a long ago Mayne Islander suffered the death of a cow, without sufficient energy to dig a hole to bury it. Several times he towed
it out to sea, only to have the tides return it. Fed up with these
labours, he installed some dynamite in the carcass, towed it out into
Active Pass, and retired, after lighting a long fuse. A tug, entering
the Pass and seeing fire in a strange floating object, went closer to
reconnoitre, unfortunately just at the moment when the dynamite and the
fuse got to work effectively.
BURNABY HISTORICAL SOCIETY The Burnaby Historical Society, along with
their guests from the Vancouver Historical Society, held their 1973
field trip to Yale. Assembling at the old Anglican Church, built in
1.860, the group took part in the 1.1.00 a.m. service. For one member of
the group, Mrs Harold Godwin, the trip was a special pilgrimage, since
her parents were married there. It was in 1.895 that the young woman who
was later to become Mrs Godwin's mother arrived in Yale on the train and
immediately after alighting walked the few steps from the station to the
church where she joined her fiance, Frederick John Hart, at the altar
for the occasion of their marriage.
After the morning service the Society had a picnic on the church
grounds, during which a talk was given by Judge Berry whose grandfather
took part in and bore arrow wounds from skirmishes with Indians in the
Yale area. Members later toured the church and other historic sites
in the area, including a private museum.
NANAIMO HISTORICAL SOCIETY On the Annual Field Day members met at
Nanoose Bay for a tour to Qualicum District No. 69. (Unfortunately
because of lack of space in the News we can list only the highlights
of this most interesting account.) Stops were made at Upper Bridge,
Englishman's River, St, Anne's Church, Qualicum Beach, the Columbia
Beach Development at the mouth of French Creek, Eaglecrest Lodge, the
Five Acre Development and Qualicum Village, At each stop the history
of the particular area was recounted.
At its Sep tember meeting the Society celebrated its 20th anniversary
along with guests from Victoria, Port Alberni, Gulf Islands, Chemainus
and Courtenay Historical Societies, Life memberships were presented to
Mrs A. Yates and Miss P.M. Johnson, founding members. Col. Andrews,
President of the B.C. Historical Association, gave an illustrated talk
"Retracing the Yukon Telegraph". He outlined the early attempts to set
up a telegraph system in B.C. in the 1.860's and related how the final
link was made, with the Yukon at the turn of the century following the
gold rush there.
Mr David Russell, a descendant of one of NanaimoS original settlers
who came on the Princess Royal in 1,854, spoke at the October meeting
on the perpetual calendar, giving out samples of his calendar and table.
The Nanaimo Society has a number of projects planned or under way
for celebrating the City's Centennial year. These include tracing the
history and development of Commercial Street in the downtown area, Newcastle Island's part in mining and quarrying industries, and the
recording of sites and buildings of historical interest. The Society has
also applied to the City for a grant from any Centennial Fund to enable
it to have the historic tape recordings made by Mr W.Barraclough transcribed for permanent record.
a $400 grant from the Regional District of East Kootenay, aims "to keep
the past living" by cleaning up and maintaining the area's cemeteries of
long ago. This summer Fort .Steele and Wildhorse received the attention.
At Fort Steele the Department of Highways built a road in to the old
cemetery and the museum staff loaned a crew to help remount stones and
generally clean up graves. The R.C.M.P. put in a pole fence at the old
N.W.M.P. cemetery there. A parking lot will be ready by next year. At
Wildhorse the ferce was rebuilt and a signpost erected for the public
Fall plans included straightening and grouting gravestones at Moyie, brushing out and replacing the fence, and cleaning up and restoring -the fence at
Old Town on Perry Creek.
VANCOUVER HISTORICAL SOCIETY In June the Society's Field Trip took them
to Port Moody, Port Coquitlam and Coquitlam. At Port Moody Alderman Bert
Flinn, President of the Port Moody Historical Society, dressed in C.P.R.
costume, conducted a tour to the old Port Moody Station and to the new
Port Moody Museum.
The Society is pleased to note that Christ Church Cathedral was saved
from demolition, after a long controversy.
At the September meeting, Jacqueline Gresko, Vice-President, dressed
in Victorian costume, read some of the letters of Mary Susanna Moody
from New Westminster, 1.858 to I.863 to her relatives in England, Mrs Moody
was wife of Col. R.C Moady, commander of the Royal Engineers in B.C.
and Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works,
At the October meeting Sam Roddan, son of Rev. Andrew Roddan, minister
of First United Church, reminisced about life in Vancouver during the
Depression. Several members of the First United Congregation, including
some of the ladies who had run the soup kitchen, attended the meeting to
hear a first hand account of Andrew Roddan's life, tapes of hymns, sermon
excerpts and slides.
The Executive took the opportunity offered by Heritage Canada, to
obtain- a free membership in Heritage Canada for the Society from Sept.
1973 to Sept. 1.974.
The Society noted with regret the deaths of two Vancouver Life Members:
Philip Timms, 98, pioneer photographer of Vancouver, and E.A, Aim, Swedish
Canadian pioneer and real estate agent.
VICTORIA BRANCH In keeping with the- Centennial of the Royal Canadian
Mounted Police celebrations, Inspector W.C Shaw spoke to the members of
the Victoria Section at their June meeting, on the history of the force,
well illustrated by slides.
It required two buses to transport 94 members on their annual field
trip in July. The first stop was the Maltwood Museum, in Saanich, where
a tour was arranged. From there, members went to St. Stephen's Church and
the old Thompson farm on Mount Newton Cross Road, Taking along picnic
lunches the facilities of the Church hall were used, followed by a tour
of the Church and Churchyard where the Rev. Footer gave a history of the
Church, the oldest continuing church in B.C From there the Thompson farm
house was visited, where Mr J.K. Nesbitt told about the Thompson family. 7
Mr Wm Barraclough, the Society's Life Member from Nanaimo, spoke at
the September meeting on "Formative Days of Nanaimo and Sketches of Some
of their Pioneers".
At the October meeting, our former Vice-President, George Newell,
presented an illustrated talk on the old Chilcoot Trail, where he had
spent some time travelling during the summer.
During the summer months a collection of items from the Vancouver
Sun has accumulated...
.... June 1.6th -"B.C. Gives Okay to Goldrush Park. British Columbia has
agreed to donate about 80 square miles of rocky country for an. international park.... In principle (it) involves B.C.'s part of the Chilkoot
Trail..... The U.S. Government has already designated its portion of the
Chilkoot Trail from the B.C. border through the Alaska panhandle to Dyea.
...The B.C. section stretches from the Chilkoot summit to Lake Bennett
near the Yukon border."
.... June 1.6th - "Yellowkmife, N.W.T. The Federal Government has given
approval for a salvage operation in the Arctic waters of Hudson Bay to
raise a 101-year old American whaling vessel, the Ansel Gibbs, which
sailed from New Bedford, Mass. and met with disaster in 1.872. The salvage
operation is expected to cost between $1 and $2 million, all of which funds
were raised in the U.S. Under the terms of the agreement Canada will be
able to recover an unnamed historical item from the U.S. in return for
the whaling ship." (I wonder what it will be. Ed.)
,... Aug. 25th"0kanagan Lake gets new Provincial Park. A new 25,500 acre
Class-A provincial park on the east side of Lake Okanagan, just north of
Penticton,:was announced.... Squally Point,... home of the legendary
Nhasitk monster is a highlight of the new park. Known today as Qgopogo,
Nhasitk lived in a cave near the point." (Members attending the Convention
in Penticton in 1.969 will remember the plea made for this park by Mr
Victor Wilson, one of our guest speakers. Ed.)
.... Aug. 28th  In a letter to the Editor of the Sun, W.T, Murphy of
Langley took exception to a 'filler' indicating that Taber, Alberta
was named after Senator-Taber- of Colorado. He. goes on to say "According
to Place. Names of Alberta, published, by the Geographic Board of Canada
in 1928, the name "Taber" is the first tpart of the word 'Tabernacle',
named out of consideration for Mormon settlers in the vicinity (1.904);
the next station is Elcan - the last five letters of 'Tabernacle' spelled
.... Sept. 1.5th "Under the auspices of the Historic Sites and Monuments
Board of Canada, a ceremony at the Great Divide Pond, named Committees'
Punch Bowl, officially commemorated the Athabasca Pass  The 6.000
foot Athabasca Pass was the Trans-Canada Highway of men like David
Thompson, who in 1.81.1 became the first white man to travel it."
From Vancouver member, Angela Thacker. The following clipping from the
Eastern Daily Press (England) Aug. Sth.  "Statue of Vancouver Stolen at
Lynn. A small statue of Captain George Vancouver... has been stolen from
the Town Hall at Lynn. It is thought that the bronze figure was taken
from its position under Vancouver's portrait at lunchtime yesterday.,..
The statue was presented in 1.957 by the City of Vancouver ... to commemorate 8
the bi-centenary of the captain's birth," At this time there has been no
information regarding its recovery.
A further letter to the same paper on August 1.1th deplored the theft,
but wanted to start a controversy by stating the captain was born at Long
Sutton and not at Lynn.
From Government of Maritoba Information Services Branch.  "In one of the
world's major archival transfers, the archives of the 300-year old
Hudson's Bay Co., some 50 tons of historic documents, will be deposited
in the Manitoba Government's modernized Provincial Library and Archives
building next year. The illuminated transfer agreement was signed by
George T. Richardson, Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, and Premier Ed
Schreyer at a ceremony in the Legislative Building. Involved in the
transfer are seme 4,293 linear feet of documents covering the entire period
from the founding of the company in I.67O right up to those currently
required for operational use The actual transfer is expected to take
place during the late summer of 1974, Winnipeg's centennial year.
From Alex Johnston, Chairman, North-West Mounted Polioe Conference.
This conference will be held at the University of Lethbridge May 1.2-1.6, 1974.
"We are anxious to get preliminary notification to residents of B.C.
A release now will give interested persons time to decide." An interesting programme is being prepared and further details will be provided
in the next issue of the News.
Barley Hatfield, 687 Vancouver Ave., Penticton, writes "We are still
fighting for the extension to Manning Park to fully protect the Brigade
Trail of 1.849-60  Am wondering if one or more of the B.C Historical
Association members would be interested in going over the Trail next
summer? A seventy two year old. made it this year, but I admit that he is
a man in good physical shape. If anyone is interested I could keep him
informed of any trips being organized." (Thanks, Harley, for the
invitation - now where are all the hikers? - Ed.)
From Federation of British Columbia Naturalists' Newsletter: "A generous
donation by Geoff and Olga Haszard gives us a 36 acre park on Christina
Lake, It will be named Ole Johnson Park after Mrs Haszard's father, a
pioneer there.
"A 29 acre Class A historic park at Harrison Mills for day use. It
is centred on the old Acton Kilby General Store Museum."
Clare McAllister, Gulf Islands Branch sent a clipping from the Victoria
Times, 1.6th August,  "History Repeated - at $2.6l an Hour." The Provincial
Government is paying students from Mount Douglas Secondary School $2.6l
an hour for their research on Victoria's history, during a six-week period,
which is one of hundreds of special student employment projects sponsored
across B.C After doing their research at the Provincial and City Archives,
various libraries and private collections, the students are preparing 21
teaching kits on aspects of Victoria's history. The Mount Douglas project,
employing 15  students, will cost the Provincial Government $42,326, plus
10$ payroll costs. COVER COMPETITION ;The News is pleased to announce the winner of the
competition to identify the places on the four covers of Volume 6. - .
One "Where was it?" and three "Where is it?" pictures. The letter from
the winner Mrs- D.M. Imredy, a Vancouver member, shows the kind of interest
we hoped the competition would generate.
" These are my answers to the NEWS contest:
1. Where was it, November 1.972. The old Court House that used to stand
where Victory Square is today.
2. Where is it, February 1.973. St. Anne's Church on the O'Keefe Ranch
near Vernon.
3. Where is it, April 1.973. Grizzly-bear-of-the-water at
Kitseguecla near Hazelton.
4. Where is it, June 1.973. Fisgard Lighthouse, west entrance Esquimault
The research for the answers has given me a lot of pleasure. At
first, I wasn't interested - it was nothing I could recognize and also
none of my friends. Regardless I kept the magazine on the table to look
at onee in a while (I'm the curious type). After Christmas when I had
time for library books - voila? there it was!
About the same time the second one came and I recognized it right
away. We visited there last September.
The third one seemed to take forever in coming, when it did!!!! I found
a picture of it in Beautiful British Columbia (I have all the issues) but
the place was not pinpointed. Off and on I was searching, looking through
books, magazines, even wrote my niece in Smithers and sent her off to
the villages and she was in the process of doing one each time they went
camping. But today I found it pinpointed in an old Beaver magazine I
own (I have back copies of those, too). Don't know why I didn't look at
them before! I {
Several days ago the fourth picture came and I found that in a ten
minute search.
Now I'll have to get on with my own research, no more excuses!!!"
The presentation of the prize - an original oil painting by Robert
Genn, of Roly  Trinity Church, Patricia Bay, Saanich Peninsula - will be
presented at the meeting of the Vancouver Historical Society on November
2 8th. The painting, beautifully framed, is a gift from Robert Genn that
is very much appreciated.
Pioneer Days of Port Renfrew, by Josephine Godman, edited by T.W.
Paterson. Victoria, Solitaire Publications. 64 pp, illus. $2.75.
This 64-page, paper-covered volume (unrelated to any centenary!)
joins a legion of histories of local areas of B.C., such as "Errington";
"Kelowna, Tales of Bygone Days"; 'Water Over the Wheel" (Chemainus Valley);
"History of Alert Bay". Their format and approach to content are somewhat similar: the rather wan reproductions of such old photographs as
have been made available .from still extant family albums; subject matter
drawn from surviving pioneers, from the oldest Indian, from dusty letters
and diaries, and from newspapers.. 1.0
This little history is not provided with an index. The one "map"
pasted inside the front cover shows (superimposed on a very pale reprint
of southern Vancouver Island) Port Renfrew . , . presumably the district
is intended . . . blacked in larger than Saanich, Victoria and Esquimalt
region. It offers no indication of old Indian and pioneer trails and
roads through to the Eastern coast of Vancouver Island, via Cowichan.
No Eastern stranger or puzzled British Columbian, is offered help to know
where were and are Otter Point, Sooke, Shirley, Metchosin and other way
spots getting frequent mention in the text. Shipping lanes are traced only
in the text. This is unfortunate, for the time expended bjr pioneers, and
the perils they suffered when travelling,, make up a good part of the
recollections of this pioneer settlement.
Many of such histories, prepared in affectionate recollection of time
past in one local area, are found to be meticulous in their searching
and setting down of names, dates, and first efforts at farming or the
promotion of enterprise. Such precision may give the feeling expressed
by a long gone professor, "facts are not the truth". Another effort at
expressing the same reaction is that, when one cuts up and sorts out the
rabbit, while vrell  understood and delineated., longer kicks. This
book has a proper scrupulosity in its recording. Happily it has been able
also to incorporate and retain a sense of life, the feel for people mostly
long gone, the texture of life past. Its respect for minutiae does not
obscure, but illuminates the truth.
Mrs Godman has a knack of setting down briefly the sort of amusing
anecdotes that might be exchanged at a reunion of pioneer settlers.
Perhaps reading these is one way for those of sociological inclination to
understand the folkways of a culture that has passed; what was preserved?
... like honey in the honeycomb, to laugh at again and again? Appreciation
of the foibles of the very various sorts of people that made up the
community comes but in every tale. So does their marvellous ability at
improvisation. Sometimes "make do" failed its purpose, but the doers
managed to survive, as when a boat in trouble led to the heaving overboard
of a brand new cookstove, to serve as anchor. Although the boat was
broken up on the shore, the men survived. Some bachelors lived in a state
of household disorder which did not please the good folks of early days.
The writer tells of her father visiting a man whose cabin was of the sort
"where, if you are cold, you put on another dog at night". One contributor
took pride in telling the author how, at nine years old, she cooked dinner
for a passing timber cruising party. Frustrated because she found the
potato pot too heavy for her to control while straining,she took it, as it
was, across the water, by canoe.
Apart from such tales, the book offers sections on such topics as:
Railways, Logging Operations and-Mines; a Hazardous Coast; Victoria-Cape
Beale Telegraph; Botanical Beach; Tragedy; and Random Recollections; .
After "The End" appears in firm capitals, three-quarters of the way
up page 63 . . . we come to the luxury of the heading "An Agitation of Life"
on page. 64. But, if you want to read its anecdotes about "medical care" and
"one of the most dedicated drunks in the province", you must get the book
yourself. It's worth having!
SUGGESTION: Annual presentation of such volumes to school libraries would not
make much drain on the slender funds of local associations. It could well
make the dotted and dated past, of more formal histories, spring to life for
our schoolchildren today. Clare McAllister, Galiano. 1.1
The Charlottes:. A Journal of the Queen Charlotte Islands, Vol, II, 1973.
The Q ueen Charlotte Islands Museum Society, $2.50.
No part of British Columbia is richer in history than the Queen
Charlotte Islands. In 1.774 when Juan Perez sighted its shores the Islands
became the first part of Eritish Columbia to be discovered by white
explorers. Today the "misty isles", their mineral and agricultural resources
minor and little developed, their fisheries badly depleted, depend financially
-almost entirely upon the employment offered by three big logging companies
and the federal government. The population, white and Haida, is sparse
indeed. Yet the Islanders rejoice in their isolation, loathe the very
thought of a provincial ferry to the mainland, and live a good life in
their strange empty land of grey skies, long beaches fringed with- Sitka
spruce, intricate inlets, and precipitous mountains.
The love of the islanders for their '-Charlottes" resulted several
years ago in the founding of the Queen Charlotte Islands Museum Society,
whose members may be few but whose devotion to Q.C.I, history is strong
indeed. In this second issue of the Society's journal, we learn that
E.L. Bullen and his wife Beverly, whose enthusiasm launched the Q.C.I.M.S.,
are leaving the islands. One must devoutly hope that the venture will
survive their departure.
Pride of place in this issue is given to H.B. Phillips' "A Photo
Voyage Around the Charlottes", Snapshots of places visited by the ketch
Homeward Bound during her circumnavigation are accompanied by a commentary
on the places visited. Dr Bristol Foster, who was on the trip* has contributed a brief ornithological note; "Seabirds on the Charlottes: Thumps
and Grunts in the Night".
The editors have had the happy thought to reprint, from a Report of
the Provincial Museum, "The Story of Ninstints" by Wilson Duff and
Michael Kew. In this definitive article on the people of Anthony Island
will be found the epic story of their chief Koyah, who four times launched
attacks on the white man's trading ships and twice succeeded in capturing
them. A very distinguished contributor is Dr Erna Gunther, of the University of Washington, who has supplied a brief article on "The Haida: An
Outline of Early Contacts with Europeans". This is accompanied by a
fascinating photograph of argillite carvings of Yankee seamen, preserved
in Copenhagen.
Of rather questionable value are the excerpts printed from the account
of the Charlottes published in 1.789 by "CI." - as the editor notes, the
material was cribbed from the Beresford letters published the same year
by Captain Dixon. R. Levine's highly technical "Notes on a Haida Text: 1"
is clearly intended for professional linguists, but contains some interesting information about the Haida language for the rest of us. More to
the taste of the average reader are the lively recollections of Wesley
S. Singer: "Early Years in Masset, 1.909-1915". An anonymous contributor
has supplied a very thoroughly researched article on the Hudson's Bay
Company's post founded at Masset in 1.869, though one must regret that the
numerous quotations are unfootnoted. ,
A highly interesting and agreeably written piece of local history is
Agnes Mather's "The Sandspit Saga 1900-191.5". Here will be found the
story of a settler who, putting his wife in their rowboat, failed to 1.2
reach the nearest midwife in time, and so her child was born on the beach
by a very large log. Known to the children as "Biddy's Log" since Mr
Cole said he "found" the baby there, it set the local children looking for
other babies presumably spawned by logs.  "The One Room School of Yesteryear"
(anonymous) is based on excerpts culled from the minute books of those
little school boards which were once British Columbia's best examples of
grass-roots democracy. Sybil de Bucy's "A Few Adventurous Years" deals
chiefly with life in the 1920s.
The most dramatic piece in the book is "The Last Trip of the Gas Boat
'Mabel'" in which Charles and Corbett Smith-tell of their terrifying
experiences when their disabled little boat was first swept into the open
ocean during a storm and subsequently wrecked on a rocky cliff. After this
anything x«>uld be anti-climax and we only have some verses, "Memories of
Queen Charlotte Islands", written in the Robert Service tradition by a
missionary, B.C. Freeman, around the beginning of the century, followed by
a report on the leasing of a museum site from the Skidegate Indians.
Everything considered, this is a very nicely diversified issue,
attractively produced and reasonably priced. Orders for copies may be sent
to the editor of The Charlottes, Sam L. Simpson, Box 1.55, Masset, B.C.
G.P.V. Akrigg'
Dr Akrigg is a member of the Vancouver Historical Society.
The Great Kicking Horse Blunder, by Edmund E. Pugsley. Printed by Evergreen
Press Ltd., Vancouver, B.C., 1.973. 95 PP« plus 32 pages of photographs.
$8.40, including tax.
Do you enjoy railroading tales? If you do then there's a wealth of
them in this book. Mr Pugsley has followed the .theme of his title
throughout his story, but it is richly interspersed with anecdotes that
are both informative and entertaining.
The thesis of the book is that the C.P.R. would have been better
located in the Yellowhead Pass than through the canyons of the Kicking
Horse and Rogers Passes. Mr Pugsley substantiates this with a history of
buulding the line, the many accidents with the resultant loss of life, as
well as the still present dangers in travelling through the region in winter
time. However, his most forceful comment is on the manner in which the
original decision was made, and the fact that the operational cost for this
section of the C.P.R. line has been so high in the past and will of
necessity remain high in the future,
Mr Pugsley maintains that George Stephen, (then President of the C.P.R.)
despite the recommendations made in the surveys of Sanford Fleming, decided
arbitrarily to use the route suggested by Moberly solely because it
shortened the track length one hundred miles. It seems that no thought was
given to the steep grades, or the dangers generated by a severe climate
and heavy snowfall. The obvious thought was that if it was shorter, it
must be cheaper, and because of the acute scarcity of funds it seems Stephens
gave, no other consideration to the selection of route.
' As the book points out, these considerations should have included the 13
factors that made it become necessary to build the spiral tunnels to
alleviate the steep climb over the Divide at Field; likewise the constructing of the Connaught tunnel in the Rogers Pass to try and give some protection from the devastating avalanches; and lastly the annual cost of
maintaining the line through such rugged and inhospitable country. These
omissions are all part of the "Blunder".
Among several other minor themes which are commented upon in the book
are: the need in the early days for stronger unions to improve the
conditions of work; the lack of good safety devices and their development;
and the several incidents of "man-failure" which are given as the reason
behind some of the distressing accidents which are cited.
The Great Kicking Horse Blunder is a railroader's comment on a
decision made almost a century ago. It isn't going to change anything
now, but it is a very valid and. thoughtful comment, and makes interesting
Hedley C. Graham
Mr Graham, is a member of the Golden & District Historical Society
Winnipeg 1.919: The strikers' own history of the Winnipeg General Strike,
edited and with an introduction by Norman Penner. Toronto, James Lewis
and Samuel, 1.973. xxiii pp + 294, illus. $2.95,
Until the last decade few historians have addressed themselves to serious '
study of the Canadian labour movement. Those who did were either ideologically committed (as indeed is the editor of the present work) or less
than imaginative in seeking out sources, drawing their evidence from
official reports or papers readily available, in the Public Archives.
Such an approach is scarcely surprising.• Trade unionists themselves have
been largely responsible for the treatment - or lack of it - which their
movement has been accorded in Canadian histories. Union archives have
not always been complete or systematically organized, and until recently
they have tended to be in the jurisdiction of men and women suspicious of
all but those researchers whose sympathies were known to accord with theirs,
Norman Penner's edition Of documents published by workers before,
during, and after the Winnipeg General Strike' goes far in righting the
imbalance that has hitherto characterized accounts of that dramatic
episode in the Dominion's labour history. The bulk of the book - 228 of
its 2°4 pages - consists of an account drawn up by the Defense Committee,
a group of unionists from various Winnipeg labour organizations. The
remainder is made up of disclosures in the House of Commons by Peter
Heenan, Liberal Member for Kenora-Rainy River, on 1.1 May 1926, and excerpts
from an address to the jury by one of the strike leaders, W.A. Pritchard,
deliver ed over two days, 23-24 March 1.920.
Not unexpectedly the writings are suffused with a sense of immediacy
reflected by the choice of language, the amount of space devoted to details
which have since subsided into more accurate perspective, and by lavish
use of heavy black print to emphasize points then considered important, for
communications despatched and received, and to draw the strikers' attention
to instructions issued by their leaders. The presentation as a period 1.4
piece is alone noteworthy. More important, the selections provide an
invaluable insight into the ethos which prevailed in Canada at the end of
the First World War. The affair, which began innocently enough on 1st May
1.919 over grievances in the metal and building trades, escalated into a
direct confrontation between the strikers, the Royal Northwest Mounted
Police, and supplementary specials on June. Preceded by the arrest
and detention of strike leaders, that encounter, which resulted in one death
and 30 known injured, marked the culmination of general unrest which swept
across the Dominion during the last days of the war. Sparked by resentment
over blatant profiteering, exacerbated by Sir Robert Borden's decision to
commit Canada to the Allied Intervention in Russia, and by the Union government's ban of 1.4 organizations, the majority of them foreign language
socialist groups, Canadian labour, supported by disillusioned veterans unable
to find employment, became increasingly militant. Infected by an unrealistic
appraisal of the Russian Revolution, labour's beligerency manifested itself
in the use of Bolshevik terms and slogans at the formation of the One Big
Union in Calgary in March 1.919. The authorities, federal as well as local,
over-reacted, and Sir Thomas White, the acting Prime Minister during Borden's
absence at the Paris Peace Conference, despatched cable after cable to. Sir
Robert seeking advice, assistance, and reassurance. Borden, in turn, attempted
to dispel White's fears, calmly dismissing absurd suggestions such as the
call for a British cruiser from the China station to counter the spread of
Bolshevism in Western. Canada.
The strikers' arguments, slogans, and words speak for themselves, and are a
measure of the times. Norman. Penner's introduction, however,-is less
satisfactory. In attempting to put the Winnipeg strike into its context he
assesses it in purely Marxist terms, seeing it solely as a manifestation of
the class struggle. Nor is he always accurate or fair in his appraisal of
contributory factors, betraying a lack of acquaintance with the Borden,
Rowell, White, Meighen, and other papers now lodged in the Public Archives.
On 7th February 1,919, well before the strike began, Borden insisted that
Canadian troops in Russia be withdrawn as soon as ice conditions and
transportation permitted. The first contingent left Vladivostok in April
1919;  the last embarked on 5th June.
For one who has devoted the greater part of his life to the ultra-left
in Canada Penner says surprisingly little about the part played by various
socialist groups in Winnipeg. Nor does he mention the role, real or
alleged, of "Bolshevik" agitators, one. of whom was his. father, Jacob Penner,
a pioneer adherent and a lifelong member of the Communist Party of Canada,
The editing too, is less than satisfactory. Corporal F.W. Zaneth of the
Mounted Police, for example, is not properly identified, and it would have
been more reassuring if ellipsis had been used in presenting Pritchard's
address to the jury. Despite these and other minor shortcomings this is,
nevertheless, a very useful book. The photographs which supplement the ■
text, largely drawn from the Manitoba and the Public Archives of Canada,
are excellent.
William Rodney
Dr Rodney is in the Department of History, Royal Roads Military College, 15
BRITISH COLOMBIA BOOKS OF INTEREST, compiled by Frances Woodward '
AFFLECK, Edward Lloyd. Sternwheelers, sandbars and switchbacks. Rev. enl.
ed. Vancouver, Alexander Ivicolls Press, 1973. 47 pp., illus. $7.00
ALEXANDER, Richard Henry. The diary and narrative of Richard Henry Alexander in a journey across the Rocky Mountains... Richmond, Alcuin Society,
1973 • 32 pp. illus. $1.0,50 .-
ANDERSON, Doris. Ways harsh and wild. Vancouver, J.J. Douglas, 1.973. 239 PP-
illus. $9.50.
(ANDERSON, Frank W.) A frontier guide to mystic Jasper and the Yellowhead
Pass. Calgary, Frontier Pub. 1.973. 55  pp. illus. $1.25.
  Sheriffs and outlaws of western Canada. Calgary, Frontier Books, 1.973-
.100 pp. illus. $2.00,
brief presented by the.... Society.  (Vancouver, 1.973)  34 pp. illus.
BALF, Mary. The mighty company, Kamloops and the Hudson's Pay Company.
Kamloops, Kamloops Museum, 1.973. 1-5 PP« $1.00.
  The Overlanders and the other North Thompson travellers. Kamloops,
Mamloops Museum, 1.973. 15 PP« $1.00.
„  Ship ahoy!  paddlewheelers of the Thompson waterway. Kamloops,
Kamloops Museum, 1.973. 12 pp. $1.00.
BENNETT,. Marilyn G. Indian fishing and its cultural importance in the
Fraser river system.  (Vancouver) Dept. of the Environment, Fisheries
Serviee and Union of B.C Indian Chiefs, 1.973. 44 pp. illus.
BERT0N, Pierre. Drifting home. Toronto, McClelland & Stewart, 1.973. 174 pp. illus.
BOND, Rowland. The virginal NOrthwester, David Thompson and the native tribes
of North America. Nine Mile Falls, Wash., Spokane House, 1973. 203 pp. illus.
BOWMAN, Phyllis. Muskeg, rocks and rain! (Prince Rupert). 1.973. unpaged, $3-95.
CANOE B.C. C anoe B.C a canoe trip manual for B.C. for the centenary
journey 1967. 2nded. Vancouver, Canoe B.C 1.971.
CLARK, Cecil. The best of Victoria yesterday and today; a nostalgic 1.1.5 year
pictorial history... Victoria, Victorian Weekly, 1.973. unpaged, illus. $2.95«
CLARK, Lewis J. Wild flowers of B.C Sidney, Gray, 1.973. 591- pp. illus. $24.95.
CONNELLY, Dolly. Guide book to Vancouver Island, off the coast of southwest
B.C. Los Angeles, Ward Ritchie Pr., 1.973. 1.42 pp. illus. $2.1.5.'
.CURTIS, Edward S. Portraits from North American Indian life... Toronto,
New Press, 1.972. $25.00.
DALZELL, Kathleen E. The Queen Charlotte Islands, Vol. 2: of places and
names. Prince Rupert, Dalzell Books, 1.973. 472 pp. illus. $1.2.50...
DEVOLPI, Charles P. British Columbia., a pictorial record, historical prints
and illustrations... 1.778-1891. Toronto, Longman 19.73. xii, 1.84 plates $28.75.
DOWNS, Art, ed. Pioneer days in B.C.; a selection of historical articles
from BiC Outdoors magazine. Surrey, B.C Outdoors, 1973* 160 pp. illus. $3.95.
GIBSON, John. A small and charming world. Toronto, Collins, 1.972. 220 pp. $6.95.
GODMAN, Josephine. Pioneer-days of Port Renfrew, ed. T.W. Paterson. Victoria,
Solitaire Pubns, 1.973. 64 pp. illus. $2.75.
GOLDEN & DISTRICT HISTORICAL - SOCIETY. Kinbasket country: the story of Golden
and the Columbia Valley. Golden, 1.972. 88 pp. illus. $3.00.
HANCOCK, David. Hancock's ferry guide to Vancouver Island; Saanichton,
Hancock House, 1.973. 50 pp. 95f
  and David Stirling. Birds of British Columbia. Saanichton, Hancock
House, 1973. 69 pp. illus. $5.95.
HARRIS, A.C Alaska and the Klondike gold fields. Toronto, Coles, 1972.
, 528 pp. illus. $5.95. Reprint.
HERITAGE CLUB. Bulkeley Valley stories collected from old timers who
remember. (Smithers, Heritage Club, 1.973) 183 pp. illus. 1.6
HOBSON, Richmond P. Grass beyond the mountains: discovering the last great
cattle frontier on the North America continent.7;: Toronto, McClelland &
Stewart, 1972. 256 pp. $6.95. Reprint.
HOWARD, Irene. Bowen Island, 1.892-1972. Bowen Island, Bowen Island. Historians,
1973. 190 pp. illus. $7.95.
HOWAY, Frederic William. . A list of trading vessels in the Maritime fur
trade 1785-1.825. ed. by Richard A. Pierce, Kingston, Limestone Press,
1.973. 209 pp. $8.50. Reprint.
HUNT, Wilson Price. The Overland diary of Wilson P. Hunt. Translated from the
French by Hoyt E. Franchere. Portland, Oregon Book Soc 67 pp. illus. $20.
HUNTER, Don and Rene Dakinden. Sasquatch. Toronto, McClelland and Stewart,
1973- 192 pp. $7.95. .
HUTCHESON, Sydney. The Wella board - stories of early Fernie. Argenta,
Root Cellar Press, 1.972. 42 pp. illus.
JOHNSON, Marguerite. They sailed with Cook. Christchurch, N.Z., Pegasus,
1.970. i.25 pp. illus. $1.75.
KAY, Dave and D.A. MacDonald. Come with me to yesterday... Cranbrook, 1972.
88 pp., illus. $2.00.
KAY, Dave and D.A. MacDonald. Fort Steele; enlarged edition. Cranbrook,
1.969. 24 pp. illus. $1.00.
KEITH, Ronald A. Bush pilot with a difference: the happy-go-lucky story of
Grant McConachie. Toronto, Doubleday,. 1,972. x, 322 pp. illus. $7.95.
KIWANIS CLUB OF VANCOUVER. Kiwanis Club of Vancouver, B.C. 191.9-1-969. Golden
Anniversary. Vancouver, Kiwanis Club of Vancouver, 1.969. 99 pp. illus. $5.00.
LARSEN, Henry A. The big ship. Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1.973.
223 pp. illus. $3.95. Reprint.
MACAREE, David and Mary. 1.03 hikes in southwestern British Columbia. West
Vancouver, Mountaincraft, 1.973. $5«95«
MacGREGOR, James G. Pack saddles to Tete Jaune Cache; with a new introduction
by Ken Liddell, Edmonton, Hurtig, 1.973. 256 pp. illus. $7«95« Reprint.
McLEAN, Myrtle Haxrthorne. Early history of .Okanagan Falls and pioneers of
yesteryear. Okanagan Falls, Okanagan Falls Viewpoint, 1.972. 6 pp. 75^
Lumby, 1.973. 90 pp. illus. $2.50.
MARCUS, Anthony M. Nothing is my  number. Toronto, General Publishing, 1.972.
: 1.1.9 PP. $2.95.
MERRIMAN, Alec. Logging road travel. V.l Victoria to Campbell River; V.2
Campbell River to .Cape Scott. Sidney, Gray, 1973» 2 vol. illus. $2.95.
MEYER, Ron H. A selected bibliography on  railways in B.C. Pt 1 and 2. Van-
' coUVer, Pacific Coast Branch, Canadian Railroad Hist. Assn. 1973- 2 v„ 50^ea;
  Preserved locomotives and rolling stock in B.C. and the Yukon. Vancouver,
Pacific Coast Branch, Canadian Railroad Hist. Assn. 1.973. 12 p. 5®$
MIKA, Nick and Helma, Railways of Canada; a pictorial history. Toronto,
' McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1.972. 176 pp. illus. $9.95.
MIYAZAKI, M. My sixty years in Canada. Lillooet, 1,973. 137 pp.
NATURE WEST COAST, as seen in Lighthouse Park, compiled and illustrated by
members of the Vancouver Natural History Society. Vancouver, Discovery Press,
300 pp. $7.95.
NEWTON, Norman. Fire in the raven's nest; the Haida of British Columbia.
Toronto, New Press,,1973. 173 PP- illus. $9.50.
PATERSON, T.W. Disaster tales of heroism and hardship in the face of
catastrophe. _ Victoria, Solitaire Pubns, 1.973. 64 pp. illus. $1.50.
PATTIS0N, Ken. " Milestones on Vancouver Island. Victoria, Milestone Pubns,
1.973. 256 pp. illus. $4.95. 17
PENLINGTON, Norman. The Alaska Boundary Dispute: a critical reappraisal.
Scarborough, Ont. McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1.973. ix 1.41 pp. illus. $6.95; $3.25.
PUGSLEY, Edmund.E. The great Kicking Horse blunder. Vancouver, Printed by
Evergreen PRESS, 1973.  95 pp. illus. $8.00.
RIMMINGTON, Andrew J. Peace River railway surveys of the 1.920 's. Vancouver,
Pacific Coast Branch, Canadian Railroad Historical Association, 1973.
1.0 pp. illus. 500 ■,
ROBINSON, J. Lewis and Walter G. Hardwick. British Columbia: one hundred
years of geographical change. Vancouver, Talonbooks, 1.973- 63 pp. illus. $2.25-
SATTERFIELD, Archie. Chilkoot Pass, then and now. Edmonds, Wash., Alaska
Northwest Pub., 1.973. 183 pp. illus. $3-95.
SEED, Alice, ed. Sea otter in eastern North Pacific waters; illus. by
Maxine Morse. Seattle, Pacific Search, 1.972. 40 pp. illus.
SCOTT, David and Edna H. Hanic Nelson: queen city of the Kootenays; an
historical profile. Vancouver, Mitchell Press, 1.972. 1.27 pp. illus. $3.95.
SMITH, Ian. The unknown island. Vancouver, J.J, Douglas, 1973. 1-74 pp.
illus. $17.95.
SMYLY, John and Carolyn. Those born at Koona; the story of Haida totems.
Saanichton, Hancock House, 1.973. 129 pp. illus. $12.95.
STEELE, Samuel B. Forty years in Canada; reminiscences of the great northwest with some accounts of his service in South Africa. Toronto, McGraw-
Hill Ryerson, 1.972. 428 pp. illus. $8.95. Reprint.
STEWART, Hilary. Artifacts of the Northwest coast Indians. Saanichton,
Hancock House, 1.973. 1-72 pp. illus. $1.2.95.
STUART, Will, ;Some we have met and stories they have told. Creston,
Creston Review (I.967) 154 pp. illus. $2.25.
TURNER, Robert D. Vancouver Island's railways. San Marino, California,
'' Golden West Books, 1.973. 170 pp. illus. $1.4.95.
VARDEMAN, Lynn and Freda Carr. A guide to Stanley Park. Vancouver, Seaside
Publications, 1.973, 77 pp. illus. $2.95.
WAITE, Don. Kwant'stan (the Golden Ears) Vol. 1. Maple Ridge, 1.972.
-.. 75 PP. illus. $2.50.
WLLLSON, Janet. Exploring by bicycle,-southwest B.C,, Northwest Washington.
Vancouver, Gundy's & Bernie's Guide Books, 1.973-  96 pp. illus. $2.95.
WILSON, J.W.,,,,People in the way; the human aspects of the Columbia River
project. Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1.973. 200 pp. illus. $1.2.50.
B..C DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE. An economic study of the tree fruit industry in B.C.
a report... by 3,C Hudson. Victoria, 1.973. 1-43 pp.
B.C. forest industry.. .Victoria, 1.973. iv, 89 pp.
B.C. DEPT. OF LANDS, FORESTS AND WATER RESOURCES. LANDS SERVICE. The disposition of crown lands in B.C. Reprinted with revision, Vict. 1.973. 30 pp.
B.C. PROVINCIAL MUSEUM. Anthropology in B.C Memoirs.
1. Duff, Wilson. The Upper Stalo Indians of the Fraser Valley, Vict. 1973-
2. Suttles, Wayne. Katzie ethnographic notes. Vict. 1973.
3. Jenness, Diamond. The faith of a Coast Salish Indian. Vict, 1973.
4. Duff, Wilson, ed. Histories, territories and laws of the Kitwancool.
Vict. 1.973.
B.C. PROVINCIAL MUSEUM. Memoirs. Duff, Wilson. The Indian history of B.C
Vol. 1. the impact of the white man.
PARKS BRANCH. Wild flowers: Banff, Jasper, Kootenay, Yoho National Parks,
, by R.G.H. Cormack. Ottawa, 1972. viii, 50 pp. illus. $1.25.
of the Fraser River salmon canning industry, I885 to 1.913. Vancouver, 1.973.
87 pp. 1.8
by G.' Smedley Andrew's
(Being the basis for the President's Address to the British Columbia
Historical Association Annual Convention, University of B.C., Vancouver,
25 May 1973. This text is subject to revision, for which copyright is
reserved by the author.)
PART I.  (Part II will follow in the next issue of the News in February.)
British Columbia's Air Survey Story is certainly, history. Except
fragmentarily, pertinent to other themes, it has not been told before. It
is an important story. Air Survey has played a primary role in British
Columbia's geographic, economic and cultural development. Considering the
subject as history, it comes as a surprise, and a shock to your speaker
that he probably knowSthis story better than anyone living todayr  because
of intimate involvement in his own time and by his good fortune to have
known those pioneers, now departed, who initiated it. The opportunity, as
the story unfolds', to pay them due tribute, is a duty and a privilege.
They left an Inspiring legacy to us who received the torch from their hands.
This story relates how, among all provinces of Canada' and indeed among
many sovereign nations of comparable size or economic status, British
Columbia won and maintained a leading position in the Air Survey field,
resulting in the superb maps and knowledge of our environment.
The term "Air Survey" is an example of British genius in coining simple
language for things not so simple. It was used for a standing committee
of experts set up in the Geographical Section, General Staff, (GSGS), at
the War Office, London, in 1.91-9 to study the use of air photographs for
military mapping and intelligence, which they named' "The Air Survey
Committee", Its reports and "Professional Papers" in" following years
became classics in air survey literature. A term used internationally is
"Aerial Photogrammetry", which means briefly, quantitative and qualitative
interpretation of air photos, primarily for mapping, but many other
applications are included... Quantitative interpretation concerns measurement,
direct or indirect, for: how far? how much? how wide? how high? what
direction? etc. Qualitative interpretation concerns identity: what is it?-
a goat or a pig; a swamp or a field; a high rise or an outhouse; a trail,
a road or a railway? - - and so forth.
An air photo, at the instant of exposure, high above the Earth, constitutes an optical pyramid whose apex is the camera lens, and base is the
quadrangle of ground below included within the edges of the photo. This
pyramid comprises innumerable rays from countless objects on the ground,
converging in space at the camera lens, and intercepting the photo in their
images thereon, in true perspective fidelity, because the light ray from
each element of ground detail travels in a straight line through the lens
to its image on the photo. A familiar application of this phenomenon is
projecting colour slides on a screen in our home, to obtain a faithful and
gratifying display of scenes snapped in a split second, days or weeks before,
and sometimes far away. 19
Before the evolution of practical aviation in World War I, photographs
taken on the ground had been used widely for mapping and other similar
applications. The technique was called photo-mapping or phototopography, and
more generally terrestrial photogrammetry. In essence, the camera at
the moment of exposure captured the true angular relationships of countless points in the visible environment from the camera station. These
directions, combined with like photo information of the same scene from
other camera stations, by graphic intersection, established the true relative horizontal and vertical positions of all common features identified
in the photos, to be shown with remarkable detail and precision on maps
thereby produced. The survey photograph, be it taken on ground or in the
air, in a sense, is an angle-book of directions to a multiplicity of
points in the environment, visible from the camera station.
The governing mathematics of photogrammetry may be termed "perspective
geometry", the principles and application of which had been known to
scholars and artists for a long time. Leonardo da Vinci (1.452-1519) made
use of the "camera obscura", simply a darkened room with a small hole in
one wall, through which light rays from the scene outside, brightly
illuminated by the Mediterranean sun, projected on the opposite wall,
inside, a true inverted image of it, and in colour!  True, the image was
faint, but perceptible. Da Vinci knew, of course, that by enlarging the
hole in the wall, to pass more light, a brighter image could be obtained,
but at the price of more -fuzziness, because the rays from sharp points
outside spread over larger circles on the opposite wall. The impunity
from this price was not to come till after Galileo (1564-1642) had perfected lenses for his telescope in 1.609. Also in Leonardo's time there
was no way to preserve the image. With failing light, it disappeared,
Retention of the photo-image had to wait more than 300 years till Niepce,
Daguerre and .others made their discoveries in photographic chemistry,
early in the 1.9th Century.
Albrecht Dflrer (1.471.-1528), the celebrated artist of Nurnberg, also
applied perspective principles to his art by contriving a peep-sight,
fixed in relation to an open gridded frame, behind which he placed his
subject, often an important personage. With his eye at the peep-sight
(the perspective centre), he traced out a faithful likeness of his subject
.on paper likewise gridded. He published a learned thesis on perspective
geometry shortly before his death.-' He too was denied the benefits of
Galileo's lenses and photo-chemistry for recording and preserving the image.
When photography became practicable after the middle of the 1.9th
Century, topographers in Europe began to exploit it for mapping, especially
in accidented country like, the Alps. Outstanding, and acknowledged as
"the father of Photogrammetry" was Captain Aime Laussedat, of the French '
Army.. His "metrp-photographie" was recognized by the French Academie of
Science in I.859.
French leadership in this field was to inspire application in Canada
through talents of Eduard Gaston Seville -(1.849-1924), who at the age of 25
1. Dttrer, A.  "Underwezung der Messung mit Zirkel und Richtscheyt, usw."
Nttrnberg, 1.525.
2, McCaw, R.D. "Phototopographical Surveying", Proc 23rd Annual General
Meeting, Corporation of B.C. Land Surveyors, Victoria, B.C Jan. 1.928, p.5^' 20
emigrated to Canada, having already served overseas with the French Navy as
hydrographer. After a short sojourn in Quebec, he joined tne Survey Branch
of the federal Department of the Interior in Ottawa, and in 1.885 became
Surveyor General of Dominion Lands. The completion of the C.P.R. at this
time presented a formidable task in mapping the mountains along its route
in the far west. Deville saw the advantages of photo-topographic mapping
in that difficult terrain, and in 1886, initiated the method, with cameras
of his own design. In following years some outstanding Canadian surveyors
were to be schooled in "photo-mapping" by Deville, so that he, in turn,
became known as "the father of photogrammetry in Canada". Thanks to Deville's
leadership, the skill and prowess of '"is surveyors, and the tremendous
scope and need for its application, Canada soon led the world in photo-
mapping with cameras on the ground.
Until World War I, photo-topography as related here, was confined to
terra firma, from triangulated mountain-top camera stations. The rougher
the terrain the better the results, because in such country vertical detail
is best displayed to the camera. The method was less effective in flatter
country where desired detail was often obscured by ridges and forest growth.
For this the "bird's eye" view from above was needed, to reveal the detail
hidden from earthbound viewpoints.
Evolution of practical aviation in World War I provided the necessary
airborne platform for taking air photographs, including "obliques" which
usually included the horizon and a wide sector of terrain, and "verticals:|
aimed straight downward, showing more detail but covering less ground. In
British Columbia, vertical photos were preferred, especially for detail
mapping, because the far sides of mountains are hidden in the oblique views.
In wartime air photography became extensively used for military mapping and
intelligence. Incipient in 1.91-5. by mid summer the next year ", . .it had
become our chief source of information as to enemy activity arid works . , ."3
The new method was used both in western Europe- and in the Middle East (Palestine)
". , .True, the cameras were crude, the photos sometimes poor, and the cover
haphazard, but for a number of surveyors, .... Who survived to return to
the undiminished challenge of B.C.'s still enormous survey and mapping'
problem, It was sufficient to convert them into enthusiastic missionaries
for air photo surveys in B.C. . , ."
After the armistice in 1.91-8, the leading nations were quick to exploit
the new tool of air photography for long delayed domestic mapping and
rehabilitation surveys. Service personnel we're eager and impatient to apply
its benefits in peace. In 1.919, the Canadian government created the "Dominion Air Board" to study and expedite peacetime aviation, including air
photography. Surplus aircraft and related equipment were made available at
bargain prices, or "for free", to stimulate the new potentialities.
The foregoing, though lengthy, is thought desirable to set in fitting
perspective, British Columbia's Air Survey Story, which now follows;
CONCEPTION - 1919-1930 (approx.)
One of the first to preach tne Air Survey.gospel in British Columbia
was the late Richard Charles ("Dick") Farrow, E.C.L.S. (1.893-1950), who
3» Farrow, R.C "Phototopography- fiifcom .Mre -Air", Prbc. 1.4th Annual General
Meeting,- Corporation of B.C. Land Surveyors, Victoria, B.C. Jan. 1.919, p.11. 21
when Captain, R.F.C, overseas, prepared a paper based on his war experience with air photography in France, entitled "Phototopography from the
Air", which he sent home to be read by a brother surveyor at the B.C. Land
Surveyors' 1.4th Annual Meeting in Victoria, 1.4 January 1919.  Farrow's
paper described aircraft, cameras, techniques and results of war operations,'
and made enthusiastic suggestions, based on these and his pre-war surveying experience, for peacetime application in B.C In later years, after
again serving overseas in World War II, Dick Farrow was a staunch and
influential supporter of Air Survey, until his untimely death in 1950,
at which time he was Comptroller of Water Rights for the Province.
Another World War I veteran and Air Survey evangelist was Arthur S.G.
Musgrave, B.C.L.S., (1.890-1967), who, after recovery from wounds on the
western front with the Canadian Engineers, served in Palestine as Staff
Captain under General Allenby. In that campaign he was responsible for
mapping and intelligence with air photos, of which, in his own words, he
"handled some 35,000" ^ Musgrave merits undisputed credit for the first
air survey in British Columbia, modest though it was, in 1.919. It was
done in cooperation with the Aerial League of Canada, Victoria Branch, and
the Surveyor General of B.C. (then J.E. Umbach, D.L.S.). The area on the
resultant plan was a square tract of about 100 acres, at the intersection
of East Saanich and Martindale Roads, in the vicinity (today) of Mow's
Market, 6635 Patricia Bay Highway. The Plan, drawn by Musgrave and dated
10 February 1.920, scale 200 feet per inch, bears the annotation "First
Air Photo Map in B.C.". It includes part 6f Regina Street, the old
C.N.P.R.-5 right-of-way, outlines of six buildings, seven fenced fields, and
distinguishes cultivated from other land. 6
Apparently Musgrave's plan was traced from vertical photos, controlled
for scale and orientation by six targeted ground points surveyed by him,
at no charge. Flying was gratis, from 5000 feet by the Aerial League,
with an old "RE8", piloted by Lieut. W.H. Brown, Secretary of the League.
The Surveyor General paid $35 for sundries, including a field assistant,
Alex Cook, at $7 per diem, car rental, and photo plates. His Branch also
handled processing photos and prints to the required scale* Due to camera
troubles, three flights were required to get 15 photos, which were underexposed due to the late hour of the day, and the late season, November.
Replying (4 February 1.920) to a query from the Hon. John Oliver, Premier,
a propos a request from the Aerial League for a $1,000 grant, the Surveyor
General supplied details of the project, and included his comment:
"-. . , while the above experiment was doubtless justified to get
information as to the possibilities of equipment available here, it
is the opinion of the writer that any serious work with a view to
developing aerial photographic methods for practical mapping of unmapped
territory is quite beyond the scope of the Provincial Government. In
the first place it would be too costly and secondly it would be dup-
■ Heating work being carried on elsewhere, under more favourable
conditions, both in England and the United States. Possibly the
4. Musgrave, A.S.G. to Green, F.'C 5 Oct. 1.944, File 01.6222, Survey"
Branch, Dept.of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
5. Canadian Northern Pacific Railway.
6. Item No. 1.7, File 01.6222, Survey Branch, Dept. of Lands, Victoria, B.C 22
Canadian Air Board are contemplating experiments along this line also,
but no definite information would appear to be available on this point
at present .   .   .  "'
This opinion is typical of senior officials at the time, i.e. that larger
agencies should lead the way and that practical and economic mapping of
extensive unsurveyed country in B.C., at a scale of 1/50,000 with 1.00-foot
contours, was yet to be demonstrated with air photos. However Musgrave
was persistent in arguing that air photography, even then, could provide
most useful and economic information for coastline mapping and stream
detail, even if contouring was not yet feasible.
A voucher dated 26 May 1.920 covers payment of $75 to Musgrave for
professional services connected with an air photo mosaic of the "Songhees
Indian Reserve" (Victoria), and a copy of the mosaic was sent by  the
Surveyor General to Dr Deville in Ottawa, under date 2 July 1.920. Neither
the mosaic nor further details have come to light, as yet.
By I.92I the Air Board (Ottawa) had established an operational Air
Station at Jericho Beach, Vancouver, under command of Major C. MacLaurin.
That year, in connection with the normal (terrestrial) phototopographic
mapping in the Douglas-Pennask Lakes area of the upper Nicola watershed,
under Messrs R.D. McCaw, B.C.L.S. and G.J. Jackson, B.C.L.S., a single strip
of experimental vertical air photos was obtained across the area through
cooperation of the Jericho Beach station, using a "seaplane". Only brief
mention of this is made in the Surveyor General's Annual Report for 1921,
but facing page H1.02 thereof is a half tone plate showing comparative
ground and air photos, of good quality, of the same tract.
In reply to a request from the Surveyor General dated 20 July 1.922,
for air photos in the vicinity of Rivers Inlet, where Mr Musgrave was surveying for the government, Major MacLaurin replied that current operations
were confined from Thurston Bay on patrols for the Forest Branch. However
he quoted $35*50 per flying hour for an "HS2L" Flying boat, 4-seater,
maximum load 1,800 pounds including fuel, plus film at $50 per roll (100
exposures).9 The ceiling, quoted at 7,500 feet would confine operations
to shoreline and low valley elevations. It was decided the expenditure
was not justified, but evidently Musgrave's ideas were having some effect.
About this time, MacLaurin supplied copy of an air photo mosaic
covering "Fraser River and Part of Nicoraen Island", scale l/8,000, photographed at low water, 1.9 April 1922. It had been made for the federal
Public Works Department. It appears to have comprised about 50 photos,
and the quality is good. An enquiry for oblique photo cover of grazing
lands between Dog Creek and 1.00-Mile House brought no response (on record).
In ^he Fdrest Branch Annual Report for 1.922, (page 51) it states that
aircraft were used primarily oh forest fire detection and supression, in
cooperation with the Jericho Beach Station. A significant quote from this
report follows:
T-    Item No. 20, File 01.6222 {as above-),. •-
8. Annual Report of the Minister of' Lands for the Year ended 31 Dec. 1921,
Victoria, B.C.
9. Item No. 47, File 016222;(as above.) 23
The mention of air-craft in this district must be coupled with an
appreciation of the wonderful personality and work of Major C
McLaurin, who was in charge of the Air Station at Jericho Beach, and
. who gave his life towards the end of the season in the cause of flying.
To Major McLaurin's personal efforts can be attributed a great measure
of the success which was obtained. He personally did a great deal of
the flying for fire-protection work, and his experience and wonderful
sense of direction was called on many times to overcome difficulties
which few others would have faced. He was on the job twenty-four hours
in. the day, and on more than one occasion he got out of his machine
and helped fight fires of his own free will, to make things a success.
In spite of the handicap of obsolete types of machines and of flying
operations many miles from his base, he rendered a service to the
cause of forest-protection in this district that will not be forgotten.
The author is privileged to revive this tribute to the memory of Major
C. MacLaurin, a pioneer hero in British Columbia's Air Survey Story.
An exercise in frustration began in March 1926, when the Surveyor
General tried to obtain air photo cover of the '-North Shore", Vancouver
harbour, from Roche Point to White Cliff, a strip roughly 20x2 miles. Quotes
were requested from Sqn Ldr J.H. Tudhope, commanding No. 1 Sqn, R.C.A.F.,
based at Jericho Beach, and from Major D.R. MacLaren, Manager, Pacific Airways,
Ltd, Vancouver.. The Air Force quote: was about half the commercial bid;
however there was apparent reluctance at high official level (in Ottawa) to
compete with private enterprise. Finally, due to urgency, and with a reduced
quote from the company, it was agreed that the job be done by whichever
outfit could get on with it first. Subsequent trouble with equipment caused
Pacific Airways to withdraw, and the R.C.A.F., after delays from bad weather,
attempted the job late in May. Finally, more than a month later, after
repeated requests for photo delivery, the Surveyor General advised Tudhope
that the photos were useless, due to deficient overlaps and serious gaps in
the cover. Offers to repeat the job were declined, as it was then too late
for the purpose. This affair involved voluminous correspondence, mostly
with the R.C.A.F. at Jericho Beach, but also with various people in Ottawa,
' which among other things specified the "proper chain of command" for air
photo demands was to be through the Topographical Survey office there.0 An
evident lesson from this abortive skirmish, probably not fully appreciated
at the time, is the penalty of depending on outside agencies for urgent
air photo requirements.
The R.C.A.F., operating, mainly from Jericho Beach, continued to do
sporadic air photography, presumably programmed from Ottawa, and with some
emphasis on national defence. Its photos taken in 1.926, 1928, 1.930 and 1931
in the Victoria-Esquimalt area were used to good purpose later by the author,
for experimental measurement of tree heights from air photographs.1-- Copies
of an air photo mosaic of downtown Victoria made from 1.928 photos, were on
display in the City Hall and one or two Victoria business offices, in. the
early 1.930's. In 1.972 a restoration of this same mosaic was made as an
archival exhibit by the B.C. Surveys and Mapping Branch.
1C Items No. 1.23-154, File .01.6222 (as above)
1.1. Andrews, G.S.  "Tree Heights from Air Photographs", Forestry Chronicle,
June -1936. Reprinted and purged of errors as "Graduate's Thesis" for
Assoc Professional Engineers of B.C. 1.936. 24
At this point it may be explained that the old "Survey File 01.6222", Dept.
of Lands, Victoria, spanning the years 1919-1-944, from which much of the fore-
goi ng information was derived, contains other pertinent material of interest,
mostly communications between the Surveyor General and correspondents, near and
far, among which are identities prominent in B.C., Canada and beyond. Someone
(unknown) has marked each "page" of this file, roughly but legibly in pencil,
with a numbered sequence, which is useful for reference. Sufficient to say
here that our provincial, authorities, especially during these earlier years,
were not unaware of air survey developments of considerable promise in the
world at large, but the attitude was always cautious, with reluctance to commit limited funds to ends considered beyond their scope and not sufficiently
proven for local application. Nevertheless, the "kettle" was simmering.
The first sizeable air survey operation under provincial auspices came
rather suddenly in 1929. It was a "crash" programme to map the "Peace River
Aid Block" in connection with the so-called P.G.E. Resources Survey". The
"Block" covered about 1.0,000 square miles north of Prince George, spanning the
Rocky Mountains, including the Parsnip River drainage and the main stem of the
Peace River, above Hudson Hope. A narrow appendage extended east to the 1.20th
Meridian, south of Pouce Coupe. Financing was shared by the C.N.R., the C.P.R.
and the Province. Someone did a good sales job to convince the authorities
that only by air survey could the required mapping and other information be
obtained In the detail and in the time specified. Under the direction of CR.
Crysdale, P.Eng, Chief Engineer, Norman C. Stewart, B.C.L.S., loaned from the
provincial service, was in charge of surveys and mapping. The previous winter,
1.928-29, MR Stewart had been sent to' Ottawa by the Minister of Lands, the Hon.
F.P. Burden, B.C.L.S., (in anticipation?) to study the latest graphic methods
for plotting vertical air photos, which featured "radial plots" (in Britain,
the "Arundel" method). ■ - '
Photo flying was done by the R.C.A.F. with two Fairchild 71 aircraft,and
Western Canada Airways Ltd., Vancouver, with a Junkers, all on floats. A
large field staff was deployed on control surveys, under supervision of most
of the B.C. Land Surveyors then available. Unfortunately, the air photos,
which would have greatly facilitated field work, were not forthcoming till
almost the end of the season, when a long awaited spell of clear weather came
just in time to "save the day" for the whole project. All-out air operations
then yielded an avalanche of photos, some 1.5,000 from the R.C.A.F., and
6,000 from the commercial operator.
Office work in the ensuing months, 1929-30, was necessarily on a mass production.basis - adjustment and coordination of the data from many survey parties,
and correlation arid plotting the air photos. After a.. start in Prince George the
work.was moved to Victoria for the winter, where a large technical staff was
mobilized'and trained in the methods of air photo plotting. Night shifts utilized many competent people from daytime employm^it in government and other offices
no doubt glad of.the extra pay. While the quality of the air photos was generally good., there.were many gaps between photo strips, due to primitive navigation aids, and no doubt a modicum of inexperience. Some blanks due to weather
interference were also inevitable. However, a net of some 8,000 square miles
was completed. The mapping was crude, by modern standards, but evidently met
requirements. The job was a convincing demonstration of capabilities of air
-.survey, for the authorities, and it familiarized many local people with the new practical experience. All this was to bear fruit in government policy
and application in the years to follow. Certainly credit is due to those con-
cerned with policy, direction and execution of the survey.
1.2. Stewart, N.C. "Mapping from Aerial Photographs", Proc 25th Annual Gen.
Meeting Corp. B.C. Land Surveyors, Vancouver, B.C Jan. 1.930, p.56-72. 25
In his Annual Report for 1.930* the Surveyor General (F.C Green,
B.C.L.S., who had succeeded J. Umbach, deceased), wrote as follows:
Throughout the 1.930 flying season the Dominion Government kept a
detachment of the Royal Canadian Air Force with two fully equipped
seaplanes at work on photography in this Province. We have had the
most hearty co-operation from them and preference has been given by
them to areas designated by us as of the most immediate importance, and
at this date we have on file 42,445 properly indexed aerial photographs covering an area of 1.6,600 square miles, and several thousand
additional photographs are expected soon. An examination of these
photographs under the stereoscope reveals a wealth of detail as to
forest-cover, feasible transportation routes, watersheds, and geology
which could not be otherwise secured without prohibitive expense. The
use of these planes has cost the British Columbia Government nothing
and the photographs we require are supplied at cost of printing, but
in order to retain this service we are asked to furnish the ground
survey control necessary for the full utilization of these photographs.
If funds can be provided by the Province for this control, the Dominion authorities seem disposed, in furtherance of their National Topographic Map programme, to meet us more than half-way. In my opinion
this offers too good an opportunity for getting extremely valuable
information and maps at low cost to the Province, to be neglected,
There being so many variables affecting the scale of aerial photographs,
such, for example, as height of plane, differences between the distances
from the camera of the tops of mountains and their bases, etc., it
becomes necessary to fix, by ground survey, the geographical positions
and altitudes of some points identifiable on the photographs in order
to determine the varying scales. Owing to its high relief, British
Columbia requires more than the average ground control before the full
value for mapping can be got from aerial photographs.
GESTATION - 1930-1940 (approx.)
In the 1.930-1940 decade, federal-provincial cooperation as outlined
by Mr Green continued, in spite of restrictions from slashed budgets
during the "Depression" years. Concurrently, the B.C, Forest Branch
entered the air survey arena, not only by using available R.C.A.F. photography, but also by developing its own facility for photo-flying over areas
not yet covered, - for which there was ample scope. By "tehe end of this
decade, British Columbia's "air survey baby" was a viable infant, promising
healthy growth following the interruption of World War II. •
In 1.930 N.C. Stewart established field control for a block of 1928
R.C.A.F. photo-cover south of Stuart Lake (Map Sheet 93-K-SE), some 1,400
square miles. He reported that the .R.C.A.F, were back that summer to refly
gaps in the original photography, a typical chore in those years.
Mr A.J. Campbell, B.C.L.S., reporting in his 1.931 operation wrote:
The work this year promised, and proved to be, extremely interesting.
We were, for the first time, to work in an area covered by vertical
aerial pictures. This was somewhat of an experiment, the idea being
that ground control for plotting the aerial pictures in position could
be obtained from photographs taken from ground stations. This idea 26
has been unquestionably substantiated, and it is safe to say that any
degree of such control could be obtained, depending on the density
of the photographic stations. This applies only to rough areas
where points of sufficient elevation to overlook the surrounding
country are available. It is not possible to give in any detail the
system which will be used in mapping, as we are still in the throes
of searching for a satisfactory method, but we have progressed sufficiently to feel assured of complete success in the methcd,
As Mr Campbell anticipated, an original and effective procedure for combining ground and air photos for topographic mapping at 1. mile per inch
scale, with 1.00-foot contours, was developed by the provincial Phototopographic
Division, Other prominent participants in this development, in addition to
Messrs Campbell and Stewart, were R,D. McCaw, B.C.L.S. and G.J. Jackson, B.CL.S.
In programming the work, emphasis was placed on Vancouver Island, for timber
and minerals, and the Barkerville area for mining. For the year 1.933, when
the Surveyor General's budget was cut to an all-time "low", Mr Green made
the following significant statement In his Annual Report:
We had the extraordinary experience of having surveyors of the
topographic staff, for whom no salaries had been voted, insisting
on their desire to carry on certain field work without pay, their
object being to demonstrate the success of some experiments in lowering the cost of control surveys. I am glad to say that payment for
the plotting of the 500 square miles covered by them in the Barkerville area was provided by special warrant in December, 1.933 .•••
At the B.C. Land Surveyors' Annual Meeting in Victoria, January 1.935,
plotting technique was sufficiently developed for Mr A.J. Campbell to
present an epic paper entitled "Phototopographic Control of Aerial Photographs".!^ The method was based on fixing a sufficiently dense array of
photo-control points with the ground photos, exposed from known positions
on mountain tops, which could be identified in the air views, for controlling
the wealth of detail in the latter, both horizontally and vertically.
While laborious and less accurate than modern methods, it required inexpensive
(mostly home-made) equipment, and produced maps of unprecedented accuracy
and detail.
Meanwhile, the Canadian Hydrographic Service, which was charting B.C.'s
intricate coastal features, so vital to all forms of navigation, was
exploiting the remarkable detail portrayed in air photos. Its early
projects appear to have been associated with new R.C.A.F. photo-cover, as
it accrued, as follows: 1.931, Quatsino; 1.932, Jervis Inlet, Smith and Queen
Sounds; 1.933, the Queen Charlotte Islands, particularly Moresby Island and
the west coast of Graham, Island; 1.937 Prince Rupert and the southwest coast
of Vancouver Island; and 1938, Queen Charlotte and Johnstone Straits.
1.3. Campbell, A.J. "Phototopographical Survey, Northerly Vancouver Island",
Annual Report, Land and Survey Branches, Dept. Lands, for the year ended
31 Dec 1.931, Victoria, B.C., p,Z26.
1.4. Green, F.C. "Report of the Surveyor General", Annual Report, Land and
Survey Branches, Dept. Lands for the Year ended 31 Dec 1.933, Victoria, B.C
15. Campbell, A.J. "Phototopographical Control for Vertical Aerial
'.. Photographs, as used by British Columbia Topographical Surveys", Proc
30th Annual General Meeting, Corp. B.C, Land Surveyors, Victoria, B.C,
Jan 1.935, p.38-49. 27
Other federal agencies which used R.C.A.F. photography in B.C,
as opportune, were the Geological Survey of Canada, the Topographical
Survey, and the Army. The last mentioned innovated large scale mapping
at 1/25,000 scale with 25-foot contours, in the vicinities of Victoria,
Prince Rupert and Prince George.
To properly discharge its ubiquitous responsibilities, the B.C
Forest Branch required adequate knowledge of the nature and distribution
of forest cover over the vast and varied domain of British Columbia. To
meet this need, a Forest Surveys Division was set up in the 1.920's. Like
the Phototopographic Division of the Surveys Branch, its task was enormous
and its power to cope was, by necessity, pitifully modest. The programme
was twofold, First was broad reconnaissance by selected officers who
sketched by ocular appraisal, on whatever maps available, the broad
forest types; mature, immature, burned, logged, non-forest, etc., with
rough estimates of volumes, species, age, access and so on. Legendary
in this work for many years was the late Arthur E. Collins, esteemed not
only by the service and industry, but also by many backwoodsmen in remote
parts of the province. The other phase was more intensive systematic
forest survey of important forest areas, with a view to "sustained yield"
management, as Provincial Forests. The usual procedure was called a
"lif$ cruise", 16 covering the area by a grid of examination strips on the
ground spaced a mile apart. Direction was by compass, distance by
rough chaining, and elevation carried by abney level. ' The strips were
tied directly or indirectly to existing survey control such as district
lot corners, traverse and triangulation stations. Tallies of mature
timber were made in a band one chain (66 feet)wide, and a narrower strip
in young timber, for volumes, species, density and age-height measurements at intervals. Between and beyond the strips, topography and cover
were sketched, and the 100-foot contours were mapped in as crossed. The
result was a realistic if approximate topographic map, with forest cover
types. It was a rare luxury to work an area already mapped by the
topographic surveyors, for even in 1.950 not more than 1.0$ of the province
had been covered with "standard" mapping.
16~.    The term"H$ cruise" is derived from timber tallies along strips
of one chain width (66 feet), spaced at one mile intervals through
the forest, hence l/80th or i\4>  of the total area covered.
17. A light simple hand-held level for reading the slope (angle) of
inclined ground.
(to be Continued)


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