British Columbia History

British Columbia Historical Quarterly Oct 1, 1937

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OCTOBER, 1937 We
Published by the Archives of British Columbia
in co-operation with the
British Columbia Historical Association.
W. Kaye Lamb.
J. C. Goodfellow, Pi F. W. How.r >t>r.
Robie L. Reid, Va T. A. Rickard, \
W. N. E
Editorial communications should be addressed to the Editor, Provincial
Archives, Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C.
Subscriptions should be sent to the Provincial Archives, Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C. Price, 50c. the copy, or $2 the year. Members of the
British Columbia Historical Association in good standing receive the
Quarterly without further charge.
Neither the Provincial Archives nor the British Columbia Historical
Association assumes any responsibility for statements made by contributors
to the magazine. We
" Any country worthy of a future
should be interested in its past."
Vol. I. October, 1937. No. 4
The Mystery of Mount Robson.
By A. G. Harvey  207
My Father:  William Fraser Tolmie.
By S. F. Tolmie    227
Simpson to Tolmie, January 28, 1856  241
To the Fraser River Mines in 1858.
A letter from C. C. Gardiner, edited with an introduction by
Robie L. Reid  243
Notes and Comments:
Contributors to this issue  255
Index to Volume I  255
British Columbia Historical Association  255
Local Historical Societies  256
The Museum of Northern British Columbia  256
Index to the Victoria Colonist:   1858-1871  258
Manuscript Accessions  259
The Northwest Bookshelf:
A Checklist of Crown Colony Imprints  263 (Photo courtesy Canadian National Railways.)
Mount Robson, monarch of the Canadian Rockies, is fairly
well known throughout the Pacific Northwest. Many persons
have a slight acquaintance with the mountain, from having read
of it or seen pictures of it; others have a nodding acquaintance
from having seen it; while a few have an intimate acquaintance
from having climbed it.
How did this well-known mountain get its name—why was
it named Robson? That is a simple question but one not so
simply answered, for thereby hangs a tale; several tales, in fact;
different tales, conflicting tales; but nevertheless interesting
tales, since they dip into the early history of the Northwest.
The earliest known description of the mountain is found in
the journal of John M. Sellar, one of a party of gold-seekers
bound for the Cariboo, who passed the peak on August 26, 1862.
The entry reads as follows: " At 4 P.M., we passed Snow or Cloud
Cap Mountain which is the highest & finest on the whole Leather
[Yellowhead] Pass, it is 9000 feet above the level of the valley
at its base, and the guide told us that out of 29 times that he had
passed it he had only seen the top once before."1 There can be
no doubt as to the identity of the mountain here described; and
as the guide knew the locality well, the inference is that the name
Mount Robson was not well known, if it had been bestowed, at
that time.
Milton and Cheadle.
Eleven months later, on July 14, 1863, Viscount Milton and
Dr. W. B. Cheadle passed the mountain in the course of their
overland journey of adventure to the Pacific Coast via the Yellow-
head Pass and the North Thompson River. Their book, The
North-West Passage by Land, published in London in 1865, con-
* The thanks of the author go to Mr. J. N. Wallace, of Calgary, for his
helpful criticisms and suggestions, and to the Governor and Committee of
the Hudson's Bay Company, London, for the information furnished by them;
also to Major J. S. Matthews, City Archivist, Vancouver, for his kind
(1) Quoted from the transcript of Sellar's journal in the library of His
Honour Judge Howay, New Westminster. On Sellar see Mark S. Wade:
The Overlanders of '62, Victoria, 1931 (Memoir IX., Archives of B.C.). 208 A. G. Harvey. October
tains the earliest known description of Mount Robson by name,
and this has led some persons to conclude that they named it.
After describing the junction of the Grand Fork of the Fraser
(now Robson River) with the main stream, which was the
original location of Tete Jaune Cache (now 12 miles farther
west), they say: " On every side the snowy heads of mighty
hills crowded round, whilst, immediately behind us, a giant
among giants, and immeasurably supreme, rose Robson's Peak.
This magnificent mountain is of conical form, glacier-clothed,
and rugged. When we first caught sight of it, a shroud of mist
partially enveloped the summit, but this presently rolled away,
and we saw its upper portion dimmed by a necklace of light
feathery clouds, beyond which its pointed apex of ice, glittering
in the sun, shot up far into the blue heaven above, to a height of
probably 10,000 or 15,000 feet. It was a glorious sight, and one
which the Shushwaps of The Cache assured us had rarely been
seen by human eyes, the summit being generally hidden by
Some years ago the late James White, technical adviser in the
Department of Justice at Ottawa, in an endeavour to solve the
mystery of the mountain's name, communicated with Earl Fitz-
william, son of Viscount Milton, and also with Dr. Cheadle's son,
and obtained a copy of Cheadle's original journal. The more
brief entry there is: " To the right Robson Peak, a magnificent
mountain, high, rugged, covered with deep snow, the top now
clearly seen, although generally covered with clouds."3 Neither
Milton's son nor Cheadle's son could suggest anything to help
solve the mystery. Although Mr. White previously had been of
the opinion that Milton and Cheadle had named the mountain,
his conclusion after " a study of the whole question " was " that
it had been named prior to their expedition."4
(2) The North-West Passage by Land, p. 257. The height of the
mountain has been established since as 12,972 feet above sea-level.
(3) Cheadle's Journal of Trip across Canada, 1862—186S. With Introduction and Notes by A. G. Doughty and Gustave Lanctot. Ottawa, Graphic
Publishers, 1931, p. 177.
(4) James White: "Cheadle's 'Journal'—across the mountains . . .
1863," Canadian Alpine Journal, XIV. (1924), p. 111. The earlier article
is entitled " Place Names in Vicinity of Yellowhead Pass," Canadian Alpine
Journal, VI. (1914-15), pp. 143-158. 1937 The Mystery of Mount Robson. 209
A paper read by Milton and Cheadle before the Royal Geographical Society on November 28, 1864, contains the following:
" This grand fork of the Frazer is at the foot of a very high
mountain, which has received the name of " Robson's Peak,"
and is the original Tete Jaime's Cache. It was the highest peak
they had hitherto seen."5 The Society's Librarian, Mr. G. R.
Crone, informs me that this1 paper was taken from a privately
printed pamphlet in which the reference to Mount Robson is in
identical terms.6
The question arises as to whether the words, " which has
received the name," mean that Milton and Cheadle had given
the name or whether it had been given previously. Mr. Crone
considers " that it merely implies that the name had been fairly
recently bestowed, but makes no implication as to who had given
it." He adds that " in the pamphlet referred to, they proposed
to call two other peaks ' Mount Milton' and ' Mount Cheadle'
... As in these two cases they use the expression ' named
Mount Milton,' etc., it is possible to argue that the other phrase
was used to imply that someone else had bestowed the name
' Robson's Peak,' but this is not entirely conclusive." Of greater
significance is the fact that we have three separate references to
the mountain by Milton and Cheadle, in none of which they take
credit for naming it; which is very strange, if they did name it.
If they did name it, the further question remains as to whom
it was named after. Possibly a clue may lie in the number of
entries in Cheadle's journal relating to the theatre.7 If he and
Milton were lovers of the drama, probably they knew and admired the famous English actor Thomas Frederick Robson, who
was at the peak of his career in the years just before his death
in 1864; and it is possible that they may have thus honoured him.
John Robson.
Another suggestion is that the mountain was named after
John Robson, editor of the New Westminster British Columbian,
(5) Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, IX. (1864-65), p. 19.
(6) G. R. Crone to the writer, May 8, 1935. The pamphlet is entitled
An Expedition across the Rocky Mountains by the Yellow Head or Leather
Pass.    The reference is to p. 19.
(7) See Cheadle's Journal, pp. 236, 265, 271, 282, 286, 301, 303. 210 A. G. Harvey. October
and later Premier of the Province (1889-92), following his imprisonment by Judge Begbie in 1862 for contempt of Court, an
incident which made him a popular hero. This explanation is
given by A. O. Wheeler, alpinist, though he doubts its truth.8
Indeed, it seems most improbable. In 1862 the Mount Robson
region was practically unknown; and although John Robson
may have been very popular in New Westminster, there was at
the time no travel route to the mountain and consequently no
travellers to carry his name to it. The only ones to pass the
mountain came from the East—a few gold^seekers en route to
the Cariboo.9
Foreman Robson and Peter Skene Ogden.
Mr. Wheeler makes a further suggestion in his article based
upon a letter from the late H. J. Moberly, well-known Hudson's
Bay Company factor, which reads:—
Macdowall, [Saskatchewan]
31st May, 1912.
A. 0. Wheeler, Esq.
Dear Sir,—
Your letter, dated 21st instant I received a day or two ago, and am
now answering it, stating, as far as I have always heard, the origin of the
name given to Mount Robson.
Years before the Hudson's Bay Company and the Nor'-West Co. joined
(1821), it was the custom for the Nor'-West Co. to outfit a party for a two
years' trip, hunting and trading. They went west and north, even as far
as the border of California. One party, under the charge of Peter S. Ogden,
some two hundred men, chiefly Iroquois and French Canadians. When
west of the Rockies, he scattered his hunters in different parties under
the charge of a foreman, to hunt for the season. One of his camps, under
the charge of a man named Robson was somewhere in the vicinity of this
mountain, and it was the rallying point where all other parties came together for their return east.
I remain, yours truly,
H. J. Moberly."
(8) Arthur 0. Wheeler: "The Alpine Club of Canada's Expedition to
Jasper Park, Yellowhead Pass and Mount Robson Region, 1911." Canadian
Alpine Journal, IV. (1912), p. 42.
(9) It has also been said that the mountain was named after John
Robson's younger brother, the Rev. Ebenezer Robson, pioneer Methodist
missionary, but no evidence to prove this has been brought forward.
(10) Canadian Alpine Journal, IV. (1912), pp. 42, 43. 1937 The Mystery of Mount Robson. 211
It is true that Ogden was one of the best known and most
colourful characters in the fur trade. He served the North West
Company and the Hudson's Bay Company at various places,
from Athabasca on the east and California on the south, to the
Stikine River and Stuart Lake on the north. The city of Ogden,
Utah, is named after him. He succeeded Dr. John McLoughlin
as chief factor at Fort Vancouver, and died at Oregon City in
1854. I find nothing, however, to substantiate Moberly's statement that Ogden had a camp near Mount Robson. In fact, it is
doubtful if he was ever in its vicinity. From his entry into the
North West Company service in 1811 until 1818 he was at Ile-a-
la-Crosse, on one of the headwaters of the Churchill River. This
was 500 miles from Mount Robson in a straight line and probably
double that distance by the trade routes. Other posts of the
Company were much nearer; and it is extremely unlikely that
Ogden ever set out from Ile-a-la-Crosse on a hunting trip to the
other side of the Rocky Mountains, especially with " some two
hundred men."
He was transferred to the Columbia in 1818, with headquarters at Fort George (formerly Astoria). According to John
McLeod, he was at Kamloops for a time, in charge of the Thompson River district, and found the territory at the headwaters of
the North Thompson, which lay between Kamloops and Mount
Robson, impenetrable; and it remained so for many years.11
Furthermore, the system of large trapping-parties mentioned by
Moberly, though adopted about 1816, seems to have been confined to the territory south of the Columbia River.12 It was
there that Ogden attained his fame as a leader of these parties,
(11) Writing in 1872, Malcolm McLeod, son of John McLeod, refers to
"the wood choked, boggy, and glacier covered mountain fastnesses of the
head waters of the North Thompson. It is a region which has hitherto
been impenetrable, even, I believe, to the Indian." He states that his
father, who was in charge of the Thompson River district in 1823, reported
"that up to that time his predecessors—and among them were men of
keen intelligence and great energy, and especially Chief Factor Peter Skene
Ogden . . . had failed in every effort to even enter that region, for trade."
Cf. Peace River. A Canoe Voyage from Hudson's Bay to Pacific . . .
Journal of the late Chief Factor Archibald McDonald . . . Edited, <with
notes, by Malcolm McLeod.    Ottawa, 1872, pp. vi., vii.
(12) See Alexander Ross: The Fur Hunters of the Far West, London,
1855, Vol. I., pp. 73, 74. 212 A. G. Harvey. October
and it was there that he spent the remainder of his life, except
for ten years or so on the Northern Coast and at Stuart Lake,
and furloughs in Canada and Europe.13 Finally, it seems
strange that no mention of Ogden's foreman, Robson, can be
found anywhere except in Moberly's letter. Records remain of
most of the early white traders engaged in the Far West, but no
one else mentions this Robson.
In making these criticisms I do not overlook the fact that this
story comes from a man who, himself a fur-trader, spent some
years in the territory where Mount Robson is well known.
Moberly served under the Hudson's Bay Company at Jasper
House for three years and at Rocky Mountain House and Edmonton for shorter periods; and on at least one occasion he journeyed past the mountain.14 But forty years had elapsed since
Ogden's departure from Ile-a-la-Crosse for the Columbia when
Moberly first wintered at Jasper House. Meanwhile Ogden had
become famous and died. But his fame did not die with him,
and therein may lie the origin of the story. I am inclined to
think that the Moberly letter is an attempt to solve the mystery
of Mount Robson by drawing upon the glamorous memory in
which Ogden was held by the fur-traders. To quote one example
of this, Archibald McKinlay, a co-worker on the Columbia, wrote
of him in 1882: " Whenever the Hudson's Bay Company had
occasion to send any of their officers on a dangerous expedition,
Peter S. Ogden was sure of the berth. His even temper, his
great flow of good humor and his wonderful patience, tact and
perseverance, his utter disregard of personal inconvenience and
suffering rendered him just the man for any difficult and dangerous task. He was greatly esteemed by his brother officers and
nearly worshipped by his men and the Indians."15
Blacksmith Robson.
A further story comes to me from Mr. T. C. Young, of Jasper,
Alberta, who is interested in the early history of that part of the
(13) On Ogden see T. C. Elliott:   "Peter Skene Ogden, Fur Trader,"
Oregon Historical Quarterly, XI. (1910), pp. 229-278.
(14) Moberly's  autobiography,   When  Fur  was  King,   London,  1929,
makes no mention of Mount Robson.
(15) Quoted by Robert E. Pinkerton in The Gentlemen Adventurers,
Toronto, 1932, p. 321. 1937 The Mystery of Mount Robson. 213
country. He says: " During the summer of 1915 I was on the
construction of the Canadian Northern Railway [now part of
the Canadian National Railways] through the Yellowhead Pass.
At the time several lodges of Shuswaps Indians were living at
Tete Jaune Cache. One Indian who could speak English very
well—he was a man about 60 years of age, I should judge—said
that as long as he could remember Mt. Robson was known as Robson's Peak, but he did not have any knowledge of the original
naming. He informed me his father who lived with him might
have some information relative to the origin of the name, so I
interviewed the old man. He was blind and very old, could not
speak English, but his son interpreted for him. His story was as
follows. One time when he was young man, whiteman shoe
horse at junction of Grand and Fraser Rivers, or on the old site
of Tete Jaune Cache. The horse kicked the blacksmith and he
died from the effects of the kick. He was buried at the place of
accident and the mountain was called Robson, that being the
name of the whiteman."
It may be interpolated here that other persons who have
interviewed Indians on the subject have obtained different
stories. Dr. J. M. Thorington, of Philadelphia, an eminent
mountaineer, writes: " The Cree Indians call Robson simply
' The Big Mountain,' but this seems to be a modernism; old
men, with whom I have talked, say that their tribe never had a
special name for the peak."16 The Kamloops Indians, according to Dr. G. M. Dawson, called it " Yuh-hai-has-kun, from the
appearance of a spiral road running up it. No one has ever
been known to reach the top, though a former chief of Tsuk-
tsuk-kwalk, on the North Thompson, was near the top once when
hunting goats. When he realized how high he had climbed he
became frightened and returned."17 In 1871, Mr. A. R. C.
Selwyn, Director of the Geological Survey of Canada, reported
that the Indians told him their name for the mountain signified
(16) J. Monroe Thorington: The Glittering Mountains of Canada,
Philadelphia, 1925, p. 231.
(17) George M. Dawson: "Notes on the Shuswap People of British
Columbia," Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, IX. (1891), Section II., p. 37. 214 A. G. Harvey. October
" The lines in the rocks " ;18 and it will be recalled that in 1862
Sellar's guide gave the name of the peak as Snow or Cloud Cap
It seems unlikely that there would have been a blacksmith at
Tete Jaune Cache as long ago as the story told to Mr. Young
would imply; but the latter suggests that the Robson in question
might have been a Joseph Robson who is said to have landed at
Hudson Bay in 1791. In answer to an inquiry on the point, the
Secretary of the Hudson's Bay Company, London, stated that
the Company's ships' logs for 1791 and the Lists of Servants in
Hudson's Bay for 1791-8 contain no reference to any one named
Robson, and, further, that a search of their archives for several
years before and after the union with the North West Company
in 1821 discloses no mention of a Joseph Robson, and that the
only man of this name recorded as formerly in their employ
served between 1733 and 1747, when he assisted in the construction of the stone Fort Prince of Wales19—which brings us to
our next story.
Joseph Robson.
It has been suggested that the mountain may have been named
by Thomas Drummond, a botanist who visited the Athabasca
district in 1825-1826, in honour of Joseph Robson, author of
two books dealing with the Hudson's Bay territories. This
Robson was an architect and had to do with the construction of
Fort Prince of Wales on Hudson Bay, near the present Churchill.
His books were: An Account of Six Years Residence in Hudson's
Bay, published in 1752; and The British Mars, a treatise upon
various military " schemes and inventions," published in 1763.
The suggestion is that Drummond had read one or both of Robson's books before leaving England and had been so impressed
by their author that when he came upon the mountain he named
it after him. This theory was advanced by the late Professor
E. S. Meany, for many years head of the Department of History
in the University of Washington, in an article entitled The Name
(18) Geological Survey of Canada:   Report of Progress for 1871-72,
Montreal, 1872, p. 44.
(19) Secretary, Hudson's Bay Company, to W. A. McAdam, Acting
Agent-General for British Columbia, London, November 20, 1933. 1937 The Mystery of Mount Robson. 215
of Mount Robson a Puzzle.20 Professor Meany discusses the
possibility that the mountain was named by Milton and Cheadle,
or by one of the great early explorers—Alexander Mackenzie,
Simon Fraser, or David Thompson—but rules out all these in
favour of the possibility that Thomas Drummond named it after
Joseph Robson, architect and author.
Robson's first book (I have not read the second) is largely
an attack on the Hudson's Bay Company for its indifference to
the great possibilities of the country and the need for westward
exploration and the discovery of a North-west passage. Though
he was biased against the Company, as he had been dismissed
from its service after a quarrel with the governor, Robson's
criticisms contain a good deal of truth and many of his prophecies
have come true. He warned of the advance of the fur-traders
from Montreal and of the probable trouble which the Hudson's
Bay Company would have with them, trouble which came sure
enough, in the long and deadly conflict with the North West
Company, ending only with the amalgamation of the two companies in 1821. He did not travel inland far from Hudson's Bay,
but he learned a lot about the vast hinterland and foresaw its
agricultural and commercial possibilities. Indeed, he qualifies
as one of the earliest boosters of the Canadian Northwest.
But while Robson may have been worthy of having a great
mountain named after him, it is most unlikely that Drummond
gave the name. Drummond was attached to the second Arctic
expedition of Sir John Franklin; but instead of accompanying
it to the Arctic he spent the time botanizing about Athabasca
Pass and the headwaters of the Athabasca and Smoky Rivers.
The accounts of his journey show that he was never near the
mountain—probably not near enough even to see it in the distance—and they make no mention of it or of Joseph Robson.21
(20) Washington Historical Quarterly, HI'S.. (1928), pp. 20-30.
(21) One account is in Hooker's Botanical Miscellany, London, I. (1830),
pp. 178-219; the other is in Sir John Franklin's Narrative of a Second
Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea, London, 1828, pp. 308-313. Professor Meany quotes from a letter from James White which states that it
" is practically a certainty" that Drummond never saw the mountain.
Washington Historical Quarterly, XIX. (1928), p. 27. For a further reference to this story see the Victoria Colonist, November 2, 1915. 216 A. G. Harvey. October
There remains the possibility that even if Drummond did not
name the mountain, it was named after Joseph Robson by some
one else. May not some fur-trader have honoured him? I do
not think so. At that time, and until comparatively recent years,
Robson's reputation was not of the best. He was said to have
been actuated by prejudice and revenge because his ideas were
rejected by the Hudson's Bay Company.22 The Nor'Westers
would be the only traders who might have had any regard for
him, and it was too early for the truth of his prophecies to be
understood or appreciated by them. Moreover, a fur-trader
would be unlikely to name a mountain after a man dead and gone
for many years and known to him only as the author of a book.
He would be more likely to name it after some one of his personal
acquaintance, either alive or recently dead, for whom he had a
high regard. It should be noted that the Mount Robson region
was not visited by men of education or science until late years—
Milton and Cheadle in 1863 were the first.
Colin Robertson.
Still another story suggests that Mount Robson was named
after " Colin Robertson who served both [the] North West Company and Hudson's Bay Company in Athabasca before and after
1815 and that Francois Decoigne, the fairhaired trader after
whom the Yellowhead Pass is named, who also served both the
North West Company and Hudson's Bay Company, and who was
in charge at Jasper house in 1814, named it after his superior
Colin Robertson was one of the most prominent figures in the
conflict between the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West
Company.   After several years in the Far West under the latter
(22) Note, for example, the following: "Robson from his six years
residence in Hudson's Bay and in the Company's service, might naturally
have been supposed to know something of the climate and soil immediately
round the Factories at which he resided; but the whole of his book is evidently written with prejudice, and dictated by a spirit of revenge, because
his romantic and inconsistent schemes were rejected by the Company."
Samuel Hearne: A Journey from Prince of Wales's Fort in Hudson's Bay
to the Northern Ocean.    London, 1795, p. xxii.
(23) Geographic Board of Canada: Place-Names of Alberta, Ottawa,
1928, p. 109. 1937 The Mystery of Mount Robson. 217
company, he returned to Montreal and became associated with
Lord Selkirk, as close adviser and right-hand man in Selkirk's
colonization plans. He it was who selected the junction of the
Assiniboine and Red Rivers as the site for Lord Selkirk's colony.
" A great empire will be there some day," he prophesied.24 He
recommended measures for making the Hudson's Bay Company
more efficient and progressive, measures which were adopted
when Selkirk secured control of the Company, and which put
new life and energy into the old concern. When hostilities broke
out at Red River he took charge of affairs, brought back the
colonists who had been driven out by the Nor'Westers, and became acting-governor of the colony. Robertson was an enthusiastic leader, a man of ability, a dominating personality. The
hopes of the colonists were revived. Retaliatory measures were
taken. Fort Gibraltar, the North West post, was captured and
demolished, and its commander taken prisoner and sent to Hudson Bay. The winter express of the North West Company was
intercepted and its contents seized. Robertson was charged
with violence and indicted; but when brought to trial in Montreal in May, 1818, he was acquitted.25
In the fall of 1818, " to fight fire with fire," Robertson led an
expedition for the Hudson's Bay Company into the enemy's territory, the Athabasca region, in an effort to ruin the business of
the Nor'Westers in that El Dorado of the fur trade, where
hitherto their supremacy had been undisputed. Here he was
seized by the Nor'Westers and imprisoned at Fort Chipewyan
for eight months, during which he kept in communication with
his men by an ingenious use of whisky barrels, which is a story
in itself.26 In the summer of 1819 he was sent East under escort
to face trial again on the Red River charges, and was threatened
with death if he ever returned. While en route by canoe his
guards attempted to drown him, but he escaped and they were
(24) F. H. Schofteld:   The Story of Manitoba, Winnipeg, 1913, I., p. 99.
(25) See Chester Martin:   Lord Selkirk's Work in Canada, Toronto,
1916, pp. 97, 98, 104, 106-108, 156.
(26) See Schofield: The Story of Manitoba, pp. 148, 149; also Agnes
C. Laut: The Conquest of the Great Northwest, Toronto, 1918, II., pp.
209-218. 218 A. G. Harvey. October
drowned instead.27 He led an expedition into the Peace River
district in the winter of 1819-20; and on his way East in the
spring was again arrested by the Nor'Westers and again escaped.
Upon the union of the companies he was appointed in charge of
Norway House, for many years the capital of the fur trade. He
died in 1842.
Here was a man to name a mountain after: a virile, vigorous,
resourceful, two-fisted fighter of the North; unafraid of anybody
or anything; a courageous leader in a great cause, a maker of
history; a live hero! To implement the altruistic plans of Selkirk, the visionary Scottish nobleman and semi-invalid, for
planting an agricultural colony amid the preserves of the embittered Nor'Westers there was needed the bold and driving force
of just such a man as Colin Robertson. Himself a former
Nor'Wester, he knew their methods of trade and transportation,
and he knew that the best way to fight them was to get the
Hudson's Bay Company to adopt the same methods, and this he
succeeded in doing. When the Red River colony was torn up by
the roots, he it was who replanted it and watched over it. Indeed, if it had not been for Robertson's courage and Selkirk's
money things might have turned out quite differently: the conflict probably would have ended in victory for the Nor'Westers
and in the eradication of the colony. Although the result of the
conflict may be termed a draw, it enabled the colony to survive.
Hated and feared by his enemies, respected and admired by
his friends, Robertson was known up and down the fur-trade
routes from Montreal and Hudson Bay to the farthest posts in
the West. What could be more natural than that one of his
admirers should name a great mountain after him?
This admirer, it is suggested, was a French-Canadian fur-
trader named Francois Decoigne (or Du Quoin), who entered
the service of the North West Company in 1799, a few years
before Robertson. They served under the same master, John
McDonald of Garth—" of Garth " to distinguish him from other
John McDonalds.28    Decoigne was in the Athabasca district for
(27) On the different versions of this incident see G. C. Davidson: The
North West Company, Berkeley, 1918, pp. 158, 159.
(28) See John McDonald of Garth: "Autobiographical Notes 1791-
1816," in L. F. R. Masson: Les Bourgeois de la Compagnia du Nord-Ouest,
Quebec, 1889, II., pp. 23, 29. 1937 The Mystery of Mount Robson. 219
several years and for a time was in charge of Jasper House
(Rocky Mountain House).29 Robertson left the North West
Company in 1809 and returned to Montreal, where he met Lord
Selkirk.30 Decoigne went to Montreal in 1814.31 There he was
induced by Robertson to leave the Nor'Westers and join the Hud-
' son's Bay Company. He returned to the Northwest in the spring
of 1815 and remained for some years.
Further argument in support of this story would run, I presume, as follows: If Decoigne had not already explored the pass
through the mountains leading towards Mount Robson, he
probably did so now. Competition between the two companies
was keen and bitter and all possible haunts of fur-bearing animals were sought out, even in the remotest places. Possibly it
was Decoigne who moved Jasper House from Brule Lake to
Jasper Lake, making it a better post and 25 miles nearer the
mountains. He is said to have been the fair-haired trader who
had the fur cache at the junction of the Robson (Grand Fork)
and Fraser Rivers, the original Tete Jaune Cache, where an excellent view of Mount Robson may be had ;32 and the supposition
is that he gave the mountain the name of his friend, now his
superior officer, whose courage and heroism were the talk of all
the trading-posts.
The name Robertson would easily become contracted to Robson. Most of the men frequenting the region then and for years
afterwards were illiterate Indians, French-Canadians, or half-
breeds.   Decoigne himself, a French-Canadian, would be in-
(29) Gabriel Franchere: Narrative of a Voyage to the Northwest
Coast of America, New York, 1854, p. 298.
(30) E. H. Oliver (editor) : The Canadian North-West (Publications of
the Canadian Archives, No. 9.), Ottawa, 1914, I., p. 41.
(31) Franchere:  Narrative, pp. 303, 354.
(32) Report of Geographic Board of Canada, Ottawa, 1924, p. 280.
Malcolm McLeod, whose father, John McLeod, was a figure of some note
in the fur trade, said: " Tete Jaune was so called from the colour of the
hair—not infrequent amongst French Canadians of Breton and Norman
French origin—of an enterprising French trapper, of the name of Decoigne,
who used this singularly appropriate locality—an immense hollow, but
comparatively level, of some 70 square miles in area, amongst the mountains there—for his 'cache' or entrepot in his line of work." Natural
Resources, Canada, July, 1924, p. 4, quoting the Montreal Gazette, 1874. 220 A. G. Harvey. October
clined to pronounce it Rob-er-son, and even if he pronounced it
correctly they would pass it on as Rob-er-son or Rob'son. The
fact that the derivation of the name was forgotten would not be
surprising. Decoigne was modest and made no special announcement about it. He left the fur trade in 1818 and returned to the East, where he married in 1821.33 Colin Robertson's fame continued for a time—indeed, it was expected that
upon the amalgamation of the two companies he would become
governor; but he was passed over in favour of young George
Simpson, with the result that Simpson's name took the place of
Robertson's on every one's lips. Moreover, Decoigne's cache
was a very out-of-the-way place; few white men had visited it.
Even in 1824, when Sir George Simpson travelled overland to
the Pacific via Athabasca Pass, the region was little known. He
proposed to place a winter establishment at Moose or Cranberry
Lake, " to draw the Freemen further into the Mountain than
they have been in the habit of going, where they are expected
to make good Hunts as it has been rarely Wrought."34 " Rarely
wrought"—yet Decoigne's cache was about 20 miles farther
still. The Yellowhead Pass was not used as a trade route until
1827; thereafter it was used occasionally by parties from New
Caledonia, who went to the prairies for supplies of hides needed
for leather35—hence the name Leather Pass. But this was discontinued, and for many years the pass was unused. In 1863
Milton and Cheadle found travel through it" exceedingly difficult
and harassing," necessitating " struggling through floods, logs
and debris," and resulting in the loss of a horse and a load of
provisions.36 These facts give an idea of the inaccessibility of
the Mount Robson region until comparatively recent years, and
of the ease with which the naming of the mountain has been
(33) Librarian, Montreal Public Library, to the writer, February 15,
1935. The letter states further that Decoigne died at Lachine, Quebec,
in 1861, aged 94.
(34) Frederick Merk: Fur Trade and Empire, Cambridge, Mass., 1931,
p. 30.
(35) See McLeod: Peace River, p. 31; A. G. Morice: History of the
Northern Interior of British Columbia, Toronto, 1904, p. 153.
(36) The North-West Passage by Land, pp. 251, 258. 1937 The Mystery of Mount Robson. 221
But this argument cannot stand. There is nothing to show
that Decoigne was ever in the vicinity of Mount Robson after his
departure from Jasper House in 1814; and according to the
Secretary of the Hudson's Bay Company, who has very kindly
made a search of the surviving records, the latter go to show
that Decoigne was elsewhere.   His report is as follows:—
So far as we know Decoigne was not in the Yellowhead Pass Region
subsequent to 1814, when he was dismissed from the North West Company's
service.   He was engaged by Colin Robertson for the service of the Hudson's
Bay Company in the autumn of 1814 and was employed at Montreal during
the winter of 1814/15 in engaging men for the service of the Company.
In the spring of 1815 he accompanied Colin Robertson from Montreal to
Lake Winnipeg.    On August 1st, 1815, he bade adieu to Robertson and
pursued his way to Lesser Slave Lake, where he arrived on October 18th
and remained in charge throughout the ensuing winter.    On June 27th,
1816, Colin Robertson includes the following remarks in his journal:—
" About 12 O'Clock arrived [at Sea River Portage near Norway
House] Messrs. Logan and Decoigne, with the melancholy news
of fifteen of the Companies servants being starved to Death in
Peace River "
and adds a tribute as follows to Decoigne:—
" Decoigne has done remarkable well at Lesser Slave Lake, he
has brought 25 Packs of excellent Furs from there."
Decoigne was again entrusted with the charge of Lesser Slave Lake for
the Trading Season of 1816/17, and left Cumberland House for that place
on August 13th, 1816. Whilst he was at Lesser Slave Lake he and all the
men with him were taken prisoners by Alexander Stewart of the North
West Company and the property seized.
Decoigne was appointed in charge of the Athabaska Department for
the trading season of 1817/18 and embarked at Norway House for that
place on August 31st, 1817, arriving at the " Old Fort" on Lake Athabaska
on October 12th following, where he remained until the middle of February
and then removed to Fort Wedderburn on the Northern shore of Lake
Athabaska—and adjacent to the North West Company's Fort Chipewyan.
After residing here until the end of May 1818, Decoigne returned to
Montreal and apparently left the Service. At any rate we have no information regarding his subsequent movements.37
All the places mentioned in these records are so far distant
from Mount Robson or Jasper House that it seems very unlikely
that Decoigne visited either of the latter places.    Indeed, this
(37) J. Chadwick Brooks, Secretary, Hudson's Bay Company, London,
to the writer, September 18, 1935. Published by permission of the Governor and Committee of the Hudson's Bay Company. 222 A. G. Harvey. October
part of the country was not occupied by his employers, the Hudson's Bay Company, until the union with the North West Company in 1821, and by then he had left the country.
In answer to the suggestion that it was Decoigne who moved
Jasper House from Brule Lake to Jasper Lake, 25 miles nearer
the mountains, the Hudson's Bay Company state that:—
The house on Brule Lake came into the possession of the Hudson's Bay
Company at their union with the North West Company in 1821. The post
was still situate here when Governor George Simpson visited it in April
1825, on his way eastward across the mountains from Fort Vancouver to
Edmonton. Simpson ordered it to be abandoned, but his intention does
not appear to have been carried out, though, possibly because it was merely
an outpost, Jasper House is not mentioned at this time in the Minutes of
the Council of the Northern Department.
At any rate, the post here was still in existence when Aemilius Simpson,
hydrographer of the Hudson's Bay Company passed here on his way across
the Continent from York Factory to Fort Vancouver in the autumn of 1826.
On October 6th, he (Aemilius Simpson) describes the situation of Jasper
House as under in his Journal:—
" Having followed a bend W N W % mile we rounded a Point &
entered Jaspers Lake, & crossing the Lake S W 1% mile, We
arrived at the Post."
He also states that " this small Post is situated on the West side &
Northern extremity—nearly—of Jaspers Lake which extends North & South
—about 10 Miles," and computes its situation to be in Lat. 53° 18' 40" N.
Long. 118° 38' 36" W.
On leaving Jasper House on the following day, Aemilius Simpson states
that he ascended the Lake in a southerly direction for 9 miles before reentering the Athabaska River. As further proof of the fact that Jasper
House was at this time in operation Aemilius Simpson mentions the delivery of, " the Outfits for this Post" and in confirmation of the fact that
its position was still on Brule Lake, he states that, on continuing his journey
from the post up the Athabaska he encamped the first night " at the base
of Milletes' Rock." Shortly after resuming the journey he passed through
another Lake—evidently that now known as Jasper Lake.
Edward Ermatinger, in the course of his journey from Fort Vancouver
to York Factory, mentions stopping on May 4th, 1827, at Jasper House on
his way down the Athabaska and that it was, at that time, still situate on
the " 2nd or Lower Lake "—i.e. Brule Lake.
A reference to the " litter " in the store in the Journal of Jasper House
on October 1st, 1828, indicates the continued existence of the old post.
The preparations for the removal to the new site on the present Jasper
Lake are indicated in the Jasper House Journal of 1829/30, and on March
19th, 1830, Michael Klyne, who was in charge of the Post, says:— 1937 The Mystery of Mount Robson. 223
" I went up once more to see the horses and mares and to work at
the store and house."
An entry in his Journal on March 29th, 1830, says:—
" I went off to see the horses once more and to work at the house
and store."
It is, therefore, evident that the actual abandonment of the old site on
Brul6 Lake took place when Michael Klyne left with the returns of the post
in the spring of 1830, and that he commenced to reside at the post on the
present Jasper Lake on his return to the locality in the autumn of that
year. There is no mention of the actual removal of the post in the Journal,
but on October 5th, 1830, Klyne refers to " the old post" and on November
19th to " the old house " thus indicating that the move had been completed
by that time.
The fact that Brule Lake was still occasionally referred to as Jasper
Lake as late as 1846—some sixteen years after the removal of the post to
its new position—is borne out by the following extract from Father Pierre
Jean de Smet's " Oregon Missions and Travels over the Rocky Mountains
in 1845/6 " (Early Western Travels Series, Vol. XXIX, Pp. 251/2 (Cleveland, Ohio, Arthur H. Clark Company, 1906)
'•' Lake Jasper eight miles in length, is situated at the base of the
first great mountain chain. The fort of the same name, and the
second lake, are twenty miles higher, and in the heart of the
The opening up of the route through Yellowhead Pass to New Caledonia
recorded in Resolve 64 of the Minutes of the Northern Council for July
2nd, 1827, no doubt indicates an additional reason for the continued existence
of Jasper House as a provision depot for both the Columbia and New
Caledonia Brigades.88
As to journals or letters written by Decoigne, the Hudson's
Bay Company state:—
We have one Journal kept by Decoigne at Lake Athabaska during the
trading season of 1817/18.    We also have copies of a few letters written
by Decoigne.   In these items there is no mention of his having named a
mountain after Robertson, or anyone else, and there is only one brief reference to Robertson, this being in a letter from Decoigne to James Bird,
Chief Factor at Edmonton, dated at Lesser Slave Lake, January 22nd, 1816,
and copied in the Edmonton Journal.    This reference is as follows:—
" I request of you to forward a copy of the arrang[e]ment that
has taken place between the H. B. Coy & N. W. Coy to Mr. Colin
Robertson.    I have sent you a letter directed to Mr. Robertson
which after your perusal you will be kind enough to seal and send
(38) Ibid. 224 A. G. Harvey. October
No copy of this letter from Decoigne to Robertson has been made in
the Edmonton Journal.89
As to any mention of Decoigne by Robertson in his journals,
the Company says:—
We have in our Archives a correspondence book kept by Colin Robertson during his imprisonment by the North West Company in Fort
Chipewyan in the winter of 1818/19. Also a Journal of Events at the post
of St. Mary's, Peace River, in the trading season of 1819/20. In neither
of these is there any mention of Decoigne apart from a brief reference in
a letter from one, Vital Bourassa, to Colin Robertson, dated St. Mary's,
Peace River, May 17th, 1820, when he speaks of a gun which had been
handed over by the North West Company to Decoigne after the receipt of
Col. Coltman's orders to that effect. This was apparently when Decoigne
was employed in Athabaska in 1817/18.
In a private Journal or Diary of Events kept by Robertson during the
years 1814/17, there are several mentions of Decoigne, but no reference to
a mountain having been named in Robertson's honour.40
These records seem to force us to the conclusion that the
Colin Robertson story is without foundation in fact. At least
they would seem to prove that if Decoigne named the mountain
after him he must have done so out of pure friendship before he
went East in 1814, and therefore before Robertson became
Other Stories.
So much for the six stories of the naming of Mount Robson.
Each one may have its advocates; each may have its critics.
The reader can take his choice; or, he may bring forward
another story, for there may be other stories.
It has been said, for example, that the mountain was named
by one of the several parties of gold-seekers who travelled overland from the East to Cariboo by way of the Yellowhead Pass
in 1862.41 A Robertson and a Robinson crossed at that time,
and there were other men whose names are unknown. Their
journey was even more adventurous than that of Milton and
Cheadle; several were drowned in descending the Fraser.42
There was a John Robson in the Cariboo in 1863, for his death
(39) Ibid.
(40) Ibid.
(41) See Canadian Alpine Journal, XIV. (1924), p. 111.
(42) See Wade:  The Overlanders of '62, pp. 119-126, 166, 169. 1937 The Mystery of Mount Robson. 225
is recorded.    He was a Canadian, but whether he came overland
is not known.43
Another possibility is that the mountain may have been
named in honour of Commander Charles Rufus Robson, of Her
Majesty's gunboat Forward, who died at Esquimalt on November
5, 1861, from the effects of a fall from his horse. A monument
to his memory stands in the old cemetery in Victoria. He is
said to have been of a heroic type, one of his exploits being the
rescue of the crew of an American vessel wrecked on the west
coast of Vancouver Island, for which the American residents of
Victoria petitioned President Buchanan that Robson be accorded
national honours by the United States Government.44 Apparently this was not done; but some of the American gold-seekers
en route overland to the Cariboo may have honoured him by
conferring his name on the great peak which they passed.
Our conclusion then is that a real mystery exists as to the
naming of Mount Robson. Let us hope that some day some one
will solve it.45
A. G. Harvey.
Vancouver, B.C.
(43) Victoria Colonist, November 26, 1863.
(44) Ibid., November 8, 1861.
(45) Mr. T. C. Young, of Jasper, Alberta, contends that the mountain
had a name as early as 1827 and quotes from a journal (now unavailable)
of George McDougall, a fur-trader who passed the mountain in that year en
route from Fort St. James to Fort Carlton and return, in which the mountain
was mentioned as " Mt. Robinson " or " Mt. Robson " (Mr. Young contradicts
himself as to which). Mr. Young's letter, together with criticisms by Mr.
J. N. Wallace and Father A. G. Morice, is in the Provincial Archives.
Editor's Note.
The author's reference to George McDougall's journal (note
45, supra) deserves more detailed mention. In July, 1924, Mr.
T. C. Young, of Jasper, Alberta, visited Fort St. James and
was permitted to examine certain of the old records then preserved there. Amongst them he found the journal of George
McDougall, one of the first traders to cross the Rockies by way
of the Yellowhead Pass. The portion of the journal describing
the journey was copied by Mr. Young;   and according to his 226 A. G. Harvey. October
transcript the party left Fort St. James on April 17, 1827;
Under the date April 25, there is the following entry:—
Arrived at Tete-Jaune Cache, after encountering very heavy travel. The
men were nearly exhausted, and one of them died of a vile disease. Tete-
Jaune Cache, is a place where one an Iroquois Indian half Breed who was
fair-haired, had made a fur-cache, or a place to store his Catch of furs, and
was known as Tete-Jaune Cache, or Yellowhead. It is near the meeting of
the Grand River—which flows from the Base of Mt Robinson—and the
Fraser River. 1
Mount Robson is undoubtedly the mountain here referred to
as " Mt. Robinson "; and the latter name may either have been
used in error for Robertson or Robson, or may indicate the
original name of which Robson is a corruption. Unfortunately
at this late date it is exceedingly difficult to judge the accuracy,
and therefore the value, of the McDougall diary. The original
journal consulted by Mr. Young has disappeared, and all efforts
to ascertain its fate have been unsuccessful. Father Morice
quotes from a George McDougall journal which he examined
when preparing his History of the Northern Interior of British
Columbia; but neither the dates nor the text he gives agree with
those in the transcript made by Mr. Young. To add further to
the confusion, the dates of McDougall's journey, as indicated by
the records in the archives of the Hudson's Bay Company, agree
with neither version.2
The reference to Mount Robson appears only in the Young
transcript, and is much the earliest mention of the peak yet discovered.    This suggests the necessity for further examination
and research. TT. TJ. T
W. K. L.
(1) Quoted from the original notes made by Mr. Young at Fort St.
James, July 19, 1924 (now in the Provincial Archives).
(2) The dates given in each instance may be tabulated as follows:—
Morice. Young.      H.B. Archives.
Left Fort St. James  March 18     April 17        March 13
Arrived Tete Jaune Cache March 30     April 25        	
Arrived Jasper House April   18      May     4        April   12
Morice: History, p. 155; J. Chadwick Brooks, Secretary, Hudson's Bay
Company, London, to the Canadian Committee, Hudson's Bay Company,
Winnipeg, January 22, 1934; original transcript of McDougall's journal by
T. C. Young (in Provincial Archives). It is pertinent to note that at the
time Mr. Young visited Fort St. James he was not aware that the origin of
the name of Mount Robson was a mystery. MY FATHER:  WILLIAM FRASER TOLMIE.*
The name of my father, the late Dr. William Fraser Tolmie,
is prominently connected with the pioneer days, and perhaps an
outline of his activities in the Pacific Northwest from the time of
his arrival, in 1833, until his death, will be interesting to you.
These were all active years. I say active because he was
energetic and I cannot remember a single instance in his later
years that would indicate indolence on his part, and he certainly
did not permit anything that had the appearance of laziness during the growing years of his family.
My mother passed away in 1880, when I was 13 years old.
My father died six years later. During these six years I was
practically at his call continuously, and it was during this time
that he helped me so greatly with my studies, which I have had
reason to appreciate ever since.
Before delving into my subject I am simply giving you a few
general impressions, so that you may have some idea of the character of the man.
I said a moment ago that he was energetic; and as an illustration, one of his favourite sayings was that an hour in the
morning was worth two at night. We usually retired about
9 p.m. We arose at 5 in the morning and foregathered in his
library about 5.20 a.m., and there we would go over my lessons
for the day—Euclid, Algebra, Latin, French, and Greek. He
was an excellent scholar in all these subjects. At 7 o'clock our
studies were over, and I packed up my lunch and books and
walked from 7.30 until a quarter to 9 to the public and high
schools of Victoria, at the corner of Yates and Fort Streets. It
was three-quarters of a mile, without any sidewalks, from the
house on the farm to the nearest public road1.
My father also taught me boxing. I remember he secured
the services of a boy who was two years older than I, and how
that fellow used to hammer me I will never forget; but I had
to stand up and take it, because I had the utmost respect for
* The revised text of an address delivered before the British Columbia
Historical Association, November 23, 1934. 228 S. F. Tolmie. October
what my father could do to me in the event of my failing to obey
orders. He had often rehearsed on my six older brothers. My
first riding lessons were also interesting. I can remember the
Saturday afternoon when I received the first lesson. I fell off
three times; and after he caught the horse my father's instructions were very brief, consisting of just two words: " Climb on."
My father came from Inverness and was inspired with Scottish thrift. I shall never forget the purchase of suits for the
seventh son. The idea was not to buy a suit that fitted me, but
first to get one that I would not outgrow before it wore out. He
was particular about the lasting qualities of the material; and
I can see him yet trying the cloth to see if it would wear well.
He was a great student and reader and possessed a good
library. He led a clean life and was a strict disciplinarian with"
his growing family. He was a profound student of religion,
and though he did not attend church latterly on account of slight
deafness, he insisted upon the family going and upon the younger
members attending Sunday School. He obeyed the law and
expected others to do likewise. He had a deep appreciation of
the Pacific Northwest, and great faith in the future destinies of
British Columbia, whose claims he never tired of backing.
William Fraser Tolmie was born in Inverness, Scotland, on
February 3, 1812. He received a sound but not expensive education at private schools in Edinburgh, and subsequently studied
medicine at Glasgow University, from which he received the
degree of M.D. in 1832. On September 12 of the same year he
entered the service of the Hudson's Bay Company, as physician
and surgeon; and three days later, on the 15th, he sailed from
Gravesend for North-west America in the sailing-ship Ganymede.
He celebrated his twenty-first birthday on the way out, but his
diary does not indicate how. It would perhaps be interesting to
The Ganymede travelled by way of Cape Horn and the
Sandwich Islands, and arrived at Fort George (Astoria), at the
mouth of the Columbia River, on May 1, 1833. Three days later
my father reached Fort Vancouver and reported to Dr. John
McLoughlin, the Chief Factor in charge. He began his work as
medical officer and clerk immediately, and learned that it was 1937 My Father: William Fraser Tolmd3.   1812-1886.   229
intended that he should pay a brief visit to a new post at Nisqually, on Puget Sound, and then be stationed at Fort McLoughlin, which had been built in the spring of the year on Milbanke
Sound. After the long sea voyage he preferred to travel overland from Fort Vancouver to Nisqually, where he arrived after
a pleasant journey of some twelve days on May 30. At that time
.the post consisted of only one half-built store building, and the
site of the fort proper had not yet been definitely chosen.
Early in June one of the men at Nisqually was seriously
injured; and as he would require skilled attention for a considerable time, it was decided that Dr. Tolmie should remain
there for the present. For part of the time the post, and the
building operations under way there, were placed in his charge.
" Recollected as I scampered along," my father noted in his diary
on June 23, after he had been out riding, " that the past week
was the second anniversary of my trip to the Trossacks, last
year at this time I was officiating for a few days at the Cholera
Hospital and this year am commander of a trading post in a
remote corner of the New World with only a force of six effective men in the midst of treacherous, bloodthirsty savages, with
whom murder is familiar."
My father was an enthusiastic botanist; and perhaps the most
important result of his longer stay at Nisqually was that it
enabled him to make a botanizing and exploring expedition to
the vicinity of Mount Rainier. He set out on August 29, 1833,
accompanied by five Indians. He had hired' his guide for the
trip for a blanket, and the guide's nephew for ammunition. The
other Indians went along in the hope of killing elk and deer.
The expedition was poorly and cheaply equipped and suffered
many hardships. Travel was through virgin country with no
trails, and the party crossed swollen streams of icy water from
the glaciers, and slept out under the trees on the side of the
mountain in heavy rain. It was quite a change for a 21-year-old
Cheechako, fresh from Scotland, but his diary gives a remarkably cheerful account of the whole affair.1    On September 2, and
(1) The portion of Dr. Tolmie's diary recording the expedition has been
published several times. The most accurate and accessible text is probably
that in the Washington Historical Quarterly, Vol. I., pp. 77-81 (October,
1906).—W. K. L. 230 S. F. Tolmie. October
again the following day, he reached the summit of the peak now
known as Tolmie's Peak. From this point Mount Rainier
" appeared surpassingly splendid and magnificent," and he was
able to see small glaciers on the conical portion; but he was not
able to climb the great mountain itself. Time was short, and
the Indians, who entertained a racial superstition of the giant
spirits who lived among the snows, were loath to advance above
the timber-line. Indeed, it seems that it was only by stressing
his search for medicinal herbs that Dr. Tolmie persuaded them
to go as far as they did.
This was the first attempt made by a white man to ascend
Mount Rainier, and the first observation of living glaciers within
what is now the United States. For many years these facts
were overlooked; and credit for the first climb towards Mount
Rainier, and the first report of glaciers, was given in published
records to Lieutenant (later General) A. V. Kautz, the date
of his expedition being 1857. Thanks largely to the efforts of
the late Professor E. S. Meany, of the University of Washington, a former president of the Mountaineers' Club of Seattle,
Dr. Tolmie's claims to priority are now known and acknowledged.
On September 2, 1933, the National Park Service of the United
States and the Rainier National Park Advisory Board invited a
number of people from the State of Washington and from British
Columbia to attend a centennial celebration and the dedication of
a Mowich, or Tolmie, Entrance to Mount Rainier National Park.
To serve as a reminder of the rude life of the pioneer, the
National Park Service constructed an entrance typical of a Hudson's Bay Company post of one hundred years ago. On the gateway is a bronze plaque recording the significance of the celebration, to serve as a permanent record of this first exploration of
the mountain by Dr. Tolmie in 1833. Several descendants of
Dr. Tolmie were present, and I was very proud to be asked to
take part in the ceremony.
The trip to Mount Rainier by Dr. Tolmie was fruitful in more
ways than one. He discovered and recorded many new plants
which bear his name. He also secured1 the skins of many birds,
including that of the Macgillivray's Warbler (Oporornis tolmiei),
which was named after him by Dr. J. K. Townsend. 1937 My Father : William Fraser Tolmie.   1812-1886.   231
On December 12, 1833, Dr. Tolmie left Nisqually on board
the schooner Cadboro, bound for Fort McLoughlin. He arrived
on December 23, after a tempestuous voyage, in the course of
which the Cadboro more than once almost came to grief. A. C.
Anderson, Donald Manson, and my father spent Christmas Day
together, and celebrated the event with a rifle-shooting tournament. Later, Dr. Tolmie's diary tells us, they " Passed the evening very agreeably. Sang several old Scotch ditties and the other
gentlemen also tuned their pipes." They drank Mountain Dew,
whatever that may be; and the Doctor claims that he was " the
only person who awoke in good trim " the next morning, and did
not suffer from headache and thirst. We do not seem to have
changed very much in the last century. The fellow who tells the
story still insists that he never had any headache, and never felt
badly at all.    It is all so human.
Dr. Tolmie remained at Fort McLoughlin for five months, and
then joined a party under Peter Skene Ogden, bound for the
Stikine. They sailed in the brig Dryad on May 30, 1834. During the voyage Dr. Tolmie read Ross Cox's Columbia River—
" a work," he noted in his diary, " which has made much noise
at home." As I have said already, he was a great reader; and
the previous winter, while at Fort McLoughlin, he and Donald
Manson " conceived the idea of establishing a circulating library
among the officers of the company . . . The officers subscribed,
sent the order for books and periodicals to the company's agent
in London; the books were sent out, and as everybody had subscribed, they were sent to all the forts throughout the length and
breadth of the land. The library was kept at Fort Vancouver,
subscribers sending for such books as they wanted, and returning them when read . . . This was the first circulating library
on the Pacific Slope, extending from 1833 to 1843."2
The Dryad called at Fort Simpson, then situated on the Nass
River, on June 15. To understand her mission, it must be recalled
that in 1833 Roderick Finlayson, an able officer of the Company,
who later married an aunt of mine, had been sent north by the
Hudson's Bay Company on a scouting trip, to find a site for a
trading-post which would intercept the furs then reaching the
(2)  H. H. Bancroft: History of British Columbia, San Francisco, 1887,
p. 63 (quoting Dr. Tolmie). 232 S. F. Tolmie. October
Russian establishments in Alaska, from what is now the Northern Interior of British Columbia. The Stikine was found to be
the chief trading route of the district, and in 1834 Peter Skene
Ogden was sent to erect a fort on that river; but he found the
Russians blocking the entrance to the territory, and the Indians
of the area allied with them. Dr. Tolmie's diary gives an interesting account of the progress and failure of the negotiations
which followed. As he was unable to come to any understanding with the Russians, Ogden and his party had to withdraw.
On the return voyage southward Ogden moved Fort Simpson
from the site upon which it had first been built by Captain Simpson in 1831, on the Nass River, to the present site of Port Simpson ; and my father gives a graphic account of the evacuation of
the old post, which was abandoned to the natives on August 30.
Dr. Tolmie remained at Fort Simpson for a time, but arrived
once more at Fort McLoughlin on November 3. His description
of the New Year festivities on January 1, 1835, is worth quoting : " The men after breakfast visited us in the dining hall and
after the compliments of the season received a couple of drams.
In the evening they assembled in the same apartment and danced
with great vivacity till 10—to vocal music. Manson and I danced
several reels. The Canadians possess a natural ease of manner
equally remote from the free and aisy of the Emerald Isle and
the sheepishness so characteristic of the Sawney. They sung
several paddling songs. Our two Iroquois danced the war dance
of their tribe with great spirit, and the S[andwich] Islanders
sung Rule Britannia tolerably well. They all seemed to enjoy
themselves highly."
Another entry in the diary made about this time will be of
interest. Under the date December 11, 1834, Dr. Tolmie wrote
as follows: " Have of late been frequently enquiring amongst the
Indians about the rock on which Sir Alexr. McKenzie made the
inscription on his arrival at the Pacific. They talk of a rock
marked with vermilion about half a days journey hence which
I am to visit tomorrow." The next morning my father set out
as planned, and the Indians piloted him to " a bare rock partially
washed by the tide" upon which were " some Indian hieroglyphics marked with red earth "; but from the course they had 1937 My Father: William Fraser Tolmie.   1812-1886.   233
followed to reach it, Dr. Tolmie concluded regretfully that it
could not be Mackenzie's Rock.
In the spring of 1836, Dr. Tolmie left Fort McLoughlin and
was stationed at Fort Vancouver, where he remained until 1841,
when he was granted permission to visit his homeland. He left
Fort Vancouver on March 22, 1841, by Hudson's Bay Express,
being one of a party in charge of George T. Allen, headed for
York Factory, on James Bay. They travelled via the Columbia
River to Walla Walla and Fort Colville; and on April 25 left the
latter point with two boats and fourteen men. Ten days later,
on May 4, they arrived' at Boat Encampment, the highest point
on the Columbia to which a boat can be used. From this point
they travelled on foot and with snow-shoes, where possible, the
travel being heavy with soft snow. Proceeding north-eastward,
they came to the headwaters' of the Athabasca River, the valley
of which they followed. On May 10 they met their horses, and
on the 12th reached Jasper's House. Taking to boats once again,
they proceeded to Fort Assiniboine, from which horses carried
them to Fort Edmonton, where they arrived May 20. The next
day they started down the Saskatchewan River, and on the 25th
reached Fort Carlton. Having reduced their baggage to a minimum there, Mr. Allen and Dr. Tolmie started across the plains,
bound for the Red River, in company with an Indian guide and
three men. Fort Garry was reached on June 10, and a fortnight
later they set out once more for James Bay, by way of Norway
House. York Factory was reached finally on July 4, after a
journey from Fort Vancouver which had lasted three months and
twelve days.
Most of these details have been taken from Mr. Allen's very
interesting diary. He and my father travelled the whole distance together, and it is amusing to read his complaints about
Dr. Tolmie's temperate habits, the latter never having accepted
a drink of liquor on the whole journey, while Allen had an adequate supply. This is a day of records—aeroplane flights, sports,
etc.—but I have no doubt I am right in claiming for my father
the record of having travelled from the Pacific Coast to the
Atlantic by canoe and horseback without taking a single drink of
alcoholic liquor.    Surely this must be a record for a Scotsman. 234 S. F. Tolmie. October
At York Factory my father boarded a ship and proceeded to
London. While in Europe he visited France and took a postgraduate course in medicine there. While in Great Britain he
had acquired a knowledge of Spanish, having in mind an appointment to the Hudson's Bay post at Yerba Buena (San Francisco);
but when he returned to Fort Vancouver, in 1843, he was stationed at Nisqually instead—this time as superintendent in
charge of the Nisqually farms of the Puget Sound Agricultural
Company, which had taken over the farming and kindred operations of the Hudson's Bay Company. Dr. Tolmie retained this
post until 1859. While he was in charge at Nisqually the foundation live stock was mostly imported from California, and they
were of Spanish breed, very much the type of the old Texas long-
horn, nearly all horns and legs. In body conformation they
looked as though they were bred for speed rather than beef.
Nearly twenty years ago I saw in the Buckhorn Saloon in San
Antonio, Texas, two specimens of horns from this breed of cattle,
one set being 6 feet 6 inches from tip to tip, and the other set
7 feet 3 inches. As my father established such an outstanding
record for temperance on his trip to York Factory, I think that
I should mention here that I entered the saloon for the sole purpose of seeing the horns.
The farming operations of the Puget Sound Agricultural
Company at Nisqually were quite extensive. In 1846 the farm
possessed 8,312 sheep, 3,180 cattle, and nearly 300 horses. As
early as 1841 they were milking 200 cows and making cheese and
butter which, in addition to supplying the forts, was sold to the
Russians in Alaska. They sold 15,000 bushels of grain in one
year to these people. Hides, horns, tallow, and wool were
exported to Great Britain, providing additional cargo for the
Company's ships. Some of their surplus stock was sold to
American settlers. In 1854, Dr. Tolmie made a drive of 3,000
surplus sheep to the Willamette Valley, going as far as Eugene,
Oregon. Good prices were secured, and the trip is said to have
been very profitable. This source of food and breeding stock was
a great boon to early settlers before they were well established.
From the time of his arrival in this country Dr. Tolmie made
a careful study of Indian languages, and he acquired a very good
knowledge of them.   This was useful in trading, and also in his 1937 My Father : William Fraser Tolmie.   1812-1886.   235
medical work among the Indians. When the Indian War broke
out in 1855-56, his knowledge of these languages was of great
assistance in bringing about peace. Shortly before his death,
in collaboration with Dr. George M. Dawson, Dr. Tolmie compiled a comparative dictionary of Indian languages in British
In 1846 the Oregon boundary award gave the Americans title
to what is now Oregon and Washington. As a result, the headquarters of the Hudson's Bay Company were removed in 1849
from Fort Vancouver, Washington, to Victoria, which thereafter
became the chief trading-post. In July, 1859, Dr. Tolmie himself moved to Victoria, where he took over the management of
the Puget Sound Company's farms on Vancouver Island, and also
became one of the three members of the Board of Management
of the Hudson's Bay Company. He retired from both services
in 1870.
Years before this he had obtained a tract of land near Victoria, comprising 1,100 acres, where he settled and where he
resided until his death, which occurred on December 8, 1886.
This was known as Cloverdale Farm. The house my father built
there in 1859-60 is still in an excellent state of preservation, and
has been kept as nearly as possible in its original condition. It
is now more than 75 years old, and it is interesting to note that
the original stucco coating is still in first-class condition. It was
the first stone private dwelling-house built in what is now British
Columbia. The kitchen and the rear of the house are constructed
of hewn Douglas fir; and this timber is still perfectly preserved.
The doors, sashes, and mouldings were imported from California,
and are made of California redwood. Wright & Saunders, of
San Francisco, were the architects. Needless to say, many functions of interest have taken place in this old home. Among the
striking features in the grounds are the original acacia trees
imported from Fort Vancouver, one of the largest oaks on Vancouver Island, estimated to be 800 years old, some very excellent
Oregon ash, and a fine specimen of California redwood, planted
about the time the house was built. This is the house in which
I was born, and which I acquired when I became Premier of the
Province, in 1928. 236 S. F. Toljmie. October
Among other interesting things that my father did was to
import quail from California, in 1866. They were kept in confinement for some time in what we used to know as the " quail-
house." I remember it very well, as it was in existence for some
years. The descendants of these quail are still to be seen every
day in the grounds of Cloverdale.
My father took a deep interest in public affairs. Before the
jurisdiction of the United States Government was extended to
Oregon and Washington a provisional government, in which both
British and American subjects participated, managed affairs
there; and in June, 1846, Dr. Tolmie was elected to represent
Lewis County, Washington, in the House of Representatives.
This House met at Oregon City on December 1, and the members
were sworn in the next day.
In 1860, after he had moved from Nisqually to Victoria, my
father was elected a member of the Legislative Assembly of
Vancouver Island, and remained a member until the union of
the Crown Colonies in 1866. He took an active part in the proceedings of the House. The old records show that in 1860, for
example, he introduced a bill relating to the laying-out and
repairing of roads—then, as now, an important subject in this
Province. The same year he introduced a bill for the protection
of persons aiming at the improvement of live stock; and in this
year, too, he introduced a motion relative to the improvement of
postal communications with the Mother Country. He also moved
for a Select Committee to draw up a petition to be forwarded to
Her Majesty regarding the future management of Indians.
Dr. Tolmie's keen interest in live stock has been indicated.
In 1865 a Stock and Carcass Act was passed, supposedly for the
purpose of protecting the producer of live stock on Vancouver
Island. The import duties imposed by the Act were heavy; and
the measure was opposed by a group led by my father, who
claimed it would retard the development of farming on account
of the lack of breeding stock. In 1866 Dr. Tolmie moved successfully for the reduction of these duties, and they were lowered
substantially, that on cattle being cut from $4 to $1 per head.
Finally the Act was rescinded altogether; and when the free
importation of live stock was resumed, my father showed his
interest in herd improvement by importing a pure-bred Short- 1937 My Father: William Fraser Tolmie.   1812-1886.   237
horn bull from California, the first to set foot on the Island for
a private owner.
After British Columbia joined the Dominion, Dr. Tolmie represented Victoria District in the Legislature. He was elected in
February, 1874, at the by-election necessitated by the resignation
of Amor De Cosmos, who was a member of the House of Commons at the time and vacated his seat owing to the abolition of
dual representation. Dr. Tolmie was re-elected at the general
election held in 1875, and retired from political life in 1878.
Among the measures introduced by him were An Act to amend
the Law of Trespass so as to provide for Summary Jurisdiction
in certain cases, An Act to prevent the Spread of Thistles, An
Act to prohibit the Sale or Gift of Intoxicating Liquors or Drugs
to Minors and to prevent the frequenting of Liquor Saloons by
such Persons, and An Act respecting Breeding Stock. He was
also responsible for a resolution urging upon the Federal Government the establishment of Indian Agencies throughout the Province, which was duly passed.
Dr. Tolmie took a great interest in education, and was a
member of the first Board of Education, which was appointed
in 1865. The first meeting of the Board was held on June 2,
and was attended by His Excellency Governor Kennedy, who
explained the provisions of the School Act and submitted a memorandum thereon. My father was elected chairman of the Board,
but resigned this office, in spite of the protests of his colleagues,
in June, 1867. A sharp difference of opinion existed between
the Board and Governor Seymour at that time, and Dr. Tolmie
seems to have resigned in order that he might take a more direct
part in the meetings. In any event, the minutes show that he
either moved or seconded most of the resolutions passed between
that date and March 9,1869, when the Board adjourned sine die.
The record of the first Board of Education is very interesting.
It made a gallant fight to maintain the system of free education
that had been inaugurated on Vancouver Island, but as Governor
Seymour was not in favour of free education it was forced
through inadequate provision of funds to give up the unequal
struggle. This was one of the first fights for free education in
this section of the continent. 238 S. F. Tolmie. October
After the Crown Colony joined the Dominion in 1871 the
Public School Act was passed on April 11, 1872. By this Act
a new Board of Education was created for the Province, consisting of the following persons: W. F. Tolmie, M. W. T. Drake,
A. Munro, A. J. Langley, R. Williams, and E. Marvin. Dr. Tolmie
continued to act as a member of this Board until it was abolished
by the Public Schools Act of 1879. The report of the Superintendent of Education for the year ending July 31, 1877, states
that at the Teachers' Convention held that year there were present forty-seven teachers and Dr. Tolmie, and that the latter
" gave a sketch on the relation of teachers, trustees and parents,
and impressed on the teachers the necessity of inculcating
the ' Golden Rule' as the best means of securing the highest
After leaving the service of the two companies he kept on
improving his herd of live stock and continued deeply interested
in this work until his death. He always took a keen interest in
agriculture, and in the development of agricultural exhibitions;
and in 1862 was the first president of the Victoria Agricultural
His interests were by no means confined to live stock. In
1833 he brought dahlia seeds from Hawaii to Fort Vancouver;
and students of history may care to know that they were planted
on May 7 in the garden under a frame. On May 18, when leaving for Nisqually, my father paid them a farewell visit, and noted
in his diary that the plants were by that time " nearly an inch
high and numerous." This is the first recorded importation of
dahlias into the Pacific Northwest, and there are now thousands
of varieties of the plant in this section of the country.
The same year he also brought seeds of the acacia tree from
Hawaii to Fort Vancouver, and these trees have done remarkably
well in the Northwest. It is recorded that in 1857 Dr. Tolmie
sent strawberry plants from Nisqually to James Douglas at Victoria. I do not know whether or not there is any earlier record
of the domestic strawberry in British Columbia.
Dr. Tolmie's deep interest in the plant-life of this country
was due no doubt to his early training in botany; and from the
time of his arrival on the Pacific Coast he collected specimens of
plants, which he sent to his friend Sir William Hooker, the cele- 1937 My Father: William Fraser Tolmie.   1812-1886.   239
brated naturalist, at Kew Gardens, in England. As a consequence there are a number of flowers and shrubs named after
him, among which are Saxifraga Tolmiei, Carex Tolmiei, and
Tolmiea Menziesii.
In 1835, when my father was stationed at Fort McLoughlin,
a number of Indians from the north end of Vancouver Island
came to trade. The blacksmith was at work at his forge, and
when he put more coal on the fire the Indians were very curious.
They asked him where the coal came from, and he explained that
it took six months to bring it by ship from Wales. He noticed
that they were greatly amused and asked what was so funny
about it. The Indians replied that it seemed funny that the
white men should carry this soft black stone so far when it could
be had without expense close at hand. The blacksmith called
Dr. Tolmie, and the Indians told him there were places on Vancouver Island where he could get all the soft black stone he
wanted, as it cropped out of the ground. My father then notified Dr. McLoughlin, at Fort Vancouver, who ordered the steamer
Beaver to stop on her next voyage to see if the Indians were
telling the truth. The result was the discovery of the coalfield
at Beaver Harbour and the founding of Fort Rupert some years
later, when the Hudson's Bay Company determined to undertake
mining operations there. The venture was not a commercial
success, but the finding of the Beaver Harbour seam nevertheless
ranks as the first important discovery of coal in British Columbia.
My father strongly favoured Confederation and was an
enthusiastic advocate of a transcontinental railway. For the
latter he favoured a route through the Yellowhead Pass, reaching
the coast at Bute Inlet, crossing by ferry or bridge to Vancouver
Island and terminating at Esquimalt. He fought hard for this
route, but after it had practically been decided to adopt it, and
rails had been unloaded at Esquimalt, the change was made to
the Kicking Horse Pass and a terminus on Burrard Inlet.
Dr. Tolmie frequently contributed articles to the press pertaining to the devolpment of this country and took a great interest in public affairs. When I was a boy I used to drive him to
town on Saturdays, which the average boy has for a holiday;
and I sat for hours outside newspaper offices and other places
while he was talking politics with somebody.   I thought it was 240 S. F. Tolmie. October
a very poor way to spend Saturday, but as I look back on those
days I feel that I might have been worse occupied.
One cannot study the work of the early pioneers of the Pacific
Northwest, on both sides of the line, without the deepest possible
appreciation of what they have done for us in laying the foundation of this great section of the North American Continent, a
section which, owing to its geographical situation, bountiful
resources, and excellent climate, seems destined to be one of the
most important centres of commerce in the world.
S. F. Tolmie.
" Cloverdale,"
Victoria, B.C.
As this number of the Quarterly goes to press we have received, with
the very deepest regret, news of the death of Dr. Tolmie. SIMPSON TO TOLMIE.
To attain the rank of Chief Factor in the service of the
Hudson's Bay Company was Dr. Tolmie's most cherished ambition; and the letter from Sir George Simpson quoted below
throws interesting light upon the circumstances of his promotion.
The original letter is preserved in the Provincial Archives.
Hudsons Bay House
Lachine 28. January 1856
My dear Sir,
I have to acknowledge your favor of 29. March last and should have
answered it sooner, but deferred until I could have the pleasure of congratulating you on attaining " the prize " as you call it, for which you have been
working—a Chief Factorship, to which rank you have been promoted as from
the 1. June next.—My visit to England was opportune, as far as regarded
your interests, as after the nominations were sent in, in which you were
recommended for promotion, it proved there was but one Factorship to fill
up, which, as McNeill1 had the majority of votes, was conferred on him.
It so happened at this conjuncture, that news reached us of the death of
poor Paul Fraser,2 and I lost no time in recommending that the half share
that would thereby become vacant on 1. June 1856, should be applied to
your promotion as originally contemplated, to which arrangement the Governor and Committee assented. It is true you will get but 1% share for
0[utfi]t. 1856 (with two full shares in 1857)3 but you are secured your
step beyond chance of miscarriage had you to be balloted for again, when
the next Factorship falls vacant.—
By my late advices from Fort Vancouver, I learn you have had considerable trouble with the Indians in your part of the country, but that by
good management you have secured the Company's property from pillage,
while at the same time you have maintained, or rather improved, your
friendly relations with the American officials.4    This is very satisfactory
(1) Captain William Henry McNeill (1803-1875), who arrived on the Pacific Coast in
1831 in the American brig Llama, which was sold to the Hudson's Bay Company in 1832.
He was the second captain of the pioneer steamer Beaver, which he commanded from 1837 to
1843.    Later he was in charge of several trading-posts, and retired in 1863.
(2) Fraser was killed by a falling tree on Manson Mountain in 1855, while travelling
from Kamloops to Victoria.
(3) Forty per cent, of the profits of the Hudson's Bay Company went to the "commissioned gentlemen " in the service—the Chief Traders and Chief Factors. The sum available
was divided into 85 shares, 7 of which were credited to a retiring allowance. Each Chief
Trader received one share;   each Chief Factor two.
(4) The boundary settlement of 1846 placed Nisqually in American territory, and American settlers made every effort to secure possession of the extensive farming and pasture lands
there which were claimed by the Puget Sound Agricultural Company. It is to the settlement
of these claims and the counter claims that Simpson refers later in the letter. 242 Simpson to Tolmie. October
and creditable to your discretion and careful attention to the public interests.—I regret to notice there was a loss on the Fur Trade operations at
Nisqually last Outfit, but hope they may do better this year, otherwise we
must there, as elsewhere in the Oregon Department, discontinue business
when it ceases to cover expenses.—On Puget Sound Co's affairs I shall not
touch, as you will have communications direct from London: that concern
is not doing very well on Vancouver's Island, where the system of making
heavy advances to persons holding farms on halves must be discontinued.
I hope you are watching the interests of the Association in getting their
claim secured by the U/S authorities, who in conducting their survey should
lay out the boundaries we claim, leaving it for the Company and the U/S
Government hereafter to settle, whether the whole, or only a portion (to be
agreed upon) of such claim shall be confirmed to them. We make little
progress in our negociations at Washington, although there is a drive on
the part of the President and Cabinet to close with us, but frustrated by the
proceedings of Congress, which after being seven weeks in session has not
commenced business, being unable to elect a Speaker for the House of Representatives.
I returned here about a fortnight ago from England, where I saw many
of our old acquaintances. There is little news worth noticing from hence,
and from the interior the advices are tolerably satisfactory. With good
Believe me
My dear Sir
Yours very truly
G Simpson
William F. Tolmie Esq
Written records describing the early days of the Gold Rush
to British Columbia in 1858 are few. The adventurers were
seeking gold and that alone. They were too busy to set down,
at the time or even later, the details of their experiences in this
country. There may have been writers amongst them—we know
that Bret Harte came at least as far as Point Roberts—but we
hear nothing from them. If letters were written home, they
were private letters, and have not come to light. Hence the
discovery of a detailed account of a trip in June, 1858, from
Whatcom, in Washington Territory, via the Fraser and Harrison
Rivers, and the intervening lakes, to the spot where the town
of Lillooet now stands, and thence down the Fraser, is a real find,
and one which all students of the history of British Columbia will
appreciate.    Such is the Gardiner letter hereto appended.
The route described was afterwards opened, first by trail in
the autumn of 1858 and then by road in 1860, and was the
principal route to the upper reaches of the Fraser until the
opening of the road through the Fraser Canyon, the Cariboo
Highway of to-day. We have several accounts of journeys over
this route after it was made available to traffic by the construction of roads between the lakes, and the operation of steamers
upon the lakes themselves; but, so far as the writer is aware,
Gardiner's account is unique, in that it describes travel prior
to the opening of the trail.
The possibilities of travel over this route were, of course,
known to the Hudson's Bay Company. It had been considered
at one time as a possible road from the coast to the interior;
but upon investigation it was found to be too difficult for ordinary
use, and an alternative route was chosen instead. There were
some Indian trails between the lakes, but nothing more. It was
not until September, 1858, that the first through trail was completed under the supervision of Governor Douglas.
It is indicative of the interest of the world at large in the
reports of gold on the Fraser River that this letter should have
been discovered in a newspaper called The Islander, published
in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. Its existence was first
called to my attention by the late Henry C. Shaw, for many 244 To the Fraser River Mines in 1858.       October
years Police Magistrate in Vancouver, who obtained for me the
copy from which the letter is now reprinted. The writer of the
letter was a prominent resident of Charlottetown for many years,
and Mr. Reuben MacDonald, the present editor of the Charlottetown Patriot, has kindly furnished some particulars of his career.
Charles Coulson Gardiner was a native of Bedeque, Prince
Edward Island, and was born in 1835. As a young man he was
attracted by the reports of gold in California, and left for that
far-off western land. Even in 1858, when he came north to the
Fraser River, he was only 23 years of age. One wonders if he
would have gone through with the adventure had he been older,
or if he would have turned back when his party lost most of
their provisions on the Lillooet River. But his splendid physique
and natural force of character, and his strength nurtured on the
Island farm where he was reared, brought him through in safety.
He made considerable money in California, although his trip
north did not add to his savings, and he did what so many of
his fellow-adventurers failed to do—he brought it back to Prince
Edward Island with him. On his return he became interested
in business, first in his native village of Bedeque and later in
Summerside. Tiring of mercantile life, and strongly drawn to
the farm, he sold out and went to Charlottetown, near which
city he purchased a large property which he operated for many
years, specializing in cattle-raising and the breeding of heavy
draught horses. He took a great interest in agricultural matters
generally and was one of the founders of the Prince Edward
Island Exhibition. He died as recently as July 24, 1924, in his
ninetieth year. All old residents of the Island knew him well
and speak of him with respect and esteem.
In reading the letter we must remember that Gardiner had
no means of measuring distances accurately, and that his statements in this regard were merely rough estimates. Owing to
the care he took to make matters intelligible to the readers of
The Islander, very few notes are necessary, and most of these
refer to place-names which have come into use since the days
when our Island friend paddled his boat up the Fraser.
Robie L. Reid.
Vancouver, B.C. 1937    To the Fraser River Mines in 1858.     245
To the Editor of The Islander.
As I have just arrived from British Columbia, or what is more commonly
called Fraser River, and informed myself to a considerable extent concerning the facilities of obtaining gold in the New Eldorado, I have come to the
conclusion I would write a few lines for publication in the columns of your
widely circulated paper, for the benefit of my friends, and inhabitants of
P. E. Island generally, if any there may be who have an idea of emigrating
to that country.
No doubt you are aware that about the 1st of May last a great excitement arose, and spread quickly over the lands of California, Oregon and
Washington Territories, proving equally infectious to men of all vocations—
the merchant, the farmer, the mechanic and miner—that gold in abundance
was found on the Fraser and Thompson Rivers. I being, perhaps, like
many others, of somewhat an excitable disposition, left, on the 20th May
[1858], a mining town in the interior of California, and proceeded to San
Francisco, where I found the excitement even more intense than in the
mountains—the greatest credence being given to the stability of the reports,
they going unanimously to prove the country could not be surpassed in
richness with gold.
After no little deliberation respecting the most accessible way of getting
to the new mines, I concluded I would go by the way of the Dalles,1 that
being a route by trail across Oregon and Washington Territories, to the
Thompson River, in the British Possessions. Accordingly I left San Francisco on the last day of May, for Portland, 0 [regon] T [erritory] ; but on my
arrival there found that Col. Steptoe, with a company of U. S. soldiers had
just been repulsed by the Indians who were reported to be very hostile all
through that section of the country. Consequently, under such circumstances, I thought it more prudent to proceed across Oregon and Washington
Territories to Bellingham Bay, where, to my astonishment, I found the
excitement, combined with American enterprise, had already two towns in
course of erection, viz; Seahome and Whatcome [now Bellingham], the
latter of which there was some talk of incorporating, it being then about
four weeks old. These places were allowed by the old Pioneers of California
to bear a strict resemblance to San Francisco in 1849, especially in two
particulars. The hundreds of tents which were squatted in every direction,
and the great amount of gambling which was practised in every saloon,
restaurant, and accessible place throughout the towns.
Some thousands men were waiting there at that time in the greatest
dilema, not knowing which way to proceed to the new mines. Fraser River
being so high could not be ascended for two months, a sufficient distance to
reach the main diggings, on account of the current running so swiftly
through the Big Canon, forming rapids, which would be impossible to navi-
(1)  On the Columbia River, in Oregon. 246
To the Fraser River Mines in 1858.       October
The Fountain
Scale of   Miles
o      s     10 EO
Map to illustrate Gardiner's narrative. 1937 To the Fraser River Mines in 1858. 247
gate at that stage of water. Nevertheless, many would form in companies,
buy a canoe, lay in from three to six months' provisions, and start, working
their way as far as possible, until the river fell. Others would assert they
would wait for the trail, which was then in operation of being cut through
the country, across the Cascade Mountains to Thompson River, at the
expense of some Land and Town Lot speculators, who were determined to
have the great depot and centre of trade, effected by the new mines, on
American soil.2 The balance of the men were divided in opinion, the weaker,
or perhaps I may now justly allow, the wiser, being disgusted with the
chances of getting to the New Eldorado, resolved to return to California.
When the more determined, and those who persisted in getting to the
Upper Fraser, and that immediately, took by way of preference what is
called the Harrison route, and the only route that turned out to be practicable at that time, though many had much doubt of its practicability,
thinking it would be quite impossible to pack the provisions across the
Cascade Mountains, over which the old Indian trail was supposed to run.
But I having received some information from a gentleman of the Hudson
Bay Co. to the effect that the trip would be hard nevertheless could be
accomplished, came to the conclusion I would join in with a company, and
decided on going that way. Accordingly my partner and I linked in with
a company of six, purchased a large Indian canoe, for which we paid $135,
laid in about four months' provisions, mining tools, etc., etc. and on the 25th
day of June, left Whatcome, Bellingham Bay, for the Upper Fraser, via
Harrison River, or Lilcoot [Lillooet] route.
The first day out we were favored with a good strong breeze, which
caused us, as we were very deep loaded, to ship some water, as well as to
reach across Georgiana Bay [the Gulf of Georgia] that evening to Sandy
Point,3 where we camped; and next morning after taking a good breakfast
of pork and beans put out again, and crossed Semiahmoo Bay, camping that
night in the mouth of the Fraser River, which we perceived to be a large
stream and the first British water I had seen for some time. We the next
evening reached Fort Langley, a distance of forty miles from the mouth of
the river, where my curiosity was at last satisfied in seeing one of the
oldest trading posts belonging to the Hudson Bay Co. on the Pacific. What
constitutes the Fort is an enclosure of high and large pickets, containing
about 25 buildings, strongly built of logs the roofs of which are covered with
bark. The chief part of these buildings are used as dwelling houses for the
officers and men, stores, fur rooms, cooper shop, etc. It is built on the bank
of the river, and for the protection of the company in case of an outbreak
with the Indians.
During my stay there what is called the Brigade Train, happened to
arrive from New Caledonia, a country situated west at the foot of the Rocky
Mountains, for whom quite an interesting Ball was given, as a welcome for
their annual visit;   the great number of furs which they bring going to
(2)  See R. L. Reid:   "The Whatcom Trails to the Fraser River Mines in 1858," Washington Historical Quarterly, XVIII. (1927), pp. 199-206, 271-276.
(3) Semiahmoo, opposite the town of Blaine. 248 To the Fraser River Mines in 1858.       October
prove their last year's success in trading with the savages in that desolate
part of the country. To this ball I received an invitation, which I, with
much pleasure attended, and was not a little surprised at seeing the company
composed of so heterogeneous a kind. There were the English, Scotch,
French and Kanackas4 present, and their offspring, and all so thoroughly
mixed with the native Indian blood, that it would take a well versed Zoologist
to decide what class of people they were, and what relation they had to each
other; though that will cause you but little surprise, when you are informed
that almost all the Co.'s wives are the native Squaws, their children, which
are called half breeds, as a general thing, being quite fair, docile and
intelligent. The Ball was conducted with the best possible decorum. The
music was sweet, from the violin, and the dancing was performed in the
most graceful manner, by the Indians and the half breeds, who took a very
prominent part on that occasion. I retired to my tent about twelve o'clock
leaving them still enjoying their mirth to the utmost extent.
On the following morning we again started, and the following day
reached the mouth of the Harrison River, a large stream emptying into the
Fraser from the left. That being our route, we thought it prudent to hire
an Indian pilot, which we did, and proceeded up the river a distance of ten
miles, where a large lake presented itself to our view, called Harrison Lake,
which we crossed, being a distance of 75 miles.
After landing, at a short distance we perceived three tents, belonging to
some white men, whom we were much pleased to see, and who informed us
that the swift running stream emptying into the lake was called the Lilicoot
[Lillooet] River. They also stated that some companies were ahead of us;
and that the Indians would not go any further as pilots, as they were afraid
to venture their lives on the river at that stage of water, the current being
judged to run, by sea-fareing men, at about 14 knots. We first concluded to
wait, as they intended to, until the water fell. We waited three days but
on close examination found the river still rising, and thought it best to
proceed onward.
During those three days, several other companies arrived, bound upward,
three of whom started in company with us. We had prepared ourselves
with a strong tow-line of about 200 feet in length, it being quite impossible
to row or paddle against such a current; but were so unfortunate the
second day out as to upset our canoe and loose some $350 worth of stuff, the
principle of which were our meat, sugar, rice, molasses, indeed I may say
all of our provision kind except flour and coffee. We also lost five of Colt's
Revolvers, which at that time and ever after, while in the country, we much
needed as the Indians from hence, through to Fraser River proved to be in
many instances very hostile.
The upsetting of our canoe was nothing more than an accident, which
most every company experienced, many not only losing their grub, but their
lives. We very nearly lost two of our men, but were providentially saved
by catching hold of the branches of a leaning tree, as the current was taking
them swiftly down.
(4)  Kanakas were natives of the Hawaiian Island. 1937 To the Fraser River Mines in 1858. 249
After getting our flour ashore and dried, we held a consultation whether
we should go on with only our flour and coffee, any further, or return; but
one moment's thought respecting the new mines being so rich immediately
dispersed all fears of trying, which we did, after fitting up our canoe.
The more minute particulars which would be too tedious to relate, while
on that rapid stream, I shall pass over, by giving only the synopsis of the
principal events during the 23 hard working days we were getting up the
river, a distance only of about 35 miles. Every day of the 23 we were in
the cold water most of the time, with our heads out, but very frequently
with them under, an unpleasantness which could not be avoided, in passing
the line outside the trees and brush which grew on the banks of the river,
when the water was low, but were now submerged half way to their tops.
Those nights we passed in sleeping in our wet clothes, or part of them only,
as each in his turn had to keep watch, with revolver in hand, that the
Indians did not steal our provisions, as well as Mamaloose8 us while asleep.
Notwithstanding our guard, every few mornings one or the other of the
companies would have something missing that the Red Skin had stolen at
night. Indeed it is considered as impossible to keep them from or detect
them stealing, as it is to detect the celebrated Wizard of the North in his
tricks of legerdemain.
We were also put to much trouble in having to make, in several places,
a portage of our canoe and provisions, in order to avoid the Canons which
the water ran so swiftly through, as to form currents running almost in
every direction, they again making whirlpools, which we noticed would
immediately suck down the drift timber, and would not come to the surface,
a distance of 200 feet below. Notwithstanding all those privations, and the
very laborious work we executed on that stream, we arrived safely at its
head, where we found a lake of 5 miles breadth [Little Lillooet or Tenas
Lake], and never was the oasis on the sandy desert more welcome to a weary
traveller, than it was to us. We then thought we had gone through our
most dangerous ordeal, which was the case.
We camped on its banks that night in high spirits, and next morning
after a not very hearty breakfast on bread and coffee, started across the
lake, when we came to a swift little river of 2 miles, which took us one day
to navigate. We came then to another lake of 15 miles [Lillooet Lake];
that we crossed, after which we went up a river of 5 miles, at the head of
it being a beautiful valley of some thousand acres, on which was situated
a large Rancharee of Indians, the most of whom were naked, and appeared
somewhat hostile. This we soon ascertained was the starting-in point of the
Indian trail leading to Fraser River.
After a recruit of a few days, we, with much difficulty, hired, for some
clothing, a number of Indians to help us pack our stuff across the portage,
but had much trouble with them in keeping the villains from stealing their
packs and returning home again. I, as well as some of my partners, had
the moderate weight of 100 pounds in our packs, which we all allowed would,
(5)   Kill  (Chinook jargon). 250 To the Fraser River Mines in 1858.       October
at least, be 200 pounds by the time we would have our trip performed, as it
kept getting heavier, or we weaker, every hour we travelled. But on the
evening of the third day the work was accomplished and we again beheld
another beautiful lake [Anderson Lake] which had not a ripple on its
The portage which we crossed was 40 miles by the trail, which we were
much surprised at finding so level, there being a kind of gap through the
Cascade Mountains, having but some trifling elevations of ground.
At this lake a great number of Indians were also camping, and who,
after going through a great many military evolutions, allowed us to pitch
our tents, where we stayed for two days; and on the morning of the third,
the old chief consented—though not without many preliminaries—to take
our company across the lake in his canoe, which he did to our satisfaction,
and where we were met by 200 of the largest and most hostile natives we
had yet seen. They were each armed with a musket and knife, besides an
innumerable number of bows and arrows; the two former they purchased
from the Hudson Bay Company. Their faces were painted with a red and
black substance, always used by them when going to war with another tribe.
We hired some of them to help us pack our stuff across a 2 mile portage,
when we came to another lake [Seton Lake], and there camped, though
much against their will as they wanted us to go a mile further up to their
ranch, so that they could have a better opportunity of stealing from us.
The Chief told us if we did not go he would keep us there ten days, and take
our provisions from us. We made him believe we did not understand him,
as the only way we could converse with them was by signs. They then
cocked their guns and levelled them at our heads, a very common occurrence in that country, and by which many poor fellows have lost their lives;
an accident there but little worse than loosing your provisions, as the country is altogether destitute of any support for a white man. After a little
while they became less excited and many went to their camp. There were
only seven of us in company and, believe me, we slept but little that night,
expecting every moment they would be down upon us, though we were not
disturbed until very early in the morning, when two made their appearance,
offering to take us across the lake in their canoe. We bargained with them,
giving them a shirt and blanket, as money they do not know the value of.
We started with them, but much to our dissatisfaction, when opposite their
ranch, they steered the canoe for the shore, where about fifty Bucks were
in readiness to receive us, thinking we were going so soon it would be their
last chance to pilfer. I was sitting in the bow of the canoe where our cooking utensils were. A big fellow stepping down, snatched the camp kettle
and ran off. I jumped out and gave him chase, but only a short distance,
until two guns were cocked and levelled within a few inches of my head.
Discretion being the better part of valor, especially in a crowd like that,
I returned and walked back to the canoe. In a few moments the old Chief
came down with the kettle in hand, which we had to buy back, my partner
taking the handkerchief from his neck, gave it to the old Chief, who gave
it then, in our presence, to the villain who took the kettle.    The Chief then 1937 To the Fraser River Mines in 1858. 251
asked us for some Mucamuc (food). We told him we had none, when he
seemed quite vexed, and again took the kettle, which we had to purchase the
second time with some flour. We concluded then, had we not lost our
revolvers, we would sell our lives as dear as possible, though our number
was only as one to fifty, after a few yells from them would be given. After
a great deal of trouble they let us go, and I felt very much like as if we
had got out of a pretty bad scrape, and I guess the other boys felt the same.
We got across the lake about noon, a distance of 18 miles, where we found
another portage of 7 miles. We loaded 6 big Bucks, as well as ourselves,
pretty heavily, and started, leaving you to imagine, better than I can
describe, our delight that evening in seeing Fraser River; the same stream
we had left some 40 days ago, and were now about 400 miles from its
mouth,6 and where the gold diggings were reported to be the best.
We found quite a number of men camped on the river banks, the most
of whom had come by trail from the Colville Mines in Washington Territory, and who were forced to kill their horses and mules, the flesh of which
they had been subsisting on for the last 4 weeks. Flour we soon ascertained (if there was any for sale) was worth $125 per 100 lb., meat of all
kinds $1.75, beans $1.00, and everything else in proportion.
Fraser River was still very high, and the miners informed us they could
only make from two to five dollars per day, that not being sufficient to grub
them the way provisions sold, and there was not a probability of it getting
much cheaper for some time.
Five of us in Company pitched our tent, fixed up our mining tools, and
went to work. We prospected up and down the river a distance of 40 miles
each way, and could find gold in small quantities most any where on the
surface of the bars, which were then getting bare, as the river fell. The
gold is much finer than any found in California, and found in a different
deposit. On Fraser River what has been dug has been found within three
to eighteen inches of the surface, in a kind of sand being underneath a very
pretty gravel, but no gold in it. In this country it is just the reverse, in
sand like on Fraser, we can find nothing in California, but in the gravel,
and the nearer we approach the bed rock, the coarser the gold, and the
richer it pays. We found a bar which prospected better than any other in
that section, and set in to try our luck. We worked early and late, averaging from $3 to $5 per day. We washed out dirt in rockers, using quicksilver, not then being able to save all the gold, it being so fine, much would
float off, and some rusty that would not amalgamate. After working there
about six weeks our stock of provisions was getting nearly exhausted, and
we concluded to pack up and start down stream. I for one was getting
tired of living on bread and water alone, for long since the Indians had
stolen the coffee. Not any of the miners within fifty miles of us at this
time were making grub, at the price of provisions; indeed it was hard to
get it at any price, as few had it to spare. The river had fallen quite low,
and where we expected, as in California, to find it rich, we could make
(6) Gardiner almost invariably overestimates distances, the correct figure in this instance
being about 205 miles. 252 To the Fraser River Mines in 1858.       October
nothing. Men began to think it a great humbug, and the glowing accounts
of Fraser River became gradually pronounced a fiction. The natives there
were all so very troublesome, stealing and pointing guns at men was a
prominent feature of their character. A few nights before we left the bar,
one of them [entered] while five of us were asleep in the tent, and stole
several pieces of clothing, as well as fifty pounds of floor, worth then the
sum of $60. One of the boys happened to awake, and saw him coming in
for another load, but by giving the alarm a little too soon, the scamp made
good his escape. Next morning we were much amused when the man who
detected the thief stated that both pairs of his pants were gone, but had a
very good idea who had taken them. As I before suggested, we packed up
our duds and started down the river, by an Indian trail, meeting every day
hundreds of men coming up, all stating that the mines were of no account.
They were all bound for a place called the Fountain,7 which they heard was
very rich, but up to my certain knowledge they could not make a dollar
per day within five miles of it. We proceeded onward to Fort Yale, making
every inquiry about the mines the general pay being from two to four
dollars per day. Men at this time were coming into the country by thousands, as a great many new routes had been opened, one in particular by •
which a great many travelled,—a trail from Fort Yale up the river along
its banks, crossing the Cascade Mountains. We went down that way, and
after a journey of six days, arrived at Fort Yale, where we found quite a
nice little town, which had been built up during the excitement, but was
now about on a standstill, as bad accounts had come down from the upper
mines. My partners there and then, as well as myself, resolved to return
to California, not having faith in the mines. The hills are all composed of
rock, which, in my estimation goes to prove the mines in that country can
never be extensive. We took a boat at Fort Yale, and went down to Fort
Hope, another of the Company's trading posts, fifteen miles below, between
which two places the mines have paid better than in any other place on the
river, but they being so very shallow were soon worked out. The next day
we left Fort Hope that night reaching Fort Langley, a distance of 60 miles.
We proceeded from there to Victoria, Vancouver's Island, which is now
quite a town containing about 1000 inhabitants. Its location is very much
like that of Charlottetown, and I have no doubt that in a few years it will
be quite as large, as the mines, if not so rich [as] in California, will help
it much; besides a great part of Vancouver Island is very fertile, and has
at the present time many fine farms on it. The climate is good, resembling
that of P. E. Island in summer, but much milder in winter, more resembling
the climate of the Middle States. The climate of Fraser River is hot in
summer, and cold in winter. The river near its mouth has been known to
be frozen over for 4 months at one time. The country on each side is very
mountainous, and can never be adapted for farming purposes.
Governor Douglas, governor of Vancouver's Island, and its dependencies,
I had the honour of seeing at Victoria, who has a very good house, and
(7)  Fourteen miles above the town of Lillooet. 1937 To the Fraser River Mines in 1858. 253
pretty location, and is considered, I believe, a very plain and fine man. His
wife is a lady from Red River Settlement. His daughters are rather nice
looking, and seem to have a great deal of attention paid them by the Officers
of the man-of-war ships, two of which have been there this summer, the
Satellite, and Plumper, the former of which had the collecting of Licences
from the miners, as they went up the river. Another large 74 gun-ship
had lately arrived on that station, from South America. Contracts of some
thousand dollars have been given out for the building of barracks. They
are also building a large Court House and Police Office, the Government
intending to have Victoria for its head quarters, as a military and naval
station on the Pacific, like Halifax on the Atlantic. I almost forgot to
mention that those two towns at Bellingham Bay, Seahome and Whatcome,
which were so flourishing in the spring, faded as the season advanced, and
are no more; as the rush all coming to Victoria, caused town lots there at
one time to sell at high prices.
I left Victoria about the middle of October, when times were rather dull
on account of such a reaction. Instead of hundreds leaving there daily for
the mines, as they did a short time ago, there were that number coming
back, on their way to California, pronouncing the diggings a humbug; many
of them without a dollar in their pockets. We had a pleasant time down
in the steamship Pacific, only taking us three and a half days to San Francisco, California; a country a little the best of any I have seen on the Pacific,
both in climate and productions, and where I think I shall stay, in spite of
all other gold excitements, until I leave for the Atlantic side again.
I am afraid, Mr. Editor, I have taken up too much space in your
columns, and shall conclude by saying I should not advise any one from
P. E. Island to come to Fraser River, with the intention of making his fortune; and I'm quite sure, speaking from experience, nothing will be gained
by going for anything else, as the trip is a very expensive and laborious one.,
C. C. Gardiner.
Michigan Bluffs, Placer County,
November 17, 1858. NOTES AND COMMENTS.
A. G. Harvey, of Vancouver, a former alderman in that city, has published a number of articles upon interesting problems and personalities
relating to the history of the Province.
The Hon. Dr. Simon Fraser Tolmie, P.C., M.P., V.S., was Federal Minister
of Agriculture in two administrations, and Premier of British Columbia
from 1928 to 1933.
Subscribers who intend to bind the Quarterly will please note that a title
page and index to the first volume, which is completed with the publication
of this issue, will be distributed with the January, 1938, number.
The annual meeting of the Association was held in the Provincial
Archives, Victoria, on October 8. There was a good attendance, in spite of
the fact that many other meetings and social events were being held in the
city the same evening.
The Secretary, Mrs. M. R. Cree, presented a report which gave details
of the recent growth of the Association. A year ago the membership was
70; on October 1, 1937, the total had risen to 412. The Victoria Section
reported 133 members; the Vancouver Section 192. Members-at-large numbered 87. The latter represent practically every section of the Province, as
well as other parts of the Dominion, the United States and Great Britain;
but it is hoped their number may be increased substantially during the
coming year, as the Association and the Quarterly become more widely known.
The presidential address was delivered by Dr. W. Kaye Lamb, his subject
being Early Lumbering on Vancouver Island: 18U-1865. The revised text
of this address will appear in an early issue of the Quarterly.
Dr. T. A. Rickard, President of the Victoria Section, spoke briefly upon
the Drake plate, recently discovered in California. He suggested a number
of tests which might be made and which, in his opinion, would go far to
determine whether or not the relic is genuine.
The Secretary reported that the ballot of the membership had resulted
in the election of the following officers and councillors for the year
President Dr. W. N. Sage.
1st Vice-President Dr. J. S. Plaskett.
2nd Vice-President  Mr. K. A. Waites.
Honorary Secretary Mrs. M. R. Cree. 256 Notes and Comments. October
Honorary Treasurer Mr. E. W. McMullen.
Members of the Council Mr. J. M. Coady.
Rev. J. C. Goodfellow.
Judge F. W. Howay.
Mr. B. A. McKelvie.
Major H. T. Nation.
Dr. Sage, President-elect, then took the chair, and in the course of his
remarks outlined the substantial contribution to historical research which is
now being made, year by year, by graduates and undergraduates of the
University of British Columbia.
Similkameen Historical Association.—The regular quarterly meeting was
held in July, and the annual meeting in September. At the former some
interesting reports were received on old trails and " lost " mines in Similkameen. It is planned to place a marker upon the site of the old Hudson's
Bay post at Keremeos.
The sixth annual banquet of the Association was held on Thursday,
September 9. Over 150 persons attended. Mr. S. R. Gibson was in the
chair, and spoke of the work of the Association during the year. The
Honorary President, Mr. J. A. Schubert, of Tulameen, who arrived in Kamloops with the Overlanders in 1862, told of early days in Lillooet, Cariboo,
and Okanagan. Mrs. R. B. White, of Penticton; Mrs. D. Innis, of Keremeos;
and Mr. M. P. Williams, of Kelowna, brought greetings from kindred
historical bodies. Rev. J. C. Goodfellow spoke on the place of the prospector
in Similkameen history.
At the quarterly meeting in October Mr. C. R. Mattice will read a paper
dealing with the Great Northern Railway and its operations in the Similkameen valley.    [J. C. GOODFELLOW, Secretary.}
By Neal M. Carter, F.R.G.S.
(Director, Pacific Fisheries Experimental Station,
Prince Rupert.)
As it is both the terminus of the Canadian National Railway and the
most northerly port of call in Canada for Alaskan tourist steamers, Prince
Rupert early felt the need of a museum which would serve as an attraction
for the many tourists who spend from an hour to several days in the city.
Even more important, the area of British Columbia is so immense that the
flora and fauna and geographical and geological features of the northern
portion of the Province, as well as its indigenous Indian population, are
sufficiently distinctive to warrant local preservation for educational purposes
and scientific study.
In 1924 Mr. H. F. Pullen, editor of the Prince Rupert Daily News, sounded
out the feelings of the citizens through the medium of articles and editorials;
and in November of that year an interested group of five persons met, under 1937 Notes and Comments. 257
Mr. Pullen's chairmanship, to discuss ways and means of instituting a
museum. The manager of the local branch of the Canadian Bank of Commerce, Mr. Campbell, gave permission to house In the lobby of the Bank
what exhibits were on hand, and so a nucleus was formed. Those interested
formed themselves into a Museum Board and endeavoured to raise funds
through the sale of associate membership cards; but progress was slow,
and as the years passed interest flagged and the meetings of the Board
became fewer and fewer.
Late in 1934 widespread interest was aroused by a report that the
remains of a strange sea monster had been found on an island some 30
miles from the city. Before the skeleton was positively identified as that
of a basking shark, Prince Rupert's " sea serpent" had become a nine-days'
wonder in the world press. Popular opinion demanded the preservation of
the skeleton that had brought so much publicity to the city, and interest in
a museum was thus reawakened. Almost simultaneously with this episode,
the City Commissioner, Mr. W. J. Alder, had well under way a plan to
purchase and erect in the city a representative collection of totem-poles from
near-by Indian tribes; and the interest shown by tourists in these poles
furthered the idea of a more suitable museum to house other Indian exhibits.
Mr. Alder was able to secure the unused second floor of the Public
Library for museum purposes, and the exhibits in the Bank of Commerce
were transferred thereto. Campaigns were put on by local organizations
to raise funds, and many citizens contributed oddities of one nature or
another. The Museum was particularly fortunate in its Indian collection.
Specimens of dried native foods, ceremonial robes, masks, etc., were contributed by various tribes. The Museum regained possession of an excellent
collection of Indian curios and artifacts belonging to the estate of Dr. Hyde,
who had resided for many years in the Nass River district. A still more
valuable acquisition was a collection of some fifty-five specimens of carved
slate (nephrite) totems from the Haida Indians of the Queen Charlotte
Islands. These were gathered by Mr. George Cunningham, of Port Essing-
ton, and have an interesting history, as they were the product of a competitive expression of art on the part of Chief Edensaw, of the Haidas, and
a crippled boy born of parents who had been brought to the Islands as a
result of a raid amongst some mainland tribes.
The Indian exhibits naturally predominate and comprise over half the
total items on display. As opportunity offers, exhibits are being secured
which illustrate the industries of the region. Forestry exhibits and mineral
and marine forms may be less attractive to the tourist, but they lend themselves even more readily than Indian curios to educational purposes. Careful arrangement and labelling adds much to the interest and value of the
whole. It is the aim of the Board to make the Museum both representative
and characteristic of the area in which it is situated, and for this reason the
acquisition of material having no particular relation to the North is not
encouraged. Space is already at a premium, and an extensive exhibit of
the pulp and paper industry has been donated but cannot be shown at
present.    In view of this, and the fact that the number of tourist visitors
5 258 Notes and Comments. October
(over 2,000 in the three summer months of 1937) severely taxes standing
room at times, serious consideration has been given to the possibility of
moving into larger quarters devoted exclusively to the Museum.
The officers and members of the Board are as follows:—
Honorary President Hon. T. D. Pattullo, Premier of
British Columbia.
Honorary Vice-President Olaf Hanson, Esq., M.P.
President R. L. Mcintosh.
Vice-President Canon W. F. Rushbrook.
Secretary-Treasurer R. H. W. Bartlett.
Honorary Curator Dr. N. M. Carter.
Members of the Board:—
W. J. Alder, Prince Rupert City Commissioner.
Rev. W. E. Collison, Skeena Indian Agent.
Mrs. J. B. Gibson, President, Caledonia Diocesan W.A.
C. G. Ham, Prince Rupert Junior Chamber of Commerce.
Dr. J. T. Mandy, Resident Mining Engineer.
A. E. Parlow, District Forester.
H. F. Pullen, Editor of the Daily News.
Mr. N. L. Jones was appointed custodian of the Museum when it was
opened in its new quarters, early in the summer of 1936. A unique feature
is the daily attendance, during the tourist season, of the Rev. W. H. Pierce,
who, though nearly 90 years of age, is proud of his Scottish-Indian parentage and can still recall vividly many of the interesting and historic episodes
in the early development of Christianity among the Indians of the Northern
Coast. He is designated official Guide to the Museum, and gives a most
interesting lecture on its Indian exhibits soon after each tourist steamer
docks. On request, he demonstrates the " drum dance " and can still sing
with vigour the ancient " paddle song." His fund of legends is immense;
and his character and genuine background make him a distinct attraction.
In 1934 attention was drawn to the fact that financial assistance for
certain museum work might be secured from the Carnegie Corporation, and
application was made to Mr. H. 0. McCurry, Secretary of the Canadian
Committee, for a grant of $1,500. This was finally received early in 1937,
and is being used judiciously to further the development of the Museum and
to make it of greater educational value.
Some years ago work was started by the Provincial Archives upon an
index of the Victoria Colonist, which is the oldest existing newspaper on the
Pacific Coast. The first issue appeared on December 11, 1858, and the file
therefore covers all but the first few months of the gold-rush era. The
intention was to carry the index through the Crown Colony period, to 1871;
but work was discontinued during the depression, following staff reductions.
It was finally resumed in November, 1936, and completed in September of
this year.    The index has had to be rechecked and to a great extent remade 1937 Notes and Comments. 259
from the beginning;  and the whole of the work has been done by Miss Inez
Mitchell, who has discharged her task with the most painstaking care.
Some idea of the scope of the index may be gained from the fact that it
extends to over 24,000 cards and at least 75,000 entries. References are
arranged chronologically under proper names and subjects. Only some one
who has had occasion to consult old newspaper files can realize what an
immense saving in time and labour the existence of the index makes possible.
It is hoped that before long it will be possible to supplement the Colonist
index with an index of the Victoria Gazette, the first newspaper published
in what is now British Columbia. The latter first appeared in June, 1858,
and thus chronicles the six extraordinarily interesting and eventful months
which preceded the founding of the Colonist. To this should be added, as
soon as circumstances permit, the earliest newspapers published on the
Mainland—the New Westminster Times (1860) and the British Columbian
(1861), the latter of which is still flourishing at the age of 76.
For over twenty years the daily newspapers published in Victoria and
Vancouver have been indexed by the Provincial Library, as part of its
Legislative Reference service. Though an immense work remains to be
done upon the 1871-1915 period, the Library and Archives in combination
have now advanced almost half-way to their mutual objective—a newspaper
index covering the whole period from 1858 to the present day.
The Mayne and Wilson Journals.
Few accounts of early days in this Province are as interesting or valuable
as that given by Commander R. C. Mayne in Four Years in British Columbia
and Vancouver Island, which appeared in 1862. Lieutenant Mayne, as he
then was, arrived at Esquimalt in H.M.S. Plumper, a survey ship, in 1857,
and served in her until she was relieved by H.M.S. Hecate, at the end of
1860. Thoughout that period Mayne kept a journal; and this most interesting record of his work and adventures, later used as the basis of his book,
was recently acquired by the Provincial Archives. It contains considerable
material not included in the printed narrative, some of which at least is
worthy of publication. The manuscript is bound in a single volume of
nearly 400 pages, and is in a perfect state of preservation.
In his journal Mayne records the arrival of the British Boundary Commission, in 1858, the members of which were conveyed to the Mainland in
the Plumper. By a curious coincidence the diaries of Lieutenant C. W.
Wilson, R.E., who served as Secretary of the Commission, were presented
to the Archives only a few weeks after the receipt of Mayne's journal. The
two volumes were the gift of Wilson's son, Major-General Francis A. Wilson,
C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., of Farnham, Kent. They cover the entire period of
his service in British Columbia, which extended from 1858 to 1862, and give
an absorbing account of conditions and events as the Commission saw them
in the boundary country, from the Gulf of Georgia to the Rockies. Lieutenant Wilson was born at Liverpool in 1836, and was therefore only 22 260 Notes and Comments. October
when he came to British Columbia. Following his return to England he
served with distinction in Asia Minor and Egypt, and as Director-General
of the Ordnance Survey. He was knighted and retired with the rank of
Major-General in 1898, and died in 1905.
Helmcken and Blanshard.
Through the kindness of his daughter, Mrs. Edith L. Higgins, the
Archives recently acquired a collection of the personal papers of the late
Dr. J. S. Helmcken, first Speaker of the House of Assembly of Vancouver
Island. Dr. Helmcken entered the service of the Hudson's Bay Company as
long ago as 1849 as medical officer, and in 1850 was stationed at Fort
Rupert, then the centre of coal-mining operations. The same year he was
appointed Magistrate by Governor Blanshard; and perhaps the most interesting papers in the present collection are the personal letters from
Blanshard which he received following this appointment. These are supplemented by contemporary letters from Captain Robert Brown and others,
and also by much later correspondence with Blenkinsop, whose memory of
events at Fort Rupert was stirred by the publication of Bancroft's History
of British Columbia, in 1887. The collection also includes letters received
by Dr. Helmcken when Confederation was the great issue of the day, and
notes and memoranda upon the question compiled by him.
Naval and Railway Survey Records.
The British Admiralty has generously deposited in the Provincial
Archives three large volumes of original Records of the Senior Naval Officer
stationed at Esquimalt. These relate to the period from 1866 to 1898, and
consist in all of nearly 1,200 manuscript pages. The earlier volume especially will be of great interest and use to students of local history.
Much light is thrown upon the history of the surveys which preceded the
construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway by a series of fifteen diaries
recently presented to the Provincial Archives. These were compiled by the
late Marcus Smith, while in charge of various survey parties, and were the
gift of his son, Arthur G. Smith, of Vancouver. The first diary is dated
1872, and those which follow carry the narrative to within a few months of
the driving of the last spike, in 1885. Though the diaries are the property
of the Archives, a reserve has been placed upon their use by the public
before 1939.
Other Accessions.
It is impracticable even to list all the manuscripts which have been
received, but a number of items call for special mention. Copies of records
in the Hudson's Bay Archives relating to the history of Kamloops were
■courteously furnished by the Company some time ago to Mr. F. Henry
Johnson, who in turn has deposited these transcripts and photostats in the
Archives. Mr. Barrie Goult has likewise presented the copies of records
relating to the Princess Royal sent to him by the Hudson's Bay Company.
Miss Aurora Hunt, of Banning, California, has presented transcripts of
a series of letters received by her father, the late George Hunt.    Eleven of 1937 Notes and Comments. 261
these are from his friend Richard Wells, and were written from Cedar Creek
and Barkerville in 1866-68. Ma-. D. Lay, Resident Mining Engineer at
Hazelton, has sent to the Archives an interesting record from another
mining district—the ledger kept in the general store of Ezra Evans at
Manson Creek, in 1872-1882.
A most interesting gift was received from Mr. L. H. Borde in the form
of a large manuscript volume entitled General Notes relating to the Victoria Fire Department. It contains minutes, records of fires and fire alarms,
and annual reports dating from November, 1872, to September, 1885. In
those days the Department consisted of three volunteer brigades—the Deluge
Engine Company, the Tiger Engine Company, and the Union Hook and
Ladder Company. The Fire Chief was elected by the rank and file and
bore the title of Chief Engineer.
Rev. George Cockburn, who has spent much time investigating early
church history in British Columbia, has compiled a manuscript entitled
Some Persons and Places in Anglican Church History, and deposited it in
the Provincial Archives. It is a most useful work of reference, for it is
arranged alphabetically, and a summary of the history of any church or
clergyman, in so far as it has been ascertained and relates to British Columbia, can be turned up in a moment. Of kindred interest is a series of
extracts from the records of the Colonial Church, Victoria (1856-68), and
of Christ Church Cathedral (1874-75), which have been carefully copied
from the originals and presented to the Archives by Mr. Hollis Slater.
A copy of the diary of James Cran, who travelled from Vancouver to
Dawson in the Klondyke rush of 1898 in the interests of the Bank of British
North America, has been made by kind permission of Mrs. Cran. Gifts of
collections of miscellaneous papers have been received from Mrs. Hugo
Beaven and Mrs. J. D. Seymour, and transcripts of an interesting series of
early letters have been presented to the Archives by Dr. R. L. Reid. THE NORTHWEST BOOKSHELF.
A Checklist of Crown Colony Imprints.
The checklist which follows is intended to be the first of a
series which together will constitute, as nearly as possible, a complete bibliography of printing and the press, in the Crown Colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia. This first list
includes no newspapers, and likewise omits many documents
issued more or less regularly by the Governments of the Colonies,
such as the journals of the House, the estimates, etc., as well as
the official Gazettes. Proclamations, ordinances, bills, and acts
have also been excluded. The intention has been to list all known
individual publications and fugitive items, whether sponsored
directly by the Government or not. It is highly improbable that
the list as here presented is complete, and it is hoped that libraries
and collectors possessing additional items will communicate with
the Provincial Archives, in order that these may be noted in a
In the preface to The Fraser Mines Vindicated, Alfred Waddington characterises it as " the first book published on Vancouver
Island," and a word should be said regarding the controversy to
which his statement has given rise. Conclusive evidence is available that it was the third, and not the first book (or, more correctly, the first pamphlet) published on the Island. Waddington's
preface is dated November 15, 1858, and the Victoria Gazette for
November 13 announced in an advertisement that David Cameron's Rules of Practice was just off the press. Later in the
month the Gazette printed a pamphlet giving the text of the
various proclamations issued in connection with the formal establishment of the Crown Colony of British Columbia on November
19; and though the exact date is not known, it seems to be clear
that The Fraser Mines Vindicated did not appear until early in
1. Addresses and Memorials, together with Articles, Reports, &c, &c, from
the Public Journals, upon the occasion of the retirement of Sir James
Douglas, K.C.B., from the Governorship of the Colonies of Vancouver's
Island, and British Columbia. Deal: Edward Hayward, Victoria Printing Office, Broad Street, 1864.
74p.O. 264 The Northwest Bookshelf. October
Printed cover.
The significance of the word " Deal " is not clear. There is every
indication that the booklet was printed in Victoria, but it is possible
that it was printed in Deal, England.
2. Batterton, J. H.
Facts and Acts, what has been done and what is going on in British
Columbia. A Letter to the people of British Columbia, by One of
Themselves. Victoria, V.I. Printed at the British Colonist Office.
1860.    Price 25 Cents.
Cover lacking.
An attack upon the Government of the Colony.
3. Bentinck Arm and Fraser River Road Company.
Prospectus of the Bentinck Arm and Fraser River Road Company,
Limited . . . Victoria, V.I.    Printed at the British Colonist Office, 1862.
Printed cover.
Includes a report upon the proposed road dated January 1, 1862,
and signed by Ranald McDonald and John G. Barnston.
4. Blanshard, Richard, 1817-1894.
Vancouver Island. Despatches. Governor Blanshard to the Secretary of State. 26th December, 1849, to 30th August, 1851. New
Westminster:  Printed at the Government Printing Office.
15 numb.l.F.
Probably not printed earlier than 1863.
5. British Columbian Investment & Loan Society.
The  British  Columbian Investment  &  Loan Society . . . [Prospectus].    Victoria, B.C.    David W. Higgins, Printer.    1869.
Printed cover.
6. Brown, Robert, 1842-1895.
Vancouver Island. Exploration. 186b. Printed by authority of
the Government, by Harries and Company.   Victoria, Vancouver Island.
1 p.l.ii, [28]p.nar.Q.
The report is dated November 6, 1864, and signed by Robert Brown
as " Commander and Government Agent of the Vancouver Island Exploring Expedition." The expedition was organized by a committee of
which Selim Franklin was chairman, with the co-operation and financial help of Governor Kennedy. It left Victoria on June 7, 1864, and
arrived back on October 21, having explored the Cowichan and Comox
country and the West Coast as far as Barkley Sound, as well as much
of the interior of the southern half of Vancouver Island. 1937 The Northwest Bookshelf. 265
7. Brown, Robert Christopher Lundin.
British Columbia. An essay. By the Rev. R. C. Lundin Brown,
M.A., Minister of St. Mary's, Lillooet. New Westminster: Printed at
the Royal Engineer Press.    1863.
2 p.1.64, xxxiip.D.
This essay was adjudged the best of those submitted in 1862 in
competition for a prize of fifty pounds offered by the Government of
British Columbia. A similar contest was sponsored by the Government of Vancouver Island (cf. item 16, infra).
8. Cameron, David, 1804-1872.
[Order in Council, constituting the Supreme Court of Civil Justice
of Vancouver Island and Rules of Practice and Forms to be used therein.
Victoria, 1858.]
vii,74,v p.F.
No covers, no title-page.
No copy of this first edition complete with title-page or cover is
known to exist. The advertisement in the Victoria Gazette, November
13, 1858, gives the title as The Rules of Practice and the Forms to be
used in the Superior and Inferior Courts of Civil Justice of Vancouver
Island. The price was $10.00. The book was published by the Victoria
Gazette (cf. Victoria Gazette, January 11, 1859, p. 2).
9. Cameron, David, 1804-1872.
Order in Council, constituting the Supreme Court of Civil Justice
of Vancouver Island; and Rules of Practice and Forms to be used
therein. Victoria, Vancouver Island: Printed by Authority of the
Government, by The Vancouver Printing and Publishing Company,
(Limited) 1865.
cover-title, vi,90,v p.F.
Contains additional matter not in the 1858 edition.
10. Coleman, Edmund T.
Prize Essay and Poem of the Literary Institute, Victoria, V.I. On
the Beauties of the Scenery Surveyed from Beacon Hill. Victoria, V.I.
J. E. McMillan, Printer, Morning News Office.    1868.
Printed cover.
The essay is signed " E. T. Coleman " and is followed by a Prize
Poem signed " W. H. Parsons."
11. Cridge, Edward, 1817-1913.
Pastoral Address on the occasion of the Consecration of Christ
Church, Victoria, December 7th, 1865 by the Rev. E. Cridge, Rector. 266 The Northwest Bookshelf. October
With statement of facts respecting the Church Reserve.   Printed at
the Daily Chronicle Office, Victoria, V.I.
Cover lacking.
12. Dashaway Association of Victoria.
Constitution and by-laws of the Dashaway Association of Victoria,
V.I. Printed by Amor De Cosmos, At the Colonist Office, Victoria, V.I.
[1860 or 1861].
Date supplied from Colonist files.
The Association was a temperance organization.
13. Deluge Engine Company, no. 1, Victoria.
Constitution and by-laws of Deluge Company, no. 1, Victoria, Vancouver Island. Victoria, V.I., Printed at the British Colonist Office,
Printed cover.
The constitution of one of the early volunteer fire companies.
14. Douglas, Sir James, 1803-1877.
Despatches and Correspondence transmitted to the House of Assembly in Governor Douglas' Message of 3rd September 1863. Victoria-,
V.I.:  Printed at the " Daily Chronicle " Office, Government Street, 1863.
cover-title, 64,ii p.Q.
Comprises two parts.    Part 3 bears title:
Correspondence upon the subject of the conveyance to the Crown
of certain Lands by the Hudson's Bay Company, Subsequent to Correspondence upon the same Subject laid before the House of Assembly,
by the Governor, on 15th September, 1863. Victoria, V.I.: Higgins &
McMillan, Printers, " Daily Chronicle " Office Government Street, 1863.
15. The Emigrant Soldiers' Gazette, and Cape Horn Chronicle.
Published originally on manuscript forms . . . during the voyage,
from Gravesend to Vancouver Island, of the Detachment of Royal Engineers selected for service in British Columbia, Between the 10th November, 1858, and the 12th April, 1859. Edited by Second-Corporal Charles
Sinnett, R.E., assisted by Lieut. H. S. Palmer, R.E. Printed by John
Robson, at the Office of the " British Columbian," New Westminster,
British Columbia, 1863.
The Gazette ran to 17 numbers, which here occupy 68 pages. The
original manuscript is preserved in the Provincial Archives. The
Gazette was printed a second time in 1907. 1937 The Northwest Bookshelf. 267
16. Forbes, Charles.
Prize Essay. Vancouver Island: its resources and capabilities, as
a Colony. By Charles Forbes, Esq., M.D., M.R.C.S., Eng., Surgeon,
Royal Navy. Published by the Colonial Government [of Vancouver
Island], 1862.
2 p.l.[l]-63,[l]-18, 1 p.O.
Printed cover.
In October, 1861, the Colonial Secretary of Vancouver Island announced that a premium of fifty pounds would be awarded by the Government to the author of the essay " adjudged to set forth in the clearest
and most comprehensive manner the capabilities, resources and advantages of Vancouver's Island as a Colony for settlement." The prize
was awarded to Dr. Charles Forbes in 1862 for the essay here printed.
17. Gosset, William Driscoll, & Seddall, J. Vernon.
Industrial Exhibition. Circular respectfully addressed to the inhabitants of British Columbia, by Captain W. Driscoll Gossett, R.E.
F.R.S.E., and J. Vernon Seddall, Esq., M.D., Staff Assist. Surgeon,
Honorary Secretaries. Printed at the Royal Engineer Camp, New
Westminster, B.C., by Corporal R. Wolfenden, R.E., April, 1861.
Gives details of the exhibits which it was proposed to send on behalf
of the Colony to the Industrial Exhibition to be held in London in 1862,
and appeals for help in their preparation.
18. Harnett, Legh.
Two lectures on British Columbia, by Legh Harnett, Esq., of California.   Victoria, Published by Higgins & Long, 1868.
" Lecture II. On the Agricultural, Commercial, Geographical,
Political and National Resources, Advantages and Aspects of the
No cover.
The lectures were delivered at New Westminster in 1867, and published in the spring of 1868. The first, which appears without a title,
is devoted almost entirely to mining in the Cariboo.
19. Hills, George, 1816-1895, Bishop of Columbia.
The " Occasional Paper." Two letters from the Bishop of Columbia
to the Rev. E. Cridge and Bishop Demers. Printed at the British
Colonist Office, Victoria, V.I.   1860.
Printed cover.
The reference is to An Occasional Paper on the Columbia Mission
with Letters from the Bishop, June, 1860, published in London " for the
benefit of the mission."    The Paper quoted a private letter from Bishop 268 The Northwest Bookshelf. October
Hills containing remarks upon Roman Catholicism and the election of
1860 which he found it necessary to explain and excuse.
20. Hills, George, 1816-1895, Bishop of Columbia.
Pastoral Address of George Hills, D.D., Bishop of Columbia, to the
Clergy and Laity of the Diocese of Columbia, March 26, 1863. Victoria,
V.I., Printed at the British Colonist Office, 1863.
Printed cover.
21. Kennedy, Sir Arthur Edward, 1810-1883.
Message from His Excellency Governor Kennedy, C.B., to the
Legislative Assembly, 27th November, 1865, enclosing Despatch No. 39,
14th August, 1865, from the Rt. Hon. the Secretary of State for the
Colonies, upon the Crown Lands of the Colony. Printed at the Daily
Chronicle Office, Victoria, V.I.
Apparently issued in 1865.
22. Kingcome, John.
Station regulations and Port Orders for the Squadron in the Pacific.
1863.    Victoria, Printed at the British Colonist Office, 1863.
Interleaved with blank pages at irregular intervals.
Rear-Admiral  John  Kingcome  was   Commander-in-Chief  on  the
Pacific Station, 1863-1864.
23. Mallandaine, Edward.
First Victoria Directory, Second Issue, and British Columbia Guide
. . . including a large portion of the Mainland of British Columbia
. . . 1868. By Edwd. Mallandaine, Architect. Victoria, V.I., Published
by E. Mallandaine . . . April MDCCCLXVIII.
Printed cover reads:   Higgins & Long, Printers, Victoria, B.C.
24. Mallandaine, Edward.
First Victoria Directory, third issue, and British Columbia Guide
. . . including a large portion of the Mainland of British Columbia
. . . 1869. By Edwd. Mallandaine, Architect. Victoria, V.I., Published
by E. Mallandaine . . . June MDCCCLXIX.
Printed cover reads:   British Colonist Print, Victoria, B.C.
The first issue of the First Victoria Directory appeared in March,
1860. Though published by Mallandaine in Victoria, it was actually
printed by the Commercial Printing Establishment, San Francisco. 1937 The Northwest Bookshelf. 269
25. Palmer, Henry Spencer, 1838-1893.
British Columbia. Williams Lake and Cariboo. Report on portions of the Williams Lake and Cariboo Districts, and on the Fraser
River, from Fort Alexander to Fort George. By Lieutenant H. Spencer
Palmer, Royal Engineers. Printed at the Royal Engineer Press, New
Westminster, British Columbia 1863.
[2],25p.3 maps, tables, fold. diagrs.O.
Printed cover.
26. Palmer, Henry Spencer, 1838-1893.
Report of a Journey of Survey, from Victoria to Fort Alexander,
via North Bentinck Arm. By Lieutenant H. Spencer Palmer, Royal
Engineers. Printed at the Royal Engineer Press, New Westminster,
British Columbia.    1863.
2p.l.[l],30,[3]p.2 maps, tables.O.
Printed cover.
27. Park, Joseph.
A Practical View of The Mining Laws of British Columbia by
Joseph Park, of the Middle Temple, Esq., barrister-at-law. Victoria,
V.I., Printed at the British Colonist Office.    1864.
An exposition of the mining laws of the Colony intended for the
use of miners.
28. Queen Charlotte Coal Mining Company.
Prospectus and report, with Articles of Association of the Queen
Charlotte Coal Mining Company, " Limited "... Printed at the
British Colonist Office, Government Street, Victoria, V.I. [1865].
Printed cover.
Date supplied from press notices in the Colonist.
29. Queen Charlotte Coal Mining Company.
Memorandum of Association of the Queen Charlotte Coal Mining
Company Limited.[1865].
No title-page.
30. Sparshott, Edward C.
A Military Manual of Infantry Drill: including the Manual and
Platoon Exercises. Designed for the use of the officers, non-commissioned officers, and privates of the Volunteer Forces of Vancouver Island 270 The Northwest Bookshelf. October
and British Columbia.   Compiled by 1st Lieut. E. C. Sparshott, Royal
Marines, (Lt. Infantry.)    Printed for the Compiler, 1861.
Dedicated to Sir James Douglas, and inscribed " R.M. Camp, San
Juan Island, August, 1861."
No place of publication is given, but it is surmised that the book
was printed at New Westminster.
31. Tiger Engine Company, no. 2.
Constitution and by-laws of the Tiger Engine Company no. 2, of
Victoria, V.I.   Victoria, V.I.    Printed for the Company.    1861.
Printed cover.
The constitution of one of the early volunteer fire companies.
32. Vancouver Club.
By-laws of the Vancouver Club.    Victoria, V.I.:   Printed by Harries & Co., British Colonist Office 1864.
Printed cover.
This club was in Victoria, and must not be confused with the Vancouver Club in Vancouver, B.C.
33. Victoria Chamber of Commerce.
Progress of British Commerce under Free Trade showing the effects
of the Free Trade Policy recently inaugurated in England as indicated
by its practical results . . . Published for Distribution, by order
of the Victoria, V.I., Chamber of Commerce. Printed at the Vancouver
Times Office, Victoria, V.I. 1865.
Printed cover.
34. Victoria Chamber of Commerce.
Reply of the Victoria, V.I. Chamber of Commerce to His Excellency Frederick Seymour, Governor of British Columbia, forwarded to
the Secretary of State for the Colonies. October 1st, 1866. [Victoria]
Daily Colonist and Chronicle Print.
cover-title, 47p. tables, 0.
35. Victoria Jockey Club.
Rules and regulations of the Victoria, V.I., Jockey Club. Victoria,
V.I.   Printed at the British Colonist Office.   1861.
Printed cover.
Cover-title used. 1937 The Northwest Bookshelf. 271
36. Victoria Typographical Union.
Constitution and by-laws of the Victoria Typographical Union,
including the scale of prices and list of members. Victoria, V.I.,
Printed at the British Colonist Office.    1863.
Printed cover.
37. Waddington, Alfred Penderill, 1800?-1872.
The Fraser Mines Vindicated, or, The History of Four Months by
Alfred Waddington. Price, Fifty Cents . . . Victoria, Printed by
P. De Garro, Wharf Street, 1858.
cover-title,49, [1] p.O.
An exceedingly valuable contemporary account of Vancouver Island
and the gold-rush to the Mainland by one of the few middle-aged,
experienced, and well-educated men who arrived with the great immigration of 1858.
38. Waddington, Alfred Penderill, 1800?-1872.
Overland Communication by land and water through British North
America. June, 1867. Victoria, V.I., Higgins, Long & Co., Printers.
cover-title, 22p.O.
Signed Alfred Waddington and dated June 7, 1867. The earliest
of the pamphlets by Waddington which advocate the construction of a
transcontinental railway.
The following additional title is known to have been published,
but no copy has yet come to light:—
39. Waddington, Alfred Penderill, 18007-1872.
The Necessity for Reform.   Victoria, 1859.
Bancroft evidently saw this pamphlet, for he states that it was
" merely a tirade against the restricted franchise, and the petty infelicities of the day." (History of British Columbia, San Francisco, 1887,
p. 769.) There is no copy in the Bancroft Library, at the University
of California.
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
525-937-8224 INDEX.
Acacia trees, 238
Addresses and Memorials upon the Occasion
of the Retirement of Sir James Douglas, 263
Agency-General, origin of, 24
Agriculture, Burrard Inlet, 110; Fort Langley, 81-84, 187, 189; Kamloops, 180-182;
Nisaually, 234
Alaskan Melodrama, review of, 66
Alberni, 21-22
Alexander Begg versus Alexander Begg, 133-139
Allard, Jason, 77
Allard, Ovid, 86
Allen, E. W., North Pacific, review of, 199
Allen, George T., 233
Allison, Mrs. S. L., 130, 131
Anderson, A. C, 28, 76, 231
Anderson, Capt. James A., 94
Archives accessions, 123-127, 269-261
Arctic Trails, review of, 202, 203
Armstrong, Neville A. D., Yukon Yesterdays,
review of, 66, 66
Armstrong, W. J., 113
Baillie-Grohman, W. A., 88
Barclay, Dr. Forbes, 44
Barker, William, 166-170
Barkerville, 166-167, 170
Barnard, Sir Frank, 89
Batterton, J. H., Facts and Acts, 264
Baynes, Admiral R. L., 8
Beaver Harbour, coal at, 239
Bedford, C J. R.. 83
Begbie, Judge, 166
Begg, Alexander, 1825-1906, life, 136-137;
works, 138,139
Begg, Alexander, 1839-1897, life, 133-135;
works, 137,138
Begg, Roderick, 136, 137
Bentinck Arm and Fraser River Road company. Prospectus, 264
BiUy Barker of Barkerville, 166-170
Black, Samuel, 179, 181, 182
Blanshard, Richard, Vancouver Island Despatches, 264
Blenkinsop, George, 85
Brigades, H.B.   Co.,  61,  177,  178,  191-198
Brighouse, Samuel, 104
Brighton [Hastings], 15, 106, 107, 109
B.C. Historical Association, 67, 68, 127-129,
195-197,  265,   266
British Columbian Investment & Loan Society,
Prospectus, 264
Brough, Capt. Charles, 160
Brown, Bill, 166
Brown, D. E., 149
Brown, Capt. Douglas, 98
Brown, Ebenezer, 109, 113, 114
Brown, Dr. Robert, 21; Vancouver Island Exploration, 264
Brown, R. C. Lundin, British Columbia, An
Essay, 265
Browning, Rev. Arthur, 112, 113
Brule lake, 222, 223
Boucher, Jean Baptiste see Waccan (Indian)
Buie, Jack, 165
Bulger, David, 97
Burrard Inlet, Early Settlement in, 101-114;
Early Shipping in, 3-20;   navigation of, 7,
8, 145, 152, 163
Burnaby, Robert, 104
Burr, Hugh, 110
Bushby, Arthur T., 85
Calumet, 182
Cameron, David, Order in Council, Constituting the Supreme Court of Vancouver Island,
1868, 263, 266 ;  1866, 266
Cameron, John A. " Cariboo," 167, 169
Cameron, Sophia, 169
Campbell, William, Arctic Trails, review of,
202, 203
Canadian Pacific Railway, dn Kootenay, 90, 91,
96, 99 ; trans-Pacific trade, 143-164
Carter, Neal M., The Museum of Northern
British Columbia, 266-258
Chambers, Capt. A. J., Ill
Charette [fur trader], 174
Chartier, C, 64
Cheadle, Dr. W. B., 207-209, 216, 216, 220
Coal, discovery of, 239
Colbeck, Henry, 99
Coleman, Edmund T., Prize Essay, 266
Columbia & Kootenay Steam Navigation Co.,
Columbia River Chronicles, 87-100
Columbia Transportation Co., 88, 89, 97
Colville, Eden, letter to, 193
Connaught, Duke of, 169
Connaughton, Capt., 163
Cook, Capt. James, 27, 28
Cotton, export of, 160, 163-156
Cowan, William, 88, 89
Cowichan Historical Society, 68
Cox, W. G., 184
Crease, H. P. P., 104
Cree, Muriel R., Three Simpson Letters, 115-121
Cridge, Edward, Pastoral Address. 265-266
Cunard Steam Ship Company, 146, 147
Dahlia, importation of, 238
Dallas, A. T., 23
Dashaway Association, Constitution, 266
Davie, Theodore, 31, 134
Dawson, Dr. George M., 213, 236
Dears, Thomas, 52, 178
Dease, Peter Warren, 47
Decoigne, Francois, 216-224
DeCosmos, Amor, 38, 40
Deighton, Capt. John, 108, 113
Deluge Engine Company, Constitution, 266
Dickson, DeWolf & Co., 16
Diets, " Dutch " Bill, 166
Dodwell, George B., 161, 162
Douglas, Lady. 43
Douglas, Agnes, 36
Douglas, Sir James, 21, 22, 33-44, 76, 78-80,
102, 178, 191, 238, 252, 263; clash with Indians at Fort St. James, 1828, 44; Despatches and Correspondence, 266; letter from,
189, 191-194 274
Douglas, Martha, 83-44
Drummond, James M., 85
Drummond, Thomas, 214-216
Dunn, Rev. Alexander, 84
Early Days at Old Fort Langley, 71-85
Early Settlement on Burrard Inlet, 101-114
Early Shipping in Burrard Inlet, 8-20
Edmonds, Henry V., 109
Education, first Board of, 237, 238
Elder, John, & Co., 146, 147, 168
Elliott, Henry, 107
Emigrant Soldiers' Gazette, 266
Ermatinger, Edward, 222
Ermatinger, Francis, 178
Esquimalt, as CP.R. terminus, 39
Evans, William, 15
Fairfield Shipbuilding Co., 158-160
Fannin, John, 84
Farwell, A. S., 29
Fernandez, Gregorio, 113
Finlayson, Roderick, 188, 189, 281
Fitzsimmons, Capt. James, Columbia River
Chronicles, 87-100
Flour, export of, 160, 153, 164, 159
Forbes, Charles, Prize Essay, Vancouver Island, 267
Forslund, Capt. Albert, 99
Fort Langley Correspondence, 187-194
Fort Langley, history and economic beginnings at, 71-86
Forts and trading posts, Alexandria, 76, 178;
Colville, 73; George, 72, 176, 211, 228;
Hope, 77, 262; Jasper's House, 174, 212,
219, 221-223, 233; Kamloops, 65, 171-185,
196; Langley, 247; McLeod, 51; McLoughlin, 72, 229, 231-233, 239; Nez Perces, 46;
Nisqually, 78, 74, 187-189, 229, 231, 234,
242; Okanagan, 176, 178; Rocky Mountain
House, 174, 219; Rupert, 72, 239; St. James,
226, 226; Simpson, 72, 231, 232; Spokane
House, 46 ; Tako, 72; Thompson, 172; Vancouver, 46, 72-74, 189, 228, 233-235, 238;
Victoria, 76;   Yale, 252
Fraser, Donald, 23
Fraser, Paul, 178, 181, 183, 241
Fraser Canyon Historical Association, 60
Fraser River as trade route, 175-177
Fraser's Lake, 50
Frazar, Everett, 145
Fullerton, J. A., 149
Fur trade, 48-56, 78, 79, 171-185, 189, 242
Fur Trading Days at Kamloops, 171-185
Gardiner, C. C, To the Fraser River Mines
in 1858, 243-268
Gastown, 16, 19, 108-110
Gay, Theressa, Life! and Letters of Mrs. Jason
Lee, review of, 66
Gilbert Malcolm Sproat, 21-32
Gold-mining, Fraser River, 243-268; Kootenay,
90; Thompson River, 183, 246 ; Tranquille
Creek, 183;   Williams Creek, 166
Goodfellow, J. C, Mrs. S. L. Allison, 180, 181
Gore, Capt. J. C, 92, 98
Gosset, William Driscoll, Industrial Exhibition, 267
Graduate Historical Society, 129, ISO, 197
Graham, T. W., & Co., 4, 5, 20, 105
Granville, 105, 108-111, 113, 114
Great Northern Rly., in Kootenay, 90,91,93,95
Hailstone,  William,  104
Halliday, W. M., Potlatch and Totem, review
of, 61, 62
Hankin, Charles, 165, 169
Harmon, Daniel Williams, 52
Harnett, Legh, Two Lectures on British Columbia, 267
Harris, Dennis R., 88
Harris, Mrs. D. R.   (Martha Douglas), 88-44
Harvey, A. G., Mystery of Mount Robson,
Hastings, Admiral George F., 109
Hastings, 15, 16, 19, 103, 104, 109, 112
Hastings Mechanics' Institute, 109, 112
Haynes, Laura A., 113
Hayward, Capt. George, 89
Hellenthal, J. A., Alaskan Melodrama, review
of, 66
Hendry, John, 114
Hendryx, Dr., 88
Heron, Francis, 78, 74;  letter to, 187, 188
Hicks, P., 4
Hills, Bishop George, The Occasional Paper,
267; Pastoral Address, 268
Hocking, Oliver, 106-108
Hogan, Henry, 114
Holmes, C. W., 106
Holy Trinity Church, New Westminster, bell-
tower for, 6
Homer, J. A. R., 6
Honourable Company, The, review of, 62, 68
Horse-raising, 180, 181
Houston, Charles, 111
Houston, Fred, 106
Howay, F. W., Early Settlement on Burrard
Inlet, 101-114; Early Shipping in Burrard
Inlet, 3-20; The Honourable Company, review of, 62, 63
Hudson's Bay Company, Fort Kamloops,
171-186; Fort Langley, 71-85, 187-194; Jasper House region, 214-226; New Caledonia,
45-66; Simpson letters, 116-121, 241, 242;
W. F. Tolmie, 227-242
Hume, J. Fred, 88, 89, 97
Immigration, G. M. Sproat and, 24
Indian Land Commission, 28
Indians, Aht, 26-28; Carrier, 47-60; Cree,
213 ; Kamloops, 213 ; Lillooet, 248-252; Shu-
swap, 171, 172, 174, 178, 208, 218
Irving, Capt. John, 89
Irving, Capt. William, 6
Jasper Lake, 222, 228
Jericho [Vancouver], 9, 11
Johnson,   F.   Henry,  Fur  Trading  Days at
Kamloops, 171-185
Jones, Charles Septimus, 106
Kamloops—18lz-1937, review of, 198
Kautz, A. V., 280
Kelowna Museum & Archives Association, 129 Index.
Kennedy, Governor A. E., Message to the Legislative Assembly, 268
Kettle Valley Railway, 100
Kilpatrick, Thomas, 99
Kincaid, A. E., 99
Kingcombe, Admiral John, 5 ; Station Regulations and Port Orders, 268
Kootenay District, 29, 30, 87-100
Kootenay Mining and Smelting Co., 88
Kootenay Railway and Navigation Co., 95
Lake House, 107
Lamb, F. H., 112
Lamb, W. Kaye, Letters to Martha. 83-44;
The Mitchell Library, review of, 203, 204;
Okanagan Historical Society Seventh Report,
review of, 200, 201; Pioneer Days of the
Trans-Pacific Service, 148-164
Laroque, Joseph, 171
Leather and fur trade, 49, 51
Leather Pass, 51, 207, 220
LeBourdais, Louis, Billy Barker of Barkerville, 166-170
Lee, Capt. George A., 152
Lee, Mrs. Jason; Life and Letters, review of,
Letters to Martha, 33-44
Lewes, Chief Trader, 172
Lewis, W. R., 107-109
Library, H.B. Co. circulating, 231
Lindquist, Alex., 90
Liquor and fur trade, 53
London Committee for watching the affairs
of British Columbia, 23
Lulu Island, 75
Lumbering, Burrard Inlet, 3-20; Vancouver
Island, 21, 22
McCarter, G. S., 99
McCarty, Frank, 99
McCreight, J. F., 38, 89
McCrimmon, Alexander, 113, 114
McDonald,  Archibald,  79,  85,  172,  176,  178;
letter from, 187
McDougall, George, 225, 226
McGinitie, Marshall, 163
MacKay, Douglas, The Honourable Company,
review of, 62, 63
Mackenzie's Rock, 282
McKinlay, Archibald, 28, 212
McLean, Donald, 174, 178, 182
McLeod, John, 174, 176
McLeod, Malcolm, 180, 211
McLoughlin,   Dr.   John,   45,   73-75,   81,   211,
228;   letter from,  187, 188;   letter to, 188
McMillan, James, 72, 81, 85
McMorris, Capt., 92
McNeill, Capt. W. H., 241
McTavish, Dugald, 183
Mallandaine, Edward, First Victoria Directory,
Manson, Donald, 47, 231, 232
Manson, William, 182
Mara, J. A., 89, 91
Marshall, Capt. Alexander, 149, 162, 160
Meany, E. S., 214, 215, 230
Meston, James R., 143, 162
Michaud, MaximiUien, 108, 109
Military reservations, 101, 104
Milton, Viscount, 207-209, 215, 216, 220
Mitchell   Library,   The,   review  of,   208,   204
Moberly, H. J., 210-212
Moody, Col. R. C, 3, 78, 101-104
Moody, Sewell P., 4-20, 108, 111, 112, 114
Moody, Dietz & Nelson, 114
Moodyville, 4, 14, 15, 109, 111
Moore, Capt. William, 4, 108
Morice, Rev. A. G., 226
Morton, Arthur S., Under Western Skies, review of, 201, 202
Morton, John, 104
Mount Hermon Lodge, 112
Munroe, George, 168, 169
Museum of Northern British Columbia, 256-258
Musgrave, Governor, 19
My Father: William Fraser Tolmie, lSlt-1886,
Mystery of Mount Robson, 207-226
Naval reserves, 101
Nelson, 29, 88, 91
New Caledonia, 45-56, 173, 176, 180, 181
New Denver, 29
New London Mechanics Institute, 109, 112
Newspapers and periodicals: B.C. Mining Record, 133, 134; Colonist, index to, 268, 259;
Victoria DaUy News, 134
Newton, William H-, 85
Nippon Yusen Kaisha, 158
North Kootenay Pioneers' Association, 59
North Pacific, review of, 199
North West Company, 45, 116, 121, 171-173,
210, 211, 216-224
Northern Pacific Railway, 159, 162
Northern Pacific Steamship Company, 161,162
Northwestern Commercial Company, 168
Northwestern Steamship Company, 163
Notes on Western Caledonia, 46-56
Odin, Capt. Frank, 90
Ogden, Peter Skene, 181, 210-212, 281, 232;
Notes on Western Caledonia, 45-56
Okanagan Historical Society, 58; Sixth Report, review of, 63, 64; Seventh Report,
review of, 200, 201
Oriental & Occidental Line, 153
Orr, Frank, 168, 169
Pacific Fur Company, 171, 172
Pacific Mail Steamship Company, 163, 158,
Palmer, Lieut. H. S., British Columbia, Williams Lake and Cariboo, 269; Report of a
Journey of Survey from Victoria to Fort
Alexander,  269
Pamphlet, Capt. Thomas, 10
Park, Joseph, A Practical View of the Mining Laws of British Columbia, 269
Pay Dirt, review of, 66
Pearce, Sir William, 146, 147, 153, 158
Pearse, B. W., 109
Peninsular & Oriental Line, 144, 152, 158
Penticton Historical Society,  58, 59
Perry, G. Neil, North Pacific, review of, 199 276
Pioneer  Days   of   the   Trans-Pacific   service,
1887-1881, 143-164
Policing the Arctic, review of, 202, 203
Pooler, Richard T., letters to, 116-121
Port MadiBon, 7
Port Moody, 8, 4
Port Neville, 9
Port Simpson, 72, 232
Potlatch and Totem, review of, 61
Powell, Frank, 85
Puget Sound Agricultural Co., 284, 236, 241,
Quail, importation of, 236
Queen Charlotte Coal Mining Company, Memorandum, 269;   Prospectus, 269
Quiett, Glenn Chesney, Pay Dirt, review of,
Rainier, Mount, first ascent, 229, 280
Raymur, Capt. James A., 16, 19, 113
Reed, Joseph, 114
Reid, Robie L., Early Days at Old Fort Langley, 71-85; Potlatch and Totem, review of,
61, 62: To the Fraser River Mines in 1858,
248-253; Under Western Skies, review of,
201, 202
Revelstoke Navigation Company, 99
Richards, Capt. G. H., 23, 24
Richfield, 166-167
Rickard, T. A., Gilbert Malcolm Sproat, 21-82
Rithet, R. P., 22
Roads, New Westminster to Burrard Inlet, 2,
6, 101-109
Robertson, Colin, 216-224
Robson, " Blacksmith," 212-214
Robson, "Foreman," 210-212
Robson, Commander C. R., 225
Robson, Ebenezer, 110, 210
Robson, John, 3, 106, 110, 111, 209, 210
Robson, Joseph, 214-216
Robson, Thomas Frederick, 209
Robson, Mount, 207-226
Roe, Cy., 168, 169
Rogers, Jeremiah, 9-11, 15, 19
Rosene, John, 163
Ross, Alexander, 171, 172
Russian American Co., 46, 72, 78, 82, 83
Sage, W. N., Peter Skene Ogden's Notes on
Western Caledonia, 45-66; Sixth Report of
the Okanagan Historical Society, review of,
68, 64
Salmon, 49-52, 54, 75, 79-81, 182, 183, 187-198
San Juan Island controversy, 24, 41
Sanderson, Capt., 88-90, 100
Sandon, 29
Sawmills, Burrard Inlet, Burrard Inlet Lumber Mills, 5-20, 105, 111; Hastings Mill,
9, 16, 20, 105, 110, 111; Pioneer Mills, 4,
5;   Stamp's Mill, 7-16, 105, 107-111, 118
Sawmills, New Westminster, Homer's Mill, 5
Sawmills, Vancouver Island, at Alberni, 9, 21,
Scholefield, E. O. S., 30, 31
Schubert, Augustus, 184
Scott, Col. J. T., 4, 105
Seddall, J. Vernon, Industrial Exhibition, 267
Sellar, John M., 207
Seymour, Charles, 107
Seymour, Governor, 11, 105, 287
Ships, Aberdeen, 162, 153; Abyssinia, 146-160,
162, 158, 156, 168-162; Accomodation, 120;
Adele, 17,19; Ainsworth, 92; Alarm, 17 ; Albany, 152; Alberta, 98; Alexander, 144; Alice
M. Nimott, 17 ; Altmark, 18; Amoor, 17;
Ann Mary, 18; Anna Dorothea, 8, 11;
Aquila, 9, 106 ; Arrow, 93 ; Astarte, 10, 11;
Australind, 11; Ava, 17, 19; B. A. Mar,
17; B. Asjmer, 17 ; B.U.M.S., 17; Batavia,
146, 147, 150-158, 158-162; Beaver, 48, 239,
241; Bonnington, 99, 100; BrazUla, 7;
Bylgia, 145; Byzantium, 16, 17; Cadboro,
79, 189, 231; Cape Horn.^ ~ Carrie Delap,
145; Charlotte Clarke, 41 ^ Chelsea, 18;
China, 169; Chinaman, 111; City of Ainsworth, 92 ; City of Pekin, 169 ; City of Rio
de Janeiro, 169; City of Rome, 150; Columbia, 91, 94, 95; Columbia (tug), 95,
98; Commodore, 14; Coquette, 17; Corsica,
18; Danube, 158; Day Dawn, 11; Delaware, 17, 19; Delia Carlton, 18; Despatch,
88, 89, 92, 93, 97; Deux Freres, 14; Dorchester, 14; Dryad, 281; Duke of Westminster, 152, 163; Eastham, 12; Edouard,
18; Egeria, 10; Eliza, 148; Ellen Lewis,
6, 6, 1111; Ely Whitney, 18; Empress of
China, 160, 161; Empress of India, 160,
161; Empress of Japan, 160, 161; Enterprise, 7; Envoy, 6, 111; Btruria, 147;
Eudora, 146 ; Eunice Nicholas, 11; Evelyn
Wood, 7, 12; Favorite, 18; Flora P. Staf-
ford, 145; Flying Dutchman, 4, 108; Forty
Nine, 87, 100; H.M.S. Forward, 226; Frederick Townsend, 15 ; Frieda Gramph, 145 ;
Galena, 89, 92; Ganymede, 228; Gem of
the Ocean, 14, 18, 19; General Cobb, 11;
Glimpse, 6, 111; Golden Age, 17, 19; Golden
Horn, 17 ; Governor Douglas, 4; GranthaU,
98; H.M.S. Grappler, 103; Guayaquil, 18;
Henrietta, 108; Hosmer, 98; Idaho, 88, 89;
IUeeiUewaet, 93 ; Industry, 18 ; International
96, 96; Isabel, 10, 11, 14, 16; James Munro,
119; Jeddo, 7; Jennie Clark, 87; John
Jay, 7; Josephine Marie, 8; KasZo, 92;
Kelowna, 98 ; Kent, 7, 10 ; Knowsley, 18 ;
Kokanee, 96, 96, 100; Kootenai, 90, 94, 95,
97 ; Kootenay, 97, 100; Kuskanook, 99, 100;
Leonide, 18 ; Levi Stevens, 14; Leviathan,
11, 19; Llama, 241; Lono, 8; Lota, 18;
Lytton, 89, 90, 92, 94, 95, 98-100; Macedon,
18; Mackay, 7; Maria, 17; Maria J. Smith,
15; Marie, 18; Marion, 90; Marmeduke,
8 ; Marmora, 14; Martha Ridout, 18, 19;
Mary, 18 ; Mary Ann, 18 ; Mary Belle, 15 ;
Mary Ellen, 18, 10; Maud Ellen, 17, 19;
Meg Merrilies, 21; Mercara, 12; Metropolis,
6, 7, 110, 111; Midge, 88; Minto, 98, 100;
Mongkut, 159; Monita, 14, 111; Moyie, 98,
100 ; Nakusp, 95, 97, 98; Nantaise et Creole,
8; Nasookin, 100; Nation's Hope, 11, 18;
Nazarene, 14; Nelson, 91-98, 95,100; Nestor,
18;   Nuevez Martinez,  17;   Oakland,   14; Index.
Orient, 12; Pacific, 268; Parisian, 8; Parthia, 146, 147, 150-153, 168, 160-162, 164;
Penang, 18; H.M.S. Plumper, 3, 253; Polynesian, 88; Port Adelaide, 152; Port Augusta, 160, 158: Port Fairy, 158; Port
Victor, 150; Prince Victor, 15; Princess
Royal, 7, 8, 18, 18; Princess Victoria, 96;
Regent, 17; Reliance, 6; Revelstoke, 99;
Robert Cowan, 14; Rosalia, 12; Rosebery,
97; Rosedale, 166; Rossland, 97, 100; Ruby,
17, 19; Saga, 18; Samoset, 12; Sandon,
97; H.M.S. Satellite, 263; Sea Foam, 107,
111; Shikotan Maru, 163; Siam, 11;
Sidon, 12; Simoda, 12 ; Skuzzy, 89 ; Slocan,
97; H.M.S. Sparrow/tatofe, 114; Spirit of
the Age, 18 ; Spokane, 93-96 ; Spree, 161;
State o/ Idohn 92, 98, 96; Straits of Belle
Isle, 159 : jHor, 14; Surprise, 88; Sus
ses, 169; ..M.S. Sutlej, 6 ; Tacoma, 162,
168 ; Takachiho, 168 ; Topgallant, 13 ; Trail,
95; Trebolsran, 12 ; Umbria, 147 ; Valhalla,
98; Victoria, 162-164; Vidette, 14; Vigil,
16, 17; W. B. Flint, 144, 145, 150; What
Shan, 98 ; WUliamette, 148; William Hunter,
97 ; Windward, 17; Woodpecker, 21; Ymir,
98; Zambesi, 152; H.M.S. Zealous, 109;
Zephyr, 12;   Zoraya, 146
Silk trade, 146, 149, 160, 153, 164
Slllitoe, Bishop A. W., 94
Similkameen Historical Association, 59, 129,
197, 266
Simpson, Capt. Aemilius, 222, 232
Simpson, Sir George, 46, 71, 72, 76, 80, 115,
116, 173, 175-178, 181, 220, 222; letters
from, 115-121, 188, 241, 242; letters to,
187   188
Sinclair, William, 86
Smith, John Oscar, 6, 6, 20, 106, 111
Smith, W. G., letter to, 194
Sparshott, Edward C, A Military Manual of
Infantry Drill, 269
Spokane Falls & Northern Railway, 89, 91
Sproat, Alexander, 22, 29-31
Sproat, Gilbert Hector, 22
Sproat, Gilbert Malcolm, 21-32
Sproat (town), 29; Bay, 22; Lake, 21;
Landing, 80;   Mount, 80;  River, 21
Stamp, Capt. Edward, 8-22, 105-108
Steele, Harwood, Policing the Arctic, review
of, 202
Stephens, Davy, 97
Story of St. Andrew's United Church, North
Vancouver, review of, 197, 198
Stott, Rev. W., Story of St. Andrew's United
Church, review of, 197, 198
Strawberries, introduction of, 238
Stuart, David, 171, 172
Stuart, John, 175
Subsidy, Trans-Pacific mail, 143, 144, 146,
162, 167
Sugar, first shipment of cane, 160
Sweet, Hiram, 89
Tea trade, 144, 145, 149, 160, 158, 164, 161
Templeman, William, 31
Tete Jaune Cache, 208, 209, 218, 214, 219, 226
Thain, Mrs. Murray, 118
Thomas, John, 111
Thompson Valley District Historical & Museum Association, 69, 129
Three Simpson Letters, 116-121
Tiger Engine Company, Constitution, 270
To the Fraser River Mines in 1858, 243-253
Tobacco and fur trade, 58, 172
Tod, John, 73, 179-182
Tolmie, S. F., My Father: William Fraser
Tolmie, 227-240
Tolmie, William Fraser, 227-240; letter to,
241,  242
Tolmie's Peak, 280
Trade and commerce. Fort Langley, 71-84;
Trans-Pacific, 143-164
Tranfield, G., 3
Troup, Capt. J. W., 91-93, 95, 97-99
Trutch, J. W., 11
Turner, George, 103, 104
Tunstall, George E., 90
Under Western Skies, review of, 201, 202
Union Steamship Co., 159
Upton, Frank, 161
Upton Line, 161
Urquhart, Capt., 161
Van Bramer, Capt. James, 107, 111, 112
Vancouver, see Burrard Inlet
Vancouver Club, Bylaws, 270
Vanderburgh, Capt. C. W., 93
Van Home, W. C, 164, 168, 160
Victoria in 1858, 252, 253
Victoria Chamber of Commerce, Progress of
British Commerce under Free Trade,  270;
Reply to His Excellency Frederick Seymour,
Victoria Jockey Club, Rules and Regulations,
Victoria Typographical Union,  Constitution,
Waccan (Indian), 50, 54
Waddington, Alfred, The Fraser Mines Vindicated, 271; The Necessity for Reform,
271; Overland Communication by Land and
Water, 271
Wark, Henry, 85
Watson, Alexander, 89, 91
Webber, Capt. Henry, 149
Webster, John A., 118
Western Union Telegraph Co., 112
Wheeler, A. O., 210
Whidbey Island, 73, 74, 188
White, Rev. Edward, 111
White, Capt. Leonard, 87
Wilkie, Walter, 85
Williams Creek, 165, 167-169
Wolfenden, Madge, Alexander Begg versus
Alexander Begg, 133-189; Arctic Trails,
review of, 202; Policing the Arctic, review
of, 202
Work, John, 46;   letter from, 191, 192 278
Yale, James Murray, 75, 76, 81-83, 85, 189,
191-193; letter from, 190; letter to, 188,
189, 194
Yellowhead Pass region, 51, 207, 219-225
Young, T. O, 212, 225, 226
Yukon Yesterdays, review of, 65
Page 15, line 25. William Evans brought the first transcontinental passenger train to Port Moody, not the first train to Coal Harbour, as stated.
Page 61, line 37. For 1927 read 1827.
Page 67, line 13. For on read in.
Page 92, line 37. The Kaslo was a large passenger and freight steamer,
not a tug, as stated.
Page 124, line 19. For 1858 read 1859.
Page 124, line 20. For Chestleham read Cheltenham.
Page 129, line 29. For was read has.
Printed by Ciublks F. Banfiei.d, Printer to tbe King's Most Excellent Majesty.
Organized October 31st, 1922.
His Honour Eric W. Hamber, Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia.
OFFICERS, 1937-38.
Hon. G. M. Weir       ...       - Honorary President.
W. N. Sage  President.
J. S. Plaskett  1st Vice-President.
Kenneth A. Waites  - 2nd Vice-President.
E. W. McMcllen - Honorary Treasurer.
Mukiel R. Cree ----- Honorary Secretary.
Robie L. Reid  Archivist.
F. W. Howay J. M. Coady H. T. Na
J. C. Goodfellow B. A. HcKelve:
To encourage historical Teseareh and stimulate public interest in history;
to promote the . ing of historic sites, buildings, relics,
natural features, and other objects and places of historical interest, and to
publish historical sketches, studies, and documents.
Ordinary members pay a fee of $2 annually in advance. The fiscal year
commences du the first day of October. All members in good standing receive
the British Columbia Histoiieal Quarterly without further charge.
All correspondence and fees should be addressed in care of the Secretary,
Provincial Archives, Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C.


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