British Columbia History

BC Historical News Apr 30, 1973

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 historical
IMS
APRIL 1973
Aw
cRt IS H < BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL NEWS
Vol.  6 No.  3
April 1.973
Published November, February, April and June each year by the
British Columbia Historical Association, and distributed free to
members of all affiliated societies by-the secretaries of their
respective societies. Subscription rate to non-members: $3.50 per
year, including postage, directly from the Editor, Mr P.A. Yandle.,
3450 West 20th Avenue, Vancouver 8, B.C.
Executive
Hon. President:
Dr Margaret Ormsby
President:
Col. G.S. Andrews
Past President:
Mr H.R. Brammall
1st Vice-President:
Mr F. Street
2nd Vice-President:
Mr J. Roff
Secretary:
Mr P.A. Yandle
Editors:
Mr & Mrs P.A, Yandle
Treasurer:
Mrs H.R. Brammall
Executive members:
Mrs Clare McAllister
Mr H.B. Nash
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Editorial 2
Society Notes & Comments 2
Brief to Provincial Government 4
B.C Books of Interest 6
Jottings 7
Book Reviews: We've Killed Johnny Ussher 9
Kinbasket Country 11
John Jessop 1.2
The Town of Coevorden, by Adrien Mansvelt 1.4
Armorial Bearings of the City of Vancouver
by R. Watt 1.9
Convention Reminder 22
The cover series for Vol. 6, Nos. 1.-4, drawn by Robert Genn,
consists of sketches of buildings throughout the province that
are of historic significance. They may be still standing or they
may be only a memory. The deadline for entries will be October
1st, 1.973. A prize will be awarded to the winner. No. 1 was
"Where was it?" No. 2 is "Where is it?" No. 3 is "Where is it?" EDITORIAL
Somewhere in time, during the evolution of man, a fundamental law for
his survival came into being. It is probable that his capacity to think
did indeed make him aware of this obligation, for it dictated the trend
of his whole existence. What was this all important law for which his life
depdanded? None other than THE DEADLINE, and the full meaning of its
observance. There was a deadline for everything and the ways of nature
brooked no interference. The migration of animals, the warning of storms,
in fact his every function depended upon his knowing when the time was
right, and should he fail to meet these deadlines he might never live to
have another chance.
Our modern day thinking has evolved the idea that no deadline is
exactly what it states and that it carries either hours or days of grace
for convenience. When the cold facts are presented that the time stated
would indeed not carry any terms of grace, the shout goes up "We didn't
know; nobody told us; this is another form of persecution". Certain
deadlines we all know, yet there are those amongst us, who would in
spite of this forehand knowledge, procrastinate and thus incur financial
penalties and entanglement with the law enforcement agencies. How many
people neglect to file their Income Tax Returns on time? How many fail
to pick up their car registrations by the end of February, or pay their
current city taxes before the deadline, which brings a 10$ penalty?
So now the Editor and all the other officers of your Association
would ask all the members to think about deadlines and watch for them on
Convention Registration Forms, the dates for submissions to be included in
the News, and yes, last but not least, that commodity that we are assured
"makes the mare run", the oer capita money due the Association for services
rendered. Did you ever stop to think of the Treasurer having to make a
special trip to the bank for the late payer, or the Secretary who has to
write a flock of unnecessary letters because someone forgot to give all
the answers requested? The most important deadline at this moment, dear
reader, is MAY 7th, when Convention Registration Forms are due. Please
don't forget your lowly Editor - he would like his material by the 10th
of the month of issue - November, February, April and June.
****************
SOCIETY NOTES AMD COMMENTS
ALBERNI It is of significant interest to note that the Alberni Valley
Museum was opened officially on April 7th, this being the culmination of
an idea that was formally initiated on March 31st, 1965- The News
congratulates the Society for its fine collection of historical data and
artifacts that they have so assiduously put together and housed in such
a splendid building. Mrs Ketha Adams has been President of the Alberni
District Museum and Historical Society since.its inception. An inscription
has been prepared which will some day find a place near the entrance of the
Museum; it is:  "The history of a place is the story of its people. Here
is the story of the Alberni Valley. It is a tale told by Indians, by
trail-breakers and home-makers and pioneers of.industry. It is a story
without end, for we ourselves are the makers of history". CRESTON At its Annual Meeting in January, the Creston & District
Historical & Museum Society had aS their speaker Mr A.E. Davis of
Kuskanook. He spoke on the siibject of the preservation of wilderness
cabins, which he had previously written up in B.C. Outdoors in October
1.972. As a result of a resolution passed at this meeting, the Creston
Society have petitioned the Provincial Government to pass legislation to
protect all wilderness shelters that are not beyond repair.
NANAIMO February 20th was the 2nd Annual Members' Night, with a potpourri programme. Many members attended in old fashioned attire. Background music was provided by a taped recording, prepared by Mr Alan
Burdock, of nineteenth century gramaphone recotds. "Mr W. Barraclough
p roduced from his collection two voices from the past - interviews with
the late Mrs Martha Kenny and the late Joseph N. Neen, Police Chief of
Nanaimo for many years. Mayor Frank New then gave a short talk on what
he forecast for Nanaimo's future. A suggestion was made to the Corporation
of Nanaimo that two oak trees on the waterfront bank be preserved and
markers placed to perpetuate their historic connection. These trees
were named in the early 1.900's to commemorate the actions of two popular
citizens, Mark Bate, Nanaimo's first Mayor, and Samuel Gough, a City
Clerk for many years.
A letter from the City of Wellington, New Zealand, was received,
requesting information on the history of Wellington, B.C as "Festival
Wellington 73 will be celebfcating a most comprehensive and spectacular
ten day festival starting March 1.0th". They wished to pinpoint on a
world map the various Wellingtons. A history of the former town of
Wellington was sent.
The speaker at the March meeting was Mr Peter MacNair, Curator of
Ethnology, Provincial Museum, who spoke on the Totem Poles of B.C and
illustrated his talk with slides. New officers elected at this meeting
included President: Miss E.B. Norcross, 1st Vice Pres. Mr J.L. Nichols,
2nd Vice Pres. Mrs Pamela Mar, Treas. Mr Harold Howarth, Sec Mrs Isobel
Rowe, Past Pres. Mrs Emily Kneen.
On April 1.7th Mr W. Barraclough presented a paper entitled "Dogs
that were indigenous to the Pacific Northwest Coast." This article was
presented to the Society in 1.955 and also published in the B.C Historical
News in 1.969, but after many requests Mr Barraclough consented to give
it again.
VANCOUVER On February 28th a joint meeting was held with the Burnaby
Historical Society, at which Alan Woodland gave an illustrated talk on
"New Westminster's fascinating past." At the March meeting Mr T.
Bartroli spoke on "Some Early Voyages to the Northwest Coast of B.C."
The Annual Incorporation Day Dinner was held on April 6th at the Stanley
Park Pavilion, at which the guest speaker was Mrs Doris Munro who gave
an illustrated talk on "Public Art in Vancouver". New officers for the
incoming season are Pres. Mr R. Watt, Vice Pres. Mrs J. Gresko, Sec.
Mr M. Halleran, Treas. Mrs I. Howard.
VICTORIA At their February meeting, Mr Phil Ward, Curator at the
Provincial Museum, spoke on the topic "Preservation of Totem Poles."
A large number of slides illustrated his interesting talk. Members were
taken baek to early days in Victoria by Avis Walton at the March meeting.
She talked gn  "Vintage Victoria Gowns, some of which came to Victoria in
the Early Days and some from Ancestral Trunks". Mrs Walton and others
modelled gowns from her collection and showed slides as well to a large
and appreciative audience. The following is a copy of the brief submitted by the B.C. Historical
Association to the Provincial Secretary in February 1973.
At the Council meeting of the British Columbia Historical Association
held on November 5th, 1.972, a motion was passed unanimously That in view
of the new Government at Victoria, and due to the lack, of interest by the
previous Social Credit Government over the past many years, and inasmuch
as the British Columbia Historical Association was founded for the preservation and recording of British Columbia history, that the time was
opportune to make representation to the Provincial Secretary to rectify
what the Association has considered to be the shortcomings of the Provincial
Archives and Library.
The findings of the committee to prepare a submission are as follows:
I. lit is our belief that in order to achieve more efficient service the
two responsibilities, Archives and Library, should be under separate
direction and should complement one another. The respective directors
should each have full authority for his own establishment and each should
be answerable to the Provincial Secretary. In the majority of similar
provincial institutions across the country, as well as at the Federal level,
the responsibilities of Archivist and Librarian are separate. We further
believe that it would be beneficial if in Victoria these two positions
were separated before the present incumbent retires so that there 'would
be a certain amount of liaison and continuing purpose in the programmes
of the respective institutions.
II PROVINCIAL ARCHIVES
The new Archives building provides adequate space at the present time,
but there is a considerable problem of access. Visiting scholars find
themselves restricted to an eight-hour day, five days a week, which is
very frustrating to people on limited time and funds, who find they cannot
utilize their time to the best advantage. Many similar institutions, such
as the Public Archives in Ottawa, are staffed to remain open most evenings
and Saturdays. It is therefore our opinion that longer hours of opening
should be provided to make the Archives fully functional. We feel that
additional staff would be required to accomplish this, but we believe
they need not be professional archivists, but rather custodial employees
who would merely enable regular patrons to have access to their research
materials.
There are many very valuable collections of manuscripts and papers
presently in the Provincial Archives, which are virtually inaccessible
because they have never been indexed. These collections have been in this
condition for many years and it is of extreme importance that they be
indexed and stored in suitable containers before they deteriorate any
further. We feel that additional staff is needed in order to carry out
this work.
. The professional staff should be encouraged and allowed to attend
courses, as well as annual professional conferences, to ensure a continuing personal contact in the field throughout the country, and at the
same time to maintain a high level of expertise among the staff. Our Association is concerned that collections of papers in many areas
of the province beyond the Greater Victoria and Lower Mainland areas have
not yet found their way to the Provincial Archives. It would seem to us
that at least one additional professional staff member should be attached
to the Archives, whose chief responsibility would be to move about the
province, under the direction of the Provincial Archivist, to acquire
papers and records which should belong in the Provincial Archives, and
that he be provided with sufficient travel funds. While the Association
recognizes that development and growth of the Archives' collections will
continue to result mainly from gifts or donations Of private materials
as well as regular accessions of public documents, at the same time some
private owners are unable or unwilling to donate materials, and therefore
funds should be made available on an annual basis for the purchase of
such valuable materials as they come on the market in order to ensure that
they are retained in their country of origin.
The copying facilities, Xerox, photocopying, etc., in the Provincial
Archives are not sufficient at some times to cope with the heavy demand.
In this area the technical equipment and expertise of the staff should
be improved so that the Archives can deliver copies to patrons without
unnecessary delays, and at a reasonable cost.
III PROVINCIAL LIBRARY
It has been virtually impossible for persons doing research in the
Provincial Library to be able to keep a continuity of study especially
while the House is in session. It is our belief that this situation
cannot be rectified unless more adequate space is provided for the
Library. This Library, in addition to an excellent collection of British
Columbia materials in general, houses the finest collection of British
Columbia newspapers anywhere, which are the more valuable because we have
had no Hansard. We feel 'that it is imperative that the collections in
the Library should be made more available to scholars and to the general
public both during the day, and in particular, evenings and Saturdays.
IV BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
The British Columbia Historical Association, founded in 1.922, has
as its purpose to encourage historical research and stimulate public
interest in history. This policy has not changed, and it has been a part
of the Constitution that the Provincial Archivist and Librarian was an
ex-officio member of the Council of the Association. In conjunction with
this close tie was the publication of the very valuable British Columbia
Historical Quarterly. This established itself as one of the top scholarly
historical journals in Canada. During the late 1.950's this publication
was allowed to die by default and has now ceased to exist. We would ask
that due consideration be given to the reinstatement "of the British
Columbia Historical Quarterly.
V HISTORIC SITES ADVISORY BOARD
We further feel that it is regrettable that the British Columbia
Historical Association was not invited to place a representative of their
choice on the Historic Sites Advisory Board. We are therefore asking
that in view of the fact that we have in our membership highly qualified
and dedicated people the Association should have representation on this
Board. VI PUBLIC DOCUMENTS DISPOSAL ACT
Existing legislation concerning British Columbia records is insufficient at the present time. As an example, many early Water Rights
Records of the Province, a valuable source of information, to the best of
our knowledge have been destroyed. Therefore it is our opinion that some
thought be given to the revision of the Public Documents Act to strengthen
and safe guard, the written heritage of our people.
In respectfully submitting these suggestions, it is not our intention
to cast aspersions on any of the present staff of the Library or Archives.
Under the trying circumstances that have confronted them for the past
number of years they have served their public admirably and we feel that
the suggestions that we have put forward would be welcomed by them at
this time.
BRITISH COLUMBIA BOOKS OF INTEREST, compiled by Frances Woodward.
AKRIGG, G.V.P. and HELEN B. 1001 British Columbia place names. 3rd ed.
Vancouver, Discovery Press, 1973« 195 PP»
ANDREWS, G. SMEDLEY. Sir Joseph William Trutch.... surveyor, engineer,
statesman - a memorial apropos the 1.871-1971 centenary of British
Columbia's Confederation with Canada. (Victoria) Published by the
B.C. Lands Service in cooperation with the Corporation of Land Surveyors
of the Province of B.C., 1972. 51 pp., illus. $2.
BRITISH COLUMBIA CHURCH DIRECTORY. (Religious and related bodies). Burnaby,
1.971. 143 pp., illus.
CARLSON, ROY L. ed. Salvage '71 reports on salvage archaeology undertaken
in British Columbia in 1971. Burnaby, Dept. of Archaeology, Simon Fraser
University, 1972. 209 PP., illus.
Fladmark, Knut R. A summary of Queen Charlotte Island prehistory. (Burnaby)
Dept. of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, 1973. 4 pp.
GIBSON, WILLIAM C. Wesbrook and his University. Vancouver, Library of the
University of British Columbia, 1973. 204 pp., illus.
KINBASKET COUNTRY; the story of Golden and the Columbia Valley. Golden,
Golden & District Historical Society, 1972. 88 ppt, illus. $3
LORIMER, JAMES. A citizen's guide to city politics. Toronto, James Lewis
& Samuel, 1972. 21.6 pp., illus.
PARSONS, S.J.B. Centennial United Church, 1.885-1970. (Victoria, 1972) 54 pp.,
illus.
PERCY, RICHARD C.W. Salvage archaeology at Crescent Beach, B.C. (Preliminary report) Burnaby, Dept. of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University,
(1973) 13 PP + 7 illus.
ROTHENBURGER, MEL.'We've killed Johnny Ussher!' the story of the wild
McLean boys and Alex Hare. Vancouver, Mitchell Press, 1973. 21.0 pp.,
illus. $5.50; $3.75 paper.
Ujimoto, K. Victor. Occupational and employment characteristics of post-war
Japanese immigrants in metropolitan Vancouver; a paper prepared for
presentation at the Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Assoc.
Toronto, 1972. Guelph, Dept. of Sociology & Anthropology, Univ. of
Guelph, 1972. 42 pp.
VANCOUVER. UNION COLLEGE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. BOARD OF GOVERNORS. The story
of Union College. (Vancouver, 1971?) 46 pp., illus. 7
JOTTINGS  .
Within the past month HERITAGE CANADA was duly incorporated as a
national charitable organization under Federal Law. One of their plans
is to establish a central registry of all voluntary associations, museums,
and historical societies that exist in Canada. Heritage Canada has been
set up along the same lines as the National Trust of Great Britain, which
has been so successful in the preservation of so many historic buildings
and areas. The News is pleased to see that Mr George Clutesi, Port
Alberni, B.C. is one of the twelve members forming the Board of Governors.
Further information may be obtained from Heritage Canada, Box 1.358,
Station B, Ottawa KIP 5R4.
ORAL HISTORY WORKSHOP June 2nd, 1.973, 9.00 a.m. - 6.00 p.m., School of
Librarianship, University of B.C. Library. Due to the increasing volume
of research in oral history and its significant impact on British Columbia
research, the time seems propitious for the organization of B.C.'s oral
historians. This workshop is a step in that direction and should provide
a valuable opportunity for the dissemination of ideas and experiences. The
purpose of the workshop is to facilitate a useful exchange of practical
information on oral history research methods. Further information may be
obtained from Mr W. Langlois, Oral History Project, Library, University
of B.C., Vancouver 8, B.C. 228-3003.
The Surveys and Mapping. Branch has, for distribution, a limited number
of:
"Memorial on Sir Joseph "William Trutch, 1.826-1904". 51 pages with
separate facsimile of "Map of British Columbia, 1871", 25 miles
to 1 inch scale. Written by G.5. Andrews, and published by the
British Columbia Lands Service, in co-operation with the Corporation of Land Surveyors of the Province of British Columbia, 1.972.
Price: $2.00 plus 5$ S.S. and M.A. tax on order for delivery in B.C. No
discounts. Cheques or money orders to be payable to the Minister of Finance.
Order from: Director, Surveys and Mapping Branch, British Columbia Lands
Service, Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C. Attention: Map/Photo Sales,
From History News, the journal of the American Association for State
and Local History: "Cooperative efforts of United States and Canadian
historical agencies should provide an exciting combination of learning
experiences at their Annual Meeting in Edmonton on September 1.8th - 21st,
1973. In a break with tradition the sessions will end at noon on Friday
so that Convention goers can begin a two-day tour of the Canadian Rockies."
Sounds like a grand adventure and it is open to our members as the B.C
Historical Association is a member of the AASLH.
From the Newsletter of the Federation of B.C. Naturalists "Men from
Vancouver Club work on a Historic Trail: In 1846 the H.B. Co. tried as a
brigade route to the interior a trail which left the Fraser near Chapman's
Bar, ascended the hill to the east and reached the easy Nicola meadows via
the rugged Anderson River country. It was a disastrous failure: one man
./ 8
shot himself and 27 horses were lost. For some years Bob Harris, Bill Hughes
and others have been quietly locating and mapping the western end of this
trail. Much the same has also been done for the Cascade-Rossland section
of the Dewdney Trail by men sent out by the Parks Branch last summer.
A new form of reserve protection for trails is being worked out and these
two could be the first to receive it."
From the Newsletter of the Vancouver Historical Society comes this
item of news taken from the Vancouver Province, March 28th. "Nootka .
Sound suggested as big U.S. Oil Station" The article by Mark Wilson
suggests that British Columbia could offer to build a super port on Nootka
Sound that could berth tankers of 250,000 tons and upwards. This port
would be for the convenience of the United States importing oil from
Alaska and the Middle East. Wilson continues with astronomical figures
of ship tonnage and oil requirements of the U.S., projected into the
future.. Where in the name of reason do these idiots get their crazy ideas?
The Newsletter then states "This item was published on the very day that
Professor Bartroli spoke to the Society. As many of us know, Professor
Bartroli has spent many years trying to have Nootka recognized as an
historic site". So has the B.C. Historical Association.
Any members planning or thinking of a trip to the Yukon which can
offer them a fascinating and exciting chance to relive the gold rush
history and follow the paddlewheel routes to the goldfields, might check
with Marg. Reede, Ste 8 - 1384 West 10th Ave., Vancouver 9 (733-0406),
She has some very interesting and economical tours arranged.
It is noteworthy that one of our members, John Gibbard, Professor
Emeritus of Education, University of B.C, wrote the following letter to
the Editor of the Sun, which appeared on March 22nd.
"Thank you for your "Page Five" reprint of the Victoria Daily
Colonist editorial, 'History-rich Yale left to neglect', on February 28.
It presents a problem which has perturbed me and some of my friends in
the B.C. Historical Association for many years, and I hope it may blip
as well as stimulate us to do something about it.
It also manages to compact into a little space some of the major facts
of the history of Yale. In fact I cannot recall seeing elsewhere so cogent
a case for honouring Yale as the first organized municipality in British
Columbia, which means, indeed, in all Western Canada.
Because of its excellence it seems to me the more unfortunate.that
it contains one small error of fact, but one that should be corrected.
It says, "... the council served him (Douglas) well under the chairmanship of Dr Max Fifer, with Jason Allard of the company, Hugh McRoberts
and William Power .... The fifth member is thought to have been 'Judge'
Saunders." Jason Allard was born at Fort Langley in 1848 so would have
been twelve in. 1:860i    His father, Ovid Allard, was in charge of the
Hudson's Bay Company's post at Yale during the first few years of the gold
rush, and it would have suited Douglas' autocratic and company-oriented
ideas to have appointed him to the council. just how much that council was "responsible for the exploration of
the route which the famous Cariboo Road was to follow" is a moot question.
The Royal Engineers have always been given the credit. Yours truly..."
The Edi "tor has had an enquiry regarding the whereabouts of relatives
in B.C of the late Dr M.J. Jackson, a life long friend of A.E. Housman.
Dr Jackson retired in 1911 to a farm in Aldergrove after a career as a
schoolmaster in India. One sister named Irene died at Mission in 1.948;
another sister named Agnes was living at Mission at the time of Irene's
death, but cannot be traced now. A brother, Robert, was known at one time
to be living in Altamont, Manitoba. The Editor would appreciate hearing
from any reader who might know something of the whereabouts of Agnes.
BOOK REVIEWS
'We've Killed Johnny Ussher!' thb story of the wild McLean boys and Alex
Harfi. Vancouver, Mitchell Press, 1973. 21.0 pp., illus. $5.50; $3.75 paper.
This book is highly recommended to anyone interested in the history
of British Columbia and Canada; to anyone interested in racial and social
problems; to anyone interested in reading a gripping and exciting tragedy
superbly told.
Having read short accounts of the wild McLeans and the sordid murders
done by them and Alex Hare, one is amazed at the fascinating, absorbing
and utterly tragic story the author has- produced. And as Mrs Mary Balf
says in her introduction on the inside of the cover "with no sacrifice
of historical accuracy".
For us Canadians it takes something away from our, perhaps somewhat
false pride in our west not being so wild. Nothing could be much more west
or more wild. It adds drama to our history which often gets an unduly
humdrum treatment.
The three McLean boys belonged to the second family of Chief Trader
Donald McLean C of the Hudson's Bay Company. The C was to distinguish
Donald from other H.B.C. men of the same name. The mother was an Indian.
Hare was also a half breed; his father a settler of 90 good reputation.
Donald McLean entered the Company service in 1833, arriving by ship at
Fort Vancouver the next year. All his service was west of the Mountains
and in 1.855, on the death of Paul Fraser, he succeeded to the command of
Thompson's River (Kamloops). In 1.854 he had been married to his second wife,
Sophia, who was to be the mother of the three boys destined to die by hanging at New Sestminster in January of 1.881.
In this wise the stage was set -
The McLeans and Hare were half breeds. Young people of today will
hardly appreciate what that meant in "the old unhappy far off days" of a
pioneer and intolerant society. Now most such families have either become
Indian and proud of it, or white with some Indian strain, rather cherished
than regretted in this more tolerant age. Then the breeds were not really
accepted by white or Indian and often, naturally enough, harboured the
resentment of outcasts. 1.0
Two of these young people had no schooling whatever to broaden their
outlook or add interest and discipline to their lives. The other two hadn't
much more but could read and write to some extent.
The McLean boys' father, though a respected member of the rough community,
was certainly at times a harsh and violent man. From the view point of our
day he was guilty himself of murder when, he killed and caused to be killed
several innocent Indians while in pursuit of an Indian murderer. •
At this point we see where the drama trends but its climax is not as
yet inevitable. This is proved by the successful lives of the McLeans'
half siblings, Donald's first family, and of course by the success of
thousands of others of mixed blood.  But for the four boys and their
victims fate was inexorable. Circumstance was piled on circumstance.
In 1.864 Donald McLean went to help in the capture of the Indians involved
in the Chilcotin Massacre and was himself killed. One of the three boys was
still a baby and the others the merest children. The loss of the father's
discipline and protection probably sealed the destiny of the boys.
The mother merely encouraged them in their career as outlaws. One runs
across other instances of Indian women prompting their men to violent deeds,
as in the case of the murder of Samuel Black in Kamloops, Was this a•trait
of primitive Indian woman, or, Heaven help us, is it common to many of the
sex in all races?
The Law failed to bring the young men up.short in their career of horse
thievery ard general trouble making. The inadequacy of a government with
very little money trying to establish the machinery of civilization over a
vast area had its part in the drama too.
, The McLeans had a sister. To make sure that no possible escape route
was left for the four and their victims the gods ordained that this girl
be beautiful. Of course an unscrupulous white man became enamoured of her
and Alex Hare fell in love with her.
As a last precaution the evil genii provided a good supply of whiskey.
And so we come to the final catastrophe. Constable John Ussher is foully
murdered in the course of his duty. As is one Kelly, a sheep herder, who
had no connection with the plot but happening to be sitting on a rock eating
his lunch, at the wrong place- in the wrong time, was thrown in by the fates
for good measure. The boys, now murderers, are beyond the pale.
The- pursuit, siege of a cabin with plenty of gunfire, and at last the
surrender follow and then the bungled trial and the verdict.
There are two mentions of pride which seemed to me not to belong. In the
Postscripts, "The hanging - especially of a young boy of 1.6 - was not looked
on in later years as one of the prouder moments in Canadian justice". Whatever one may think now it is-nevertheless a fact that, for nations as for
individuals, many things have to be done in which no pride can be taken;
where neither pride nor shame are relevant.
In the Dedication, "To McLeans everywhere, may they have pride". The
story is not of pride or shame but of pure tragedy; the greater that it
involved members of a proud clan.
Really the only pride to be taken in this bit of history is in the actions 11
of John Ussher. He seems to have understood the young men's situation and
to have tried to befriend them, overworked and under equipped as he was to
do all his jobs as a representative of Government. On the fatal day he
tried the brave manoeuvre, often successful in our history, of approaching
unarmed to make the arrest; depending on calmness and reason. It did not
work.
The story as told by Rothenburger leaves one with little sense of
heroes or villains, only a sense of deep tragedy, and this is as it should be.
Harley R. Hatfield.
Mr Hatfield is a member of the Okanagan Historical Society.
****************
KINBASKET COUNTRY; THE STORY OF GOLDEN AND THE COLUMBIA VALLEY. Golden,
Golden & District Historical Society, 1.972. 88 pp. illus. $3
On the newsstands now is a booklet published by the Golden & District
Historical Society, "Kiribasket Country, the story of Golden and the Columbia
Valley". From its eye-catching cover (adorned with an excellent photo of
Kiribasket Lake) to its final advertisement, it is 88 pages of very good
reading. If by chance you do not read, it is very good for just looking!
For .those of us with a historical mania, "Kinbasket Country" is a
lake of information presented in an objective, accurate, and at times an
amusing manner. (Have you, for instance, ever tried "Fruit Soup"?) It
is always satisfying to know how a town got its name, and right on page 1
you can read all about how Golden was named. Perhaps you have heard of
the Whiskey Trail; the Swiss guides and Edelweiss; the Blaeberry Falls.
If you wonder about the name "Kinbasket" in the title read this book and
satisfy your curiosity.
For the tourist who will be fortunate enough to travel our magnificent
valley there is a section on "Geographical Information". There are five
detailed maps of interest to wanderers. There are numerous helpful references for the tourist who really wants to see the country. Listen:  "Only
by exploring the many fine trails (Rogers Pass) can today's tourists get an
inkling of the difficulties of early travel*" Or "Re the Big Bend, it is
advisable to take this highway only on weekends because ". With
"Kinbasket Country" as your trusty guide, we can almost guarantee that
you won't get lost!
Along with the mayor of Golden, who has a message for the readers on
page 3, w© "express our gratitude to the publishers of this book for their
research and study of the settlement of this area."
Jean L. Dakin.
(The book is available for $3 plus postage from Golden Historical Society,
Box 992, Golden, B.C.)
N.B.   STOPS  LOOK! LISTEN!
Don't forget the B.C. Historical Association Convention, Vancouver, May
24th-26th.   Information haas been mailed to all local society secretaries
and all members should have programmes and registration forms by now. If
you haven't received this information, phone your own society secretary
immediately. 1.2
VENTURE AND DEDICATION
JOHN JESSOP: GOLD SEEKER AND EDUCATOR, by F. Henry Johnson. Vancouver,
Mitchell Press, 1.971. 1.81. pp. $6.50.
"The history of Education is Clio's neglected child. One would almost
suspect that the muse of history had disliked her school." (1.) Dr F_, Henry
Johnson of the Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia, must
now rank alongside Dr Chas E. Phillips, late of Ontario College of Education,
University of Toronto, in trying to bring the child's neglect to the mother's
attention. Yet textbooks, however well written, do little to mollify Clio
or to render her popular. It is safe to venture that the fine works of
these two gentlemen have had few lay readers, neither educators nor historians. Dr Johnson's latest work, however, may just "do tlie trick". It
certainly deserves to be "read for enjoyment".
"John Jessop: gold seeker and educator" is not just the story of
British Columbia's first educational bueraucrat nor just the first chapter
of the province's educational history. It is a definitive biography of the
founder of our free, non-sectarian public school system, yes; but it is
much more, partly because, like the men of the Renaissance, Jessop was a
"man of many parts": Wesleyan convert, printer, teacher, pathfinder and
.gold seeker (albeit not a successful one); partly because Henry Johnson
has been able to transfer to the written page much of the spirit of the man
and of his age. Certainly in the first three chapters the mid-Nineteenth
Century and the Fraser River-Cariboo Gold Rush live again.
Those three chapters give us Jessop's background and a great deal more;
they constitute a Nineteenth-Century Odyssey in themselves. The first
brings young John from his boyhood home in cathedralled Norwich by immigrant ship (nearly fatal) to the backwoods of Ontario and to a printing office
somewhere near Toronto, all before he was twenty-one; then to a Methodist
"revival" meeting and by logical progression to Canada West's Normal
School and adulation of Dr. Egerton Ryerson, and finally to teaching
positions, first'in a village near St. Thomas (indidentally, not very far
.from another Norwich) and then at Whitby, near Toronto. Five years he
taught in the Ryerson school system, but with his highly successful Normal
.School experience they were to shape his most productive years in a new
environment.
The second chapter is the real"1 Odyssey. Early in 1.859 he hiked from
Toronto to Collingwood, knapsack on back and bowie-knife and revolver at the
ready, to take ship from there to Fort William. Thence to Upper Fort
Garry, now Winnipeg, he was to know all the route, the hardships and the
adventures of the early fur-trader explorers, and to arrive there'just in
time to see the first steamboat on the lower Red River. After a month
there recuperating and deciding the next move, he set out with one companion,
a young man from Belleville, the only one of his half-dozen fellow-
travellers from Fort William who had the nerve to continue, to go afoot with
a one-horse Red River cart for luggage - not a particle of metal in either
cart or harness - to the Rocky Mountains. At Fort Ellice, near what would
over a decade later become the Manitoba-Northwest boundary, they were
joined by six Americans from St. Paul seeking the Yellowstone route to the
west! Together they traversed the buffalo country, living on its bounty,
to the Waterton Lakes, in the shadow of the Continental Divide. Here they 13
broke up the cart, still good, to make pack-saddles and gave most of
their combined wealth to a Kootenay guide to conduct them over the Boundary or South Kootenay Pass,and then through the South Kootenie Pass (U.S.A.)
to Tobacco Plains on the Kootenay River. (2) It was still rough and
circuitous going from there to Fort Colville on the Columbia.  (It included the route of United States Highway 2 from Libby to Spokane.)  The way
from there to Fort Vancouver, Port Townsend and Victoria was obvious but
still far from easy by modern standards.
Jessop set out almost immediately in January 1.860, for Cariboo by
the Douglas-Lillooet route, well known to B.C historians. First gold
had been found on the Quesnel River while he was at Fort Garry, so he
hoped to get in on the "ground floor". The hardships of the trail, his
failure to find a claim, and his return to Victoria in the fall constitute
the third chapter. Jessop was cured of gold fsyver.
After a winter as pressman on New Westminster's Times, shortly to
become the British Columbian, and on the Victoria Press, a short-lived
enterprise, he opened a private non-sectarian school in his own building
on Fort Street, Victoria. Two years later he offered it for sale and
began agitating for a free non-sectarian public school system, and thus
entered the most important phase of his career. The next ten chapter
headings outline the story: Victoria Schoolmaster; Free Schools, but not
for Long; Confederation and the Hustings (unfortunately "Hastings" in
the Table of Contents); Superintend.®nt Jessop; Tour of Inspection; The
Cache Creek Experiment; Creating a School System; the First High School;
Jessop and his Teachers; a Victim of Politics.
Only forty-nine when he felt compelled to resign in 1.878, he had
many years of usefulness left in him, but life became a matter of routine
and reminiscences, and the author wisely confines it to a single chapt er.
Failing in his application for the position of post-master - "John A."
had other fish to fry - Jessop became B.C.'s first Immigration Agent,
then a Federal Customs Inspector, Dominion Immigration Agent, and finally
Provincial Immigration Agent again for the rest of his days. In his
declining years he found.more time for church work, which compensated for
the routine nature of his official life. When he died of a heart attack
in 1.901, as his wife, had done four years earlier, he was in his seventy-
aecond year and still active. Johnson closes the record fittingly with
two lines from Hilaire Belloc:
He does not die who can bequeath
Some influence to the land he knows,
Mitchell Press has done a good job of production, the illustrations
add much to the earlier part of the book, and the clear end-paper maps
by Henry Johnson himself will be of great assistance to the armchair
traveller as he follows Jessop from the plains to Victoria, from there to
Cariboo, and on the hustings to the Big Bend and thence via Osoyoos and
Fort Colville again to Wild Horse Creek. The bibliography shows an
impressive amount of research. 1.4
FOOTNOTES:
(1) Opening lines of Preface, Johnson, F. Henry: A History of Public
Education in British Columbia. Vancouver: Publications Centre,
University of British Columbia, 1.964.
(2) The similarity of the two names is confusing and unfortunate. South
Kootenay Pass is in Canada and leads over the Continental Divide
between Alberta and British Columbia; South Kootenie is in the United
States and leads over the Whitefish Range between the Flathead and
Kootenay Rivers in Iforth-Western Montana. Both are on the old Kootenay Indian trail from their homes along the river that bears their
name to their buffalo hunting grounds in the Waterton area of Alberta.
. The early use of the name Boundary Pass for the Canadian one is also
a bit confusing and hard to explain. Akamina Pass lies between it
and the boundary and must have been known to and used by the Boundary
Survey, It is only a mile from the Akamina Highway, Waterton to
Cameron Lake. The Survey probably used the easier Kootenay trail
for packing pupplies, which may account for the name. That, however-,
would be after Jessop's visit; was Jessop interpolating the name in
retrospect?
John Gibbard
Mr Gibbard is a member of the Vancouver Historical Society
****************
THE TOWN OF COEVORDEN
by Adrien Mansvelt
In the February 1973 issue of the:B.C Historical News mention was
made of the fact that the name Vancouver was originally derived from the
family name of van Coeverden and that this family goes back many generations,
and that years ago its ancestry found their origin at Coevorden, a town
near the German border-in the Province of Drenthe in the North East of
the Netherlands. z>
In his article on "Captain George Vancouver, a study in Commemorative
Place Names", which appeared in 1942 in the British Columbia Historical
Quarterly, Vol. VI, No. 2, Longstaff, relating a brief history of the town,
was sorry that little had been written in English about the old Dutch
frontier town of Coevorden. Neither has very much been written on this
subject in Dutch. Recently, however, a book entitled "Historie van
Coevorden" (History of Coevorden), written by Adriaan Veenhoven, appeared
in Dutch in The Netherlands in 1.969, giving a short but good review of the
town's history. Since Vancouver virtually bears the same name, it might
be interesting for British Columbians to have some knowledge of the history
of its little but elderly sister.
There are some indications that Coevorden existed in early days, its
name originally meaning cow-ford (or rather oxford) and therefore having
been a place where cattle could easily cross or ford the stream. It probably
was a passage through the bog country by which Coevorden was surrounded in
the old days. It 1S
was not until the 1.1 th Century that some mention of the area is made in
the chronicles of the Middle Ages.
After the Empire of Charlemagne had been split up by his three sons,
the middle Empire belonging to his son Lotharius soon disintegrated,
probably due to its odd and extended shape, running as it was from Northern
Italy through Lorraine to the Lowlands. It was no small wonder that the
territory was being encroached upon both from the Western and the .East-
.ern sides and that the Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire judged it to
their advantage to issue feoffs or grant Provinces to their Vassals by
taking slices from the area that originally formed Lotharius' Empire.
By Charter of 1.046 Emperor Henry III of the Holy Herman Empire gave to
the Bishop of UtreGht the rights over the Region of Drenthe. These contained his rights to mint coins, to bunt and to impose taxes, The area
was at that time much larger than the area that the actual Province of
Drenthe covers nowadays, and it contained as well parts of to-day's
Provinces :of Groningen, Friesland and Overijssel. In order to be able to
administer the area properly it was split up in three sections, one
Northern Region with Groningen as its capital; the East of the actual
Province of Drenthe with Coevorden as its main point; and the West of the
Province- of Drenthe together with the East of the Province of Friesland
and the North of the later Province of Overijssel, with Vollenhove as its
centre. The area probably came first under the local sovereignty of a
certain Rudolph. But then in 1.1.22 Herbert van Bierum, Bishop of Utrecht,
got the right from the German Emperor to build a stronghold at Coevorden,
and appointed his brother Ludolph as Castellan of Coevorden, having made
his second brother Leffert, Prefect of Groningen. The members of the van
Bierum family as Castellans of Coevorden soon adopted the title of Viscount
of Coevorden. By intermarriage they aarried their dynasty into the dynasty
of the Counts of Borculo who subsequently claimed the title of Viscount
of Coevorden. They thus became the second van Coeverden dynasty, from which
the present van Coeverden family and hence Captain Vancouver's ancestors
descended. 1.6
In tho lattor days of the 1.4th Century Coevorden became quite a lively
commorcial centre as tho transit trade from Groningen to County Benthoim
(to-day in Germany) and to tho Bishopric of Munster passod through the town
with such products as cheese, butter, dried cod, cod oil, going from
Groningen to Lower Germany and whilst in return such products as stone,
wood, rye, wool, meat, linen, pigs, bark, tubs and barrels passod in. transit
to Groningen. On these products Coovordon loviod a certain transit duty.
This levy, however, soon became tho reason for discord between the Lords
of Coevorden and their Suzerains, tho Bishops of Utrecht. Actually this
struggle for power whereby the Viscounts of Coevorden tried to get more say
in their region, much to the distress of the Eishops of Utrecht, had already
been going on for some years. It was no small wonder that from 1395 onward
the Bishops -of Utrecht decided to depose the hereditary Castellans and
appointed an official in charge of the Drenthe area to reside at Coevorden
Castle. The first Bailiff thus appointed as Castellan was Sweder van
Rechteren, who originated from Rechteren Castle (Province of Overijssel),
The question was finally settled in 1.402 when Viscount Reinolt IV of
Coeverden ceded his hereditary rights on Coevorden and Drenthe officially to
the Bishop of Utrecht.
From a Town Charter given to Coevorden on 31st December 1.407 it appears
that there was a Board of 1.2 Aldermen appointed by the Bailiff. The town
had the right to hold markets but did not have the right to have City walls.
It had the right though to have a moat dug around the town reinforced on
the inside by palissades. First mention of a Mayor is made shortly after
1.500. There soon seems to have been a team of four mayors who each in turn
was Chairman of the Board of Mayors and Aldermen. Since their appearance
on the scene the position of the Bailiff in matters regarding the town
itself seems to have declined.
In the beginning of the 1.6th Century the wars of Duke Albracht of
Saxony and subsequently his sons Henry and George, against the town of
Groningen left their marks on the town of Coevorden. These Dukes of Saxony
had been enfeoffed with the regions of Friesland and Drenthe by Emperor
Maximilian of the Holy Roman Empire. As the Frisians got weary of their
Saxon masters they joined the side of Duke Charles of Gelderland who meanwhile in 151.4 had been accepted by the town of Groningen as their Lord and
Master, Taking the people of Drenthe and thus the town of Coevorden in his
wake, Duke Charles established in 1.522 the seat of his local power at
Coevorden. He had the Coevorden Castle remodelled and his Goat of Arms
encrusted over the main entrance of the Castle. A stone (still-in existence)
bearing the inscription Carolus Dux Gelre dated 1.527 reminds us of his
reign.
As meanwhile Duke George of Saxony had sold his rights on Friesland
and Drenthe to Charles V", later Emperor of the Holy Empire, the area
became involved in the wars between Charles V and the Duke of Gelderland
who eventually had to give in to Emperor Charles V.
The reign of Duke Charles of Gelderland therefore was only to last a
short time. After the town of Groningen, soon tired of this ruler, in 1536
conferred their sovereignty upon Emperor Charles V, the Emperor decided to
get in possession of the whole Drenthe area. He besieged. Coevorden in
September 1536 and the town had to capitulate on 10th November that year.
The town's administration was then reorganised and modernised. As a fortress
Coevorden was considered of little importance during both the reigns of 17
Emperor Charles V and his son Philip II, King of Spain, who succeeded his
father in his rights as Lord of the Lowlands.
When the Dutch Republic in 1579 turned in rebellion against King
Philip II and started their 80 years'war against the Spaniards, the
Region of Drenthe only half heartedly followed the Dutch cause, with the
result that the town of Coevorden was on the Dutch side one moment and on
the Spanish side the other moment. During this period which was to last
from 1580 until 1592 the Spanish regional commander Francois Verdugo
reinforced the castle and its surrounding town and turned Coevorden into
a great fortress providing it with five bastions and surrounding it by a
second moat of 1.00 feet in width in which was erected a strong oak palli-
sade. Meanwhile Prince Maurice of Orange, the Dutch "Stadhouder'1 turned up
on the battle scene with a forceful army and on 1.2th September 1.592
Commander Verdugo had to surrender and transfer power over Coevorden to
the Dutch authorities. In the following year Verdugo tried again to
reconquer the city. This time, however, Prince Maurice of Orange managed
to bring an army of 12,000 men into the field. Against such an overwhelming force Verdugo had to yield and in 1594 he abandoned the siege
of Coevorden. From that time onward Coevorden remained in Dutch hands.
It seemed at first that the town would become the capital of the Province
of Drenthe in the newly formed Dutch Republic However, as the town's
location was not considered to be central the authorities preferred to
instal their Provincial Government at Assen, and ever since this place
has remained the capital of the Province of Drenthe, where the Bailiff
from that time seems to have mainly resided.
Coevorden itself became one of the main garrisons of the Dutch
Republic, Construction took place between 1.597 and 1.607 of even better
fortifications, comprising seven bastions named after the seven Dutch
Provinces. These fortifications were in the shape of a seven point star
inside which were maintained inner fortifications surrounding the old
castle with its five bastions, dating back to Verdugo's commandership.
They were presumably designed by Adrian Anthonisz, a kin$ of Dutch Vauban,
the,architect of many Dutch fortresses in those days. When completed
this fortress was such a masterpiece that it served as the defence of
the Eastern border of the Dutch Republic for the rest of the war against
the Spaniards and for a long time thereafter it x^as considered to be one
of the strongest in Europe.
After the Spanish War was over the fortifications were neglected
and fell into decay. When the Dutch Republic in 1.672 was attacked by
England, France, the Prince Elect of .Cologne...and the Bishop of Munster
(referred to in the. Netherlands as the 3rd English War?) the decayed
ramparts had to be repaired in haste, but unfortunately they were not in
time to prevent the town of Coevorden being heavily besieged, A bombardment starting on 1st July 1.672 and lasting about 1.0 days resulted in the
capitulation of the town on 11th July to Bernard van Galen, Bishop of
Munster. The Coevordians were not resigned to their fate and under the
direction of their verger and local schoolmaster Meyndert van Thienen
they managed by ruse, to recapture the town from the Munsterians. The
following year the Bishop of Munster tried in vain to reoccupy the town.
He even dammed the local river in order to raise the water level in the
moat around the town. In I.673 this dam broke in a heavy storm and the
whole surroundings: were flooded, resulting in manyMunsterians being 18
drowned. In 1.674 the peace treaty was signed between Munster and the Dutch
Republic. As a reward Meyndert van Thienen was appointed Mayor of Coevorden
in the same year.
From that time onward until the Napoleonic days the town did not suffer
a great deal any more from wars. Gradually it lost its function as a commercial centre and its inhabitants turned their interests more to farming.
The town became quite rural and several farms could even be found inside
the town's enclosures. The population by the end of the 1.8th Century
amounted to about 1.500 people.
In j.8ll during the French occupation of the country the French Commander, Lt.Col. Joseph Martin David, was commissioned to reinforce the
fortress and prepare the town for a possible siege. The Cossacks who
arrived to beleaguer the city were however not sufficient in numbers to
make their siege very effective and the main French pastime seems to have
consisted of launching several assaults from the town on allied troops in
the nearby countryside. Since the French stubbornly kept the town occupied
even after Napoleon had given in, Dutch sovereignty could only be reestablished in May 1.81.4,
Although a Dutch garrison was stationed at Coevorden after the French
period this was considerably reduced after a while and finally removed
altogether by the middle of the 1.9th Century. As the main means of transport in Holland in those days was by water, canals were dug in the area
around Coevorden in the 1.9th Century in order to link Coevorden properly
with the outs idee world. It was not until about 1.900 that a railway was
built to connect the town with the rest of Holland. These improved connections gave rise to the establishment of a few industries mainly in the
agricultural field.
After World War II an enormous reserve of natural gas was discovered to
the East of Coevorden and this find brought quite a few more industries to
the town, such as concrete works, wood manufacturing, clothing and apparel
industry; metallurgical production, paper industry and food products. The
present town administration is hoping to attract even more industries in
future. The population which amounted to 7,000 by the beginning of the
war in 1.940 grew by more than 75$ to nearly 1.3,000 inhabitants in 1.972.
The town now forms again a centre of local trade and a lively market is held
every Monday in the town's market square.
The castle, the original centre of the town, around which, the city grew
up had fallen into utter decay when it was bought by the municipality just
before World War II. Restoration took many years but eventually the building
was put back into shape as it must have looked around the year 1.500.
During the 1972 celebrations of the 300th anniversary of the liberation
from the Bishop of Munster the festivities culmi nated in the reopening of
this Castle by Her Majesty Queen Juliana of The Netherlands on 8th September.
Together with the Dutch Reformed Church, a beautiful house with an old Dutch
1.8th Century gable in one of the streets, some old barracks, an old army
warehouse and the former orphanage, the castle forms one of the sights of
Coevorden to-day which should, not be missed.
A photograph of the Town Council, taken during these celebrations, showing
them in the costumes of 1.672, in front* of the restored Castle, was sent to 19
the Mayor of Vancouver, B.C. and rests now in the Vancouver City Archives.
The Coat of Arms of the Town of Coevorden, as shown in the beginning
of this article, reflects its past history very well. The tower symbolizes
the Castle around Which the City gradually grew up. The eagle is meant to
represent the Coat of Arms of the van Coeverden family (see the previous
article), who as Viscounts of Coevorden ruled the Town for more than two
centuries and resided at the Castle as Castellans. The fields on either
side of both these signs represent the bog country and marshy areas by
which Coevorden was surrounded as sh^-^j earlier on in the article. The
curves of both the fields towards the centre are meant to indicate that
Coevorden started its existence as a place where people crossed these marshes
through a narrow passage. The crown over the Coat of Arms underlines the
importance of Coevorden as a strong fortress defending the country through
the ages. The device "Multis periculis supersum" or "I overcame many
perils" indicates the heroic and difficult past of the town.
Adrien Mansvelt
Mr Mansvelt is the resident Vancouver flonsul General of the Netherlands,
*****************
N.E. Ed.: The crest in the previous issue of the News, February 1973
is that of the family of Van Coeverden, and not of the town
of Coevorden, as stated.
In view of the fact that the Convention is being held in Vancouver,
this series of articles should give a glimpse of some hitherto
little known aspects of the name Vancouver.
****************
ARMORIAL BEARINGS OF THE CITY OF VANCOUVER
While the grant of formal arms to the City of Vancouver is only
three years old, the story of civic arms and badges goes back to 6th-
April'1886, the date of the city's incorporation. The present arms-
granted by the College of Heralds on 31st March 1.969, is the third
identifying device used by the City since incorporation.
The first was a badge of the kind that many Canadian cities seem to
have been fond of in the late 19th Century (Figure l). It had only the
most tenuous connection with heraldic design or ethics and was really a
pictorial representation of the things that were paramount in the life of
the-young^ city, namely the lumber trade, the development of a sea-port
and the link provided by the Canadian Pacific Railway. In 1936, the
badge's designer, L.A. Hamilton, reminisced about its drafting, in a
letter to the Vancouver City Archivist.
"The matter (of a civic badge) came up at one of our council
meetings, whether it was before or after the "Fire" (of 13 June 1.886)
I cannot say, and as I was the only draughtsman or artist in this 20
council, the lot fell to me to do this work. This was the time
when the C.P.R. had reached the coast and when the first ships
had arrived. Our industry at that time was lumbering and fishing
.... These conditions relating to land and water showed that
our future prosperity depended on them. So I drafted the sketch
and gave as the motto "By Sea and Land We Prosper".
Unfortunately, it has not been possible to locate the exact Council
meeting to which Hamilton refers, although there is no doubt that the
badge was in common use on civic documents and stationery by 1890.  •';
The visit of the Duke of Cornwall to Vancouver in 1.901 sparked the
desire for a change to a more elaborate device, even though Hamilton's
badge was still used on the illuminated civic address presented to the
Duke and Duchess on 30th September that year. Major T.O. Townley was
Mayor at the time and he asked James Blomfield', a local artist, to prepare
sketches. Blomfield's design (Figure 2) was adopted formally in 1.903.
Unfortunately, uninformed redesignings resulted in its immediate debasement. Blomfield himself had considerable knowledge of heraldry. Variations
of his idea were used as the civic coat-of-arms from 1903-1969. Significantly,
nothing survived in his conception from the original badge except the
motto, although his choice of supporters reflects Hamilton's feelings
about important local industries. In 1.940, Mr Blomfield expressed his
ideas about the symbolism of his design in a letter which eventually
found its way into the City Archives. The sheild (barry wavy, Argent and
Azure, on a pile Gules a caducous or) was meant to represent Vancouver's
situation on the sea and its world wide commerce, alluded to through the
use of the caduceus of Mercury, god of commerce. The use of the ship's
sail and the mural crown in the crest were to indicate Vancouver's status
as a sea-port.
In 1928, the first of several steps was taken to register the city's
armorial bearings, with the establishment of a council committee. Discussions dragged on for four years but no final decision was made.
In J.962, the present City Clerk, Mr R...Thompson, with the support of
the Mayor and Council, began new discussions. The guiding principle was
that the civic arms should be properly registered and heraldically correct,
without altering the essential design as It had existed from 1.903. In a
leaflet describing the new grant, Mr Thompson has outlined the final 'Stages
of the discussions;
"During the course of these endeavours, four designs were prepared
before the present was agreed upon. Mayor Rathie visited the
College of Heralds in I.966 and discussed the City's intentions and
the City Clerk also visited the College of Heralds to discuss the
final design. The City's application was handled by Mr W.J.G. Verco,
M.V.C, the Chester Herald of Arms, to whom we are indebted for his
patience and ready willingness to help.
The City's new Coat of Arms differs only in detail from the previous
one. The points of interest are: the Caduceus of Mercury has been
replaced by a Totem Pole of Kwakiutl Design: the chief hais been changed
with two Dogwoods; the Helm has been properly drawn; the Mantle has
been'added; the word "Air" has been added to the Motto."  22
The dogwood is, of course, the provincial flower of British Columbia,
while the Totem pole is one of the most familiar and dramatic forms of
West Coast Indian art. It reminds us that for centuries before
Europeans ever settled on the south shore of Burrard Inlet, it was the
home of the Indian. The addition of the word "Air" to the Motto was at
the request of City Council, who wished to acknowledge the increasing
part air travel and transport played in the life of the City. The motto
remains the only direct link with the Hamilton badge, It should also be
noted that the grant included a proper badge in the form of "A Felling
Axe and an Oar in saltire proper enfiled through a Mural Crown per pale
Or and Azure."
So it was, after several attempts to regularize the civic arms,
that the new grant finally gave the city handsome armorial bearings,
symbolizing both the history and the ongoing story of Vancouver (Fig.3)
The new arms, exclusive of the badge, are blazoned as follows:
"Barry wavy of eight Azure and Argent on a Chief Or two Dogwood
flowers proper over all on a Pile Vert a Totem Pole of Kwakiutl
design embodying representations of an Eagle, Grizzly Bear and
Halibut Or." Crest: "Issuant from a Mural Crown per pale Or and
Azure a Ships Foreroyal Mast with sail set proper pennon flying
to the dexter Vert." Supporters:  "On the dexter side a lumberman holding in the exterior hand a Felling Axe and on the
sinister side a Fisherman holding in the exterior hand a Salmon
net with wood floats all proper."
Robert Watt
Mr Watt is the incoming President of the Vancouver Historical Society.
****************
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION CONVENTION
May 24th - 27th, 1.972 to be held in Vancouver, B.C
An interesting programme has been planned, including a visit
to Hycroft, the old McRao residence, tour cf the new Vancouver City
Archives, the Museum & Planetarium, a panel discussion on preservation of old buildings, tour of Burrard Inlet, and an address by
Mr W. Sampson, University of Alberta, on Kenneth Mackenzie and the
beginnings of agriculture in British Columbia,
Accommodation has been reserved at the Walter Gage Residences,
University of British Columbia. Programmes and registration forms
have been mailed to all society secretaries some weeks ago, and all
members should have received them by now. If not, please contact
your local secretary, or Miss Jill Rowlands, Apt. 203, 4800 Arbutus
Street, Vancouver 8, B.C, who is accepting all registrations.

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